WorldWideScience

Sample records for current federal policy

  1. Federalism and health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Richard P

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a cyclical theory of U.S. federalism and social policy: Many social policy initiatives are tested and refined at the state level, especially during conservative periods, and later morph into national policies. The paper describes such federalism cycles and offers an interpretation of why and how they occur, focusing on Medicaid. State activism has preserved and expanded Medicaid through policy innovation and resistance to retrenchment, especially in conservative periods, by taking advantage of the flexibility the program provides. I conclude that Medicaid's incremental/partnership approach is appropriate and feasible to build on for a future expansion of health care coverage.

  2. Federal research policy 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The report covers several separate parts dealing with the following: Orientation and perspectives of the Federal Government's research policy; resources available for science, research and development; fields of main interest in R and D work sponsored by the Government; research and technology policy of the Lands; international and national research and technology policy; organisations promoting and establishment doing research work in the FRG; statistics. The guidelines and principles of research policy are given: freedom of science and research; restraint from governmental influence within the meaning of the subsidiarity principle; positive attitude to scientific and technical progress; investigation of long-term perspectives and options; fostering joint responsibility of the Federal Government and the Lands; development of international cooperation. (orig./HSCH) [de

  3. Energy policy and federalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thur, L M [ed.

    1981-04-01

    Separate abstracts are prepared for six papers presented as the product of an international seminar on Energy Policy and Federalism in North America. Specially commissioned papers for the seminar are presented along with a summary of the discussions. The summary appears in English, French, and Spanish; the other papers are in English. (MCW)

  4. Teacher Leadership: Federal Policy Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gran, Jackie; Young, Margaret; Broin, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    This policy brief was developed specifically for federal policymakers, and builds upon the policy recommendations included in "Leading from Every Seat: Empowering Principals to Cultivate Teacher Leadership for School Improvement." The recommendations in this report include the following: (1) Uncover New Leadership Ideas and Seed…

  5. Federal interagency radiation policy coordination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses Federal interagency radiation policy coordination. The Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC) is explained as being dedicated to the success and forward motion of enhanced radiation research and policy coordination. Both CIRRPC and the Science Panel are staffed with Federal employees. Their expertise includes many and various radiation disciplines including cytogenetics, dosimetry, epidemiology, genetics, health physics, nuclear medicine, radiology, radiation carcinogenesis, and risk assessment. Ten scientific and technical issues in their preliminary order are presented: radioepidemiological tables; de minimis radiation levels; radon progeny health effects; occupational exposure registry; measurement, recording, and control of radiation; food irradiation; use of radiation in science, industry, and medicine; nonionizing radiation; and remedial actions

  6. Federal and European Union Policy Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    By using the policy cycle approach, this paper compares the policy-process in a number of Anglo-Saxon type federations with the policy-process in continental-European style federations from within the European Union (EU) area.  The comparison would reveal: a) distinct different styles of policy...... making in European style federations in relation with the Anglo-Saxon ones. b) that the policy-process in the EU resembles that of the European style federations, and c) the Constitutional Treaty (CT) or a possible CT-light would strengthen the federal policy-making characteristics already present...

  7. Reviving manufacturing with a federal cogeneration policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Marilyn A.; Cox, Matt; Baer, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Improving the energy economics of manufacturing is essential to revitalizing the industrial base of advanced economies. This paper evaluates ex-ante a federal policy option aimed at promoting industrial cogeneration—the production of heat and electricity in a single energy-efficient process. Detailed analysis using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and spreadsheet calculations suggest that industrial cogeneration could meet 18% of U.S. electricity requirements by 2035, compared with its current 8.9% market share. Substituting less efficient utility-scale power plants with cogeneration systems would produce numerous economic and environmental benefits, but would also create an assortment of losers and winners. Multiple perspectives to benefit/cost analysis are therefore valuable. Our results indicate that the federal cogeneration policy would be highly favorable to manufacturers and the public sector, cutting energy bills, generating billions of dollars in electricity sales, making producers more competitive, and reducing pollution. Most traditional utilities, on the other hand, would lose revenues unless their rate recovery procedures are adjusted to prevent the loss of profits due to customer owned generation and the erosion of utility sales. From a public policy perspective, deadweight losses would be introduced by market-distorting federal incentives (ranging annually from $30 to $150 million), but these losses are much smaller than the estimated net social benefits of the federal cogeneration policy. - Highlights: ► Industrial cogeneration could meet 18% of US electricity demand by 2035, vs. 8.9% today. ► The policy would be highly favorable to manufacturers and the public. ► Traditional electric utilities would likely lose revenues. ► Deadweight loss would be introduced by tax incentives. ► The policy’s net social benefits would be much larger.

  8. FEDERAL AND REGIONAL CLUSTER POLICY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markov L. S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the history of cluster policy in Russia at the federal and regional levels. The federal cluster policy is realized in three directions, studying which allowed us to outline the main features of a formalized cluster that claims state support. The trend of reorientation of the cluster policy from supporting clusters and their infrastructure to cluster projects is revealed. Systematization and comparative analysis of the cluster policy in the regions of the country leading in terms of cluster development is carried out. It is established that the regional cluster policy is at a nascent stage and is a projection of the federal programs. At the regional level, there is no institutional basis for the cluster policy in Russia. The regional cluster policy is characterized by homogeneity of organizational structures.

  9. The politics of federal environmental education policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Richard Craig

    Both environmental governance1 and education governance 2 occupy contested territory in contemporary US political discourse. Environmental education (EE) policy has emerged at this intersection and taken on aspects of both controversies. Central to debates surrounding environmental education are still unresolved issues concerning the role of the federal government in education, the role of education in citizen-making, and the role of the public in environmental governance. As a case study of the politics of environmental education policy, I explore these issues as they relate to the National Environmental Education Act of 1990,3 attempts at its reauthorization, its continued appropriations, and its current state of policy stasis. The political controversy over the federal role in environmental education is an appropriate case study of environmental education politics insofar as it reflects the different positions held by actor groups with regard to the definition, efficacy, and legitimacy of environmental education. At the core of these debates, as we will see, is a definitional crisis---that is, there is no common understanding across the relevant actor groups as to what environmental education is, or should be. I suggest here that this definitional issue can be best understood as having technical, ideological, and structural components4---all of which are mutually reinforcing and thus perpetuate the stasis in federal environmental education policy. 1I rely on Durant, Fiorino and O'leary's definition of environmental governance in Environmental Governance Reconsidered ; "In the term environmental governance, we refer to the increasingly collaborative nature of [environmental and natural resource] policy formulation and implementation. In this vein, a wide array of third parties (for example, actors in the profit sector, the nonprofit sector, and civic society), in addition to government agencies, comprise non hierarchical networks of actors wielding a variety of

  10. Policy gridlock in waste management: Balancing federal and state concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, D.L.; Peretz, J.H.; Jendrucko, B.K.

    1993-01-01

    Current federal hazardous and low-level radioactive waste management policies fail to balance national concerns for policy consistency with state concerns for equity, discretion, and adequate resources. Failure to balance these competing values has resulted in open-quotes policy gridlockclose quotes - exemplified by conflicts over the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Acts. Both conflicts have resulted in recent U.S. Supreme Court litigation. After reviewing federal-state conflict in hazardous and low-level radioactive waste management, we propose that the solution to gridlock lies in modifying conjoint federalism. Conjoint federalism allows for joint responsibility for waste policy between federal and state governments, with state programs meeting minimum standards set by federal programs. However, conjoint federalism does not currently allow for sufficient state discretion, which is paramount for successful waste management programs. Specifically, Congress should expand conjoint federalism, to allow states to charge differential fees on imported hazardous waste as is done for low-level radioactive waste. This expansion would encourage waste minimization and better interstate planning

  11. Policy gridlock in waste management: Balancing federal and state concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Peretz, J.H.; Jendrucko, B.K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Current federal hazardous and low-level radioactive waste management policies fail to balance national concerns for policy consistency with state concerns for equity, discretion, and adequate resources. Failure to balance these competing values has resulted in {open_quotes}policy gridlock{close_quotes} - exemplified by conflicts over the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Acts. Both conflicts have resulted in recent U.S. Supreme Court litigation. After reviewing federal-state conflict in hazardous and low-level radioactive waste management, we propose that the solution to gridlock lies in modifying conjoint federalism. Conjoint federalism allows for joint responsibility for waste policy between federal and state governments, with state programs meeting minimum standards set by federal programs. However, conjoint federalism does not currently allow for sufficient state discretion, which is paramount for successful waste management programs. Specifically, Congress should expand conjoint federalism, to allow states to charge differential fees on imported hazardous waste as is done for low-level radioactive waste. This expansion would encourage waste minimization and better interstate planning.

  12. The Evolution of Federal Educational Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.

    Characterized by rapid growth and the increasing infusion of federal money into schools, the 1960s and 1970s can be labeled the "Federal Era" in U.S. educational policy making. This period produced three major initiatives to enhance the quality of educational opportunity: the Elementary Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Titles I and VII…

  13. Research Scholars and Federal Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNett, Ian

    1980-01-01

    The National Academy of Education is described as a loose federation of prominent educational and social science researchers, which has never pretended to be a think tank or a lobbying organization. Its influence is indirectly felt through the prestige and quality research of its members. (MLW)

  14. The Future of Federal Education Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.

    1983-01-01

    This article explores the evolution of federal government policy on education during the past 20 years, points out trends likely to influence future policy, and projects possible future responses to these trends. The roles of educational interest groups instrumental in passing the legislation are described. (PP)

  15. Behavioral Insights for Federal Higher Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleman, Ben

    2017-01-01

    The federal role in higher education has grown over the past two decades, and now a new administration has the opportunity to strengthen policies that support students and their colleges and universities. To help inform these decisions, the Urban Institute convened a bipartisan group of scholars and policy advisers to write a series of memos…

  16. Federal health web sites: current & future roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Carol

    2002-09-01

    An examination of the current and possible future roles of federal health Web sites, this paper provides an overview of site categories, functions, target audiences, marketing approaches, knowledge management, and evaluation strategies. It concludes with a look at future opportunities and challenges for the federal government in providing health information online.

  17. A literature review of the market effects of federal biofuel policy and recommendations for future policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Alex Elgin

    The United States has had a federal biofuels policy since the 1970s. The purpose of this policy was to help the development of a biofuel industry during a time of high fuel prices in order to provide a domestic alternative to expensive foreign oil. Later the policy was changed to help lower the environmental impact caused by conventional fuels. Since that time the industry has grown and currently produces around 15 billion gallons of biofuels every year. The current federal biofuel policy is largely based on one program, the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), which mandates the production and blending of several different classes of biofuels and provides a form of subsidy to the biofuel industry. This paper examines the market effects of the federal biofuel policy and provides recommendations for improving the policy to counteract any negative effects. Federal biofuel policy has many far-reaching market effects. Some are easily calculable through expenditures and lost revenues, while others are harder to quantify because their full effects are not yet known. By evaluating these market effects, this paper will provide ample evidence that the federal biofuels policy needs to change, and will show what effects these changes could induce. The biofuels industry largely owes its existence to government policies, however as the research shows the industry can now stand on its own. This paper will examine what will happen if the federal policy is eliminated and what the future of the biofuels industry could hold. Based on these examinations, it is unlikely that the industry needs further government support and policies should be adjusted in light of this.

  18. Federalism, Agenda Setting, and the Dynamics of Federal Education Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Paul

    This paper is part of a larger project on agenda setting in the U.S. federal system and the development of the federal education agenda since 1965. Two questions motivate the paper, one theoretical and the other empirical: (1) how does federalism affect the federal agenda?; and (2) what explains the development of federal involvement in K-12…

  19. Federalism and educational policies in Brazil: contexts and ruptures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferreira Rodrigues

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the complexity of the Brazilian federal arrangement and the design of educational policies through the correlation of forces and disputes between spaces and institutional tensions that configure the current and recent context in the educational policies of Brazil. It is a theoretical and documentary study and had as its axis of analysis the tensions and ruptures that had as a background (direct or indirect the National Education System and in its contribution the very system of collaboration, as specific policies of the Brazilian cooperative pact. Thus, we emphasize the role of social participation in the implementation of EC 59/2009, in the National Education Conferences (from 2010 to 2018 and in the constitution of SASE as spaces of agreement and broad and democratic dialogue. Based on this context, it was possible to highlight the ruptures with the process of affirmation of cooperative federalism in guaranteeing the right to quality public education with social and democratic participation, evidencing the necessary strengthening of federal pacts, in the face of the challenges facing the federalism and effectiveness of educational policies in Brazil.

  20. Federalism and educational policies in brazil: a brief historical period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Terra dos Santos Garcia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work consists of a theoretical analysis that aims to discuss the relationship between federalism and Brazilian educational policies, making a historical course that begins with the Proclamation of the Republic and extends to the current Federal Constitution. It is carried out the literature and documental analysis, which addresses the genesis of federalism, based on the model implemented in the United States, as well as in Brazil, characterized by the alternation between periods of authoritarianism and democratic regime, which reflect greater or less centralization of the political power. It is understood that the process of political-administrative decentralization that originated the 1988 Constitution has made possible the development of a system of collaboration between the Union and other federated entities, responsible for ensuring social rights for citizens, including educational rights.

