WorldWideScience

Sample records for current federal role

  1. The Federal Communications Commission: Current Structure and Its Role in the Changing Telecommunications Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-14

    4 FCC Structure .......................................................................................................................6...for additional information on the history of the FCC. The Federal Communications Commission Congressional Research Service 6 FCC Structure The

  2. Future Federal Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    USA Today, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Reviews comments by United States Secretary of Education Terrel H. Bell about the future federal role in higher education. The role will be confined to student financial aid and support for research. Bell's statements about the quality of higher education are also included. (SR)

  3. Federalism in Pakistan, Current Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razia Musarrat

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this study is to elaborate the political issues and challenges faces by the federation of Pakistan during and after the Gen. Pervez Musharraf government. In this paper effort is made to discuss those issues on the biases of which politics of federalism started in the country. Pinching problems that caused disintegration to Pakistan are also discussed. Those issues are also discussed in details which are a constant threat to the “new federation of Pakistan”. Authors also focus on the 2008 elections and its consequences on Pakistan politics. All the results of this research are proved via review of the previous literature. Researchers have proved that as Pakistan has a diversified culture so federalism is best suited for its political structure. Researchers have also discussed few suggestive solutions for better bureaucracy.

  4. The Federal Role in Library Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Marilyn Gell

    This paper examines library network activity in the United States and the past, present, and future roles of the federal government in nationwide library networking. The first chapter describes the history and development of library networks and defines terms used in the report. An examination of the current status of networks in the second…

  5. [Current ascariasis situation in the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darchenkova, N N; Romanenko, N A; Chernyshenko, A I

    2006-01-01

    In the Russian Federation (RF), ascariasis remains to be the most common geohelminthiasis, in children in particular. With its overall reduction, the prevalence of ascariasis is very uneven on the RF territory. In the past 15 years, from 1991 to 2004, there was a steady-state decrease in the incidence of ascariasis from 79.5 to 46.0 per 100,000. Its incidence rates remained higher than the average Russian ones in 33 RF subjects and lower than those in 48 subjects and began reducing in 8 subjects in the past 4 years. Of the 33 RF subjects wherein the incidence rates were constantly greater than the average Russian ones, 27 subjects are located in the natural background-favorable areas. In the past 15 years, there was an increase in the impact of socioeconomic factors on the higher incidence of ascariasis: the population's migration; the delivery and transport of Ascaris egg-contaminated greens, vegetables, berries; the development of hothouse gardening, and, as a result, the occurrence of ascariasis in the northern areas of the country, as well as the use of discharged waters for soil fertilization to grow crops. The territory of Russia was first epidemiologically districted in the context of ascariasis, by taking into account the natural background and socioeconomic factors. The area of ascariasis is on the rise. In all RF subjects, public health and social security bodies should constantly keep in mind the problem in ascariasis control and prevention.

  6. The Expanding Federal Role in Teacher Workforce Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Superfine, Benjamin M.; Gottlieb, Jessica J.; Smylie, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the recent expansion of the federal role into teacher workforce policy, primarily as embodied by the Race to the Top Fund of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Such recent federal teacher workforce policy reflects an important expansion of the federal role into a policy domain that deserves more attention. The…

  7. The Federal Role in Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellah, Faye G.

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses the history of federal support for nursing education since the 1930s, including the recent establishment of the National Center for Nursing Research. She covers the future likelihood of funding cuts and strategies for retrenchment. (CH)

  8. Support for Information Technology in Science: The Federal Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortnick, Jane

    1986-01-01

    Outlines issues that could arise in a debate on the appropriate role of government in supplying scientists with the access to data and information technology necessary for their research. Some of the areas explored include electronic dissemination of information, federal support mechanisms, international competition, and access to information.…

  9. Federal role and activities in energy research and development 1946-1980: an historical summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewlett, R.G.; Dierenfield, B.J.

    1983-02-01

    The federal role in energy research and development has changed substantially in the three decades since World War II. In nuclear technology, the federal presence shifted from government monopoly in the 1940s and early 1950s, to a lesser federal role in the mid-1950s, as the private sector commercialized nuclear power, to an increasing federal role in the 1960s, but now focused on the breeder reactor as a long-term option. Conventional fuel technologies such as coal and oil enjoyed only modest federal support in the immediate postwar years, with only slow increases before 1974. Renewable energy technologies have received substantial federal support only since 1973.

  10. 77 FR 71009 - Framework for Pharmacy Compounding: State and Federal Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Framework for Pharmacy Compounding: State and Federal Roles... ``Framework for Pharmacy Compounding: State and Federal Roles.'' At this public meeting, FDA and State... critical role in the oversight of traditional pharmacy compounding, which can include compounding a...

  11. Shared Solar. Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brockway, Anna M. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Ulrich, Elaine [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report provides a high-level overview of the current U.S. shared solar landscape and the impact that a given shared solar program’s structure has on requiring federal securities oversight, as well as an estimate of market potential for U.S. shared solar deployment.

  12. Shared Solar. Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brockway, Anna M. [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Ulrich, Elaine [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-07

    This report provides a high-level overview of the current U.S. shared solar landscape, the impact that a given shared solar program’s structure has on requiring federal securities oversight, as well as an estimate of market potential for U.S. shared solar deployment.

  13. The Rise of International Relations Programs in the Brazilian Federal Universities: Curriculum Specificities and Current Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marcos Alan S. V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this reflection is to study the new international relations (IR) programs introduced by Brazilian federal universities, looking comparatively at their curriculum specificities and current challenges. In recent years, Brazil has seen an increase of IR programs launched in several regions. Since 2003, the Ministry of Education is in the…

  14. Demographic Trends and the Federal Role in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkinson, Harold

    2008-01-01

    Over the years, the United States has evolved a system of local, state, and national/federal educational decision-making that, according to the author, makes a smooth, well-integrated system of policy development and implementation unachievable. However, certain things can be accomplished only at the federal level, including consistent data…

  15. 31 CFR 359.71 - What is the role of Federal Reserve Banks and Branches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES I Miscellaneous Provisions § 359.71 What is the role of Federal Reserve Banks and Branches? (a) Federal Reserve Banks and Branches are fiscal agents of the United States..., Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wisconsin. Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, 925 Grand...

  16. 31 CFR 351.86 - What is the role of Federal Reserve Banks and Branches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES EE Miscellaneous Provisions § 351.86 What is the role of Federal Reserve Banks and Branches? (a) Federal Reserve Banks and Branches are fiscal agents of the United States...), Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wisconsin. Federal Reserve Bank of...

  17. 31 CFR 317.9 - Role of Federal Reserve Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... area served Federal Reserve Bank, Buffalo Branch, P.O. Box 961, Buffalo, NY 14240 New York, Boston CT... and control of bond stock, and the accounting for and remittance of sales proceeds; and (4)...

  18. Federal role in science will grow, NSF Director predicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    1992-01-01

    Walter Massey, director of the National Science Foundation, recently called for a fundamental reassessment of the relationship between the federal government and research institutions. On January 15, Massey, now in his ninth month at NSF, described great changes in the government-university “partnership” since the “golden age” of the 1960s. Speaking in Washington, D.C. at a seminar of George Washington University's Center for International Science and Technology Policy, he predicted that his own term at the foundation would not be “business as usual.”Science and technology have shifted from being a peripheral concern of the government to a central policy issue, Massey said. The United States now sees science as too important to leave its agenda for scientists to set themselves. In response, the federal government is launching the initiatives of the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology. Some of last year's FCCSET budget initiatives, spanning a number of federal agencies, dealt with math and science education, global change, and high-performance computing. Such programs “are research agenda put forth from the federal side—they are not things put forth from the [research] community,” Massey pointed out.

  19. Got junk? The federal role in regulating "competitive" foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinsky, Eileen

    2009-12-11

    A wide variety of food and beverage items are available in schools in addition to the school meals provided through the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program. A long-standing source of controversy, the need for stronger federal restrictions on foods that compete with school meals is again under debate. This issue brief examines the availability and consumption of competitive foods, explores the regulation of these foods at the federal level, considers trends in state and local restrictions, and summarizes perceived barriers to improving the nutritional quality of competitive food options.

  20. 31 CFR 321.25 - Role of Federal Reserve Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INSTITUTIONS OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS AND UNITED STATES SAVINGS NOTES (FREEDOM SHARES) Miscellaneous... agents of the United States, shall perform such services in connection with this part as may be requested... Federal Reserve Bank, Buffalo Branch, P.O. Box 961, Buffalo, NY 14240 New York, Boston CT, MA, ME, NH,...

  1. Mobile phone health risk policy in Germany: the role of the federal government and the Federal Office for Radiation Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikardt, Christoph; Gross, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    In order to establish a regulatory framework for a given technology important to society, the government must make decisions in the face of existing unknowingness. In the last decade, health risks originating from electromagnetic fields of mobile telecommunication transmitting stations and devices have become a regulation policy issue in Germany. This article investigates the role of the government and the Federal Office for Radiation Protection in regard to policy-making by analysing publications and Federal Parliament reports, hearings and debates. The government and Federal Parliament perceived the research situation in 2001 as insufficient in the absence of hard evidence for health impairment. Against this background, the government struck a compromise with mobile telecommunication network operators, who did not want to integrate stricter limit values for transmission stations as precautionary measures. The network operators' voluntary self-commitment included financing half the budget of the German Mobile Telecommunication Research Programme (2002-2008) under the lead management of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection, which concluded that it was not required to change the position taken in 2001. The results of this programme provided the basis to continue the agreement of that year. With regard to health issues and all the other interests involved, this agreement was an acceptable and remarkably stable compromise.

  2. General Conformity Training Module 2.5: Proactive Role for Federal Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Module 2.5 explains how taking a proactive role will allow a federal agency to more effectively participate in newly promulgated programs under the General Conformity Regulations, such as the emission reduction credits and the emission budgets programs.

  3. The Federal Role in Supporting Public Universities' Global Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Lou Anna K.; Foster, Richard M.; Austin, John C.

    2010-01-01

    America's "super-league" of global universities will play an increasingly pivotal role in the 21st century economy. These universities' substantial metropolitan and regional economic contributions are magnified by the role they play in fueling innovation, boosting educational attainment, and engaging with the rest of the world on an…

  4. Improving r&d productivity: the federal role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branscomb, L M

    1983-10-14

    Despite widespread concern about lagging productivity growth rates and renewed interest in research, federal support for the review and packaging of hard-won new knowledge continues to languish. Yet accurate, accessible data are critical, not only in every R&D project but also in the most advanced manufacturing processes. Ensuring reliable, retrievable data is not a function that can be left to the professional societies, the publishing industry, or the private sector. In this article a six-point national science and technology data policy is proposed, and it is suggested that progress ultimately will depend on an overall science and technology policy, the first priority of which is to make available existing knowledge.

  5. 78 FR 23885 - Federal Seed Act Program; Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Federal Seed Act Program; Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently... collection 7 CFR part 201 for Federal Seed Act Labeling and Enforcement. DATES: Comments on this document... submitted online at www.regulations.gov or sent to Fawad S. Shah, Director, Seed Regulatory and...

  6. Federal, State, and Local Roles Supporting Alternative Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nancy; Brand, Betsy

    2006-01-01

    This white paper examines the roles that various levels of government play through legislation, policy, and other initiatives that support quality alternative education programs to reconnect youth to education and the workplace. It raises issues for policymakers at all levels to consider in facilitating the development of expanded alternative…

  7. No Global War? A Role for Democratic Global Federalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myron J. Frankman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In fact, the issue is not whether we shall be governed globally, but rather by whom and on what basis. The international realm is not one of anarchy as the realists would have us believe, but rather one of order: of rules, procedures and accepted norms of behavior associated in part with what are termed "international regimes" (Krasner 1983, each dedicated in principle to a separate functional domain. Global governance is not something that is to be created, but rather something to be altered in the public interest. The governance of the globe is currently configured by a shifting set of ill-coordinated actors: among them the one remaining super-power and, to a lesser extent, other strong states, as well as powerful individuals and a number of large transnational corporations and financial institutions. Whereas Le Monde Diplomatique (1995 speaks oflcs nouveaux maitres du monde, Robert Cox has summed up our current system of global governance with the phrase nebuleuse: "There is, in effect, no explicit political or authority structure for the global economy. There is, nevertheless, something there that remains to be deciphered, something that could be described by the French word nebulcuse or by the notion of 'governance without government."'

  8. The role of the Federal Reserve System in economy of the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Selitrennikova, Irina

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of this bachelor thesis is to analyze the Central Bank of the United States, the Federal Reserve Bank, to define its role during two serious crises and to research changes occurred to FED's incomes. The thesis is divided into four chapters. The first chapter is dedicated to three entities which Federal Reserve consists of, the second one obtains the historical information about the reasons of its foundation and chronological chain of events preceding it. The Great Depression, Th...

  9. [Current role of acupuncture in analgesic therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, F

    1983-04-21

    After a brief introduction dealing with the great development of acupuncture in management of various painful conditions in the West today, its increased importance, use and role in acute and chronic pain, benign and intractable pain, are discussed. Recent acquisitions about known and yet unknown neurophysiological parameters (evoked cns potentials, endorphines, action of acupuncture in "regulation" of many functions--so called homeostasis--milieu) in connection with good pain relief properties of acupuncture, are referred. The main methods of acupuncture in pain treatment (acupuncture as reflexotherapy--so called electroacupuncture and the very effective auriculotherapy, in comparison with traditional acupuncture as "regulating" method of homeostasis and others minor methods, with our casuistry and positive results in 724 cases of various pain conditions are stressed. Own conclusions about the positive results and the great significance of physician-patient relations in delicate field of pain therapy are referred.

  10. Benefit-cost analysis of DOE's Current Federal Program to increase hydrothermal resource utilization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-10

    The impact of DOE's Current Federal Program on the commercialization of hydrothermal resources between 1980 and 2000 is analyzed. The hydrothermal resources of the United States and the types of DOE activities used to stimulate the development of these resources for both electric power and direct heat use are described briefly. The No Federal Program and the Current Federal Program are then described in terms of funding levels and the resultant market penetration estimates through 2000. These market penetration estimates are also compared to other geothermal utilization forecasts. The direct benefits of the Current Federal Program are next presented for electric power and direct heat use applications. An analysis of the external impacts associated with the additional hydrothermal resource development resulting from the Current Federal Program is also provided. Included are environmental effects, national security/balance-of-payments improvements, socioeconomic impacts and materials requirements. A summary of the analysis integrating the direct benefits, external impacts and DOE program costs concludes the report.

  11. The Current and Future Role of Business Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayment, John; Smith, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Considerable debate since the global financial crisis has been evident concerning the role of business schools. This article aims to outline the authors' research on their role. Design/methodology/approach: The paper begins with an overview of the significant literature highlighting the current debates impacting on business schools and…

  12. Current role of surgical therapy in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ryan Swan; Thomas J Miner

    2006-01-01

    Surgery is currently the only potentially curative treatment for gastric cancer. Since the inception of the gastrectomy for cancer of the stomach, there has been debate over the bounds of surgical therapy, balancing potential long-term survival with perioperative morbidity and mortality. This review delineates the current role of surgery in preoperative staging, curative resection, and palliative treatment for gastric cancer.

  13. Shared Solar: Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-27

    This presentation provides a high-level overview of the current U.S. shared solar landscape, the impact that a given shared solar program's structure has on requiring federal securities oversight, as well as an estimate of market potential for U.S. shared solar deployment.

  14. 77 FR 12069 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... their aircraft against acts of criminal violence or air piracy. With the enactment of Vision 100... collected to assess the qualifications and suitability of prospective and current FFDOs through an...

  15. Current status of radon and radium monitoring at the Federal University of Technology (UTFPR), PR, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Schelin, Hugo R.; Denyak, Valeriy; Barbosa, Laercio; Perna, Allan F.N. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Numerous and systematic studies performed in different countries for many decades resulted in the explicit conclusion that radon exposure, as well as its progeny, is the main cause of lung cancer among non-smokers. All three natural radon isotopes ({sup 222}Rn, {sup 220}Rn and {sup 219}Rn) are produced in the three principal natural radioactive decay chains. Specifically, the {sup 222}Rn is produced by the decay series of {sup 238}U and proceeded from {alpha}-decay of {sup 226}Ra. Current work describes the present status and obtained results concerning indoor radon survey in dwellings, radon in water supply and soil gas tests performed by the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology (UTFPR) within Curitiba urban area. For radon in air activity measurements, it was used polycarbonate etched track detectors such as LEXAN (GE) and CR-39, mounted in diffusion chambers. For soil gas measurements, the experimental setup was based on the Professional Radon Monitor (AlphaGUARD, Genitron/SAPHYMO) connected to the air pump with filter vessels and to specially developed in our Laboratory the Soil Gas Probe. In the case of radon tests in drinking water, the experimental setup was based on the AlphaGUARD Radon monitor and Electronic radon detector RAD7 (Durridge Company, Inc.) connected to special kit of glass vessels through the air pump. Obtained results permitted to identify few dwellings where radon concentration in air was found bigger than 600 Bq/m{sup 3} which is considered as the action level by most of the European Community and the World Health Organization (WHO). In the case of studied artesian wells, collected samples of water presented the average {sup 222}Rn activity about 60 Bq/L which is 6 times bigger than maximum level recommended by USEPA. Some artesian wells presented the radon activity of almost 200 Bq/L. More over, it was identified the radioactivity of radium ({sup 226}Ra) salts which are soluble in water and almost

  16. An examination of the Total Quality Management (TQM) concept given current Federal/DoD competition initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, Michael E.

    1992-06-01

    Quality is vital to our defense and quality improvement is key to increasing productivity. The Department of Defense (DoD) Total Quality Management (TQM) effort has been given top priority by the Secretary of Defense. Many questions exist concerning the problems encountered when implementing TQM throughout DoD. This thesis looks at the compatibility of the TQM philosophy with current Federal Acquisition Regulation competition requirements. The writer concludes that the TQM philosophy implementation is compatible with existing competition policy.

  17. 28 CFR 1100.29 - The roles and responsibilities of federal law enforcement, immigration, and Department of State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The roles and responsibilities of federal law enforcement, immigration, and Department of State officials under the Trafficking Victims... and responsibilities of federal law enforcement, immigration, and Department of State officials...

  18. The Emerging Role of the Federal Government in Public Elementary and Secondary Education in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Thomas A.

    When President Reagan took office in January 1981, the federal government had a four-fold function in public secondary and elementary education that included financing high-cost programs of overriding national significance and advancing the cause of civil rights throughout the nation. According to Reagan's "new federalism," the role of…

  19. FEDERAL SUPPORT OF SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY IN THE UNITED STATES: CURRENT EVOLUTION UNDER THE POLITICAL STRUGGLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Istomin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 2000’s and 2010’s witnessed diminishing margin of the United States in science and technology. Meanwhile, the U.S. remains a clear leader in this fi eld. Major driving force of the country’s success in the second half of the ХХ century remained assertive federal science policy. The article seeks to identify major trends in evolution of the U.S. science policy and the reasons behind relative decline of the level of budget support of the scientifi c research. The author studies evolution of the policies of George Bush and Barack Obama, as well as the views of Democrats and Republicans in the House of Representatives and the Senate. The article also examines the input into the federal policy of the governmental bodies, which are directly responsible for its implementation, as well as non-governmental organizations, which seek to advocate interests of scientists; it studies rising competition between the executive authorities and legislators for the recognition as a major champion of the academic community as well as American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.

  20. The role of the National Bison Range in the long-term management of Federal bison herds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal for "The role of the National Bison Range in the long-term management of Federal bison herds" project created by the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station...

  1. The EarthServer Federation: State, Role, and Contribution to GEOSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merticariu, Vlad; Baumann, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The intercontinental EarthServer initiative has established a European datacube platform with proven scalability: known databases exceed 100 TB, and single queries have been split across more than 1,000 cloud nodes. Its service interface being rigorously based on the OGC "Big Geo Data" standards, Web Coverage Service (WCS) and Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS), a series of clients can dock into the services, ranging from open-source OpenLayers and QGIS over open-source NASA WorldWind to proprietary ESRI ArcGIS. Datacube fusion in a "mix and match" style is supported by the platform technolgy, the rasdaman Array Database System, which transparently federates queries so that users simply approach any node of the federation to access any data item, internally optimized for minimal data transfer. Notably, rasdaman is part of GEOSS GCI. NASA is contributing its Web WorldWind virtual globe for user-friendly data extraction, navigation, and analysis. Integrated datacube / metadata queries are contributed by CITE. Current federation members include ESA (managed by MEEO sr.l.), Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML), the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF), Australia's National Computational Infrastructure, and Jacobs University (adding in Planetary Science). Further data centers have expressed interest in joining. We present the EarthServer approach, discuss its underlying technology, and illustrate the contribution this datacube platform can make to GEOSS.

  2. Results of operation and current safety performance of nuclear facilities located in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, V. M.; Khvostova, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    After the NPP radiation accidents in Russia and Japan, a safety statu of Russian nuclear power plants causes concern. A repeated life time extension of power unit reactor plants, designed at the dawn of the nuclear power engineering in the Soviet Union, power augmentation of the plants to 104-109%, operation of power units in a daily power mode in the range of 100-70-100%, the use of untypical for NPP remixed nuclear fuel without a careful study of the results of its application (at least after two operating periods of the research nuclear installations), the aging of operating personnel, and many other management actions of the State Corporation "Rosatom", should attract the attention of the Federal Service for Ecological, Technical and Atomic Supervision (RosTekhNadzor), but this doesn't happen. The paper considers safety issues of nuclear power plants operating in the Russian Federation. The authors collected statistical information on violations in NPP operation over the past 25 years, which shows that even after repeated relaxation over this period of time of safety regulation requirements in nuclear industry and highly expensive NPP modernization, the latter have not become more safe, and the statistics confirms this. At a lower utilization factor high-power pressure-tube reactors RBMK-1000, compared to light water reactors VVER-440 and 1000, have a greater number of violations and that after annual overhauls. A number of direct and root causes of NPP mulfunctions is still high and remains stable for decades. The paper reveals bottlenecks in ensuring nuclear and radiation safety of nuclear facilities. Main outstanding issues on the storage of spent nuclear fuel are defined. Information on emissions and discharges of radioactive substances, as well as fullness of storages of solid and liquid radioactive waste, located at the NPP sites are presented. Russian NPPs stress test results are submitted, as well as data on the coming removal from operation of NPP

  3. The role of meson exchange currents in charged current (anti)neutrino-nucleus scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Barbaro, M B; Caballero, J A; De Pace, A; Donnelly, T W; Megias, G D; Simo, I Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    We present our recent progress in the description of neutrino-nucleus interaction in the GeV region, of interest for ongoing and future oscillation experiments. In particular, we discuss the weak excitation of two-particle-two-hole states induced by meson exchange currents in a fully relativistic framework. We compare the results of our model with recent measurements of neutrino scattering cross sections, showing the crucial role played by two-nucleon knockout in the interpretation of the data.

  4. Potential for small-scale, decentralized energy sources and the Federal role in their development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, D.

    1978-02-01

    The idea that the solution to our energy problems is to be found in an expanded role for small-scale, decentralized energy sources, particularly solar energy, has gained considerable attention and increasing respectability in recent years. One of the most articulate spokesmen for this point of view is Denis Hayes. Mr. Hayes explained his perspective on the energy problem to an invited audience of about 85 professionals and students in the energy policy field. This paper is an edited version of Mr. Hayes' presentation. In his presentation, Mr. Hayes discussed the prospects for fossil and nuclear energy, stressing the potential limitations on coal use due to the problem of CO/sub 2/ and the greenhouse effect, and highlighting the hazards of the plutonium economy. He described the role conservation can play in dealing with the energy problem, but declared that conservation alone is not enough. There is still a need, he indicated, to replace declining energy sources with some alternative. In his view, the most promising alternative is solar energy, and Mr. Hayes discussed the various ways in which it can be utilized. The presentation concluded with a number of suggestions regarding Federal actions and policy initiatives that Mr. Hayes feels are needed to encourage solar energy development. These ideas served as the focus for the question and answer session which followed the presentation. Questions dealt with many issues, including priorities in solar R and D, the role of the Federal government vis a vis the private sector, the timing of solar energy implementation, and the strategy and tactics of the solar movement.

  5. CURRENT TRENDS OF THE PROVISION FOR RADIATION SAFETY OF THE POPULATION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onishenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available P.V.Ramzaev”The article is devoted to the actual issues ofRussian Federationpopulation radiation safety providing at the present stage. The important role of radiation-hygienic passportization is underlined in the process of the obtaining of objective information of radiation situation in the country, of population exposure doses from the all sources: artificial and natural, from the use of ionizing irradiation sources in medicine. The leading role is shown of the natural ionizing irradiation sources in the level of the country population exposure. The main directions of activities are stated aimed on the decreasing of population exposure doses from the natural sources. The brief characteristics is given of the radiation situation on the territories radioactively contaminated after the accident on the Chernobyl NPP, in the Pacific Ocean basin after the accident on the “Fukushima-1”NPP, of the main measures for radiation protection providing and for counteraction to radiation terrorism during the period of international sports and mass actions which were carried out in Russia in the last years (XXVII World Summer Universiade in2013 inKazan, XXII Olympic and XI Winter Paralympics Games in2014 inSochi. The most important tasks are defined for the improvement ofRussian Federationpopulation radiation safety at the present stage.

  6. The Implications of Federal Education Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Clifton; Cosand, Joseph

    The significant role of the federal government in the support of higher education is noted in a survey of the development and changing patterns of federal support, and a critical review of the directions of current federal policy is offered. Implications are drawn about the effects of this policy on such national concerns as providing equal…

  7. The local property taxes and municipal federalism. Current and future inequity condition of Italian Property Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Argiolas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to analyze and compare the current local tax on real estate and the future and assessing criticality. The tax base is calculated by applying calculation methods that differ depending on the type of property you must tax. For buildings used for residential, the tax base is calculated on the basis of the cadastral income; in the case of building land is rather used the market value of land and buildings and, for rent, rural manor. The land property values are always lower than market values, which is because some time trying to implement a revision of the class with the objective of bringing the two values. The reclass procedure has recently been adopted in the municipality of Milano where it was decided to reclass of buildings located within a few micro-climates for the most central, in which houses were originally built affordable housing to meet the housing needs of the social classes poor and that over time turned into mansions in the city center. From 1 January 2012, the Imu will come into force, only municipal tax, which replaces the current Ici; the two taxes differ in the higher fixed rate (7.6 ‰, which does not involve substantial modifications to the old system tax. In this way, the result will be to produce an increase in the tax burden without solving the inequalities of the old system but increasing the gap. The Implementation Act contains provisions which IMU when applied to allow municipalities to solve some problems present in the Ici.

  8. Electrical synapses and synchrony: the role of intrinsic currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeuty, Benjamin; Mato, Germán; Golomb, David; Hansel, David

    2003-07-16

    Electrical synapses are ubiquitous in the mammalian CNS. Particularly in the neocortex, electrical synapses have been shown to connect low-threshold spiking (LTS) as well as fast spiking (FS) interneurons. Experiments have highlighted the roles of electrical synapses in the dynamics of neuronal networks. Here we investigate theoretically how intrinsic cell properties affect the synchronization of neurons interacting by electrical synapses. Numerical simulations of a network of conductance-based neurons randomly connected with electrical synapses show that potassium currents promote synchrony, whereas the persistent sodium current impedes it. Furthermore, synchrony varies with the firing rate in qualitatively different ways depending on the intrinsic currents. We also study analytically a network of quadratic integrate-and-fire neurons. We relate the stability of the asynchronous state of this network to the phase-response function (PRF), which characterizes the effect of small perturbations on the firing timing of the neurons. In particular, we show that the greater the skew of the PRF toward the first half of the period, the more stable the asynchronous state. Combining our simulations with our analytical results, we establish general rules to predict the dynamic state of large networks of neurons coupled with electrical synapses. Our work provides a natural explanation for surprising experimental observations that blocking electrical synapses may increase the synchrony of neuronal activity. It also suggests different synchronization properties for LTS and FS cells. Finally, we propose to further test our predictions in experiments using dynamic clamp techniques.

  9. Radioprotective drugs: a synopsis of current research and a proposed research plan for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, R.; Anspaugh, L.

    1985-04-01

    FEMA has broad roles in the management of disasters potentially involving substantial amounts of radioactive contamination. These could be either peacetime or wartime disasters. A meeting was held in March 1985 to see if there are any research contributions that FEMA might reasonably make in the area of radioprotective drugs that would substantially enhance its ability to perform its mission. The other federal agencies presently sponsoring research in the field were represented at the meeting. A few selected researchers also participated to provide complementary viewpoints. Activities of a modest scale that FEMA might undertake were identified, as were larger scale activities that might be undertaken in the event of long-term, major funding-level increases for FEMA. 2 refs.

  10. Considerations on the role of federalism in managing ethnic plurality in multinational states in conflict prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rodrigues

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The existence of several ethnic, religious and/or linguistic groups whose rights are not acknowledged or are continuously violated leads to tension with unpredictable consequences. If, in some cases, those groups use peaceful means to ensure that their specificities are acknowledged but, in other cases, there is frequent use of force to attain the same goals. This type of conflict occurred in the western Balkans in the 1990s or still take place in regions such as the Caucasus, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Nigeria or Myanmar in which the ethnic element, together with the religious issue, are the main causes. Though it is true that several solutions have been presented to respond to the tensions inherent to ethnic diversity of multinational States, it is also true that the several theoretical practical models have not always met the objectives and, above all, resolved situations of peace, which are often of negative peace. From minority rights to federalism, we may identify principles whose importance and adequacy to contexts may be defined as formal peace. Nevertheless, it remains important to include and frame those elements within specific cases, considering that each case is different and adapting these principles to a specific situation does not prevent them from being inadequate to a situation apparently similar. It is therefore crucial that considerations are raised on the role a political and administrative organization model such as federalism may play, partly as a complement to the law of minorities as a tool to manage ethnic diversity in States that may be defined as multinational, as well as to prevent ethnic conflicts.

  11. The current role of thiazolidinediones in diabetes management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizos, Christos V; Kei, Anastazia; Elisaf, Moses S

    2016-08-01

    Among the epidemics of modern time, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the main contributors to overall morbidity as well as mortality. A number of different treatment options are available for the management of diabetes. Among them thiazolidinediones (TZDs) is an interesting drug class since it does not target the result of T2DM, i.e., hyperglycemia but rather some of the core mechanisms of the disease. Indeed, glitazones increase insulin sensitivity by activating the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, which plays an important role in regulating various metabolic parameters. Although TZDs have an established efficacy in T2DM treatment, their usage during the past years was questioned following the emergence of some alarming data regarding their safety and especially the cardiovascular safety of rosiglitazone. As a result, there is often some skepticism about the current role of TZDs in T2DM management. This mainly affects rosiglitazone even leading to its withdrawal from several markets in contrast to pioglitazone, which has shown a beneficial cardiovascular profile. A comprehensive assessment of the benefit-to-risk ratio of TZDs is required in order to better understand the place of these drugs in T2DM management.

  12. The Role of Curriculum Scholars in Current Curriculum Debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mushtaq

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Curriculum is a set of planned tasks, learning experiences and behaviors proposed by an authority to achieve predetermined goals in form of behavioral change, academic achievements and learning outcomes within a particular time. The scholars are the people who have command and expertise in any of the curriculum components. The article focuses on the role of curriculum scholars in Pakistan and how and what type of changes they can initiate to bring harmony and tolerance, character and quality in development of curricula. The international issues, trends evolving globalization can be enhanced and incorporated to foster individual and social development. It is a qualitative study based on historical evidences and current researches highlighting the importance and role of curriculum scholars and meeting the world class education system. The issues and trends mentioned by developed countries curriculum experts paved way to synthesis them with local rising issues and trends.The study concluded that the curriculum developers have dynamic roles in curriculum debates because they have to work for bridging gaps of developing and developed nation, addressing local curriculum issues, Using pragmatic approach rather than ideological, reorganizing of recent curricula, solving language issue, facing controversies on curriculum change, making it unified and centralized, diverting curricula to research orientation, obtaining continuous feedback and developing harmony in society at the same time. It is imperative for scholars to have effective communication skills and dynamic personality to incorporate the future trends without creating conflicts and confusion in the society. They need to know the skill to motivate and mould high ups for future changes and bring changes without development of controversies.

  13. 29 CFR 1471.135 - May the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service exclude a person who is not currently...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service exclude....135 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General § 1471.135 May the Federal Mediation...

  14. Federal trade commission regulation of food advertising to children: possibilities for a reinvigorated role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Michelle M

    2010-04-01

    Growing awareness of the role that food and beverage advertising plays in the epidemic of childhood obesity has prompted calls for stricter oversight of advertising practices. The food and beverage industries have taken voluntary steps in this direction, but many commentators have called for increased government regulation. The mission of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) makes it an obvious candidate to lead a new regulatory effort. However, the FTC has a troubled history in the area of children's advertising regulation, and several political and legal factors constrain its ability to act. This article reviews those obstacles as well as the opportunities that exist at present to expand FTC oversight of food advertising to children. The FTC has considerable latitude to regulate individual food advertisements more rigorously, either on the basis that they are deceptive or on the basis that they are unfair. Broader rule making under the unfairness authority would require congressional intervention to expand the FTC's scope of authority, but there exist possibilities for rule making under the deception doctrine. Finally, the FTC could strengthen its efforts to encourage the food industry to regulate its own advertising practices more stringently and could provide mechanisms for making voluntary initiatives more meaningful.

  15. Equal Protection, Legitimacy, and the Legalization of Education: the Role of the Federal Constitutional Court in West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Hans N.

    To provide a comparative perspective on the legalization of education, the author analyzes the role of the West German Federal Constitutional Court in shaping educational policy. He identifies two constitutional norms the court uses to interpret the relationship between education and the state: equal protection and the legitimacy of educational…

  16. Peripheral interventions and antiplatelet therapy: Role in current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pahul; Harper, Yenal; Oliphant, Carrie S; Morsy, Mohamed; Skelton, Michelle; Askari, Raza; Khouzam, Rami N

    2017-07-26

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common disorder associated with a high risk of cardiovascular mortality and continues to be under-recognized. The major risk factors for PAD are similar to those for coronary and cerebrovascular disease. Management includes exercise program, pharmacologic therapy and revascularization including endovascular and surgical approach. The optimal revascularization strategy, endovascular or surgical intervention, is often debated due to the paucity of head to head randomized controlled studies. Despite significant advances in endovascular interventions resulting in increased utilization over surgical bypass, significant challenges still remain. Platelet activation and aggregation after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of atherosclerotic arteries are important risk factors for re-occlusion/restenosis and life-threatening thrombosis following endovascular procedures. Antiplatelet agents are commonly prescribed to reduce the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and death from cardiovascular causes in patients with PAD. Despite an abundance of data demonstrating efficacy of antiplatelet therapy in coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular disease, there is a paucity of clinical information, clinical guidelines and randomized controlled studies in the PAD population. Hence, data on antiplatelet therapy in coronary interventions is frequently extrapolated to peripheral interventions. The aim of this review article is to elucidate the current data on revascularization and the role and duration of antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy in re-vascularized lower limb PAD patients.

  17. The enigmatic role of RUNX1 in female-related cancers - current knowledge & future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggio, Alessandra I; Blyth, Karen

    2017-08-01

    Historically associated with the aetiology of human leukaemia, the runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) gene has in recent years reared its head in an assortment of epithelial cancers. This review discusses the state-of-the-art knowledge of the enigmatic role played by RUNX1 in female-related cancers of the breast, the uterus and the ovary. The weight of evidence accumulated so far is indicative of a very context-dependent role, as either an oncogene or a tumour suppressor. This is corroborated by high-throughput sequencing endeavours which report different genetic alterations affecting the gene, including amplification, deep deletion and mutations. Herein, we attempt to dissect that contextual role by firstly giving an overview of what is currently known about RUNX1 function in these specific tumour types, and secondly by delving into connections between this transcription factor and the physiology of these female tissues. In doing so, RUNX1 emerges not only as a gene involved in female sex development but also as a crucial mediator of female hormone signalling. In view of RUNX1 now being listed as a driver gene, we believe that greater knowledge of the mechanisms underlying its functional dualism in epithelial cancers is worthy of further investigation. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  18. Beyond "safe and effective": the role of the federal government in supporting and disseminating comparative-effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Maggie H

    2012-01-01

    Over the past century, medical advancements have resulted in tremendous health gains for Americans. Although the federal government has played a prominent role in ensuring that new treatments are safe and effective, questions about which medical treatments work best under which circumstances have largely remained unanswered. Thus, the federal government's recent major investments in comparative-effectiveness research have potential to play a significant role in helping both patients and health care providers navigate the vast array of available treatment options, as well as in improving the quality, efficiency, and delivery of health care system-wide. Yet, the controversial nature of the government's foray into comparative-effectiveness research also suggests that the path toward realizing these goals may be treacherous. This Article describes the rationales for federal support of comparative-effectiveness research and potential models for that involvement, analyzes the federal government's recent investments in the research, and concludes with predictions about the probable outcomes of these investments. While increased federal support for comparative-effectiveness research is unlikely to achieve all of the benefits anticipated by its supporters, it is a crucial step toward ensuring that Americans are able to take full advantage of the benefits of medical innovation

  19. The Role of Federal Agencies in Education, Inter-Agency Coordination, and Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, M.

    2010-12-01

    Many federal agencies invest in improving the nation’s STEM literacy and preparing the future scientific and technical workforce. These efforts have raised questions about and how federal agencies, which are not primarily focused on education, should support education formal and inforaml education systems. In addition, there is a persistent concern about how federal agency education portfolios are balanced (given the broad mission of the agnecies and their diverse audiences), and whether the programs are reaching their goals. The NRC reviews of NOAA’s education programs and NASA's K-12 education programs deal directly with these issues. Both reports include a detailed analysis of where federal agency education efforts exist within the broader education systems, the need for systematic decisions related to portfolio balance, the information needed to make program management decisions, and the strategies for collecting informative evaluation data at the project and portfolio level. While the conclusions and recommendations of these report are meant to guide NOAA and NASA education, there also is a great deal of information that can be applied to the broader questions related to federal agencies’ involvement in STEM education, and the appropriate use of evaluation to guide decision-making.

  20. Pathophysiological role of omega pore current in channelopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin eJurkat-Rott

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In voltage-gated cation channels, a recurrent pattern for mutations is the neutralization of positively charged residues in the voltage-sensing S4 transmembrane segments. These mutations cause dominant ion channelopathies affecting many tissues such as brain, heart, and skeletal muscle. Recent studies suggest that the pathogenesis of associated phenotypes is not limited to alterations in the gating of the ion-conducting alpha pore. Instead, aberrant so-called omega currents facilitated by the movement of the S4 segments during activation and during recovery are thought to cause symptoms. Surprisingly, these omega currents display uni- or bi-directionality and conduct cations with varying ion selectivity. Additionally, the voltage-sensitivity enables the channels to conduct different omega currents in the various voltage ranges. This review gives an overview of voltage sensor channelopathies in general and focuses on pathogenesis of skeletal muscle S4 disorders for which current knowledge is most advanced.

  1. The Role of Situational Factors in Managing U.S. Federal Recordkeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprehe, J. Timothy; McClure, Charles R.; Zellner, Philip

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a study funded by the National Archives and Records Administration to collect information on federal employees' views and perceptions on 20 information collection topics pertaining to records creation, maintenance, use, and disposition. Discusses situational factors and the development of records management policies and guidelines.…

  2. The Federal Role in Funding Children's Television Programming. Volume 1: Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Keith W.; And Others

    The United States Office of Education (USOE) policy in funding purposive television programing for children was investigated. Information and policy recommendations were gathered from existing sources in the general literature, USOE file materials, 10 single-topic commissioned papers, a 10-member advisory board, a Federal advisory group, and…

  3. The Federal Role in Funding Children's Television Programming. Volume 2: Commissioned Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Keith W.; And Others

    Volume 2 of an investigation conducted for the United States Office of Education reprints ten commissioned papers which provided input to Volume 1. These papers address the areas of self-concept development, economically disadvantaged children, sexism in television, diversity in a mass medium, Federal involvements in commercial television,…

  4. San Diego State U. Defends Its Role in Federal Drug Sting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, Sara

    2008-01-01

    When a freshman at San Diego State University (SDSU) died of a cocaine overdose last May, the campus police chief decided to pursue a full-scale investigation. In December, he summoned undercover agents from the federal Drug Enforcement Administration to pose as students and roam the campus in search of illegal drugs. According to college…

  5. The Role of Technical and Vocational Education in the Education System of the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, I.; And Others

    The deep economic and social problems associated with the Russian Federation's move to a market economy have extended to Vocational Education (VE). Nearly 50% of 1994's VE graduates could not get a job, and Russia's new constitution has thrown vocational schools into the market without any state support, thereby forcing many schools to become…

  6. Federal technology policy in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, K.H.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses federal energy and environmental policies and their impact on the U.S. economy. A brief history of the federal government`s role in developing scientific and technological infrastructure is given. Current trends in technology are summarized, with an emphasis on global aspects, and their impact on the economy is discussed. The need for a national technology policy, including continued research and development funding, is discussed and key elements of such a policy are outlined.

  7. The Roles and Functions of Vocational Education: Some Current Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratzner, Frank C.; Russell, Jill Frymier

    This report examines information from a broad base of literature and research and from three Delphi surveys of the views and opinions of small, highly select groups of knowledgeable educational leaders in order to highlight a number of key issues and arguments related to the appropriate roles and functions of public vocational education. It…

  8. Childhood Abuse and Current Interpersonal Conflict: The Role of Shame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungmeen; Talbot, Nancy L.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether shame-proneness mediates the relationship between women's histories of childhood sexual abuse and their current partner and family conflict and child maltreatment. Previous research has found that women with childhood sexual abuse histories experience heightened shame and interpersonal conflict. However, research…

  9. Current role of melatonin in pediatric neurology: clinical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Oliviero; Alonso-Alconada, Daniel; Besag, Frank; Biran, Valerie; Braam, Wiebe; Cortese, Samuele; Moavero, Romina; Parisi, Pasquale; Smits, Marcel; Van der Heijden, Kristiaan; Curatolo, Paolo

    2015-03-01

    Melatonin, an indoleamine secreted by the pineal gland, plays a key role in regulating circadian rhythm. It has chronobiotic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging properties. A conference in Rome in 2014 aimed to establish consensus on the roles of melatonin in children and on treatment guidelines. The best evidence for efficacy is in sleep onset insomnia and delayed sleep phase syndrome. It is most effective when administered 3-5 h before physiological dim light melatonin onset. There is no evidence that extended-release melatonin confers advantage over immediate release. Many children with developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and intellectual disability have sleep disturbance and can benefit from melatonin treatment. Melatonin decreases sleep onset latency and increases total sleep time but does not decrease night awakenings. Decreased CYP 1A2 activity, genetically determined or from concomitant medication, can slow metabolism, with loss of variation in melatonin level and loss of effect. Decreasing the dose can remedy this. Animal work and limited human data suggest that melatonin does not exacerbate seizures and might decrease them. Melatonin has been used successfully in treating headache. Animal work has confirmed a neuroprotective effect of melatonin, suggesting a role in minimising neuronal damage from birth asphyxia; results from human studies are awaited. Melatonin can also be of value in the performance of sleep EEGs and as sedation for brainstem auditory evoked potential assessments. No serious adverse effects of melatonin in humans have been identified. Copyright © 2014 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. What is the current role of endoscopy in primary sclerosingcholangitis?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopy has important roles in the managementof primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), ranging fromnarrowing down the differential diagnoses, screeningfor complications, determining prognosis and therapy.While the need for a diagnostic endoscopic retrogradecholangiopancreatography (ERCP) may be obviated by apositive magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography(MRCP), a negative MRCP does not exclude PSC andmay therefore necessitate an ERCP, which is traditionallyregarded as the gold standard. In this editorial we havenot covered the endoscopic management of inflammatorybowel disease in the context of PSC nor of endoscopicsurveillance and treatment of portal hypertension complicatingPSC.

  11. The role of the plasma current in turbulence decrease during lower hybrid current drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antar, G.; Ekedahl, A.; Goniche, M.; Asghar, A.; Žàček, F.

    2017-03-01

    The interaction of radio frequency (RF) waves with edge turbulence has resurfaced after the results obtained on many tokamaks showing that edge turbulence decreases when the ion cyclotron frequency heating (ICRH) is switched on. Using the lower hybrid (LH) waves to drive current into tokamak plasmas, this issue presented contradicting results with some tokamaks (FTU & HT-7) showing a net decrease, similar to the ICRH results, and others (Tore Supra) did not. In this article, these apparent discrepancies among tokamaks and RF wave frequencies are removed. It is found that turbulence large-scale structures in the scrape-off layer decrease at high enough plasma currents (Ip) on the Tore Supra tokamak. We distinguish three regimes: At low Ip's, no modification is detected with statistical properties of turbulence similar to ohmic plasmas even with PLH reaching 4.8 MW. At moderate plasma currents, turbulence properties are modified only at a high LH power. At high plasma currents, turbulent large scales are reduced to values smaller than 1 cm, and this is accompanied by a net decrease in the level of turbulence of about 30% even with a moderate LH power.

  12. Environmental Education--A Future-Oriented Task: Current Situation and Prospects in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Education and Science, Bonn (Germany).

    The Federal Republic of Germany has identified the conservation and the protection of the environment as a major challenge of the 1990s. Environmental education is further identified as an important part of anticipatory environmental policy. The document is separated into two parts. The first part presents the aims, content, and organizational…

  13. The Role of Federal Government for Climate Adaptation in the Urban Context: Results of a workshop (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buizer, J.; Chhetri, N.; Roy, M.

    2010-12-01

    network. Concerns included a broad range of issues, including flood protection, sea level rise, extreme events, infrastructure investment decisions, water supply, storm-water and wastewater management, public education and outreach. Suggestions included an in-depth exploration of new roles for federal agencies, as well as new partnerships with state and local entities, the private sector, and non-governmental entities; developing specialized communicators and trusted information brokers who can connect federal science agencies to local decision makers; and integrating federal decision making with local implementation.

  14. Current role of lung scintigraphy in pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, A; Angiolillo, D J

    2001-12-01

    The pivotal role of lung scintigraphy in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) has been questioned in recent years due to the introduction of spiral computed tomography. However, the scintigraphic results used for comparisons are often those of the authoritative PIOPED (Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis) study, carried out in the 1980s. Pulmonary scintigraphy has progressed from those years both in the methodological and interpretative fields, although perhaps too slowly. Results better than those of PIOPED's have been presented by study groups who used: 1) perfusion-only approach, 2) SPET imaging; 3) new interpretative criteria; 4) different prediction rules to integrate clinical and scintigraphic probabilities of PE. These advances are still insufficiently recognised by the nuclear medicine community, possibly due to a sort of PIOPED-based "cultural globalisation". This paper reviews the actual advantages and limitations of nuclear medicine techniques, the diagnostic role of scintigraphy within the diagnostic algorithms proposed by international working groups and scientific societies and the results obtained from SPET imaging in the diagnosis of PE.

  15. Current role of lung scintigraphy in pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordano, A. [Universita' Cattolica del Sacro Cuore A. Gemelli, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Rome (Italy); Angiolillo, D. J. [Universita' Cattolica del Sacro Cuore A. Gemelli, Institute of Cardiology, Rome (Italy)

    2001-12-01

    The pivotal role of lung scintigraphy in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) has been questioned in recent years due to the introduction of spiral computed tomography. However, the scintigraphic results used for comparisons are often those of the authoritative PIOPED (Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis) study, carried out in the 1980s. Pulmonary scintigraphy has progressed from those years both in the methodological and interpretative fields, although perhaps too slowly. Results better than those of PIOPED's have been presented by study groups who used: 1) perfusion-only approach; 2) SPET imaging; 3) new interpretative criteria; 4) different prediction rules to integrate clinical and scintigraphic probabilities of PE. These advances are still insufficiently recognised by the nuclear medicine community, possibly due to a sort of PIOPED-based cultural globalisation. This paper reviews the actual advantages and limitations of nuclear medicine techniques, the diagnostic role of scintigraphy within the diagnostic algorithms proposed by international working groups and scientific societies and the results obtained from SPET imaging in the diagnosis of PE.

  16. Role of diffusion weighted imaging in musculoskeletal infections: Current perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Yogesh [Yale New Haven Health System at Bridgeport Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bridgeport, CT (United States); Khaleel, Mohammad [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Dallas, TX (United States); Boothe, Ethan; Awdeh, Haitham [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); Wadhwa, Vibhor [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Little Rock, AR (United States); Chhabra, Avneesh [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Dallas, TX (United States); UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Accurate diagnosis and prompt therapy of musculoskeletal infections are important prognostic factors. In most cases, clinical history, examination and laboratory findings help one make the diagnosis, and routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful to identify the extent of the disease process. However, in many situations, a routine MRI may not be specific enough especially if the patient cannot receive contrast intravenously, thereby delaying the appropriate treatment. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can help in many such situations by providing additional information, accurate characterization and defining the extent of the disease, so that prompt treatment can be initiated. In this article, we illustrate the imaging findings of the spectrum of musculoskeletal infections, emphasizing the role of DWI in this domain. (orig.)

  17. Current role of FDG PET/CT in lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostakoglu, Lale [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Radiology, One Gustave Levy Place, Box 1141, New York, NY (United States); Cheson, Bruce D. [Georgetown University Hospital, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-05-15

    The management approach in Hodgkin's (HL) and high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) has shifted towards reducing the toxicity and long-term adverse effects associated with treatment while maintaining favorable outcomes in low-risk patients. The success of an individualized treatment strategy depends largely on accurate diagnostic tests both at staging and during therapy. In this regard, positron emission tomography (PET) using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) with computed tomography (CT) has proved effective as a metabolic imaging tool with compelling evidence supporting its superiority over conventional modalities, particularly in staging and early evaluation of response. Eventually, this modality was integrated into the routine staging and restaging algorithm of lymphomas. This review will summarize the data on the proven and potential utility of PET/CT imaging for staging, response assessment, and restaging, describing current limitations of this imaging modality. (orig.)

  18. The Current Role of Stem Cells in Orthopaedic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maniar HH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Basic science and experimental research on stem cells has increased exponentially in the last decade. Our present knowledge about stem cell biology is better than ever before. This new paradigm shift in research has been reflected in the field of orthopaedic surgery. Various experimental models have suggested a potential application of stem cells for different orthopaedic conditions, and early clinical results of stem cell use have been encouraging. These cells can be easily isolated, processed and made available for clinical use. From healing of bone defects caused by trauma, tumor or infection to cartilage defects, nerve, tendon and ligament healing, stem cell use has the potential to revolutionize orthopaedic practice. The purpose of this article is to orient a general orthopaedic surgeon towards the current use and clinical applications of stem cell based therapy in orthopaedics and to provide a complete overview of the clinical advances in this field.

  19. Centralized Role-Based Access Control for Federated Multi-Domain Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Guangcan; LU Zhengding; LI Ruixuan; MUDAR Sarem

    2006-01-01

    The secure interaction among multiple security domains is a major concern. In this paper, we highlight the issues of secure interoperability among multiple security domains operating under the widely accepted Role Based Access Control (RBAC) model. We propose a model called CRBAC that easily establishes a global policy for roles mapping among multiple security domains. Our model is based on an extension of the RBAC model. Also, multiple security domains were composed to one abstract security domain. Also roles in the multiple domains are translated to permissions of roles in the abstract security domain. These permissions keep theirs hierarchies. The roles in the abstract security domain implement roles mapping among the multiple security domains. Then, authorized users of any security domain can transparently access resources in the multiple domains.

  20. The role of epigenetics in osteoarthritis: current perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Yolande F M; Meulenbelt, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an update of recent advances in the established role of different layers of epigenetic control mechanism that are used by joint cells to ensure tissue homeostasis and cope with changing microenvironment (e.g. ageing or disease). New studies have further strengthened the evidence that joint tissue cells highly dependent on epigenetic control mechanisms, such as methylation at CpG-sites, noncoding RNAs and histone modifications to assure phenotypic plasticity and respective tissue homeostasis. Advancements towards high-dimensional molecular profiles and functional follow-up studies have started to uncover the complexity of these interacting networks of control. These studies highlight that in time loosening of epigenetic control increase the propensity of joint tissues to engage an osteoarthritis disease phenotype. Identification of changes in epigenetically regulated control mechanisms in joint tissues has provided novel insight into underlying mechanism of ongoing osteoarthritis disease pathophysiology. Such insight is crucial to enable development of evidence-based therapeutic options.

  1. The current role of radiotherapy in colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleman, B.M.P.; Bartelink, H. [Nederlands Kanker Inst. `Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis`, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gunderson, L.L. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    1995-07-01

    During the last two decades, radiotherapy has become an integral part of the multidisciplinary approach in the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. Currently, radiotherapy is seen mainly as an adjuvant therapy, sometimes in combination with chemotherapy, in a pre- or post-operative setting. Adjuvant radiotherapy alone leads to a significant reduction of local recurrence rates, but an impact on survival is seen only in subset analyses. Combined modality treatment can reduce local recurrence rates even further, and can also reduce the rate of distant relapses and increase survival. The acute toxicity of combined modality is considerably higher. Local radiation can also be used as a component of organ conserving local treatment for selected early lesions. Radiotherapy has been an important palliative treatment modality, diminishing symptoms in cases of inoperable primary rectal cancers or pelvic recurrences. The timing of radiation, surgery and chemotherapy has been under evaluation for years. For patients with locally advanced primary or recurrent malignancies (unresectable due to fixation), the preferred sequence is pre-operative irradiation with or without chemotherapy, followed by surgical resection. For mobile resectable lesions, sequencing issues are being tested in phase III randomised trials. (author).

  2. The role of simulation in teaching pediatric resuscitation: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Y

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Yiqun Lin,1 Adam Cheng2 1KidSIM-ASPIRE Simulation Research Program, Alberta Children's Hospital, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 2KidSIM-ASPIRE Research Program, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Emergency Medicine, University of Calgary, Alberta Children's Hospital, Calgary, AB, Canada Abstract: The use of simulation for teaching the knowledge, skills, and behaviors necessary for effective pediatric resuscitation has seen widespread growth and adoption across pediatric institutions. In this paper, we describe the application of simulation in pediatric resuscitation training and review the evidence for the use of simulation in neonatal resuscitation, pediatric advanced life support, procedural skills training, and crisis resource management training. We also highlight studies supporting several key instructional design elements that enhance learning, including the use of high-fidelity simulation, distributed practice, deliberate practice, feedback, and debriefing. Simulation-based training is an effective modality for teaching pediatric resuscitation concepts. Current literature has revealed some research gaps in simulation-based education, which could indicate the direction for the future of pediatric resuscitation research. Keywords: simulation, pediatric resuscitation, medical education, instructional design, crisis resource management, health care

  3. A Fiscal Cliff: The Current U.S. Federal Budget, Potential Cuts, and Impacts on Science Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenbrock, K. M.; Landau, E. A.; Hankin, E. R.