  1. Which way for federalism and health policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, John; Well, Alan; Wiener, Joshua M

    2003-01-01

    The current balance of responsibility between states and the federal government for low-income people's health coverage has achieved a great deal. It covers many of the neediest people, supports the safety net, responds to emerging needs, and supports some experimentation. However, it leaves more than forty million people uninsured, allows excessive variation across states, places unsustainable pressure on state budgets, creates tension between the two levels of government, and yields too few benefits from experimentation. This mixed record argues for a significant simplification of and increase in eligibility for public programs, with the federal government either providing extra funds to states to meet these needs or assuming full responsibility for insuring the poor.

  2. Federal Government Electronic Bulletin Boards: An Assessment with Policy Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.

    1993-01-01

    Identifies and analyzes federal government electronic bulletin boards; assesses the types of information available to users, including costs and technological access issues; discusses federal information policy; and considers the role of federal bulletin boards in accessing and managing electronic government information. (Contains 29 references.)…

  3. How federalism shapes public health financing, policy, and program options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Lydia L

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, fiscal and functional federalism strongly shape public health policy and programs. Federalism has implications for public health practice: it molds financing and disbursement options, including funding formulas, which affect allocations and program goals, and shapes how funding decisions are operationalized in a political context. This article explores how American federalism, both fiscal and functional, structures public health funding, policy, and program options, investigating the effects of intergovernmental transfers on public health finance and programs.

  4. The Federal Budget: Current and Upcoming Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-25

    federal revenues, followed by social insurance taxes. Federal individual and corporate income tax revenues typically track broader trends in the...difficult economic conditions led individual income tax revenue to fall to $918 billion (6.5% of GDP ). Corporate income tax revenues fell from $304

  5. Environmental federalism and US climate change policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, L.M. [Bracewell and Patterson, LLP (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Environmental disputes involving states over the proper state and federal roles have grown in number and magnitude over the last several years, with many disputes engaging dozens of states. States with competing views are fully engaged in the ongoing debate over climate change, a textbook case for testing the contours of environmental federalism. The issue has all the necessary components: transboundary environmental impacts; competing state economic and environmental interests; state self-interest; disagreement on first principles including what is the proper role of the states; and a somewhat ill-defined federal role. With those qualities, one would expect the federal government to step in and regulate. Instead, the federal government has declined to regulate, inviting a national discourse on whether and how to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. As of Spring 2004, twenty-eight states have launched or are planning initiatives, some of which will directly regulate sources of GHG emissions. As these programs take root, pressure will build for a greater federal role. This paper will advance the position that even with this building momentum, the federal government is not likely to emulate state programs that mandate CO{sub 2} emission reductions. In the face of high national cost, uncertain environmental benefits, and a history of federal non-regulatory action, federal regulation at this time appears to be a remote possibility. State efforts to address global climate change add value to the debate, but they do not create the cocoon of consensus the federal government seeks before launching mandatory programs of this magnitude. The more likely scenario is that the federal government will continue on its present course, funding research and development, investing in energy efficient technologies, and supporting voluntary measures. Under this scenario, states and the private sector would continue to function as the 'laboratories' to develop new ideas to

  6. Environmental federalism and US climate change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, L.M.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental disputes involving states over the proper state and federal roles have grown in number and magnitude over the last several years, with many disputes engaging dozens of states. States with competing views are fully engaged in the ongoing debate over climate change, a textbook case for testing the contours of environmental federalism. The issue has all the necessary components: transboundary environmental impacts; competing state economic and environmental interests; state self-interest; disagreement on first principles including what is the proper role of the states; and a somewhat ill-defined federal role. With those qualities, one would expect the federal government to step in and regulate. Instead, the federal government has declined to regulate, inviting a national discourse on whether and how to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. As of Spring 2004, twenty-eight states have launched or are planning initiatives, some of which will directly regulate sources of GHG emissions. As these programs take root, pressure will build for a greater federal role. This paper will advance the position that even with this building momentum, the federal government is not likely to emulate state programs that mandate CO 2 emission reductions. In the face of high national cost, uncertain environmental benefits, and a history of federal non-regulatory action, federal regulation at this time appears to be a remote possibility. State efforts to address global climate change add value to the debate, but they do not create the cocoon of consensus the federal government seeks before launching mandatory programs of this magnitude. The more likely scenario is that the federal government will continue on its present course, funding research and development, investing in energy efficient technologies, and supporting voluntary measures. Under this scenario, states and the private sector would continue to function as the 'laboratories' to develop new ideas to improve energy

  7. Current adaptation measures and policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoff Roberts; John A. Parrotta; Anita. Wreford

    2009-01-01

    As stated in earlier chapters, the possible impacts of climate change on forests and the forest sector are considerable, and many impacts have already been observed. As forest conditions change, there is an inherent need to change management and policy measures to minimise negative impacts and to exploit the benefits derived from climate change. This chapter highlights...

  8. Comparative federal health care policy: evidence of collaborative federalism in Pakistan and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracskay, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Collaborative federalism has provided an effective analytical foundation for understanding how complex public policies are implemented in federal systems through intergovernmental and intersectoral alignments. This has particularly been the case in issue areas like public health policy where diseases are detected and treated at the local level. While past studies on collaborative federalism and health care policy have focused on federal systems that are largely democratic, little research has been conducted to examine the extent of collaboration in authoritarian structures. This article applies the collaborative federalism approach to the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. Evidence suggests that while both nations have exhibited authoritarian governing structures, there have been discernible policy areas where collaborative federalism is embraced to facilitate the implementation process. Further, while not an innate aspect of their federal structures, Pakistan and Venezuela can potentially expand their use of the collaborative approach to successfully implement health care policy and the epidemiological surveillance and intervention functions. Yet, as argued, this would necessitate further development of their structures on a sustained basis to create an environment conducive for collaborative federalism to flourish, and possibly expand to other policy areas as well.

  9. State, federalism and educational policies: implications in brazilian education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Cristina Silva Sousa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the relationship between state and federalism as a political and administrative organizational form of the state and its implications in Brazilian educational policy. For that, we follow the analysis of the concepts of State, federalism, and educational policies from the classics of Machiavelli (2001, Locke (1998, Rousseau (1999, Hamilton, Jay and Madison (2003, Abrucio Arretche (1996, among others. Therefore, we see that the new Brazilian federalism based on the model proposed by the American Constitution brings the local powers – the municipalities – as new agents within the educational policy and the collaboration regime as a means of effecting cooperative federalism in Brazil. We conclude that the federalism, in Brazilian model, presents itself as demos constraining the national sub-governments.

  10. Cross-Cutting public policy requirements applicable to federal grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are cross-cutting public policy requirements applicable to Federal grants, including those awarded by the EPA. Some of those requirements are included here because they have been part of appropriations acts for several years without change.

  11. Policy Watch: The Federal Employees Health Benefits Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Feldman; Kenneth E. Thorpe; Bradley Gray

    2002-01-01

    This short feature describes the Federal Employees Health Benefits Plan (FEHBP), which provides health insurance benefits to active and retired federal employees and their dependents. The article discusses the FEHBP as a touchstone for research on employment-based health insurance and as a touchstone for health policy reform.

  12. Higher Education Policy in Australia: Corporate or Coercive Federalism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Don

    1991-01-01

    Although the Hawke government's general strategy of corporate federalism may dominate educational policy in Australia, higher education (excluding teacher education) is an exception. Because the Commonwealth assumed full financial responsibility for higher education, it has increasingly employed coercive federalism or simply ignored the states.…

  13. Adjusting Futures Forecasts of Federal Reserve Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chun, Albert Lee; Chun, Olfa Maalaoui

    Our results challenge the traditional way we interpret empirical measures of risk premia, as a signicant part of the predictable component of excess returns is strongly correlated with predictability in survey forecast errors. Using survey forecasts of the federal funds rate to proxy for market e...

  14. NOAA's Data Catalog and the Federal Open Data Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengren, M. J.; de la Beaujardiere, J.

    2014-12-01

    The 2013 Open Data Policy Presidential Directive requires Federal agencies to create and maintain a 'public data listing' that includes all agency data that is currently or will be made publicly-available in the future. The directive requires the use of machine-readable and open formats that make use of 'common core' and extensible metadata formats according to the best practices published in an online repository called 'Project Open Data', to use open licenses where possible, and to adhere to existing metadata and other technology standards to promote interoperability. In order to meet the requirements of the Open Data Policy, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has implemented an online data catalog that combines metadata from all subsidiary NOAA metadata catalogs into a single master inventory. The NOAA Data Catalog is available to the public for search and discovery, providing access to the NOAA master data inventory through multiple means, including web-based text search, OGC CS-W endpoint, as well as a native Application Programming Interface (API) for programmatic query. It generates on a daily basis the Project Open Data JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) file required for compliance with the Presidential directive. The Data Catalog is based on the open source Comprehensive Knowledge Archive Network (CKAN) software and runs on the Amazon Federal GeoCloud. This presentation will cover topics including mappings of existing metadata in standard formats (FGDC-CSDGM and ISO 19115 XML ) to the Project Open Data JSON metadata schema, representation of metadata elements within the catalog, and compatible metadata sources used to feed the catalog to include Web Accessible Folder (WAF), Catalog Services for the Web (CS-W), and Esri ArcGIS.com. It will also discuss related open source technologies that can be used together to build a spatial data infrastructure compliant with the Open Data Policy.

  15. Policy-Making for Australian Schooling: The New Corporate Federalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingard, Bob

    1991-01-01

    The corporate federalism concept illustrates the way a national approach to policy development for Australian schooling has been utilized by the Hawke Labor government. Negotiated consensus at the Australian Education Council has been used to arrive at these policies and to circumvent politically the constitutional and financial realities of…

  16. Federal Policy to Promote Innovation in US Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Dominic J.; Shirley, Maurice

    2017-01-01

    The federal role in higher education has grown over the past two decades, and now a new administration has the opportunity to strengthen policies that support students and their colleges and universities. To help inform these decisions, the Urban Institute convened a bipartisan group of scholars and policy advisers to write a series of memos…

  17. The Current Cluster Policy: Essence and Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onipko Tetiana A.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at defining essence of the current cluster policy and its characteristics. It was specified that, in the process of developing and implementing regional, innovation and entrepreneurial policies, many governments drew attention to the clustering of economy as a means of achieving a high level of regional and national competitiveness. The current cluster policy needs to be integrated, that is, to unify different policies, programs, and means. One of the characteristics of the current cluster policy is its orientation towards public-private partnership. The efficient form of such a partnership is cluster organizations. The author’s vision of the current cluster policy is that both the State and the private sector should be parties to it. Emphasis has been placed on the need to support in Ukraine, at the State level, the innovation clusters that facilitate modernization of the existing economic sectors by combining the traditions and the challenges of modernity. It has been concluded that social organizations could be involved in the process of development and implementation of cluster policy in Ukraine. A prospect for further research can be development of the «intellectual specialization» strategy for regions as an important constituent of the current cluster policy.

  18. Federal Agency Scientific Integrity Policies and the Legal Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, L.

    2017-12-01

    Federal agencies have worked to develop scientific integrity policies to promote the use of scientific and technical information in policymaking, reduce special-interest influences, and increase transparency. Following recent allegations of agency misconduct, these policies are now more important than ever. In addition to setting standards, scientific integrity policies also provide avenues for whistleblowers to complain about perceived violations. While these policies have their shortcomings (which may differ by agency), they are also one of the better available options for upholding principles of scientific integrity within the federal government. A legal perspective will be offered on what sorts of issues might rise to the threshold to make an official complaint, and the process of actually making a complaint. Other legal avenues for complaining about scientific integrity violations will also be discussed, such as complaints filed with the U.S. Office of Special Counsel or an agency's Office of Inspector General, and bringing the matter to federal court.

  19. The New Federalism: State Policies Regarding Embryonic Stem Cell Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Nefi D; Golub, Sidney H

    2016-09-01

    Stem cell policy in the United States is an amalgam of federal and state policies. The scientific development of human pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) triggered a contentious national stem cell policy debate during the administration of President George W. Bush. The Bush "compromise" that allowed federal funding to study only a very limited number of ESC derived cell lines did not satisfy either the researchers or the patient advocates who saw great medical potential being stifled. Neither more restrictive legislation nor expansion of federal funding proved politically possible and the federal impasse opened the door for a variety of state-based experiments. In 2004, California became the largest and most influential state venture into stem cell research by passing "Prop 71," a voter initiative that created a new stem cell agency and funded it with $3 billion. Several states followed suit with similar programs to protect the right of investigators to do stem cell research and in some cases to invest state funding in such projects. Other states devised legislation to restrict stem cell research and in five states, criminal penalties were included. Thus, the US stem cell policy is a patchwork of multiple, often conflicting, state and federal policies. © 2016 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics.

  20. Climate: Policy, Modeling, and Federal Priorities (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonin, S.; Department Of Energy Office Of The Under SecretaryScience

    2010-12-01

    The Administration has set ambitious national goals to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels and reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The US and other countries involved in the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change continue to work toward a goal of establishing a viable treaty that would encompass limits on emissions and codify actions that nations would take to reduce emissions. These negotiations are informed by the science of climate change and by our understanding of how changes in technology and the economy might affect the overall climate in the future. I will describe the present efforts within the U.S. Department of Energy, and the federal government more generally, to address issues related to climate change. These include state-of-the-art climate modeling and uncertainty assessment, economic and climate scenario planning based on best estimates of different technology trajectories, adaption strategies for climate change, and monitoring and reporting for treaty verification.

  1. Federal Policies and Higher Education in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisco, Anne; Hurley, Alicia D.; Carton, Thomas C; Richardson, Richard C., Jr.

    The purpose of this report is to describe U.S. federal policies that have helped to shape the context within which state systems of higher education operated during the past decade. It also presents descriptive statistics about the higher education enterprise in the United States, including available performance data. The report is based on the…

  2. From Policy to Compliance: Federal Energy Efficient Product Procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMates, Laurèn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Scodel, Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-09-06

    Federal buyers are required to purchase energy-efficient products in an effort to minimize energy use in the federal sector, save the federal government money, and spur market development of efficient products. The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)’s Energy Efficient Product Procurement (EEPP) Program helps federal agencies comply with the requirement to purchase energy-efficient products by providing technical assistance and guidance and setting efficiency requirements for certain product categories. Past studies have estimated the savings potential of purchasing energy-efficient products at over $500 million per year in energy costs across federal agencies.1 Despite the strong policy support for EEPP and resources available, energy-efficient product purchasing operates within complex decision-making processes and operational structures; implementation challenges exist that may hinder agencies’ ability to comply with purchasing requirements. The shift to purchasing green products, including energy-efficient products, relies on “buy in” from a variety of potential actors throughout different purchasing pathways. Challenges may be especially high for EEPP relative to other sustainable acquisition programs given that efficient products frequently have a higher first cost than non-efficient ones, which may be perceived as a conflict with fiscal responsibility, or more simply problematic for agency personnel trying to stretch limited budgets. Federal buyers may also face challenges in determining whether a given product is subject to EEPP requirements. Previous analysis on agency compliance with EEPP, conducted by the Alliance to Save Energy (ASE), shows that federal agencies are getting better at purchasing energy-efficient products. ASE conducted two reviews of relevant solicitations for product and service contracts listed on Federal Business Opportunities (FBO), the centralized website where federal agencies are required to post procurements greater

  3. Flexible Workplace Policies: Lessons from the Federal Alternative Work Schedules Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechty, Janet M.; Anderson, Elaine A.

    2007-01-01

    This case study uses a feminist framework to examine the 7-year process by which the Federal Alternative Work Schedules Act (1978-1985) became law and the reasons for reenergized implementation in the 1990s. We analyze the legislative discourse for rationale in support of and opposition to this policy, connect findings to current flexible work…

  4. Energy policy in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The tenor and consensus of energy policy in the Federal Republic of Germany have been affected and shaken by the discussion of damage to forests at the beginning of 1985, the rapidly slumping petroleum prices, the Chernobyl reactor accident, and the resulting emotionalized energy policy debates overshadowing the elections for the Land government, the Senate and the Bundestag. However, the responsible decision making organs still seem to feel a strong need for a consensus of that kind. ET-editors have therefore been trying to find out about the situation of 'energy policy in the Federal Republic of Germany' late in 1986. The Federal Government, the parliamentary factions, the parties, Land governments, labor unions and BDI, the coal, petroleum and natural gas industry as well as the manufacturers and managers of nuclear power plants were asked to express their opinion on the following questions: How will the energy supply of the Federal Republic of Germany be provided for in the future. What are the pros and cons of a nuclear phase-out. Should energy economy be reorganized. What is expected from and desired for the development of individual regions or energy sources, respectively. All but a few of above organs answered the questions. The statements therefore give a representative survey of the opinions and attitudes of the relevant decision-making organs and of different institutions. (orig./UA) [de

  5. Toward Effective Water Pipe Tobacco Control Policy in the United States: Synthesis of Federal, State, and Local Policy Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, Jason B; Ton, Jessica N; James, A Everette; Primack, Brian A

    2017-07-01

    Water pipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is growing in popularity among U.S. young adults and is associated with health risks similar to those of cigarette smoking. The purpose of this study is to examine existing tobacco control policies (TCPs) in order to investigate how they engage WTS. A systematic synthesis of content and legal interactions among federal, state, and local TCP documents. Pennsylvania, which represents a politically and demographically diverse microcosm of the United States. No human subjects. Federal and state TCPs were retrieved via public legal repositories. Local policy searches were conducted via county/municipal Web sites, inclusive of 13 localities that had autonomous health departments or existing TCPs based on a National Cancer Institute report. Full-text TCPs were double coded within a grounded theory framework for health policy analysis. Emergent codes were used to compare and contrast policy texts and to examine legal interactions among TCPs. Examination of policy categories including youth access, use restrictions, and taxation revealed WTS as largely omitted from current TCPs. WTS was sometimes addressed as an "other" tobacco product under older TCPs, though ambiguities in language led to questionable enforceability. State preemptions have rolled back or prevented well-tailored reforms at the local level. Federal preemptions have likewise constrained state TCPs. Outdated, preempted, and unclear policies limit the extent to which TCPs engage WTS. Health advocates might target these aspects of TCP reform.

  6. Development of federal government policy on radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howieson, J.

    1979-01-01

    The federal government position on radioactive waste management has been defined in one area - that of spent fuel waste - where AECL is pursuing an R and D program under the 1978 Ontario-Federal agreement. This agreement has a term of two years. In considering its renewal and in other areas of radioactive waste management, the government is working towards establishing its policy position. A review is given of the reasons for the government's interest in this area and some of the background which affects the approach to be taken. (auth)

  7. Monetary Policy Signaling from the Administration to the Federal Reserve.

    OpenAIRE

    Havrilesky, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    This paper develops an index of monetary policy signals from the Administration to the Federal Reserve based on articles which appeared in the Wall Street Journal in which Administration off icials express a desire for easier or tighter monetary policy. In reg ressions, the index has a significant effect on the money supply. In reaction functions, the index responds to variables which measure the state of the economy. Money growth does not respond to the same stat e-of-the-economy measures bu...

  8. 18 CFR 2.22 - Pricing policy for transmission services provided under the Federal Power Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pricing policy for... INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations Under the Federal Power Act § 2.22 Pricing policy... Policy Statement on its pricing policy for transmission services provided under the Federal Power Act...

  9. Federal policies for renewable electricity: Impacts and interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, Karen; Paul, Anthony; Woerman, Matt; Steinberg, Daniel C.

    2011-01-01

    Three types of policies that are prominent in the federal debate over addressing greenhouse gas emissions in the United States are a cap-and-trade program (CTP) on emissions, a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) for electricity production, and tax credits for renewable electricity producers. Each of these policies would have different consequences, and combinations of these policies could induce interactions yielding a whole that is not the sum of its parts. This paper utilizes the Haiku electricity market model to evaluate the economic and technology outcomes, climate benefits, and cost-effectiveness of three such policies and all possible combinations of the policies. A central finding is that the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions reductions from CTP can be significantly greater than those from the other policies, even for similar levels of renewable electricity production, since of the three policies, CTP is the only one that distinguishes electricity generated by coal and natural gas. It follows that CTP is the most cost-effective among these approaches at reducing CO 2 emissions. An alternative compliance payment mechanism in an RPS program could substantially affect renewables penetration, and the electricity price effects of the policies hinge partly on the regulatory structure of electricity markets, which varies across the country. - Research highlights: → Climate benefits of cap-and-trade are greater than of tax credits or RPS. → Cap-and-trade is more cost-effective at reducing emissions than tax credits or RPS. → Tax credits are a subsidy to production that raises electricity consumption. → Alternative compliance payment can substantially affect the outcome of RPS.

  10. 15 CFR 291.6 - Additional requirements; Federal policies and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST... requirements; Federal policies and procedures. Recipients and subrecipients are subject to all Federal laws and Federal and Department of Commerce policies, regulations, and procedures applicable to Federal financial...

  11. Federalism and decentralization: impact on international and Brazilian health policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Valéria Rodrigues; de Vasconcelos, Cipriano Maia; Lima, Kenio Costa

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the implications of decentralization in the light of international and Brazilian federalism, and its effects on public health policy. In a comparative analysis among countries, the authors find there is no single model; rather, each country has a unique structure of institutions and norms that have important implications for the operation of its health system. Brazil shares some similarities with other countries that have adopted a decentralized system and is assuming features ever closer to U.S. federalism, with a complex web of relationships. The degree of inequality among Brazilian municipalities and states, along with the budgetary imbalances caused by the minimal levels of resource utilization, undermines Brazil's constitutional principles and, consequently, its federalism. To ensure the constitutional mandate in Brazil, it is essential, as in other countries, to create a stable source of funds and increase the volume and efficiency of spending. Also important are investing in the training of managers, improving information systems, strengthening the principles of autonomy and interdependence, and defining patterns of cooperation within the federation.

  12. INTEGRATION POLICY TOWARDS IMMIGRANTS: CURRENT EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiia Bureiko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary world the intensity of the immigration movements is constantly increasing. Countries which experience great immigrant flows are facing numerous problems which should be solved. The article studies the current immigration flows in EU countries, the United States of America and Canada and presents three main models of integration policy towards immigrants – political assimilation, functional integration and multicultural model. Separate models are distinguished for the Muslims’ integration. The author examines the peculiarities of every model and examines the conclusions provided by the Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX concerning the situation of the immigrants’ integration in 31 countries in 2011. Among all the policy indicators the first that are defined are as follows: political participation, education, labour market mobility and anti-discrimination. The situation with immigrants’ integration in Ukraine is also studied as it is gaining a great attention of the authorities and the public. The measures and practical steps done regarding this situation in Ukraine in recent years are analyzed using the information offered by the State Migration Service of Ukraine.

  13. 41 CFR 102-74.185 - What heating and cooling policy must Federal agencies follow in Federal facilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What heating and cooling... heating and cooling policy must Federal agencies follow in Federal facilities? Within the limitations of the building systems, Federal agencies must— (a) Operate heating and cooling systems in the most...

  14. [Connections between fiscal federalism and the funding of the Brazilian health care policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Luciana Dias

    2007-01-01

    In the Brazilian society's context of meager financial resources for health care, associated with structural features of fiscal federalism and with the current model of funding transfers for the Unified Health System's (SUS), important inequities directly impact political negotiations and the deployment of federal financing alternatives which are not directly linked to the supply and production of health care activities and services by states and municipalities. We observed that health policies, since the second half of the nineties, have developed their own mechanisms that, in the above mentioned context, tend to accommodate different interests and federative conflicts generated by structural factors and by institutional rules. However, the absence of an integrated planning program between the criteria to establish resource redistribution for financing the Unified Health System and the Brazilian Federation's fiscal sharing system, end up reinforcing certain asymmetric patterns and generating new imbalances, making the compensation of inequities difficult in public health spending at the sub-national domain.

  15. How Changes in Immigration Policy Might Affect the Federal Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    admission to the United States is granted to foreign-born people who seek entry for a limited time and for a specific pur- pose, such as tourism ...eligible for Medic - aid starting in 2014.17 Those new beneficiaries consist primarily of nonelderly adults with low income who are not parents of...eligibility for Medicaid to nonelderly residents with income up to 133 percent of the federal poverty level , commonly referred to as the FPL, which currently

  16. The effect of federal health policy on occupational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCunney, R J; Cikins, W

    1990-01-01

    All three branches of the federal government affect occupational medicine. Notable examples include: 1) the Department of Transportation ruling (1988) requiring drug testing in diverse areas of the transportation industry (executive branch); 2) the Workplace Drug Act (1988) calling for organizations to have a policy towards drug and alcohol abuse (legislative branch); and 3) the Supreme Court ruling on the constitutionality of drug testing in the transportation industry (1989) and that infectious diseases are a handicap in accordance with the 1973 Federal Rehabilitation Act (1987). The executive branch plays a major role in occupational medicine primarily through the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), which issues standards based on a rule making process; the executive branch can also affect occupational medicine indirectly, as evidenced by President Reagan's Executive Order 12291 calling for Office of Management and Budget oversight of regulatory initiatives. The legislative branch enacts laws, conducts hearings, and requests reports on the operations of federal agencies. The judicial branch addresses occupational health issues when people affected by an executive ruling want to challenge the ruling; or in the case of the Supreme Court, when deliberating an issue over which two circuit courts of appeal have come to divergent opinions. The Occupational Medicine profession can participate in the political process through awareness of proposed legislation and by responding accordingly with letters, resolutions, or testimony. Similar options exist within the executive branch by participating in the rule-making process. A representative of the Governmental Affairs Committee, through periodic visits with key Washington representatives, can keep members of the American College of Occupational Medicine informed about federal legislative and regulatory activities. In appropriate cases, the organization can then take a formal position on governmental

  17. 31 CFR 50.72 - Establishment of Federal Terrorism Policy Surcharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Establishment of Federal Terrorism... TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Recoupment and Surcharge Procedures § 50.72 Establishment of Federal Terrorism Policy Surcharge. (a) Treasury will establish the Federal Terrorism Policy Surcharge based on the...