    2012-12-01

    As lawmakers on Capitol Hill face challenges to reach an agreement on how to cut the deficit while growing the economy, scientists must join the discussion and outline the serious impacts cuts to federal science programs will have on our society. Consistent and sustained federal science funding (discretionary spending) is an ever increasing struggle with the rising costs of mandatory spending and decrease in revenues. In 2011 Congress passed the Budget Control Act, which will require automatic across-the-board cuts, known as sequestration, and will take effect on 2 January 2013. Estimated cuts of $1.2 trillion and discretionary spending caps set at Fiscal Year 2012 levels will trigger non-defense program cuts of 9.8% in the first year as reported by the Congressional Research Service. Funding from non-defense program agencies such as NSF, NASA, DOE, NOAA, USGS, and others drive science and technological innovation, support public safety, create jobs, educate generations of scientists, stimulate the economy, protect our environment, and enrich lives. With non-defense discretionary programs representing less than one-fifth of the federal budget, severe cuts to these programs will not alleviate our deficit, but instead restrict our growth.

  4. Role of the pharmacist in reducing healthcare costs: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalton K

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kieran Dalton, Stephen Byrne Pharmaceutical Care Research Group, School of Pharmacy, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland Abstract: Global healthcare expenditure is escalating at an unsustainable rate. Money spent on medicines and managing medication-related problems continues to grow. The high prevalence of medication errors and inappropriate prescribing is a major issue within healthcare systems, and can often contribute to adverse drug events, many of which are preventable. As a result, there is a huge opportunity for pharmacists to have a significant impact on reducing healthcare costs, as they have the expertise to detect, resolve, and prevent medication errors and medication-related problems. The development of clinical pharmacy practice in recent decades has resulted in an increased number of pharmacists working in clinically advanced roles worldwide. Pharmacist-provided services and clinical interventions have been shown to reduce the risk of potential adverse drug events and improve patient outcomes, and the majority of published studies show that these pharmacist activities are cost-effective or have a good cost:benefit ratio. This review demonstrates that pharmacists can contribute to substantial healthcare savings across a variety of settings. However, there is a paucity of evidence in the literature highlighting the specific aspects of pharmacists’ work which are the most effective and cost-effective. Future high-quality economic evaluations with robust methodologies and study design are required to investigate what pharmacist services have significant clinical benefits to patients and substantiate the greatest cost savings for healthcare budgets. Keywords: pharmacoeconomics, pharmaceutical care, clinical pharmacy, cost-effectiveness, economic evaluation

  5. The role of the Ft. Niobrara Wildlife Refuge and Sullys Hill Wildlife Preserve in the long-term management of Federal bison herds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal for "The role of the Ft. Niobrara Wildlife Refuge and Sullys Hill Wildlife Preserve in the long-term management of Federal bison herds" project created by...

  6. Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiovascular Prevention: The Role and the Limitations of Currently Available Antiplatelet Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tufano

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of currently available antiplatelet drugs in primary and secondary prevention of vascular events in diabetic patients and the limitations of these drugs, and it discusses the role of novel and more potent antiplatelets and of new agents currently under clinical development.

  7. Data Publication Process for CMIP5 Data and the Role of PIDs within Federated Earth System Science Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockhause, M.; Höck, H.; Toussaint, F.; Weigel, T.; Lautenschlager, M.

    2012-12-01

    We present the publication process for the CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) data with special emphasis on the current role of identifiers and the potential future role of PIDs in such distributed technical infrastructures. The DataCite data publication with DOI assignment finalizes the 3 levels quality control procedure for CMIP5 data (Stockhause et al., 2012). WDCC utilizes the Assistant System Atarrabi to support the publication process. Atarrabi is a web-based workflow system for metadata reviews of data creators and Publication Agents (PAs). Within the quality checks for level 3 all available information in the different infrastructure components is cross-checked for consistency by the DataCite PA. This information includes: metadata on data, metadata in the long-term archive of the Publication Agency, quality information, and external metadata on model and simulation (CIM). For these consistency checks metadata related to the data publication has to be identified. The Data Reference Syntax (DRS) convention functions as global identifier for data. Since the DRS structures the data, hierarchically, it can be used to identify data collections like DataCite publication units, i.e. all data belonging to a CMIP5 simulation. Every technical component of the infrastructure uses DRS or maps to it, but there is no central repository storing DRS_ids. Thus they have to be mapped, occasionally. Additional local identifiers are used within the different technical infrastructure components. Identification of related pieces of information in their repositories is cumbersome and tricky for the PA. How could PIDs improve the situation? To establish a reliable distributed data and metadata infrastructure, PIDs for all objects are needed as well as relations between them. An ideal data publication scenario for federated community projects within Earth System Sciences, e.g. CMIP, would be: 1. Data creators at the modeling centers define their simulation

  8. Federal repatriation legislation and the role of physical anthropology in repatriation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousley, Stephen D; Billeck, William T; Hollinger, R Eric

    2005-01-01

    Two laws governing the disposition of Native American human remains in museums and institutions have had a profound impact on anthropology, and especially physical anthropology. In contrast to the perception of constant conflict between Native Americans and physical anthropologists, the repatriation process based on these laws has been in large part harmonious between institutions and Native peoples in the US. Despite misconceptions, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAPGRA; 25 United States Code (U.S.C.) 3001-3013) was not intended to halt further research on Native American remains in museums. In fact, court decisions have affirmed that the documentation of human remains produces information no other methods can provide, and provides necessary evidence to be incorporated and weighed, along with other evidence, in evaluating "cultural affiliation," the legal term for the required connection from federally recognized Native American groups to their ancestors. The wide variety of osteological data collected at the National Museum of Natural History (NMNH), Smithsonian Institution, have proven indispensable when evaluating cultural affiliation, especially when other information sources are unhelpful or ambiguous, and provide an empirical basis for determining the ancestry of individuals whose remains will be discovered in the future. To date, the claim-driven process at the NMNH has resulted in the affiliation and repatriation of more Native American remains than any other institution in the country. Repatriation experiences at the NMNH demonstrate the changing relationships between museums and Native peoples, the continuing important contributions that physical anthropology makes to the repatriation process, and the importance of physical anthropology in understanding the recent and ancient history of North America. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. The Role and Place of State of Event-Strategic Megaobjects in the Sustainable Territorial Development of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Yuryevich Ivanov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Russia is actively trying to raise its image and rating in the international political, sports and social spheres. This can be achieved by hosting major All-Russian and international events such as APEC 2012 summit, the 2013 Summer Universiade, the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games 2014, FIFA 2018, 2019 Winter Universiade etc. We point to the absence of complex scientific approach to managing such event-strategic megaobjects, and this has negative affect on the Russian economy. The subject of the present research is represented by the role of state event-strategic megaobjects in sustainable regional development of Russia. The analysis allowed to identify a number of features of these objects, and to point out key issues and risks in their implementation. We consider the use of innovative crowdfunding technology to be the positive aspect of public megaobjects’ management. The negative aspects include the excessive scale of the financial costs and problems of cost-effective use of megaobjects after the hosting events. The territorial aspect of the analysis revealed the absence of a systemic approach to the selection of regions for hosting international events, as well as the unevenness of the territorial distribution of megaobjects. The largest event-strategic megaobjects were implemented in the Far Eastern Federal district (APEC summit in Vladivostok in 2012, the Southern Federal district (Krasnodar region, Sochi – The winter Olympic and Paralympic games in February 2014, Volga Federal district (the Universiade in Kazan in 2013. These districts did not become the leading regions in socio-economic development of Russia neither before nor after these events. The studies of such socio-economic and political phenomena will help to present theoretical and practical aspects of their application algorithm in the future for the purpose of balanced regional development of Russia.

  10. Role of Airpower for Counterinsurgency in Afghanistan and FATA (Federally Administered Tribal Areas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Malaysia , Greece, Philippine and Vietnam. The last part briefly analyzes the methods used to separate the population from insurgents and the role of...as evidenced by the social indicators in Table 1.161 Indicator Pakistan NWFP FATA Literacy (both sexes , %) 43.92 35.41 17.42 Male literacy... refugees to FATA and the NWFP, and intermarriages among refugees and locals has changed the social structure and raised an ethno- nationalist sentiment

  11. 78 FR 19193 - Richard Phillips, Currently Incarcerated at: Inmate No. 81783-079, FCI Ray Brook Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Richard Phillips, Currently Incarcerated at: Inmate No. 81783- 079, FCI.... District Court, Eastern District of New York, Richard Phillips (``Phillips'') was convicted of violating...)) (``IEEPA''). Specifically, Phillips was convicted of knowingly, intentionally and willfully attempting to...

  12. [Comment on “Federal funding at a time of budget austerity”] Report overlooks National Labs' integral role in research and training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toran, Laura

    Should we emphasize universities over national laboratories in times of limited federal science funding? Frank Press raised this question in his March 26, 1996, Eos article on “Federal Funding at a Time of Budget Austerity,” which summarized a report by the committee of the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering. Although he states that in the report “The unique and complementary roles of universities and federal laboratories are spelled out clearly,” he goes on to say “the committee proposed that universities be given credit for combining research and training.”

  13. Physiological roles of the transient outward current Ito in normal and diseased hearts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordeiro, Jonathan M.; Callø, Kirstine; Aschar-Sobbi, Roozbeh

    2016-01-01

    constituents are consistently reduced in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. In this review, we discuss the physiological role of Ito as well as the molecular basis of this current in human and canine hearts, in which Ito has been thoroughly studied. In particular, we discuss the role of Ito in the action...

  14. The role of current loop in harmonic generation from magnetic metamaterials in two polarizations

    CERN Document Server

    Sajedian, Iman; Zakery, Abdolnasser; Rho, Junsuk

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the role of the current loop in the generation of second and third harmonic signals from magnetic metamaterials. We will show that the fact that the current loop in the magnetic resonance acts as a source for nonlinear effects and it consists of two orthogonal parts, leads to the generation of two harmonic signals in two orthogonal polarizations.

  15. Federal Market Information Technology in the Post Flash Crash Era: Roles for Supercomputing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethel, E. Wes; Leinweber, David; Ruebel, Oliver; Wu, Kesheng

    2011-09-16

    This paper describes collaborative work between active traders, regulators, economists, and supercomputing researchers to replicate and extend investigations of the Flash Crash and other market anomalies in a National Laboratory HPC environment. Our work suggests that supercomputing tools and methods will be valuable to market regulators in achieving the goal of market safety, stability, and security. Research results using high frequency data and analytics are described, and directions for future development are discussed. Currently the key mechanism for preventing catastrophic market action are “circuit breakers.” We believe a more graduated approach, similar to the “yellow light” approach in motorsports to slow down traffic, might be a better way to achieve the same goal. To enable this objective, we study a number of indicators that could foresee hazards in market conditions and explore options to confirm such predictions. Our tests confirm that Volume Synchronized Probability of Informed Trading (VPIN) and a version of volume Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) for measuring market fragmentation can indeed give strong signals ahead of the Flash Crash event on May 6 2010. This is a preliminary step toward a full-fledged early-warning system for unusual market conditions.

  16. Tidal residual current and its role in the mean flow on the Changjiang Bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xuan, Jiliang; Yang, Zhaoqing; Huang, Daji; Wang, Taiping; Zhou, Feng

    2016-02-01

    Tidal residual current may play an important role in the mean flow in the Changjiang Bank region, in addition to other residual currents, such as the Taiwan Warm Current, the Yellow Sea Coastal Current, and the Yellow Sea Warm Current. In this paper, a detailed structure of the tidal residual current, in particular the meso-scale eddies, in the Changjiang Bank region is observed from model simulations, and its role in the mean flow is quantified using the well-validated Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model). The tidal residual current in the Changjiang Bank region consists of two components: an anticyclonic regional-scale tidal residual circulation around the edge of the Changjiang Bank and some cyclonic meso-scale tidal residual eddies across the Changjiang Bank. The meso-scale tidal residual eddies occur across the Changjiang Bank and contribute to the regional-scale tidal residual circulation offshore at the northwest boundary and at the northeast edge of the Changjiang Bank, southeastward along the 50 m isobath. Tidal rectification is the major mechanism causing the tidal residual current to flow along the isobaths. Both components of the tidal residual current have significant effects on the mean flow. A comparison between the tidal residual current and the mean flow indicates that the contribution of the tidal residual current to the mean flow is greater than 50%.

  17. The Managerial Roles of Sports Clubs CEOs in the Current and Desirable Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh Surani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Today, the proper playing of managerial roles is of special importance in effective and successful management of sports clubs. The present paper aimed to study the managerial roles of sports clubs CEOs in Isfahan Province in the current and desirable conditions. Statistical population included all managers and directors of Sepahan, Zobahan, Foolad Mahan, and Gitipasand sports clubs (N=83, which was considered as the sample as well. An author-made questionnaire with 31 items on a Likert’s 5-point scale was used for data collection. Validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by 15 experts and professors and its reliability was obtained α=0.94 by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. 84 questionnaires were handed out among all managers and directors of the studied sports clubs, 76 of which (91.5% was returned. The results showed that priority of CEOs roles, respectively, include decisional role (4.16±0.61, informational role (4.09±0.56, and interpersonal role (4.03±0.67. The results of factor analysis also indicated that the roles of entrepreneurship, data collection, spokesman, and allocation of resources, respectively, are the most important roles of CEOs and negotiation, figurehead, and leadership roles are the least important ones in the desirable conditions. A significant difference was observed between the roles of managers in the current and desirable conditions (Sig.=0.001. The results suggested that the respondents’ expectations of sports clubs CEOs’ roles in desirable conditions is beyond their perceptions in the current situation. It can be generally concluded that sports clubs CEOs need to better perform all managerial roles, especially decisional role.

  18. Roles of initial current carrier in the distribution of field-aligned current in 3-D Hall MHD simulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG XianGuo; PU ZuYin; MA ZhiWei; ZHOU XuZhi

    2008-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) Hall MHD simulation is carried out to study the roles of initial current carrier in the topology of magnetic field,the generation and distribuering the contribution of ions to the initial current,the topology of the obtained magnetic field turns to be more complex. In some cases,it is found that not only the traditional By quadrupole structure but also a reversal By quadrupole structure appears in the simulation box. This can explain the observational features near the diffusion region,which are inconsistent with the Hall MHD theory with the total initial current carried by electrons. Several other interesting features are also emerged. First,motions of electrons and ions are decoupled from each other in the small plasma region (Hall effect region) with a scale less than or comparable with the ion inertial length or ion skin depth di=c/ωp. In the non-Hall effect region,the global magnetic structure is shifted in +y direction under the influence of ions with initial y directional motion. However,in the Hall effect region,magnetic field lines are bent in -y direction,mainly controlled by the motion of electrons,then By is generated. Second,FACs emerge as a result of the appearance of By. Compared with the prior Hall MHD simulation results,the generated FACs shift in +y direction,

  19. Roles of initial current carrier in the distribution of field-aligned current in 3-D Hall MHD simulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) Hall MHD simulation is carried out to study the roles of initial current carrier in the topology of magnetic field, the generation and distribu- tion of field aligned currents (FACs), and the appearance of Alfvén waves. Consid- ering the contribution of ions to the initial current, the topology of the obtained magnetic field turns to be more complex. In some cases, it is found that not only the traditional By quadrupole structure but also a reversal By quadrupole structure appears in the simulation box. This can explain the observational features near the diffusion region, which are inconsistent with the Hall MHD theory with the total ini- tial current carried by electrons. Several other interesting features are also emerged. First, motions of electrons and ions are decoupled from each other in the small plasma region (Hall effect region) with a scale less than or comparable with the ion inertial length or ion skin depth di=c/ωp. In the non-Hall effect region, the global magnetic structure is shifted in +y direction under the influence of ions with initial y directional motion. However, in the Hall effect region, magnetic field lines are bent in ?y direction, mainly controlled by the motion of electrons, then By is generated. Second, FACs emerge as a result of the appearance of By. Compared with the prior Hall MHD simulation results, the generated FACs shift in +y direction, and hence the dawn-dusk symmetry is broken. Third, the Walén relation in our simulations is consistent with the Walén relation in Hall plasma, thus the presence of Alfvén wave is confirmed.

  20. The role of currents distribution in general relativistic equilibria of magnetized neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bucciantini, N; Del Zanna, L

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic fields play a critical role in the phenomenology of neutron stars. There is virtually no observable aspect which is not governed by them. Despite this, only recently efforts have been done to model magnetic fields in the correct general relativistic regime, characteristic of these compact objects. In this work we present, for the first time a comprehensive and detailed parameter study, in general relativity, of the role that the current distribution, and the related magnetic field structure, have in determining the precise structure of neutron stars. In particular, we show how the presence of localized currents can modify the field strength at the stellar surface, and we look for general trends, both in terms of energetic properties, and magnetic field configurations. Here we verify that, among other things, for a large class of different current distributions the resulting magnetic configurations are always dominated by the poloidal component of the current.

  1. Modeling Studies of Eddies in the Leeuwin Current: The Role of Thermal Forcing

    OpenAIRE

    Batteen, Mary L.; Rutherford, Martin J.

    1990-01-01

    A high resolution, multilevel, primitive equation (PE) model is used to investigate the generation and stability of the Leeuwin Current and eddies off the west coast of Australia. Two numerical experiments are conducted to investigate the roles of the Indian Ocean temperature field and the North West (NW) Shelf waters in generating both the current and eddies. In the first experiment an alongshore temperature gradient, typical of the Indian Ocean temperature field, is imposed, whi...

  2. Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and National Trails: An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, Alaska, and Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, James A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Krummel, John R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hlava, Kevin J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moore, H. Robert [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Orr, Andrew B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schlueter, Scott O. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sullivan, Robert G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zvolanek, Emily A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-11-21

    As has been noted in many reports and publications, acquiring new or expanded rights-of-way for transmission is a challenging process, because numerous land use and land ownership constraints must be overcome to develop pathways suitable for energy transmission infrastructure. In the eastern U.S., more than twenty federally protected national trails (some of which are thousands of miles long, and cross many states) pose a potential obstacle to the development of new or expanded electricity transmission capacity. However, the scope of this potential problem is not well-documented, and there is no baseline information available that could allow all stakeholders to study routing scenarios that could mitigate impacts on national trails. This report, Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and National Trails: An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, was prepared by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). Argonne was tasked by DOE to analyze the “footprint” of the current network of National Historic and Scenic Trails and the electricity transmission system in the 37 eastern contiguous states, Alaska, and Hawaii; assess the extent to which national trails are affected by electrical transmission; and investigate the extent to which national trails and other sensitive land use types may be affected in the near future by planned transmission lines. Pipelines are secondary to transmission lines for analysis, but are also within the analysis scope in connection with the overall directives of Section 368 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, and because of the potential for electrical transmission lines being collocated with pipelines.

  3. The role of current loop in harmonic generation from magnetic metamaterials in two polarizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajedian, Iman; Kim, Inki; Zakery, Abdolnasser; Rho, Junsuk

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the role of current loop in the generation of second and third harmonic signals from magnetic metamaterials and we are clarifying why two polarized harmonics are generated from magnetic metamaterials. We show that the current loop formed in the magnetic resonant frequency acts as a source for nonlinear effects. The current loop that has a circular shape can be divided into two orthogonal parts, where each of these parts acts as a source for generating a harmonic signal parallel to itself. The type of harmonic signal is determined by the metamaterial's inversion symmetry in that direction. This claim is also supported by the experimental results of another group.

  4. Institutional Cooperation: The Role of the Federal, State, and Local Education Agencies in Addressing the Educational Problems of the Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, George T.

    A concerted effort to pool resources and coordinate work by federal, state, and local educational agencies will be necessary to overcome the fragmentation that is occurring due to the current climate of changing demographics, increasing illiteracy, and the social effects of minorities in our schools. California has shown major changes in the…

  5. Forget the Desk Job: Current Roles and Responsibilities in Entry-Level Reference Job Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detmering, Robert; Sproles, Claudene

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the evolving roles and responsibilities of entry-level academic reference positions, as stated in recent job advertisements posted on the American Library Association's JobLIST Web site and other sources. Findings from a content analysis of these advertisements indicate that current entry-level reference positions in academic…

  6. Forget the Desk Job: Current Roles and Responsibilities in Entry-Level Reference Job Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detmering, Robert; Sproles, Claudene

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the evolving roles and responsibilities of entry-level academic reference positions, as stated in recent job advertisements posted on the American Library Association's JobLIST Web site and other sources. Findings from a content analysis of these advertisements indicate that current entry-level reference positions in academic…

  7. The Role of Education in Economic Growth: Theory, History and Current Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Theodore R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This paper was prepared to address the issue of whether current levels of public expenditures on education are cost-effective in countries with widely differing average levels of education. Purpose: The paper examines the role of education in economic growth from a theoretical and historic perspective, addresses why education has been…

  8. Federal Holidays

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Federal law (5 U.S.C. 6103) establishes the following public holidays for Federal employees. Please note that most Federal employees work on a Monday through Friday...

  9. The role and importance of UAV within the current theaters of operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae MARIN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Current theaters of operations are not limited to battlefields, but they are much morediversified, including the fight against the international terrorism phenomenon, the social conflicts (ofreligious, political, economic and separatist nature within several countries, thus supplying somepolitical-military conflicts within different states and areas of the world. The armed interference mustbe done based on some highly accurate information that must be gathered without endangering thehuman lives. This is the role currently played by the unmanned air vehicles (UAVs; they can performseveral functions: surveillance, information gathering, data storage and their transmission to theground stations, including the function of interference, when needed. This paper presents, within theabove context, the status of the current theaters of operations and of the UAVs performing differentmissions within these theaters, together with their role and importance in warfare operations.

  10. The role of transverse momentum currents in optical Magnus effect in a free-space

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Hailu; Shu, Weixing; Fan, Dianyuan

    2010-01-01

    We establish a general vector field model to describe the role of transverse momentum currents in optical Magnus effect in a free-space. As an analogous of mechanical Magnus effect, the circularly polarized wavepacket in our model plays the role of the rotating ball. For a certain circularly polarized wavepacket, whether the rotation is clockwise or anticlockwise depends on the polarization state. We demonstrate the existence of a novel optical polarization-dependent rotation effect which is signally different from conventional optical Magnus effect in that light-matter interaction is not required. Further, we reveal the relation between transverse momentum currents and optical Magnus effect. Such a polarization-dependent rotation is unavoidable when the wavepacket possesses transverse momentum currents. The intriguing effect should be able to be observed experimentally even in the propagation direction. These findings provide direct evidence for the optical Magnus effect in the free-space. The physics underl...

  11. Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and National Trails. An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, Alaska, and Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, James A; Krummel, John R; Hlava, Kevin J; Moore, H Robert; Orr, Andrew B; Schlueter, Scott O; Sullivan, Robert G; Zvolanek, Emily A

    2014-03-25

    As has been noted in many reports and publications, acquiring new or expanded rights-of-way for transmission is a challenging process, because numerous land use and land ownership constraints must be overcome to develop pathways suitable for energy transmission infrastructure. In the eastern U.S., more than twenty federally protected national trails (some of which are thousands of miles long, and cross many states) pose a potential obstacle to the development of new or expanded electricity transmission capacity. However, the scope of this potential problem is not well-documented, and there is no baseline information available that could allow all stakeholders to study routing scenarios that could mitigate impacts on national trails. This report, Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and National Trails: An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, was prepared by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). Argonne was tasked by DOE to analyze the “footprint” of the current network of National Historic and Scenic Trails and the electricity transmission system in the 37 eastern contiguous states, Alaska, and Hawaii; assess the extent to which national trails are affected by electrical transmission; and investigate the extent to which national trails and other sensitive land use types may be affected in the near future by planned transmission lines. Pipelines are secondary to transmission lines for analysis, but are also within the analysis scope in connection with the overall directives of Section 368 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, and because of the potential for electrical transmission lines being collocated with pipelines. Based on Platts electrical transmission line data, a total of 101 existing intersections with national trails on federal land were found, and 20 proposed intersections. Transmission lines and pipelines are proposed in Alaska; however there are no

  12. eHealth in Belgium, a new "secure" federal network: role of patients, health professions and social security services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Francis Roger

    2011-02-01

    eHealth platform is the official federal network in Belgium (created by law on 21 August 2008) devoted to a secure exchange of health data in many types of applications, such as health care purposes, simplification of administrative procedures and contribution to health policy. It implies a controlled access to decentralized databases and uses encrypted personal data. The national identification number has been chosen in order to authenticate the requester, the patient, and the receiver of information exchange. Authorizations have to be respected in order to obtain personal health data. Several questions are raised about its security: the lack of mandatory request for systematic journaling on accesses to the electronic patient record as well as the absence of explicit procedures for sanctions in case of unauthorized access, the new role of social security administration in managing security where a eHealth manager can be both judge and party (in the function of trusted third party for health data encryption and of a required lawyer for texts proposed by physicians to the Commission for the protection of private life). Another critic concerns the number of physicians in minority and the absence of patients' delegates in the eHealth Board. At a time when the patient is becoming a partner in the care team, should not he be the gate-keeper for the access to his own health record? How could networks help him to get the appropriate knowledge to contribute to care and to write his testament of life? Recent laws (on private life, patient rights and euthanasia) have contributed to a behavioural change in citizens and physician attitudes. Recommendations are made in order to improve the acceptability of eHealth platform.

  13. Breakdown of accommodation in nerve: a possible role for persistent sodium current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Ole K

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accommodation and breakdown of accommodation are important elements of information processing in nerve fibers, as they determine how nerve fibers react to natural slowly changing stimuli or electrical stimulation. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the biophysical mechanism of breakdown of accommodation, which at present is unknown. Results A model of a space-clamped motor nerve fiber was developed. It was found that this new model could reproduce breakdown of accommodation when it included a low-threshold, rapidly activating, persistent sodium current. However, the phenomenon was not reproduced when the persistent sodium current did not have fast activation kinetics or a low activation threshold. Conclusion The present modeling study suggests that persistent, low-threshold, rapidly activating sodium currents have a key role in breakdown of accommodation, and that breakdown of accommodation can be used as a tool for studying persistent sodium current under normal and pathological conditions.

  14. Changes in the Provision of Correspondent-Banking Services and the Role of Federal Reserve Banks under the DIDMC Act

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, Edward J.

    1981-01-01

    This paper focuses on microeconomic incentives set in motion by Federal Reserve decisions about how to implement the reserve-requirement and pricing-of-service provisions of the Depository Institutions Deregulation and Monetary Control Act of 1980 (the DIDMC Act). These incentives promise to reshape the production and character of correspondent-banking services, the margin of jurisdictional competition between state banking regulators and the Federal Reserve System, and ultimately the regiona...

  15. Strategic Sourcing'Is There a Role for Midsize Companies in the Industrial Base Supporting the Federal Government Market Space?

    OpenAIRE

    Drabkin, David A.; McCarthy, Donna

    2007-01-01

    Proceedings Paper (for Acquisition Research Program) Strategic Sourcing has become the focus of buying organizations both in government and the private sector. In the federal government, the Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP) began an initiative in 2004 through its Chief Acquisition Officer Council (CAOC) to provide for Strategic Sourcing on a government-wide basis. Similarly, State and Local governments have initiated strategic sourcing initiatives to varying degrees across the...

  16. The evolving role and definition of the federal funds rate in the conduct of U.S. monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Belongia, Michael; Hinich, Melvin

    2009-01-01

    Over the past twenty years, the federal funds rate has evolved from being an intermediate target or indicator variable in discussions of monetary policy to the Federal Reserve’s (exogenous) policy instrument. How the funds rate is characterized has important implications for modeling, particularly in settings such as the popular Taylor Rule. Crucially, however, little investigation has been done to examine whether the funds rate meets the conditions one would require for an instrument of po...

  17. Contrasting roles of Ih and the persistent sodium current at subthreshold voltages during naturalistic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thor, Michael G; Morris, Gareth

    2016-11-01

    The subthreshold activity of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons is regulated by the persistent sodium current (INaP) and the h-current (Ih), carried by tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium channels and hyperpolarization-activated cyclic-nucleotide-gated channels, respectively. Recently, Yamada-Hanff and Bean (J Neurophysiol 114: 2376-2389, 2015) used pharmacological methods to discern the roles of Ih and INaP at subthreshold voltages during naturalistic stimuli. We discuss these findings in the context of dorsoventral heterogeneity in the hippocampus and suggest further applications of the method.

  18. The Current Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Management of Atrial Fibrillation

    OpenAIRE

    Christou, Georgios A.; Konstantinos A. Christou; Panagiotis Korantzopoulos; Rizos, Evangelos C.; Nikas, Dimitrios N.; Goudevenos, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main dietary source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is fish, which contains eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In the present manuscript, we aimed to review the current evidence regarding the clinical role of n-3 PUFA in the prevention of atrial fibrillation (AF) and the possible underlying mechanisms. Methods: A literature search based on PubMed listings was performed using “Omega-3 fatty acids” and “atrial fibrilation” as key search...

  19. Role of transverse-momentum currents in the optical Magnus effect in free space

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun; Shu, Weixing; Fan, Dianyuan

    2010-01-01

    We establish a general vector field model to describe the role of transverse-momentum currents in the optical Magnus effect in free space. As an analogy of the mechanical Magnus effect, the circularly polarized wave packet in our model acts as the rotating ball, and its rotation direction depends on the polarization state. Based on this model, we demonstrate the existence of an optical polarization-dependent Magnus effect which is significantly different from the conventional optical Magnus e...

  20. What is the current role of intracavernosal injection in management of erectile dysfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sakka, A I

    2016-05-01

    The emerging of intracavernosal injection (ICI) of vasoactive materials was a major breakthrough in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, the current state and future direction of ICI role in the armamentarium of diagnosis, prevention and treatment of ED are not well defined. The aim of this study was to address the current place of ICI in the armamentarium of ED diagnosis and treatment. An English-language MEDLINE review for the utilization of 'intracavernosal injection & erectile dysfunction' was performed from 1990 to present time. Four hundred forty-eight articles were analyzed and classified according to the current utilization of ICI in the following conditions; diagnosis of ED, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (PDE5I) non-responders, diabetes, post radical prostatectomy (RP), stem cells and gene therapy, new intracavernosal drugs, adverse effects and couple satisfaction. This paper is not a standard systematic review; it is eventually a literature review of original peer-reviewed manuscripts and clinical trials reported in Medline. The comprehensive analyses of all the reviewed data were not possible as the level of evidence for utility of ICI in each topic was not available. Current date have established the role of ICI of vasoactive materials as a very common alternative domain in treatment of severe ED particularly in diabetic patients, post-RP, PDE5I non-responders. Further, new studies have denoted the potential future role of intracavernosal treatment for ED in the era of stem cells and gene therapy. ICI of vasoactive material continues to be a highly effective and safe treatment tool for men with wide varieties of ED etiologies. Several experimental and clinical studies are currently investigating new ICI materials. Hopefully in the near future, we might witness evolved molecules and innovative strategies that could help to treat ED patients with different etiologies.

  1. The role of upstream-migrating knick points in turbidity current channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartigny, Matthieu; Hughes Clarke, John; Stacey, Cooper; Hage, Sophie; Parsons, Daniel; Talling, Peter; Azpiroz, Maria; Clare, Michael; Eggenhuisen, Joris; Hizzett, Jamie; Hunt, James; Lintern, Gwyn; Sumner, Esther; Vellinga, Age; Vendettouli, Daniella; Wood, Jon

    2017-04-01

    High-resolution bathymetric images of turbidity current channels reveal the existence of a wide range of bedforms within these systems. Knick points are the dominant kilometre-scale bedform in most sandy systems. These knick points are thought to initiate and maintain submarine channels, and they would therefore play a key role the transport of sediment and nutrients to the deep sea. In contrast to their important role very little is known about knick points. What drives the formation of a knick point? Are they remnant headwalls of landslide, or are they related to supercritical turbidity currents? Are they a purely erosional feature? Do they have any preservation potential in the rock record? Here we present data collected from knick points in an active turbidity current channel on a fjord floor in British Colombia, Canada. These data show how trains of knick points migrate several hundred metres upstream every year. We use repeat surveys to show how knick points are a combined erosional-depositional feature. Furthermore, we have deployed several instruments over the knick points to study how the knick points interact with the passing turbidity currents. Finally, we use repeat surveys and cores to explore the potential architecture and facies association associated to knick points.

  2. Manual Therapy: The Historical, Current, and Future Role in the Treatment of Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Russell Smith

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Manual therapy has been an approach in the management of patients with various disorders dating back to ancient times and continues to play a significant role in current health care. The future role of manual therapy in health care is an important area of research. This paper reviews the history of manual therapy, examines the current literature related to the use of manual techniques (including manipulation, massage, and nerve manipulation, and discusses future research topics. The literature related to manual therapy has historically been anecdotal and theoretical, and current research tends to have a generic approach with broad definitions of manual therapy and inconsistencies in the classification of specific disorders. Systematic reviews of various types of manual therapy have differed on their conclusions regarding the effectiveness of this treatment modality. The current demand in health care for evidence-based practice necessitates a movement towards more specificity in the research of the effectiveness of manual therapy, with emphasis on specific patient signs and symptoms and specific manual techniques that result in effective care.

  3. Role of tonic GABAergic currents during pre- and early postnatal rodent development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner eKilb

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last three decades it became evident that the GABAergic system plays an essential role for the development of the central nervous system, by influencing the proliferation of neuronal precursors, neuronal migration and differentiation, as well as by controlling early activity patterns and thus formation of neuronal networks. GABA controls neuronal development via depolarizing membrane responses upon activation of ionotropic GABA receptors. However, many of these effects occur before the onset of synaptic GABAergic activity and thus require the presence of extrasynaptic tonic currents in neuronal precursors and immature neurons. This review summarizes our current knowledge about the role of tonic GABAergic currents during early brain development. In this review we compare the temporal sequence of the expression and functional relevance of different GABA receptor subunits, GABA synthesizing enzymes and GABA transporters. We also refer to other possible endogenous agonists of GABAA receptors. In addition, we describe functional consequences mediated by the GABAergic system during early developmental periods and discuss current models about the origin of extrasynaptic GABA and/or other endogenous GABAergic agonists during early developmental states. Finally, we present evidence that tonic GABAergic activity is also critically involved in the generation of physiological as well as pathophysiological activity patterns before and after the establishment of functional GABAergic synaptic connections.

  4. Role of tonic GABAergic currents during pre- and early postnatal rodent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilb, Werner; Kirischuk, Sergei; Luhmann, Heiko J

    2013-01-01

    In the last three decades it became evident that the GABAergic system plays an essential role for the development of the central nervous system, by influencing the proliferation of neuronal precursors, neuronal migration and differentiation, as well as by controlling early activity patterns and thus formation of neuronal networks. GABA controls neuronal development via depolarizing membrane responses upon activation of ionotropic GABA receptors. However, many of these effects occur before the onset of synaptic GABAergic activity and thus require the presence of extrasynaptic tonic currents in neuronal precursors and immature neurons. This review summarizes our current knowledge about the role of tonic GABAergic currents during early brain development. In this review we compare the temporal sequence of the expression and functional relevance of different GABA receptor subunits, GABA synthesizing enzymes and GABA transporters. We also refer to other possible endogenous agonists of GABAA receptors. In addition, we describe functional consequences mediated by the GABAergic system during early developmental periods and discuss current models about the origin of extrasynaptic GABA and/or other endogenous GABAergic agonists during early developmental states. Finally, we present evidence that tonic GABAergic activity is also critically involved in the generation of physiological as well as pathophysiological activity patterns before and after the establishment of functional GABAergic synaptic connections.

  5. Vitamin E in Sarcopenia: Current Evidences on Its Role in Prevention and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shy Cian Khor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome that is characterized by gradual loss of muscle mass and strength with increasing age. Although the underlying mechanism is still unknown, the contribution of increased oxidative stress in advanced age has been recognized as one of the risk factors of sarcopenia. Thus, eliminating reactive oxygen species (ROS can be a strategy to combat sarcopenia. In this review, we discuss the potential role of vitamin E in the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia. Vitamin E is a lipid soluble vitamin, with potent antioxidant properties and current evidence suggesting a role in the modulation of signaling pathways. Previous studies have shown its possible beneficial effects on aging and age-related diseases. Although there are evidences suggesting an association between vitamin E and muscle health, they are still inconclusive compared to other more extensively studied chronic diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, we reviewed the role of vitamin E and its potential protective mechanisms on muscle health based on previous and current in vitro and in vivo studies.

  6. Vitamin E in Sarcopenia: Current Evidences on Its Role in Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Karim, Norwahidah; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah

    2014-01-01

    Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome that is characterized by gradual loss of muscle mass and strength with increasing age. Although the underlying mechanism is still unknown, the contribution of increased oxidative stress in advanced age has been recognized as one of the risk factors of sarcopenia. Thus, eliminating reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be a strategy to combat sarcopenia. In this review, we discuss the potential role of vitamin E in the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia. Vitamin E is a lipid soluble vitamin, with potent antioxidant properties and current evidence suggesting a role in the modulation of signaling pathways. Previous studies have shown its possible beneficial effects on aging and age-related diseases. Although there are evidences suggesting an association between vitamin E and muscle health, they are still inconclusive compared to other more extensively studied chronic diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, we reviewed the role of vitamin E and its potential protective mechanisms on muscle health based on previous and current in vitro and in vivo studies. PMID:25097722

  7. Federalism Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, A. E. Dick

    1987-01-01

    Examines the concept of federalism in terms of its past history and its encouraging future. Calls for a revival of concern for federalism not simply as a convenient administrative arrangement but as a fundamental constitutional value. (BSR)

  8. The role of the computer in science fair projects: Current status and potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trainor, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    The need for more students to enter the field of science is acute in the nation, and science fair projects provide a motivational mechanism to entice students into pursuing scientific careers. Computers play a major role in science today. Because computers are a major source of entertainment for our children, one would expect them to play a significant role in many science fair projects. This study investigated current and potential uses of computers in science fair projects and incorporated an informal case study of scientists, teachers, and students involved in science fair projects from a highly scientific community. Interviews, a survey, and observations were conducted. Results indicated that most projects either do not use or inadequately use computers and that a significant potential for more effective use of computers for science fair projects exists.

  9. Current antiplatelet agents: place in therapy and role of genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eugene

    2015-04-01

    Antiplatelet therapies play a central role in reducing the risk of cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. While aspirin, a cyclo-oxygenase-1 inhibitor has been the cornerstone of antithrombotic treatment for several decades, P2Y12 receptor inhibitors cangrelor, clopidogrel, prasugrel, and ticagrelor and protease-activated receptor-1 antagonist vorapaxar, have emerged as additional therapies to reduce the risk of recurrent cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. Recent clinical trials evaluating the role of these agents and major society guideline updates for use of antiplatelet therapies for secondary prevention of cardiovascular events will be examined. The latest studies regarding the appropriate duration of dual antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention will be presented. The current state of genetic and platelet function testing will be reviewed.

  10. China Disabled Persons' Federation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China Disabled Persons' Federation (CDPF), founded in Beijing in 1988, is a national organization of/for all persons with disabilities (PWDs) of different categories in China. Mr. Deng Pufang is currently the Chairman.

  11. Current status and emerging role of glutathione in food grade lactic acid bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have taken centre stage in perspectives of modern fermented food industry and probiotic based therapeutics. These bacteria encounter various stress conditions during industrial processing or in the gastrointestinal environment. Such conditions are overcome by complex molecular assemblies capable of synthesizing and/or metabolizing molecules that play a specific role in stress adaptation. Thiols are important class of molecules which contribute towards stress management in cell. Glutathione, a low molecular weight thiol antioxidant distributed widely in eukaryotes and Gram negative organisms, is present sporadically in Gram positive bacteria. However, new insights on its occurrence and role in the latter group are coming to light. Some LAB and closely related Gram positive organisms are proposed to possess glutathione synthesis and/or utilization machinery. Also, supplementation of glutathione in food grade LAB is gaining attention for its role in stress protection and as a nutrient and sulfur source. Owing to the immense benefits of glutathione, its release by probiotic bacteria could also find important applications in health improvement. This review presents our current understanding about the status of glutathione and its role as an exogenously added molecule in food grade LAB and closely related organisms. PMID:22920585

  12. Current status and emerging role of glutathione in food grade lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pophaly Sarang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lactic acid bacteria (LAB have taken centre stage in perspectives of modern fermented food industry and probiotic based therapeutics. These bacteria encounter various stress conditions during industrial processing or in the gastrointestinal environment. Such conditions are overcome by complex molecular assemblies capable of synthesizing and/or metabolizing molecules that play a specific role in stress adaptation. Thiols are important class of molecules which contribute towards stress management in cell. Glutathione, a low molecular weight thiol antioxidant distributed widely in eukaryotes and Gram negative organisms, is present sporadically in Gram positive bacteria. However, new insights on its occurrence and role in the latter group are coming to light. Some LAB and closely related Gram positive organisms are proposed to possess glutathione synthesis and/or utilization machinery. Also, supplementation of glutathione in food grade LAB is gaining attention for its role in stress protection and as a nutrient and sulfur source. Owing to the immense benefits of glutathione, its release by probiotic bacteria could also find important applications in health improvement. This review presents our current understanding about the status of glutathione and its role as an exogenously added molecule in food grade LAB and closely related organisms.

  13. Current status and emerging role of glutathione in food grade lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pophaly, Sarang Dilip; Singh, Rameshwar; Pophaly, Saurabh Dilip; Kaushik, Jai K; Tomar, Sudhir Kumar

    2012-08-25

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have taken centre stage in perspectives of modern fermented food industry and probiotic based therapeutics. These bacteria encounter various stress conditions during industrial processing or in the gastrointestinal environment. Such conditions are overcome by complex molecular assemblies capable of synthesizing and/or metabolizing molecules that play a specific role in stress adaptation. Thiols are important class of molecules which contribute towards stress management in cell. Glutathione, a low molecular weight thiol antioxidant distributed widely in eukaryotes and Gram negative organisms, is present sporadically in Gram positive bacteria. However, new insights on its occurrence and role in the latter group are coming to light. Some LAB and closely related Gram positive organisms are proposed to possess glutathione synthesis and/or utilization machinery. Also, supplementation of glutathione in food grade LAB is gaining attention for its role in stress protection and as a nutrient and sulfur source. Owing to the immense benefits of glutathione, its release by probiotic bacteria could also find important applications in health improvement. This review presents our current understanding about the status of glutathione and its role as an exogenously added molecule in food grade LAB and closely related organisms.

  14. Instabilities of collisionless current sheets revisited: the role of anisotropic heating

    CERN Document Server

    Muñoz, P A; Büchner, J

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the influence of the anisotropic heating on the spontaneous instability and evolution of thin Harris-type collisionless current sheets, embedded in antiparallel magnetic fields. In particular, we explore the influence of the macroparticle shape-function using a 2D version of the PIC code ACRONYM. We also investigate the role of the numerical collisionality due to the finite number of macroparticles in PIC codes. It is shown that it is appropriate to choose higher order shape functions of the macroparticles compared to a larger number of macroparticles per cell. This allows to estimate better the anisotropic electron heating due to the collisions of macroparticles in a PIC code. Temperature anisotropies can stabilize the tearing mode instability and trigger additional current sheet instabilities. We found a good agreement between the analytically derived threshold for the stabilization of the anisotropic tearing mode and other instabilities, either spontaneously developing or initi...

  15. Current Role of Ivabradine in Stable Coronary Artery Disease Without Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porres-Aguilar, Mateo; Muñoz, Oscar C; Abbas, Aamer

    2016-02-01

    Increase in heart rate represents a significant contribution in the pathophysiology of coronary artery disease and heart failure, by promoting atherosclerotic process and endothelial dysfunction. Thus, it negatively influences cardiovascular risk in the general population. The aim of this review is to analyze the current, controversial, and future role of ivabradine as an anti-anginal agent in the setting of coronary artery disease without heart failure. Ivabradine represents a selective heart rate-lowering agent that increased diastolic perfusion time and improving energetics in the ischemic myocardium.

  16. Provider communication and role modeling related to patients' perceptions and use of a federally qualified health center-based farmers' market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Daniela B; Freedman, Darcy A; Choi, Seul Ki; Anadu, Edith C; Brandt, Heather M; Carvalho, Natalia; Hurley, Thomas G; Young, Vicki M; Hébert, James R

    2014-03-01

    Farmers' markets have the potential to improve the health of underserved communities, shape people's perceptions, values, and behaviors about healthy eating, and serve as a social space for both community members and vendors. This study explored the influence of health care provider communication and role modeling for diabetic patients within the context of a farmers' market located at a federally qualified health center. Although provider communication about diet decreased over time, communication strategies included: providing patients with "prescriptions" and vouchers for market purchases; educating patients about diet; and modeling healthy purchases. Data from patient interviews and provider surveys revealed that patients enjoyed social aspects of the market including interactions with their health care provider, and providers distributed prescriptions and vouchers to patients, shopped at the market, and believed that the market had potential to improve the health of staff and patients of the federally qualified health center. Provider modeling of healthy behaviors may influence patients' food-related perceptions and dietary behaviors.

  17. Role of the late sodium current in rate-dependent repolarization of the canine ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Yang, Lin; Yang, Zhao; Zheng, Xiao

    2013-12-31

    Late sodium current I(NaL) is an inward current participating in maintaining the plateau of the action potential. So far its role in the repolarization of canine hearts is not well known. In this paper, by taking advantage of a computer simulation method, we developed a one-dimensional transmural tissue to study the impacts of I(NaL) on rate-dependent repolarization and its ionic basis in the canine ventricle. An OpenMP parallel algorithm was performed on a four-core personal computer to accelerate the simulation. The results demonstrated that action potential durations of midmyocytes showed greater rate dependence than the endo- and epi-myocytes. When the pacing rate was reduced, repolarization of the tissue was prolonged while the transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) was enlarged. The enhancement of I(NaL) further amplified this rate-dependent repolarization and TDR meanwhile increased the risk of arrhythmogenesis. I(NaL) was found highly sensitive to the pacing rate by calculating its kinetics. The study suggested that I(NaL) played an important role in the rate-dependent repolarization of the canine ventricle. Selective blockade of I(NaL) could have clinical benefits, especially for such pathological conditions with enhanced I(NaL) as long QT 3 syndrome and heart failure.

  18. Potassium currents in the heart: functional roles in repolarization, arrhythmia and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Chen-Izu, Ye; Clancy, Colleen E; Deschenes, Isabelle; Dobrev, Dobromir; Heijman, Jordi; Izu, Leighton; Qu, Zhilin; Ripplinger, Crystal M; Vandenberg, Jamie I; Weiss, James N; Koren, Gideon; Banyasz, Tamas; Grandi, Eleonora; Sanguinetti, Michael C; Bers, Donald M; Nerbonne, Jeanne M

    2016-11-03

    This is the second of the two White Papers from the fourth UC Davis Cardiovascular Symposium Systems Approach to Understanding Cardiac Excitation-Contraction Coupling and Arrhythmias (3-4 March 2016), a biennial event that brings together leading experts in different fields of cardiovascular research. The theme of the 2016 symposium was 'K(+) channels and regulation', and the objectives of the conference were severalfold: (1) to identify current knowledge gaps; (2) to understand what may go wrong in the diseased heart and why; (3) to identify possible novel therapeutic targets; and (4) to further the development of systems biology approaches to decipher the molecular mechanisms and treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. The sessions of the Symposium focusing on the functional roles of the cardiac K(+) channel in health and disease, as well as K(+) channels as therapeutic targets, were contributed by Ye Chen-Izu, Gideon Koren, James Weiss, David Paterson, David Christini, Dobromir Dobrev, Jordi Heijman, Thomas O'Hara, Crystal Ripplinger, Zhilin Qu, Jamie Vandenberg, Colleen Clancy, Isabelle Deschenes, Leighton Izu, Tamas Banyasz, Andras Varro, Heike Wulff, Eleonora Grandi, Michael Sanguinetti, Donald Bers, Jeanne Nerbonne and Nipavan Chiamvimonvat as speakers and panel discussants. This article summarizes state-of-the-art knowledge and controversies on the functional roles of cardiac K(+) channels in normal and diseased heart. We endeavour to integrate current knowledge at multiple scales, from the single cell to the whole organ levels, and from both experimental and computational studies.

  19. Current Role and Future Perspectives of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Radiation Oncology for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Zapotoczna

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Prostatic neoplasms are not uniformly distributed within the prostate volume. With recent developments in three-dimensional intensity-modulated and imageguided radiation therapy, it is possible to treat different volumes within the prostate to different thresholds of doses. This approach has the potential to adapt the dose to the biologic aggressiveness of various clusters of tumor cells within the gland. The definition of tumor burden volume in prostate cancer can be facilitated by the use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. The increasing sensitivity and specificity of MRS to the prostate is causing new interest in its potential role in the definition of target subvolumes at higher risk of failure following radical radiotherapy. Prostate MRS might also play a role as a noninvasive predictive factor for tumor response and treatment outcome. We review the use of MRS in radiation therapy for prostate cancer by evaluating its accuracy in the classification of aggressive cancer regions and target definition; its current role in the radiotherapy planning process, with special interest in technical issues behind the successful inclusion of MRS in clinical use; and available early experiences as a prognostic tool.

  20. The role of community pharmacy-based vaccination in the USA: current practice and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach AT

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Albert T Bach, Jeffery A Goad School of Pharmacy, Chapman University, Irvine, California, USA Abstract: Community pharmacy-based provision of immunizations in the USA has become commonplace in the last few decades, with success in increasing rates of immunizations. Community pharmacy-based vaccination services are provided by pharmacists educated in the practice of immunization delivery and provide a convenient and accessible option for receiving immunizations. The pharmacist's role in immunization practice has been described as serving in the roles of educator, facilitator, and immunizer. With a majority of pharmacist-provided vaccinations occurring in the community pharmacy setting, there are many examples of community pharmacists serving in these immunization roles with successful outcomes. Different community pharmacies employ a number of different models and workflow practices that usually consist of a year-round in-house service staffed by their own immunizing pharmacist. Challenges that currently exist in this setting are variability in scopes of immunization practice for pharmacists across states, inconsistent reimbursement mechanisms, and barriers in technology. Many of these challenges can be alleviated by continual education; working with legislators, state boards of pharmacy, stakeholders, and payers to standardize laws; and reimbursement design. Other challenges that may need to be addressed are improvements in communication and continuity of care between community pharmacists and the patient centered medical home. Keywords: immunization, pharmacy practice, pharmacists, continuity of care 

  1. Observations of Thin Current Sheets in the Solar Wind and Their Role in Magnetic Energy Dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, S.; Goldstein, M. L.; Dorelli, J.; Sahraoui, F.; Gurgiolo, C. A.; Karimabadi, H.; Mozer, F.; Wendel, D. E.; TenBarge, J.; Roytershteyn, V.

    2013-12-01

    A recent analysis of 450 vec/s resolution data from the STAFF search-coil magnetometer on board Cluster has revealed, for the first time, the presence of thin current sheets and discontinuities from the proton Larmor scale down to the electron Larmor scale in the solar wind. This is in the range of scales where a cascade of energy consistent with highly oblique kinetic Alfvénic fluctuations (KAW), eventually dissipated by electron Landau damping, has been detected. The current sheets have been found to have a size between 20-200 km, indicating that they are very localized. We will compare the observations with results coming from 2D Hall MHD, Gyrokinetic, and full Particle-in-Cell turbulence simulations. Preliminary work has highlighted promising qualitative agreement between the properties of the structures observed in the Cluster data and the current sheets generated in the simulations. With the aim of investigating the role played by those structures in dissipating the magnetic energy in the solar wind, E●J has been computed within each magnetic discontinuity. This has been made possible via a combined analysis of both STAFF-SC magnetic field data and the electric field data from the Electric Fields and Wave instrument (EFW). We describe procedures used to reduce the noise in the EFW data. The results obtained represent an effort to clarify the processes involved in the dissipation of magnetic energy in the solar wind.

  2. The Role of Current Sheets in Solar Eruptive Events: An ISSI International Team Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Steven T.; Poletto, Giannina

    2006-01-01

    Current sheets (CSs) are a prerequisite for magnetic reconnection. An International Space Science Institute (ISSI, of Bern, Switzerland) research team will work to empirically define current sheet properties in the solar atmosphere and their signatures in the interplanetary medium, and to understand their role in the development of solar eruptive events. The project was inspired by recently acquired ground and space based observations that reveal CS signatures at the time of flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), in the chromosphere, in the corona and in the interplanetary medium. At the same time, theoretical studies predict the formation of CSs in different models and configurations, but theories and observational results have not yet developed an interaction efficient enough to allow us to construct a unified scenario. The team will generate synergy between observers, data analysts, and theoreticians, so as to enable a significant advance in understanding of current sheet behavior and properties. A further motivation for studying CSs is related to the expected electric fields in CSs that may be the source of solar energetic particles (SEPs). The team has 14 members from Europe and the US. The first meeting is in October 2006 and the second is late in 2007.

  3. Current Insights to Regulation and Role of Telomerase in Human Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Mert Burak; Li, Yinghui; Tergaonkar, Vinay

    2017-01-01

    The telomerase ribonucleoprotein complex has a pivotal role in regulating the proliferation and senescence of normal somatic cells as well as cancer cells. This complex is comprised mainly of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), telomerase RNA component (TERC) and other associated proteins that function to elongate telomeres localized at the end of the chromosomes. While reactivation of telomerase is a major hallmark of most cancers, together with the synergistic activation of other oncogenic signals, deficiency in telomerase and telomeric proteins might lead to aging and senescence-associated disorders. Therefore, it is critically important to understand the canonical as well as non-canonical functions of telomerase through TERT to develop a therapeutic strategy against telomerase-related diseases. In this review, we shed light on the regulation and function of telomerase, and current therapeutic strategies against telomerase in cancer and age-related diseases. PMID:28264499

  4. Anaesthetic specialist registrars in Ireland: current teaching practices and perceptions of their role as undergraduate teachers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, K

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Teaching is an important responsibility of non-consultant hospital doctors. In Ireland, specialist registrars (SpRs) in anaesthesia are contractually obliged to teach medical students, other doctors and nurses. Both medical students and fellow non-consultant hospital doctors attribute between 30 and 40% of their knowledge gain to non-consultant hospital doctors. METHODS: We carried out a confidential telephone survey of anaesthetic SpRs in Ireland regarding their current teaching practices and the perceptions of their role as undergraduate teachers. All the SpRs currently working in clinical practice in Ireland were eligible. RESULTS: Fifty-five of the 79 (70%) SpRs responded to the questionnaire. Only 7 (12.7%) of the respondents said they had been well trained as a teacher. The majority of the respondents stated that they would attend a learning-to-teach course\\/workshop if one was available, and felt that such a course would improve their ability as a teacher. Only 8 (14.5%) agreed that adequate emphasis is placed on commitment to teaching in the assessment of SpRs, both by individual departments and by the College of Anaesthetists. Anaesthetic SpRs in Ireland spend a considerable amount of time each day teaching undergraduate medical students, the majority (68.9%) stated that they had inadequate time to prepare for teaching. CONCLUSION: The majority of the respondents stated that they enjoy teaching, feel that they play an important role in undergraduate teaching but have inadequate time to prepare for teaching. An adequate emphasis is not placed on their commitment to teaching.