  18. 78 FR 54466 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of July 30-31, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... percent. The Committee directs the Desk to undertake open market operations as necessary to maintain such... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of July 30-31... 271), there is set forth below the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market...

  19. 78 FR 70945 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of October 29-30, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ...\\ percent. The Committee directs the Desk to undertake open market operations as necessary to maintain such... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of October 29-30... 271), there is set forth below the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market...

  20. 78 FR 13673 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of January 29-30, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... percent. The Committee directs the Desk to undertake open market operations as necessary to maintain such... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of January 29-30... 271), there is set forth below the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market...

  1. 78 FR 22880 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of March 19-20, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ...\\ percent. The Committee directs the Desk to undertake open market operations as necessary to maintain such... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of March 19-20... 271), there is set forth below the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market...

  2. 78 FR 43883 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of June 18-19, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ...\\ percent. The Committee directs the Desk to undertake open market operations as necessary to maintain such... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of June 18-19... 271), there is set forth below the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market...

  3. 78 FR 33841 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of April 30-May 1, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... from 0 to \\1/4\\ percent. The Committee directs the Desk to undertake open market operations as... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of April 30-May 1... 271), there is set forth below the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market...

  4. Basic orientation of current enterprise technological policy

    OpenAIRE

    Lapteva, V.

    2008-01-01

    The article reviews the factors stimulating industrials to intensification of technological policy; quick analysis of possible sources for investment of technological policy; problems of transition to active technological policy; outline of basic forms of fixed capital stock reproduction. The article indicates necessity of keeping of optimum relationship between all forms of fixed capital stock reproduction.

  5. Does public reporting measure up? Federalism, accountability and child-care policy in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lynell; Findlay, Tammy

    2010-01-01

    Governments in Canada have recently been exploring new accountability measures within intergovernmental relations. Public reporting has become the preferred mechanism in a range of policy areas, including early learning and child-care, and the authors assess its effectiveness as an accountability measure. The article is based on their experience with a community capacity-building project that considers the relationship between the public policy, funding and accountability mechanisms under the federal/provincial/territorial agreements related to child-care. The authors argue that in its current form, public reporting has not lived up to its promise of accountability to citizens. This evaluation is based on the standards that governments have set for themselves under the federal/provincial/territorial agreements, as well as guidelines set by the Public Sector Accounting Board, an independent body that develops accounting standards over time through consultation with governments.

  6. Right to health in Russian Federation: identification of its current stage of constitutional and legal recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TARASENKO, Elena

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Russian Federation has made a strong legal commitment to the human right to health through the ratification of several key international human rights laws. Current public health care policies also demonstrate that Russian Federation has committed itself to provide the human right to health protection of people residing with its jurisdiction. All residents of Russia are eligible for medical care free of charge. Medical services are provided directly to patients by government health care providers. This includes general and specialist medical care, hospitalization, diagnostic laboratory services, dental care, maternity care and transportation, free drugs for disabled, medical rehabilitation, etc. The legal basis for the human right to health at the federal level is provided by a variety of legislative acts (codes, federal laws, presidential decrees, decisions and proposals of the government of the Russian Federation, and orders of the government and of the Ministry of Health and other ministries. The legal bas is at the regional level is provided by legislative instruments enacted by the governments of the Subjects of Russian Federation.

  7. Impact of State and Federal regulatory policy on natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malloy, K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents information which demonstrates the decline in the use and subsequent demand of natural gas as the result of regulatory constraints. These regulations have allowed for a 10 percent decline in the use of natural gas in the last 20 years. The author believes that the major reason for this decline is the existence of State and Federal regulatory requirements which prevent the natural gas industry from effectively responding to new market opportunities. The paper goes on to discuss historical regulations such as the Fuel Use Act and the Natural Gas Policy Act which caused severe impacts to development in the gas industry by placing incremental price controls on natural gas. The author then discusses the effect of deregulation and how it has boosted the gas industry. He specifically discusses the US Canada Free-Trade Agreement and the new negotiations which would greatly enhance the gas sales to Mexico. Finally the author goes on to discuss deregulatory stances proposed as part of the National Energy Strategy regarding natural gas. These include the removal of obstacles to building new pipeline capacities; reformation of rates policies; assurances of nondiscriminatory access to natural gas pipeline services and facilities; and removal of impediments to free and open international trade in natural gas

  8. Current approaches to the European Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda CURTA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify the key elements that define the new European health policy. We observed that the health policy actually appeared to be an enclave within the integration process. The development of health policy in the new Member States followed a common pattern. Therefore, the European health policy reflected a general desire on behalf of the members to have more clarity of the rules in this area, given the different interpretation of the rules by different Member States.The Lisbon Treaty does not bring substantive changes regarding the public health policy, therefore the Member States shall keep their competence in defining the organization and financing this domain. However, the EU2020 Strategy states that “Europe faces a moment of transformation”. Therefore, the “Europeanization” of health policy could lead to the positive developments that all EU citizens are expecting.

  9. 78 FR 17300 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... and II Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and... Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and Administrative Requirements (Including...

  10. Energy policy programmes of the Federal Government 1973 to 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm

    2017-01-01

    An analysis of the energy policy programs presented since 1973 shows that all government coalitions have been known in the past 45 years in principle for the objectives of security of supply, efficiency and affordability as well as environmental protection and conservation of resources - together with the statement that these goals should be pursued on an equal footing. In fact, there has never been this ''consonance'' of goals. Rather, concrete events or political currents have led to a changing prioritization of individual goals. At the same time, the intensity of government intervention in the management of supply and demand has changed. [de

  11. Federalism and health policy: the intergovernmental committees in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Cristiani Vieira; Lima, Luciana Dias de; Viana, Ana Luiza d'Ávila; Oliveira, Roberta Gondim de; Iozzi, Fabíola Lana; Albuquerque, Mariana Vercesi de; Scatena, João Henrique Gurtler; Mello, Guilherme Arantes; Pereira, Adelyne Maria Mendes; Coelho, Ana Paula Santana

    2014-08-01

    To analyze the dynamics of operation of the Bipartite Committees in health care in the Brazilian states. The research included visits to 24 states, direct observation, document analysis, and performance of semi-structured interviews with state and local leaders. The characterization of each committee was performed between 2007 and 2010, and four dimensions were considered: (i) level of institutionality, classified as advanced, intermediate, or incipient; (ii) agenda of intergovernmental negotiations, classified as diversified/restricted, adapted/not adapted to the reality of each state, and shared/unshared between the state and municipalities; (iii) political processes, considering the character and scope of intergovernmental relations; and (iv) capacity of operation, assessed as high, moderate, or low. Ten committees had advanced level of institutionality. The agenda of the negotiations was diversified in all states, and most of them were adapted to the state reality. However, one-third of the committees showed power inequalities between the government levels. Cooperative and interactive intergovernmental relations predominated in 54.0% of the states. The level of institutionality, scope of negotiations, and political processes influenced Bipartite Committees' ability to formulate policies and coordinate health care at the federal level. Bipartite Committees with a high capacity of operation predominated in the South and Southeast regions, while those with a low capacity of operations predominated in the North and Northeast. The regional differences in operation among Bipartite Interagency Committees suggest the influence of historical-structural variables (socioeconomic development, geographic barriers, characteristics of the health care system) in their capacity of intergovernmental health care management. However, structural problems can be overcome in some states through institutional and political changes. The creation of federal investments, varied by

  12. Federalism and health policy: the intergovernmental committees in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiani Vieira Machado

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the dynamics of operation of the Bipartite Committees in health care in the Brazilian states. METHODS The research included visits to 24 states, direct observation, document analysis, and performance of semi-structured interviews with state and local leaders. The characterization of each committee was performed between 2007 and 2010, and four dimensions were considered: (i level of institutionality, classified as advanced, intermediate, or incipient; (ii agenda of intergovernmental negotiations, classified as diversified/restricted, adapted/not adapted to the reality of each state, and shared/unshared between the state and municipalities; (iii political processes, considering the character and scope of intergovernmental relations; and (iv capacity of operation, assessed as high, moderate, or low. RESULTS Ten committees had advanced level of institutionality. The agenda of the negotiations was diversified in all states, and most of them were adapted to the state reality. However, one-third of the committees showed power inequalities between the government levels. Cooperative and interactive intergovernmental relations predominated in 54.0% of the states. The level of institutionality, scope of negotiations, and political processes influenced Bipartite Committees’ ability to formulate policies and coordinate health care at the federal level. Bipartite Committees with a high capacity of operation predominated in the South and Southeast regions, while those with a low capacity of operations predominated in the North and Northeast. CONCLUSIONS The regional differences in operation among Bipartite Interagency Committees suggest the influence of historical-structural variables (socioeconomic development, geographic barriers, characteristics of the health care system in their capacity of intergovernmental health care management. However, structural problems can be overcome in some states through institutional and political changes

  13. Environmental policy in the 8th Deutscher Bundestag (Federal Parliament) and Bundesrat (Federal Council) (1976-1980)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This description of environmental policy is the follow-up to Vol 49 of the ''Materialien'' (material) (Environmental policy in the 7th Federal Parliament). It also covers the main dealings in the Bundesrat (Federal Council). References to terms especially when speeches are quoted, are related to the subject index of the ''Verhandlungen des Dt. Bundestages und Bundesrates'' (''Negotiations of the German Federal Parliament and Federal Council) which are the basis for the booklet mentioned above. Contents: general fundamentals, aspects of structural policy, scientific, technical and organisational fundamentals; international and bilateral cooperation, emission control, waste management, environmental chemicals, protection of nature and landscape, coastal and deep sea waters, nuclear energy. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Advocating for Ethnographic Work in Early Childhood Federal Policy: Problems and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Jennifer Keys

    2011-01-01

    Initiated as part of the Council on Anthropology and Education's Policy Engagement Working Group, the policy brief "Ethnographic Knowledge For Early Childhood" focused on making the case for ethnography as evidence within early childhood federal policy. This article describes the creation and distribution of the policy brief as well as the…

  15. The US Opioid Crisis: Current Federal and State Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soelberg, Cobin D; Brown, Raeford E; Du Vivier, Derick; Meyer, John E; Ramachandran, Banu K

    2017-11-01

    The United States is in the midst of a devastating opioid misuse epidemic leading to over 33,000 deaths per year from both prescription and illegal opioids. Roughly half of these deaths are attributable to prescription opioids. Federal and state governments have only recently begun to grasp the magnitude of this public health crisis. In 2016, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released their Guidelines for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain. While not comprehensive in scope, these guidelines attempt to control and regulate opioid prescribing. Other federal agencies involved with the federal regulatory effort include the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), and the Department of Justice. Each federal agency has a unique role in helping to stem the burgeoning opioid misuse epidemic. The DEA, working with the Department of Justice, has enforcement power to prosecute pill mills and physicians for illegal prescribing. The DEA could also implement use of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs), currently administered at the state level, and use of electronic prescribing for schedule II and III medications. The FDA has authority to approve new and safer formulations of immediate- and long-acting opioid medications. More importantly, the FDA can also ask pharmaceutical companies to cease manufacturing a drug. Additionally, state agencies play a critical role in reducing overdose deaths, protecting the public safety, and promoting the medically appropriate treatment of pain. One of the states' primary roles is the regulation of practice of medicine and the insurance industry within their borders. Utilizing this authority, states can both educate physicians about the dangers of opioids and make physician licensure dependent on registering and using PDMPs when prescribing controlled substances. Almost every state has implemented a PDMP to some degree; however, in addition to mandating their use, increased interstate

  16. Analysis of federal and state policies and environmental issues for bioethanol production facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Chandra; Chan Hilton, Amy B

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate incentives and barriers to fuel ethanol production from biomass in the U.S. during the past decade (2000-2010). In particular, we examine the results of policies and economic conditions during this period by way of cellulosic ethanol activity in four selected states with the potential to produce different types of feedstocks (i.e., sugar, starch, and cellulosic crops) for ethanol production (Florida, California, Hawaii, and Iowa). Two of the four states, Iowa and California, currently have commercial ethanol production facilities in operation using corn feedstocks. While several companies have proposed commercial scale facilities in Florida and Hawaii, none are operating to date. Federal and state policies and incentives, potential for feedstock production and conversion to ethanol and associated potential environmental impacts, and environmental regulatory conditions among the states were investigated. Additionally, an analysis of proposed and operational ethanol production facilities provided evidence that a combination of these policies and incentives along with the ability to address environmental issues and regulatory environment and positive economic conditions all impact ethanol production. The 2000-2010 decade saw the rise of the promise of cellulosic ethanol. Federal and state policies were enacted to increase ethanol production. Since the initial push for development, expansion of cellulosic ethanol production has not happened as quickly as predicted. Government and private funding supported the development of ethanol production facilities, which peaked and then declined by the end of the decade. Although there are technical issues that remain to be solved to more efficiently convert cellulosic material to ethanol while reducing environmental impacts, the largest barriers to increasing ethanol production appear to be related to government policies, economics, and logistical issues. The numerous federal and state

  17. 41 CFR 102-79.110 - What Integrated Workplace policy must Federal agencies strive to promote?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... capital costs over a substantial time period; and (i) Support alternative workplace arrangements... Workplace policy must Federal agencies strive to promote? 102-79.110 Section 102-79.110 Public Contracts and... Integrated Workplace § 102-79.110 What Integrated Workplace policy must Federal agencies strive to promote...