  5. The Role of Adiponectin in Cancer: A Review of Current Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalamaga, Maria; Diakopoulos, Kalliope N.

    2012-01-01

    Excess body weight is associated not only with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) but also with various types of malignancies. Adiponectin, the most abundant protein secreted by adipose tissue, exhibits insulin-sensitizing, antiinflammatory, antiatherogenic, proapoptotic, and antiproliferative properties. Circulating adiponectin levels, which are determined predominantly by genetic factors, diet, physical activity, and abdominal adiposity, are decreased in patients with diabetes, CVD, and several obesity-associated cancers. Also, adiponectin levels are inversely associated with the risk of developing diabetes, CVD, and several malignancies later in life. Many cancer cell lines express adiponectin receptors, and adiponectin in vitro limits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. Recent in vitro studies demonstrate the antiangiogenic and tumor growth-limiting properties of adiponectin. Studies in both animals and humans have investigated adiponectin and adiponectin receptor regulation and expression in several cancers. Current evidence supports a role of adiponectin as a novel risk factor and potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in cancer. In addition, either adiponectin per se or medications that increase adiponectin levels or up-regulate signaling pathways downstream of adiponectin may prove to be useful anticancer agents. This review presents the role of adiponectin in carcinogenesis and cancer progression and examines the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie the association between adiponectin and malignancy in the context of a dysfunctional adipose tissue in obesity. Understanding of these mechanisms may be important for the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies against obesity-associated malignancies. PMID:22547160

  6. The Current Role of Carotid Duplex Ultrasonography in the Management of Carotid Atherosclerosis: Foundations and Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly R. Byrnes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of atherosclerotic carotid occlusive disease for stroke prevention has entered a time of dramatic change. Improvements in medical management have begun to challenge traditional interventional approaches to asymptomatic carotid stenosis. Simultaneously, carotid artery stenting (CAS has emerged as an alternative to carotid endarterectomy (CE. Finally, multiple factors beyond degree of stenosis and symptom status now mitigate clinical decision making. These factors include brain perfusion, plaque morphology, and patency of intracranial collaterals (circle of Willis. With all of these changes, it seems prudent to review the role of carotid duplex ultrasonography in the management of atherosclerotic carotid occlusive disease for stroke prevention. Carotid duplex ultrasonography (CDU for initial and serial imaging of the carotid bifurcation remains an essential component in the management of carotid bifurcation disease. However, correlative axial imaging modalities (computer tomographic angiography (CTA and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA increasingly aid in the assessment of individual stroke risk and are important in treatment decisions. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1 to discuss foundations and advances in CDU and (2 to evaluate the current role of CDU, in light of other imaging modalities, in the clinical management of carotid atherosclerosis.

  7. Current roles of specific bacteria in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy McMullen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of alterations in gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD remains unclear. Currently there is conflicting evidence with regards to the roles of specific bacterial species. Escherichia coli (particularly the adherent invasive strain are more prevalent in those with IBD and are associated with higher risk of IBD. However, the organisms are also present in healthy individuals and colonisation does not correlate with the degree of inflammation in IBD. Campylobacter concisus is more prevalent in those with IBD and higher levels of C. concisus specific IgG antibodies are found in the serum of those with IBD compared to healthy controls. Further, C. concisus has immunogenic properties that stimulate an antibody response suggesting the bacteria might trigger or exacerbate disease. Conversely most mycobacteria are unlikely to be causative as they are not presentin microbial stool cultures early in disease. In various studies,Mycobacterium aviumparatuberculosishas been detected both more frequently and not at all in individuals with Crohn's disease. Similar conflict exists with respect to Yersinia enterocolitica,Bacteroidesvulgatus and Helicobacter hepaticus, which are also more prevalent in IBD. However, these organisms appear more likely to contribute to disease persistence than initial disease development. This review aims to summarise the current understanding of key bacterial species implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD.

  8. Role of the Funny Current Inhibitor Ivabradine in Cardiac Pharmacotherapy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petite, Sarah E; Bishop, Bryan M; Mauro, Vincent F

    2016-02-23

    The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of ivabradine are reviewed. Ivabradine is an oral medication that directly and selectively inhibits the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic-nucleotide gated funny (If) current in the sinoatrial node resulting in heart rate reduction. It has a plasma elimination half-life of 6 hours and is administered twice daily. Ivabradine is extensively metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4, and its metabolism is affected by inducers and inhibitors of the 3A4 enzyme. Studies in patients with heart failure indicate that ivabradine improves surrogate markers such as exercise tolerance. The results of (1) phase III trial demonstrated ivabradine significantly reduced heart failure hospitalizations but had no effect on mortality. Ivabradine has been extensively evaluated for coronary artery disease wherein (2) large trials was shown to have no mortality benefit. Ivabradine has been associated with improved symptoms in stable chronic angina pectoris. Ivabradine has been evaluated for other cardiovascular conditions including tachycardias of various natures, arrhythmia prevention postcardiac surgery, in acute coronary syndrome, and for heart rate control during coronary computed tomography angiogram. The most common adverse events reported in clinical trials were bradycardia, new-onset atrial fibrillation, and phosphenes. Ivabradine, a novel cardiac medication, has been studied in numerous cardiac conditions. It is only currently approved in the United States to reduce hospitalizations for systolic heart failure. The role of this medication in other conditions has not been fully elucidated.

  9. The Role of β-effect and a Uniform Current on Tropical Cyclone Intensity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    端义宏; 伍荣生; 余晖; 梁旭东; 陈仲良

    2004-01-01

    A limited-area primitive equation model is used to study the role of the β-effect and a uniform current on tropical cyclone (TC) intensity.It is found that TC intensity is reduced in a non-quiescent environment compared with the case of no uniform current.On an f-plane,the rate of intensification of a tropical cyclone is larger than that of the uniform flow.A TC on a β-plane intensifies slower than one on an f-plane.The main physical characteristic that distinguishes the experiments is the asymmetric thermodynamic (including convective) and dynamic structures present when either a uniform flow or β-effect is introduced.But a fairly symmetric TC structure is simulated on an f-plane.The magnitude of the warm core and the associated subsidence are found to be responsible for such simulated intensity changes.On an f-plane,the convection tends to be symmetric,which results in strong upper-level convergence near the center and hence strong forced subsidence and a very warm core.On the other hand,horizontal advection of temperature cancels part of the adiabatic heating and results in less warming of the core,and hence the TC is not as intense.This advective process is due to the tilt of the vortex as a result of the β-effect.A similar situation occurs in the presence of a uniform flow.Thus,the asymmetric horizontal advection of temperature plays an important role in the temperature distribution.Dynamically,the asymmetric angular momentum (AM) flux is very small on an f-plane throughout the troposphere.However,the total AM exports at the upper levels for a TC either on aβ-plane or with a uniform flow environment are larger because of an increase of the asymmetric as well as symmetric AM export on the plane at radii >450 km,and hence there is a lesser intensification.

  10. Role of transoral robotic surgery in current head & neck practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, David; Paleri, Vinidh

    2016-10-11

    Morbidity and mortality associated with increasingly radical doses of chemoradiotherapy have led many to question the current standard of care in head and neck cancer. Recently, surgeons have developed minimally invasive, transoral techniques which have demonstrated excellent survival and favourable functional outcomes. Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) is the most recent, cutting edge in the evolution of transoral techniques; TORS allows surgeons unprecedented access to and visualisation of the upper aerodigestive tract. Early reports of TORS in the head and neck are favourable in both primary and recurrent disease. TORS has a role in the assessment of the patient with unknown primary and in the de-intensification of therapy in patients with cancers secondary to human papilloma virus. In this review we discuss the practical set up and technical features of TORS surgery and the application of TORS in primary and recurrent disease, and carcinoma of unknown primary. We outline the current ongoing research into the use of this technique and set out the vision for the future of this surgical modality. Surgical care for upper aerodigestive tract cancers has changed dramatically over the last three decades with technological advances in tumour imaging and resection. Recent advances in mechanical instrumentation and energy devices allow surgeons to remove head and neck cancers transorally; it is only rarely that the extrinsic muscles of the neck and the tongue are involved and the transoral route leads to reduced disruption of the external musculature, quicker recovery and a better functional outcome. In this review we will focus exclusively on the advances in transoral robotic surgery which have transformed the shape of resective head and neck cancer surgery.

  11. Current role of rufinamide in the treatment of childhood epilepsy: literature review and treatment guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Giangennaro; Besag, Frank; Cusmai, Raffaella; Dulac, Olivier; Kluger, Gerhard; Moavero, Romina; Nabbout, Rima; Nikanorova, Marina; Pisani, Francesco; Verrotti, Alberto; von Stülpnagel, Celina; Curatolo, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    The literature on the efficacy and safety of rufinamide in childhood-onset epilepsy syndromes currently includes approximately 600 paediatric patients. This paper summarizes the views of a panel of experienced European epileptologists with regard to the current role of rufinamide in the treatment of childhood epilepsies. Rufinamide is effective in decreasing the seizure frequency in the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS), especially tonic and atonic seizures. It might consequently be preferred to other drugs as a second-line treatment for LGS when drop-attacks are frequent. The mean responder rate in the published studies is 38% with seizure freedom achieved in 2.4% of patients. Rufinamide has shown some efficacy in epileptic encephalopathies other than LGS. It can be also effective as adjunctive therapy in children and adolescents with drug-resistant partial seizures. The available data suggest that rufinamide has an acceptable risk/benefit ratio with quite a low risk of aggravating seizures. Common adverse effects (somnolence, nausea and vomiting) are usually mild and self-limiting; they are more frequently observed during titration than in the maintenance phase, suggesting that low escalation rates might be associated with fewer adverse effects. Rufinamide appears to have a favourable cognitive profile compared with other antiepileptic drugs. Rufinamide is only approved for adjunctive treatment of seizures associated with LGS in children 4 years of age and older. There are very few data on rufinamide treatment at the onset of LGS or early in the course of the disorder; whether early treatment will improve outcome has yet to be determined. Copyright © 2014 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Neuroimaging in Alzheimer's disease: current role in clinical practice and potential future applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Kobuti Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available 'Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia and its prevalence is expected to increase in the coming years. Therefore, accurate diagnosis is crucial for patients, clinicians and researchers. Neuroimaging techniques have provided invaluable information about Alzheimer's disease and, owing to recent advances, these methods will have an increasingly important role in research and clinical practice. The purpose of this article is to review recent neuroimaging studies of Alzheimer's disease that provide relevant information to clinical practice, including a new modality: in vivo amyloid imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission computed tomography and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography are currently available for clinical use. Patients with suspected Alzheimer's disease are commonly investigated with magnetic resonance imaging because it provides detailed images of brain structure and allows the identification of supportive features for the diagnosis. Neurofunctional techniques such as single photon emission computed tomography and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography can also be used to complement the diagnostic investigation in cases of uncertainty. Amyloid imaging is a non-invasive technique that uses positron emission tomography technology to investigate the accumulation of the β-amyloid peptide in the brain, which is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. This is a promising test but currently its use is restricted to very few specialized research centers in the world. Technological innovations will probably increase its availability and reliability, which are the necessary steps to achieve robust clinical applicability. Thus, in the future it is likely that amyloid imaging techniques will be used in the clinical evaluation of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  13. The role of the sodium current complex in a nonreferred nationwide cohort of sudden infant death syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Yuan, Lei; Olesen, Morten S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the most common cause of death in infants between the age of 1 month and 1 year. Rare variants in Nav1.5 encoded by SCN5A are known to play a role in SIDS; however, the combined role of the sodium current complex is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose...... of this study was to investigate the role of the sodium current complex in a nonreferred nationwide cohort of SIDS cases. METHODS: DNA was extracted from dried blood spot samples from the Danish Neonatal Screening Biobank. In total, 66 non-referred SIDS cases born in Denmark in the period of 2000-2006 were...

  14. Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of theUnited States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  15. Role of Environmental Chemicals in Obesity: A Systematic Review on the Current Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to systematically review the experimental and human studies on obesogenic chemicals and their mechanisms of action to provide a comprehensive view on the multifactorial aspects of obesity. The literatures were searched in available databases. The relevant papers were selected in three phases. After quality assessment, two reviewers extracted the data while another checked their extracted data. In this review, we summarized information regarding environmental chemicals that can be associated with obesity. Most evidence comes from experimental and laboratory studies; however a growing number of human studies also support the role of obesogenic chemicals. The current evidence proposes that the systemic responses to exposure to environmental factors could potentially increase the risk of excess weight. The effects of exposure to these chemicals are of crucial importance during developmental phases of life, when preprogramming for an adipogenic outcome may occur. By considering the adverse transgenerational effects of obesogen chemicals on human health, the global obesity epidemic should be considered as a multifactorial complex disorder necessitating the emphasis of public health interventions for environmental protection.

  16. Understanding the current state of infection preventionists through competency, role, and activity self-assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalp, Ericka L; Marx, James F; Davis, James

    2017-06-01

    The Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC) MegaSurvey, administered in 2015, was completed by approximately 4,079 APIC members. The survey sought to gain a better understanding the current state of 4 components of infection prevention practice: demographic characteristics, compensation, organizational structure, and practice and competency. The data for this analysis come from the APIC MegaSurvey Practice and Competency domain. Descriptive statistics and χ(2) analyses were conducted to examine differences in infection preventionist (IP) competency, roles, and activity self-assessments. The majority of IPs self-assessed their competency as Proficient compared with Novice or Expert for each of the 8 IP core competency activities. Forty percent of IPs self-rated their competency as Expert in the Preventing/Controlling the Transmission of Infectious Agents/HAIs component. IPs reported Novice competency in Employee/Occupational Health (29%); Cleaning, Sterilization, Disinfection, and Asepsis (23%); and Education and Research categories (22%). Differences in self-rated competency among IPs by discipline type (public health, nurse, and laboratory) were identified. Differences in self-rated competency were identified for each of the 8 IP core competency activities. IPs report using various resource types to gain competency. Future research is needed to identify opportunities to increase competency levels in the weakest-rated competency activities. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Current Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Management of Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios A. Christou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main dietary source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA is fish, which contains eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. In the present manuscript, we aimed to review the current evidence regarding the clinical role of n-3 PUFA in the prevention of atrial fibrillation (AF and the possible underlying mechanisms. Methods: A literature search based on PubMed listings was performed using “Omega-3 fatty acids” and “atrial fibrilation” as key search terms. Results: n-3 PUFA have been shown to attenuate structural atrial remodeling, prolong atrial effective refractory period through the prevention of reentry and suppress ectopic firing from pulmonary veins. Dietary fish intake has been found to have no effect on the incidence of AF in the majority of studies. Circulating DHA has been consistently reported to be inversely associated with AF risk, whereas EPA has no such effect. The majority of studies investigating the impact of n-3 PUFA supplementation on the incidence of AF following cardiac surgery reported no benefit, though most of them did not use n-3 PUFA pretreatment for adequate duration. Studies using adequate four-week pretreatment with n-3 PUFA before cardioversion of AF showed a reduction of the AF incidence. Conclusions: Although n-3 PUFA have antiarrhythmogenic properties, their clinical efficacy on the prevention of AF is not consistently supported. Further well-designed studies are needed to overcome the limitations of the existing studies and provide robust conclusions.

  18. Current role of surgery for the treatment of fulminant Clostridium difficile colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ming-fei; DING Zhao; ZHAO Jian; JIANG Cong-qing; LIU Zhi-su; QIAN Qun

    2013-01-01

    Objective This review discusses the current status and progress in studies on fulminant Clostridium difficile colitis (FCDC),including the definition,risk factor,diagnostic role of CT,surgical treatment,postoperative mortality,and new therapeutic strategy.Data sources A literature search was conducted mainly in Medline and PubMed published in English between January 2000 and May 2011.The search terms were "fulminant Clostridium difficile colitis","treatment"","surgery" and "mortality".Resulta Recent studies show that the overall mortality rate for FCDC remains high despite early surgical intervention.It has been difficult to identify the real value for surgical intervention in patients with FCDC due to the absence of prospective,randomized studies.Early recognition of patients with FCDC will help a clinician decide the need for treatment in an intensive care setting,multi-disciplinary consultation,and appropriate therapeutic selection.Some studies emphasize the importance of early recognition and emergent surgery at a less severe stage.Monoclonal antibody therapy and intravenous immunoglobulin treatment may be useful for the treatment of FCDC.Conclusions Present studies do not provide strong evidence for guiding the surgical treatment of FCDC; hence,creation of collaborative research networks is crucial in order to undertake large prospective multi-center studies for improvement in overall survival.

  19. Role of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in the Nitrogen Uptake of Plants: Current Knowledge and Research Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Bücking

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi play an essential role for the nutrient uptake of the majority of land plants, including many important crop species. The extraradical mycelium of the fungus takes up nutrients from the soil, transfers these nutrients to the intraradical mycelium within the host root, and exchanges the nutrients against carbon from the host across a specialized plant-fungal interface. The contribution of the AM symbiosis to the phosphate nutrition has long been known, but whether AM fungi contribute similarly to the nitrogen nutrition of their host is still controversially discussed. However, there is a growing body of evidence that demonstrates that AM fungi can actively transfer nitrogen to their host, and that the host plant with its carbon supply stimulates this transport, and that the periarbuscular membrane of the host is able to facilitate the active uptake of nitrogen from the mycorrhizal interface. In this review, our current knowledge about nitrogen transport through the fungal hyphae and across the mycorrhizal interface is summarized, and we discuss the regulation of these pathways and major research gaps.

  20. Current role in facial allograft transplantation:what have we learned?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro Infante-Cossio; Juan-David Gonzalez-Padilla; Fernando Barrera-Pulido; Tomas Gomez-Cia; Domingo Sicilia-Castro; Alberto Garcia-Perla-Garcia; Puriifcacion Gacto-Sanchez; Jose-Maria Hernandez-Guisado; Araceli Lagares-Borrego; Rocio Narros-Gimenez

    2016-01-01

    Face transplant (FT) has evolved enormously in the last 10 years since the successful completion of the first facial transplant. This procedure has become a new reconstructive option for complex facial deformities to restore the anatomy of patients with severely disfigured faces. The authors review the literature and discuss the main surgical, immunological, and ethical aspects as well as the results described in patients undergoing FT. To date there have been more than thirty FT worldwide. The main indication was post-traumatic deformity. In all cases a standard immunosuppression was performed with three drugs, although acute rejection episodes were observed, that could be controlled with conventional immunosuppressive regimen. Overall, functional and aesthetic results have been excellent at short-term and high satisfaction rate exceeded initial expectations, although long-term data are still scarce. Major complications were opportunistic infections. Five deaths that occurred have reopened the ethical debate about the potential complications and concerns of providing informed consent to recipients. Continuous progresses in microsurgical techniques and preoperative planning have promoted the evolution from partial to full FT. All these are on the basis of accurate and careful selection of well-motivated candidates. The next challenge will be getting new immunosuppressive treatment strategies. Although clinical experience has demonstrated the FT viability, it is still considered an experimental procedure in which we have much to learn to define its true role in the current reconstructive surgery and resolve major technical, medical and ethical problems involved.

  1. Current treatment options for gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors with a focus on the role of lanreotide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos-Kudła, Beata; Ćwikła, Jarosław; Ruchała, Marek; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Jarzab, Barbara; Krajewska, Jolanta; Kamiński, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) are a large and very diverse group of neoplasms. Clinical presentation of NETs depends on the site of the primary tumor and whether the tumor is functioning (i.e., secreting peptides or neuroamines that produce symptoms). The diagnosis of GEP-NET is further complicated by symptomatic differences that occur depending on the type of secreted peptide or neuroamine. Due to their heterogeneity and unique characteristics, early diagnosis of GEP-NETs is difficult, which increases the likelihood of metastatic disease and reduces the scope of therapeutic possibilities. Thus, a multidisciplinary approach for the treatment of GEP-NETs is necessary. This review is the result of presentations that were delivered during an expert meeting on the treatment of GEP-NETs supported by Ipsen. We summarize the current knowledge on the epidemiology, incidence, diagnosis, and treatment of GEP-NETs. We examined the role of the somatostatin analog (SSA) lanreotide and the impact of the data from the recently published, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled CLARINET study (Controlled study of Lanreotide Antiproliferative Response In Neuroendocrine Tumors) on disease management. We also review the recent treatment options and recommendations for GEP-NETs.

  2. Role of lung surfactant in respiratory disease: current knowledge in large animal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmann, U; Buechner-Maxwell, V A; Witonsky, S G; Hite, R D

    2009-01-01

    Lung surfactant is produced by type II alveolar cells as a mixture of phospholipids, surfactant proteins, and neutral lipids. Surfactant lowers alveolar surface tension and is crucial for the prevention of alveolar collapse. In addition, surfactant contributes to smaller airway patency and improves mucociliary clearance. Surfactant-specific proteins are part of the innate immune defense mechanisms of the lung. Lung surfactant alterations have been described in a number of respiratory diseases. Surfactant deficiency (quantitative deficit of surfactant) in premature animals causes neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Surfactant dysfunction (qualitative changes in surfactant) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome and asthma. Analysis of surfactant from amniotic fluid allows assessment of fetal lung maturity (FLM) in the human fetus and exogenous surfactant replacement therapy is part of the standard care in premature human infants. In contrast to human medicine, use and success of FLM testing or surfactant replacement therapy remain limited in veterinary medicine. Lung surfactant has been studied in large animal models of human disease. However, only a few reports exist on lung surfactant alterations in naturally occurring respiratory disease in large animals. This article gives a general review on the role of lung surfactant in respiratory disease followed by an overview of our current knowledge on surfactant in large animal veterinary medicine.

  3. The South East Asian Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (SEAFOMP): Its history and role in the ASEAN countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kh; Wong, Jhd

    2008-04-01

    Informal discussion started in 1996 and the South East Asian Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (SEAFOMP) was officially accepted as a regional chapter of the IOMP at the Chicago World Congress in 2000 with five member countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Professor Kwan-Hoong Ng served as the founding president until 2006. Brunei (2002) and Vietnam (2005) joined subsequently. We are very grateful to the founding members of SEAFOMP: Anchali Krisanachinda, Kwan-Hoong Ng, Agnette Peralta, Ratana Pirabul, Djarwani S Soejoko and Toh-Jui Wong.The objectives of SEAFOMP are to promote (i) co-operation and communication between medical physics organizations in the region; (ii) medical physics and related activities in the region; (iii) the advancement in status and standard of practice of the medical physics profession; (iv) to organize and/or sponsor international and regional conferences, meetings or courses; (v) to collaborate or affiliate with other scientific organizations.SEAFOMP has been organizing a series of congresses to promote scientific exchange and mutual support. The South East Asian Congress of Medical Physics (SEACOMP) series was held respectively in Kuala Lumpur (2001), Bangkok (2003), Kuala Lumpur (2004) and Jakarta (2006). The respective congress themes indicated the emphasis and status of development. The number of participants (countries in parentheses) was encouraging: 110 (17), 150 (16), 220 (23) and 126 (7).In honour of the late Professor John Cameron, an eponymous lecture was established. The inaugural John Cameron Lecture was delivered by Professor Willi Kalender in 2004. His lecture was titled "Recent Developments in Volume CT Scanning".

  4. A gestão da atenção às urgências e o protagonismo federal Management of attention to emergency rooms and the federal role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele O'Dwyer

    2010-08-01

    proposals as the facilitator trend of the structural resource, innovative due to the regionalization and responsibilization proposals presented by the several actors and by the alleged centrality of the user. The financing of SUS, despite its persistent state of embarrassment, had no coercive action on the technology investment. Under the current administration there was a vigorous expansion and structuring of the network, which was made by a strong inflow of federal funds. The management by committees should be investigated and points out how fragile the management of labor is.

  5. Emerging roles for biomedical librarians: a survey of current practice, challenges, and changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, Janet A; Cooper, I Diane

    2013-10-01

    This study is intended to (1) identify emerging roles for biomedical librarians and determine how common these roles are in a variety of library settings, (2) identify barriers to taking on new roles, and (3) determine how librarians are developing the capacity to take on new roles. A survey was conducted of librarians in biomedical settings. Most biomedical librarians are taking on new roles. The most common roles selected by survey respondents include analysis and enhancement of user experiences, support for social media, support for systematic reviews, clinical informationist, help for faculty or staff with authorship issues, and implementation of researcher profiling and collaboration tools. Respondents in academic settings are more likely to report new roles than hospital librarians are, but some new roles are common in both settings. Respondents use a variety of methods to free up time for new roles, but predominant methods vary between directors and librarians and between academic and hospital respondents. Lack of time is the biggest barrier that librarians face when trying to adopt new roles. New roles are associated with increased collaboration with individuals and/or groups outside the library. This survey documents the widespread incorporation of new roles in biomedical libraries in the United States, as well as the barriers to adopting these roles and the means by which librarians are making time for them. The results of the survey can be used to inform strategic planning, succession planning, library education, and career development for biomedical librarians.

  6. On the role of fusion neutron source with thorium blanket in forming the nuclide composition of the nuclear fuel cycle of the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmelev, A. N.; Kulikov, G. G.

    2016-12-01

    The possible role of available thorium resources of the Russian Federation in utilization of thorium in the closed (U-Pu)-fuel cycle of nuclear power is considered. The efficiency of application of fusion neutron sources with thorium blanket for economical use of available thorium resources is demonstrated. The objective of this study is the search for a solution of such major tasks of nuclear power as reduction of the amount of front-end operations in the nuclear fuel cycle and enhancement of its protection against uncontrolled proliferation of fissile materials with the smallest possible alterations in the fuel cycle. The earlier results are analyzed, new information on the amount of thorium resources of the Russian Federation is used, and additional estimates are made. The following basic results obtained on the basis of the assumption of involving fusion reactors with Th-blanket in future nuclear power for generation of the light uranium fraction 232+233+234U and 231Pa are formulated. (1) The fuel cycle would shift from fissile 235U to 233U, which is more attractive for thermal power reactors. (2) The light uranium fraction is the most "protected" in the uranium fuel component, and being mixed with regenerated uranium, it would become reduced-enrichment uranium fuel, which would relieve the problem of nonproliferation of the fissile material. (3) The addition of 231Pa into the fuel would stabilize its neutron-multiplying properties, thus making it possible to implement a long fuel residence time and, as a consequence, increase the export potential of the whole nuclear power technology. (4) The available thorium resource in the vicinity of Krasnoufimsk is sufficient for operation of the large-scale nuclear power industry of the Russian Federation with an electric power of 70 GW for more than one quarter of a century. The general conclusion is that involvement of a small number of fusion reactors with Th-blanket in the future nuclear power industry of the Russian

  7. THE ROLE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PROCESS OF PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF CADETS OF NATIONAL GUARD TROOPS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Kozlov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to identify the role of information technology in daily process of training of cadets of military schools of national guard troops of theRussian Federation.Methods. The methods involve system-oriented analysis, generalization and modelling.Results and scientific novelty. Informatization of modern society is characterized by growing use of information resources for different spheres of professional activity, suggesting radical changes in the content and technologies of its organization. The problems of informatization of the Russian higher military school are revealed: absence of the uniform methodology for implementation of new information technologies in educational process; low level of cooperation and coordination of activities of educational institutions during creation of a uniform basis of the software; insufficient training of the faculty, etc. The informatization process of military service and military experts of national guard troops of theRussian Federation as members of the security institute in the structure of the state is primarily associated with the creation and maintenance of necessary level of the equipment in order to solve professional tasks in various conditions of the operational environment. Modern realias dictate the need of search of ways and means of improvement of information literacy of cadets of departmental higher education institutions of national guard troops of theRussian Federation. The author of article has designated the main directions of intensive informatization of education of future army officers. The system use of a complex of information technologies of the general and special purpose in educational process of military higher education institution is described. The options of integration of these technologies in the contents of training sections of military experts are shown. Special attention is paid to opportunities of distance learning.Practical significance. The

  8. The current and potential role of satellite remote sensing in the campaign against malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazansky, Yaniv; Wood, Danielle; Sutherlun, Jacob

    2016-04-01

    Malaria and other vector borne diseases claim lives and cause illness, especially in less developed countries. Although well understood methods, such as spraying and insecticidal nets, are identified as effective deterrents to malaria transmission by mosquitoes, the nations that have the greatest burden from the disease also struggle to deploy such measures sufficiently. More targeted and up to date information is needed to identify which regions of malaria-endemic countries are most likely to be at risk of malaria in the near future. This will allow national governments, local officials and public health workers to deploy protective equipment and personnel where they are most needed. This paper explores the role of environmental data generated via satellite remote sensing as an ingredient to a Malaria Early Warning System. Data from remote sensing satellites can cover broad geographical areas frequently and consistently. Much of the relevant data may be accessed by malaria-endemic countries at minimal cost via international data sharing polices. While previous research studies have demonstrated the potential to assign malaria risk to a geographic region based on indicators from satellites and other sources, there is still a need to deploy such tools in a broader and more operational manner to inform decision making on malaria management. This paper describes current research on the use of satellite-based environmental data to predict malaria risk and examines the barriers and opportunities for implementing Malaria Early Warning Systems enabled by satellite remote sensing. A Systems Architecture Framework analyses the components of a Malaria Early Warning System and highlights the need for effective coordination across public and private sector organizations.

  9. Current perspectives on the role of orbital fibroblasts in the pathogenesis of Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dik, Willem A; Virakul, Sita; van Steensel, Leendert

    2016-01-01

    Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) is an extra-thyroidal complication of Graves' disease (GD; Graves' hyperthyroidism) characterized by orbital tissue inflammation, expansion, remodeling and fibrosis. Although the initiating trigger of GO is still indistinct, excessive orbital fibroblast activity is at the heart of its pathogenesis. Orbital fibroblasts are activated by cellular interactions with immune cells and the soluble factors they secrete. Orbital fibroblasts, especially from GO patients, express the thyrotropin receptor (TSH-receptor; TSHR), and activation of the orbital fibroblast population by stimulatory autoantibodies directed against the TSHR may provide an important link between GD and GO. Furthermore, stimulatory autoantibodies directed against the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor have been proposed to contribute to orbital fibroblast activation in GO. Activated orbital fibroblasts produce inflammatory mediators thereby contributing to the orbital inflammatory process in GO. Moreover, orbital fibroblasts exhibit robust proliferative activity and extracellular matrix (especially hyaluronan) synthesizing capacity and can differentiate into adipocytes and myofibroblasts with disease progression, thereby contributing to tissue expansion/remodeling and fibrosis in GO. Orbital fibroblasts, especially those from GO patients, exhibit a hyper-responsive phenotype when compared to fibroblasts from other anatomical regions, which may further contribute to GO pathogenesis. Fibrocytes have been identified as additional source of orbital fibroblasts in GO, where they may contribute to orbital tissue inflammation, adipogenesis and remodeling/fibrosis. This review addresses our current view on the role that orbital fibroblasts fulfill in GO pathogenesis and both established as well as less established not fully crystallized concepts that need future studies will be discussed.

  10. The crucial role of habits in energy consumption: an evolutionary approach on changing current patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marechal, Kevin (Centre for Economic and Social Studies on the Environment (CESSE), Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Univ. d' Europe (Belgium)). e-mail: kevin.marechal@ulb.ac.be

    2009-07-01

    A substantial body of literature has shown that our behaviour is often guided by habits. The existence of habits - not fully conscious forms of behaviour - is important as it contradicts rational choice theory. Their presence thus calls for the setting of new instruments as they make it unlikely that consumers be capable of exercising control over their energy consumption in reaction to given incentives. This is further increased in the evolutionary perspective where the current carbon-based Socio-Technical System constraints and shapes consumers' choices through structural forces. Habits being potentially 'counterintentional', they may explain the 'efficiency paradox' in energy as well as the continued increase of energy consumption despite the rising environmental awareness among the population. Policies aiming at reducing energy consumption should thus specifically address the performance context of habits. For instance, targeting new residents has proven to be more effective given that their preceding habits have been disturbed. The results of our empirical analysis confirm this idea by showing how a change of context makes people more receptive to a proposed measure. Our analysis of the role played by habits also suggests that individuals do not consider the need to change existing habits as an obstacle even though this is contradicted implicitly in the answers they provided to open questions. This 'unconsciousness' is one of the most delicate features of habits and it should thus be accounted for when designing measures. Given the other characteristics of habits, the joint use of feedbacks and commitment strategies appears promising.

  11. Current and future role of biomarkers in Crohn's disease risk assessment and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamboli CP

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyrus P Tamboli1, David B Doman2, Amar Patel31Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA; 2George Washington School of Medicine, Silver Spring, MD, USA; 3Peloton Advantage, LLC, Parsippany, NJ, USABackground: Crohn’s disease (CD, a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, occurs in genetically susceptible individuals who develop aberrant immune responses to endoluminal bacteria. Recurrent inflammation increases the risk of several complications. Despite use of a traditional “step-up” therapy with corticosteroids and immunomodulators, most CD patients eventually require surgery at some time in their disease course. Newer biologic agents have been remarkably effective in controlling severe disease. Thus, “top-down,” early aggressive therapy has been proposed to yield better outcomes, especially in complicated disease. However, safety and cost issues mandate the need for careful patient selection. Identification of high-risk candidates who may benefit from aggressive therapy is becoming increasingly relevant. Serologic and genetic markers of CD have great potential in this regard. The aim of this review is to highlight the clinical relevance of these markers for diagnostics and prognostication.Methods: A current PubMed literature search identified articles regarding the role of biomarkers in IBD diagnosis, severity prediction, and stratification. Studies were also reviewed on the presence of IBD markers in non-IBD diseases.Results: Several IBD seromarkers and genetic markers appear to be associated with complex CD phenotypes. Qualitative and quantitative serum immune reactivity to microbial antigens may be predictive of disease progression and complications.Conclusion: The cumulative evidence provided by serologic and genetic testing has the potential to enhance clinical decision-making when formulating individualized IBD therapeutic plans.Keywords: Crohn’s disease, serologic

  12. Fiscal Federalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Xingyuan; Ljungwall, Christer; Guo, Sujian

    2013-01-01

    in the Western literature? Second, are there any problems with existing principles of fiscal federalism and, if so, how to refine them? Third, how are refined principles relevant to the Chinese case and what policies should the Chinese government pursue in the future? Based on an in-depth and critical review...... relations is not without controversy. This paper aims to make a theoretical contribution to the ongoing debate on ‘fiscal federalism’ by addressing crucial questions regarding China's central–local fiscal relations: first, to what extent do Chinese central–local fiscal relations conform to fiscal federalism...

  13. PingFederate

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — PingFederate Server provides Identity Federation and Single Sign On Capabilities. Federated identity management (or identity federation) enables enterprises to...

  14. Creeping Federalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    that make taxharmonization difficult to impose. Other types of harmonization have a less clear-cut costbenefitanalysis. A federal commercial code that is uniform across member states reducestransaction and information costs, compared to leaving important code issues to memberstates; further, many states may...

  15. IRM in the Federal Government: Opinions and Reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Glenn P.

    1989-01-01

    Evaluates various aspects of federal information resources management and reviews technological changes within the Department of Agriculture to illustrate current issues and future trends in information resources management. Topics discussed include telecommunications and networking; distributed processing and field office automation; the role of…

  16. Role of head of turbulent 3-D density currents in mixing during slumping regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaganagar, Kiran

    2017-02-01

    A fundamental study was conducted to shed light on entrainment and mixing in buoyancy-driven Boussinesq density currents. Large-eddy simulation was performed on lock-exchange (LE) release density currents—an idealized test bed to generate density currents. As dense fluid was released over a sloping surface into an ambient lighter fluid, the dense fluid slumps to the bottom and forms a characteristic head of the current. The dynamics of the head dictated the mixing processes in LE currents. The key contribution of this study is to resolve an ongoing debate on mixing: We demonstrate that substantial mixing occurs in the early stages of evolution in an LE experiment and that entrainment is highly inhomogeneous and unsteady during the slumping regime. Guided by the flow physics, entrainment is calculated using two different but related perspectives. In the first approach, the entrainment parameter (E) is defined as the fraction of ambient fluid displaced by the head that entrains into the current. It is an indicator of the efficiency in which ambient fluid is displaced into the current and it serves as an important metric to compare the entrainment of dense currents over different types of surfaces, e.g., roughness configuration. In the second approach, E measures the net entrainment in the current at an instantaneous time t over the length of the current. Net entrainment coefficient is a metric to compare the effects of flow dynamical conditions, i.e., lock-aspect ratio that dictates the fraction of buoyancy entering the head, and also the effect of the sloping angle. Together, the entrainment coefficient and the net entrainment coefficient provide an insight into the entrainment process. The "active" head of the current acts as an engine that mixes the ambient fluid with the existing dense fluid, the 3-D lobes and clefts on the frontal end of the current causes recirculation of the ambient fluid into the current, and Kelvin-Helmholtz rolls are the mixers that

  17. Role of external magnetic field and current closure in the force balance mechanism of a magnetically stabilized plasma torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    G, Ravi; Goyal, Vidhi

    2012-10-01

    Experimental investigations on the role of applied external magnetic field and return current closure in the force balance mechanism of a plasma torch are reported. The plasma torch is of low power and has wall, gas and magnetic stabilization mechanisms incorporated in it. Gas flow is divided into two parts: axial-central and peripheral-shroud, applied magnetic field is axial and return current is co-axial. Results indicate that application of large external magnetic field gives rise to not only J x B force but also, coupled with gas flow, to a new drag-cum-centrifugal force that acts on the plasma arc root and column. The magnetic field also plays a role in the return current closure dynamics and thus in the overall force balance mechanism. This in turn affects the electro-thermal efficiency of the plasma torch. Detailed experimental results, analytical calculations and physical model representing the processes will be presented and discussed.

  18. PERFORMANCE DETERMINANTS OF PARTICIPATION BANKS: THE ROLE OF SPECIAL CURRENT ACCOUNTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf DINÇ

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Participation banks collect participation funds for credit allocation by participation accounts and special current accounts as main function. Profit or loss offered to participation accounts on base of participation share ratio while special current accounts are considered as cost-free resources. Participation funds are used in the models that analyze participation banks’ performance. Although participation fund types are not considered as variables also special current accounts. This research brings suggestions for the variables for performance analysis of participation banks for further researches.

  19. [Current Research of the Roles of IL-35 in Tumor Progression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chongbiao; Tian, Ye; Cui, Yan; Xu, Jie; Xin, Liang; Yang, Xueling; Qi, Daliang

    2016-04-20

    Interleukin(IL)-35 is a new member of the interleukin-12 superfamily. Since its first report in 2007, IL-35 rapidly became a research highlight in the field of immunology. Like other IL-12 superfamily members, IL-35 was a heterodimer which was composed of an α chain P35 and a β chain Epstein-Barr virus induced gene 3 (EBI3). Recent research work revealed two distinct roles of IL-35. Firstly, IL-35 is highly expressed in some kinds of inflammatory diseases and autoimmune diseases and plays import roles in the pathogenesis. Secondly, IL-35 is positively expressed in some cancers and plays some roles in the process of tumor progression. Here we demonstrate the structure and the signalling of IL-35. We reviewed the the roles of IL-35 in promoting tumor progression.

  20. Current Research of the Roles of IL-35 in Tumor Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongbiao HUANG

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin(IL-35 is a new member of the interleukin-12 superfamily. Since its first report in 2007, IL-35 rapidly became a research highlight in the field of immunology. Like other IL-12 superfamily members, IL-35 was a heterodimer which was composed of an α chain P35 and a β chain Epstein-Barr virus induced gene 3 (EBI3. Recent research work revealed two distinct roles of IL-35. Firstly, IL-35 is highly expressed in some kinds of inflammatory diseases and autoimmune diseases and plays import roles in the pathogenesis. Secondly, IL-35 is positively expressed in some cancers and plays some roles in the process of tumor progression. Here we demonstrate the structure and the signalling of IL-35. We reviewed the the roles of IL-35 in promoting tumor progression.

  1. State-federal interactions in nuclear regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasternak, A.D.; Budnitz, R.J.

    1987-12-01

    The Atomic Energy Act of 1954 established, and later Congressional amendments have confirmed, that except in areas which have been explicitly granted to the states, the federal government possesses preemptive authority to regulate radiation hazards associated with the development and use of atomic energy. Since the passage of the original Act, numerous decisions by the courts have reaffirmed the legitimacy of federal preemption, and have defined and redefined its scope. In this study, the aim is to explore the underlying issues involved in federal preemption of radiation-hazard regulation, and to recommend actions that the Department of Energy and other agencies and groups should consider undertaking in the near term to protect the preemption principle. Appropriate roles of the states are discussed, as well as recent state-level activities and their rationale, and several current arenas in which state-federal conflicts about regulation of hazards are being played out. The emphasis here is on four particular arenas that are now important arenas of conflict, but the issues discussed are far broader in scope. These four arenas are: state-level moratorium activity; emergency planning for reactors; conflicts arising from state financial regulation; and inroads in federal preemption through litigation under state law.

  2. Role of substorm-associated impulsive electric fields in the ring current development during storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Ganushkina

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Particles with different energies produce varying contributions to the total ring current energy density as the storm progresses. Ring current energy densities and total ring current energies were obtained using particle data from the Polar CAMMICE/MICS instrument during several storms observed during the years 1996-1998. Four different energy ranges for particles are considered: total (1-200keV, low (1-20keV, medium (20-80keV and high (80-200keV. Evolution of contributions from particles with different energy ranges to the total energy density of the ring current during all storm phases is followed. To model this evolution we trace protons with arbitrary pitch angles numerically in the drift approximation. Tracing is performed in the large-scale and small-scale stationary and time-dependent magnetic and electric field models. Small-scale time-dependent electric field is given by a Gaussian electric field pulse with an azimuthal field component propagating inward with a velocity dependent on radial distance. We model particle inward motion and energization by a series of electric field pulses representing substorm activations during storm events. We demonstrate that such fluctuating fields in the form of localized electromagnetic pulses can effectively energize the plasma sheet particles to higher energies (>80keV and transport them inward to closed drift shells. The contribution from these high energy particles dominates the total ring current energy during storm recovery phase. We analyse the model contributions from particles with different energy ranges to the total energy density of the ring current during all storm phases. By comparing these results with observations we show that the formation of the ring current is a combination of large-scale convection and pulsed inward shift and consequent energization of the ring current particles.

  3. Radiology Physician Extenders: A Literature Review of the History and Current Roles of Physician Extenders in Medical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Vicki L; Flanagan, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the literature review was to assess the origins of radiology physician extenders and examine the current roles found in the literature of advanced practice physician extenders within medical imaging. Twenty-six articles relating to physician assistants (PAs), nurse practitioners (NPs), radiologist assistants (RAs), and nuclear medicine advanced associates (NMAAs) were reviewed to discern similarities and differences in history, scope of practice, and roles in the medical imaging field. The literature showed PAs and NPs are working mostly in interventional radiology. PAs, NPs, and RAs perform similar tasks in radiology, including history and physicals, evaluation and management, preprocedure work-up, obtaining informed consent, initial observations/reports, and post-procedure follow-up. NPs and PAs perform a variety of procedures but most commonly vascular access, paracentesis, and thoracentesis. RAs perform gastrointestinal, genitourinary, nonvascular invasive fluoroscopy procedures, and vascular access procedures. The review revealed NMAAs are working in an advanced role, but no specific performances of procedures was found in the literature, only suggested tasks and clinical competencies. PAs, NPs, and RAs are currently the three main midlevel providers used in medical imaging. These midlevel providers are being used in a variety of ways to increase the efficiency of the radiologist and provide diagnostic and therapeutic radiologic procedures to patients. NMAAs are being used in medical imaging but little literature is available on current roles in clinical practice. More research is needed to assess the exact procedures and duties being performed by these medical imaging physician extenders.

  4. ROLE OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN HEALTH COMMUNICATION: CURRENT PRACTICES IN THE WORLD AND TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Başak MENDİ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health communication discipline has gained importance and health communication studies and strategies have been emphasized in recent years in Turkey. Health promotion is one of the main topics in the field of health communication. Health promotion, which has grown in importance especially with the increase in prevalence of chronic diseases, requires interdisciplinary studies. Communication studies have a crucial role in planning and practising health promotion strategies. With the developments in new communication technologies, use of social media tools in heatlh communication has increased recently. Use of social media enables users active participation and offers new opportunities to improve public health outcomes. For this reason, it’s essential to carry out studies evaluating the effects of social media on society and the role of social media in health promotion practices. This paper examines the role of social media as an effective tool in health promotion practices and action plans, within the context of different countries and strategies.

  5. The Context of Current Content Analysis of Gender Roles: An Introduction to a Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy, Rena M; Popova, Lucy; Linz, Daniel G

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide context for the quantitative content analyses of gender roles that are to be included in both parts of this special issue. First, a timeline of historical uses of the content analysis methodology is presented. Second, research objectives that frequently drive content analysis of gender roles are described; these include: to support feminist claims, to compare media with real life, to predict effects on audiences, and to detect effects of media producers on content. Third, previous content analyses published in Sex Roles and other gender-focused journals are reviewed and categorized in terms of medium, genre, time span, gender, and nationality. Finally, contributions of each of the articles in this special issue are outlined.

  6. The Context of Current Content Analysis of Gender Roles: An Introduction to a Special Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Lucy; Linz, Daniel G.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide context for the quantitative content analyses of gender roles that are to be included in both parts of this special issue. First, a timeline of historical uses of the content analysis methodology is presented. Second, research objectives that frequently drive content analysis of gender roles are described; these include: to support feminist claims, to compare media with real life, to predict effects on audiences, and to detect effects of media producers on content. Third, previous content analyses published in Sex Roles and other gender-focused journals are reviewed and categorized in terms of medium, genre, time span, gender, and nationality. Finally, contributions of each of the articles in this special issue are outlined. PMID:20694031

  7. Role of Ca(2+) in injury-induced changes in sodium current in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatov, Gregory N; Pinter, Martin J; Rich, Mark M

    2009-08-01

    Characteristics of voltage-dependent sodium current recorded from adult rat muscle fibers in loose patch mode were rapidly altered following nearby impalement with a microelectrode. Hyperpolarized shifts in the voltage dependence of activation and fast inactivation occurred within minutes. In addition, the amplitude of the maximal sodium current decreased within 30 min of impalement. Impalement triggered a sustained elevation of intracellular Ca(2+). However, buffering Ca(2+) by loading fibers with AM-BAPTA did not affect the hyperpolarized shifts in activation and inactivation, although it did prevent the reduction in current amplitude. Surprisingly, the rise in intracellular Ca(2+) occurred even in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+). This result indicated that the injury-induced Ca(2+) increase came from an intracellular source, but it was not blocked by an inhibitor of release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which suggested involvement of mitochondria. Ca(2+) release from mitochondria triggered by carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone was sufficient to cause a reduction in sodium current amplitude but had little effect of the voltage dependence of activation and fast inactivation. Our data suggest the effects of muscle injury can be separated into a Ca(2+)-dependent reduction in amplitude and a largely Ca(2+)-independent shift in activation and fast inactivation. Together, the impalement-induced changes in sodium current reduce the number of sodium channels available to open at the resting potential and may limit further depolarization and thus promote survival of muscle fibers following injury.

  8. On the role of collective interactions in asymmetric ring current formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Bespalov

    Full Text Available The contribution of resonant wave-particle interactions to the formation and decay of the magnetospheric ring current is analysed in the framework of a self-consistent set of equations which take into account azimuthal plasmasphere asymmetry. It is shown that the cyclotron interaction of westward drifting energetic protons with Alfven waves in the evening-side plasmaspheric bulge region leads to the formation of a ring current asymmetry located near 18:00 MLT. The time-scale of this asymmetry is determined by the proton drift time through the plasmaspheric bulge and is about 1 - 3 h. A symmetrical ring current decays mainly due to charge exchange processes. The theory is compared with known experimental data on ions and waves in the ring current and on low-latitude magnetic disturbances. New low-latitude magnetometer data on the magnetic storm of 24 - 26 July 1986 are also discussed. The model presented explains the observed localization of an asymmetrical ring current loop in the evening sector and the difference in relaxation time-scales of the asymmetry and the Dst index. It also explains measured wave turbulence levels in the evening-side plasmasphere and wave observation statistics.

  9. The role of central reading centers - current practices and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin S Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Central reading centers (CRCs have several crucial roles in the conduct of clinical trials, providing key input during the study design, preparation of the operations manual, as well as site and photographer certification. They provide objective, standardized grading of images from study subjects, which determines study eligibility, and also evaluate lesion features at subsequent study visits. CRCs need to adhere strictly to Good Clinical Practice (GCP guidelines, as well as the established standard operating procedures in order to ensure that images are graded properly. The role of CRCs will continue to evolve, and include the use of web-based image transmission and grading platforms.

  10. The role of central reading centers – current practices and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Colin S; Sadda, Srinivas R

    2015-01-01

    Central reading centers (CRCs) have several crucial roles in the conduct of clinical trials, providing key input during the study design, preparation of the operations manual, as well as site and photographer certification. They provide objective, standardized grading of images from study subjects, which determines study eligibility, and also evaluate lesion features at subsequent study visits. CRCs need to adhere strictly to Good Clinical Practice (GCP) guidelines, as well as the established standard operating procedures in order to ensure that images are graded properly. The role of CRCs will continue to evolve, and include the use of web-based image transmission and grading platforms. PMID:26139801

  11. The role of central reading centers--current practices and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Colin S; Sadda, Srinivas R

    2015-05-01

    Central reading centers (CRCs) have several crucial roles in the conduct of clinical trials, providing key input during the study design, preparation of the operations manual, as well as site and photographer certification. They provide objective, standardized grading of images from study subjects, which determines study eligibility, and also evaluate lesion features at subsequent study visits. CRCs need to adhere strictly to Good Clinical Practice (GCP) guidelines, as well as the established standard operating procedures in order to ensure that images are graded properly. The role of CRCs will continue to evolve, and include the use of web-based image transmission and grading platforms.

  12. Current flow in random resistor networks: the role of percolation in weak and strong disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenhua; López, Eduardo; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Braunstein, Lidia A; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H Eugene

    2005-04-01

    We study the current flow paths between two edges in a random resistor network on a L X L square lattice. Each resistor has resistance e(ax) , where x is a uniformly distributed random variable and a controls the broadness of the distribution. We find that: (a) The scaled variable u identical with u congruent to L/a(nu) , where nu is the percolation connectedness exponent, fully determines the distribution of the current path length l for all values of u . For u > 1, the behavior corresponds to the weak disorder limit and l scales as l approximately L, while for u < 1 , the behavior corresponds to the strong disorder limit with l approximately L(d(opt) ), where d(opt) =1.22+/-0.01 is the optimal path exponent. (b) In the weak disorder regime, there is a length scale xi approximately a(nu), below which strong disorder and critical percolation characterize the current path.

  13. The Role of Current and Historical Alcohol Use in Hepatic Fibrosis Among HIV-Infected Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H Nina; Crane, Heidi M; Rodriguez, Carla V; Van Rompaey, Stephen; Mayer, Kenneth H; Christopoulos, Katerina; Napravnik, Sonia; Chander, Geetanjali; Hutton, Heidi; McCaul, Mary E; Cachay, Edward R; Mugavero, Michael J; Moore, Richard; Geng, Elvin; Eron, Joseph J; Saag, Michael S; Merrill, Joseph O; Kitahata, Mari M

    2016-12-29

    We examined risk factors for advanced hepatic fibrosis [fibrosis-4 (FIB)-4 >3.25] including both current alcohol use and a diagnosis of alcohol use disorder among HIV-infected patients. Of the 12,849 patients in our study, 2133 (17%) reported current hazardous drinking by AUDIT-C, 2321 (18%) had a diagnosis of alcohol use disorder, 2376 (18%) were co-infected with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV); 596 (5%) had high FIB-4 scores >3.25 as did 364 (15%) of HIV/HCV coinfected patients. In multivariable analysis, HCV (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 6.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.2-7.5), chronic hepatitis B (aOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.5-2.8), diabetes (aOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.8-2.9), current CD4 500 copies/mL (aOR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6) were significantly associated with advanced fibrosis. A diagnosis of an alcohol use disorder (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.6-2.3) rather than report of current hazardous alcohol use was associated with high FIB-4. However, among HIV/HCV coinfected patients, both current hazardous drinkers (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.4) and current non-drinkers (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.0) were more likely than non-hazardous drinkers to have high FIB-4, with the latter potentially reflecting the impact of sick abstainers. These findings highlight the importance of using a longitudinal measure of alcohol exposure when evaluating the impact of alcohol on liver disease and associated outcomes.

  14. Current-oriented swimming by jellyfish and its role in bloom maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossette, Sabrina; Gleiss, Adrian Christopher; Chalumeau, Julien; Bastian, Thomas; Armstrong, Claire Denise; Vandenabeele, Sylvie; Karpytchev, Mikhail; Hays, Graeme Clive

    2015-02-02

    Cross-flows (winds or currents) affect animal movements [1-3]. Animals can temporarily be carried off course or permanently carried away from their preferred habitat by drift depending on their own traveling speed in relation to that of the flow [1]. Animals able to only weakly fly or swim will be the most impacted (e.g., [4]). To circumvent this problem, animals must be able to detect the effects of flow on their movements and respond to it [1, 2]. Here, we show that a weakly swimming organism, the jellyfish Rhizostoma octopus, can orientate its movements with respect to currents and that this behavior is key to the maintenance of blooms and essential to reduce the probability of stranding. We combined in situ observations with first-time deployment of accelerometers on free-ranging jellyfish and simulated the behavior observed in wild jellyfish within a high-resolution hydrodynamic model. Our results show that jellyfish can actively swim countercurrent in response to current drift, leading to significant life-history benefits, i.e., increased chance of survival and facilitated bloom formation. Current-oriented swimming may be achieved by jellyfish either directly detecting current shear across their body surface [5] or indirectly assessing drift direction using other cues (e.g., magnetic, infrasound). Our coupled behavioral-hydrodynamic model provides new evidence that current-oriented swimming contributes to jellyfish being able to form aggregations of hundreds to millions of individuals for up to several months, which may have substantial ecosystem and socioeconomic consequences [6, 7]. It also contributes to improve predictions of jellyfish blooms' magnitude and movements in coastal waters.