  18. 77 FR 24337 - Establishing Policies for Addressing Domestic Violence in the Federal Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ...--Establishing Policies for Addressing Domestic Violence in the Federal Workforce #0; #0; #0; Presidential... Policies for Addressing Domestic Violence in the Federal Workforce Memorandum for the Heads of Executive... Against Women Act in 1994 (Public Law 103-322), domestic violence remains a significant problem facing...

  19. Teaching Social Policy: Integration of Current Legislation and Media Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRigne, LeaAnne

    2011-01-01

    Social work students enter the field of social work for many reasons--from wanting to become clinicians to wanting to advocate for a more socially just world. Social policy classes can be the ideal courses to provide instruction on conducting research on current policy issues. Teaching students about policy advocacy can lead to a class rich with…

  20. Transnational Education: Current Developments and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jianxin

    2009-01-01

    Ever since the transnational education trend took off since the 1980s, transnational education has come to bearing political, economic and cultural implications. Different approaches have been formulated to achieve specific policy objectives by both importing and exporting countries. Such approaches demonstrate a four dimensional composition,…

  1. 78 FR 2996 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of December 11-12, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ...'s Annual Report. The Federal Open Market Committee seeks monetary and financial conditions that will... Open Market Account Manager and the Secretary will keep the Committee informed of ongoing developments... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of December 11-12...

  2. 76 FR 10364 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of January 25-26, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... Report. The Federal Open Market Committee seeks monetary and financial conditions that will foster price... Market Account Manager and the Secretary will keep the Committee informed of ongoing developments... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of January 25-26...

  3. 76 FR 21894 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of March 15, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    .... The Federal Open Market Committee seeks monetary and financial conditions that will foster price... Market Account Manager and the Secretary will keep the Committee informed of ongoing developments... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of March 15, 2011...

  4. 76 FR 43687 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of June 21-22, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... Report. The Federal Open Market Committee seeks monetary and financial conditions that will foster price... Open Market Account Manager and the Secretary will keep the Committee informed of ongoing developments... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of June 21-22...

  5. 76 FR 1616 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of December 14, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... Report. The Federal Open Market Committee seeks monetary and financial conditions that will foster price... Market Account Manager and the Secretary will keep the Committee informed of ongoing developments... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of December 14...

  6. 76 FR 37114 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of April 26-27, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Report. The Federal Open Market Committee seeks monetary and financial conditions that will foster price... Market Account Manager and the Secretary will keep the Committee informed of ongoing developments... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of April 26-27...

  7. How do local governments decide on public policy in fiscal federalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köthenbürger, Marko

    2011-01-01

    Previous literature widely assumes that taxes are optimized in local public finance while expenditures adjust residually. This paper endogenizes the choice of the optimization variable. In particular, it analyzes how federal policy toward local governments influences the way local governments...... decide on public policy. Unlike the usual presumption, the paper shows that local governments may choose to optimize over expenditures. The result holds when federal policy subsidizes local taxation. The results offer a new perspective of the efficiency implications of federal policy toward local...

  8. How Do Local Governments Decide on Public Policy in Fiscal Federalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köthenbürger, Marko

    2008-01-01

    Previous literature widely assumes that taxes are optimized in local public finance while expenditures adjust residually. This paper endogenizes the choice of the optimization variable. In particular, it analyzes how federal policy toward local governments influences the way local governments...... decide on public policy. Unlike the presumption, the paper shows that local governments may choose to optimize over expenditures. The result most notably prevails when federal policy subsidizes local fiscal effort. The results offer a new perspective of the efficiency implications of federal policy...

  9. Environmental policy of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malunat, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    The history of the policy for environmental protection in Germany is characterized by a particularly fast rate of evolution over the roughly 25 years of its existence to a state of maturity for which all other fundamental political goals and principles of our society - such as democracy, supremacy of law, social welfare - have taken much more time to develop. Compared to this rapid development in theory, the situation of the environment has changed but little, and considering our current knowledge, revealing the interdependency of global ecological processes, there is danger of development to the worse. The United Nations have been signalising the beginning of a new approach towards the environment based on the principle of global responsibility. But the narrow lane of ''sustainable development'' will lead to success only if the great majority of people are prepared to take on personal responsibility. (orig.) [de

  10. Food security and nutrition in the Russian Federation – a health policy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Lunze

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the Russian Federation (Russia, an elevated burden of premature mortality attributable to non-communicable diseases (NCDs has been observed since the country's economic transition. NCDs are largely related to preventable risk factors such as unhealthy diets. Objective: This health policy study's aim was to analyze past and current food production and nutritional trends in Russia and their policy implications for Russia's NCD burden. Design: We examined food security and nutrition in Russia using an analytical framework of food availability, access to food, and consumption. Results: Agricultural production declined during the period of economic transition, and nutritional habits changed from high-fat animal products to starches. However, per-capita energy consumption remained stable due to increased private expenditures on food and use of private land. Paradoxically, the prevalence of obesity still increased because of an excess consumption of unsaturated fat, sugar, and salt on one side, and insufficient intake of fruit and vegetables on the other. Conclusions: Policy and economic reforms in Russia were not accompanied by a food security crisis or macronutrient deprivation of the population. Yet, unhealthy diets in contemporary Russia contribute to the burden of NCDs and related avoidable mortality. Food and nutrition policies in Russia need to specifically address nutritional shortcomings and food-insecure vulnerable populations. Appropriate, evidence-informed food and nutrition policies might help address Russia's burden of NCDs on a population level.

  11. National monetary policy by regional design: the evolving role of the Federal Reserve banks in Federal Reserve System policy

    OpenAIRE

    David C. Wheelock

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the history of Federal Reserve Bank input into Federal Reserve System monetary policymaking. From the Fed's founding in 1914 through the Great Depression, the Reserve Banks held the balance of power. Dissatisfaction with the Fed's performance, however, led to a wholesale reorganization in 1935 that greatly enhanced the authority of the Federal Reserve Board, but retained a role for the Federal Banks through the membership of their presidents on the FOMC, as well as in sett...

  12. Federal Republic of Germany: family planning, family policy and demographic policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhlke, W

    1989-01-01

    Decades of social change in West Germany and the emergence of an ideology that stresses individualism have altered dramatically procreative behavioral patterns. At present, West Germany is characterized by a low marriage rate (6.1/1000 in 1986), declining fertility (10.3 birth/1000), rising divorce rates (20.1/1000), and increases in the proportion of single-person households (34%). The relationship between family planning, family policy, and demographic policy is unclear and changing. Family planning practice is viewed as a part of comprehensive life planning and is based on factors such as partnership or marital status, sex roles, the conflict between working in the home and having a career, consumer aspirations, and housing conditions. The Government's family policy includes the following components: child benefits, tax relief on children, tax splitting arrangements for married couples, childcare allowance, parental leave, student grants, tax deductions for domiciliary professional help and nursing assistance, and the provision of daycare. Thus, West Germany's family policy is directed more at encouraging and facilitating parenthood and family life than at a setting demographic goals. There is no evidence, however, that such measures will be successful and divergent influences of other policy areas are often more compelling. Nor is there any way to quantify the fertility-costing impact of individual family policy measures. The indistinct nature of family planning policy in West Germany mirrors political differences between the current coalition government, which maintains a traditional view of the family, and the opposition Social-Democratic and Green Parties, which question whether the equality of men and women can be achieved in the context of old family structures.

  13. adjustment policies and current account behaviour: empirical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    2009-10-15

    Oct 15, 2009 ... test, co-integration test and the variance decomposition and impulse response function. The variance ... economic performance and the external account. In the ... net impacts of the financial deepening and monetary credibility on .... profitability. In terms of .... cadgdp = the ratio of current account to GDP.

  14. Special Reports; Homeland Security and Information Management; The Development of Electronic Government in the United States: The Federal Policy Experience; Digital Rights Management: Why Libraries Should Be Major Players; The Current State and Future Promise of Portal Applications; Recruitment and Retention: A Professional Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relyea, Harold C.; Halchin, L. Elaine; Hogue, Henry B.; Agnew, Grace; Martin, Mairead; Schottlaender, Brian E. C.; Jackson, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Theses five reports address five special issues: the effects of the September 11 attacks on information management, including homeland security, Web site information removal, scientific and technical information, and privacy concerns; federal policy for electronic government information; digital rights management and libraries; library Web portal…

  15. Evolution and current thoughts about environmental policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, B.L.

    1994-01-01

    In this work is presented an overview of trends and current thinking in environmental management, broadly defined, as a context for people consideration of the environmental and ethical aspects of the disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes. The author sets out a general framework of the principles and strategies which have been, and are being, used by OECD Member countries to manage environmental problems and risks. (O.L.)

  16. Federal Sentencing Guidelines: Background, Legal Analysis, and Policy Options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seghetti, Lisa M; Smith, Alison M

    2007-01-01

    In United States v. Booker, an unusual two-part opinion transformed federal criminal sentencing by restoring to judges much of the discretion that Congress took away when it put mandatory sentencing guidelines in place...

  17. Policy Inputs to Honduran Government, Indigenous Federations, and NGOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-09

    Meeting, June 8, 2015: met with representatives of Honduran Land Management Program (PATH II), indigenous Miskitu leaders from MASTA, and...Granados of Honduran Land Management Program (PATH II), Norvin Goff (President of MASTA indigenous federation), and Darío Cruz (Vice Rector at UPNFM). ...Government, Indigenous Federations, and NGOs Our cartographic research results on the CA Indígena website are used by Honduran government agencies

  18. The Monetization Policy of Federal Government of Nigeria and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... impact negatively on productivity of workers. It is the contention of the paper, that the sustainability of the policy in the next four or five years, depends on the ability of the country to foot the cost, availability of political will and popular acceptability of the effect of the policy, etc. SOPHIA: An African Journal of Philosophy Vol.

  19. Current environmental situation in the new Federal States. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haury, H.J.; Koller, U.; Assmann, G.

    1992-01-01

    'Information on Environment' organised the first part of a seminar for jounalists on the present environmental situation in the now federal states in Berlin on the 3rd and 4th of December. More than 50 participants from radios, TV, daily and special press attended this ninth event of 'Information on Environment' in Berlin. Leading scientists from research institutes of the former GDR, the Federal Environmental Agency and the GSF-research centre for environment and heath gave papers on the predominant environmental problems in the new federal states. This first part deals with water pollution, waste water treatment, drinking water supply, environmental problems of lignite mining, radiation pollution in the Erzgebirge; forest damage research and special armament wastes and waste problems in general. (orig.) [de

  20. The impact of a federal cigarette minimum pack price policy on cigarette use in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doogan, Nathan J; Wewers, Mary Ellen; Berman, Micah

    2018-03-01

    Increasing cigarette prices reduce cigarette use. The US Food and Drug Administration has the authority to regulate the sale and promotion-and therefore the price-of tobacco products. To examine the potential effect of federal minimum price regulation on the sales of cigarettes in the USA. We used yearly state-level data from the Tax Burden on Tobacco and other sources to model per capita cigarette sales as a function of price. We used the fitted model to compare the status quo sales with counterfactual scenarios in which a federal minimum price was set. The minimum price scenarios ranged from $0 to $12. The estimated price effect in our model was comparable with that found in the literature. Our counterfactual analyses suggested that the impact of a minimum price requirement could range from a minimal effect at the $4 level to a reduction of 5.7 billion packs sold per year and 10 million smokers at the $10 level. A federal minimum price policy has the potential to greatly benefit tobacco control and public health by uniformly increasing the price of cigarettes and by eliminating many price-reducing strategies currently available to both sellers and consumers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Accelerating the Pace of Change in Energy Technologies Through an Integrated Federal Energy Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-11-01

    In this report, the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) calls for the development of a coordinated government-wide Federal energy policy. This will be a major undertaking, given the large number of Federal policies that affect the development, implementation, and use of energy technologies. For that reason, we recommend that the Administration initiate a process analogous to the Quadrennial Defense Review undertaken every four years by the Department of Defense

  2. Protest Movements and the Security Policy of the Federal Republic of Germany Since 1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    to rearmament. The state of mind that framed a majority of the members, however, remained one of 33 semi- abstentionism where German labor remained on...I 0D A132 201 PROTEST MOVEMENTS AND THE SECURI Y POLICY 0 THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY SINCE 1950( U) NAVAL\\ POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONEREY CA A N...1 THESIS PROTEST MOVEMENTS AND THE SECURITY POLICY OF THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY SINCE 1950 by Arthur Neil Black 0. December 1983 C-) LIJ Thesis

  3. Co-financing of Social Policy in the Brazilian Federalism Context of XXI Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evilasio Salvador

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The federal arrangement post Constitution comes indicating greater accountability of federal units and municipalities in the implementation of social policies at the same time as it gave greater autonomy in tax collection. From the 2000s, the new rules of social policies in education, health and social assitance has required a greater effort of budgetary resources of the states, the Federal District and municipalities, without the creation or injection of additional tax revenue. In social policies, important legislative changes mark the first decade of this century in Brazil with direct implications on federal arrangement and therefore the co-financing of social policies. The main objective of this article is to analyze the amount of funds invested by the federal government, states, Federal District and municipalities in budget functions: social assistance, health and education, from 2002 to 2012, highlighting the co-financing these social policies. As well as to identify some obstacles created by the fiscal adjustment underway in the country to expand the co-financing of social policies.

  4. Nuclear export policy and regulation for non-proliferation: Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, Werner.

    1978-01-01

    The nuclear export policy of the Federal Republic of Germany complies with the principle of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. Already in 1967 the Federal Government stated in a Peace Note that no export was authorised to countries (outside Euratom) which did not comply with the IAEA Safeguards. In the bilateral agreement the Federal Republic signed with Brasil in 1975, emphasis was put on international safeguards and the control exercised on exported materials to avoid any diversion for military purposes. (NEA) [fr

  5. Affirmative Action in Federal Employment: Reconciling Government Policy with Federal Law and the Constitution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Willson, Stephanie

    2003-01-01

    ...), "Instructions for the Development and Submission of Federal Affirmative Employment Multi-Year Program Plans, Annual Accomplishment Reports, and Annual Plan Updates for FY 1988 through FY 1992" MD...

  6. Ethnicity and the Federal Character Policy in Nigeria | Lambert ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is to address the perceived predominance of persons from few states or from a few ethnic or other sectional groups in the composition of government or the appointment or election of persons to high offices in the state. This paper examines the issue of ethnicity in Nigeria, the federal character principles, how it has affected ...

  7. Federal climate change programs : funding history and policy issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    In recent years, the federal government has allocated several billion dollars annually for projects to expand the understanding of climate change or to reduce carbon dioxide and other greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Most of that spending is done by t...

  8. The APS Panel on Public Affairs and Federal Science Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Robert

    2013-03-01

    The Panel on Public Affairs (POPA) is the organ through which the APS seeks to provide high quality input to the Federal Government on issues with significant physics content, ranging from energy and environment to national security. I will describe POPA's evolving mission, some recent efforts and successes, and look at the agenda for the next few years.

  9. Canadian energy and climate policies: A SWOT analysis in search of federal/provincial coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertel, Camille; Bahn, Olivier; Vaillancourt, Kathleen; Waaub, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of Canadian energy and climate policies in terms of the coherence between federal and provincial/territorial strategies. After briefly describing the institutional, energy, and climate contexts, we perform a SWOT analysis on the themes of energy security, energy efficiency, and technology and innovation. Within this analytical framework, we discuss the coherence of federal and provincial policies and of energy and climate policies. Our analysis shows that there is a lack of consistency in the Canadian energy and climate strategies beyond the application of market principles. Furthermore, in certain sectors, the Canadian approach amounts to an amalgam of decisions made at a provincial level without cooperation with other provinces or with the federal government. One way to improve policy coherence would be to increase the cooperation between the different jurisdictions by using a combination of policy tools and by relying on existing intergovernmental agencies. - Highlights: • We perform a SWOT analysis of the Canadian energy and climate policies. • We analyse policy coherence between federal and provincial/territorial strategies. • We show that a lack of coordination leads to a weak coherence among policies. • The absence of cooperation results in additional costs for Canada

  10. Environmental policy in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonis, U.E.

    1991-12-31

    After a short description of the basic aims of environmental policy the general development of environmental policy in the FRG is gone into. Here above all the sectors air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution and waste materials are dealt with. Finally the most important elements of the decision-making processes are explained and a short history of environmental policy in the FRG is given. (UA). [Deutsch] Nach einer kurzen Erlaeuterung der Grundziele der Umweltpolitik wird in kurzer Form auf die allgemeine Entwicklung der Umweltpolitik in der BRD eingegangen. Dabei werden insbesondere die Bereiche Luftverschmutzung, Wasserverschmutzung, Laermbelaestigung und Abfallmaterialien behandelt. Abschliessend werden die wichtigsten Grundzuege des Entscheidungs-Findungs-Prozesses erlaeutert, und es wird die historische Entwicklung der Umweltpolitik in der BRD skizziert. (UA).

  11. Corporal Punishment in U.S. Public Schools: Prevalence, Disparities in Use, and Status in State and Federal Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Font, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    School corporal punishment is currently legal in 19 states, and over 160,000 children in these states are subject to corporal punishment in schools each year. Given that the use of school corporal punishment is heavily concentrated in Southern states, and that the federal government has not included corporal punishment in its recent initiatives about improving school discipline, public knowledge of this issue is limited. The aim of this policy report is to fill the gap in kn...

  12. Growing Stem Cells: The Impact of Federal Funding Policy on the U.S. Scientific Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Jeffrey L.; Murray, Fiona; Stern, Scott

    2012-01-01

    This paper articulates a citation-based approach to science policy evaluation and employs that approach to investigate the impact of the United States' 2001 policy regarding the federal funding of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research. We evaluate the impact of the policy on the level of U.S. hESC research, the U.S. position at the knowledge…

  13. Current Trends in Foreign Trade Theory and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław W. Puślecki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, Author focus on the current analysis trends in foreign trade theory and policy. Accordance with the foreign trade policy theory further trade liberalisation and improved framework policies would increase trade and promote growth. It must be emphasized that openness to trade is associated with higher incomes and growth and there is the need for new approaches to trade cooperation in light of the forces that are currently re-shaping international business. What indicates the importance and innovativeness of the research is the presentation of the new models of the foreign trade policy and trade interests. First of all, it must underline that in the new theoretical terms in demand for trade policy very important is factor specificity. The low specificity of factors means that factor returns are equalized throughout a region’s economy. On the other hand, some factors are stuck in their present uses; therefore, factor returns are not equalized throughout a region’s economy but are industry specific. The main objective of the research task is to give a comprehensive analysis of current trends in foreign trade theory and policy and in particular models of foreign trade policy, trade interests indicated by export orientation and import sensitivity, foreign trade policy in different types of authoritarian regimes, protectionist pressures in different political system, the level of protectionist pressures, the tendencies to bilateralism in the foreign trade policy. It should be stressed that free trade in itself is not responsible for economic growth, but more significant are the determining macroeconomic stability and increasing investment.

  14. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 and Executive Order 13149: Proposed compliance strategies and process improvements for federal agencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helwig, Michael; Deason, Jonathan P.

    2007-01-01

    Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), 75 percent of Light Duty Vehicle acquisitions by federal agencies must be Alternative Fuel Vehicles (AFVs). EPAct's intent was to reduce United States reliance on oil imports, with federal agencies assuming a leadership role in acquiring AFVs and using alternative fuel in those AFVs. Executive Order (E.O.) 13149, issued in 2000, required federal agencies to reduce petroleum consumption 20 percent relative to a 1999 baseline and use alternative fuels the majority of the time in their AFVs by 2005. Most federal agencies met the EPAct 75 percent acquisition requirement in 2004, however, most will not achieve the petroleum reduction and alternative fuel use requirements. Frequently, federal agencies acquire the relatively expensive AFVs and then fuel those vehicles with gasoline. Besides wasting taxpayer dollars, this approach does not meet the intent of EPAct. It was surmised that federal agencies lack an objective, quantitative methodology for AFV acquisitions and Executive Order 13149 compliance. Several types of optimization models were constructed, using the United States Navy as a test case, for models focusing on EPAct and/or E.O. 13149 compliance. Results of a tiered set of models indicate there are efficiencies that federal agencies could take advantage of when developing EPAct and E.O. 13149 compliance strategies that are not currently being exploited

  15. Historic low-level radioactive waste federal policies, programs and oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchette, M.; Kenney, J.; Zelmer, B.

    2011-01-01

    'Full text:' The management of radioactive waste is one of the most serious environmental problems facing Canadians. From the early industrial uses of radioactive material in the 1930s to the development of nuclear power reactors and the medical and experimental use of radio-isotopes today, there has been a steady accumulation of waste products. Historic waste is low-level radioactive waste for which the federal government has accepted responsibility for long-term management. This paper will outline the policy framework used to govern institutional and financial arrangements for the disposal of radioactive waste by waste producers and owners and the major radioactive projects in which the Government of Canada is currently involved. It will provide an overview of the organizations established for the management of historic radioactive waste and NRCan's oversight role. Finally, an overview of the historic waste program activities managed on behalf of the federal government through these organizations in the Port Hope area, the Greater Toronto Area, in Fort McMurray, Alberta and along the Northern Transportation Route is provided. Canada's Policy Framework for Radioactive Waste, sets out principles that govern the institutional and financial arrangements for disposal of radioactive waste by waste producers and owners. According to the Policy Framework: The federal government will ensure that radioactive waste disposal is carried out in a safe, environmentally sound, comprehensive, cost-effective and integrated manner; The federal government has the responsibility to develop policy, to regulate, and to oversee producers and owners; and, The waste producers and owners are responsible, in accordance with the principle of 'polluter pays', for the funding, organization, management and operation of disposal and other facilities required for their wastes. Arrangements may be different for nuclear fuel waste, low-level radioactive waste and

  16. How Federal Government Policies Have Helped Women Earn College Degrees?

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Deondra

    2014-01-01

    Scholars have long recognized that higher education brings knowledge and skills that translate into economic gains and enhanced political engagement, but little attention has been paid to the shifting impact of U.S. policies on college attendance by men and women. Once a male bastion, American higher education has become much more welcoming to women since the mid twentieth century. Starting in 1981, women earned the majority of bachelor’s degrees, and by 2003 U.S. colleges enrolled 1.3 women ...

  17. Current state of spent fuel management in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarchuk, T.F.; Spichev, V.V.; Tikhonov, N.S.; Simanovsky, V.M.; Tokarenko, A.I.; Bespalov, V.N.

    1998-01-01

    Twenty nine power units of nine nuclear power plants of total installed capacity 22 GW(e) are now in operation in the Russian Federation. They produce approximately 12% of electric power in the country. The annual spent fuel arising is about 790 tU. The spent fuel from VVER-440 and BN-600 is reprocessed at the RT-1 plant near Chelyabinsk. The VVER-1000 spent fuel is planned to be reprocessed at the reprocessing plant RT-2 which is under construction near Krasnoyarsk. The RBMK-1000 spent fuel is not reprocessed because of its low fissile content. It is meant to be stored in intermediate storage facilities at the NPP sites and in a centralized storage facility during a period not less than 50 years and then to be disposed of in geological formations. State of the art of spent fuel reprocessing, storage and transportation is considered in the paper. Problems of nuclear fuel cycle back-end in Russia are taken into account. (author)

  18. Fifty years of federal radioactive waste management: Policies and practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, R.G.

    1997-04-01

    This report provides a chronological history of policies and practices relating to the management of radioactive waste for which the US Atomic Energy Commission and its successor agencies, the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Department of Energy, have been responsible since the enactment of the Atomic Energy Act in 1946. The defense programs and capabilities that the Commission inherited in 1947 are briefly described. The Commission undertook a dramatic expansion nationwide of its physical facilities and program capabilities over the five years beginning in 1947. While the nuclear defense activities continued to be a major portion of the Atomic Energy Commission`s program, there was added in 1955 the Atoms for Peace program that spawned a multiplicity of peaceful use applications for nuclear energy, e.g., the civilian nuclear power program and its associated nuclear fuel cycle; a variety of industrial applications; and medical research, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications. All of these nuclear programs and activities generated large volumes of radioactive waste that had to be managed in a manner that was safe for the workers, the public, and the environment. The management of these materials, which varied significantly in their physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics, involved to varying degrees the following phases of the waste management system life cycle: waste characterization, storage, treatment, and disposal, with appropriate transportation linkages. One of the benefits of reviewing the history of the waste management program policies and practices if the opportunity it provides for identifying the lessons learned over the years. Examples are summarized at the end of the report and are listed in no particular order of importance.

  19. Fifty years of federal radioactive waste management: Policies and practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, R.G.

    1997-04-01

    This report provides a chronological history of policies and practices relating to the management of radioactive waste for which the US Atomic Energy Commission and its successor agencies, the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Department of Energy, have been responsible since the enactment of the Atomic Energy Act in 1946. The defense programs and capabilities that the Commission inherited in 1947 are briefly described. The Commission undertook a dramatic expansion nationwide of its physical facilities and program capabilities over the five years beginning in 1947. While the nuclear defense activities continued to be a major portion of the Atomic Energy Commission's program, there was added in 1955 the Atoms for Peace program that spawned a multiplicity of peaceful use applications for nuclear energy, e.g., the civilian nuclear power program and its associated nuclear fuel cycle; a variety of industrial applications; and medical research, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications. All of these nuclear programs and activities generated large volumes of radioactive waste that had to be managed in a manner that was safe for the workers, the public, and the environment. The management of these materials, which varied significantly in their physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics, involved to varying degrees the following phases of the waste management system life cycle: waste characterization, storage, treatment, and disposal, with appropriate transportation linkages. One of the benefits of reviewing the history of the waste management program policies and practices if the opportunity it provides for identifying the lessons learned over the years. Examples are summarized at the end of the report and are listed in no particular order of importance

  20. Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-04

    as Putin’s attempt to test how far he can go in destabilizing Ukraine while avoiding the imposition of additional sanctions by the EU and United...cooperative threat reduction and other nonproliferation activities with Russia. Figure 1. Ukraine Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

  1. Assessing the Impact of Current National Policies to Reduce Salt ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Assessing the Impact of Current National Policies to Reduce Salt and Trans Fatty Acids in Argentina ... The Codex Alimentarius, or international food safety standards, will also decrease trans fatty acids (TFA) ... Researchers will develop a strategy to share results with policymakers and other stakeholders. ... Journal articles.