  15. Current role of anticholinergic drugs in the treatment of asthma : Key messages for clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pizzichini, Marcia M. M.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; Pizzichini, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Anticholinergic bronchodilators such as tiotropium, a potent long-acting drug, are central to the symptomatic treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Its role in asthma treatment has been recently investigated. This review critically evaluates documented evidence of clinical trials and a

  16. The Role of the Family in Genetic Testing: Theoretical Perspectives, Current Knowledge, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses conceptual challenges and theoretical approaches for examining the role of the family in responding and adapting to genetic testing for inherited conditions. Using a family systems perspective, family-based constructs that are relevant to genetic testing may be organized into three domains: family communication, organization…

  17. Current roles of endoscopy in the management of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas is characterized by intraductal papillary proliferation of mucin‐producing epithelial cells that exhibit various degrees of dysplasia. IPMN is classified into four histological subtypes (gastric, intestinal, pancreatobiliary, and oncocytic) according to its histomorphological and immunohistochemical characteristics. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography plays a crucial role in the evaluation of these features of IPMN. End...

  18. Relative roles of local disturbance, current climate and palaeoclimate in determining phylogenetic and functional diversity in Chinese forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Gang; Mi, Xiangcheng; Bøcher, Peder Klith;

    2014-01-01

    studied, their relative importance for other aspects of diversity, notably phylogenetic and functional diversity is so far little studied. Here, we link data from large Chinese forest plots to data on current and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) climate as well as local disturbance regimes to study...... their relative roles in determining woody plant phylogenetic and functional diversity in this important hotspot for woody plant diversity. Local disturbance was the best predictor of functional diversity as represented by maximum canopy height (Hmax), probably reflecting the dominant role of competition...

  19. The Roles of Artificial Intelligence in Education: Current Progress and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, David; Lewis, Matthew; Bishary, Miriam

    2005-01-01

    This report begins by summarizing current applications of ideas from artificial intelligence (Al) to education. It then uses that summary to project various future applications of Al--and advanced technology in general--to education, as well as highlighting problems that will confront the wide­ scale implementation of these technologies in the…

  20. Combating Gangs: Better Coordination and Performance Measurement Would Help Clarify Roles of Federal Agencies and Strengthen Assessment of Efforts. Report to the Ranking Member, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives. GAO-09-708

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Government Accountability Office, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Justice (DOJ) estimates that the United States has about a million gang members. While state and local agencies have primary responsibility for combating gang crime, the federal government has key roles to enforce laws and help fund programs to provide alternatives to gang membership for at-risk youth. GAO was asked to examine…

  1. The role of stereopsis (three-dimensional vision) in dentistry: review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrimi, M; Ali, N

    2015-05-22

    Clinical dental work is placing increasing demands on a clinician's vision as new techniques that require fine detail become more common. High hand-eye coordination requires good visual acuity as well as other psychological and neurological qualities such as stereopsis. Stereopsis (three-dimensional vision) is the highest form of depth perception obtained by visual disparity of images formed in the retinas of two eyes. It is believed to confer functional benefits on everyday tasks such as hand-eye coordination. Although its role in depth perception has long been established, little is known regarding the importance of stereopsis in dentistry. This article reviews the role of stereopsis in everyday life and the available literature on the importance of stereopsis in dentistry.

  2. Current concepts in the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia: the potential role of oxidative stress and nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgocmen, Salih; Ozyurt, Huseyin; Sogut, Sadik; Akyol, Omer

    2006-05-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a common chronic pain syndrome with an unknown etiology. Recent years added new information to our understanding of FM pathophysiology. Researches on genetics, biogenic amines, neurotransmitters, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones, oxidative stress, and mechanisms of pain modulation, central sensitization, and autonomic functions in FM revealed various abnormalities indicating that multiple factors and mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of FM. Oxidative stress and nitric oxide may play an important role in FM pathophysiology, however it is still not clear whether oxidative stress abnormalities documented in FM are the cause or the effect. This should encourage further researches evaluating the potential role of oxidative stress and nitric oxide in the pathophysiology of FM and the efficacy of antioxidant treatments (omega-3 and -6 fatty acids, vitamins and others) in double blind and placebo controlled trials. These future researches will enhance our understanding of the complex pathophysiology of this disorder.

  3. [Role and function of public health nurses in Taiwan: review of current status and future perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yen-Po

    2014-06-01

    Public health nursing is a core practice of primary health care. Public health nurses (PHNs) in Taiwan act both as individual/family-based primary care providers and as population-based community care providers. Previous studies in Western countries have shown the role preference of PHNs to be highly influenced by the structure of the healthcare system, policies and major programs, and health insurance reimbursement mechanisms. Thus, the impact of the health transition and related changes in the abovementioned systems should be taken into consideration when adjusting the roles and functions of PHNs. The rising prevalence of chronic diseases and the multiple burdens caused by diseases is making healthcare delivery increasingly complicated. With PHNs no longer able to provide "catch-all" services due to manpower shortages, several potential specialty areas have opened up to participation and development by community nursing. These include psychiatric care, long-term care and palliative care, school/workplace health promotion, and disease management in hospitals. It will be essential that community nurses bridge the gap in service left by PHNs so that PHNs may refocus their job role on the health needs of the community as a whole. PHNs should continue to build partnerships with primary care settings and perform the key functions of demonstration, support, collaboration, service, and surveillance in the community.

  4. Book Review: Siroj Sorajjakool: Human Trafficking in Thailand: Current Issues, Trends and the Role of the Thai Government

    OpenAIRE

    Manassinee Moottatarn

    2014-01-01

    Book Review of the Monograph: Siroj Sorajjakool (2013), Human Trafficking in Thailand: Current Issues, Trends and the Role of the Thai Government. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, ISBN: 978-616-215-060-9, 235 pages. Human trafficking is not widely reported in local Thai news, and news of it is often only picked up by international correspondents. The extent of this problem has only started to reveal itself as a widespread problem in the kingdom.

  5. Book Review: Siroj Sorajjakool: Human Trafficking in Thailand: Current Issues, Trends and the Role of the Thai Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manassinee Moottatarn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Book Review of the Monograph: Siroj Sorajjakool (2013, Human Trafficking in Thailand: Current Issues, Trends and the Role of the Thai Government. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, ISBN: 978-616-215-060-9, 235 pages. Human trafficking is not widely reported in local Thai news, and news of it is often only picked up by international correspondents. The extent of this problem has only started to reveal itself as a widespread problem in the kingdom.

  6. Differences in subthreshold resonance of hippocampal pyramidal cells and interneurons: the role of h-current and passive membrane characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Zemankovics, Rita; Káli, Szabolcs; Paulsen, Ole; Freund, Tamás F.; Hájos, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    The intrinsic properties of distinct types of neuron play important roles in cortical network dynamics. One crucial determinant of neuronal behaviour is the cell's response to rhythmic subthreshold input, characterised by the input impedance, which can be determined by measuring the amplitude and phase of the membrane potential response to sinusoidal currents as a function of input frequency. In this study, we determined the impedance profiles of anatomically identified neurons in the CA1 reg...

  7. Book Review: Siroj Sorajjakool: Human Trafficking in Thailand: Current Issues, Trends and the Role of the Thai Government

    OpenAIRE

    Manassinee Moottatarn

    2014-01-01

    Book Review of the Monograph: Siroj Sorajjakool (2013), Human Trafficking in Thailand: Current Issues, Trends and the Role of the Thai Government. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, ISBN: 978-616-215-060-9, 235 pages. Human trafficking is not widely reported in local Thai news, and news of it is often only picked up by international correspondents. The extent of this problem has only started to reveal itself as a widespread problem in the kingdom.

  8. Perception of community pharmacists toward their current professional role in the healthcare system of Dubai, United Arab Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Rayes, Ibrahim Khalid; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Abduelmula R Abduelkarem

    2014-01-01

    The new paradigm to pharmacy profession has changed the focus of pharmacists from product-centered to patient-oriented. This change has brought new set of beliefs and assumptions on the way services should be delivered to pharmacy clients. The main aim of this study was to explore the perception of community pharmacists on their current professional role in Dubai. Key findings show that community pharmacists are more directed toward business than patients. They almost dispense all categories ...

  9. Asymmetrical solutions and role of thermal fluctuations in dc current driven extended Josephson junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artemov, A.N., E-mail: artemov@fti.dn.ua [Donetsk Physical and Technology Institute, Donetsk 83114 (Ukraine)

    2012-10-01

    Extended Josephson junction driven by dc bias current is studied numerically. Two types of solutions, symmetrical and asymmetrical, are found. The current–voltage characteristic (IVC) is calculated. The symmetrical solutions form main hysteretic IVC and asymmetrical ones create an additional branch. Depending on the bias current value periodic, quasiperiodic and chaotic modes of the junction motion was observed. Dynamics of the junction affected by thermal fluctuations was analyzed. Stability of different states of the junction is discussed. -- Highlights: ► Symmetrical and asymmetrical solutions of dc driven sine-Gordon equation are found. ► Current–voltage characteristic of extended in-line Josephson junction was calculated. ► Periodic, quasiperiodic and chaotic modes of the junction motion was observed. ► Stability of dynamical junction states under thermal fluctuations is discussed.

  10. Current role of non-anesthesiologist administered propofol sedation in advanced interventional endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burtea, Daniela Elena; Dimitriu, Anca; Maloş, Anca Elena

    2015-01-01

    the patients and medical personnel. Current guidelines support the use of propofol sedation, which has the same rate of adverse effects as traditional sedation with benzodiazepines and/or opioids, but decreases the procedural and recovery time. Non-anesthesiologist administered propofol sedation has become......, improved satisfaction for patients and doctors, as well as decreased recovery and discharge time. Despite the advantages of non-anesthesiologist administered propofol, there is still a continuous debate related to the successful generalization of the procedures....

  11. Current indications and role of surgery in the management of sigmoid diverticulitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luca; Stocchi

    2010-01-01

    Sigmoid diverticulitis is a common disease which carries both a significant morbidity and a societal economic burden.This review article analyzes the current data regarding management of sigmoid diverticulitis in its variable clinical presentations.Wide-spectrum antibiotics are the standard of care for uncomplicated diverticulitis.Recently published data indicate that sigmoid diverticulitis does not mandate surgical management after the second episode of uncomplicated disease as previously recommended.Rathe...

  12. Role of spin diffusion in current-induced domain wall motion for disordered ferromagnets

    KAUST Repository

    Akosa, Collins Ashu

    2015-03-12

    Current-induced spin transfer torque and magnetization dynamics in the presence of spin diffusion in disordered magnetic textures is studied theoretically. We demonstrate using tight-binding calculations that weak, spin-conserving impurity scattering dramatically enhances the nonadiabaticity. To further explore this mechanism, a phenomenological drift-diffusion model for incoherent spin transport is investigated. We show that incoherent spin diffusion indeed produces an additional spatially dependent torque of the form ∼∇2[m×(u⋅∇)m]+ξ∇2[(u⋅∇)m], where m is the local magnetization direction, u is the direction of injected current, and ξ is a parameter characterizing the spin dynamics (precession, dephasing, and spin-flip). This torque, which scales as the inverse square of the domain wall width, only weakly enhances the longitudinal velocity of a transverse domain wall but significantly enhances the transverse velocity of vortex walls. The spatial-dependent spin transfer torque uncovered in this study is expected to have significant impact on the current-driven motion of abrupt two-dimensional textures such as vortices, skyrmions, and merons.

  13. The role of oxygen ions in the formation of a bifurcated current sheet in the magnetotail

    CERN Document Server

    Dalena, S; Zimbardo, G; Veltri, P

    2010-01-01

    Cluster observations in the near-Earth magnetotail have shown that sometimes the current sheet is bifurcated, i.e. it is divided in two layers. The influence of magnetic turbulence on ion motion in this region is investigated by numerical simulation, taking into account the presence of both protons and oxygen ions. The magnetotail current sheet is modeled as a magnetic field reversal with a normal magnetic field component $B_n$, plus a three-dimensional spectrum of magnetic fluctuations $\\delta {\\bf B}$, which represents the observed magnetic turbulence. The dawn-dusk electric field E$_y$ is also included. A test particle simulation is performed using different values of $\\delta {\\bf B}$, E$_y$ and injecting two different species of particles, O$^+$ ions and protons. O$^+$ ions can support the formation of a double current layer both in the absence and for large values of magnetic fluctuations ($\\delta B/B_0 = 0.0$ and $\\delta B/B_0 \\geq 0.4$, where B$_0$ is the constant magnetic field in the magnetospheric l...

  14. Federal Interagency Geothermal Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Arlene [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Prencipe, Loretta [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Todaro, Richard M. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Cuyler, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eide, Elizabeth [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This collaborative document describes the roles and responsibilities of key Federal agencies in the development of geothermal technologies including the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), including the U.S. Forest Service; the U.S. Department of Interior (DOI), including the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and Bureau of Land Management (BLM); the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); and the Department of Defense (DOD).

  15. The current role and the future of minimally invasive temporomandibular joint surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Raúl

    2015-02-01

    Several open surgeries have been proposed for the treatment of internal derangement (ID) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), although minimally invasive temporomandibular joint surgery (MITMJS) plays a major role in the treatment of ID and has been widely used for the treatment of ID of the TMJ. Arthrocentesis, arthroscopic lysis and lavage, and operative or advanced arthroscopy are the 3 most relevant techniques for MITMJS; clear indications for their application and a detailed description of each technique are presented. Also, clinical outcomes for each technique from the most relevant studies in the literature are reported. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Current and Evolving Role of PET in Personalized Management of Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Esther; Yanamadala, Anusha; Cheng, Gang; Subramaniam, Rathan M

    2016-07-01

    Using tumor genomic profiling information has revolutionized the landscape of personalized treatment of lung cancer. The management of lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer particularly is influenced by discoveries of activating mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor and targeted therapies with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, fusion genes involving anaplastic lymphoma kinase, and targeted therapies for Kristen-Rat-Sarcoma and MET protooncogenes. PET imaging plays an important role in assessing the biologic behavior of lung cancer and defining response to therapy. This review summarizes genomic discoveries in lung cancer and their implications for functional PET imaging.

  17. Role of persistent sodium current in bursting activity of mouse neocortical networks in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drongelen, Wim; Koch, Henner; Elsen, Frank P; Lee, Hyong C; Mrejeru, Ana; Doren, Erin; Marcuccilli, Charles J; Hereld, Mark; Stevens, Rick L; Ramirez, Jan-Marino

    2006-11-01

    Most types of electrographic epileptiform activity can be characterized by isolated or repetitive bursts in brain electrical activity. This observation is our motivation to determine mechanisms that underlie bursting behavior of neuronal networks. Here we show that the persistent sodium (Na(P)) current in mouse neocortical slices is associated with cellular bursting and our data suggest that these cells are capable of driving networks into a bursting state. This conclusion is supported by the following observations. 1) Both low concentrations of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and riluzole reduce and eventually stop network bursting while they simultaneously abolish intrinsic bursting properties and sensitivity levels to electrical stimulation in individual intrinsically bursting cells. 2) The sensitivity levels of regular spiking neurons are not significantly affected by riluzole or TTX at the termination of network bursting. 3) Propagation of cellular bursting in a neuronal network depended on excitatory connectivity and disappeared on bath application of CNQX (20 microM) + CPP (10 microM). 4) Voltage-clamp measurements show that riluzole (20 microM) and very low concentrations of TTX (50 nM) attenuate Na(P) currents in the neural membrane within a 1-min interval after bath application of the drug. 5) Recordings of synaptic activity demonstrate that riluzole at this concentration does not affect synaptic properties. 6) Simulations with a neocortical network model including different types of pyramidal cells, inhibitory interneurons, neurons with and without Na(P) currents, and recurrent excitation confirm the essence of our experimental observations that Na(P) conductance can be a critical factor sustaining slow population bursting.

  18. Dramatic role of critical current anisotropy on flux avalanches in MgB2 films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, J; Matveev, A T; Strempfer, J; Habermeier, H-U; Shantsev, D V; Galperin, Y M; Johansen, T H

    2007-03-16

    Anisotropic penetration of magnetic flux in MgB(2) films grown on vicinal sapphire substrates is investigated using magneto-optical imaging. Regular penetration above 10 K proceeds more easily along the substrate surface steps, the anisotropy of the critical current being 6%. At lower temperatures the penetration occurs via abrupt dendritic avalanches that preferentially propagate perpendicular to the surface steps. This inverse anisotropy in the penetration pattern becomes dramatic very close to 10 K where all flux avalanches propagate in the strongest pinning direction. The observed behavior is fully explained using a thermomagnetic model of the dendritic instability.

  19. Role of imaging in testicular cancer: current and future practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrisford, Glen W; Kreydin, Evgeniy I; Preston, Mark A; Rodriguez, Dayron; Harisighani, Mukesh G; Feldman, Adam S

    2015-09-01

    The article provides a summary of the epidemiologic and clinical aspects of testicular malignancy. Current standard imaging and novel techniques are reviewed. Present data and clinical treatment trends have favored surveillance protocols over adjuvant radiation or chemotherapy for low-stage testicular malignancy. This has resulted in increasing numbers of imaging studies and the potential for increased long-term exposure risks. Understanding imaging associated risks as well as strategies to minimize these risks is of increasing importance. The development, validation and incorporation of alternative lower risk highly efficacious and cost-effective imaging techniques is essential.

  20. Spatial memory deficit across aging: current insights of the role of 5-HT7 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudet, Gregory; Bouet, Valentine; Jozet-Alves, Christelle; Schumann-Bard, Pascale; Dauphin, François; Paizanis, Eleni; Boulouard, Michel; Freret, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Elderly persons often face biological, psychological or social changes over time that may cause discomfort or morbidity. While some cognitive domains remain stable over time, others undergo a decline. Spatial navigation is a complex cognitive function essential for independence, safety and quality of life. While egocentric (body-centered) navigation is quite preserved during aging, allocentric (externally-centered) navigation-based on a cognitive map using distant landmarks-declines with age. Recent preclinical studies showed that serotonergic 5-HT7 receptors are localized in brain regions associated with allocentric spatial navigation processing. Behavioral assessments with pharmacological or genetic tools have confirmed the role of 5-HT7 receptors in allocentric navigation. Moreover, few data suggested a selective age-related decrease in the expression of 5-HT7 receptors in pivotal brain structures implicated in allocentric navigation such as the hippocampal CA3 region. We aim to provide a short overview of the potential role of 5-HT7 receptors in spatial navigation, and to argue for their interests as therapeutic targets against age-related cognitive decline.

  1. Spatial memory deficit across aging: current insights of the role of 5-HT7 receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory eBeaudet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elderly persons often face biological, psychological or social changes over time that may cause discomfort or morbidity. While some cognitive domains remain stable over time, others undergo a decline. Spatial navigation is a complex cognitive function essential for independence, safety and quality of life. While egocentric (body-centered navigation is quite preserved during aging, allocentric (externally-centered navigation — based on a cognitive map using distant landmarks — declines with age. Recent preclinical studies showed that serotonergic 5-HT7 receptors are localized in brain regions associated with allocentric spatial navigation processing. Behavioral assessments with pharmacological or genetic tools have confirmed the role of 5-HT7 receptors in allocentric navigation. Moreover, few data suggested a selective age-related decrease in the expression of 5-HT7 receptors in pivotal brain structures implicated in allocentric navigation such as the hippocampal CA3 region. We aim to provide a short overview of the potential role of 5-HT7 receptors in spatial navigation, and to argue for their interests as therapeutic targets against age-related cognitive decline.

  2. The Role of Enteral Nutrition in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Current Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K. Triantafillidis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Enteral nutrition (EN is considered to be of great importance in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD and nutritional problems. This comprehensive review is aiming to provide the reader with an update on the role of EN in IBD patients. EN can reduce Crohn’s disease (CD activity and maintain remission in both adults and children. Nutritional support using liquid formulas should be considered for CD patients and in serious cases of ulcerative colitis (UC, especially for those who may require prolonged cycles of corticosteroids. Given that the ultimate goal in the treatment of CD is mucosal healing, this advantage of EN over corticosteroid treatment is valuable in therapeutic decision-making. EN is indicated in active CD, in cases of steroid intolerance, in patient’s refusal of steroids, in combination with steroids in undernourished individuals, and in patients with an inflammatory stenosis of the small intestine. No differences between the efficiency of elemental diets and nonelemental formulas have been noticed. EN must be the first choice compared to TPN. EN has a restricted value in the treatment of patients with large bowel CD. In conclusion, it seems important not to underestimate the role of nutrition as supportive care in patients with IBD.

  3. Current evidence for the role of complement in the pathogenesis of Shiga toxin haemolytic uraemic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keir, Lindsay S; Saleem, Moin A

    2014-10-01

    Shiga toxin-associated haemolytic uraemic syndrome (Stx HUS) is the leading cause of paediatric acute kidney injury. This toxin-mediated disease carries a significant morbidity and mortality but has no direct treatments. Rare familial atypical HUS (aHUS) is now understood to result from over-activation of the alternative complement pathway causing glomerular endothelial damage. By understanding the pathogenic mechanisms of this disease, the monoclonal antibody eculizumab, which blocks the final common pathway of complement, is now being used to treat aHUS. For this reason, clinicians and scientists are studying the role of the alternative complement pathway in Stx HUS with the aim of targeting treatment in a similar way. There is some evidence suggesting that complement plays a role in the pathogenesis of Stx HUS, but other mechanisms may also be important. Clinically, modulating the complement system using plasma exchange provides no proven benefit in Stx HUS, and the use of eculizumab has provided conflicting results. Understanding the local effect of Stx on the glomerulus, in particular regulation of the complement and coagulation systems, may lead to advances in defining the precise pathogenesis of this disease. Then, targeted treatment strategies could be devised and clinical trials undertaken.

  4. Current Understanding of the Role of Complement in IgA Nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, Nicolas; Wyatt, Robert J.; Julian, Bruce A.; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Gharavi, Ali; Fremeaux-Bacchi, Veronique

    2015-01-01

    Complement activation has a role in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy, an autoimmune disease mediated by pathogenic immune complexes consisting of galactose-deficient IgA1 bound by antiglycan antibodies. Of three complement-activation pathways, the alternative and lectin pathways are involved in IgA nephropathy. IgA1 can activate both pathways in vitro, and pathway components are present in the mesangial immunodeposits, including properdin and factor H in the alternative pathway and mannan-binding lectin, mannan–binding lectin–associated serine proteases 1 and 2, and C4d in the lectin pathway. Genome–wide association studies identified deletion of complement factor H–related genes 1 and 3 as protective against the disease. Because the corresponding gene products compete with factor H in the regulation of the alternative pathway, it has been hypothesized that the absence of these genes could lead to more potent inhibition of complement by factor H. Complement activation can take place directly on IgA1–containing immune complexes in circulation and/or after their deposition in the mesangium. Notably, complement factors and their fragments may serve as biomarkers of IgA nephropathy in serum, urine, or renal tissue. A better understanding of the role of complement in IgA nephropathy may provide potential targets and rationale for development of complement-targeting therapy of the disease. PMID:25694468

  5. The role of stents in the treatment of congenital heart disease: Current status and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Bjoern

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravascular or intracardiac stenoses occur in many forms of congenital heart disease (CHD. Therefore, the implantation of stents has become an accepted interventional procedure for stenotic lesions in pediatric cardiology. Furthermore, stents are know to be used to exclude vessel aneurysm or to ensure patency of existing or newly created intracardiac communications. With the further refinement of the first generation of devices, a variety of "modern" stents with different design characteristics have evolved. Despite the tremendous technical improvement over the last 20 years, the "ideal stent" has not yet been developed. Therefore, the pediatric interventionalist has to decide which stent is suitable for each lesion. On this basis, currently available stents are discussed in regard to their advantages and disadvantages for common application in CHD. New concepts and designs developed to overcome some of the existing problems, like the failure of adaptation to somatic growth, are presented. Thus, in the future, biodegradable or growth stents might replace the currently used generation of stents. This might truly lead to widening indications for the use of stents in the treatment of CHD.

  6. On the possible role of stimulation duration for after-effects of transcranial alternating current stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eStrüber

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial alternating current stimulation is a novel method that allows application of sinusoidal currents to modulate brain oscillations and cognitive processes. Studies in humans have demonstrated tACS after-effects following stimulation durations in the range of minutes. However, such after-effects are absent in animal studies using much shorter stimulation protocols in the range of seconds. Thus, stimulation duration might be a critical parameter for after-effects to occur. To test this hypothesis, we repeated a recent human tACS experiment with a short duration. We applied alpha tACS intermittently for one second duration while keeping other parameters identical. The results demonstrate that this very short intermittent protocol did not produce after-effects on amplitude or phase of the electroencephalogram. Since synaptic plasticity has been suggested as a possible mechanism for after-effects, our results indicate that a stimulation duration of one second is too short to induce synaptic plasticity. Future studies in animals are required that use extended stimulation durations to reveal the neuronal underpinnings. A better understanding of the mechanisms of tACS after-effects is crucial for potential clinical applications.

  7. The role of business in addressing the long-term implications of the current food crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yach Derek

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Before the onset of the current food crisis, the evidence of a severely neglected nutrition crisis was starting to receive attention. Increased food prices are having severe impacts on the nutritional status of populations. Our current food system has evolved over decades in a largely unplanned manner and without consideration for the complexity and implications of linkages between health, nutrition, agricultural, economic, trade and security issues. The underlying causes for the nutrition crisis include the above, as well as decades of neglect with regard to nutrition, and agricultural science (especially in emerging markets; a failure of governance with respect to the major players involved in nutrition, a weak response by government donors and Foundations to invest in basic nutrition (in contrast to growing support for humanitarian aspects of food aid, and a reluctance to develop private-public partnerships. The emergence of new business models that tackle social problems while remaining profitable offers promise that the long term nutrition needs of people can be met. Businesses can have greater impact acting collectively than individually. Food, retail, food service, chemical and pharmaceutical companies have expertise, distribution systems and customers insights, if well harnessed, could leapfrog progress in addressing the food and nutrition crises. While business can do lots more, its combined impact will be minimal if a range of essential government actions and policies are not addressed. Governments need to create innovative and complementary opportunities that include incentives for businesses including: setting clear nutritional guidelines for fortification and for ready-to eat products; offering agreements to endorse approved products and support their distribution to clinics and schools; eliminating duties on imported vitamins and other micronutrients; and providing tax and other incentives for industry to invest with

  8. The role of business in addressing the long-term implications of the current food crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yach, Derek

    2008-12-05

    Before the onset of the current food crisis, the evidence of a severely neglected nutrition crisis was starting to receive attention. Increased food prices are having severe impacts on the nutritional status of populations. Our current food system has evolved over decades in a largely unplanned manner and without consideration for the complexity and implications of linkages between health, nutrition, agricultural, economic, trade and security issues. The underlying causes for the nutrition crisis include the above, as well as decades of neglect with regard to nutrition, and agricultural science (especially in emerging markets); a failure of governance with respect to the major players involved in nutrition, a weak response by government donors and Foundations to invest in basic nutrition (in contrast to growing support for humanitarian aspects of food aid), and a reluctance to develop private-public partnerships. The emergence of new business models that tackle social problems while remaining profitable offers promise that the long term nutrition needs of people can be met. Businesses can have greater impact acting collectively than individually. Food, retail, food service, chemical and pharmaceutical companies have expertise, distribution systems and customers insights, if well harnessed, could leapfrog progress in addressing the food and nutrition crises. While business can do lots more, its combined impact will be minimal if a range of essential government actions and policies are not addressed. Governments need to create innovative and complementary opportunities that include incentives for businesses including: setting clear nutritional guidelines for fortification and for ready-to eat products; offering agreements to endorse approved products and support their distribution to clinics and schools; eliminating duties on imported vitamins and other micronutrients; and providing tax and other incentives for industry to invest with donors in essential nutrition

  9. THE ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS FOR THE STANDARD OF FEDERAL GOVERNMENTAL EDUCATION PROFESSIONAL HIGH EDUCATION IN THE PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION OF STUDENTS FOR THE PSYCHO-PEDAGOGICAL FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Petrovna Akutina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal: the educational research of educational effectiveness FGOS PVO for the professional preparation.The research method and the methodological approach: to enlighten the goals of the Federal Governmental Education Standard (FGOS of the high professional education (VPO of the psycho-pedagogical field within the education system reforming; to create new didactical materials, programs, plans, training courses; to model the educational effectiveness of a high education institution according to the competence approach.The clue of the educational effectiveness is in the developing an individual educational path for students in the comprehensive phase, and as a result the role of an educator, and a tutor increases; the changes in social cultural sphere of an educational institution, the importance of students self-management are to remodel the formulating personal needs paradigm in professional, private, intellectual, cultural and modal advancing.The research results are to open valuable possibilities of educational effectiveness in FGOS VPO influencing the professional preparation, that is filled with innovative forms, me-thods, technological approaches in cooperation between students and educators; to organize socially oriented process within the educational and extra educational context, to construct an individual educational path to obtain a qualification, to guaranty the realization of a new educational system for educators’ cooperation, for tutors and social partners; all these permit to act in different cultural spheres acquiring positive experience of professional training.The application field: the research results are applied in the pedagogical activity to prepare professional figures in the psycho pedagogical area, in educational projects with students, in cooperating with various social partners.

  10. The role of ultrasound elastographic techniques in chronic liver disease: Current status and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piscaglia, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.piscaglia@unibo.it [Division of Internal Medicine, University of Bologna, General and University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Marinelli, Sara, E-mail: sara_marinelli@libero.it [Division of Internal Medicine, University of Bologna, General and University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Bota, Simona, E-mail: bota_simona1982@yahoo.com [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Victor Babeş”, Timişoara (Romania); Serra, Carla, E-mail: carla.serra@aosp.bo.it [Division of Medical Liver Transplant Care, General and University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Venerandi, Laura, E-mail: laura.venerandi@gmail.com [Division of Internal Medicine, University of Bologna, General and University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Leoni, Simona, E-mail: leonisimona@yahoo.it [Division of Internal Medicine, University of Bologna, General and University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Salvatore, Veronica, E-mail: veronica.salvatore@unibo.it [Division of Internal Medicine, University of Bologna, General and University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy)

    2014-03-15

    This review illustrates the state of the art clinical applications and the future perspectives of ultrasound elastographic methods for the evaluation of chronic liver diseases, including the most widely used and validated technique, transient elastography, followed by shear wave elastography and strain imaging elastography. Liver ultrasound elastography allows the non-invasive evaluation of liver stiffness, providing information regarding the stage of fibrosis, comparable to liver biopsy which is still considered the gold standard; in this way, it can help physicians in managing patients, including the decision as to when to start antiviral treatment. The characterization of focal liver lesions and the prognostic role of the elastographic technique in the prediction of complications of cirrhosis are still under investigation.

  11. SGLT 2 Inhibitors: A New Therapeutic Target And Its Role In Current Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PV Shiji

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes, one of the major life style diseases, is associated with high morbidity and mortality owing to its microvascular and macrovascular complications. The chance of development of various complications can be effectively prevented by tight glycemic control. We have various groups of drugs like Biguanides, Sulfonyl ureas, Glitazones, Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, Incretin based therapy, Insulin and Insulin analogues in the armamentarium to treat diabetes. But still, the number of patients attaining glycemic targets are relatively low and various adverse effect limit the use of some of these drugs, especially in special groups. Hence there is ongoing research to develop newer and newer drugs which provide sustained blood glucose reduction with minimal adverse effects. SGLT-2 inhibitors are a new group of drugs recently approved by FDA to treat Diabetes. In this review we discuss about mechanism of action, various adverse effects and the clinical role of various SGLT-2 Inhibitors.

  12. The complement system and its role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis: current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, C; Holmstrup, P; Van Dyke, T E; Nielsen, C H

    2015-06-01

    Periodontitis is a highly prevalent inflammatory disease in tooth supporting tissues, induced by bacteria growing in a biofilm on tooth surfaces. Components of the complement system are present in the periodontal tissue and the system is activated in periodontitis. Continuous complement activation and modulation by bacteria within the biofilm in periodontal pockets, however, may enhance local tissue destruction, providing the biofilm with both essential nutrients and space to grow. A more profound understanding of the mechanisms involved in complement-derived tissue degradation may facilitate the development of new treatment concepts for periodontitis. Further studies on the role of complement in periodontitis pathogenesis may also contribute to the understanding of why some individuals fail to resolve periodontitis. Here, we review evidence that links complement to the pathogenesis of periodontitis with an emphasis on interaction of complement with bacteria from periodontitis-associated biofilm. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Exploring Current and Future Roles of Non-Dental Professionals: Implications for Dental Hygiene Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxey, Hannah L; Farrell, Christine; Gwozdek, Anne

    2017-09-01

    The health care system is undergoing transformation in which oral health is not only valued as an aspect of overall health, but health care delivery systems are aligning to better deliver total patient care. As a result of this transformation, education for many non-dental professionals incorporates oral health content to prepare them to practice in comprehensive delivery models. While some non-dental professionals already incorporate oral health care in their service, many opportunities exist for expansion of oral health care delivery by other non-dental professionals, including radiologic technicians, nursing staff, and human services professionals. As non-dental professionals take on expanded roles in oral health care, the dental hygiene workforce must be prepared to practice in settings with new types of professionals. Dental hygiene curricula should prioritize interprofessional education to best prepare these students for practice in evolved delivery models. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21(st) Century."

  14. The food industry's current and future role in preventing microbial foodborne illness within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Michael P; Erickson, Marilyn C; Alali, Walid; Cannon, Jennifer; Deng, Xiangyu; Ortega, Ynes; Smith, Mary Alice; Zhao, Tong

    2015-07-15

    During the past century, the microbiological safety of the US food supply has improved; however, many foodborne illnesses and outbreaks occur annually. Hence, opportunities for the food industry to improve the safety of both domestic and imported food exist through the adoption of risk-based preventive measures. Challenging food safety issues that are on the horizon include demographic changes to a population whose immune system is more susceptible to foodborne and opportunistic pathogens, climate changes that will shift where food is produced, and consumers' preferences for raw and minimally processed foods. Increased environmental and product testing and anonymous data sharing by the food industry with the public health community would aid in identifying system weaknesses and enabling more targeted corrective and preventive actions. Clinicians will continue to play a major role in reducing foodborne illnesses by diagnosing and reporting cases and in helping to educate the consumer about food safety practices.

  15. Current perspectives on the role of TRAMP in nuclear RNA surveillance and quality control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Kewu Pan, Zhe Huang, Jimmy Tsz Hang Lee, Chi-Ming Wong State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Department of Medicine, Shenzhen Institute of Research and Innovation, the University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Abstract: The TRAMP complex assists the nuclear exosome to degrade a broad range of ribonucleic acid (RNA substrates by increasing both exoribonucleolytic activity and substrate specificity. However, how the interactions between the TRAMP subunits and the components of the nuclear exosome regulate their functions in RNA degradation and substrate specificity remain unclear. This review aims to provide a summary of the recent findings on the role of the TRAMP complex in nuclear RNA degradation. The new insights from recent structural biological studies are discussed. Keywords: TRAMP, nuclear exosome, NEXT, RNA surveillance

  16. Role of Plants in a Constructed Wetland: Current and New Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Gross

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of plants in the treatment of effluents by constructed wetland (CW systems is under debate. Here, we review ways in which plants can affect CW processes and suggest two novel functions for plants in CWs. The first is salt phytoremediation by halophytes. We have strong evidence that halophytic plants can reduce wastewater salinity by accumulating salts in their tissues. Our studies have shown that Bassia indica, a halophytic annual, is capable of salt phytoremediation, accumulating sodium to up to 10% of its dry weight. The second novel use of plants in CWs is as phytoindicators of water quality. We demonstrate that accumulation of H2O2, a marker for plant stress, is reduced in the in successive treatment stages, where water quality is improved. It is recommended that monitoring and management of CWs consider the potential of plants as phytoremediators and phytoindicators.

  17. Current rectification in a single molecule diode: the role of electrode coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, Siya; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; Pinilla-Cienfuegos, Elena; Coronado, Eugenio; Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Agraït, Nicolás

    2015-07-24

    We demonstrate large rectification ratios (> 100) in single-molecule junctions based on a metal-oxide cluster (polyoxometalate), using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) both at ambient conditions and at low temperature. These rectification ratios are the largest ever observed in a single-molecule junction, and in addition these junctions sustain current densities larger than 10(5) A cm(-2). By following the variation of the I-V characteristics with tip-molecule separation we demonstrate unambiguously that rectification is due to asymmetric coupling to the electrodes of a molecule with an asymmetric level structure. This mechanism can be implemented in other type of molecular junctions using both organic and inorganic molecules and provides a simple strategy for the rational design of molecular diodes.

  18. Current Roles and Future Applications of Cardiac CT: Risk Stratification of Coronary Artery Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yeonyee Elizabeth [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Tae-Hwan [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Cardiac computed tomography (CT) has emerged as a noninvasive modality for the assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD), and has been rapidly integrated into clinical cares. CT has changed the traditional risk stratification based on clinical risk to image-based identification of patient risk. Cardiac CT, including coronary artery calcium score and coronary CT angiography, can provide prognostic information and is expected to improve risk stratification of CAD. Currently used conventional cardiac CT, provides accurate anatomic information but not functional significance of CAD, and it may not be sufficient to guide treatments such as revascularization. Recently, myocardial CT perfusion imaging, intracoronary luminal attenuation gradient, and CT-derived computed fractional flow reserve were developed to combine anatomical and functional data. Although at present, the diagnostic and prognostic value of these novel technologies needs to be evaluated further, it is expected that all-in-one cardiac CT can guide treatment and improve patient outcomes in the near future.

  19. Gill's model of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, revisited: The role of latitudinal variations in wind stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, David P.; Munday, David R.; Allison, Lesley C.; Hay, Russell J.; Johnson, Helen L.

    2016-01-01

    Gill's (1968) model of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is reinterpreted for a stratified, reduced-gravity ocean, where the barotropic streamfunction is replaced by the pycnocline depth, and the bottom drag coefficient by the Gent and McWilliams eddy diffusivity. The resultant model gives a simple description of the lateral structure of the ACC that is consistent with contemporary descriptions of ACC dynamics. The model is used to investigate and interpret the sensitivity of the ACC to the latitudinal profile of the surface wind stress. A substantial ACC remains when the wind jet is shifted north of the model Drake Passage, even by several thousand kilometers. The integral of the wind stress over the circumpolar streamlines is found to be a useful predictor of the magnitude of the volume transport through the model Drake Passage, although it is necessary to correct for basin-wide zonal pressure gradients in order to obtain good quantitative agreement.

  20. An investigation of the role of current and future remote sensing data systems in numerical meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diak, George R.; Smith, William L.

    1993-01-01

    The goals of this research endeavor have been to develop a flexible and relatively complete framework for the investigation of current and future satellite data sources in numerical meteorology. In order to realistically model how satellite information might be used for these purposes, it is necessary that Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) be as complete as possible. It is therefore desirable that these experiments simulate in entirety the sequence of steps involved in bringing satellite information from the radiance level through product retrieval to a realistic analysis and forecast sequence. In this project we have worked to make this sequence realistic by synthesizing raw satellite data from surrogate atmospheres, deriving satellite products from these data and subsequently producing analyses and forecasts using the retrieved products. The accomplishments made in 1991 are presented. The emphasis was on examining atmospheric soundings and microphysical products which we expect to produce with the launch of the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), slated for flight in mid 1994.

  1. A role of stretch-activated potassium currents in the regulation of uterine smooth muscle contraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iain L O BUXTON; Nathanael HEYMAN; Yi-ying WU; Scott BARNETT; Craig ULRICH

    2011-01-01

    Rates of premature birth are alarming and threaten societies and healthcare systems worldwide. Premature labor results in premature birth in over 50% of cases. Preterm birth accounts for three-quarters of infant morbidity and mortality. Children that survive birth before 34 weeks gestation often face life-long disability. Current treatments for preterm labor are wanting. No treatment has been found to be generally effective and none are systematically evaluated beyond 48 h. New approaches to the treatment of preterm labor are desperately needed. Recent studies from our laboratory suggest that the uterine muscle is a unique compartment with regulation of uterine relaxation unlike that of other smooth muscles. Here we discuss recent evidence that the mechanically activated 2-pore potassium channel, TREK-1, may contribute to contraction-relaxation signaling in uterine smooth muscle and that TREK-1 gene variants associated with human labor and preterm labor may lead to a better understanding of preterm labor and its possible prevention.

  2. Acute gastrointestinal bleeding: emerging role of multidetector CT angiography and review of current imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Christopher J; Tobias, Terrence; Rosenblum, David I; Banker, Wade L; Tseng, Lee; Tamarkin, Stephen W

    2007-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal bleeding is a common cause of hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality in the United States. The evaluation and treatment of acute gastrointestinal bleeding are complex and often require a multispecialty approach involving gastroenterologists, surgeons, internists, emergency physicians, and radiologists. The multitude of pathologic processes that can result in gastrointestinal bleeding, the length of the gastrointestinal tract, and the often intermittent nature of gastrointestinal bleeding further complicate patient evaluation. In addition, there are multiple imaging modalities and therapeutic interventions that are currently being used in the evaluation and treatment of acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. Initial experience indicates that multidetector computed tomographic angiography is a promising first-line modality for the time-efficient, sensitive, and accurate diagnosis or exclusion of active gastrointestinal hemorrhage and may have a profound impact on the evaluation and subsequent treatment of patients who present with acute gastrointestinal bleeding.

  3. Current role of non-anesthesiologist administered propofolsedation in advanced interventional endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Complex and lengthy endoscopic examinations likeendoscopic ultrasonography and/or endoscopic retrogradecholangiopancreatography benefit from deepsedation, due to an enhanced quality of examinations,reduced discomfort and anxiety of patients, as well asincreased satisfaction for both the patients and medicalpersonnel. Current guidelines support the use ofpropofol sedation, which has the same rate of adverseeffects as traditional sedation with benzodiazepines and/or opioids, but decreases the procedural and recoverytime. Non-anesthesiologist administered propofolsedation has become an option in most of the countries,due to limited anesthesiology resources and theincreasing evidence from prospective studies and metaanalysesthat the procedure is safe with a similar rate ofadverse events with traditional sedation. The advantagesinclude a high quality of endoscopic examination,improved satisfaction for patients and doctors, as wellas decreased recovery and discharge time. Despitethe advantages of non-anesthesiologist administeredpropofol, there is still a continuous debate related to thesuccessful generalization of the procedures.

  4. Assessing the role of oxygen on ring current formation and evolution through numerical experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, R.; Liemohn, M. W.; Toth, G.; Yu Ganushkina, N.; Daldorff, L. K. S.

    2015-06-01

    We address the effect of ionospheric outflow and magnetospheric ion composition on the physical processes that control the development of the 5 August 2011 magnetic storm. Simulations with the Space Weather Modeling Framework are used to investigate the global dynamics and energization of ions throughout the magnetosphere during storm time, with a focus on the formation and evolution of the ring current. Simulations involving multifluid (with variable H+/O+ ratio in the inner magnetosphere) and single-fluid (with constant H+/O+ ratio in the inner magnetosphere) MHD for the global magnetosphere with inner boundary conditions set either by specifying a constant ion density or by physics-based calculations of the ion fluxes reveal that dynamical changes of the ion composition in the inner magnetosphere alter the total energy density of the magnetosphere, leading to variations in the magnetic field as well as particle drifts throughout the simulated domain. A low oxygen to hydrogen ratio and outflow resulting from a constant ion density boundary produced the most disturbed magnetosphere, leading to a stronger ring current but misses the timing of the storm development. Conversely, including a physics-based solution for the ionospheric outflow to the magnetosphere system leads to a reduction in the cross-polar cap potential (CPCP). The increased presence of oxygen in the inner magnetosphere affects the global magnetospheric structure and dynamics and brings the nightside reconnection point closer to the Earth. The combination of reduced CPCP together with the formation of the reconnection line closer to the Earth yields less adiabatic heating in the magnetotail and reduces the amount of energetic plasma that has access to the inner magnetosphere.

  5. Sediment Dynamics in Shallow Tidal Landscapes: The Role of Wind Waves and Tidal Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carniello, L.; D'Alpaos, A.

    2014-12-01

    A precise description of sediment dynamics (resuspension and re-distribution of sediments) is crucial when investigating the long term evolution of the different morphological entities characterizing tidal landscapes. It has been demonstrated that wind waves are the main responsible for sediment resuspension in shallow micro-tidal lagoons where tidal currents, which produce shear stresses large enough to carry sediments into suspension only within the main channels, are mainly responsible for sediment redistribution. A mathematical model has been developed to describe sediment entrainment, transport and deposition due to the combined effect of tidal currents and wind waves in shallow lagoons considering both cohesive and non-cohesive sediments. The model was calibrated and tested using both in situ point observations and turbidity maps obtained analyzing satellite images. Once calibrated the model can integrate the high temporal resolution of point observations with the high spatial resolution of remote sensing, overcoming the intrinsic limitation of these two types of observations. The model was applied to the specific test case of the Venice lagoon simulating an entire year (2005) which was shown to be a "representative" year for wind and tide characteristics. The time evolution of the computed total bottom shear stresses (BSS) and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) was analyzed on the basis of a "Peaks Over Threshold" method once a critical value for shear stress and turbidity were chosen. The analyses of the numerical results enabled us to demonstrate that resuspension events can be modeled as marked Poisson processes: interarrival time, intensity of peak excesses and duration being exponentially distributed random variable. The probability distributions of the interarrival time of overthreshold exceedances in both BSS and SSC as well as their intensity and duration can be used in long-term morphodynamic studies to generate synthetic series statistically

  6. The sponge pump: the role of current induced flow in the design of the sponge body plan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally P Leys

    Full Text Available Sponges are suspension feeders that use flagellated collar-cells (choanocytes to actively filter a volume of water equivalent to many times their body volume each hour. Flow through sponges is thought to be enhanced by ambient current, which induces a pressure gradient across the sponge wall, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Studies of sponge filtration have estimated the energetic cost of pumping to be 0.75 with the ambient current velocity. During short bursts of high ambient current the sponges filtered two-thirds of the total volume of water they processed daily. Our model indicates that the head loss across the sponge collar filter is 10 times higher than previously estimated. The difference is due to the resistance created by a fine protein mesh that lines the collar, which demosponges also have, but was so far overlooked. Applying our model to the in situ measurements indicates that even modest pumping rates require an energetic expenditure of at least 28% of the total in situ respiration. We suggest that due to the high cost of pumping, current-induced flow is highly beneficial but may occur only in thin walled sponges living in high flow environments. Our results call for a new look at the mechanisms underlying current-induced flow and for reevaluation of the cost of biological pumping and its evolutionary role, especially in sponges.

  7. The role of augmentative and alternative communication for children with autism: current status and future trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacono T

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Teresa Iacono,1 David Trembath,2 Shane Erickson3 1Living with Disability Research Centre, La Trobe University, Bendigo, VIC, Australia; 2Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia; 3Living with Disability Research Centre, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Background: Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC interventions are used for children with autism, often as stand-alone communication interventions for those who are minimally verbal. Our aim was to synthesize the evidence for AAC interventions for children (up to 21 years, and then consider the role of AAC within established, comprehensive, evidence-based autism interventions targeting learning across multiple developmental domains.Design: We completed a systematic search of three databases (OVID Medline, PsycINFO, ERIC as well as forward citation and hand searches to identify systematic reviews of AAC intervention efficacy research including children with autism, published between 2000 and March 2016 in peer-reviewed journals. Data pertaining to the quality indicators of included studies, effect sizes for intervention outcomes, and evidence for effectiveness were extracted for descriptive analysis.Results: The search yielded 17 systematic reviews. Most provided indicators of research quality for included studies, of which only relatively few provided conclusive results. Communication targets tended to be focused on teaching children to make requests. Still, effect size measures for included studies indicated that AAC was effective to highly effective.Conclusion: There is growing evidence for the potential benefits of AAC for children with autism, but there is a need for more well-designed studies and broader, targeted outcomes. Furthermore, a lack of evidence for the role of AAC within comprehensive intervention programs may account for a tendency by autism researchers and practitioners to neglect this intervention. Attempts to

  8. How stakeholders frame dam removal: The role of current and anticipated future ecosystem service use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Kate; Adamowski, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Many river restoration projects, including dam removal, are controversial and can trigger conflicts between stakeholders who are for and against the proposed project. The study of environmental conflicts suggests that differences in how stakeholders 'frame', or make sense of a situation based on their prior knowledge and experiences, can perpetuate conflicts. Understanding different stakeholders' frames, particularly how they converge, can form the basis of successful conflict resolution. In the case of dam removals, it is often assumed that emphasising increased provision of ecosystem services can be a point of convergence between those advocating for ecological restoration and those opposed to removal because of negative human impacts. However, how exactly stakeholders frame a contentious proposed dam removal and how those frames relate to ecosystem services has been little studied. Here we used the case of a potential dam removal in New Brunswick to investigate how people frame the issue and how that relates to their current and anticipated future use of ecosystem services. Based on in-depth interviews with 30 stakeholders in the area, including both people for and against dam removal, we found that both groups currently used ecosystem services and were in favour of ecosystem protection. However, they differed in how they framed the issue of the potential dam removal. The group against dam removal framed the issue as one of loss and risk - they thought that any potential benefits to the ecosystem would be outweighed by the high risk of negative social impacts caused by a loss of access to ecosystem services, such as recreation and aesthetic enjoyment. By contrast, the group in favour of the dam framed the issue as one of opportunity and justice. They thought that following a short transition period, all stakeholders would benefit from the restored river, particularly from a restored salmon fishery, improved aesthetic appeal and the long-term sustainability of an

  9. Navigating the Role of Business Incubators: A Review on the Current Literature on Business Incubation in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thobekani Lose

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Business incubators (BIs are a significant tool in promoting the development of entrepreneurial firms, technology-based growth firms and economic growth in South Africa. The study reviewed the current literature on business incubation in South Africa. BIs in South Africa emerged as a popular strategy in the 1990s and most of the current literature was established in the same period. However, the current literature is still limited. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of existing knowledge on the role and effectiveness of business incubation in supporting the development of new small startup businesses. The quantitative and qualitative literature published by the academic and practitioner communities is reviewed. The searches indicated that incubation has encouraged many studies in South Africa. The studies can be categorised under the following themes: the role and contribution of incubators, success factors for business incubation, obstacles, and the relationship between incubators and entrepreneurship. The areas for further research are suggested. Two major areas that new research can explore focus on the creation of the model and selfsustainability of BIs.

  10. Current role of transient elastography in the management of chronic hepatitis B patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hwan Yu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Liver fibrosis is an important prognostic factor for chronic hepatitis B (CHB, and accurate evaluation of the stage of liver fibrosis is crucial in establishing management strategies. While liver biopsy is still considered the gold standard for staging liver fibrosis or cirrhosis, transient elastography (TE, a noninvasive means of assessing liver fibrosis, has come to play an increasing role in this process. After extensive validation, TE is now regarded as a reliable surrogate maker for grading the severity of liver fibrosis in CHB patients. It can detect the extent of fibrosis in a patient and can also be used to evaluate longitudinal changes in liver fibrosis over time with or without interventional management, such as antiviral therapy. However, several confounders hinder the effective assessment of liver fibrosis using TE, such as extensive liver necroinflammation, hepatic congestion, and cholestasis. TE has limited use in obese patients or patients with ascites. Although TE has several limitations, due to its accessibility and safety, it is a valuable tool for the initial evaluation and follow-up in patients with CHB.

  11. Current role of transient elastography in the management of chronic hepatitis B patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jung Hwan; Lee, Jung Il [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Liver fibrosis is an important prognostic factor for chronic hepatitis B (CHB), and accurate evaluation of the stage of liver fibrosis is crucial in establishing management strategies. While liver biopsy is still considered the gold standard for staging liver fibrosis or cirrhosis, transient elastography (TE), a noninvasive means of assessing liver fibrosis, has come to play an increasing role in this process. After extensive validation, TE is now regarded as a reliable surrogate maker for grading the severity of liver fibrosis in CHB patients. It can detect the extent of fibrosis in a patient and can also be used to evaluate longitudinal changes in liver fibrosis over time with or without interventional management, such as antiviral therapy. However, several confounders hinder the effective assessment of liver fibrosis using TE, such as extensive liver necroinflammation, hepatic congestion, and cholestasis. TE has limited use in obese patients or patients with ascites. Although TE has several limitations, due to its accessibility and safety, it is a valuable tool for the initial evaluation and follow-up in patients with CH.

  12. Doctors as managers of healthcare resources in Nigeria: Evolving roles and current challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Temitope Olumuyiwa; Akinwumi, Adebowale Femi

    2015-01-01

    Over the years, medical practice in Nigeria has evolved in scope and practice, in terms of changing disease patterns, patients' needs, and social expectations. In addition, there is a growing sentiment especially among the general public and some health workers that most doctors are bad managers. Besides drawing examples from some doctors in top management positions that have performed less creditably, critics also harp on the fact that more needs to be done to improve the training of doctors in health management. This article describes the role of doctors in this changing scene of practice and highlights the core areas where doctors' managerial competencies are required to improve the quality of healthcare delivery. Areas such as health care financing, essential drugs and supplies management, and human resource management are emphasized. Resources to be managed and various skills needed to function effectively at the different levels of management are also discussed. To ensure that doctors are well-skilled in managerial competencies, the article concludes by suggesting a curriculum review at undergraduate and postgraduate levels of medical training to include newer but relevant courses on health management in addition to the existing ones, whereas also advocating that doctors be incentivized to go for professional training in health management and not only in the core clinical specialties.

  13. The Role of Stem Cell Therapeutics in Wound Healing: Current Understanding and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorice, Sarah; Rustad, Kristine C; Li, Alexander Y; Gurtner, Geoffrey C

    2016-09-01

    Chronic wounds present unique challenges for healthcare providers as they place patients at increased risk for various morbidities and mortality. Advances in wound care technology have expanded the treatment options available for wound management, but few products fully address the underlying core deficiencies responsible for the development of poorly healing wounds. In the future, addressing these derangements will undoubtedly play a key role in the treatment of these patients. Broad enthusiasm has surrounded the field of stem cell biology, which has shown great promise in repairing damaged tissues across numerous disease phenotypes. In this review, we provide a comprehensive review of the literature and evaluate the present landscape of wound therapeutics while discussing the rationales and allure behind stem cell-based products. We further propose 2 challenges that remain as new stem cell-based therapies are being developed and as this technology moves toward clinical translation. Given the relatively young age of this newer technology in wound healing, numerous challenges continue to surround its effective use including identifying the ideal population of stem cells to use and determining the optimal cell delivery method. However, significant forward progress has been made, with several clinical trials beginning to demonstrate reliable clinical benefit. The upward trajectory of stem cell technologies provides an exciting opportunity to positively impact patient outcomes through the controlled application of regenerative cell-based therapy.