  2. Using federal technology policy to strength the US microelectronics industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, J. E.; Gwyn, C. W.

    1994-07-01

    A review of US and Japanese experiences with using microelectronics consortia as a tool for strengthening their respective industries reveals major differences. Japan has established catch-up consortia with focused goals. These consortia have a finite life targeted from the beginning, and emphasis is on work that supports or leads to product and process-improvement-driven commercialization. Japan's government has played a key role in facilitating the development of consortia and has used consortia promote domestic competition. US consortia, on the other hand, have often emphasized long-range research with considerably less focus than those in Japan. The US consortia have searched for and often made revolutionary technology advancements. However, technology transfer to their members has been difficult. Only SEMATECH has assisted its members with continuous improvements, compressing product cycles, establishing relationships, and strengthening core competencies. The US government has not been a catalyst nor provided leadership in consortia creation and operation. We propose that in order to regain world leadership in areas where US companies lag foreign competition, the US should create industry-wide, horizontal-vertical, catch-up consortia or continue existing consortia in the six areas where the US lags behind Japan -- optoelectronics, displays, memories, materials, packaging, and manufacturing equipment. In addition, we recommend that consortia be established for special government microelectronics and microelectronics research integration and application. We advocate that these consortia be managed by an industry-led Microelectronics Alliance, whose establishment would be coordinated by the Department of Commerce. We further recommend that the Semiconductor Research Corporation, the National Science Foundation Engineering Research Centers, and relevant elements of other federal programs be integrated into this consortia complex.

  3. Using federal technology policy to strength the US microelectronics industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gover, J.E.; Gwyn, C.W.

    1994-07-01

    A review of US and Japanese experiences with using microelectronics consortia as a tool for strengthening their respective industries reveals major differences. Japan has established catch-up consortia with focused goals. These consortia have a finite life targeted from the beginning, and emphasis is on work that supports or leads to product and process-improvement-driven commercialization. Japan`s government has played a key role in facilitating the development of consortia and has used consortia promote domestic competition. US consortia, on the other hand, have often emphasized long-range research with considerably less focus than those in Japan. The US consortia have searched for and often made revolutionary technology advancements. However, technology transfer to their members has been difficult. Only SEMATECH has assisted its members with continuous improvements, compressing product cycles, establishing relationships, and strengthening core competencies. The US government has not been a catalyst nor provided leadership in consortia creation and operation. We propose that in order to regain world leadership in areas where US companies lag foreign competition, the US should create industry-wide, horizontal-vertical, catch-up consortia or continue existing consortia in the six areas where the US lags behind Japan -- optoelectronics, displays, memories, materials, packaging, and manufacturing equipment. In addition, we recommend that consortia be established for special government microelectronics and microelectronics research integration and application. We advocate that these consortia be managed by an industry-led Microelectronics Alliance, whose establishment would be coordinated by the Department of Commerce. We further recommend that the Semiconductor Research Corporation, the National Science Foundation Engineering Research Centers, and relevant elements of other federal programs be integrated into this consortia complex.

  4. PRIORITIES OF SOCIAL POLICY OF SEPARATE REGIONS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Gennadevna Pronyushkina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Definition of priorities in the regional social policy takes into account the specific characteristics of the region, in the unity of the Federal and regional social policies, in terms of ordering in the separation of powers. The effectiveness of the policy is determined based on the evaluation of indicators, which characterize: the reproduction of the population; social unrest; expenditure on social sector, private institutions; the standard of living of the population; civil health. Social protection of the population is differentiated solution of various problems resulting from the consummation of social risks. On the analysis of social structure, as well as the study of causal relationships and social risks and social problems based prioritization of social protection of the population.In the system of management of social protection of the population it is impossible to use any one approach to working with people. Currently, a combination of planned and socio-standard approaches based on the development of standards of social protection. The author of the study reflected the results of monitoring the social well-being and needs of the population Vladimir and Nizhny Novgorod regions. The adoption of new programs to support the needy, the implementation of any social security measures will have the greatest efficiency in combination with a constant monitoring of the social well-being and needs of the population - the main object of social protection. Only using the full extent of socio-cultural, legal, economic and managerial resources, it is possible to achieve full development of the system of social services that fully satisfy the needs of the population.

  5. Regulating compassion: an overview of Canada's federal medical cannabis policy and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Philippe G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to a number of court challenges brought forth by Canadian patients who demonstrated that they benefited from the use of medicinal cannabis but remained vulnerable to arrest and persecution as a result of its status as a controlled substance, in 1999 Canada became the second nation in the world to initiate a centralized medicinal cannabis program. Over its six years of existence, this controversial program has been found unconstitutional by a number of courts, and has faced criticism from the medical establishment, law enforcement, as well as the patient/participants themselves. Methods This critical policy analysis is an evidence-based review of court decisions, government records, relevant studies and Access to Information Act data related to the three main facets of Health Canada's medicinal cannabis policy – the Marihuana Medical Access Division (MMAD; the Canadians Institute of Health Research Medical Marijuana Research Program; and the federal cannabis production and distribution program. This analysis also examines Canada's network of unregulated community-based dispensaries. Results There is a growing body of evidence that Health Canada's program is not meeting the needs of the nation's medical cannabis patient community and that the policies of the Marihuana Medical Access Division may be significantly limiting the potential individual and public health benefits achievable though the therapeutic use of cannabis. Canada's community-based dispensaries supply medical cannabis to a far greater number of patients than the MMAD, but their work is currently unregulated by any level of government, leaving these organizations and their clients vulnerable to arrest and prosecution. Conclusion Any future success will depend on the government's ability to better assess and address the needs and legitimate concerns of end-users of this program, to promote and fund an expanded clinical research agenda, and to work in

  6. Regulating compassion: an overview of Canada's federal medical cannabis policy and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Philippe G

    2008-01-01

    Background In response to a number of court challenges brought forth by Canadian patients who demonstrated that they benefited from the use of medicinal cannabis but remained vulnerable to arrest and persecution as a result of its status as a controlled substance, in 1999 Canada became the second nation in the world to initiate a centralized medicinal cannabis program. Over its six years of existence, this controversial program has been found unconstitutional by a number of courts, and has faced criticism from the medical establishment, law enforcement, as well as the patient/participants themselves. Methods This critical policy analysis is an evidence-based review of court decisions, government records, relevant studies and Access to Information Act data related to the three main facets of Health Canada's medicinal cannabis policy – the Marihuana Medical Access Division (MMAD); the Canadians Institute of Health Research Medical Marijuana Research Program; and the federal cannabis production and distribution program. This analysis also examines Canada's network of unregulated community-based dispensaries. Results There is a growing body of evidence that Health Canada's program is not meeting the needs of the nation's medical cannabis patient community and that the policies of the Marihuana Medical Access Division may be significantly limiting the potential individual and public health benefits achievable though the therapeutic use of cannabis. Canada's community-based dispensaries supply medical cannabis to a far greater number of patients than the MMAD, but their work is currently unregulated by any level of government, leaving these organizations and their clients vulnerable to arrest and prosecution. Conclusion Any future success will depend on the government's ability to better assess and address the needs and legitimate concerns of end-users of this program, to promote and fund an expanded clinical research agenda, and to work in cooperation with community

  7. AN ANSWER TO DIVERSITY: AFFIRMATIVE ACTION POLICIES FOR TRADITIONAL PEOPLE -- THE UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO PARÁ (FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF PARÁ EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Felipe Beltrão

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Research analyzes the Admissions Program and the new reality of affirmative action measures at the Federal University of Pará, its context and implications. A special interest regards higher education and cultural diversity. Study reflects upon the goals of such policy; the different arguments among actors involved; the institutional conduct; and the benefits and difficulties faced to implement the program. The principle that guides the study understands the rights of indigenous populations in their access to University and sees the measures as a victory of the indigenous movement. Challenges remain, though, at two levels: first, it is necessary to develop policy to face institutional and social resistance to the implementation of the program; second, it is paramount to support the indigenous students in their needs in their new academic life.

  8. Monetary Policy of the Federal Reserve System from the Perspective of Exit Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Nocoń

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Central banks, after the experience of the global financial crisis, are now starting the implementation of the exit strategies, which are the process of normalization of monetary policy. The pace of monetary policy normalization process depends on the market reaction to central bank's decisions and macroeconomic conditions, in which they will be implemented. The main aim of the study is to present the principles of the exit strategy of the Federal Reserve System (Fed, on the background of the changes that have occurred in the United States within the monetary policy during the global financial crisis.

  9. The labor impacts of policy change in health care: how federal policy transformed home health organizations and their labor practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, A

    1990-01-01

    Health care organizations are highly labor-intensive; policies designed to stimulate organizational change are likely to have labor impacts. This paper examines the labor effects of policy change in home health care. Major federal home care policy trends since 1980 have spurred the evolution of the typical home care provider toward greater organizational and market rationality. Greater managerial sophistication has introduced changes in management/labor relations. Survey data from the 1986 DRG Impact Study are used to show how the pressure of cost-containment policies has pushed agencies to cut labor costs by increasing workloads, managerial supervision, and control of the work process. Research on the effects of recent policy change in health care has to date focused primarily on potential client effects. Labor impacts are rarely examined and are poorly understood at the time that policy is made. Findings in this article suggest that these issues deserve greater, more systematic attention, because unanticipated labor impacts may prove to be significant impediments to the realization of intended policy goals.

  10. The Family and Federal Drug Abuse Policies--Programs: Toward Making the Invisible Family Visible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Richard R.

    1979-01-01

    Notes why the family is not considered in drug policy and programing and asserts that existing conditions demand conscious consideration of the family in efforts of federal drug agencies. Data show changing parameters of drug use-abuse. A research and prevention agenda that integrates the family is presented. (Author/BEF)

  11. Exploring National Environmental Policy Act processes across federal land management agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc J. Stern; Michael J. Mortimer

    2009-01-01

    Broad discretion is granted at all levels throughout federal land management agencies regarding compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). We explored the diversity of procedures employed in NEPA processes across four agencies, the USDA Forest Service, The USDI National Park Service and Bureau of Land Management, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers...

  12. 78 FR 63276 - Interim Policy, FAA Review of Solar Energy System Projects on Federally Obligated Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... the orientation and tilt of the solar energy panels, reflectance, environment, and ocular factors are... energy systems on the airport must attach the SGHAT report, outlining solar panel glare and ocular impact... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Interim Policy, FAA Review of Solar...

  13. Chronic Homelessness, Head Start, and Changing Federal Policies: Teaching and Learning at Hawthorne House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.

    2015-01-01

    Federal policy changes for Head Start (HS) elevate the importance of measured academic performance over other traditional program aims, particularly those associated with the social-emotional development of children. Concerned about the possible effects of these changes on children, based on observations and interviews, detailed portraits of…

  14. 77 FR 17360 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles And...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... II Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles And...; cost principles and administrative requirements (including Single Audit Act). The original comment...-idx?c=ecfr&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title02/2cfrv1_02.tpl . The Cost Principles for Hospitals are in the...

  15. 77 FR 11778 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... and II Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and... available on OMB's Web site at http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/circulars_default/ . The Cost Principles for... E (Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and...

  16. 78 FR 7282 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... II Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and... further review, the Cost Principles for Hospitals at 45 CFR Part 74, Appendix E. The proposal consolidates... instructed the OMB Director to ``review and where appropriate revise guidance concerning cost principles...

  17. The Baltic policy of Germany and current international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salikov Aleksey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the Baltic policy of united Germany from the 1990s until today. The authors set out to identify the significance of German-Baltic relations and the role of the Eastern policy in Russian-German relations. The method of dynamic comparison between the political and economic narrative in intergovernmental relations makes it possible to identify distinctive features of Germany’s Baltic policy in the context of current international relations. In particular, it is noted that Germany was most active in the Baltic region in the 1990s, when the country was establishing political, economic, and cultural ties with the new independent states. In the second half of the 1990s, Germany’s foreign policy became less intense. After the accession of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia to the EU and NATO in 2004, certain disagreements started to arise between Germany and the Baltics. It explains the lukewarm relations between them. The Ukraine events brought about a change in Germany’s regional policy. Despite Russia remaining one of the key economic and political counteractors, Germany, being a partner of the Baltics in the EU and NATO, cannot adopt a neutral position in the conflict of interests between the Baltics and Russia.

  18. Iran's petroleum policy: Current trends and the future outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pezeshki, S.; Fesharaki, F.