  14. Current Role and Application of Teriparatide in Fracture Healing of Osteoporotic Patients: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Min; Kang, Kyung-Chung; Kim, Ji Wan; Lim, Seung-Jae

    2017-01-01

    Background The use of osteoanabolic agents to facilitate fracture healing has been of heightened interest to the field of orthopaedic trauma. This study aimed to evaluate the evidence of teriparatide for fracture healing and functional recovery in osteoporotic patients. Methods We performed a literature search in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library using terms including “Fracture” [tiab] AND “Teriparatide [tiab] OR “PTH” [tiab]. Results This systematic review included 6 randomized clinical trials, 4 well-controlled retrospective studies, and 1 retrospective post hoc subgroup analysis. Fracture location was 2 in pelvis, 3 in proximal femur, 1 in distal femur, 1 in shoulder, 2 in wrist and 2 in spine. The use of teriparatide yielded positive effects on radiographic bone healing in 6 studies, but was not associated with better radiographic outcome in 3. In terms of functional recovery, teriparatide injection was related with decrease in pain or shorter time to mobilization in 6 studies, but not related with pain numerical scale and mobility in 3. Conclusions Our findings suggest that teriparatide provide selective advantages to fracture healing or functional recovery in the management of osteoporotic fractures. A better understanding of the role of teriparatide on osteoporotic fractures requires greater evidences from large volume prospective trials. PMID:28326303

  15. Current role of transient elastography in the management of chronic hepatitis B patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is an important prognostic factor for chronic hepatitis B (CHB), and accurate evaluation of the stage of liver fibrosis is crucial in establishing management strategies. While liver biopsy is still considered the gold standard for staging liver fibrosis or cirrhosis, transient elastography (TE), a noninvasive means of assessing liver fibrosis, has come to play an increasing role in this process. After extensive validation, TE is now regarded as a reliable surrogate maker for grading the severity of liver fibrosis in CHB patients. It can detect the extent of fibrosis in a patient and can also be used to evaluate longitudinal changes in liver fibrosis over time with or without interventional management, such as antiviral therapy. However, several confounders hinder the effective assessment of liver fibrosis using TE, such as extensive liver necroinflammation, hepatic congestion, and cholestasis. TE has limited use in obese patients or patients with ascites. Although TE has several limitations, due to its accessibility and safety, it is a valuable tool for the initial evaluation and follow-up in patients with CHB. PMID:27956732

  16. Role of Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric carcinogenesis: Current knowledge and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokic-Milutinovic, Aleksandra; Alempijevic, Tamara; Milosavljevic, Tomica

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) plays a role in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. The outcome of the infection depends on environmental factors and bacterial and host characteristics. Gastric carcinogenesis is a multistep process that is reversible in the early phase of mucosal damage, but the exact point of no return has not been identified. Therefore, two main therapeutic strategies could reduce gastric cancer incidence: (1) eradication of the already present infection; and (2) immunization (prior to or during the course of the infection). The success of a gastric cancer prevention strategy depends on timing because the prevention strategy must be introduced before the point of no return in gastric carcinogenesis. Although the exact point of no return has not been identified, infection should be eradicated before severe atrophy of the gastric mucosa develops. Eradication therapy rates remain suboptimal due to increasing H. pylori resistance to antibiotics and patient noncompliance. Vaccination against H. pylori would reduce the cost of eradication therapies and lower gastric cancer incidence. A vaccine against H. pylori is still a research challenge. An effective vaccine should have an adequate route of delivery, appropriate bacterial antigens and effective and safe adjuvants. Future research should focus on the development of rescue eradication therapy protocols until an efficacious vaccine against the bacterium becomes available. PMID:26556993

  17. Doctors as managers of healthcare resources in Nigeria: Evolving roles and current challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temitope Olumuyiwa Ojo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, medical practice in Nigeria has evolved in scope and practice, in terms of changing disease patterns, patients' needs, and social expectations. In addition, there is a growing sentiment especially among the general public and some health workers that most doctors are bad managers. Besides drawing examples from some doctors in top management positions that have performed less creditably, critics also harp on the fact that more needs to be done to improve the training of doctors in health management. This article describes the role of doctors in this changing scene of practice and highlights the core areas where doctors' managerial competencies are required to improve the quality of healthcare delivery. Areas such as health care financing, essential drugs and supplies management, and human resource management are emphasized. Resources to be managed and various skills needed to function effectively at the different levels of management are also discussed. To ensure that doctors are well-skilled in managerial competencies, the article concludes by suggesting a curriculum review at undergraduate and postgraduate levels of medical training to include newer but relevant courses on health management in addition to the existing ones, whereas also advocating that doctors be incentivized to go for professional training in health management and not only in the core clinical specialties.

  18. [Disabled people in current economically critical situation. Statistics, legislation and institutions, role of occupational physician].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leocata, G

    2012-01-01

    The number of employed disabled people decreased in 2008-2009 while there has been an increase in the number of temporary contracts and employed disabled women. The work admission of foreign disabled workers has decreased whereas admission of people with psychic problems has been positively assessed. The ASL (Local Health Service) occupational physicians face some difficulties in the Civil Disability Boards for the excessive number of patients and because of the conflict between their inspective role in institutional activity and their task of checking working conditions of disabled workers. Often company physicians do not follow disabled people from recruitment or when not subjected to health surveillance. In addition they face difficulties when companies intend to fire a disabled person or ask for unsuitable work performances. Generally speaking, specialists working in INAIL (Italian Workers' Compensation Authority) are not adequately integrated with subjects/agencies/organizations working in the specific sector of targeted employment and their forensic physicians are not allowed to monitor disabled people conditions within the company.

  19. The current role of Gamma Knife radiosurgery in the management of intracranial haemangiopericytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, Alfio; Boari, Nicola; Gagliardi, Filippo; Donofrio, Carmine A; Franzin, Alberto; Mortini, Pietro

    2016-04-01

    Haemangiopericytomas (HPCs) are rare tumours characterised by aggressive behaviour with tendency to local recurrence and to metastasise. WHO grade II and grade III tumours show different progression-free survival and overall survival rates. Gross total tumour resection is still considered the treatment of choice. Adjuvant radiation therapies represent an option in the treatment strategy regardless the extent of resection. Based on this consideration, Gamma Knife radiosurgery has been introduced either as a primary treatment or as an adjuvant treatment for residual or recurrent tumours. A systematic search was performed on PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar for clinical series reporting Gamma Knife radiosurgery, Cyberknife and Linear Accelerator (LINAC) for the management of intracranial HPCs. Fourteen studies focusing on the effects of Gamma Knife radiosurgery for intracranial HPCs were included. Four studies reported data on Cyberknife radiosurgery and LINAC. A total of 208 patients harbouring 366 tumours have been reported. Patient's features, radiosurgical treatment characteristics and follow-up data of the pertinent literature have been critically revised. Gamma Knife radiosurgery and the other radiosurgical techniques represent a feasible and effective therapy in the management of HPCs. Tumour control and survival rate are comparable to those reported for radiotherapy. Further studies should be focused to define the exact role of Gamma Knife radiosurgery in the management of HPCs.

  20. Role of government in public health: Current scenario in India and future scope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subitha Lakshminarayanan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The new agenda for Public Health in India includes the epidemiological transition, demographical transition, environmental changes and social determinants of health. Based on the principles outlined at Alma-Ata in 1978, there is an urgent call for revitalizing primary health care in order to meet these challenges. The role of the government in influencing population health is not limited within the health sector but also by various sectors outside the health systems. This article is a literature review of the existing government machinery for public health needs in India, its success, limitations and future scope. Health system strengthening, human resource development and capacity building and regulation in public health are important areas within the health sector. Contribution to health of a population also derives from social determinants of health like living conditions, nutrition, safe drinking water, sanitation, education, early child development and social security measures. Population stabilization, gender mainstreaming and empowerment, reducing the impact of climate change and disasters on health, improving community participation and governance issues are other important areas for action. Making public health a shared value across the various sectors is a politically challenging strategy, but such collective action is crucial.

  1. Dendritic attenuation of synaptic potentials and currents: the role of passive membrane properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruston, N; Jaffe, D B; Johnston, D

    1994-04-01

    The dendritic trees of neurons are structurally and functionally complex integrative units receiving thousands of synaptic inputs that have excitatory and inhibitory, fast and slow, and electrical and biochemical effects. The pattern of activation of these synaptic inputs determines if the neuron will fire an action potential at any given point in time and how it will respond to similar inputs in the future. Two critical factors affect the integrative function of dendrites: the distribution of voltage-gated ion channels in the dendritic tree and the passive electrical properties, or 'electrotonic structure', upon which these active channels are superimposed. The authors review recent data from patch-clamp recordings that provide new estimates of the passive membrane properties of hippocampal neurons, and show, with examples, how these properties affect the shaping and attenuation of synaptic potentials as they propagate in the dendrites, as well as how they affect the measurement of current from synapses located in the dendrites. Voltage-gated channels might influence the measurement of 'passive' membrane properties and, reciprocally, passive membrane properties might affect the activation of voltage-gated channels in dendrites.

  2. The role of germ cell loss during primordial follicle assembly: a review of current advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuan-Chao; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Dyce, Paul W; Shen, Wei; Chen, Hong

    2017-01-01

    In most female mammals, early germline development begins with the appearance of primordial germ cells (PGCs), and develops to form mature oocytes following several vital processes. It remains well accepted that significant germ cell apoptosis and oocyte loss takes place around the time of birth. The transition of the ovarian environment from fetal to neonatal, coincides with the loss of germ cells and the timing of follicle formation. All told it is common to lose approximately two thirds of germ cells during this transition period. The current consensus is that germ cell loss can be attributed, at least in part, to programmed cell death (PCD). Recently, autophagy has been implicated as playing a part in germ cell loss during the time of parturition. In this review, we discuss the major opinions and mechanisms of mammalian ovarian PCD during the process of germ cell loss. We also pay close attention to the function of autophagy in germ cell loss, and speculate that autophagy may also serve as a critical and necessary process during the establishment of primordial follicle pool.

  3. Current role of non-anesthesiologist administered propofol sedation in advanced interventional endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtea, Daniela Elena; Dimitriu, Anca; Maloş, Anca Elena; Săftoiu, Adrian

    2015-08-10

    Complex and lengthy endoscopic examinations like endoscopic ultrasonography and/or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography benefit from deep sedation, due to an enhanced quality of examinations, reduced discomfort and anxiety of patients, as well as increased satisfaction for both the patients and medical personnel. Current guidelines support the use of propofol sedation, which has the same rate of adverse effects as traditional sedation with benzodiazepines and/or opioids, but decreases the procedural and recovery time. Non-anesthesiologist administered propofol sedation has become an option in most of the countries, due to limited anesthesiology resources and the increasing evidence from prospective studies and meta-analyses that the procedure is safe with a similar rate of adverse events with traditional sedation. The advantages include a high quality of endoscopic examination, improved satisfaction for patients and doctors, as well as decreased recovery and discharge time. Despite the advantages of non-anesthesiologist administered propofol, there is still a continuous debate related to the successful generalization of the procedures.

  4. Some current problems in atmospheric ozone chemistry; role of chemical kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, R.A.

    1987-03-01

    A review is given on selected aspects of the reaction mechanisms of current interest in the chemistry of atmospheric ozone. Atmospheric ozone is produced and removed by a complex series of elementary gas-phase photochemical reactions involving O/sub x/, HO/sub x/, NO/sub x/, CIO/sub x/ and hydrocarbon species. At the present time there is a good knowledge of the basic processes involved in ozone chemistry in the stratosphere and the troposphere and the kinetics of most of the key reactions are well defined. There are a number of difficulties in the theoretical descriptions of observed ozone behaviour which may be due to uncertainties in the chemistry. Examples are the failure to predict present day ozone in the photochemically controlled region above 35 Km altitude and the large reductions in the ozone column in the Antartic Spring which has been observed in recent years. In the troposphere there is growing evidence that ozone and other trace gases have changed appreciably from pre-industrial concentrations, due to chemical reactions involving man-made pollutants. Quantitative investigation of the mechanisms by which these changes may occur requires a sound laboratory kinetics data base.

  5. The role for 'reminders' in dental traumatology: 1. Current practices in the UK and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Peter F; Duggal, Monty S

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the current method for recording trauma in UK dental hospitals. A standard questionnaire was sent out to all 19 UK and Irish dental hospitals to investigate how trauma was recorded both at initial presentation and at review appointments. Where a standard form was used, a copy was requested. Each form was analysed to assess what information was being recorded and whether prompts were used. For the initial presentation of trauma, nine institutions had a standard trauma form, one used a standard form for avulsions only, seven had no form and two did not respond. For subsequent follow-up visits of trauma cases, six hospitals had a standard form, one used a standard from for avulsions only, 10 had no form and two did not respond. There was considerable variation in the questions that were asked at initial presentation of trauma cases and follow-up reviews in dento-alveolar trauma. Without consistent recording, there is little chance that multi-centred prospective clinical trials can take place in the field of dental trauma.

  6. Current perspectives on natural killer cell education and tolerance: emerging roles for inhibitory receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas LM

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available L Michael Thomas Laboratory of Immunogenetics, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD, USA Abstract: Natural killer (NK cells are regulated through the coordinated functions of activating and inhibitory receptors. These receptors can act during the initial engagement of an NK cell with a target cell, or in subsequent NK cell engagements to maintain tolerance. Notably, each individual possesses a sizable minority-population of NK cells that are devoid of inhibitory receptors that recognize the surrounding MHC class I (ie, self-MHC. Since these NK cells cannot perform conventional inhibition, they are rendered less responsive through the process of NK cell education (also known as licensing in order to reduce the likelihood of auto-reactivity. This review will delineate current views on NK cell education, clarify various misconceptions about NK cell education, and, lastly, discuss the relevance of NK cell education in anti-cancer therapies. Keywords: natural killer cell education, natural killer cell inhibitory receptors, immunotherapy, cancer

  7. Role of imaging in current acute ischemic stroke workflow for endovascular therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Bijoy K; Campbell, Bruce C V; Levi, Christopher; Goyal, Mayank

    2015-06-01

    Ischemic stroke is caused by a thrombus that blocks an intracranial artery. Brain tissue beyond the blocked artery survives for a variable period of time because of blood and nutrients received through tiny vessels called collaterals. Imaging the brain and the vasculature that supplies it is therefore a vital first step in treating patients with acute ischemic stroke. In this review, we focus on current evidence for imaging selection of patients for endovascular therapy in the context of the recently positive clinical trials, such as Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands (MR CLEAN), Endovascular Treatment for Small Core and Anterior Circulation Proximal Occlusion With Emphasis on Minimizing Computed Tomography to Recanalization Times (ESCAPE), Solitaire With the Intention for Thrombectomy as Primary Endovascular Treatment (SWIFT PRIME), and Extending the Time for Thrombolysis in Emergency Neurological Deficits-Intra-Arterial (EXTEND-IA). We discuss evidence for and use of the various imaging paradigms available. We discuss how to set up quick and efficient imaging protocols for patient selection and address common concerns about the use of imaging, including time spent, contrast, radiation, and other advantages and disadvantages. Finally, we briefly comment on how imaging can integrate itself within various health systems of care in the future, thereby potentially improving patient outcomes further. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Psychosocial factors and their role in chronic pain: A brief review of development and current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innes Stanley I

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The belief that pain is a direct result of tissue damage has dominated medical thinking since the mid 20th Century. Several schools of psychological thought proffered linear causal models to explain non-physical pain observations such as phantom limb pain and the effects of placebo interventions. Psychological research has focused on identifying those people with acute pain who are at risk of transitioning into chronic and disabling pain, in the hope of producing better outcomes. Several multicausal Cognitive Behavioural models dominate the research landscape in this area. They are gaining wider acceptance and some aspects are being integrated and implemented into a number of health care systems. The most notable of these is the concept of Yellow Flags. The research to validate the veracity of such programs has not yet been established. In this paper I seek to briefly summarize the development of psychological thought, both past and present, then review current cognitive-behavioural models and the available supporting evidence. I conclude by discussing these factors and identifying those that have been shown to be reliable predictors of chronicity and those that may hold promise for the future.

  9. Fiscal Federalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mosteanu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The central budget of a country collects only a fraction of the total fiscal revenues and executes only o fraction of the national public expenditures, the rest of the revenues and expenditures becoming the responsability of subnational governments. The economist Charles Tiebout developed a theoretical model which although makes an imperfect description of the reality, shows that people’s mobility is being influenced by tax rates and the amount of state/local expenditures. Thus, he suggests that the degree of responsibility that can be appointed to the local budgets should subscribe to the tax – benefits ratio, the extend of the positive externalities and the scale economies of public goods. Also, the issue of revenues distribution among communities is being raised, being identified three kinds of grants used by the public authorities: matching grants, block grants and conditional block grants. In the concept of fiscal federalism there can be found a limited analogy between national public finance theory and international public finance theory, with the international taxation as the pivotal element.

  10. Current Advances on Virus Discovery and Diagnostic Role of Viral Metagenomics in Aquatic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munang'andu, Hetron M.; Mugimba, Kizito K.; Byarugaba, Denis K.; Mutoloki, Stephen; Evensen, Øystein

    2017-01-01

    The global expansion of the aquaculture industry has brought with it a corresponding increase of novel viruses infecting different aquatic organisms. These emerging viral pathogens have proved to be a challenge to the use of traditional cell-cultures and immunoassays for identification of new viruses especially in situations where the novel viruses are unculturable and no antibodies exist for their identification. Viral metagenomics has the potential to identify novel viruses without prior knowledge of their genomic sequence data and may provide a solution for the study of unculturable viruses. This review provides a synopsis on the contribution of viral metagenomics to the discovery of viruses infecting different aquatic organisms as well as its potential role in viral diagnostics. High throughput Next Generation sequencing (NGS) and library construction used in metagenomic projects have simplified the task of generating complete viral genomes unlike the challenge faced in traditional methods that use multiple primers targeted at different segments and VPs to generate the entire genome of a novel virus. In terms of diagnostics, studies carried out this far show that viral metagenomics has the potential to serve as a multifaceted tool able to study and identify etiological agents of single infections, co-infections, tissue tropism, profiling viral infections of different aquatic organisms, epidemiological monitoring of disease prevalence, evolutionary phylogenetic analyses, and the study of genomic diversity in quasispecies viruses. With sequencing technologies and bioinformatics analytical tools becoming cheaper and easier, we anticipate that metagenomics will soon become a routine tool for the discovery, study, and identification of novel pathogens including viruses to enable timely disease control for emerging diseases in aquaculture.

  11. Antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy for atherothrombotic disease: the role of current and emerging agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiolillo, Dominick J; Ferreiro, José Luis

    2013-08-01

    Coronary atherothrombotic disease, including chronic stable angina and acute coronary syndromes (ACS), is associated with significant global burden. The acute clinical manifestations of atherothrombotic disease are mediated by occlusive arterial thrombi that impair tissue perfusion and are composed of a core of aggregated platelets, generated by platelet activation, and a superimposed fibrin mesh produced by the coagulation cascade. Long-term antithrombotic therapies, namely oral antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants, have demonstrated variable clinical effects. Aspirin and P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor antagonists have been shown to reduce the risk for thrombosis and ischaemic events by blocking the thromboxane (Tx) A2 and platelet P2Y12 activation pathways, respectively, whereas the benefits of oral anticoagulants have not been consistently documented. However, even in the presence of aspirin and a P2Y12 receptor antagonist, the risk for ischaemic events remains substantial because platelet activation continues via pathways independent of TxA2 and ADP, most notably the protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 platelet activation pathway stimulated by thrombin. Emerging antithrombotic therapies include those targeting the platelet, such as the new P2Y12 antagonists and a novel class of oral PAR-1 antagonists, and those inhibiting the coagulation cascade, such as the new direct factor Xa antagonists, the direct thrombin inhibitors, and a novel class of factor IX inhibitors. The role of emerging antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants in the long-term management of patients with atherothrombotic disease will be determined by the balance of efficacy and safety in large ongoing clinical trials.

  12. Nipple discharge disorders: current diagnostic management and the role of fiber-ductoscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okazaki, A.; Hirata, K.; Okazaki, M. [Dept. of Surgery, Sapporo Medical Univ. (Japan); Svane, G.; Azavedo, E. [Dept. of Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-05-01

    Nipple discharge disorders is a field in which there has been both increasing awareness on the part of patients and advances in management. Today secretion from nipples can be classified according to its color, cellularity and biology. To be significant a discharge should be true, spontaneous, persistent and non-lactational. Moreover there are methods to differentiate patients who require surgical intervention from those who do not. Surgically significant nipple discharges are watery, serous (yellow), serosanguineous and bloody. Cytology smears of discharge material have helped to classify the cellular material, providing information about normality, atypia and malignancy and also about papillary formation of the exfoliated cells. Tests such as Hemoccult help to discover occult blood in the secreted fluid. Modern immunological tests can be performed on cytology smears where occurrence of high levels of carcinoembryonic antigen could indicate a latent malignancy. Galactography investigation is today the state-of-the-art approach to investigate patients with nipple discharge disorders and this examination can demonstrate the size, location and extent of an intraductal abnormality. Modern high-resolution ultrasound techniques are helpful in visualizing intraductal disorders and are becoming a good complementary approach if not an alternative to traditional radiology techniques. Recently even MR galactography has been shown to be of diagnostic value, but not as informative as regular galactography. The most sophisticated investigation method, which can also be used therapeutically, is fiber-ductoscopy of the concerned duct in a breast. This technique, although expensive and in its infancy, is a fascinating and promising approach for inspecting the intraductal lumina. In this article the background, current investigation methods and possibilities of the technique are described, as well as the most sophisticated ways to deal with nipple discharge disorders in human

  13. Nipple discharge disorders: current diagnostic management and the role of fiber-ductoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, A; Hirata, K; Okazaki, M; Svane, G; Azavedo, E

    1999-01-01

    Nipple discharge disorders is a field in which there has been both increasing awareness on the part of patients and advances in management. Today secretion from nipples can be classified according to its color, cellularity and biology. To be significant a discharge should be true, spontaneous, persistent and non-lactational. Moreover there are methods to differentiate patients who require surgical intervention from those who do not. Surgically significant nipple discharges are watery, serous (yellow), serosanguineous and bloody. Cytology smears of discharge material have helped to classify the cellular material, providing information about normality, atypia and malignancy and also about papillary formation of the exfoliated cells. Tests such as Hemoccult help to discover occult blood in the secreted fluid. Modern immunological tests can be performed on cytology smears where occurrence of high levels of carcinoembryonic antigen could indicate a latent malignancy. Galactography investigation is today the state-of-the-art approach to investigate patients with nipple discharge disorders and this examination can demonstrate the size, location and extent of an intraductal abnormality. Modern high-resolution ultrasound techniques are helpful in visualizing intraductal disorders and are becoming a good complementary approach if not an alternative to traditional radiology techniques. Recently even MR galactography has been shown to be of diagnostic value, but not as informative as regular galactography. The most sophisticated investigation method, which can also be used therapeutically, is fiber-ductoscopy of the concerned duct in a breast. This technique, although expensive and in its infancy, is a fascinating and promising approach for inspecting the intraductal lumina. In this article the background, current investigation methods and possibilities of the technique are described, as well as the most sophisticated ways to deal with nipple discharge disorders in human

  14. Management of poor-risk metastatic renal cell carcinoma: current approaches, the role of temsirolimus and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Camillo; Tortora, Giampaolo; Larkin, James M G; Hutson, Thomas E

    2016-02-01

    Targeted therapies have substantially improved outcomes in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). As expected, poor-risk patients have the worst outcomes. Temsirolimus is currently the only agent licensed for treatment of poor-risk mRCC patients. It is associated with meaningful improvements in survival and quality of life, highlighting the importance of correctly stratifying risk in mRCC patients so they receive optimal treatment. Currently, data for other targeted therapies in poor-risk patients are relatively sparse. Optimizing outcomes in these patients is the subject of ongoing research, including studies of biomarkers and studies to elucidate the role of nephrectomy and neoadjuvant targeted therapy in poor-risk mRCC patients. The impacts of novel combinations including temsirolimus have also been explored to further improve outcomes.

  15. Perception of community pharmacists toward their current professional role in the healthcare system of Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayes, Ibrahim Khalid; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Abduelkarem, Abduelmula R

    2015-07-01

    The new paradigm to pharmacy profession has changed the focus of pharmacists from product-centered to patient-oriented. This change has brought new set of beliefs and assumptions on the way services should be delivered to pharmacy clients. The main aim of this study was to explore the perception of community pharmacists on their current professional role in Dubai. Key findings show that community pharmacists are more directed toward business than patients. They almost dispense all categories of medicines over-the-counter without the need of prescriptions. However, a new trend of pharmacists in Dubai is to provide enhanced pharmacy services such as consultation to patients upon request.

  16. Simulation and mechanistic investigation of the arrhythmogenic role of the late sodium current in human heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Trenor

    Full Text Available Heart failure constitutes a major public health problem worldwide. The electrophysiological remodeling of failing hearts sets the stage for malignant arrhythmias, in which the role of the late Na(+ current (I(NaL is relevant and is currently under investigation. In this study we examined the role of I(NaL in the electrophysiological phenotype of ventricular myocytes, and its proarrhythmic effects in the failing heart. A model for cellular heart failure was proposed using a modified version of Grandi et al. model for human ventricular action potential that incorporates the formulation of I(NaL. A sensitivity analysis of the model was performed and simulations of the pathological electrical activity of the cell were conducted. The proposed model for the human I(NaL and the electrophysiological remodeling of myocytes from failing hearts accurately reproduce experimental observations. The sensitivity analysis of the modulation of electrophysiological parameters of myocytes from failing hearts due to ion channels remodeling, revealed a role for I(NaL in the prolongation of action potential duration (APD, triangulation of the shape of the AP, and changes in Ca(2+ transient. A mechanistic investigation of intracellular Na(+ accumulation and APD shortening with increasing frequency of stimulation of failing myocytes revealed a role for the Na(+/K(+ pump, the Na(+/Ca(2+ exchanger and I(NaL. The results of the simulations also showed that in failing myocytes, the enhancement of I(NaL increased the reverse rate-dependent APD prolongation and the probability of initiating early afterdepolarizations. The electrophysiological remodeling of failing hearts and especially the enhancement of the I(NaL prolong APD and alter Ca(2+ transient facilitating the development of early afterdepolarizations. An enhanced I(NaL appears to be an important contributor to the electrophysiological phenotype and to the dysregulation of [Ca(2+](i homeostasis of failing myocytes.

  17. Current Evidence for a Role of the Kynurenine Pathway of Tryptophan Metabolism in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, Michael D; Varney, Bianca; Sundaram, Gayathri; Franco, Nunzio F; Ng, Mei Li; Pai, Saparna; Lim, Chai K; Guillemin, Gilles J; Brew, Bruce J

    2016-01-01

    inhibitors are currently in clinical trials for other neurological diseases, and hence may make suitable candidates for MS patients. Underpinning these drug discovery endeavors, in recent years, several advances have been made in how KP metabolites are assayed in various biological fluids, and tremendous advancements have been made in how specimens are imaged to determine disease progression and involvement of various cell types and molecules in MS.

  18. Current evidence for a role of the Kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Lovelace

    2016-08-01

    KP inhibitors are currently in clinical trials for other neurological diseases, and hence may make suitable candidates for MS patients. Underpinning these drug discovery endeavours, in recent years several advances have been made in how KP metabolites are assayed in various biological fluids, and tremendous advancements have been made in how specimens are imaged to determine disease progression and involvement of various cell types and molecules in MS.

  19. CURRENT APPROACHES TO THE LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF RHEUMATIC DISEASES: ROLE OF MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOMARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Aleksandrova

    2016-01-01

    .The alternative therapies of RD include the use of low-molecular-weight chemically synthesized agents that suppress the activity of tyrosine kinases. The important area of this therapy is to restore immunological tolerance and to correct autoimmune disorders by means of autologous hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stromal cells, autologous tolerogenic dendritic cells, regulatory T and B cells, gene therapy, and peptide antigens. The prospects for the laboratory diagnosis of RD are associated with the necessity of harmonizing and standardizing the current methods to determine autoantibodies and with the search for and clinical validation of novel proteomic, transcriptomic, and genomic biomarkers.

  20. A role for biological optimization within the current treatment planning paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Shiva [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    /rectum EUDs were reduced (after DVO) by 5.0%/3.9%, and highest doses were reduced by 4.6%/7.8%. The optimization with purely biological OAR objectives achieved bladder/rectal EUDs that were 7.4%/3.1% lower than from DVO, but only reduced highest doses by 1.4%/0.7%. In the olfactory neuroblastoma case, the target was closely surrounded by the eyes, optic nerves, chiasm, and brainstem. In one of the scenarios studied, the eyes, optic nerves, and chiasm were targeted for EUD reduction after DVO. EUD to the left eye, right eye, left optic nerve, right optic nerve, and chiasm were reduced by 7.0%, 5.7%, 4.7%, 4.1%, and 0.6%, respectively, and highest doses were reduced by 16.5%, 11.0%, 5.1%, 3.8%, and 1.5%, respectively. The optimization with purely biological OAR objectives was less effective for the eyes and optics nerves. EUDs for the left eye/right eye/left optic nerve/right optic nerve/chiasm were lower than that from DVO by 0.4%/2.7%/4.0%/2.8%/15.6% and highest doses were lower by 4.6%/1.4%/2.4%/6.4%/7.1% (but purely biological optimization was better overall for the OARs not targeted for EUD reduction). Conclusions: Incorporating biological optimization after dose-volume constrained optimization can further reduce biological metrics, while preserving the important dose reductions achieved by dose-volume constrained optimization. Thus, biological optimization may be accommodated within the framework of current IMRT planning clinical expectations.

  1. Federal laboratories for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gover, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huray, P.G. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Federal laboratories have successfully filled many roles for the public; however, as the 21st Century nears it is time to rethink and reevaluate how Federal laboratories can better support the public and identify new roles for this class of publicly-owned institutions. The productivity of the Federal laboratory system can be increased by making use of public outcome metrics, by benchmarking laboratories, by deploying innovative new governance models, by partnerships of Federal laboratories with universities and companies, and by accelerating the transition of federal laboratories and the agencies that own them into learning organizations. The authors must learn how government-owned laboratories in other countries serve their public. Taiwan`s government laboratory, Industrial Technology Research Institute, has been particularly successful in promoting economic growth. It is time to stop operating Federal laboratories as monopoly institutions; therefore, competition between Federal laboratories must be promoted. Additionally, Federal laboratories capable of addressing emerging 21st century public problems must be identified and given the challenge of serving the public in innovative new ways. Increased investment in case studies of particular programs at Federal laboratories and research on the public utility of a system of Federal laboratories could lead to increased productivity of laboratories. Elimination of risk-averse Federal laboratory and agency bureaucracies would also have dramatic impact on the productivity of the Federal laboratory system. Appropriately used, the US Federal laboratory system offers the US an innovative advantage over other nations.

  2. The role of 3-D geomagnetic induction in the determination of the ionospheric currents from the ground geomagnetic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pulkkinen

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The geomagnetic field variations measured at the surface of the Earth are composed of both internal and external parts. The external field arises from the sources in the magnetosphere and ionosphere, whereas the internal field is generated by the currents induced within the Earth. The internal part may in some situations comprise a notable part of the measured total field and thus a blind usage of geomagnetic field recordings potentially produces significant errors to estimated ionospheric currents. In this paper the role of geomagnetic induction in auroral ionospheric studies is investigated by modeling the induction using simultaneously the realistic ionospheric source and a realistic three-dimensional Earth conductivity structure.

    The modeling results imply that the effects of the lateral ground conductivity anomalies on ionospheric equivalent current patterns are, though clearly detected, less severe than anticipated for fields varying with periods from 5 to 120min. However, the amplification of the determined currents caused by induction is significant, leading to an overestimation of up to 30% of the main current flow intensities, with the overestimation increasing sharply when moving away from the region of the main flow.

    In addition to the 3-D modeling, a simple method is introduced to help estimate the internal contribution to the measured variations of the IL index (local variant of the AL index. A test with the 26 June 1998 substorm event indicates that the method can help to extract the internal contribution from the IL index.

  3. National Language Needs and Federal Support of National Language Capacity: The Critical Role of Title VI of the Higher Education Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecht, Richard D.; Rivers, William P.

    The years since the fall of the Soviet Union have seen dramatic changes in international relations, global economics, global communications, population migration, and international organized crime. A survey of language needs in the federal government identified 43 countries of primary importance, 19 of secondary importance, and 30 languages…

  4. Toward Understanding the Role of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor in the Immune System: Current Progress and Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Hanieh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The immune system is regulated by distinct signaling pathways that control the development and function of the immune cells. Accumulating evidence suggest that ligation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr, an environmentally responsive transcription factor, results in multiple cross talks that are capable of modulating these pathways and their downstream responsive genes. Most of the immune cells respond to such modulation, and many inflammatory response-related genes contain multiple xenobiotic-responsive elements (XREs boxes upstream. Active research efforts have investigated the physiological role of Ahr in inflammation and autoimmunity using different animal models. Recently formed paradigm has shown that activation of Ahr by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD or 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM prompts the differentiation of CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs and inhibits T helper (Th-17 suggesting that Ahr is an innovative therapeutic strategy for autoimmune inflammation. These promising findings generate a basis for future clinical practices in humans. This review addresses the current knowledge on the role of Ahr in different immune cell compartments, with a particular focus on inflammation and autoimmunity.

  5. Current Understanding on the Role of Standard and Immunoproteasomes in Inflammatory/Immunological Pathways of Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bellavista

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitin-proteasome system is the major intracellular molecular machinery for protein degradation and maintenance of protein homeostasis in most human cells. As ubiquitin-proteasome system plays a critical role in the regulation of the immune system, it might also influence the development and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS. Both ex vivo analyses and animal models suggest that activity and composition of ubiquitin-proteasome system are altered in MS. Proteasome isoforms endowed of immunosubunits may affect the functionality of different cell types such as CD8+ and CD4+ T cells and B cells as well as neurons during MS development. Furthermore, the study of proteasome-related biomarkers, such as proteasome antibodies and circulating proteasomes, may represent a field of interest in MS. Proteasome inhibitors are already used as treatment for cancer and the recent development of inhibitors selective for immunoproteasome subunits may soon represent novel therapeutic approaches to the different forms of MS. In this review we describe the current knowledge on the potential role of proteasomes in MS and discuss the pro et contra of possible therapies for MS targeting proteasome isoforms.

  6. Evolution, current structure, and role of a primary care clinical pharmacy service in an integrated managed care organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Rachel M F; Campbell, Stephanie M; Kroner, Beverly A; Proksel, Jenel R; Billups, Sarah J; Witt, Daniel M; Helling, Dennis K

    2013-01-01

    The impact of the declining number of primary care physicians is exacerbated by a growing elderly population in need of chronic disease management. Primary care clinical pharmacy specialists, with their unique knowledge and skill set, are well suited to address this gap. At Kaiser Permanente of Colorado (KPCO), primary care clinical pharmacy specialists have a long history of integration with medical practices and are located in close proximity to physicians, nurses, and other members of the health care team. Since 1992, Primary Care Clinical Pharmacy Services (PCCPS) has expanded from 4 to 30 full-time equivalents (FTEs) to provide services in all KPCO medical office buildings. With this growth in size, PCCPS has evolved to play a vital role in working with primary care medical teams to ensure that drug therapy is effective, safe, and affordable. In addition, PCCPS specialists provide ambulatory teaching sites for pharmacy students and pharmacy residents. There is approximately 1 specialist FTE for every 13,000 adult KPCO members and every 9 clinical FTEs of internal medicine and family medicine physicians. All clinical pharmacy specialists in the pharmacy department are required to have a PharmD degree, to complete postgraduate year 2 residencies, and, as a condition of employment, to become board certified in an applicable specialty. The evolution, current structure, and role of PCCPS at KPCO, including factors facilitating successful integration within the medical team, are highlighted. Patient and nonpatient care responsibilities are described.

  7. The Role of Vitosha Mountain in the Development of Sofia as a Tourist Destination: Current State and Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elka DOGRAMADJIEVA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitosha Mountain is inextricably linked to the development of tourism in Sofia from the very beginning. It has evolved as an area for weekend recreation of the capital inhabitants, as well as a destination for domestic and foreign tourists both in summer and winter, due to the particularities of its resource potential and location. The diversity of user groups and tourism development options, together with the protected status of the area, create a number of conflicts that have exacerbated in the recent years and which are typical problems of sustainable development. Based on a brief review of the recreational potential and the history of tourism development, this paper examines the current role of Vitosha Mountain for Sofia as a tourist destination. The research is grounded on secondary and primary data, including official tourism statistics and two surveys of hoteliers in Sofia municipality that were carried out in 2011 and 2012 for the local government. The focus is put on the accommodation sector in Vitosha District –one of the 24 administrative districts in Sofia municipality, adjacent to Vitosha Nature Park. Results make it possible to outline the features of modern tourism development of the studied area, as well as, the view of local entrepreneurs on key issues concerning farther development of Sofia as a tourist destination and the role of Vitosha Mountain in it.

  8. Relative roles of local disturbance, current climate and palaeoclimate in determining phylogenetic and functional diversity in Chinese forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Feng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main processes underlying the generation and maintenance of biodiversity include both local factors such as competition and abiotic filtering and regional forces such as palaeoclimate, speciation and dispersal. While the effects of regional and local drivers on species diversity are increasingly studied, their relative importance for other aspects of diversity, notably phylogenetic and functional diversity is so far little studied. Here, we link data from large Chinese forest plots to data on current and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM climate as well as local disturbance regimes to study their relative roles in determining woody plant phylogenetic and functional diversity in this important hotspot for woody plant diversity. Local disturbance was the best predictor of functional diversity as represented by maximum canopy height (Hmax, probably reflecting the dominant role of competition for light in determining the forest Hmax structure. In contrast, the LGM-present anomaly in temperature was the factor with the strongest explanatory power for phylogenetic diversity, with modern climate also important. Hence, local contemporary and regional historical factors have highly contrasting importance for the geographic patterns of the functional and phylogenetic aspects of Chinese forest woody plant diversity. Importantly, contemporary factors are of overriding importance for functional diversity, while palaeoclimate has left a strong signature in the phylogenetic diversity patterns.

  9. Energy transport corridors: the potential role of Federal lands in states identified by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, section 368(b).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Kuiper, J.; Kolpa, R.; Moore, R.; May, J.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; McLamore, M.R.; Shamsuddin, S. (Decision and Information Sciences); ( EVS)

    2011-09-01

    On August 8, 2005, the President signed the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct) into law. In Subtitle F of EPAct, Congress set forth various provisions that would change the way certain federal agencies (Agencies) coordinate to authorize the use of land for a variety of energy-related purposes. As part of Subtitle F of EPAct, Section 368 addresses the issue of energy transportation corridors on federal land for oil, gas, and hydrogen pipelines, as well as electricity transmission and distribution facilities. Because of the critical importance of improving the nation's electrical transmission grid, Congress recognized that electricity transmission issues should receive added attention when the Agencies address corridor location and analysis issues. In Section 368, Congress specifically directed the Agencies to consider the need for upgraded and new facilities to deliver electricity: In carrying out [Section 368], the Secretaries shall take into account the need for upgraded and new electricity transmission and distribution facilities to (1) improve reliability; (2) relieve congestion; and (3) enhance capability of the national grid to deliver electricity. Section 368 does not require the Agencies to consider or approve specific projects, applications for rights-of-way (ROWs), or other permits within designated energy corridors. Importantly, Section 368 does not direct, license, or otherwise permit any on-the-ground activity of any sort. If an applicant is interested in obtaining an authorization to develop a project within any corridor designated under Section 368, the applicant would have to apply for a ROW authorization and applicable permits. The Agencies would consider each application by applying appropriate project-specific reviews under requirements of laws and related regulations, including, but not limited to, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act (ESA), and Section

  10. A report to Congress on a role for federal purchasing in commercializing new energy-efficient and renewable-energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-16

    The purpose of this study is to satisfy the requirements of Section 152 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct 92), which directs the Secretary of Energy to ``evaluate the potential use of the purchasing power of the Federal government to promote the development and commercialization of energy efficient products`` (US Congress 1992). Here, purchasing power implies a market presence by the Federal government that is large enough to influence decisions by manufacturers and suppliers about new-product introduction. In recent years, as energy use has become more efficient in the United States in both the public and private sectors, a major contributor to this transition has been the development of innovative technologies and products that reduce the use of energy and/or that use renewable forms of energy. Although the Nation`s efforts toward greater efficiency have been impressive, there are still many opportunities for the widespread introduction of even more energy-saving innovations. This report outlines the actions that DOE can take, in partnership with other Federal agencies, to address the barriers and realize the opportunities from commercializing new technologies.

  11. Energy transport corridors: the potential role of Federal lands in states identified by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, section 368(b).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Kuiper, J.; Kolpa, R.; Moore, R.; May, J.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; McLamore, M.R.; Shamsuddin, S. (Decision and Information Sciences); ( EVS)

    2011-09-01

    On August 8, 2005, the President signed the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct) into law. In Subtitle F of EPAct, Congress set forth various provisions that would change the way certain federal agencies (Agencies) coordinate to authorize the use of land for a variety of energy-related purposes. As part of Subtitle F of EPAct, Section 368 addresses the issue of energy transportation corridors on federal land for oil, gas, and hydrogen pipelines, as well as electricity transmission and distribution facilities. Because of the critical importance of improving the nation's electrical transmission grid, Congress recognized that electricity transmission issues should receive added attention when the Agencies address corridor location and analysis issues. In Section 368, Congress specifically directed the Agencies to consider the need for upgraded and new facilities to deliver electricity: In carrying out [Section 368], the Secretaries shall take into account the need for upgraded and new electricity transmission and distribution facilities to (1) improve reliability; (2) relieve congestion; and (3) enhance capability of the national grid to deliver electricity. Section 368 does not require the Agencies to consider or approve specific projects, applications for rights-of-way (ROWs), or other permits within designated energy corridors. Importantly, Section 368 does not direct, license, or otherwise permit any on-the-ground activity of any sort. If an applicant is interested in obtaining an authorization to develop a project within any corridor designated under Section 368, the applicant would have to apply for a ROW authorization and applicable permits. The Agencies would consider each application by applying appropriate project-specific reviews under requirements of laws and related regulations, including, but not limited to, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act (ESA), and Section

  12. The Netherlands: How the interplay between federations and government helps to build a sporting nation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breedveld, K.; Hoekman, R.H.A.

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we will highlight the current state of affairs as well as the historical background of the way in which sport is governed in the Netherlands. In order to do so, we will focus on the role of the national government, the sports clubs and sport federations and the local governments. We

  13. [Role of calcineurin in down-regulation of left ventricular transmural voltage- dependent K(+) currents in mice with heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chen-Xia; Dong, Fang; Chang, Yan-Chao; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Yan-Fang

    2015-08-25

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of calcineurin in the down-regulation of left ventricular transmural voltage-dependent K(+) currents in heart failure. Transverse aorta was banded by using microsurgical techniques to create mouse heart failure model. Sham-operated (Sham) or aorta banded (Band) mice were randomized to receive calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA) or vehicle. The densities and kinetic properties of voltage-dependent K(+) currents, as well as action potential (AP), of left ventricular subendocardial (Endo) and subepicardial (Epi) myocytes were determined by using whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The results showed that calcineurin activity was significant higher in Endo myocytes than that in Epi ones in all the groups. Compared with Sham group, Band mice showed significantly increased calcineurin activity both in Endo and Epi myocytes. CsA significantly reduced calcineurin activity in Band mice. CsA treatment in Band mice partially reversed the down-regulation of Ito density, completely reversed the down-regulation of IK,slow density both in Endo and Epi myocytes, and Iss density in Endo myocytes. In addition, CsA treatment in Band mice partially antagonized the prolongation of action potential duration (APD), and APD at 50% (APD50) and 90% repolarization (APD90) were significantly reduced. Because of non-parallel shortening of APD in Endo and Epi myocytes, the ratio of Endo/Epi APD90 was reduced from 4.8:1 in Band mice to 2.6:1 in CsA-treated mice, which was close to that in Sham mice. The results suggest that non-parallel activation of calcineurin in Endo and Epi myocytes contributes to the down-regulation of transmural voltage-dependent K(+) currents and the amplification of transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) in left ventricular failure hearts. Inhibition of calcineurin may be a potential new therapeutic strategy to prevent and cure arrhythmias and sudden death in heart failure.

  14. Analysis of the role of the low threshold currents IT and Ih in intrinsic delta oscillations of thalamocortical neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimy eAmarillo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Thalamocortical neurons are involved in the generation and maintenance of brain rhythms associated with global functional states. The repetitive burst firing of TC neurons at delta frequencies (1-4 Hz has been linked to the oscillations recorded during deep sleep and during episodes of absence seizures. To get insight into the biophysical properties that are the basis for intrinsic delta oscillations in these neurons, we performed a bifurcation analysis of a minimal conductance-based thalamocortical neuron model including only the IT channel and the sodium and potassium leak channels. This analysis unveils the dynamics of repetitive burst firing of TC neurons, and describes how the interplay between the amplifying variable mT and the recovering variable hT of the calcium channel IT is sufficient to generate low threshold oscillations in the delta band. We also explored the role of the hyperpolarization activated cationic current Ih in this reduced model and determine that, albeit not required, Ih amplifies and stabilizes the oscillation.

  15. Analysis of the role of the low threshold currents IT and Ih in intrinsic delta oscillations of thalamocortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarillo, Yimy; Mato, Germán; Nadal, Marcela S

    2015-01-01

    Thalamocortical neurons are involved in the generation and maintenance of brain rhythms associated with global functional states. The repetitive burst firing of TC neurons at delta frequencies (1-4 Hz) has been linked to the oscillations recorded during deep sleep and during episodes of absence seizures. To get insight into the biophysical properties that are the basis for intrinsic delta oscillations in these neurons, we performed a bifurcation analysis of a minimal conductance-based thalamocortical neuron model including only the IT channel and the sodium and potassium leak channels. This analysis unveils the dynamics of repetitive burst firing of TC neurons, and describes how the interplay between the amplifying variable mT and the recovering variable hT of the calcium channel IT is sufficient to generate low threshold oscillations in the delta band. We also explored the role of the hyperpolarization activated cationic current Ih in this reduced model and determine that, albeit not required, Ih amplifies and stabilizes the oscillation.

  16. MASAS ADRENALES: PAPEL ACTUAL DE LAS IMÁGENES DIAGNÓSTICAS Masses adrenales: the current role of diagnostic images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Poveda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se describe el rol que desempeñan en la actualidad las imágenes diagnósticas, en especial la tomografía computarizada y la resonancia magnética, para el diagnóstico d e masas adrenales. Se exponen los conceptos de lavado en tomografía y desplazamiento químico en resonancia magnética en la caracterización morfológica y dinámica con el medio de contraste de las misma y se revisan las patologías más frecuentes con énfasis en la diferenciación entre patología benigna y maligna. Se sugiere un diagrama de flujo del diagnóstico de las masas adrenales.This article describes the role currently being played by diagnostic images (especially computerised tomography and magnetic resonance for diagnosing adrenal masses. It deals with the concepts of washing in tomography and chemical displacement in magnetic resonance in morphological and dynamic characterisation with pertinent contrast medium and reviews the most frequent pathologies, emphasising differentiation between benign and malign pathologies. A flow diagram for adrenal mass diagnosis is suggested.

  17. Proceedings of the DOE workshop on the role of a high-current accelerator in the future of nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, D.C.; Peterson, E.J. (comps.)

    1989-05-01

    The meeting was prompted by recent problems with isotope availability from DOE accelerator facilities; these difficulties have resulted from conflicting priorities between physics experiments and isotope production activities. The workshop was a forum in which the nuclear medicine community, isotope producers, industry, and other interested groups could discuss issues associated with isotope availability (including continuous supply options), the role of DOE and industry in isotope production, and the importance of research isotopes to the future of nuclear medicine. The workshop participants endorsed DOE's presence in supplying radioisotopes for research purposes and recommended that DOE should immediately provide additional support for radionuclide production in the form of personnel and supplies, DOE should establish a policy that would allow income from sales of future ''routine'' radionuclide production to be used to support technicians, DOE should obtain a 70-MeV, 500-/mu/A variable-energy proton accelerator as soon as possible, and DOE should also immediately solicit proposals to evaluate the usefulness of a new or upgraded high-energy, high-current machine for production of research radionuclides. This proceedings volume is a summary of workshop sessions that explored the future radionuclide needs of the nuclear medicine community and discussed the DOE production capabilities that would be required to meet these needs.

  18. Using Xrootd to Federate Regional Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerdick, L.; Benjamin, D.; Bloom, K.; Bockelman, B.; Bradley, D.; Dasu, S.; Ernst, M.; Gardner, R.; Hanushevsky, A.; Ito, H.; Lesny, D.; McGuigan, P.; McKee, S.; Rind, O.; Severini, H.; Sfiligoi, I.; Tadel, M.; Vukotic, I.; Williams, S.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Yang, W.

    2012-12-01

    While the LHC data movement systems have demonstrated the ability to move data at the necessary throughput, we have identified two weaknesses: the latency for physicists to access data and the complexity of the tools involved. To address these, both ATLAS and CMS have begun to federate regional storage systems using Xrootd. Xrootd, referring to a protocol and implementation, allows us to provide data access to all disk-resident data from a single virtual endpoint. This “redirector” discovers the actual location of the data and redirects the client to the appropriate site. The approach is particularly advantageous since typically the redirection requires much less than 500 milliseconds and the Xrootd client is conveniently built into LHC physicists’ analysis tools. Currently, there are three regional storage federations - a US ATLAS region, a European CMS region, and a US CMS region. The US ATLAS and US CMS regions include their respective Tier 1, Tier 2 and some Tier 3 facilities; a large percentage of experimental data is available via the federation. Additionally, US ATLAS has begun studying low-latency regional federations of close-by sites. From the base idea of federating storage behind an endpoint, the implementations and use cases diverge. The CMS software framework is capable of efficiently processing data over high-latency links, so using the remote site directly is comparable to accessing local data. The ATLAS processing model allows a broad spectrum of user applications with varying degrees of performance with regard to latency; a particular focus has been optimizing n-tuple analysis. Both VOs use GSI security. ATLAS has developed a mapping of VOMS roles to specific file system authorizations, while CMS has developed callouts to the site's mapping service. Each federation presents a global namespace to users. For ATLAS, the global-to-local mapping is based on a heuristic-based lookup from the site's local file catalog, while CMS does the mapping

  19. The role of European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine Working Group for Preanalytical Phase in standardization and harmonization of the preanalytical phase in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornes, Michael P; Church, Stephen; van Dongen-Lases, Edmée;

    2016-01-01

    and Laboratory Medicine Working Group for Preanalytical Phase (EFLM WG-PRE) was established to lead in standardization and harmonization of preanalytical policies and practices at a European level. One of the key activities of the WG-PRE is the organization of the biennial EFLM-BD conference on the preanalytical......Patient safety is a leading challenge in healthcare and from the laboratory perspective it is now well established that preanalytical errors are the major contributor to the overall rate of diagnostic and therapeutic errors. To address this, the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry...... summarises the work that has and will be done in these areas. The goal of this initiative is to ensure the EFLM WG-PRE produces work that meets the needs of the European laboratory medicine community. Progress made in the identified areas will be updated at the next preanalytical phase conference and show...

  20. Role of the community pharmacist in emergency contraception counseling and delivery in the United States: current trends and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafie S

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sally Rafie,1 Rebecca H Stone,2 Tracey A Wilkinson,3 Laura M Borgelt,4,5 Shareen Y El-Ibiary,6 Denise Ragland7 1Department of Pharmacy, UC San Diego Health, San Diego, CA, 2Department of Clinical and Administrative Pharmacy, University of Georgia, College of Pharmacy, Athens, GA, 3Children’s Health Services Research, Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, 4Department of Clinical Pharmacy, 5Department of Family Medicine, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, 6Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, Midwestern University, Glendale, AZ, 7Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA Abstract: Women and couples continue to experience unintended pregnancies at high rates. In the US, 45% of all pregnancies are either mistimed or unwanted. Mishaps with contraceptives, such as condom breakage, missed pills, incorrect timing of patch or vaginal ring application, contraceptive nonuse, forced intercourse, and other circumstances, place women at risk of unintended pregnancy. There is a critical role for emergency contraception (EC in preventing those pregnancies. There are currently three methods of EC available in the US. Levonorgestrel EC pills have been available with a prescription for over 15 years and over-the-counter since 2013. In 2010, ulipristal acetate EC pills became available with a prescription. Finally, the copper intrauterine device remains the most effective form of EC. Use of EC is increasing over time, due to wider availability and accessibility of EC methods. One strategy to expand access for both prescription and nonprescription EC products is to include pharmacies as a point of access and allow pharmacist prescribing. In eight states, pharmacists are able to prescribe and provide EC directly to women: levonorgestrel EC in eight states and ulipristal

  1. The role of cathodic current in PEO of aluminum: Influence of cationic electrolyte composition on the transient current-voltage curves and the discharges optical emission spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogov, A. B.; Shayapov, V. R.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the influence of cationic electrolytes composition on electrical and optical responses of plasma electrolytic oxidation process of A1050 aluminum alloy under alternating polarization is considered. The electrolytes consist of 0.1 M boric acid with addition of one of the following hydroxides: LiOH, NaOH, KOH, tetraethylammonium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2 up to pH value 9.2. Coatings microstructure, elemental and phase compositions were studied by SEM, EDS and XRD. It was shown that the hysteresis of anodic current-voltage curve (specific feature of "Soft sparking" PEO) was clear observed in the presence of sodium and potassium cations. It was found that composition of microdischarges plasma is also affected by the nature of the cations. It was shown that there are a number of reciprocal processes, which take place under anodic and cathodic polarization.

  2. The role of early stages of cortical visual processing in size and distance judgment: a transcranial direct current stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Thiago L; Costa, Marcelo F; Magalhães, Adsson; Rêgo, Gabriel G; Nagy, Balázs V; Boggio, Paulo S; Ventura, Dora F

    2015-02-19

    Recent research suggests that V1 plays an active role in the judgment of size and distance. Nevertheless, no research has been performed using direct brain stimulation to address this issue. We used transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) to directly modulate the early stages of cortical visual processing while measuring size and distance perception with a psychophysical scaling method of magnitude estimation in a repeated-measures design. The subjects randomly received anodal, cathodal, and sham tDCS in separate sessions starting with size or distance judgment tasks. Power functions were fit to the size judgment data, whereas logarithmic functions were fit to distance judgment data. Slopes and R(2) were compared with separate repeated-measures analyses of variance with two factors: task (size vs. distance) and tDCS (anodal vs. cathodal vs. sham). Anodal tDCS significantly decreased slopes, apparently interfering with size perception. No effects were found for distance perception. Consistent with previous studies, the results of the size task appeared to reflect a prothetic continuum, whereas the results of the distance task seemed to reflect a metathetic continuum. The differential effects of tDCS on these tasks may support the hypothesis that different physiological mechanisms underlie judgments on these two continua. The results further suggest the complex involvement of the early visual cortex in size judgment tasks that go beyond the simple representation of low-level stimulus properties. This supports predictive coding models and experimental findings that suggest that higher-order visual areas may inhibit incoming information from the early visual cortex through feedback connections when complex tasks are performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Chironomidae collection at the Zoological Institute (St Petersburg: history, current state and role for further research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Przhiboro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly reviews the collection of Chironomidae (Diptera housed at the Zoological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences in St Petersburg (ZIN. Although it is the oldest and one of the largest Chironomidae collections in Russia, most of the collection has been unknown to specialists for decades. The collection consists of three main parts: dry specimens (about 20000 pinned adults, material in ethanol (over 25000 vials with larvae, pupae and adults and permanent slides (over 12000 slides with larvae, pupae and adults. Based on a study of the collection itself, published sources and archival data, major periods for the formation of the collection are here described. Collectors and expeditions, whose contributions were most important, are listed, as well as the regions where the material was collected. The role of chironomid researchers, who made important contributions to the creation, enrichment or study of the collection, is also described. The contributions by Aleksei Chernovskii and Vera Pankratova are considered in more detail. According to a preliminary estimate, the collection contains type specimens of no less than 150 species described by 24 authors, and thousands of specimens determined by experts. The Chironomidae collection of ZIN is particularly important because it hopefully will enable us to correctly interpret many species names proposed in 1930-1980’s, mostly based on brief descriptions of larvae and currently often considered nomina dubia. In addition, the collection includes the unprocessed material from vast territory of the former Soviet Union, including many distant regions, which are still difficult to access. doi: 10.5324/fn.v31i0.1402.Published online: 17 October 2012.

  4. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution, cervical cancer screening practices and current status of vaccination implementation in Russian Federation, the Western countries of the former Soviet Union, Caucasus region and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogovskaya, Svetlana I; Shabalova, Irina P; Mikheeva, Irina V; Minkina, Galina N; Podzolkova, Nataly M; Shipulina, Olga Y; Sultanov, Said N; Kosenko, Iren A; Brotons, Maria; Buttmann, Nina; Dartell, Myassa; Arbyn, Marc; Syrjänen, Stina; Poljak, Mario

    2013-12-31

    Limited data are available on the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) and its associated diseases in the Russian Federation, the Western Countries of the former Soviet Union (Belarus, Republic of Moldova, Ukraine), the Caucasus region and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan). Both the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer are higher in these countries than in most Western European countries. In this article, we review available data on HPV prevalence and type distribution in women with normal cytology, women from the general population, cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer, as well as data on national policies of cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination initiatives in these countries. Based on scarce data from the 12 countries, the high-risk HPV (hrHPV) prevalence among 5226 women with normal cytology ranged from 0.0% to 48.4%. In women with low-grade cervical lesions, the hrHPV prevalence among 1062 women varied from 29.2% to 100%. HrHPV infection in 565 women with high-grade cervical lesions ranged from 77.2% to 100% and in 464 invasive cervical cancer samples from 89.8% to 100%. HPV16 was the most commonly detected hrHPV genotype in all categories. As the HPV genotype distribution in cervical diseases seems to be similar to that found in Western Europe the implementation of HPV testing in screening programs might be beneficial. Opportunistic screening programs, the lack of efficient call-recall systems, low coverage, and the absence of quality assured cytology with centralized screening registry are major reasons for low success rates of cervical cancer programs in many of the countries. Finally, HPV vaccination is currently not widely implemented in most of the twelve countries mainly due to pricing, availability, and limited awareness among public and health care providers. Country-specific research, organized nationwide screening programs, registries and well

  5. 76 FR 5787 - Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant Programs... Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study (FWS), and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant (FSEOG... Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Work-Study Program, and Federal Supplemental Educational...

  6. Federal Fleet Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Annual report of Federal agencies' motor vehicle fleet data collected in the Federal Automotive Statistical Tool (FAST), a web-based reporting tool cosponsored by...

  7. TAP Service Federation Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, A. C.; Krause, A.; Holliman, M.; Mann, R. G.; Noddle, K.; Voutsinas, S.

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes a prototype federation service for multiple TAP endpoints. Users can create a new TAP resource that allows them to query the federation as if all tables were in a single database.

  8. A major role for calcium-dependent potassium current in action potential repolarization in adrenal chromaffin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancrazio, J J; Johnson, P A; Lynch, C

    1994-12-30

    To determine the extent which Ca dependent K current (IKCa) contributes during an action potential (AP), bovine chromaffin cells were voltage-clamped using a pre-recorded AP as the command voltage waveform. Based on (1) differential sensitivity of IKCa and Ca-independent K current (IK) to tetraethylammonium; (2) measurements of AP currents under conditions where Ca activation of IKCa had been abolished; and (3) blockade by charybdotoxin, IKCa comprised 70-90% of the outward K current during AP repolarization. In addition, observations are made concerning the form of AP-evoked Ca current.

  9. 2010 Northwest Federal Market Assessment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlon, Tim; Sandusky, William F.

    2011-09-01

    The primary intent of this market assessment is to provide insights on the effectiveness of current energy efficiency and renewable energy program offerings available to Federal sites in the region. The level of detail, quality and currency of the data used in this market assessment varies significantly by Federal agency and energy efficiency service provider. Limited access to some Federal sites, limited availability of key points of contact, time/resource constraints, and other considerations limited the total number of Federal agencies and energy efficiency service providers participating in the survey.

  10. High-threshold, Kv3-like potassium currents in magnocellular neurosecretory neurons and their role in spike repolarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Talent; Teruyama, Ryoichi; Armstrong, William E

    2004-11-01

    We identified Kv3-like high-threshold K+ currents in hypothalamic supraoptic neurons using whole cell recordings in hypothalamic slices and in acutely dissociated neurons. Tetraethylammonium (TEA)-sensitive currents (Kv3-like channels. In slices, tests with 0.01-0.7 mM TEA produced an IC50 of 200-300 nM for both fast and persistent currents. The fast transient current was similar to currents associated with the expression of Kv3.4 subunits, given that it was sensitive to BDS-I (100 nM). The persistent TEA-sensitive current appeared similar to those attributed to Kv3.1/3.2 subunits. Although qualitatively similar, oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) neurons in slices differed in the stronger presence of persistent current in VP neurons. In both cell types, the IC50 for TEA-induced spike broadening was similar to that observed for current suppression in voltage clamp. However, TEA had a greater effect on the spike width of VP neurons than of OT neurons. Immunochemical studies revealed a stronger expression of the Kv3.1b alpha-subunit in VP neurons, which may be related to the greater importance of this current type in VP spike repolarization. Because OT and VP neurons are not considered fast firing, but do exhibit frequency- and calcium-dependent spike broadening, Kv3-like currents may be important for maintaining spike width and calcium influx within acceptable limits during repetitive firing.

  11. Federal Technology Alert: Ground-Source Heat Pumps Applied to Federal Facilities--Second Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, Donald L.

    2001-03-01

    This Federal Technology Alert, which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Federal Energy Management Programs, provides the detailed information and procedures that a Federal energy manager needs to evaluate most ground-source heat pump applications. This report updates an earlier report on ground-source heat pumps that was published in September 1995. In the current report, general benefits of this technology to the Federal sector are described, as are ground-source heat pump operation, system types, design variations, energy savings, and other benefits. In addition, information on current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are provided.

  12. Can Brazil play a more important role in global tuberculosis drug production? An assessment of current capacity and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemal, Andre; Keravec, Joel; Menezes, Alexandre; Trajman, Anete

    2013-03-27

    Despite the existence of effective treatment, tuberculosis is still a global public health issue. The World Health Organization recommends a six-month four-drug regimen in fixed-dose combination formulation to treat drug sensitive tuberculosis, and long course regimens with several second-line drugs to treat multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. To achieve the projected tuberculosis elimination goal by 2050, it will be essential to ensure a non-interrupted supply of quality-assured tuberculosis drugs. However, quality and affordable tuberculosis drug supply is still a significant challenge for National Tuberculosis Programs. Quality drug production requires a combination of complex steps. The first challenge is to guarantee the quality of tuberculosis active pharmaceutical ingredients, then ensure an adequate manufacturing process, according to international standards, to guarantee final product's safety, efficacy and quality. Good practices for storage, transport, distribution and quality control procedures must follow. In contrast to other high-burden countries, Brazil produces tuberculosis drugs through a strong network of public sector drug manufacturers regulated by a World Health Organization-certified national sanitary authority. The installed capacity for production surpasses the 71,000 needed treatments in the country. However, in order to be prepared to act as a global supplier, important bottlenecks are to be overcome. This article presents an in-depth analysis of the current status of production of tuberculosis drugs in Brazil and the bottlenecks and opportunities for the country to sustain national demand and play a role as a potential global supplier. Raw material and drug production, quality control, international certification and pre-qualification, political commitment and regulatory aspects are discussed, as well recommendations for tackling these bottlenecks. This discussion becomes more important as new drugs and regimens to treat tuberculosis are

  13. The Domino Effects of Federal Research Funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanahan, Lauren; Graddy-Reed, Alexandra; Feldman, Maryann P

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which federal investment in research crowds out or decreases incentives for investment from other funding sources remains an open question. Scholarship on research funding has focused on the relationship between federal and industry or, more comprehensively, non-federal funding without disentangling the other sources of research support that include nonprofit organizations and state and local governments. This paper extends our understanding of academic research support by considering the relationships between federal and non-federal funding sources provided by the National Science Foundation Higher Education Research and Development Survey. We examine whether federal research investment serves as a complement or substitute for state and local government, nonprofit, and industry research investment using the population of research-active academic science fields at U.S. doctoral granting institutions. We use a system of two equations that instruments with prior levels of both federal and non-federal funding sources and accounts for time-invariant academic institution-field effects through first differencing. We estimate that a 1% increase in federal research funding is associated with a 0.411% increase in nonprofit research funding, a 0.217% increase in state and local research funding, and a 0.468% increase in industry research funding, respectively. Results indicate that federal funding plays a fundamental role in inducing complementary investments from other funding sources, with impacts varying across academic division, research capacity, and institutional control.

  14. The Domino Effects of Federal Research Funding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Lanahan

    Full Text Available The extent to which federal investment in research crowds out or decreases incentives for investment from other funding sources remains an open question. Scholarship on research funding has focused on the relationship between federal and industry or, more comprehensively, non-federal funding without disentangling the other sources of research support that include nonprofit organizations and state and local governments. This paper extends our understanding of academic research support by considering the relationships between federal and non-federal funding sources provided by the National Science Foundation Higher Education Research and Development Survey. We examine whether federal research investment serves as a complement or substitute for state and local government, nonprofit, and industry research investment using the population of research-active academic science fields at U.S. doctoral granting institutions. We use a system of two equations that instruments with prior levels of both federal and non-federal funding sources and accounts for time-invariant academic institution-field effects through first differencing. We estimate that a 1% increase in federal research funding is associated with a 0.411% increase in nonprofit research funding, a 0.217% increase in state and local research funding, and a 0.468% increase in industry research funding, respectively. Results indicate that federal funding plays a fundamental role in inducing complementary investments from other funding sources, with impacts varying across academic division, research capacity, and institutional control.

  15. Mediating Role of Psychological Resources on the Association Between Childhood Socioeconomic Status and Current Health in the Community Adult Population of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Chiemi; Kawakami, Norito; Umeda, Maki

    2015-12-01

    The majority of studies on the role of psychological resources linking childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and adult health have been conducted in Western countries. Empirical evidence for mediation effects of psychological resources is currently lacking in Japan. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating effect of psychological resources (mastery and sense of coherence [SOC]) on the association between childhood SES and current health. Analyses were conducted on cross-sectional data (1,497 men and 1,764 women) from the Japanese Study of Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood Study (J-SHINE) in Tokyo. Psychological resources (mastery and SOC), childhood SES (parents' education and perceived childhood SES), and current health of adults (psychological distress measured by K6 and self-rated health) were measured using a self-report questionnaire. Mastery and SOC significantly and independently mediated the association between childhood SES and current health in the total sample after adjusting for age, gender, and respondent education, regardless of type of SES or health outcome indicators. Similar mediation effects were observed for both men and women. A few gender differences were observed; specifically, SOC significantly mediated the association between parents' education and current health only among women, and it mediated the association between perceived childhood SES and current health only among men. Overall, the findings underscore the importance of the mediating role of psychological resources in the association between childhood SES and current health.

  16. Current-induced destruction of type I superconductivity: The role of the one- and two-dimensional mixed state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, D.; Rinderer, L.; Posada, E.

    1982-02-01

    New experimental and theoretical results on the current-induced phase transition in cylindrical wires (tin) are presented: The London model for the intermediate state of current-carrying superconductors has been modified, taking into account magnetoresistance, and has been extended to hollow cylinders. Evidence for the one- and two-dimensional mixed state first proposed by Landau has been obtained from the study of the quasistatic voltage-current curves of solid and hollow cylindrical specimens, respectively. The kinetic phenomena during the current-induced destruction of superconductivity in solid cylindrical wires have previously been studied by Posada and Rinderer, but only measurements on hollow wires of high purity presented in this paper confirm the isothermal electromagnetic theory of Rothen and Bestgen for a current-induced phase transition. For currents close to Silsbee's critical current, in pure specimens as well as for impure specimens, for any current above the critical, the dynamic destruction of superconductivity in wires is no longer isothermal. For these cases the nonisothermal theory of Posada and Rinderer has been extended to the case of hollow cylinders and successfully compared with experiments.

  17. The roles of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy, lactation and infancy: review of current knowledge and consensus recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koletzko, Berthold; Lien, Eric; Agostoni, Carlo;

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge on the role of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), in maternal and term infant nutrition as well as infant development. Consensus recommendations and practice guidelines...

  18. The firing patterns of spinal neurons: in situ patch-clamp recordings reveal a key role for potassium currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winlove, Crawford I P; Roberts, Alan

    2012-10-01

    Neuron firing patterns underpin the detection and processing of stimuli, influence synaptic interactions, and contribute to the function of networks. To understand how intrinsic membrane properties determine firing patterns, we investigated the biophysical basis of single and repetitive firing in spinal neurons of hatchling Xenopus laevis tadpoles, a well-understood vertebrate model; experiments were conducted in situ. Primary sensory Rohon-Beard (RB) neurons fire singly in response to depolarising current, and dorsolateral (DL) interneurons fire repetitively. RB neurons exhibited a large tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium current; in DL neurons, the sodium current density was significantly lower. High-voltage-activated calcium currents were similar in both neuron types. There was no evidence of persistent sodium currents, low-voltage-activated calcium currents, or hyperpolarisation-activated currents. In RB neurons, the potassium current was dominated by a tetraethylammonium-sensitive slow component (I(Ks) ); a fast component (I(Kf) ), sensitive to 4-aminopyridine, predominated in DL neurons. Sequential current-clamp and voltage-clamp recordings in individual neurons suggest that high densities of I(Ks) prevent repetitive firing; where I(Ks) is small, I(Kf) density determines the frequency of repetitive firing. Intermediate densities of I(Ks) and I(Kf) allow neurons to fire a few additional spikes on strong depolarisation; this property typifies a novel subset of RB neurons, and may activate escape responses. We discuss how this ensemble of currents and firing patterns underpins the operation of the Xenopus locomotor network, and suggest how simple mechanisms might underlie the similar firing patterns seen in the neurons of diverse species.

  19. The politics of federal environmental education policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Richard Craig

    Both environmental governance1 and education governance 2 occupy contested territory in contemporary US political discourse. Environmental education (EE) policy has emerged at this intersection and taken on aspects of both controversies. Central to debates surrounding environmental education are still unresolved issues concerning the role of the federal government in education, the role of education in citizen-making, and the role of the public in environmental governance. As a case study of the politics of environmental education policy, I explore these issues as they relate to the National Environmental Education Act of 1990,3 attempts at its reauthorization, its continued appropriations, and its current state of policy stasis. The political controversy over the federal role in environmental education is an appropriate case study of environmental education politics insofar as it reflects the different positions held by actor groups with regard to the definition, efficacy, and legitimacy of environmental education. At the core of these debates, as we will see, is a definitional crisis---that is, there is no common understanding across the relevant actor groups as to what environmental education is, or should be. I suggest here that this definitional issue can be best understood as having technical, ideological, and structural components4---all of which are mutually reinforcing and thus perpetuate the stasis in federal environmental education policy. 1I rely on Durant, Fiorino and O'leary's definition of environmental governance in Environmental Governance Reconsidered ; "In the term environmental governance, we refer to the increasingly collaborative nature of [environmental and natural resource] policy formulation and implementation. In this vein, a wide array of third parties (for example, actors in the profit sector, the nonprofit sector, and civic society), in addition to government agencies, comprise non hierarchical networks of actors wielding a variety of

  20. 75 FR 12217 - Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant programs... Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study (FWS), and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant (FSEOG.... (2) General Provisions for the Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Work-Study Program, and...

  1. 77 FR 4547 - Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant Programs... requests and documents from postsecondary institutions for the Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study.... (2) General Provisions for the Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Work-Study Program, and...

  2. 78 FR 14776 - Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant Programs... requests and documents from postsecondary institutions for the Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study..., Federal Work-Study Program, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant Program, 34 CFR...

  3. 78 FR 73817 - Information Collection; Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property... currently approved information collection, Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property... Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and...

  4. Current Molecular and Genetic Aspects of Pancreatic Cancer, the Role of Metastasis Associated Proteins (MTA): A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidis, Efstathios T; Pavlidis, Theodoros E

    2017-01-06

    Purpose/aim: To focus on current molecular and genetic aspects and MTA proteins, since pancreatic cancer is a lethal malignant with poor prognosis. Early diagnosis is essential step, contributing to potential curative resection.

  5. The role of high-resolution geomagnetic field models for investigating ionospheric currents at low Earth orbit satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolle, Claudia; Michaelis, Ingo; Rauberg, Jan

    2016-07-01

    Low Earth orbiting geomagnetic satellite missions, such as the Swarm satellite mission, are the only means to monitor and investigate ionospheric currents on a global scale and to make in situ measurements of F region currents. High-precision geomagnetic satellite missions are also able to detect ionospheric currents during quiet-time geomagnetic conditions that only have few nanotesla amplitudes in the magnetic field. An efficient method to isolate the ionospheric signals from satellite magnetic field measurements has been the use of residuals between the observations and predictions from empirical geomagnetic models for other geomagnetic sources, such as the core and lithospheric field or signals from the quiet-time magnetospheric currents. This study aims at highlighting the importance of high-resolution magnetic field models that are able to predict the lithospheric field and that consider the quiet-time magnetosphere for reliably isolating signatures from ionospheric currents during geomagnetically quiet times. The effects on the detection of ionospheric currents arising from neglecting the lithospheric and magnetospheric sources are discussed on the example of four Swarm orbits during very quiet times. The respective orbits show a broad range of typical scenarios, such as strong and weak ionospheric signal (during day- and nighttime, respectively) superimposed over strong and weak lithospheric signals. If predictions from the lithosphere or magnetosphere are not properly considered, the amplitude of the ionospheric currents, such as the midlatitude Sq currents or the equatorial electrojet (EEJ), is modulated by 10-15 % in the examples shown. An analysis from several orbits above the African sector, where the lithospheric field is significant, showed that the peak value of the signatures of the EEJ is in error by 5 % in average when lithospheric contributions are not considered, which is in the range of uncertainties of present empirical models of the EEJ.

  6. Role of the magnetospheric and ionospheric currents in the generation of the equatorial scintillations during geomagnetic storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Z. Biktash

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The equatorial ionosphere parameters, Kp, Dst, AU and AL indices characterized contribution of different magnetospheric and ionospheric currents to the H-component of geomagnetic field are examined to test the geomagnetic activity effect on the generation of ionospheric irregularities producing VLF scintillations. According to the results of the current statistical studies, one can predict near 70% of scintillations from Aarons' criteria using the Dst index, which mainly depicts the magnetospheric ring current field. To amplify Aarons' criteria or to propose new criteria for predicting scintillation characteristics is the question. In the present phase of the experimental investigations of electron density irregularities in the ionosphere new ways are opened up because observations in the interaction between the solar wind - magnetosphere - ionosphere during magnetic storms have progressed greatly. According to present view, the intensity of the electric fields and currents at the polar regions, as well as the magnetospheric ring current intensity, are strongly dependent on the variations of the interplanetary magnetic field. The magnetospheric ring current cannot directly penetrate the equatorial ionosphere and because of this difficulties emerge in explaining its relation to scintillation activity. On the other hand, the equatorial scintillations can be observed in the absence of the magnetospheric ring current. It is shown that in addition to Aarons' criteria for the prediction of the ionospheric scintillations, models can be used to explain the relationship between the equatorial ionospheric parameters, h'F, foF2, and the equatorial geomagnetic variations with the polar ionosphere currents and the solar wind.

  7. Federal Government Electronic Bulletin Boards: An Assessment with Policy Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.

    1993-01-01

    Identifies and analyzes federal government electronic bulletin boards; assesses the types of information available to users, including costs and technological access issues; discusses federal information policy; and considers the role of federal bulletin boards in accessing and managing electronic government information. (Contains 29 references.)…

  8. HIV-INFECTION IN THE NORTH-WESTERN FEDERAL REGION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Smolskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In the current review the results of HIV surveillance in 11 administrative territories of the North-western federal region of the Russian Federation (NWFR in 2009 are summarized. The analysis of epidemic process is based on the data of HIV cases detected in the administrative territories of the NWFR by serological screening and registered in the state reporting forms.

  9. The role of current characteristics of the arc evaporator in formation of the surface metal-coating composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plikhunov, V. V.; Petrov, L. M.; Grigorovich, K. V.

    2016-07-01

    The influence of current characteristics of the vacuum arc evaporator on the interaction process of plasma streams with the surface under treatment during generation of the physicochemical properties of the formed metal-coating composite is considered. It is shown that the interaction of plasma streams with the processed surface provides surface heating, defects elimination, change in energy properties, and mass transfer of plasma stream elements activating surface diffusion processes whose intensity is evaluated by the arc current magnitude and location of the processed surface relative to the cathode axis.

  10. Electrical energy generation in Europe the current and future role of conventional energy sources in the regional generation of electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the current use of conventional energy sources (such as fossil fuels) in the generation of electricity in the European region, this book addresses several key issues including: potential ways European countries could expand their energy sector in the coming years; the impact on the climate, the level of energy reserves, different efficiency measures that could be adopted to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels in the generation of electricity, and current and future energy production and consumption trends, amongst other topics.   Covering both how the use

  11. Hyperpolarization-activated current (I(h)) in vestibular calyx terminals: characterization and role in shaping postsynaptic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Frances L; Benke, Tim A; Rennie, Katherine J

    2012-12-01

    Calyx afferent terminals engulf the basolateral region of type I vestibular hair cells, and synaptic transmission across the vestibular type I hair cell/calyx is not well understood. Calyces express several ionic conductances, which may shape postsynaptic potentials. These include previously described tetrodotoxin-sensitive inward Na(+) currents, voltage-dependent outward K(+) currents and a K(Ca) current. Here, we characterize an inwardly rectifying conductance in gerbil semicircular canal calyx terminals (postnatal days 3-45), sensitive to voltage and to cyclic nucleotides. Using whole-cell patch clamp, we recorded from isolated calyx terminals still attached to their type I hair cells. A slowly activating, noninactivating current (I(h)) was seen with hyperpolarizing voltage steps negative to the resting potential. External Cs(+) (1-5 mM) and ZD7288 (100 μM) blocked the inward current by 97 and 83 %, respectively, confirming that I(h) was carried by hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide gated channels. Mean half-activation voltage of I(h) was -123 mV, which shifted to -114 mV in the presence of cAMP. Activation of I(h) was well described with a third order exponential fit to the current (mean time constant of activation, τ, was 190 ms at -139 mV). Activation speeded up significantly (τ=136 and 127 ms, respectively) when intracellular cAMP and cGMP were present, suggesting that in vivo I(h) could be subject to efferent modulation via cyclic nucleotide-dependent mechanisms. In current clamp, hyperpolarizing current steps produced a time-dependent depolarizing sag followed by either a rebound afterdepolarization or an action potential. Spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) became larger and wider when I(h) was blocked with ZD7288. In a three-dimensional mathematical model of the calyx terminal based on Hodgkin-Huxley type ionic conductances, removal of I(h) similarly increased the EPSP, whereas cAMP slightly decreased simulated EPSP size

  12. Federal Policies on Civic Education and Service. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Emily Hoban; Levine, Peter; Elrod, Brent

    2006-01-01

    The Federal government supports programs designed to encourage civic participation and increase civic knowledge. This fact sheet summarizes current federal legislation intended to mandate or encourage civic education and service programs for young people. In addition, it contains a list of relevant federally funded programs. (Contains 4 endnotes.)…

  13. Current developments in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi research and its role in salinity stress alleviation: a biotechnological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Dames, Joanna F; Gupta, Aditi; Sharma, Satyawati; Gilbert, Jack A; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form widespread symbiotic associations with 80% of known land plants. They play a major role in plant nutrition, growth, water absorption, nutrient cycling and protection from pathogens, and as a result, contribute to ecosystem processes. Salinity stress conditions undoubtedly limit plant productivity and, therefore, the role of AMF as a biological tool for improving plant salt stress tolerance, is gaining economic importance worldwide. However, this approach requires a better understanding of how plants and AMF intimately interact with each other in saline environments and how this interaction leads to physiological changes in plants. This knowledge is important to develop sustainable strategies for successful utilization of AMF to improve plant health under a variety of stress conditions. Recent advances in the field of molecular biology, "omics" technology and advanced microscopy can provide new insight about these mechanisms of interaction between AMF and plants, as well as other microbes. This review mainly discusses the effect of salinity on AMF and plants, and role of AMF in alleviation of salinity stress including insight on methods for AMF identification. The focus remains on latest advancements in mycorrhizal research that can potentially offer an integrative understanding of the role of AMF in salinity tolerance and sustainable crop production.

  14. Critical Development? Using a Critical Theory Lens to Examine the Current Role of Evaluation in the Youth-Development Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller-Berkman, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    A critical theory lens is used to explore the role of evaluation in youth development, a field aimed at recognizing youth as assets. A theory of change in the field is questioned for its emphasis on individual youth outcomes as programmatic outcome measures. A review of 209 evaluations of 131 programs in the Harvard Family Research Project's…

  15. The Role of Ultrasound in Graduate Anatomy Education: Current State of Integration in the United States and Faculty Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Danielle F.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) is increasingly taught in medical schools, where it has been shown to be a valuable adjunct to anatomy training. To determine the extent of US training in nonmedical anatomy programs, and evaluate anatomists' perceptions on the role of US in anatomy education, an online survey was distributed to faculty in anatomy Master's and…

  16. Current and Future School Psychologists' Preparedness to Work with LGBT Students: Role of Education and Gay-Straight Alliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Prerna G.; Kelly, Jennifer; Goldstein, Thalia R.

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to assess current and future school psychologists' attitudes toward and preparedness to address the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students in schools. Two-hundred seventy-nine school psychologists (n = 162, 58%) and school psychology graduate students (n = 117, 42%) were included in the study.…

  17. Stationary Sea Surface Height Anomalies in Cyclonic Boundary Currents; the Role of PV-Conservation Along a Topographic Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broomé, S.; Nilsson, J.; Nycander, J.

    2016-02-01

    In northern high-latitude sub-polar seas, such as the Nordic Seas and the Labrador Sea, time-mean geostrophic currents mediate the meridional oceanic heat transport. These currents are often found on the continental slopes as intense cyclonic boundary currents, which, due to the relatively weak stratification, are strongly steered by the bottom topography. However, analysis of hydrographic and satellite altimetric data along depth contours exhibit some remarkable stationary along-stream variations in the depth-integrated buoyancy. A closer examination reveals that the variations seem to be linked to changes in steepness and curvature of the topography beneath.In order to examine the underlying dynamics, a steady-state model of a cyclonic stratified boundary current over a topographic slope is developed in the limit of small Rossby numbers. To the lowest order, the bottom velocities are aligned with the bottom topography. Based on the conservation of potential vorticity, equations for variations of the first-order pressure and buoyancy fields along the depth contours are derived. These show that the pressure and the depth-integrated buoyancy tend to increase (decrease) where the lowest order flow increases (decreases) its relative vorticity. Along-isobath variations in relative vorticity, in turn, tend to be most pronounced for cyclonic anomalies and occur where the topography is steep and/or curves. The thus predicted variations in pressure and buoyancy are comparable in magnitude to the ones found in the data.

  18. Interpretation of electrokinetic measurements with porous films: role of electric conductance and streaming current within porous structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroshchuk, Andriy; Luxbacher, Thomas

    2010-07-06

    It is shown that in tangential electrokinetic measurements with porous films the porous structure makes contribution not only to the cell electric conductance (as demonstrated previously) but also to the observed streaming current. Both of these contributions give rise to dependences of streaming-potential and streaming-current coefficients on the channel height. However, due to the combined contribution of two phenomena, the dependence of streaming-potential coefficient on the channel height may be rather complicated and not allow for simple extrapolation. At the same time, the dependences of streaming-current coefficient and cell electric conductance on the channel height turn out linear and can be easily extrapolated to zero channel heights. This enables one to determine separately the contributions of external surface of porous film and of its porous structure to the streaming current and of the channel and porous structure to the cell electric conductance. This procedure is illustrated by the measurements of tangential electrokinetic phenomena and electric conductance with Millipore mixed-cellulose membrane filters of various average pore sizes (from 0.025 to 5 mum) in the so-called adjustable-gap cell of SurPASS electrokinetic instrument (Anton Paar GmbH). The design of this cell allows for easy and quasi-continuous variation of channel height as well as accurate determination of cell electric conductance, streaming-current coefficient, and channel height (from the cell hydraulic permeability). The quality of linear fits of experimental data has been found to be very good, and thus, the extrapolation procedures were quite reliable and accurate. Zeta-potentials could be determined of both external film and internal pore surfaces. It is demonstrated that the porous structures make considerable contributions to both streaming-current coefficient and cell electric conductance especially in the case of filters with larger pores. It is also found that, rather

  19. The Role of Socio-technical Devices in Framing the Current Strategic Issues and Future States of the Service Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to inquire into the role of socio-technical devices like value metrics and accounting in organizing the service market. The authors provide a case on how such devices participates in framing the market for transportation during the introduction of large-scale bridges...... are then brought into an explanation of the overflowing and reconfiguration of the transportation market....

  20. Current evidence for a role of GLP-1 in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass-induced remission of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhee, Nicolai Alexander; Vilsbøll, T; Knop, F K

    2012-01-01

    Weight-reducing surgical procedures such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) have proven efficient as means of decreasing excess body weight. Furthermore, some studies report that up to 80% of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) undergoing RYGB experience complete remission of their T2DM......-induced remission of T2DM are lacking. This article critically evaluates the current evidence for a role of GLP-1 in RYGB-induced remission of T2DM....

  1. Current intimate relationship status, depression, and alcohol use among bisexual women: The mediating roles of bisexual-specific minority stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Yamile; Marquez, Jacob H.; Logan, Diane E.; Leeson, Carissa J.; Balsam, Kimberly F.; Kaysen, Debra L.

    2015-01-01

    Current intimate relationship characteristics, including gender and number of partner(s), may affect one's visibility as a bisexual individual and the minority stressors they experience, which may in turn influence their health. The current study tested four hypotheses: 1) minority stressors vary by current intimate relationship status; 2) higher minority stressors are associated with higher depressive symptoms and alcohol-related outcomes; 3) depressive symptoms and alcohol-related outcomes vary by current intimate relationship status; and 4) minority stressors will mediate differences in these outcomes. Participants included 470 self-identified bisexual women (65% Caucasian, mean age: 21) from a sample of sexual minority women recruited from different geographic regions in the United States through advertisements on social networking sites and Craigslist. Participants completed a 45 minute survey. Respondents with single partners were first grouped by partner gender (male partner: n=282; female partner: n=56). Second, women were grouped by partner gender/number (single female/male partner: n = 338; women with multiple female and male partners: n=132). Women with single male partners and women with multiple male and female partners exhibited elevated experienced bi-negativity and differences in outness (H1). Experienced and internalized bi-negativity were associated with health outcomes, but not outness (H2). Differences in outcomes emerged by partner number and partner number/gender (H3); these differences were mediated by experienced bi-negativity (H4). These results suggest that experiences of discrimination may underlie differences in health related to bisexual women's relationship structure and highlight the importance of evaluating women's relational context as well as sexual identification in understanding health risk behaviors. PMID:26456995

  2. Current intimate relationship status, depression, and alcohol use among bisexual women: The mediating roles of bisexual-specific minority stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Yamile; Marquez, Jacob H; Logan, Diane E; Leeson, Carissa J; Balsam, Kimberly F; Kaysen, Debra L

    2015-07-01

    Current intimate relationship characteristics, including gender and number of partner(s), may affect one's visibility as a bisexual individual and the minority stressors they experience, which may in turn influence their health. The current study tested four hypotheses: 1) minority stressors vary by current intimate relationship status; 2) higher minority stressors are associated with higher depressive symptoms and alcohol-related outcomes; 3) depressive symptoms and alcohol-related outcomes vary by current intimate relationship status; and 4) minority stressors will mediate differences in these outcomes. Participants included 470 self-identified bisexual women (65% Caucasian, mean age: 21) from a sample of sexual minority women recruited from different geographic regions in the United States through advertisements on social networking sites and Craigslist. Participants completed a 45 minute survey. Respondents with single partners were first grouped by partner gender (male partner: n=282; female partner: n=56). Second, women were grouped by partner gender/number (single female/male partner: n = 338; women with multiple female and male partners: n=132). Women with single male partners and women with multiple male and female partners exhibited elevated experienced bi-negativity and differences in outness (H1). Experienced and internalized bi-negativity were associated with health outcomes, but not outness (H2). Differences in outcomes emerged by partner number and partner number/gender (H3); these differences were mediated by experienced bi-negativity (H4). These results suggest that experiences of discrimination may underlie differences in health related to bisexual women's relationship structure and highlight the importance of evaluating women's relational context as well as sexual identification in understanding health risk behaviors.

  3. Belgian Federalism after the Sixth State Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goossens Jurgen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the most important institutional evolutions of Belgian federalism stemming from the implementation of the sixth state reform (2012-2014. This reform inter alia included a transfer of powers worth 20 billion euros from the federal level to the level of the federated states, a profound reform of the Senate, and a substantial increase in fiscal autonomy for the regions. This contribution critically analyses the current state of Belgian federalism. Although the sixth state reform realized important and long-awaited changes, further evolutions are to be expected. Since the Belgian state model has reached its limits with regard to complexity and creativity, politicians and academics should begin to reflect on the seventh state reform with the aim of increasing the transparency of the current Belgian institutional labyrinth.

  4. Job role quality and intention to leave current facility and to leave profession of direct care workers in Japanese residential facilities for elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Miharu; Imai, Hisato

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine job role quality relating to intention to leave current facility and to leave profession among direct care workers in residential facilities for elderly in Japan. Direct care workers completed a paper questionnaire on October 2009. From 746 facilities in three prefectures (Tokyo, Shizuoka, and Yamagata) 6428 direct care workers with complete data were included in the analyses. The Job Role Quality (JRQ) scale was translated into Japanese language to assess job role quality. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that intention to leave current facility was primarily associated with job role quality: poor skill discretion, high job demand, and poor relationship with supervisor. Intention to leave profession was primarily associated with poor skill discretion. The results of the present study imply the strategies to direct care worker retention for each facility and policy efforts. Each facility can implement specific strategies such as enhanced variety of work and opportunity for use of skills, adequate job allocation, and improvement of supervisor-employee relationship in work place. Policy efforts should enhance broader career opportunities in care working such as advanced specialization and authorized medical practice.

  5. Role of upward leaders in modifying the induced currents in solitary down-conductors during a nearby lightning strike to ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Udaya

    2015-11-01

    Electromagnetic field produced by a lightning strike to ground causes significant induction to tall objects in the vicinity. The frequency of occurrence of such nearby ground strikes can be higher than the number of direct strikes. Therefore, a complete knowledge on these induced currents is of practical relevance. However, limited efforts towards the characterisation of such induced currents in tall down-conductors could be seen in the literature. Due to the intensification of the background field caused by the descending stepped leader, tall towers/down-conductors can launch upward leaders of significant length. The nonlinearity in the conductance of upward leader and the surrounding corona sheath can alter the characteristics of the induced currents. Preliminary aspects of this phenomenon have been studied by the author previously and the present work aims to perform a detailed investigation on the role of upward leaders in modifying the characteristics of the induced currents. A consistent model for the upward leader, which covers all the essential electrical aspects of the phenomena, is employed. A first order arc model for representing the conductance of upward leader and a field dependant quadratic conductivity model for the corona sheath is employed. The initial gradient in the upward leader and the field produced by the return stroke forms the excitation. The dynamic electromagnetic response is determined by solving the wave equation using thin-wire time-domain formulation. Simulations are carried out initially to ascertain the role of individual parameters, including the length of the upward leader. Based on the simulation results, it is shown that the upward leader enhances the induced current, and when significant in length, can alter the waveshape of induced current from bipolar oscillatory to unipolar. The duration of the induced current is governed by the length of upward leader, which in turn is dependant on the return stroke current and the

  6. Role of metal/silicon semiconductor contact engineering for enhanced output current in micro-sized microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Mink, Justine E.

    2013-11-25

    We show that contact engineering plays an important role to extract the maximum performance from energy harvesters like microbial fuel cells (MFCs). We experimented with Schottky and Ohmic methods of fabricating contact areas on silicon in an MFC contact material study. We utilized the industry standard contact material, aluminum, as well as a metal, whose silicide has recently been recognized for its improved performance in smallest scale integration requirements, cobalt. Our study shows that improvements in contact engineering are not only important for device engineering but also for microsystems. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Potential role of reduced environmental UV exposure as a driver of the current epidemic of atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Zirwas, Matthew J; Elias, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    disorders in general), including breast-feeding, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and exposure to domesticated furry pets. Notably, the key role of a compromised barrier of neonatal skin as a predisposing factor in the development of childhood AD has recently been demonstrated. In this article we......The basis for the sudden and dramatic increase in atopic dermatitis (AD) and related atopic diseases in the second half of the 20th century is unclear. The hygiene hypothesis proposes that the transition from rural to urban living leads to reduced childhood exposure to pathogenic microorganisms...

  8. Role of calcium mobilization in the regulation of spontaneous transient outward currents in porcine coronary artery myocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to further study the characteristics and regulation of spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs) in freshly isolated porcine coronary artery smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). STOCs were recorded using the perforated whole-cell patch-clamp configuration. STOCs were voltage-dependent and superimposed stochastically onto whole-cell Ca2+-activated-K+ (BKCa) currents. Charybdotoxin (ChTX, 200 nmol/L), a selective blocker of BKCa channels, completely inhibited STOCs within 10 min. STOCs activity was greatly suppressed when extracellular Ca2+ concentration decreased from 1.8 mmol/L to 200 nmol/L, further removal of Ca2+ abolished STOCs activity. Ca2+ ionophore A23187 (10 μmol/L) increased STOCs activity significantly. Verapamil (20 μmol/L) and CdCl2 (200 μmol/L), two kinds of organic L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (L-VDCCs) antagonists, had little effect on STOCs. In addition, the ryanodine receptors (RyRs) agonist caffeine (5 mmol/L) significantly activated STOCs. Application of ryanodine (50 μmol/L) to block RyRs abolished STOCs, subsequent washout of ryanodine or application of caffeine failed to reproduce STOCs activity. Inhibition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) by 2APB (40 μmol/L) greatly suppressed the activity of STOCs, application of caffeine (5 mmol/L) in the presence of 2APB caused a burst of outward currents followed by inhibition of STOCs. These results suggest that STOCs in porcine coronary ASMCs are mediated by BKCa channels. Extracellular Ca2+ is essential for STOCs activity, while Ca2+ entry through L-VDCCs has little effect on STOCs. Intracellular Ca2+ release induced by RyRs is responsible for the regulation of STOCs, whereas IP3Rs might also be involved.

  9. Role of arachidonic acid in hyposmotic membrane stretch-induced increase in calcium-activated potassium currents in gastric myocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng YANG; Wen-xie XU; Xing-lan LI; Hui-ying XU; Jia-bin SUN; Bin MEI; Hai-feng ZHENG; Lian-hua PIAO; De-gang XING; Zhai-liu LI

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To study effects of arachidonic acid (AA) and its metabolites on the hyposmotic membrane stretch-induced increase in calcium-activated potassium currents (IKCa) in gastric myocytes. Methods: Membrane currents were recorded by using a conventional whole cell patch-clamp technique in gastric myocytes isolated with collagenase. Results: Hyposmotic membrane stretch and AA increased both IK(Ca) and spontaneous transient outward currents significantly.Exogenous AA could potentiate the hyposmotic membrane stretch-induced increase in IK(Ca). The hyposmotic membrane stretch-induced increase in IK(Ca) was significantly suppressed by dimethyleicosadienoic acid (100 μmol/L in pipette solution), an inhibitor of phospholipase A2. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid, a lipoxygenase inhibitor, significantly suppressed AA and hyposmotic membrane stretch-induced increases in IK(Ca). External calcium-free or gadolinium chloride, a blocker of stretch-activated channels, blocked the AA-induced increase in IK(Ca) significantly, but it was not blocked by nicardipine, an L-type calcium channel blocker. Ryanodine, a calcium-induced calcium release agonist, completely blocked the AA-induced increase in IK(Ca); however, heparin, a potent inhibitor of inositol triphosphate receptor, did not block the AA-induced increase in IK(Ca). Conclusion:Hyposmotic membrane stretch may activate phospholipase A2, which hydrolyzes membrane phospholipids to ultimately produce AA; AA as a second messenger mediates Ca2+ influx, which triggers Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release and elicits activation of IK(Ca) in gastric antral circular myocytes of the guinea pig.

  10. Evidence for a role of transporter-mediated currents in the depletion of brain serotonin induced by serotonin transporter substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Michael H; Bulling, Simon; Benaderet, Tova S; Saha, Kusumika; Ayestas, Mario A; Partilla, John S; Ali, Syed F; Stockner, Thomas; Rothman, Richard B; Sandtner, Walter; Sitte, Harald H

    2014-05-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) substrates like fenfluramine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine cause long-term depletion of brain 5-HT, while certain other substrates do not. The 5-HT deficits produced by SERT substrates are dependent upon transporter proteins, but the exact mechanisms responsible are unclear. Here, we compared the pharmacology of several SERT substrates: fenfluramine, d-fenfluramine, 1-(m-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP) and 1-(m-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperainze (TFMPP), to establish relationships between acute drug mechanisms and the propensity for long-term 5-HT depletions. In vivo microdialysis was carried out in rat nucleus accumbens to examine acute 5-HT release and long-term depletion in the same subjects. In vitro assays were performed to measure efflux of [(3)H]5-HT in rat brain synaptosomes and transporter-mediated ionic currents in SERT-expressing Xenopus oocytes. When administered repeatedly to rats (6 mg/kg, i.p., four doses), all drugs produce large sustained elevations in extracellular 5-HT (>5-fold) with minimal effects on dopamine. Importantly, 2 weeks after dosing, only rats exposed to fenfluramine and d-fenfluramine display depletion of brain 5-HT. All test drugs evoke fluoxetine-sensitive efflux of [(3)H]5-HT from synaptosomes, but d-fenfluramine and its bioactive metabolite d-norfenfluramine induce significantly greater SERT-mediated currents than phenylpiperazines. Our data confirm that drug-induced 5-HT release probably does not mediate 5-HT depletion. However, the magnitude of transporter-mediated inward current may be a critical factor in the cascade of events leading to 5-HT deficits. This hypothesis warrants further study, especially given the growing popularity of designer drugs that target SERT.

  11. Federalism, Agenda Setting, and the Dynamics of Federal Education Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Paul

    This paper is part of a larger project on agenda setting in the U.S. federal system and the development of the federal education agenda since 1965. Two questions motivate the paper, one theoretical and the other empirical: (1) how does federalism affect the federal agenda?; and (2) what explains the development of federal involvement in K-12…

  12. How dietary patterns could have a role in prevention, progression, or management of diabetes mellitus? Review on the current evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Maghsoudi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the role of dietary patterns in prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of databases which were published in ISI, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases, PubMed, Iran Medex, and MagIran was performed. "Diabetes" and "dietary pattern" were used as the keywords. Results: A total of 58 studies which aimed to focus on diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, dietary pattern, and other related key words were reviewed. More than 47,447 articles were found and 46,709 entries of the extracted studies were excluded on the basis of the title and abstracts. The major dietary patterns were: "Healthy," "Western," "Traditional," "Prudent," "Unhealthy," "Mediterranean," "Modern," and "Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension" (DASH diets. Comparison of the effects of different diets revealed that dietary patterns containing fiber-rich foods have a protective role in managing diabetes mellitus. "Healthy," "Mediterranean," "Prudent," and "DASH" dietary patterns were associated with lower risk of hyperglycemia. Conclusions: The adherence to the "Mediterranean," "Prudent," or "DASH" diets could control hyperglycemia. The higher intake of vegetables, fruits, nuts, whole grains, and lower intake of red meat could reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  13. Innovation in cardiovascular disease in Europe with focus on arrhythmias: current status, opportunities, roadblocks, and the role of multiple stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzen, Frits W; Dagres, Nikolaos; Bollmann, Andreas; Arnar, David O; Bove, Sylvie; Camm, John; Casadei, Barbara; Kirchhof, Paulus; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Lumens, Joost; Michel, Martin C; Schwartz, Peter J; Van Vleymen, Betty; Vardas, Panos; Hindricks, Gerhard

    2017-06-12

    The European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) held an Innovation Forum in February 2016, to consider issues around innovation. The objective of the forum was to extend the innovation debate outside of the narrow world of arrhythmia specialists and cardiology in general, and seek input from all stakeholders including regulators, strategists, technologists, industry, academia, health providers, medical societies, payers, and patients. Innovation is indispensable for a continuing improvement in health care, preferably at higher efficacy and lower costs. It requires people who have been trained in a good scientific environment, high-quality research for achieving ground breaking inventions and the certainty of return on innovation investments. In the context of cardiovascular disease, innovation can imply better risk assessment and stratification, device technology, drug development, and process design. Several areas of promising developments were identified as well as several roadblocks to innovation. To drive innovation forward all stakeholders need to play a significant role. In a globalized and extremely competitive world, the leading role of Europe in medical innovation can only be achieved through a combined and well-coordinated effort from all involved parties. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Biogeographical role of the Kuroshio Current in the amphibious mudskipper Periophthalmus modestus indicated by mitochondrial DNA data

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lijun; Mukai, Takahiko; Hou Chu, Ka; Ma, Qiang; Zhang, Jing

    2015-10-01

    Quaternary climatic cycles have influenced marine organisms’ spatial distribution and population dynamics. This study aimed to elucidate the evolutionary influences of contemporary and glacial physical barriers on the population structure, demography and colonization history of the mudskipper (Periophthalmus modestus) based on a mitochondrial gene segment (ND5) from 131 individual fish sampled in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. The current Kuroshio Current and the glacial exposure of the Taiwan Strait appeared to have restricted migration among the South China Sea, coastal East China and Japan. However, genetic homogeneity (Nm>1) also suggested contemporary larval transportation by sea circulation between the East China Sea and the South China Sea or historical dispersal along the glacial exposed shoreline among China, Japan and the Ryukyu Islands. Evolutionary signals of the strengthened East Asian Summer Monsoon in the mid-Pleistocene and regional difference in intertidal primary productions were indicated by a late-Pleistocene population expansion of P. modestus with a higher effective population size in the South China Sea than in the East China Sea. Furthermore, a potential colonization origin from the South China Sea was consistently inferred by different clues, including the populations’ coalescence times, the ancestral haplotype distribution, the number of private haplotypes and species/genetic diversity.

  15. The current role of neoadjuvant/adjuvant/chemoprevention therapy in partial hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma:a systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-Yee Lau; Eric C. H. Lai; Stephanie H. Y. Lau

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Following curative treatment for hepato-cellular carcinoma (HCC), 50%-90% of postoperative death is due to recurrent disease. Intra-hepatic recurrence is frequently the only site of recurrence. Thus, any neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy, which can decrease or delay the incidence of intra-hepatic recurrence, or any cancer chemoprevention which can prevent a new HCC from developing in the liver remnant, will improve the results of liver resection. This article systematically reviewed the current evidence of neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and chemoprevention in partial hepatectomy of HCC. DATA SOURCES: Studies were identiifed by searching MEDLINE and PubMed databases for articles from January 1990 to November 2008 using the keywords"hepatocellular carcinoma", "hepatectomy", "adjuvant therapy", "neoadjuvant therapy", and "regional therapy". Additional papers and book chapters were identiifed by a manual search of the references from the key articles. RESULTS: Neoadjuvant transarterial chemoembolization or adjuvant regional transarterial chemotherapy± embolization+systemic chemotherapy did not add beneift. Both adjuvant transarterial radioembolization with 131I-lipiodol and adjuvant systemic interferon showed promising results. However, there were only a limited number of such studies.CONCLUSIONS: Further randomized controlled studies need to be carried out. Currently, there is no consensus on a standard neoadjuvant/adjuvant/chemoprevention therapy in partial hepatectomy for HCC.

  16. [Current role of progesterone therapy in the prevention of spontaneous abortion and in the treatment of threatened abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzetti, L; Boni, T; Fazzio, M; Giobbe, M

    2000-12-01

    Progesterone therapy is often used to prevent spontaneous abortion. In this paper the most significant studies on the benefits and risks of this treatment over the last 30 years are analyzed. None of these studies about the effects of progesterone as non-specific therapy in abortion risk and recurrent miscarriage, proved a reduced pregnancy wastage in treated patients compared with patients who received no treatment. The results concerning the use of progesterone in recurrent miscarriage for luteal phase inadequacy are more controversial, but they are still inadequate to encourage progesterone supplementation. To obtain a definitive conclusion about progesterone therapy real effectiveness, it is necessary to carry out randomized double-blind prospected trials. As regards the risks of using progesterone therapy during pregnancy, even if a possible teratologic role has certainly been reduced, it cannot be excluded completely yet. Moreover a high incidence of respiratory problems has been noticed in newborns from patients treated with progesterone, compared with control groups.

  17. The role of stem cell therapy in multiple sclerosis: An overview of the current status of the clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokhsareh Meamar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of multiple sclerosis (MS and the incompetence of a large number of promised treatments for MS urge us to plan new and more effective therapeutic approaches that aim to suppress ongoing autoimmune responses and induction of local endogenous regeneration. Emerging data propose that hematopoietic, mesenchymal, and neural stem cells have the potential to restore self-tolerance, provide in situ immunomodulation and neuroprotection, as well as promote regeneration. Thus, in this article, we will first provide an overview of the cell sources for proposed mechanisms that contribute to the beneficial effects of stem cell transplantation, the ideal route and/or timing of stem cell-based therapies for each main stem cell group, and finally, an overview of the current status of stem cell research in clinical trial stages in MS by comparable and healthy therapeutic effects of different stem cell therapies for MS patients.

  18. The role of interfacial defects in enhancing the critical current density of YBa2Cu3O7-delta coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foltyn, Stephen R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Haiyan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Civale, Leonardo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maiorov, Boris A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jia, Quanxi [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The critical current density (J{sub c}) of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}0{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO) films can approach 10 MA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K in self field , but only for very thin films. We have shown previously that strong thickness dependence results if J{sub c} is enhanced near the film-substrate interface. In the present work we investigate interfacial enhancement using laser-deposited YBCO films on NdGaO{sub 3} substrates, and find that we can adjust deposition conditions to switch the enhancement on and off. Interestingly, we find that the 'on' state is accompanied by interfacial misfit dislocations, establishing an unambiguous correlation between enhanced J{sub c} and dislocations at the film-substrate interface.

  19. High I on/I off current ratio graphene field effect transistor: the role of line defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajarrod, Mohammad Hadi; Saghai, Hassan Rasooli

    2015-01-01

    The present paper casts light upon the performance of an armchair graphene nanoribbon (AGNR) field effect transistor in the presence of one-dimensional topological defects. The defects containing 5-8-5 sp(2)-hybridized carbon rings were placed in a perfect graphene sheet. The atomic scale behavior of the transistor was investigated in the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) and tight-binding Hamiltonian frameworks. AGNRFET basic terms such as the on/off current, transconductance and subthreshold swing were investigated along with the extended line defect (ELD). The results indicated that the presence of ELDs had a significant effect on the parameters of the GNRFET. Compared to conventional transistors, the increase of the I on/I off ratio in graphene transistors with ELDs enhances their applicability in digital devices.

  20. Single molecule conductivity: the role of junction-orbital degeneracy in the artificially high currents predicted by ab initio approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Gemma C; Reimers, Jeffrey R; Hush, Noel S

    2004-10-01

    A priori evaluations, using Hartree-Fock self-consistent-field (SCF) theory or density-functional theory (DFT), of the current passing between two electrodes through a single bridging molecule result in predicted conductivities that may be up to one to two orders of magnitude larger than observed ones. We demonstrate that this is, in part, often due to the improper application of the computational methods. Conductivity is shown to arise from tunneling between junction states of the electrodes through the molecule; these states are inherently either quasi two-fold or four-fold degenerate and always comprise the (highest occupied molecular orbital) HOMO band at the Fermi energy of the system. Frequently, in previous cluster based molecular conduction calculations, closed-shell SCF or Kohn-Sham DFT methods have been applied to systems that we demonstrate to be intrinsically open shell in nature. Such calculations are shown to induce artificial HOMO-LUMO (LUMO-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) band splittings that Landauer-based formalisms for steady-state conduction interpret as arising from extremely rapid through-molecule tunneling at the Fermi energy, hence, overestimating the low-voltage conductivity. It is demonstrated that these shortcomings can be eliminated, dramatically reducing calculated current magnitudes, through the alternate use of electronic-structure calculations based on the spin-restricted open-shell formalism and related multiconfigurational SCF of DFT approaches. Further, we demonstrate that most anomalies arising in DFT implementations arise through the use of hybrid density functionals such as B3LYP. While the enhanced band-gap properties of these functionals have made them the defacto standard in molecular conductivity calculations, we demonstrate that it also makes them particularly susceptible to open-shell anomalies.

  1. The role of ERK-1/2 in the N/OFQ-induced inhibition of delayed rectifier potassium currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei [Laboratory of Neural Electrophysiology, Department of Physiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081 (China); Cui, Qingbo [Department of Pediatric Surgery, The 2nd Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081 (China); Li, Yurong [Laboratory of Neural Electrophysiology, Department of Physiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081 (China); Li, Baoxin [Institute of Pharmacology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081 (China); Yang, Xu; Cui, Lanwei; Jin, Hongbo [Laboratory of Neural Electrophysiology, Department of Physiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081 (China); Qu, Lihui, E-mail: lihui_qu@yahoo.com.cn [Laboratory of Neural Electrophysiology, Department of Physiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081 (China)

    2010-04-16

    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is an endogenous opioid-like heptadecapeptide involved in many neurocognitive functions, including learning and memory. Our previous report showed that N/OFQ inhibits the delayed rectifier potassium current (I{sub K}), and this effect is associated with protein kinase C (PKC) activation. Therefore, we wanted to determine if extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2) signaling is regulated by N/OFQ and associated with the effect of N/OFQ on the I{sub K}. In the current study, we tested if N/OFQ and two PKC activators [phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) and ingenol 3,20-dibenzoate (IDB)] affected the phosphorylation level of ERK-1/2 and its nuclear substrate, ETS-like transcription factor-1 (Elk-1), using western blots. In addition, we tested if ERK-1/2 affected the N/OFQ-induced inhibition of the I{sub K} by using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in acutely dissociated rat parietal cortical neurons. We found that N/OFQ, PDBu, and IDB increased the amount of phosphorylated ERK-1/2 and Elk-1; U0126, a specific inhibitor for ERK-1/2, attenuated the inhibitory effect of N/OFQ on the I{sub K}. These data suggest that the ERK-1/2 pathway, at least in part, mediates the inhibitory effect of N/OFQ on the I{sub K} in acutely dissociated rat cerebral parietal cortical neurons.

  2. The role of ERK-1/2 in the N/OFQ-induced inhibition of delayed rectifier potassium currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Cui, Qingbo; Li, Yurong; Li, Baoxin; Yang, Xu; Cui, Lanwei; Jin, Hongbo; Qu, Lihui

    2010-04-16

    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is an endogenous opioid-like heptadecapeptide involved in many neurocognitive functions, including learning and memory. Our previous report showed that N/OFQ inhibits the delayed rectifier potassium current (I(K)), and this effect is associated with protein kinase C (PKC) activation. Therefore, we wanted to determine if extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2) signaling is regulated by N/OFQ and associated with the effect of N/OFQ on the I(K). In the current study, we tested if N/OFQ and two PKC activators [phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) and ingenol 3,20-dibenzoate (IDB)] affected the phosphorylation level of ERK-1/2 and its nuclear substrate, ETS-like transcription factor-1 (Elk-1), using western blots. In addition, we tested if ERK-1/2 affected the N/OFQ-induced inhibition of the I(K) by using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in acutely dissociated rat parietal cortical neurons. We found that N/OFQ, PDBu, and IDB increased the amount of phosphorylated ERK-1/2 and Elk-1; U0126, a specific inhibitor for ERK-1/2, attenuated the inhibitory effect of N/OFQ on the I(K). These data suggest that the ERK-1/2 pathway, at least in part, mediates the inhibitory effect of N/OFQ on the I(K) in acutely dissociated rat cerebral parietal cortical neurons.

  3. ACA Federal Upper Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Affordable Care Act Federal Upper Limits (FUL) based on the weighted average of the most recently reported monthly average manufacturer price (AMP) for...

  4. Federal Ballpark Estimator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Federal Ballpark E$timate(R) was developed by the Employee Benefit Research Institute(R) and its American Savings Education Council(R) (ASEC(R)) program. It is...

  5. New Mexico Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  6. Improving federal response to drought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, D.A.; Rosenberg, N.J.; Glantz, M.H.

    1986-03-01

    Severe and widespread drought occurred over a large portion of the US between 1974 and 1977. Impacts on agriculture and other industries, as well as local water supplies, were substantial. The federal government responded with forty assistance programs administered by sixteen federal agencies. Assistance was provided primarily in the form of loans and grants to people, businesses and governments experiencing hardship caused by drought. The total cost of the program is estimated at $7-8 billion. Federal response to the mid-1970s drought was largely untimely, ineffective and poorly coordinated. Four recommendations are offered that, if implemented, would improve future drought assessment and response efforts: 1) reliable and timely informational products and dissemination plans; 2) improved impact assessment techniques, especially in the agricultural sector, for use by government to identify periods of enhanced risk and to trigger assistance measures; 3) administratively centralized drought declaration procedures that are well publicized and consistently applied; and 4) standby assistance measures that encourage appropriate levels of risk management by producers and that are equitable, consistent and predictable. The development of a national drought plan that incorporates these four items is recommended. Atmospheric scientists have an important role to play in the collection and interpretation of near-real time weather data for use by government decision makers.

  7. Integrated vs. Federated Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvschall, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    Oplæg om forskelle og ligheder mellem integrated og federated search i bibliotekskontekst. Holdt ved temadag om "Integrated Search - samsøgning i alle kilder" på Danmarks Biblioteksskole den 22. januar 2009.......Oplæg om forskelle og ligheder mellem integrated og federated search i bibliotekskontekst. Holdt ved temadag om "Integrated Search - samsøgning i alle kilder" på Danmarks Biblioteksskole den 22. januar 2009....

  8. Competency-Based Education and Federal Student Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    Competency-based education is increasingly popular because of the flexibility it provides for students seeking a postsecondary credential. Current federal student aid, however, is geared toward supporting students in traditional, time-based degree programs. This paper discusses why current approaches to federal student aid are not supportive of…

  9. The role of root exuded low molecular weight organic anions in facilitating petroleum hydrocarbon degradation: current knowledge and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Belinda C; George, Suman J; Price, Charles A; Ryan, Megan H; Tibbett, Mark

    2014-02-15

    Rhizoremediation is a bioremediation technique whereby enhanced microbial degradation of organic contaminants occurs within the plant root zone (rhizosphere). It is considered an effective and affordable 'green technology' for remediating soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs). This paper critically reviews the potential role of root exuded compounds in rhizoremediation, with emphasis on commonly exuded low molecular weight aliphatic organic acid anions (carboxylates). The extent to which remediation is achieved shows wide disparity among plant species. Therefore, plant selection is crucial for the advancement and widespread adoption of this technology. Root exudation is speculated to be one of the predominant factors leading to microbial changes in the rhizosphere and thus the potential driver behind enhanced petroleum biodegradation. Carboxylates can form a significant component of the root exudate mixture and are hypothesised to enhance petroleum biodegradation by: i) providing an easily degradable energy source; ii) increasing phosphorus supply; and/or iii) enhancing the contaminant bioavailability. These differing hypotheses, which are not mutually exclusive, require further investigation to progress our understanding of plant-microbe interactions with the aim to improve plant species selection and the efficacy of rhizoremediation.

  10. The management of herpes simplex virus infections in HIV infected patients: current issues and the role of cidofovir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakakawa E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethel Nakakawa1, Steven J Reynolds21Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Department of Microbiology, Kampala, Uganda; 2Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Herpes simplex virus (HSV type 1 and 2 are among the most common transmitted viral infections causing a spectrum of mucocutaneous and other syndromes. Treatment of these infections has primarily been with acyclovir (ACV and prodrugs valacyclovir and famcyclovir. Immunocompromised hosts either due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV or other factors have given rise to an increase in ACV resistant viruses most commonly due to a mutation in the cellular thymidine kinase enzyme. This review focuses on the spectrum of disease caused by HSV 1 and 2, the emergence of ACV resistant disease, and the role of alternative agents including cidofovir in the treatment of ACV resistant disease.Keywords: herpes simplex virus, HIV, resistance, cidofovir

  11. Role of the 5-HT7 receptor in the central nervous system: from current status to future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Anne; Haegeman, Guy; Van Craenenbroeck, Kathleen; Vanhoenacker, Peter

    2011-06-01

    Pharmacological and genetic tools targeting the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)7 receptor in preclinical animal models have implicated this receptor in diverse (patho)physiological processes of the central nervous system (CNS). Some data obtained with 5-HT7 receptor knockout mice, selective antagonists, and, to a lesser extent, agonists, however, are quite contradictory. In this review, we not only discuss in detail the role of the 5-HT7 receptor in the CNS but also propose some hypothetical models, which could explain the observed inconsistencies. These models are based on two novel concepts within the field of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), namely biphasic signaling and G protein-independent signaling, which both have been shown to be mediated by GPCR dimerization. This led us to suggest that the 5-HT7 receptor could reside in different dimeric contexts and initiate different signaling pathways, depending on the neuronal circuitry and/or brain region. In conclusion, we highlight GPCR dimerization and G protein-independent signaling as two promising future directions in 5-HT7 receptor research, which ultimately might lead to the development of more efficient dimer- and/or pathway-specific therapeutics.

  12. The Role of the Funding System and Guarantee Credits Destined to Small Entrepreneurs in the Current Context I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Dragomir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Financing schemes do not limit only to covering the financing needs from their own fundsor raised ones. Their role should insure that the economic development is impelled, ensuring thenecessary funds, as a whole, but especially at the level of small entrepreneurs, much more exposed tothe turmoil of the contemporary economy. At EU level it is recognized the important contribution thatthe SMEs bring to the economic development and growth, as they are creators of employmentopportunities and key factors of local and regional prosperity. But the funding needs are increasinglyhigher and the access to financing is more difficult, mainly due to the lack, insufficient or limitedavailability of guarantees. In this context, the guarantee funds represent a solution, proven by theEuropean economies and recently launched in Romania. Guarantees as financial instrument todevelop and stimulate the entrepreneur are issued by specialized organisms, respectively by banks orguarantee founds. Guarantee founds are an active part in European business environment. Theanalysis in this paper is based on the study of official documents, reports of specialized bodies,statistics and examples of good practice, summarized and interpreted in comparison and indevelopments. The aim is identifying a series of issues that can lead to the influence of responsiblefactors–the public authorities, credit institutions, professionals–in order to come up with newpractical solutions that would induce the guaranteeing process qualitativefactors and to stimulate thefinancing process of small entrepreneurs.

  13. A comprehensive analysis of the current and future role of biofuels for transport in the European Union (EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Raboni1

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of biofuels is strongly supported all over the world as a renewable energy source for reducing dependence on the unstable oil market. Bioethanol, the main biofuel produced in the world, is widely used to power vehicles in both the USA and Brazil, but concerns exist in both places regarding its sustainability. In Brazil, it is produced from a by-product of the sugar cane industry, while in the USA it is manufactured from food crops. The production of biogas and biodiesel is growing rapidly, but neither has outpaced the production of bioethanol. The European Union (EU is greatly interested in this issue, and in 2011 adopted an extensive strategy to reduce carbon dioxide emissions related to transport by 60% by the year 2050. In order to achieve this result, the current European transportation system must be transformed. This ambitious goal will require the implementation of complex measures including the reduction of fossil fuels in favor of renewable fuels. This program has various options regarding the development of biofuels (e. g., biogas, bioethanol and biodiesel and their related technologies, which are still on trial (mainly regarding the bioethanol production, and must also analyze their sustainability from a social and economic standpoint. The paper discusses the use of biofuels for transport in the European setting, and shows that their sustainability may result in relevant negative social effects due mainly to the use of land for energy crops (e.g., change of food price and world food shortage.

  14. Current opinion on computer-aided surgical navigation and robotics: role in the treatment of sports-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musahl, Volker; Plakseychuk, Anton; Fu, Freddie H

    2002-01-01

    Computer-assisted surgery (CAS) may allow surgeons to be more precise and minimally invasive, in addition to being an excellent research tool. Medical imaging, such as magnetic resonance and computed tomography is not only an important diagnostic tool, but also a necessary planning tool. In orthopaedic sports medicine, precision is needed when placing tunnels for soft tissue fixation of replacement grafts. Two types of CAS systems -- passive and active -- have been developed. Passive systems, or surgical navigation systems, provide the surgeon with additional information prior to and during the surgical procedure (in real time). Active systems have the ability of performing certain surgical steps autonomously. Both active and passive CAS systems are currently a subject of basic science and clinical investigations and will be discussed and commented on in this article. In summary, passive navigation systems can provide additional information to the surgeon and can therefore lead to more precise tunnel placement. Active robotic technology seems to be accurate and feasible with promising initial results from Europe. However, active and passive CAS can only be as precise as the surgeon who plans the procedure. Therefore, future studies have to focus on integrating, arthroscopy, 3-D image-enhanced computer navigation, and virtual kinematics, as well as to increase precision in surgical techniques.

  15. The role of relativity in the optical response of gold within the time-dependent current-density-functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniello, P; de Boeij, P L

    2005-04-22

    We included relativistic effects in the formulation of the time-dependent current-density-functional theory for the calculation of linear response properties of metals [P. Romaniello and P. L. de Boeij, Phys. Rev. B (to be published)]. We treat the dominant scalar-relativistic effects using the zeroth-order regular approximation in the ground-state density-functional theory calculations, as well as in the time-dependent response calculations. The results for the dielectric function of gold calculated in the spectral range of 0-10 eV are compared with experimental data reported in literature and recent ellipsometric measurements. As well known, relativistic effects strongly influence the color of gold. We find that the onset of interband transitions is shifted from around 3.5 eV, obtained in a nonrelativistic calculation, to around 1.9 eV when relativity is included. With the inclusion of the scalar-relativistic effects there is an overall improvement of both real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function over the nonrelativistic ones. Nevertheless some important features in the absorption spectrum are not well reproduced, but can be explained in terms of spin-orbit coupling effects. The remaining deviations are attributed to the underestimation of the interband gap (5d-6sp band gap) in the local-density approximation and to the use of the adiabatic local-density approximation in the response calculation.

  16. What are the current and potential future roles for endoscopic ultrasound in the treatment of pancreatic cancer?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen Y Oh; Shayan Irani; Richard A Kozarek

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Due to the aggressive tumor biology and late manifestations of the disease, long-term survival is extremely uncommon and the current 5-year survival rate is 7%. Over the last two decades, endoscopic ultrasound(EUS) has evolved from a diagnostic modality to a minimally invasive therapeutic alternative to radiologic procedures and surgery for pancreatic diseases. EUSguided celiac plexus intervention is a useful adjunct to conventional analgesia for patients with pancreatic cancer. EUS-guided biliary drainage has emerged as a viable option in patients who have failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Recently, the use of lumen-apposing metal stent to create gastrojejunal anastomosis under EUS and fluoroscopic guidance in patients with malignant gastric outlet obstruction has been reported. On the other hand, anti-tumor therapies delivered by EUS, such as the injection of anti-tumor agents, brachytherapy and ablations are still in the experimental stage without clear survival benefit. In this article, we provide updates on well-established EUS-guided interventions as well as novel techniques relevant to pancreatic cancer.

  17. Role of VEGF, Nitric Oxide, and Sympathetic Neurotransmitters in the Pathogenesis of Tendinopathy: A Review of the Current Evidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasta, Sebastiano; Di Martino, Alberto; Zampogna, Biagio; Torre, Guglielmo; Papalia, Rocco; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Chronic tendinopathy is a painful common condition affecting athletes as well as the general population undergoing to tendon overuse. Although its huge prevalence, little is known about tendinopathy pathogenesis, and even cloudier is its treatment. Traditionally, tendinopathy has been defined as a lack of tendon ability to overcome stressing stimuli with appropriate adaptive changes. Histologic studies have demonstrated the absence of inflammatory infiltrates, as a consequence conventional antinflammatory drugs have shown little or no effectiveness in treating tendinopathies. New strategies should be therefore identified to address chronic tendon disorders. Angiofibroblastic changes have been highlighted as the main feature of tendinopathy, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been demonstrated as one of the key molecules involved in vascular hyperplasia. More recently, attention has been focused on new peptides such as Substance P, nitric oxide, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Those new findings support the idea of a nerve-mediated disregulation of tendon metabolism. Each of those molecules could be a target for new treatment options. This study aimed to systematically review the current available clinical and basic science in order to summarize the latest evidences on the pathophysiology and its effect on treatment of chronic tendinopathy, and to spread suggestions for future research on its treatment.

  18. Role of VEGF, Nitric Oxide and sympathetic neurotransmitters in the pathogenesis of tendinopathy: a review of the current evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiano Vasta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic tendinopathy is a painful common condition affecting athletes as well as the general population undergoing to tendon overuse. Although its huge prevalence, little is known about tendinopathy pathogenesis, and even cloudier is its treatment.Traditionally, tendinopathy has been defined as a lack of tendon ability to overcome stressing stimuli with appropriate adaptive changes. Histologic studies have demonstrated the absence of inflammatory infiltrates, as a consequence conventional antinflammatory drugs have shown little or no effectiveness in treating tendinopathies. New strategies should be therefore identified to address chronic tendon disorders. Angiofibroblastic changes have been highlighted as the main feature of tendinopathy, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF has been demonstrated as one of the key molecules involved in vascular hyperplasia. More recently, attention has been focused on new peptides such as Substance P, nitric oxide and calcitonin gene-related peptide. Those new findings support the idea of a nerve-mediated disregulation of tendon metabolism. Each of those molecules could be a target for new treatment options. This study aimed to systematically review the current available clinical and basic science in order to summarize the latest evidences on the pathophysiology and its effect on treatment of chronic tendinopathy, and to spread suggestions for future research on its treatment.

  19. The Role of Proteomics in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Women's Cancers: Current Trends in Technology and Future Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Kyoung Yim Breuer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Technological and scientific innovations over the last decade have greatly contributed to improved diagnostics, predictive models, and prognosis among cancers affecting women. In fact, an explosion of information in these areas has almost assured future generations that outcomes in cancer will continue to improve. Herein we discuss the current status of breast, cervical, and ovarian cancers as it relates to screening, disease diagnosis, and treatment options. Among the differences in these cancers, it is striking that breast cancer has multiple predictive tests based upon tumor biomarkers and sophisticated, individualized options for prescription therapeutics while ovarian cancer lacks these tools. In addition, cervical cancer leads the way in innovative, cancer-preventative vaccines and multiple screening options to prevent disease progression. For each of these malignancies, emerging proteomic technologies based upon mass spectrometry, stable isotope labeling with amino acids, high-throughput ELISA, tissue or protein microarray techniques, and click chemistry in the pursuit of activity-based profiling can pioneer the next generation of discovery. We will discuss six of the latest techniques to understand proteomics in cancer and highlight research utilizing these techniques with the goal of improvement in the management of women's cancers.

  20. Consistent role of Quaternary climate change in shaping current plant functional diversity patterns across European plant orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez, Alejandro; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2017-02-01

    Current and historical environmental conditions are known to determine jointly contemporary species distributions and richness patterns. However, whether historical dynamics in species distributions and richness translate to functional diversity patterns remains, for the most part, unknown. The geographic patterns of plant functional space size (richness) and packing (dispersion) for six widely distributed orders of European angiosperms were estimated using atlas distribution data and trait information. Then the relative importance of late-Quaternary glacial-interglacial climate change and contemporary environmental factors (climate, productivity, and topography) as determinants of functional diversity of evaluated orders was assesed. Functional diversity patterns of all evaluated orders exhibited prominent glacial-interglacial climate change imprints, complementing the influence of contemporary environmental conditions. The importance of Quaternary glacial-interglacial climate change factors was comparable to that of contemporary environmental factors across evaluated orders. Therefore, high long-term paleoclimate variability has imposed consistent supplementary constraints on functional diversity of multiple plant groups, a legacy that may permeate to ecosystem functioning and resilience. These findings suggest that strong near-future anthropogenic climate change may elicit long-term functional disequilibria in plant functional diversity.

  1. Consistent role of Quaternary climate change in shaping current plant functional diversity patterns across European plant orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez, Alejandro; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2017-02-23

    Current and historical environmental conditions are known to determine jointly contemporary species distributions and richness patterns. However, whether historical dynamics in species distributions and richness translate to functional diversity patterns remains, for the most part, unknown. The geographic patterns of plant functional space size (richness) and packing (dispersion) for six widely distributed orders of European angiosperms were estimated using atlas distribution data and trait information. Then the relative importance of late-Quaternary glacial-interglacial climate change and contemporary environmental factors (climate, productivity, and topography) as determinants of functional diversity of evaluated orders was assesed. Functional diversity patterns of all evaluated orders exhibited prominent glacial-interglacial climate change imprints, complementing the influence of contemporary environmental conditions. The importance of Quaternary glacial-interglacial climate change factors was comparable to that of contemporary environmental factors across evaluated orders. Therefore, high long-term paleoclimate variability has imposed consistent supplementary constraints on functional diversity of multiple plant groups, a legacy that may permeate to ecosystem functioning and resilience. These findings suggest that strong near-future anthropogenic climate change may elicit long-term functional disequilibria in plant functional diversity.

  2. Consistent role of Quaternary climate change in shaping current plant functional diversity patterns across European plant orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez, Alejandro; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2017-01-01

    Current and historical environmental conditions are known to determine jointly contemporary species distributions and richness patterns. However, whether historical dynamics in species distributions and richness translate to functional diversity patterns remains, for the most part, unknown. The geographic patterns of plant functional space size (richness) and packing (dispersion) for six widely distributed orders of European angiosperms were estimated using atlas distribution data and trait information. Then the relative importance of late-Quaternary glacial-interglacial climate change and contemporary environmental factors (climate, productivity, and topography) as determinants of functional diversity of evaluated orders was assesed. Functional diversity patterns of all evaluated orders exhibited prominent glacial-interglacial climate change imprints, complementing the influence of contemporary environmental conditions. The importance of Quaternary glacial-interglacial climate change factors was comparable to that of contemporary environmental factors across evaluated orders. Therefore, high long-term paleoclimate variability has imposed consistent supplementary constraints on functional diversity of multiple plant groups, a legacy that may permeate to ecosystem functioning and resilience. These findings suggest that strong near-future anthropogenic climate change may elicit long-term functional disequilibria in plant functional diversity. PMID:28230069

  3. The role of magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of thalassemic syndromes: current practice and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Mavrogeni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron can be deposited in all internal organs, leading to different types of functional abnormalities. However, myocardial iron overload that contributes to heart failure remains one of the main causes of death in thalassemia major. Using magnetic resonance imaging, tissue iron is detected indirectly by the effects on relaxation times of ferritin and hemosiderin iron interacting with hydrogen nuclei. The presence of iron in the human body results in marked alterations of tissue relaxation times. Currently, cardiovascular magnetic resonance using T2* is routinely used in many countries to identify patients with myocardial iron loading and guide chelation therapy, specifically tailored to the heart. Myocardial T2* is the only clinically validated non-invasive measure of myocardial iron loading and is superior to surrogates such as serum ferritin, liver iron, ventricular ejection fraction and tissue Doppler parameters. Finally, the substantial amelioration of patients’ survival, allows the detection of other organs’ abnormalities due to iron overload, apart from the heart, missed in the past. Recent studies revealed that iron deposition has a different pattern in various parenchymal organs, which is independent from serum ferritin and follows an individual way after chelation treatment application. This new upcoming reality orders a closer monitoring of all organs of the body in order to detect preclinical lesions and early apply adequate treatment.

  4. Recalled and current gender role behavior, gender identity and sexual orientation in adults with Disorders/Differences of Sex Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Nina; Van Kuyk, Maaike; van Kuppenveld, Jet H; Drop, Stenvert L S; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Dessens, Arianne B

    2016-11-01

    The magnitude of sex differences in human brain and behavior and the respective contributions of biology versus socialization remain a topic of ongoing study in science. The preponderance of evidence attests to the notion that sexual differentiation processes are at least partially hormonally mediated, with high levels of prenatal androgens facilitating male-typed and inhibiting female-typed behaviors. In individuals with Disorders/Differences of Sex Development (DSD), hormonal profiles or sensitivities have been altered due to genetic influences, presumably affecting gender(ed) activity interests as well as gender identity development in a minority of the affected population. While continued postnatal androgen exposure in a number of DSD syndromes has been associated with higher rates of gender dysphoria and gender change, the role of a number of mediating and moderating factors, such as initial gender assignment, syndrome severity and clinical management remains largely unclear. Limited investigations of the associations between these identified influences and gendered development outcomes impede optimization of clinical care. Participants with DSD (n=123), recruited in the context of a Dutch multi-center follow-up audit, were divided in subgroups reflecting prenatal androgen exposure, genital appearance at birth and gender of rearing. Recalled childhood play and playmate preferences, gender identity and sexual orientation were measured with questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Data were compared to those of control male (n=46) and female participants (n=79). The findings support that (a) prenatal androgen exposure has large effects on (gendered) activity interests, but to a much lesser extent on sexual orientation and that (b) initial gender of rearing remains a better predictor of gender identity contentedness than prenatal androgen exposure, beyond syndrome severity and medical treatment influences. Nonetheless, 3.3% of individuals with DSD in our

  5. The current and continuing important role of ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy in evaluating patients with suspected pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Leonard M; Stein, Evan G; Sprayregen, Seymour; Chamarthy, Murthy; Haramati, Linda B

    2008-11-01

    After the publication of the Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis (PIOPED) study in 1990, there was considerable controversy concerning the ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) study in regard to its low sensitivity and high number of nondiagnostic examinations when used in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Many lessons have been learned from the PIOPED database that have greatly improved our interpretive skills in the 2 decades since the study was performed. One of the key problems negatively impacting interpretation was the predominantly inpatient population that was studied. Inpatients generally are sicker patients with abnormal chest x-rays. This factor significantly degrades V/Q interpretation. A normal chest x-ray greatly facilitates accurate interpretation of the lung scan. The emergence of computed tomography angiography (CTA) in the early to mid-1990s provided a superb new means of imaging patients with suspected PE. As this technology became more sophisticated with multidetector units, it became the procedure of choice in the great majority of medical centers. CT scanners located in or proximal to many emergency departments as well as its 24/7 availability supported this preference. Within the past 2 to 3 years, the publication of the PIOPED II study as well as some other prospective and retrospective studies have confirmed similar diagnostic accuracy for CTA and V/Q studies. Additionally, there have been several recent publications cautioning physicians about the large radiation dose associated with CTA, particularly to the female breast. Considering the great benefits of both techniques as well as their limitations, it is prudent for both clinicians and imaging physicians to develop an appropriate approach to studying patients with suspected PE. Considerations such as objective clinical assessment, D-dimer assay and the chest x-ray appearance all play significant roles in this decision-making process.

  6. Current problems in the first-line treatment of metastatic breast cancer: focus on the role of docetaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Montemurro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic breast cancer is a very heterogeneous disease, both from a clinical and a biological point of view. Despite being still incurable, the expanding therapeutic repertoire has determined a progressive increase in median survival. We describe the clinical course of a 67-year-old woman with a locally advanced, hormone-receptor positive breast cancer with synchronous liver metastases. Single-agent docetaxel at the dose of 100 mg/m2 for 8 cycles determined a pathological complete remission in the breast and a near complete remission of liver metastases. After more than 4 years from diagnosis, the patient is alive and without signs of tumour progression. Based on this clinical case, we discuss management issues like the choice of the initial treatment, the use of monochemotherapy vs polychemotherapy, the worth of surgery of the primary tumour in patients with stage IV disease, and the issue of maintenance endocrine therapy. Furthermore, we reviewed the pivotal role of docetaxel in the management of advanced breast cancer. Whether monochemotherapy or polychemotherapy is felt to be an adequate choice in the clinical practice, docetaxel qualifies as one of the most active and manageable agents. Single agent activity ranging from 20-48% in terms of response rate has been reported in several clinical trials in patients treated in various clinical settings. Docetaxel-based combinations with other cytotoxic agents have become established in the first line treatment both in patients with anthracycline-resistant and anthracycline-sensitive metastatic breast cancer. Finally, docetaxel has been shown to be an optimal companion drug for biologically targeted agents like trastuzumab or bevacizumab, resulting in further treatment options.

  7. The role of ultrasound in graduate anatomy education: Current state of integration in the United States and faculty perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Danielle F

    2016-10-01

    Ultrasound (US) is increasingly taught in medical schools, where it has been shown to be a valuable adjunct to anatomy training. To determine the extent of US training in nonmedical anatomy programs, and evaluate anatomists' perceptions on the role of US in anatomy education, an online survey was distributed to faculty in anatomy Master's and Doctoral programs. Survey results sampled 71% of anatomy graduate degree programs nationally. Of the faculty surveyed, 65% report little to no experience with US. Thirty-six percent of programs surveyed incorporate exposure to US, while only 15% provide hands-on US training. Opportunities for anatomy trainees to teach with US were found in 12% of programs. Likert responses indicated that anatomists hold overwhelmingly positive views on the contributions of US to anatomy education: 91% agreed US reinforces anatomical concepts (average 4.33 ± 0.68), 95% agreed it reinforces clinical correlates (average 4.43 ± 0.65). Anatomists hold moderately positive views on the value of US to the future careers of anatomy graduates: 69% agreed US increases competitiveness on the job market (average 3.91 ± 0.90), 85% agreed US is a useful skill for a medical school teaching career (average 4.24 ± 0.75), and 41% agreed that US should be required for a medical education career (average 3.34 ± 1.09). With continued improvements in technology and the widespread adoption of US into diverse areas of clinical practice, medical education is on the cusp of a paradigm shift with regards to US. Anatomists must decide whether US is an essential skills for the modern anatomist. Anat Sci Educ 9: 453-467. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  8. The role of convection in the buildup of the ring current pressure during the 17 March 2013 storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, A. M.; Kistler, L. M.; Mouikis, C. G.; Spence, H. E.; Skoug, R. M.; Funsten, H. O.; Larsen, B. A.; Mitchell, D. G.; Gkioulidou, M.

    2017-01-01

    On 17 March 2013, the Van Allen Probes measured the H+ and O+ fluxes of the ring current during a large geomagnetic storm. Detailed examination of the pressure buildup during the storm shows large differences in the pressure measured by the two spacecraft, with measurements separated by only an hour, and large differences in the pressure measured at different local times. In addition, while the H+ and O+ pressure contributions are about equal during the main phase in the near-Earth plasma sheet outside L = 5.5, the O+ pressure dominates at lower L values. We test whether adiabatic convective transport from the near-Earth plasma sheet (L > 5.5) to the inner magnetosphere can explain these observations by comparing the observed inner magnetospheric distributions with the source distribution at constant magnetic moment, mu. We find that adiabatic convection can account for the enhanced pressure observed during the storm. Using a Weimer 1996 electric field we model the drift trajectories to show that the key features can be explained by variation in the near-Earth plasma sheet population and particle access that changes with energy and L shell. Finally, we show that the dominance of O+ at low L shells is due partly to a near-Earth plasma sheet that is preferentially enhanced in O+ at lower energies (5-10 keV) and partly due to the time dependence in the source combined with longer drift times to low L shells. No source of O+ inside L = 5.5 is required to explain the observations at low L shells.

  9. Current trends in platelet transfusions practice: The role of ABO-RhD and human leukocyte antigen incompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Valsami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet transfusions have contributed to the revolutionary modern treatment of hypoproliferative thrombocytopenia. Despite the long-term application of platelet transfusion in therapeutics, all aspects of their optimal use (i.e., in cases of ABO and/or Rh (D incompatibility have not been definitively determined yet. We reviewed the available data on transfusion practices and outcome in ABO and RhD incompatibility and platelet refractoriness due to anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA antibodies. Transfusion of platelets with major ABO-incompatibility is related to reduced posttransfusion platelet (PLT count increments, compared to ABO-identical and minor, but still are equally effective in preventing clinical bleeding. ABO-minor incompatible transfusions pose the risk of an acute hemolytic reaction of the recipient that is not always related to high anti-A, B donor titers. ABO-identical PLT transfusion seems to be the most effective and safest therapeutic strategy. Exclusive ABO-identical platelet transfusion policy could be feasible, but alternative approaches could facilitate platelet inventory management. Transfusion of platelets from RhD positive donors to RhD negative patients is considered to be effective and safe though is associated with low rate of anti-D alloimmunization due to contaminating red blood cells. The prevention of D alloimmunization is recommended only for women of childbearing age. HLA alloimmunization is a major cause of platelet refractoriness. Managing patients with refractoriness with cross-matched or HLA-matched platelets is the current practice although data are still lacking for the efficacy of this practice in terms of clinical outcome. Leukoreduction contributes to the reduction of both HLA and anti-D alloimmunization.

  10. Current trends in platelet transfusions practice: The role of ABO-RhD and human leukocyte antigen incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsami, Serena; Dimitroulis, Dimitrios; Gialeraki, Argyri; Chimonidou, Maria; Politou, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Platelet transfusions have contributed to the revolutionary modern treatment of hypoproliferative thrombocytopenia. Despite the long-term application of platelet transfusion in therapeutics, all aspects of their optimal use (i.e., in cases of ABO and/or Rh (D incompatibility) have not been definitively determined yet. We reviewed the available data on transfusion practices and outcome in ABO and RhD incompatibility and platelet refractoriness due to anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies. Transfusion of platelets with major ABO-incompatibility is related to reduced posttransfusion platelet (PLT) count increments, compared to ABO-identical and minor, but still are equally effective in preventing clinical bleeding. ABO-minor incompatible transfusions pose the risk of an acute hemolytic reaction of the recipient that is not always related to high anti-A, B donor titers. ABO-identical PLT transfusion seems to be the most effective and safest therapeutic strategy. Exclusive ABO-identical platelet transfusion policy could be feasible, but alternative approaches could facilitate platelet inventory management. Transfusion of platelets from RhD positive donors to RhD negative patients is considered to be effective and safe though is associated with low rate of anti-D alloimmunization due to contaminating red blood cells. The prevention of D alloimmunization is recommended only for women of childbearing age. HLA alloimmunization is a major cause of platelet refractoriness. Managing patients with refractoriness with cross-matched or HLA-matched platelets is the current practice although data are still lacking for the efficacy of this practice in terms of clinical outcome. Leukoreduction contributes to the reduction of both HLA and anti-D alloimmunization.

  11. The Role of MicroRNAs in Resistance to Current Pancreatic Cancer Treatment: Translational Studies and Basic Protocols for Extraction and PCR Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garajová, Ingrid; Le Large, Tessa Y S; Giovannetti, Elisa; Kazemier, Geert; Biasco, Guido; Peters, Godefridus J

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a common cause of cancer death and has the worst prognosis of any major malignancy, with less than 5 % of patients alive 5-years after diagnosis. The therapeutic options for metastatic PDAC have changed in the past few years from single agent gemcitabine treatment to combination regimens. Nowadays, FOLFIRINOX or gemcitabine with nab-paclitaxel are new standard combinations in frontline metastatic setting in PDAC patients with good performance status. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small, noncoding RNA molecules affecting important cellular processes such as inhibition of apoptosis, cell proliferation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), metastases, and resistance to common cytotoxic and anti-signaling therapy in PDAC. A functional association between miRNAs and chemoresistance has been described for several common therapies. Therefore, in this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the role of miRNAs in the resistance to current anticancer treatment used for patients affected by metastatic PDAC.

  12. A compreensão dos operadores de direito do Distrito Federal sobre o usuário de drogas na vigência da nova lei The understanding of law professionals from the Federal District about drug users under the current new law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Barros Santoucy

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O usuário de drogas tem recebido tratamentos contraditórios que promovem sua estigmatização e clandestinidade e limitam a compreensão do fenômeno. O objetivo foi investigar como Promotores e Juízes estão entendendo e aplicando a nova lei que legisla sobre a conduta de usar e portar drogas no Brasil. Onze operadores do Direito do Distrito Federal (DF participaram de entrevistas semi-estruturadas divididas em três eixos: a visão em relação ao usuário de droga; como a lei vem sendo aplicada; e como concebe o trabalho da equipe multidisciplinar. As respostas demonstraram posições muito heterogêneas, denotando não haver ainda unanimidade quanto à compreensão da nova lei: se por um lado há uma crença compartilhada de que o uso de drogas é um problema de saúde pública, por outro, acredita-se que o usuário deve receber uma punição por seu ato ilegal. Um diálogo interdisciplinar efetivo permitiria uma atuação eficaz e reflexiva visando a beneficiar as pessoas que chegam à justiça.Drugs users have been receiving contradictory treatments thereby promoting their stigma besides hiding and limiting the understanding of the phenomenon. The objective of this study was to investigate how the District Attorneys and Judges are considering and applying the new law which legislates on the conduct of drug use in Brazil. Eleven Law professionals from the Federal District participated in semi-structured interviews divided in three areas: the point of view in relation to the user of drugs, how the law is being applied, and how they conceive the work of the multidisciplinary teams. The results showed very heterogeneous positions, showing that there is no unanimity on the understanding of the new law. For some, there is a shared belief that drugs abuse is a public health problem, for others, it is believed that the user must receive a punishment for his/her illegal act. An effective and efficient interdisciplinary dialogue should allow a

  13. Bioterrorism and biological threats dominate federal health security research; other priorities get scant attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Shoshana R; Connor, Kathryn; Uscher-Pines, Lori; Pillemer, Francesca Matthews; Mullikin, James M; Kellermann, Arthur L

    2012-12-01

    The federal government plays a critical role in achieving national health security by providing strategic guidance and funding research to help prevent, respond to, mitigate, and recover from disasters, epidemics, and acts of terrorism. In this article we describe the first-ever inventory of nonclassified national health security-related research funded by civilian agencies of the federal government. Our analysis revealed that the US government's portfolio of health security research is currently weighted toward bioterrorism and emerging biological threats, laboratory methods, and development of biological countermeasures. Eight of ten other priorities identified in the Department of Health and Human Services' National Health Security Strategy-such as developing and maintaining a national health security workforce or incorporating recovery into planning and response-receive scant attention. We offer recommendations to better align federal spending with health security research priorities, including the creation of an interagency working group charged with minimizing research redundancy and filling persistent gaps in knowledge.

  14. Epidemiology of HPV genotypes in Uganda and the role of the current preventive vaccines: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namujju Proscovia B

    2011-07-01

    infections. Among uncircumcised adult HIV positive males, HR-HPV prevalence ranged from 55.3% -76.6% compared to 38.6% -47.6% in HIV negative males. Incident and multiple HR-HPV infections were frequent in HIV positive males. Being uncircumcised was the main risk factor for both prevalent and incident HPV infection. Conclusion Infections with HR-HPV genotypes were very common particularly among HIV positive individuals and young women irrespective of HIV status. Given the high prevalence of HIV infection, HPV-associated conditions represent a major public health burden in Uganda. However, although the most common HPV genotypes in ICC cases in Uganda were those targeted by current preventive vaccines, there were a large number of individuals infected with other HR-HPV genotypes. Technology allowing, these other HR-HPV types should be considered in the development of the next generation of vaccines.

  15. The understanding of law professionals from the Federal District about drug users under the current new law / A compreensão dos operadores de direito do Distrito Federal sobre o usuário de drogas na vigência da nova lei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fátima Olivier Sudbrack

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Drugs users have been receiving contradictory treatments thereby promoting their stigma besides hiding and limiting the understanding of the phenomenon. The objective of this study was to investigate how the District Attorneys and Judges are considering and applying the new law which legislates on the conduct of drug use in Brazil. Eleven Law professionals from the Federal District participated in semi-structured interviews divided in three areas: the point of view in relation to the user of drugs, how the law is being applied, and how they conceive the work of the multidisciplinary teams. The results showed very heterogeneous positions, showing that there is no unanimity on the understanding of the new law. For some, there is a shared belief that drugs abuse is a public health problem, for others, it is believed that the user must receive a punishment for his/her illegal act. An effective and efficient interdisciplinary dialogue should allow a reflective action aiming at favoring those who come to justice.

  16. Federalism and Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Alan Tarr

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available President Barack Obama proposed a major overhaul of the American healthsystem, and in 2010 the U.S. Congress enacted his proposal, the PatientProtection and Affordable Care Act. Opponents of the Act challenged itsconstitutionality in federal court, claiming that it exceeds the powers grantedto the federal government under the Commerce Clause and the NecessaryProper Clause of the federal Constitution. Some courts have upheldthe law, but others have agreed with the critics, in particular ruling thatthe provision requiring citizens to buy health insurance is unconstitutional.Eventually the U.S. Supreme Court will rule on the issue. This article tracesthe controversy, surveys the interpretation of pertinent constitutional provisionsin past cases, analyzes the constitutional arguments presented byproponents and opponents of the Act, and concludes that the Act is constitutional.

  17. Federalism and health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Richard P

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a cyclical theory of U.S. federalism and social policy: Many social policy initiatives are tested and refined at the state level, especially during conservative periods, and later morph into national policies. The paper describes such federalism cycles and offers an interpretation of why and how they occur, focusing on Medicaid. State activism has preserved and expanded Medicaid through policy innovation and resistance to retrenchment, especially in conservative periods, by taking advantage of the flexibility the program provides. I conclude that Medicaid's incremental/partnership approach is appropriate and feasible to build on for a future expansion of health care coverage.

  18. Bioethics Symposium: The ethical food movement: What does it mean for the role of science and scientists in current debates about animal agriculture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croney, C C; Apley, M; Capper, J L; Mench, J A; Priest, S

    2012-05-01

    Contemporary animal agriculture is increasingly criticized on ethical grounds. Consequently, current policy and legislative discussions have become highly controversial as decision makers attempt to reconcile concerns about the impacts of animal production on animal welfare, the environment, and on the efficacy of antibiotics required to ensure human health with demands for abundant, affordable, safe food. Clearly, the broad implications for US animal agriculture of what appears to be a burgeoning movement relative to ethical food production must be understood by animal agriculture stakeholders. The potential effects of such developments on animal agricultural practices, corporate marketing strategies, and public perceptions of the ethics of animal production must also be clarified. To that end, it is essential to acknowledge that people's beliefs about which food production practices are appropriate are tied to diverse, latent value systems. Thus, relying solely on scientific information as a means to resolve current debates about animal agriculture is unlikely to be effective. The problem is compounded when scientific information is used inappropriately or strategically to advance a political agenda. Examples of the interface between science and ethics in regards to addressing currently contentious aspects of food animal production (animal welfare, antimicrobial use, and impacts of animal production practices on the environment) are reviewed. The roles of scientists and science in public debates about animal agricultural practices are also examined. It is suggested that scientists have a duty to contribute to the development of sound policy by providing clear and objectively presented information, by clarifying misinterpretations of science, and by recognizing the differences between presenting data vs. promoting their own value judgments in regard to how and which data should be used to establish policy. Finally, the role of the media in shaping public opinions

  19. The Role of Deforestation in the Collapse of Classic Maya Civilization: Lessons for the Current Land Use Management in Northern Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, D. K.; Nair, U. S.; Welch, R. M.; Lawton, R. O.; Oglesby, R. J.; Pielke, R. A.; Sever, T. A.; Irwin, D.

    2005-12-01

    The classic Maya civilization produced thriving cities that attained population densities comparable to modern day cities during the zenith of its growth approximately around 750 A.D. The Mayan civilization then experienced a catastrophic collapse between 750-950 A.D. Among the various hypothesis forwarded to explain the sudden collapse, one that has recently attracted attention, is the role of deforestation and decreases of regional rainfall that could have affected the day-to-day lives of the ancient Mayas. Deep-rooted rainforest vegetation has access to water stored in deep soil layers, and this deep water is made available to the hydrological cycle through transpiration. Removal of rainforests for agricultural purposes, which is accompanied by soil compaction and reduction in the organic material at the surface, leads to increased runoff and decreased soil water storage. Shallow-rooted vegetation that replaces the deep-rooted rainforests cannot efficiently access the moisture in the deep soil layers, reducing flux of water vapor to the atmosphere. In this study the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CSU RAMS) is utilized to examine differences in precipitation between current and forested conditions and between current and deforested conditions similar to those that archaeologists believe were prevalent prior to the collapse. Moreover, current deforestation rates in this region is converting the landscape into one that is similar to those prior to the Maya collapse. The simulated rainfall is compared against climatological rain gauge rainfall values. The statistical scores such as probability of detection, false alarm ratio, and the threat scores all compare favorably with those reported in the literature. Our results suggest that with the removal of forests the rainfall can be expected to decrease by 10 to 100mm in the Maya lowlands. Averaged over the entire Maya lowlands region, dry season rainfall for the forested conditions is

  20. 78 FR 26847 - Including Specific Pavement Types in Federal-aid Highway Traffic Noise Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... Federal Highway Administration Including Specific Pavement Types in Federal-aid Highway Traffic Noise... types used in Federal-aid highway traffic noise analyses. Current highway traffic noise analyses rely on... suggestions on whether and how to include additional pavement types in Federal-aid highway traffic...

  1. Defense Infrastructure: DOD has Made Limited Progress in Assessing Foreign Encroachment Risks on Federally Managed Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-13

    Environmental Enforcement. These agencies administer federal lands—including those that are near DOD test and training ranges—and issue a wide...the current statutory and regulatory framework governing real property transactions involving the federal government and foreign- controlled entities...which DOD coordinates efforts with other federal agencies to monitor proposed real property transactions involving the federal government and

  2. Energy policy and federalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thur, L.M. (ed.)

    1981-04-01

    Separate abstracts are prepared for six papers presented as the product of an international seminar on Energy Policy and Federalism in North America. Specially commissioned papers for the seminar are presented along with a summary of the discussions. The summary appears in English, French, and Spanish; the other papers are in English. (MCW)

  3. Federal Forecasters Directory, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    This directory lists employees of the federal government who are involved in forecasting for policy formation and trend prediction purposes. Job title, agency, business address, phone or e-mail number, and specialty areas are listed for each employee. Employees are listed for the following agencies: (1) Bureau of the Census; (2) Bureau of Economic…

  4. Federal budget timetable

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the federal budget timetable under the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (Gramm-Rudman-Hollings). These deadlines apply to fiscal years (FY) 1987-1991. The deficit reduction measures in Gramm-Rudman-Hollings would lead to a balanced budget in 1991.

  5. The OLAP-XML Federation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xuepeng; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2006-01-01

    We present the logical “OLAP-XML Federation System” that enables the external data available in XML format to be used as virtual dimensions. Unlike the complex and time-consuming physical integration of OLAP and external data in current OLAP systems, our system makes OLAP queries referencing fast...

  6. Accuracy of TNM staging in colorectal cancer: a review of current culprits, the modern role of morphology and stepping-stones for improvements in the molecular era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Dordi; Håland, Sven; Hagland, Hanne R; Søreide, Kjetil

    2014-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide. Survival is largely stage-dependant, guided by the tumor-node-metastases (TNM) system for TNM assessment. Histopathological evaluation, including assessment of lymph node status, is important for correct TNM staging. However, recent updates in the TNM system have resulted in controversy. A continued debate on definitions resulting in potential up- and downstaging of patients, which may obscure survival data, has led the investigators to investigate other or alternative staging tools. Consequently, additional prognostic factors have been searched for using the regular light microscopy. Among the factors evaluated by histopathology include the evaluation of tumor budding and stromal environment, angiogenesis, as well as involvement of the immune system (including the 'Immunoscore'). We review the current role of histopathology, controversies in TNM-staging and suggested alternatives to better predict outcome for CRC patients in the era of genomic medicine.

  7. Study of federal microwave standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, L.

    1980-08-01

    Present and future federal regulatory processes which may impact the permissible levels of microwave radiation emitted by the SPS Microwave Power Transmission (MPTS) were studied. An historical development of US occupational and public microwave standards includes an overview of Western and East European philosophies of environmental protection and neurophysiology which have led to the current widely differing maximum permissible exposure limits to microwaves. The possible convergence of microwave standards is characterized by a lowering of Western exposure levels while Eastern countries consider standard relaxation. A trend toward stricter controls on activities perceived as harmful to public health is under way as is interest in improving the federal regulatory process. Particularly relevant to SPS is the initiation of long-term, low-level microwave exposure programs. Coupled with new developments in instrumentation and dosimetry, the results from chronic exposure program and population exposure studies could be expected within the next five to ten years. Also discussed is the increasing public concern that rf energy is yet another hazardous environmental agent.

  8. Defensive Federal Litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-20

    Unidos , Inc. v. United States Dep’t of Labor, 803 F.2d 1063, 1068 (9th Cir. 1986); Ameron, Inc. v. United States Army Corps of Eng’rs, 787 F.2d 875 (3d...Federal Circuit 59Diekan v. Stone, 995 F.2d 1061 (1st Cir. 1993); Penagaricano v. Llenza, 747 F.2d 55 (1st Cir. 1984); Guerra v. Scruggs, 942 F.2d 270

  9. A review of the potential therapeutic role of statins in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: current research and opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell AJ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Álvaro Sánchez-Ferro,1–4 Julián Benito-León,1–3 Alex J Mitchell,5 Félix Bermejo-Pareja1–31Department of Neurology, University Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain; 2Department of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain; 3Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, Madrid, Spain; 4Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; 5Department of Psycho-oncology, Leicestershire Partnership NHS Trust and University of Leicester, Leicester, UKAbstract: Alzheimer’s disease is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorders. However, there is no current treatment, which definitively influences disease progression over a sustained period. Numerous studies linking an increase in serum cholesterol, mainly during midlife, with the pathogenic process of Alzheimer’s disease have been published. Therefore, the role of statins as a therapy in this disorder may be of great interest. The aim of the present review is to summarize of the role of statins in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.Keywords: animal models, epidemiology, HMGCoA-inhibitors, clinical trials, prevention, cognitive function

  10. The Role That Web 2.0 Currently Has and Could Have in the Future in Supporting the Teaching of ICT Design for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrea, Paulina; Mitrea, Delia

    The main objective of the article is to highlight the role that Web2.0 currently has and could have in the future in supporting the teaching of ICT Design for All. According to this, first the concepts of Web2.0 and eLearning2.0 are clarified and connected. The new way of thinking about eLearning being inspired by the emergence of Web2.0, the term eLearning2.0 was introduced to identify a new paradigm. So, eLearning 2.0, by contrast to eLearning1.0 is built around collaboration, also eLearning2.0 assumes that knowledge is socially constructed. Related to the role of Web2.0 in supporting the teaching of ICT Design for All, the 4 steps involved by the ICT Design For All Teaching Principles are presented and detailed. Finally, some real world examples are shown, as evidence of how the new methods of communication offered by Web2.0 can be used to support students as they learn about Design for All.

  11. The Investigation of Sudden Arrhythmic Death Syndrome (SADS – the current approach to family screening and the future role of genomics & stem cell technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal eVyas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SADS is defined as sudden death under the age of 40 years old in the absence of structural heart disease. Family screening studies are able to identify a cause in up to 50% of cases-most commonly long QT syndrome, Brugada and early repolarisation syndrome, and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia using standard clinical screening investigations including pharmacological challenge testing. These diagnoses may be supported by genetic testing which can aid cascade screening and may help guide management. In the current era it is possible to undertake molecular autopsy provided suitable samples of DNA can be obtained from the proband. With the evolution of rapid sequencing techniques it is possible to sequence the whole exome for candidate genes. This major advance offers the opportunity to identify novel causes of lethal arrhythmia but also poses the challenge of managing the volume of data generated and evaluating variants of unknown significance. The emergence of induced pluripotent stem cell technology could enable evaluation of the electrophysiological relevance of specific ion channel mutations in the proband or their relatives and will potentially enable screening of idiopathic ventricular fibrillation survivors combining genetic and electrophysiological studies in derived myocytes. This also could facilitate the assessment of personalised preventative pharmacological therapies. This review will evaluate the current screening strategies in SADS families, the role of molecular autopsy and genetic testing and the potential applications of molecular and cellular diagnostic strategies on the horizon.

  12. Projected changes to South Atlantic boundary currents and confluence region in the CMIP5 models: the role of wind and deep ocean changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, G. M.; Gupta, A. Sen; Taschetto, A. S.

    2016-09-01

    The South Atlantic (SA) circulation plays an important role in the oceanic teleconnections from the Indian, Pacific and Southern oceans to the North Atlantic, with inter-hemispheric exchanges of heat and salt. Here, we show that the large-scale features of the SA circulation are projected to change significantly under ‘business as usual’ greenhouse gas increases. Based on 19 models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 there is a projected weakening in the upper ocean interior transport (wind stress curl over this region. The reduction in ocean interior circulation is largely compensated by a decrease in the net deep southward ocean transport (>1000 m), mainly related to a decrease in the North Atlantic deep water transport. Between 30° and 40°S, there is a consistent projected intensification in the Brazil current strength of about 40% (30%-58% interquartile range) primarily compensated by an intensification of the upper interior circulation across the Indo-Atlantic basin. The Brazil-Malvinas confluence is projected to shift southwards, driven by a weakening of the Malvinas current. Such a change could have important implications for the distribution of marine species in the southwestern SA in the future.

  13. 7 CFR 22.303 - Cooperation with Federal Regional Councils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperation with Federal Regional Councils. 22.303 Section 22.303 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and Responsibilities of State Governments § 22.303 Cooperation with Federal Regional Councils. States are urged to...

  14. 7 CFR 22.309 - Seeking Federal review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seeking Federal review. 22.309 Section 22.309 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and Responsibilities of State Governments § 22.309 Seeking Federal review. States may, if they elect, submit multicounty...

  15. Managing Federal Information Technology: Conflicting Policies and Competing Philosophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beachboard, John C.; McClure, Charles R.

    1996-01-01

    Examines information technology (IT) policies and the roles played by federal agencies in developing and implementing IT management policies. Illustrates how selected policy prescriptions can prove to be problematic and offers recommendations on how to improve federal IT management. Contains 62 references. (AEF)

  16. Community College Students and Federal Student Financial Aid: A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszkiewicz, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    The federal government plays an indispensable role in helping community college students pay for their education. It is hard to imagine today's community college campuses without needs-based federal student aid, such as the Pell Grant program and subsidized loans. There are, however, significant differences between community college students and…

  17. Tax incentives in fiscal federalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelders, Christian; Köthenbürger, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Models of fiscal federalism rarely account for the efficiency implications of intergovernmental fiscal ties for federal tax policy. This paper shows that fiscal institutions such that federal tax deductibility, vertical revenue-sharing, and fiscal equalization (being common features of existing...... federations) encourage local taxation, but may discourage federal taxation. Furthermore, the structure of public spending is skewed towards local spending. We also show that, when considering Leviathan governments, fiscal institutions reduce confiscatory taxation by the federal government. The result...... is contrary to the Cartelization Hypothesis ( Brennan and Buchanan 1980 ). Finally, we characterize the efficient design of intergovernmental fiscal ties....

  18. Exploring the role of turbulent acceleration and heating in fractal current sheet of solar flares­ from hybrid particle in cell and lattice Boltzmann virtual test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, B.; Lin, J.; Yuan, X.; Li, Y.; Shen, C.

    2016-12-01

    The role of turbulent acceleration and heating in the fractal magnetic reconnection of solar flares is still not clear, especially at the X-point in the diffusion region. At virtual test aspect, it is hardly to quantitatively analyze the vortex generation, turbulence evolution, particle acceleration and heating in the magnetic islands coalesce in fractal manner, formatting into largest plasmid and ejection process in diffusion region through classical magnetohydrodynamics numerical method. With the development of physical particle numerical method (particle in cell method [PIC], Lattice Boltzmann method [LBM]) and high performance computing technology in recently two decades. Kinetic simulation has developed into an effectively manner to exploring the role of magnetic field and electric field turbulence in charged particles acceleration and heating process, since all the physical aspects relating to turbulent reconnection are taken into account. In this paper, the LBM based lattice DxQy grid and extended distribution are added into charged-particles-to-grid-interpolation of PIC based finite difference time domain scheme and Yee Grid, the hybrid PIC-LBM simulation tool is developed to investigating turbulence acceleration on TIANHE-2. The actual solar coronal condition (L≈105Km,B≈50-500G,T≈5×106K, n≈108-109, mi/me≈500-1836) is applied to study the turbulent acceleration and heating in solar flare fractal current sheet. At stage I, magnetic islands shrink due to magnetic tension forces, the process of island shrinking halts when the kinetic energy of the accelerated particles is sufficient to halt the further collapse due to magnetic tension forces, the particle energy gain is naturally a large fraction of the released magnetic energy. At stage II and III, the particles from the energized group come in to the center of the diffusion region and stay longer in the area. In contract, the particles from non energized group only skim the outer part of the

  19. Role of tumor necrosis factor-αin the regulation of T-type calcium channel current in HL-1 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAO Fang; SHAN Zhi-xin; ZHU Jie-ning; XIE Zhi; WU Shu-lin; DENG Chun-yu; XUE Yu-mei; YU Xi-yong; WEI Wei; LIU Fang-zhou; YANG Hui; KUANG Su-juan; CHEN Shao-xian; XIAO Ding-zhang

    2016-01-01

    AIM:Increasing evidence indicates that inflammation contributes to the initiation and perpetuation of atrial fibrillation ( AF) .Al-though tumor necrosis factor ( TNF)-αlevels are increased in patients with AF , the role of TNF-αin the pathogenesis of AF remains unclear.Recent research has revealed that T-type Ca2+currents ( ICa,T ) play an important role in the pathogenesis of AF .METH-ODS:In this study , we used the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique and biochemical assays to explore the role of TNF-αin the regula-tion of ICa,T in atrial myocytes.RESULTS:We found that compared with sinus rhythm (SR) controls, T-type calcium channel (TCC) subunit mRNA levels were decreased , while TNF-αexpression levels were increased , in human atrial tissue from patients with AF .In murine atrial myocyte HL-1 cells, after cultured for 24 h, 12.5, 25 and 50 μg/L TNF-αsignificantly reduced the protein expression levels of the TCC α1G subunit in a concentration-dependent manner .The peak current was reduced by the application of 12.5 or 25μg/L TNF-αin a concentration-dependent manner [from ( -15.08 ±1.11) pA/pF in controls to ( -11.89 ±0.83) pA/pF and (-8.54 ±1.55) pA/pF in 12.5 and 25 μg/L TNF-αgroups, respectively].TNF-αapplication also inhibited voltage-dependent inactivation of ICa,T shifted the inactivation curve to the left .CONCLUSION:These results suggest that TNF-αis involved in the path-ogenesis of AF, probably via decreasing ICa,T function in atrium-derived myocytes through impaired channel function and down -regula-tion of channel protein expression .This pathway thus represents a potential pathogenic mechanism in AF .

  20. Federating Metadata Catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baru, C.; Lin, K.

    2009-04-01

    The Geosciences Network project (www.geongrid.org) has been developing cyberinfrastructure for data sharing in the Earth Science community based on a service-oriented architecture. The project defines a standard "software stack", which includes a standardized set of software modules and corresponding service interfaces. The system employs Grid certificates for distributed user authentication. The GEON Portal provides online access to these services via a set of portlets. This service-oriented approach has enabled the GEON network to easily expand to new sites and deploy the same infrastructure in new projects. To facilitate interoperation with other distributed geoinformatics environments, service standards are being defined and implemented for catalog services and federated search across distributed catalogs. The need arises because there may be multiple metadata catalogs in a distributed system, for example, for each institution, agency, geographic region, and/or country. Ideally, a geoinformatics user should be able to search across all such catalogs by making a single search request. In this paper, we describe our implementation for such a search capability across federated metadata catalogs in the GEON service-oriented architecture. The GEON catalog can be searched using spatial, temporal, and other metadata-based search criteria. The search can be invoked as a Web service and, thus, can be imbedded in any software application. The need for federated catalogs in GEON arises because, (i) GEON collaborators at the University of Hyderabad, India have deployed their own catalog, as part of the iGEON-India effort, to register information about local resources for broader access across the network, (ii) GEON collaborators in the GEO Grid (Global Earth Observations Grid) project at AIST, Japan have implemented a catalog for their ASTER data products, and (iii) we have recently deployed a search service to access all data products from the EarthScope project in the US

  1. 78 FR 39200 - Federal Earth Stations-Non-Federal Fixed Satellite Service Space Stations; Spectrum for Non...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ...-11341; FCC 13-65] Federal Earth Stations--Non-Federal Fixed Satellite Service Space Stations; Spectrum... interference protection for Fixed-Satellite Service (FSS) and Mobile- Satellite Service (MSS) earth stations... and the important role it will play in our nation's economy and technological innovation now and in...

  2. Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — The Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (e-CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the executive...

  3. The Federal Emergency Management Agency's National Incident Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NIMS provides an integrated framework defining the roles and responsibilities of federal, state and local first responders, developed with responders from different jurisdictions and disciplines, to better work together during emergency events.

  4. Modeling data federations in ORM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balsters, Herman; Halpin, Terry; Meersman, R; Tari, Z; Herrero, P

    2007-01-01

    Two major problems in constructing data federations (for example, data warehouses and database federations) concern achieving and maintaining consistency and a uniform representation of the data on the global level of the federation. The first step in creating uniform representations of data is know

  5. 77 FR 31600 - Federal Need Analysis Methodology for the 2013-2014 Award Year: Federal Pell Grant, Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ..., Federal Work-Study, Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant, William D. Ford Federal Direct... Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant Program; 84.268 William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program; 84.379..., Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant, William...

  6. The European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics Policy Statement No 14, The role of the Medical Physicist in the management of safety within the magnetic resonance imaging environment, EFOMP recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hand, J.; Bosmans, H.; Caruana, C.; Keevil, S.; Norris, D.G.; Padovani, R.; Speck, O.

    2013-01-01

    This European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics (EFOMP) Policy Statement outlines the way in which a Safety Management System can be developed for MRI units. The Policy Statement can help eliminate or at least minimize accidents or incidents in the magnetic resonance environment and is

  7. From Soft Power to Economic Diplomacy? A Comparison of the Changing Rationales and Roles of the U. S. and Canadian Federal Governments in International Education. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.2.15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trilokekar, Roopa Desai

    2015-01-01

    Through a historical and comparative analysis of international education policy development in Canada and the U.S., this paper will map the similarities and differences in the two countries. It will highlight the contributions and challenges of the government's involvement in international education (IE) in the two federal states and in…

  8. The European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics Policy Statement No 14, The role of the Medical Physicist in the management of safety within the magnetic resonance imaging environment, EFOMP recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hand, J.; Bosmans, H.; Caruana, C.; Keevil, S.; Norris, David Gordon; Padovani, R.; Speck, O.

    2013-01-01

    This European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics (EFOMP) Policy Statement outlines the way in which a Safety Management System can be developed for MRI units. The Policy Statement can help eliminate or at least minimize accidents or incidents in the magnetic resonance environment and is

  9. The European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics Policy Statement No 14: The role of the Medical Physicist in the management of safety within the magnetic resonance imaging environment: EFOMP recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hand, J.; Bosmans, H.; Caruana, C.; Keevil, S.; Norris, D.G.; Padovani, R.; Speck, O.

    2013-01-01

    This European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics (EFOMP) Policy Statement outlines the way in which a Safety Management System can be developed for MRI units. The Policy Statement can help eliminate or at least minimize accidents or incidents in the magnetic resonance environment and is

  10. 18 CFR 367.2420 - Account 242, Miscellaneous current and accrued liabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities... Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC...

  11. 细胞自噬在肝纤维化中的作用%Current perspectives on the role of autophagy in liver fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁剑波; 李秀惠

    2013-01-01

    细胞自噬是细胞内的一种代谢过程,通过细胞内的膜结构包裹部分胞质和细胞内需降解的细胞器、蛋白质等形成自噬小体,然后与溶酶体融合降解其所包裹内容物,其降解产物氨基酸、游离脂肪酸等可供细胞物质能量循环,细胞自噬在肝脏疾病的发生发展中有重要的作用,最近研究表明,细胞自噬可以通过降解脂滴为肝星状细胞的活化提供能量从而促进肝纤维化的发生.%Liver disease, especially liver fibrosis, remains a major health challenge in China. In order to develop effective preventive and therapeutic interventions of liver fibrosis, the related etiologies and key pathogenic mechanisms must be understood. Upon liver damage, the hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are activated and secrete robust amounts of inflammatory cytokines and extracellular matrix proteins, leading to fibrosis. A recently recognized mediator of HSC activation is autophagy, a necessary metabolic process of protein cycling for energy production. More recently, however, a role for autophagy in HSC - mediated 1 ver fibrosis has been suggested. This review summarizes the reported evidence of increased autophagy and HSC activation in fibrosis and discusses the potential role of autophage - degraded lipid droplets as energy sources for activating HSCs. In addition, the review briefly highligh s the current research of autophagy and HSCs in relation to hepatitis virus infection, a major etiology of liver disease and fibrosis in China. By gaining a comprehensive and detailed understanding of the role of autophagy in liver disease, novel and improved therapies may be developed, targeting physiological pathways of the patients liver or immune system or of an invading pathogen, such as hepatitis virus replication.

  12. 49 CFR 193.2633 - Interference currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2633 Interference currents. (a) Each component that is subject to electrical current interference must be protected by a continuing program to minimize...

  13. Current and Emerging Systemic Therapy in Gastro-Esophageal Cancer "The Old and New Therapy for Metastatic Disease, The Role of Adjuvant and Neoadjuvant Therapy for Localized Disease".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Bora; Jiang, Yixing

    2015-01-01

    Cancers of esophagus and stomach are common malignant diseases worldwide, and they are associated with serious morbidity and high mortality rates. When diagnosed at an early stage, gastro-esophageal cancers are potentially curable. Neo-adjuvant or adjuvant therapies using both chemotherapy and radiation therapy have been shown to reduce the risk of local recurrence and distant metastasis. For advanced or metastatic tumors, systemic chemotherapy offers symptomatic palliation and moderate benefits in survival. With recent advances in anti-cancer therapeutics, progress has been made to improve treatment response and life expectancy in patients with advanced gastro-esophageal cancers. Furthermore, the clinical use of molecularly targeted agents in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapeutics is being evaluated in a number of ongoing clinical trials. In this article, we review currently used standard systemic therapies including recently evolving targeted therapies for metastatic gastro-esophageal cancers, as well as the proven role and the regimens that are used as neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment in localized gastro-esophageal cancers.

  14. Mechanism design for federated sponsored search auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Ceppi, Sofia; Gatti, Nicola; Gerding, Enrico H.

    2011-01-01

    Recently there is an increase in smaller, domain-specific search engines that scour the deep web finding information that general-purpose engines are unable to discover. These search engines play a crucial role in the new generation of search paradigms where federated search engines (FSEs) integrate search results from heterogeneous sources. In this paper we pose, for the first time, the problem to design a revenue mechanism that ensures profits both to individual search engines and FSEs as a...

  15. Mechanism design for federated sponsored search auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Ceppi, Sofia; Gatti, Nicola; Gerding, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    Recently there is an increase in smaller, domain-specific search engines that scour the deep web finding information that general-purpose engines are unable to discover. These search engines play a crucial role in the new generation of search paradigms where federated search engines (FSEs) integrate search results from heterogeneous sources. In this paper we pose, for the first time, the problem to design a revenue mechanism that ensures profits both to individual search engines and FSEs as a...

  16. Updating collection representations for federated search

    OpenAIRE

    M. Shokouhi; Baillie, M; Azzopardi, L.

    2007-01-01

    To facilitate the search for relevant information across a set of online distributed collections, a federated information retrieval system typically represents each collection, centrally, by a set of vocabularies or sampled documents. Accurate retrieval is therefore related to how precise each representation reflects the underlying content stored in that collection. As collections evolve over time, collection representations should also be updated to reflect any change, however, a current sol...

  17. Central Banking and the Crisis. A Comparison of the Federal Reserve and the European Central Bank Measures, and the ECB’s Changing Role in the EU Economic Governance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Roman Czubala

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Central Bank (ECB has received a lot of criticism for its too little, too late performance to ease market pressures during the economic crisis. At the same time, the ECB and the Federal Reserve (FED have managed the new economic realities that have emerged in the international context differently. Despite the criticisms, the European Central Bank is the European Union institution that has assumed more control due to the new model of economic governance of the EU. Why did the Federal Reserve act so nimbly and quickly to calm the markets, while the ECB was so cautious in managing monetary policy? The aim of this paper is to perform a comparative analysis of the management of interest rates and other monetary policy measures undertaken by the Central Bank and the Federal Reserve during the economic crisis, as well as to understand the changes in the context of the ECB and the emergence of its authority within the European Union’s economic governance model since 2011. Thus, in order to carry out a scrupulous exposition, we will also limit the time frame of this study to the 2007-2014 period.

  18. Sheep farmer opinions on the current and future role of veterinarians in flock health management on sheep farms: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaler, Jasmeet; Green, L E

    2013-11-01

    A 2009 UK Government report on veterinary expertise in food animal production highlighted that there was insufficient herd health expertise among veterinarians and lack of appropriate business models to deliver veterinary services to the livestock sector. Approximately two thirds of sheep farmers only contact their veterinarian for emergencies and one fifth have all year round contact. The aim of the current study was to understand sheep farmers' perception, the current and future role of veterinarians in flock health management using qualitative methodology. The eligibility criteria were male farmers with a flock size of at least 200 adult sheep. Seven focus groups of farmers (n=45) stratified by three regions and two age groups (≤50 and >50) were conducted. Thematic analysis of the discussions indicated that most farmers considered and used their veterinarian as a fire-fighter, whilst other advice was gathered free of charge when the veterinarian was on the farm for other reasons (typically seeing cattle) or by telephone. A small group of farmers were using their veterinarian or a sheep consultant proactively with regular contact and found this financially beneficial. Farmers indicated that the key barriers to using a veterinarian proactively were inconsistent service, high turnover of veterinarians, lack of expertise of sheep farming among veterinarians and concern about independence of advice. Although economics was also mentioned as a key barrier to using veterinarians more proactively, most farmers did not know where they gained and lost income from their flock; there was heavy reliance on the single farm payment scheme (SPS) and very few farmers kept records from which they could investigate where there were inefficiencies in production. Overall sheep farmers considered sheep farming complex and that each farm was unique and that they themselves were the experts to manage their flock. We conclude that there is an impasse: veterinarians might need to

  19. Optimized detection and characterization of liver metastases. The role of current MRI contrast agents; Optimierte Detektion und Charakterisierung von Lebermetastasen. Leistungsvermoegen aktueller MRT-Kontrastmittel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinrich, J.M.; Well, L.; Bannas, P. [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Zentrum fuer Radiologie und Endoskopie, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    Metastases are the most common malignant lesions of the liver. The presence of liver metastases is an important prognostic factor and is decisive for the further management, especially in patients with colorectal cancer. Detection and characterization of liver metastases as well as differentiation from benign lesions are of high importance and a daily challenge in clinical radiology. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the highest sensitivity in detecting liver metastases. The sensitivity of MRI has been further increased due to the development of liver-specific contrast agents. This article describes the role of extracellular and hepatobiliary contrast agents for the detection and characterization of liver metastases. Moreover, the current knowledge on safety, sequence optimization, transient severe dyspnea and the combination of hepatobiliary with intravascular contrast agents for liver imaging is discussed. (orig.) [German] Metastasen sind die haeufigsten malignen Leberlaesionen. Das Vorhandensein von Lebermetastasen ist entscheidend fuer die Prognose und weitere Therapieplanung von Tumorpatienten, insbesondere von Patienten mit kolorektalen Karzinomen. Die Detektion von Lebermetastasen sowie deren Unterscheidung von anderen Leberlaesionen sind daher von hoechster Bedeutung und stellen eine alltaegliche Herausforderung fuer den Radiologen dar. Die Bildgebung mit der hoechsten Sensitivitaet fuer die Detektion von Lebermetastasen stellt die dynamische kontrastmittelgestuetzte Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) dar. Die bereits hohe Sensitivitaet der MRT wird durch den Einsatz leberspezifischer Kontrastmittel noch weiter gesteigert. Dieser Artikel beleuchtet die Rolle der aktuellen unspezifischen und leberspezifischen MRT-Kontrastmittel fuer die Detektion und Charakterisierung von Lebermetastasen. Weiterhin werden Erkenntnisse zur Sicherheit, Sequenzoptimierung, zu transienten Atemartefakten und zur Kombination von MRT-Kontrastmitteln fuer die

  20. 75 FR 38999 - Federal Perkins Loan Program: Federal Family Education Loan Program and William D. Ford Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Federal Perkins Loan Program: Federal Family Education Loan Program and William D. Ford Federal Direct... qualifications may have a portion of their Federal Perkins Loan (Perkins Loan), Federal Family Education...

  1. 75 FR 18014 - Federal Highway Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of...: Federal Highway Administration, Kentucky Division: Mr. Greg Rawlings, Transportation Specialist, 330...

  2. 78 FR 9771 - Federal Highway Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Action on Proposed Transportation Project in Illinois and Indiana AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of limitation on..., Federal Highway Administration, 3250 Executive Park Drive, Springfield, Illinois 62703, Phone: (217)...

  3. Federal Environmental Requirements for Construction

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This guide provides information on federal environmental requirements for construction projects. It is written primarily for owners of construction projects and for...

  4. Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is mandated by Congress to be the agency that collects, analyzes, and disseminates impartial, comprehensive data about energy including the volume consumed, its customers, and the purposes for which it is used. The Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey (FBSS) was conducted by EIA in conjunction with DOE`s Office of Federal Energy Management Programs (OFEMP) to gain a better understanding of how Federal buildings use energy. This report presents the data from 881 completed telephone interviews with Federal buildings in three Federal regions. These buildings were systematically selected using OFEMP`s specifications; therefore, these data do not statistically represent all Federal buildings in the country. The purpose of the FBSS was threefold: (1) to understand the characteristics of Federal buildings and their energy use; (2) to provide a baseline in these three Federal regions to measure future energy use in Federal buildings as required in EPACT; and (3) to compare building characteristics and energy use with the data collected in the CBECS.

  5. Accelerating the commercialization on new technologies. [free market operation of federal alternate energy sources programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, T. J.; Nawrocki, P. M.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that federal programs for hastening the adoption of alternative energy sources must operate within the free market structure. Five phases of the free market commercialization process are described. Federal role possibilities include information dissemination and funding to stimulate private sector activities within these five phases, and federally sponsored procedures for accelerating commercialization of solar thermal small power systems are considered.

  6. Federal Assistance to Public Black Colleges and Universities: Robin Hood Unleashed or Collusion on the Potomac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lewis L.

    Issues concerning federal assistance to public black colleges and universities are addressed. Attention is directed to the question of whether federal subsidies, given the role of state controlling agencies, automatically benefit black colleges in a meaningful, lasting manner. A second question is whether federal aid to black institutions, in its…

  7. Dynamic federation of grid and cloud storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furano, Fabrizio; Keeble, Oliver; Field, Laurence

    2016-09-01

    The Dynamic Federations project ("Dynafed") enables the deployment of scalable, distributed storage systems composed of independent storage endpoints. While the Uniform Generic Redirector at the heart of the project is protocol-agnostic, we have focused our effort on HTTP-based protocols, including S3 and WebDAV. The system has been deployed on testbeds covering the majority of the ATLAS and LHCb data, and supports geography-aware replica selection. The work done exploits the federation potential of HTTP to build systems that offer uniform, scalable, catalogue-less access to the storage and metadata ensemble and the possibility of seamless integration of other compatible resources such as those from cloud providers. Dynafed can exploit the potential of the S3 delegation scheme, effectively federating on the fly any number of S3 buckets from different providers and applying a uniform authorization to them. This feature has been used to deploy in production the BOINC Data Bridge, which uses the Uniform Generic Redirector with S3 buckets to harmonize the BOINC authorization scheme with the Grid/X509. The Data Bridge has been deployed in production with good results. We believe that the features of a loosely coupled federation of open-protocolbased storage elements open many possibilities of smoothly evolving the current computing models and of supporting new scientific computing projects that rely on massive distribution of data and that would appreciate systems that can more easily be interfaced with commercial providers and can work natively with Web browsers and clients.

  8. Factors fragmenting the Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E.

    1993-10-06

    This paper examines the factors that threaten the future of the Russian Federation (RF). The observations are based on a study that focused on eight republics: Mordova, Udmurtia, Tatarstan, Mari El, Bashkortostan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Buryatia, and Altay Republic. These republics were selected for their geographic and economic significance to the RF. Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, Udmurtia, and Mari El are located on important supply routes, such as the Volga River and the trans-Siberian railroad. Some of these republics are relatively wealthy, with natural resources such as oil (e.g., Tatarstan and Bashkortostan), and all eight republics play significant roles in the military-industrial complex. The importance of these republics to the RF contrasts to the relative insignificance of the independence-minded Northern Caucasus area. The author chose not to examine the Northern Caucasus region (except Kabardino-Balkaria) because these republics may have only a minor impact on the rest of the RF if they secede. Their impact would be minimized because they lie on the frontiers of the RF. Many Russians believe that {open_quotes}it might be best to let such a troublesome area secede.{close_quotes}

  9. Roles of the magnetic field and electric current in thermally activated domain wall motion in a submicrometer magnetic strip with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emori, Satoru; Beach, Geoffrey S D

    2012-01-18

    We have experimentally studied micrometer-scale domain wall (DW) motion driven by a magnetic field and an electric current in a Co/Pt multilayer strip with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The thermal activation energy for DW motion, along with its scaling with the driving field and current, has been extracted directly from the temperature dependence of the DW velocity. The injection of DC current resulted in an enhancement of the DW velocity independent of the current polarity, but produced no measurable change in the activation energy barrier. Through this analysis, the observed current-induced DW velocity enhancement can be entirely and unambiguously attributed to Joule heating.

  10. Distrito Federal, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Alejandro Bravo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Existen dos discursos contrapuestos al respecto de la cuestión del consumo de drogas: el tradicional, que considera sólo a las drogas ilegales, criminalizando al usuario y uno nuevo, denominado de reducción de daños, que no tiene como objetivo único su eliminación total, sino también la disminución de los efectos perjudiciales del mismo, priorizando así la salud de los sujetos y de la comunidad en general. En el marco particular de las instituciones públicas del Distrito Federal, Brasil, se analizan tanto el tipo de discursos predominantes en cada una de ellas, como las relaciones de poder que permiten y organizan. Se consideran en particular los niveles de gestión responsables por determinar y ejecutar las políticas de prevención y atención a las toxicomanías. El Análisis do Discurso, utilizado en este trabajo permite el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas en las instituciones. La discusión de este tema contribuye para pensar un cambio en las políticas públicas en esta área que permita el aprovechamiento integral de los recursos humanos e institucionales existentes.

  11. 78 FR 58153 - Prevailing Rate Systems; North American Industry Classification System Based Federal Wage System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... RIN 3206-AM78 Prevailing Rate Systems; North American Industry Classification System Based Federal... Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes currently used in Federal Wage System wage survey industry... 2007 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes used in Federal Wage System (FWS)...

  12. Role of Universities in Forming a Competence of Innovative Activity as an Essential Factor of Successful Realization of a Strategy of Innovative Development of the Russian Federation Until 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina M. Pestereva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available World economic crisis of 2008-2009 slowed down a development of Russian innovative system. Dedicated federal target programs have been worked out in order to restore after-crisis situation in the country and speed up a transfer to an innovative development. These programs envisage a range of activities aimed at forming competences of innovative activity, improvement of forms and scale of personnel training and re-training programs in engineering and scientific specializations, enhancing a range of educational programs in innovative entrepreneurship and technological management.The article describes mechanisms of attracting students, postgraduates and young researchers to solving tasks of Russia’s innovative development until 2020.

  13. Data Federation Strategies for ATLAS using XRootD

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, R; The ATLAS collaboration; Duckeck, G; Elmsheuser, J; Hanushevski, A; Hönig, F; Iven, J; Legger, F; Vukotic, I; Yang, W

    2014-01-01

    In the past year the ATLAS Collaboration accelerated its program to federate data storage resources using an architecture based on XRootD with its attendant redirection and storage integration services. The main goal of the federation is an improvement in the data access experience for the end user while allowing more efficient and intelligent use of computing resources. Along with these advances come integration with existing ATLAS production services (PanDA and its pilot services) and data management services (DQ2, and in the next generation, Rucio). Functional testing of the federation has been integrated into the standard ATLAS and WLCG monitoring frameworks and a dedicated set of tools provides high granularity information on its current and historical usage. We use a federation topology designed to search from the site's local storage outward to its region and to globally distributed storage resources. We describe programmatic testing of various federation access modes including direct access over the w...

  14. Data Federation Strategies for ATLAS using XRootD

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, R; The ATLAS collaboration; Duckeck, G; Elmsheuser, J; Hanushevski, A; Hönig, F; Iven, J; Legger, F; Vukotic, I; Yang, W

    2013-01-01

    In the past year the ATLAS Collaboration accelerated its program to federate data storage resources using an architecture based on XRootD with its attendant redirection and storage integration services. The main goal of the federation is an improvement in the data access experience for the end user while allowing more efficient and intelligent use of computing resources. Along with these advances come integration with existing ATLAS production services (PanDA and its pilot services) and data management services (DQ2, and in the next generation, Rucio). Functional testing of the federation has been integrated into the standard ATLAS and WLCG monitoring frameworks and a dedicated set of tools provides high granularity information on its current and historical usage. We use a federation topology designed to search from the site's local storage outward to its region and to globally distributed storage resources. We describe programmatic testing of various federation access modes including direct access over the w...

  15. De Minimis Thresholds for Federal Building Metering Appropriateness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Jordan W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is required by statute and Presidential Memorandum to establish guidelines for agencies to meter their Federal buildings for energy (electricity, natural gas, and steam) and water. See 42 U.S.C. § 8253(e). DOE issued guidance in February 2006 on the installation of electric meters in Federal buildings. A recent update to the 2006 guidance accounts for more current metering practices within the Federal Government. The updated metering guidance specifies that all Federal buildings shall be considered “appropriate” for energy or water metering unless identified for potential exclusion. In developing the updated guidance to carry out the statue, Congress also directed DOE to (among other things) establish exclusions from the metering requirements based on the de minimis quantity of energy use of a Federal building, industrial process, or structure. This paper discusses the method used to identify de minimis values.

  16. Federating Distributed Storage For Clouds In ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Berghaus, Frank; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Input data for applications that run in cloud computing centres can be stored at distant repositories, often with multiple copies of the popular data stored at many sites. Locating and retrieving the remote data can be challenging, and we believe that federating the storage can address this problem. A federation would locate the closest copy of the data currently on the basis of GeoIP information. Currently we are using the DynaFed data federation software solution developed by CERN IT. DynaFed supports several industry standards for connection protocols like Amazon's S3, Microsofts Azure, as well as WebDav and HTTP. Protocol dependent authentication is hidden from the user by using their X509 certificate. We have setup an instance of DynaFed and integrated it into the ATLAS Data Distribution Management system. We report on the challenges faced during the installation and integration. We have tested ATLAS analysis jobs submitted by the PanDA production system and we report on our first experiences with its op...

  17. Sustainability in Brazilian Federal Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Lisiane Celia; de Oliveira, Lessandra M.; Viacava, Keitiline R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the number of courses related to sustainability offered in bachelor degree programs of business administration in Brazilian federal universities. Design/methodology/approach: An exploratory research was carried out based on a descriptive scope. The process of mapping federal universities in Brazil…

  18. Deceptive Business Practices: Federal Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    Federal regulations to prevent deceptive advertising seek to balance the advertiser's freedom of speech with protection of the consumer. This paper discusses what the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has done to regulate advertising and evaluates the adequacy of its controls. The commission uses cease-and-desist orders, affirmative disclosure,…

  19. Federal structures and associated behavioural interventions in prevention of cigarette smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willich, Stefan N.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The recently published HTA-report “Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of behavioural strategies in the prevention of cigarette smoking” detects a lack of high-quality publications considering the national prevention structures. Included publications do not give any information regarding current interventions in Germany. The goal of this addendum is to give an overview of the federal prevention system and associated measures for behavioural smoking prevention. Methods: Firstly, relevant tobacco prevention structures with associated tasks and activities were identified. Further, a survey of available project information was conducted in December 2007. This procedure based on systematic analysis in PrevNet-network as well as on manual search on the web sites of primary network centres (PrevNet-Knotenpunkte or other relevant federal state organisations. A written, postal questionnaire was conducted among network centres, federal state organisations and selected health insurance funds. Results: Interventions regarding primary prevention of smoking cover a variety of activities and campaigns issued by the Federal Government, several national organisations, federal and local authorities as well as health insurance funds. Institutions such as the German Ministry of Health, the Federal Centre for Health Education (BZGA, the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ contribute to smoking prevention on national level. Diverse professional associations, workshops or authorities set up the organisational framework for coordination and planning of tobacco prevention on federal state level. Even on communal level institutional structures in terms of local professional departments and committees are established. The health insurance companies and their associations also play a major role in prevention of smoking uptake. “Rauchfrei”, “Be smart, don´ t start”, “Klasse 2000”, “ALF” or “Just be smokefree” are among the most well

  20. Using Xrootd to Federate Regional Storage

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    While the LHC data movement systems have demonstrated the ability to move data at the necessary throughput, we have identified two weaknesses: the latency for physicists to access data and the complexity of the tools involved. To address these, both ATLAS and CMS have begun to federate regional storage systems using Xrootd. Xrootd, referring to a protocol and implementation, allows us to provide data access to all disk-resident data from a single virtual endpoint. This "redirector" endpoint (which may actually be multiple physical hosts) discovers the actual location of the data and redirects the client to the appropriate site. The approach is particularly advantageous since typically the redirection requires much less than 500 milliseconds (bounded by network round trip time) and the Xrootd client is conveniently built into LHC physicist's analysis tools. Currently, there are three regional storage federations - a US ATLAS region, a European CMS region, and a US CMS region. The US ATLAS and US CMS regi...

  1. Acute and Impaired Wound Healing: Pathophysiology and Current Methods for Drug Delivery, Part 2: Role of Growth Factors in Normal and Pathological Wound Healing: Therapeutic Potential and Methods of Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidova-Rice, Tatiana N.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Herman, Ira M.

    2012-01-01

    This is the second of 2 articles that discuss the biology and pathophysiology of wound healing, reviewing the role that growth factors play in this process and describing the current methods for growth factor delivery into the wound bed. PMID:22820962

  2. Federal laboratory nondestructive testing research and development applicable to industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.A.; Moore, N.L.

    1987-02-01

    This document presents the results of a survey of nondestructive testing (NDT) and related sensor technology research and development (R and D) at selected federal laboratories. Objective was to identify and characterize NDT activities that could be applied to improving energy efficiency and overall productivity in US manufacturing. Numerous federally supported R and D programs were identified in areas such as acoustic emissions, eddy current, radiography, computer tomography and ultrasonics. A Preliminary Findings Report was sent to industry representatives, which generated considerable interest.

  3. Federal government information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the Federal Government. It contains a summary of the organization and responsibilities of agencies within the executive branch of the Federal government which may be relevant to FUSRAP activities; a brief summary of relevant Federal statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the US Congress, identification of the officers, relevant committees and committee chairmen; a description of the Federal legislative process; a summary of legislation enacted and considered in the recently-adjourned 96th Congress; a description of the Federal budgetary process; a summary of the Carter Administration's comprehensive radioactive waste management program; and excerpts from the text of relevant federal statutes and regulations.

  4. Federal government information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the Federal Government. It contains a summary of the organization and responsibilities of agencies within the executive branch of the Federal government which may be relevant to FUSRAP activities; a brief summary of relevant Federal statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the US Congress, identification of the officers, relevant committees and committee chairmen; a description of the Federal legislative process; a summary of legislation enacted and considered in the recently-adjourned 96th Congress; a description of the Federal budgetary process; a summary of the Carter Administration's comprehensive radioactive waste management program; and excerpts from the text of relevant federal statutes and regulations.

  5. Federal Fisheries Permit (FFP)/ Federal Processor Permit (FPP) Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Federal Fisheries Permit (FFP) is required for vessels of the United States which are used to fish for groundfish in the Gulf of Alaska or Bering Sea and...

  6. Review of the Federal Mining Law. [German Federal Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, H.

    1981-01-01

    The Federal Mining Law is a codification of mining law in the Federal Republic of Germany. It contains 178 paragraphs covering all aspects of prospecting and mining of mineral raw materials and related activities. The new law is to replace the former regional mining laws as well as most of the former Federal and regional regulations. All in all, 104 laws and regulations are repealed in sections 174 and 175. Basic principles of the former mining laws have been adhered to, e.g. mineral reserves do not come under the proprietory rights of the land owner, preventive monitoring of operations by means of operation plans, cession of territory under mining law, and the regulations concerning mining and land ownership. However, there are new details in the Federal Mining Law, in particular with regard to concessions and mining damage; this is reflected in a more complicated legal language.

  7. Federated Spatial Databases and Interoperability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is a period of information explosion. Especially for spatialinfo rmation science, information can be acquired through many ways, such as man-mad e planet, aeroplane, laser, digital photogrammetry and so on. Spatial data source s are usually distributed and heterogeneous. Federated database is the best reso lution for the share and interoperation of spatial database. In this paper, the concepts of federated database and interoperability are introduced. Three hetero geneous kinds of spatial data, vector, image and DEM are used to create integrat ed database. A data model of federated spatial databases is given

  8. Evaluation of upper airway obstruction in infants with Pierre Robin sequence and the role of polysomnography--Review of current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vudum Sridhar

    2016-01-01

    Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) is a heterogeneous condition presenting with upper airway obstruction (UAO) of varying severity. Polysomnography (PSG) is an objective investigation to assess the severity of obstructive sleep apnea and UAO. Its role in the management of PRS has not been well defined. This review summarizes the available evidence on the role of PSG in the assessment of infants with PRS in the context of other commonly used methods of assessment.

  9. Army Contracting Command--Picatinny Telework Policy: Applying Lessons Learned from the Federal Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    and lacks an empirical foundation. Galbraith’s organizational design process assumed that the organization “is a ‘ tabula rasa ’, a blank sheet of paper...telework; GSA and OPM have had and continue to have a major role in defining, administering, and implementing telework in the federal government. A...the role of technology in federal telecommuting. Before this, federal telework had been too cautious in stressing that telecommuting was not

  10. Federation of Malaysia. Country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, L

    1985-01-01

    The 1984 population of Malaysia has been estimated at 14.7 million and the population growth rate averaged 2.3% in 1970-80. Population growth is officially encouraged to form a substantial home market for economic development. Toward this end, the 1985 budget has increased tax deductions for families with 5 children. The capital city of Kuala Lumpur is the largest metropolitan area (1 million population) and the Federal Territory is the most densely populated region. Immigration is strictly controlled by the government, and the percentage of foreign-born citizens was 5% in 1980. China, India, and Pakistan are decreasing in importance as countries of origin. Internal mobility, however, is increasing. Rural-rural migration accounted for 45% of internal migration in 1970-80 and was largely motivated by family reasons. Only 7% of Malaysians are estimated to move in search of work. Racial tensions led the government to grant special economic privileges to native-born Islamic Malays. The greatest proportion of the population is centered in the lowest age groups. The percentage of females 15-29 years of age rose from 26% in 1970 to 30% in 1980 and is expected to continue to rise. Fertility is on the decline. The majority of households in the country involve nuclear families. There has been an increase in the number of men and women who delay marriage or remain single. Education is widely available for children aged 6-15 years and those who meet certain academic standards receive free education up to age 19 years. The current labor force is estimated at 5.4 million, with an annual growth rate of 3.1%. Malaysia's per capita income (US $1860 in 1982) is among the highest in Southeast Asia and the gross national product increased by an average annual rate of 8% in 1970-81. The government plans to move toward the development of heavier industries and more manufacturing concerns.

  11. Small-scale magnetic islands in the solar wind and their role in particle acceleration. Part 1: Dynamics of magnetic islands near the heliospheric current sheet

    CERN Document Server

    Khabarova, O; Li, G; Roux, J A le; Webb, G M; Dosch, A; Malandraki, O E

    2015-01-01

    Increases of ion fluxes in the keV-MeV range are sometimes observed near the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) during periods when other sources are absent. These resemble solar energetic particle (SEP) events, but the events are weaker and apparently local. Conventional explanations based on either shock acceleration of charged particles or particle acceleration due to magnetic reconnection at interplanetary current sheets are not persuasive. We suggest instead that recurrent magnetic reconnection occurs at the HCS and smaller current sheets in the solar wind (Zharkova & Khabarova 2012), of which a consequence is particle energization by the dynamically evolving secondary current sheets and magnetic islands (Zank et al. 2014; Drake et al. 2006a). The effectiveness of the trapping and acceleration process associated with magnetic islands depends in part on the topology of the HCS. We show that the HCS possesses ripples superimposed on the large-scale flat or wavy structure. We conjecture that the ripples c...

  12. Volpentest HAMMER Federal Training Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — HAMMER stands for Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response, and was named for Sam Volpentest, a long-time community leader and advocate of the Hanford...

  13. Protected Areas - Protected Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Federal Lands data consists of land areas that are run and maintained by U.S. Governmental authorities and are considered protected.The Department of Natural...

  14. Federal Energy Management Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-08-05

    Brochure offers an overview of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), which provides agencies and organizations with the information, tools, and assistance they need to achieve their energy-related requirements and goals through specialized initiatives.

  15. Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA) is a mechanism with which EPA can patent its inventions and license them to companies, through which innovative technologies can enter the marketplace to improve the environment and human health.

  16. VT Federal Aid Urban Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Federal Aid Urban boundaries are defined based on US Census data. The roadways within these boundaries have urban classifications. These FAU boundaries were updated...

  17. Department of Biological Sciences, Federal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-05-07

    May 7, 2015 ... Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria ... concentrations in the parent soil under Gmelina plantation were significantly higher (p 0.05) ... In spite of the many benefits that.

  18. Federal Law "On Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation": Conditions of Adoption and Development Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris V. Korobeynikov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of the Federal Law "On Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation" in 1992 took place in a tough fight in the time of privatization and restructuring. At this time, revealed numerous violations. Prosecution authorities stood on the position of the rule of law and the interests of the state, has become a serious obstacle to the forces that destroy the state and its economy. In the 90 years of the twentieth century, the prosecutor's office declined status in the society, which is reflected in the text of the new Constitution of the Russian Federation (1993, containing only one, 129 article devoted to the prosecuting authorities, while there were five (Article in the Constitution of the USSR of such articles . 164, 165, 166, 167, 168. Also, the law "On the Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation" does not include an article on the problems of supervision in this direction, as well as Art. 30 "to arrest". These changes to the law the prosecutor's office indicate the desire of the legislator to downplay the independence of the prosecution and its role in countering the massive violation of the law of the initial period of "perestroika". The role of politics in the legal regulation of the activities of the prosecutor's office is determined by the law "On the Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation" and the insertion in the amended. The activities of the prosecution authorities, the powers of prosecutors are regulated by criminal procedure, civil procedure, arbitration procedure and other legislation, which varies due to the effects of many political reasons.

  19. Monitoring of the xrootd federations

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Construction of the data federations and understanding the impact of the new approach to data management on user analysis requires complete and detailed monitoring. Monitoring functionality should cover the status of all components of the federated storage, measuring data traffic and data access performance, as well as being able to detect any kind of inefficiencies and to provide hints for resource optimization and effective data distribution policy. Data mining of the collected monito...

  20. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.

  1. Federated data storage and management infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarochentsev, A.; Kiryanov, A.; Klimentov, A.; Krasnopevtsev, D.; Hristov, P.

    2016-10-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC)’ operating at the international CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe. Computing models for the High Luminosity LHC era anticipate a growth of storage needs of at least orders of magnitude; it will require new approaches in data storage organization and data handling. In our project we address the fundamental problem of designing of architecture to integrate a distributed heterogeneous disk resources for LHC experiments and other data- intensive science applications and to provide access to data from heterogeneous computing facilities. We have prototyped a federated storage for Russian T1 and T2 centers located in Moscow, St.-Petersburg and Gatchina, as well as Russian / CERN federation. We have conducted extensive tests of underlying network infrastructure and storage endpoints with synthetic performance measurement tools as well as with HENP-specific workloads, including the ones running on supercomputing platform, cloud computing and Grid for ALICE and ATLAS experiments. We will present our current accomplishments with running LHC data analysis remotely and locally to demonstrate our ability to efficiently use federated data storage experiment wide within National Academic facilities for High Energy and Nuclear Physics as well as for other data-intensive science applications, such as bio-informatics.

  2. Possible impacts of sequestration on federal research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-10-01

    U.S. federal research and development (R&D) activities could be reduced by up to $57.5 billion, or 8.4%, through 2017 because of automatic reductions in U.S. federal funding, referred to as sequestration, that are set to begin in January 2013 under the 2011 Budget Control Act. That is according to a 27 September analysis by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). If defense R&D is pulled from the equation, sequestration could cut nondefense R&D by $50.8 billion, or 17.2% through that same time period, according to AAAS. Under an equal allocation scenario, the Department of Energy could lose $4.6 billion for R&D over that time period, the National Science Foundation could lose $2.1 billion for R&D, and NASA could lose $3.5 billion, according to the analysis, which also notes that states could be hit hard by decreased federal R&D spending. Congressional leaders currently are looking into how to avoid sequestration. For more information, see http://www.aaas.org/news/releases/2012/0928sequester.shtml.

  3. Role of a T-type calcium current in supporting a depolarizing potential, damped oscillations, and phasic firing in vasopressinergic guinea pig supraoptic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, K R; Ronnekleiv, O K; Kelly, M J

    1993-05-01

    Guinea pig magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) were studied using the in vitro slice preparation. Intracellular recordings were made with biocytin-filled electrodes, permitting immunocytochemical identification of the recorded cells as arginine vasopressin- (AVP) versus oxytocin- (OT) containing. Only AVP cells displaying a depolarizing potential (DP) fired phasically. The DP was associated with a transient inward current measured in voltage clamp, which exhibited a number of properties of the T-type calcium current: activation threshold of -64 mV, time course of up to 250 ms, blockade by nickel and augmentation by barium chloride. This current has not been reported previously in SON neurons. The T-type current (IT) was always associated with a damped oscillation of the membrane following the offset from hyperpolarizing steps. In all cells tested, an apamin-sensitive afterhyperpolarization (AHP) was observed, similar to the calcium-dependent potassium current (IK, Ca) described in rat SON and other CNS regions. Therefore, as with other CNS regions displaying damped oscillations, guinea pig SON cells possess both an IT and an IK, Ca. We have previously described an Ih activating at hyperpolarized potentials in these cells, which depolarizes the membrane to a range in which the IT and IK, Ca can interactively support oscillations. In summary, the IT and associated depolarizing potential appears to be a requisite feature for phasic firing in AVP cells of guinea pig SON.

  4. Role of magnetic shear on the electrostatic current driven ion-cyclotron instability in the presence of parallel electric field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Harsha Jalori; A K Gwal

    2001-06-01

    Recent observation and theoretical investigations have led to the significance of electrostatic ion cyclotron (EIC) waves in the electrodynamics of acceleration process. The instability is one of the fundamental of a current carrying magnetized plasma. The EIC instability has the lowest threshold current among the current driven instabilities. On the basis of local analysis where inhomogeneities like the magnetic shear and the finite width current channel, have been ignored which is prevalent in the magnetospheric environment. On the basis of non-local analysis interesting modification has been incorporated by the inclusion of magnetic shear. In this paper we provide an analytical approach for the non-local treatment of current driven electrostatic waves in presence of parallel electric field. The growth rate is significantly influenced by the field aligned electron drift. The presence of electric field enhances the growth of EIC waves while magnetic shear stabilizes the system.

  5. The role of academic motivation in high school students' current and lifetime alcohol consumption: adopting a self-determination theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormington, Stephanie V; Anderson, Kristen G; Corpus, Jennifer Henderlong

    2011-11-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between different types of academic motives-specifically, intrinsic motivation, introjected regulation, and external regulation-and high school students' current and lifetime alcohol consumption. One thousand sixty-seven high school students completed measures of academic motivation, other school-related factors, and lifetime and current alcohol consumption. Using structural equation modeling, different types of motivation and school-related factors were differentially related to student drinking. Specifically, intrinsic motivation was negatively related to lifetime and current alcohol consumption. External regulation, on the other hand, was positively associated with current drinking. Grade point average was the only school-related factor related to student alcohol use. These findings suggest that motivation is an important construct to consider in predicting students' alcohol use, even when other more commonly studied educational variables are considered. In addition, it supports the adoption of a motivation framework that considers different types of motivation in understanding the relationship between academic motivation and alcohol use. Suggestions for incorporating the self-determination model of motivation into studies of alcohol and substance use, as well as potential impacts on intervention efforts, are discussed. In particular, it may be important to foster only certain types of motivation, rather than all types of academically-focused motives, in efforts to deter alcohol use.

  6. The Role of Academic Motivation in High School Students’ Current and Lifetime Alcohol Consumption: Adopting a Self-Determination Theory Perspective*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormington, Stephanie V.; Anderson, Kristen G.; Corpus, Jennifer Henderlong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigated the relationship between different types of academic motives—specifically, intrinsic motivation, introjected regulation, and external regulation—and high school students' current and lifetime alcohol consumption. Method: One thousand sixty-seven high school students completed measures of academic motivation, other school-related factors, and lifetime and current alcohol consumption. Results: Using structural equation modeling, different types of motivation and school-related factors were differentially related to student drinking. Specifically, intrinsic motivation was negatively related to lifetime and current alcohol consumption. External regulation, on the other hand, was positively associated with current drinking. Grade point average was the only school-related factor related to student alcohol use. Conclusions: These findings suggest that motivation is an important construct to consider in predicting students’ alcohol use, even when other more commonly studied educational variables are considered. In addition, it supports the adoption of a motivation framework that considers different types of motivation in understanding the relationship between academic motivation and alcohol use. Suggestions for incorporating the self-determination model of motivation into studies of alcohol and substance use, as well as potential impacts on intervention efforts, are discussed. In particular, it may be important to foster only certain types of motivation, rather than all types of academically-focused motives, in efforts to deter alcohol use. PMID:22051210

  7. INTERNAL CONTROL IN BRAZILIAN MUNICIPALITIES AN ANALYSIS ON LOCAL COMPTROLLER GENERAL OFFICES, IN VIEW OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT MODEL OF THE CONTROLADORIA-GERAL DA UNIÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Meirelles Toledo Cruz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The obligation to constitute an internal control system within municipalities is established in the Federal Constitution of Brazil. Recently, and possibly inspired by the Controladoria Geral da União (CGU model, some municipalities have created comptroller’s offices to perform the role of internal control units at local level. The present paper analyses the role which is currently being performed by these comptroller offices, based on the model implemented in the Federal Government. The investigation was carried out based on a questionnaire with open and closed questions, which was directly transmitted to 34 municipalities which have a General Municipal Comptroller Office (CGM. It was concluded that the role performed by the CGU since its creation and the diffusion of its model to the Brazilian municipalities is still incipient, on the one hand, and that the comptroller offices need to make progress in the implementation of the LAI and in the dissemination of their activities, on the other.

  8. Federalism and territorial equality: a contradiction in terms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Arretche

    Full Text Available The study explores the relationship between federalism and territorial inequality, taking Brazil as the object of analysis. The conclusion is that there is a trade-off between territorial inequality reduction and the full autonomy of local governments. The central government's redistributive role seems to be a condition for reducing revenue inequality between jurisdictions, and so reducing inequality in citizens' access to public services requires the central government to perform redistributive and regulatory role. On the other hand, local autonomy pushes toward inequality. Hence, federal regulation and local autonomy are combined in a given polity, the result tends to be bound inequality.

  9. 78 FR 41183 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Meeting: RTCA Program Management Committee AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of RTCA Program Management.... Paige Williams, Management Analyst, NextGen, Business Operations Group, Federal Aviation...

  10. 75 FR 6433 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Assessment and Public...: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental... Chicago, Illinois. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) proposes to fund, construct,...

  11. 76 FR 78966 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Kona International Airport at Keahole, Keahole, North Kona, HI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) announces its findings on the noise compatibility...

  12. 77 FR 64837 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 227, Standards of Navigation Performance AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... 15, 2012. Kathy Hitt, Management Analyst, Business Operations Group, Federal Aviation...

  13. 76 FR 2745 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Eighty-Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special...

  14. 76 FR 77302 - Federal Transit Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... Federal Transit Administration FY 2011 Discretionary Sustainability Funding Opportunity; Transit... Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: FTA...'s (DOT) Federal Transit Administration (FTA) announces the selection of Fiscal Year (FY)...

  15. Current Fear of Crime, Sense of Community, and Loneliness in Italian Adolescents: The Role of Autonomous Mobility and Play during Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezza, Miretta; Pacilli, Maria Giuseppina

    2007-01-01

    A structural equation model was used to examine the role of autonomous mobility and play in public and semipublic places in childhood to predict adolescents' sense of community, fear of crime, and, through the mediation of these two last psychosocial factors, feelings of loneliness. Participants included 789 Italian students (469 females and 320…

  16. Immunological markers of frailty predict outcomes beyond current risk scores in aortic stenosis following transcatheter aortic valve replacement: Role of neopterin and tryptophan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Csordas

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Increased immune activation and associated tryptophan degradation serve as hallmarks of frailty underscoring the prognostic role of baseline inflammation for outcome in patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing TAVR, and thus may provide a future therapeuthic target in this elderly patient population.

  17. Federal/State Jurisdictional Split: Implications for Emerging Electricity Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, Jeffery S. [Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld LLP, Washington, DC (United States); Kelly, Suedeen G. [Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld LLP, Washington, DC (United States); Nordhaus, Robert R. [Van Ness Feldman, LLP, Washington, DC (United States); Smith, Douglas W. [Van Ness Feldman, LLP, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The first Administration-wide Quadrennial Energy Review (QER), released in April 2015, found that the “interacting and overlapping” division of authority between “federal, regional and state institutions and regulatory structures” for the electricity sector could “impede development of the grid of the future [and] . . . the development of markets that efficiently integrate” new and emerging technologies.1 While “technology is indifferent to state-Federal boundaries and jurisdictions,” the QER explained, “technology users cannot be.”2 The report concluded that “[b]oth Federal and state governments need to play constructive and collaborative roles in the future to ensure that consumers and industry are able to maximize the value of new technologies.”3 The QER recommended that the Department of Energy (“DOE”) facilitate such collaboration by playing a “convening role” to bring together state and federal regulators and other stakeholders to consider these issues.4 This paper provides background and analysis on these jurisdictional issues and the impact they may have on adoption of emerging energy technologies and coordination of markets for those technologies, in support of future dialogs on these subjects. In particular, this paper reviews the structure of the Federal Power Act (“FPA”),5 and compares the division of authority between the federal and state governments adopted there with other federal energy and energy-related statutes.

  18. Overview of NASA MSFC IEC Federated Engineering Collaboration Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moushon, Brian; McDuffee, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    The MSFC IEC federated engineering framework is currently developing a single collaborative engineering framework across independent NASA centers. The federated approach allows NASA centers the ability to maintain diversity and uniqueness, while providing interoperability. These systems are integrated together in a federated framework without compromising individual center capabilities. MSFC IEC's Federation Framework will have a direct affect on how engineering data is managed across the Agency. The approach is directly attributed in response to the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAB) finding F7.4-11 which states the Space Shuttle Program has a wealth of data sucked away in multiple databases without a convenient way to integrate and use the data for management, engineering, or safety decisions. IEC s federated capability is further supported by OneNASA recommendation 6 that identifies the need to enhance cross-Agency collaboration by putting in place common engineering and collaborative tools and databases, processes, and knowledge-sharing structures. MSFC's IEC Federated Framework is loosely connected to other engineering applications that can provide users with the integration needed to achieve an Agency view of the entire product definition and development process, while allowing work to be distributed across NASA Centers and contractors. The IEC DDMS federation framework eliminates the need to develop a single, enterprise-wide data model, where the goal of having a common data model shared between NASA centers and contractors is very difficult to achieve.

  19. Overview of NASA MSFC IEC Federated Engineering Collaboration Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moushon, Brian; McDuffee, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    The MSFC IEC federated engineering framework is currently developing a single collaborative engineering framework across independent NASA centers. The federated approach allows NASA centers the ability to maintain diversity and uniqueness, while providing interoperability. These systems are integrated together in a federated framework without compromising individual center capabilities. MSFC IEC's Federation Framework will have a direct affect on how engineering data is managed across the Agency. The approach is directly attributed in response to the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAB) finding F7.4-11 which states the Space Shuttle Program has a wealth of data sucked away in multiple databases without a convenient way to integrate and use the data for management, engineering, or safety decisions. IEC s federated capability is further supported by OneNASA recommendation 6 that identifies the need to enhance cross-Agency collaboration by putting in place common engineering and collaborative tools and databases, processes, and knowledge-sharing structures. MSFC's IEC Federated Framework is loosely connected to other engineering applications that can provide users with the integration needed to achieve an Agency view of the entire product definition and development process, while allowing work to be distributed across NASA Centers and contractors. The IEC DDMS federation framework eliminates the need to develop a single, enterprise-wide data model, where the goal of having a common data model shared between NASA centers and contractors is very difficult to achieve.

  20. Interconnecting Multidiscilinary Data Infrastructures: From Federation to Brokering Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nativi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Standardization and federation activities have been played an essential role to push interoperability at the disciplinary and cross-disciplinary level. However, they demonstrated not to be sufficient to resolve important interoperability challenges, including: disciplinary heterogeneity, cross-organizations diversities, cultural differences. Significant international initiatives like GEOSS, IODE, and CEOS demonstrated that a federation system dealing with global and multi-disciplinary domain turns out to be rater complex, raising more the already high entry level barriers for both Providers and Users. In particular, GEOSS demonstrated that standardization and federation actions must be accompanied and complemented by a brokering approach. Brokering architecture and its implementing technologies are able to implement an effective interoperability level among multi-disciplinary systems, lowering the entry level barriers for both data providers and users. This presentation will discuss the brokering philosophy as a complementary approach for standardization and federation to interconnect existing and heterogeneous infrastructures and systems. The GEOSS experience will be analyzed, specially.