    1994-12-01

    The Iranian economy and political situation have undergone radical changes since the 1979 Islamic revolution. The excesses of the early years of the revolution have gradually given way to moderation and a more pragmatic economic policy--based on the principles of the free market. The petroleum policy, as a subset of the economic policies, has been somewhat affected by the political and economic developments in Iran. The petroleum policy has changed from a position of no foreign participation to a position that includes a desire for foreign participation, the text of a model contract, and an attempt to introduce new technologies in the upstream sector. This report provides an overview of the key issues facing the Iranian oil industry and the economic context in which the oil industry is operating in Iran. It describes the evolution of policies meant to move the oil industry toward the free market; it discusses Iran's oil trading partners, the outlook for refining and project investments, and current and likely future developments in the natural gas and petrochemical sectors. In short, the report provides an up-to-date assessment of the Iranian petroleum sector and its likely evolution in the future

  19. Corporal Punishment in U.S. Public Schools: Prevalence, Disparities in Use, and Status in State and Federal Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Font, Sarah A

    2016-01-01

    School corporal punishment is currently legal in 19 states, and over 160,000 children in these states are subject to corporal punishment in schools each year. Given that the use of school corporal punishment is heavily concentrated in Southern states, and that the federal government has not included corporal punishment in its recent initiatives about improving school discipline, public knowledge of this issue is limited. The aim of this policy report is to fill the gap in knowledge about school corporal punishment by describing the prevalence and geographic dispersion of corporal punishment in U.S. public schools and by assessing the extent to which schools disproportionately apply corporal punishment to children who are Black, to boys, and to children with disabilities. This policy report is the first-ever effort to describe the prevalence of and disparities in the use of school corporal punishment at the school and school-district levels. We end the report by summarizing sources of concern about school corporal punishment, reviewing state policies related to school corporal punishment, and discussing the future of school corporal punishment in state and federal policy.

  20. Inter-organizational relations for regional development: an expansion policy promoted by the federal network of professional education, science & technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleidson Nogueira Dias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research paper examines the importance of inter-organizational network management as a government policy tool to promote regional development. This pattern requires Federal Government intervention so as to compensate for the imbalance that this causes and to guarantee that economic growth resulting from government actions leads to development in all regions of the country, thereby avoiding the traditional mechanisms of wealth concentration. For this, a methodology of content analysis was used based on a relevant public policy aimed at promoting development within Brazil and by analyzing the data collected in relation to the current theory related to strategy, local development and inter-organizational networks in general.  The analysis results show that, when the policy studied in this work, applied in the federal network of professional education, science & technology, was implemented the networks had a positive influence on the outcome of the policy objectives and represented an extremely powerful support tool, being one of the most important factors to boost development.

  1. Federal Information Policies: The Impact on Competitiveness. A Summary of Proceedings of a Federal Library and Information Center Committee (FLICC) Annual Forum on Federal Information Policies (5th, Washington, DC, March 7, 1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Douglas C.

    This booklet summarizes the proceedings of a forum on the state of federal information policies as they relate to aiding American competitiveness in industrial and information markets at home and abroad. Speakers whose remarks are summarized include Librarian of Congress James H. Billington; New York Congressman Sherwood Boehlert, the keynote…

  2. Nature as capital: Advancing and incorporating ecosystem services in United States federal policies and programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Mark; Goldman, Erica; Bartuska, Ann M; Sutton-Grier, Ariana; Lubchenco, Jane

    2015-06-16

    The concept of nature as capital is gaining visibility in policies and practices in both the public and private sectors. This change is due to an improved ability to assess and value ecosystem services, as well as to a growing recognition of the potential of an ecosystem services approach to make tradeoffs in decision making more transparent, inform efficient use of resources, enhance resilience and sustainability, and avoid unintended negative consequences of policy actions. Globally, governments, financial institutions, and corporations have begun to incorporate natural capital accounting in their policies and practices. In the United States, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and federal agencies are actively collaborating to develop and apply ecosystem services concepts to further national environmental and economic objectives. Numerous federal agencies have begun incorporating these concepts into land use planning, water resources management, and preparations for, and responses to, climate change. Going forward, well-defined policy direction will be necessary to institutionalize ecosystem services approaches in federal agencies, as well as to guide intersector and interdisciplinary collaborative research and development efforts. In addition, a new generation of decision support tools are needed to further the practical application of ecosystem services principles in policymaking and commercial activities. Improved performance metrics are needed, as are mechanisms to monitor the status of ecosystem services and assess the environmental and economic impacts of policies and programs. A greater national and international financial commitment to advancing ecosystem services and natural capital accounting would likely have broad, long-term economic and environmental benefits.

  3. Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-27

    benefit Kyiv for a while longer. Current Economic Situation After Russia proper, the Ukrainian republic was the most important economic component of...greater strides in energy conservation, which has required a steep and politically unpopular hike in natural gas prices, including for households...or enthusiasm for funding social policies, Moscow has been bankrolling pensions, social benefits , and salaries of local officials and the separatist

  4. Overview of the infant and young child feeding policy environment in Pakistan: Federal, Sindh and Punjab context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Mahmood

    2017-06-01

    the key actors in the government whereas UNICEF and WHO were the key donors who were also highly influential and supportive of the objective. Conclusion This analysis identified opportunities to strengthen IYCF policy in Pakistan through increased clarity on roles and responsibilities, improved multisectoral collaboration, and strong and consistent training guidelines and schedules for community health workers. The current policy environment presents opportunities, despite limitations. Our Net-Map analysis indicated several key government and international stakeholders, who differed across Federal and Provincial study sites. The detailed information regarding stakeholder influence can be used to strengthen advocacy.

  5. Overview of the infant and young child feeding policy environment in Pakistan: Federal, Sindh and Punjab context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Hana; Suleman, Yasmeen; Hazir, Tabish; Akram, Durre Samin; Uddin, Shahadat; Dibley, Michael J; Abassi, Saleem; Shakeel, Amara; Kazmi, Narjis; Thow, Anne Marie

    2017-06-13

    WHO were the key donors who were also highly influential and supportive of the objective. This analysis identified opportunities to strengthen IYCF policy in Pakistan through increased clarity on roles and responsibilities, improved multisectoral collaboration, and strong and consistent training guidelines and schedules for community health workers. The current policy environment presents opportunities, despite limitations. Our Net-Map analysis indicated several key government and international stakeholders, who differed across Federal and Provincial study sites. The detailed information regarding stakeholder influence can be used to strengthen advocacy.

  6. Communication received from the Russian Federation concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Director General has received a letter dated 29 June 2005 from the Federal Atomic Energy Agency of the Russian Federation in the enclosures of which the Government of the Russian Federation, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated quantities of plutonium contained in spent fuel from civil reactors as of 31 December 2004. In the light of the request expressed by the Russian Federation in its Note Verbale of 1 December 1997 concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), the enclosures of the letter of 29 June 2005 are attached for the information of all Member States

  7. 76 FR 65511 - Office of Governmentwide Policy; Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; the Green...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... Governmentwide Policy; Office of Federal High- Performance Green Buildings; the Green Building Advisory Committee... meeting of the Green Building Advisory Committee Meeting (the Committee). The meeting is open to the..., Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings, Office of Governmentwide Policy, General Services...

  8. 41 CFR 102-74.155 - What energy conservation policy must Federal agencies follow in the management of facilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... policy must Federal agencies follow in the management of facilities? 102-74.155 Section 102-74.155 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Energy Conservation § 102-74.155 What energy conservation policy must Federal agencies follow in the management of facilities...

  9. Federalism and Lander Autonomy: The Higher Education Policy Network in the Federal Republic of Germany. Studies in Higher Education Dissertation Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onestini, Cesare

    This study traces the development of the German higher education system, examining the development of higher education policies from the postwar years to the postunification period. It focuses on federalism and the relative positions of"Lander" (German states) and the government of the Federal Republic (FRG) as revealed in higher…

  10. Federal funding for syringe exchange in the US: Explaining a long-term policy failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, David

    2018-05-01

    The United States prohibited federal funding for syringe exchange programs for people who inject drugs nearly continuously from 1988 to 2015, despite growing scientific evidence, diminishing AIDS-related controversy, and tens of thousands of deaths from injection-related AIDS. This study investigates the political and institutional bases of this long-term failure to support lifesaving public policy. This study draws on national, regional, and local media coverage, archival sources, and semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 6 long-time syringe exchange researchers and activists from California. I use case-oriented process tracing methods to explain the persistence and reform of the federal funding ban. Though previous studies focus on the symbolic clash between conservative morality and empirical science, I find that changing demographic and regional inequalities in the effects of the AIDS epidemic and dynamics produced by the federal structure of US government were more important factors in the creation and persistence of the funding ban. The persistence and eventual repeal of the ban on federal funding for syringe exchange was a product of the changing demographic, geographic, and political effects of the AIDS epidemic within the federal structure of US government, rather than a consequence of intractable morality politics. These contextual dynamics continue to shape AIDS and public health policy at all levels of government. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Conceptual framework for describing selected urban and community impacts of federal energy policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, F.A,; Marcus, A.A.; Keller, D.

    1980-06-01

    A conceptual framework is presented for describing selected urban and community impacts of Federal energy policies. The framework depends on a simple causal model. The outputs of the model are impacts, changes in the state of the world of particular interest to policymakers. At any given time, a set of determinants account for the state of the world with respect to an impact category. Application of the model to a particular impact category requires: establishing a definition and measure for the impact category and identifying the determinants of these impacts. Analysis of the impact of a particular policy requires the following: identifying the policy and its effects (as estimated by others), isolating any effects that themselves constitute an urban and community impact, identifying any effects that change the value of determinants, and describing the impact with reference to the new values of determinants. This report provides a framework for these steps. Three impacts addressed are: neighborhood stability, housing availability, and quality and availability of public services. In each chapter, a definition and measure for the impact are specified; its principal determinants are identified; how the causal model can be used to estimate impacts by applying it to three illustrative Federal policies (domestic oil price decontrol, building energy performance standards, and increased Federal aid for mass transit) is demonstrated. (MCW)

  12. 41 CFR 102-74.425 - What is the policy concerning dogs and other animals on Federal property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... concerning dogs and other animals on Federal property? 102-74.425 Section 102-74.425 Public Contracts and... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Conduct on Federal Property Dogs and Other Animals § 102-74.425 What is the policy concerning dogs and other animals on Federal property? No person may bring dogs...

  13. The Impact of the Introduction of Web Information Systems (WIS) on Information Policies: An Analysis of the Canadian Federal Government Policies Related to WIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Christine; Bergeron, Pierette

    2002-01-01

    Presents results of an analysis of the Canadian federal government information policies that govern its Web information systems (WIS) that was conducted to better understand how the government has adapted its information policies to the WIS. Discusses results that indicate new policies have been crafted to take into account the WIS context.…

  14. BETWEEN EUROPEANIZATION, UNITARISM AND AUTONOMY. REMARKS ON THE CURRENT SITUATION OF FEDERALISM IN AUSTRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bußjäger

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The following article describes current challenges of Austrian federalism. On ground of the Federal Constitution from 1920 Austria is a federation with nine autonomous Länder. Federalism is one of the basic principles of the constitution. Nevertheless the Länder are faced with centralizing drive due to Europeanization and unitarism. On the other hand the Länder have a strong regional identity. The Länder are emotionally deeply rooted in theAustrian population. The Länder also participate well in the decision making process on European level.Nevertheless the division of competencies both in legislation and administration between Federation and Länder is complicated and needs to be modernised. In the past various reform projects on federal level had failed while various reforms in the Land constitutions have led to more innovation on Land level. Despite these facts paradigms of reform debates on Austria´s federal system have changed: Until the early nineties of 20th century constitutionalreforms aimed to strengthen the role of the Länder. Since Austria´saccession to the EU reform projects the efficiency of the federal structures of Austria are doubted. Economical and financial crisis probably will increase the pressure for structural reforms.

  15. FEATURES OF THE MIGRATION POLICY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN A GLOBALIZED COMPETITIVE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene D. Katulsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance Relevance of the chosen subject is caused as variety and unsystematic character of standard and legal base federal and first of all the regional level which regulates various parties of migration policy, and absence of legally established concepts of migration, migratory process and migration policy. Besides, recently it is possible to observe growth of mobility of labor force in the conditions of globalization which creates prerequisites for employment not only highly skilled professionals in the field of finance, insurance, banking, communications, but also the migrant workers occupied in the sphere of agriculture, construction, improvement of the territory, public catering, hotel service. Now the state is interested in attraction of foreign labor for ensuring the sustainable and balanced social and economic development of national regions, but is afraid of negative influence of migration on social and economic processes in theRussian Federation

  16. Theoretical, methodological and methodical bases of structural policy of territorial subjects of the russian federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Sergeevna Antonyuk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the maintenance of the various points of view on a category «the structural policy» is revealed. The sight of authors of the article is reflected: the structural policy is understood as a subsystem of a social and economic policy of the state, called to carry out function managing by development of branches of the economy together with private business, distributions of financial resources between sectors, control over use of the given money resources with a view of, actual for a certain historical stage, by use of administrative, standard and financial tools of regulation. The methodological basis of a structural policy is defined, functions with that end in view reveal, the target system, subjects and objects, and also are specified principles and classification of tools of a structural policy. By sight authors, regional branch shifts which promote progressivechanges of branch structure of a region in directions of formation V and VI technological ways, increase of a diversification of manufacture by stimulation of innovative changes should become a target reference point of a structural policy. The most sensitiveto tactical both technological fluctuations and vulnerablein the economic plan are monospecialized regions. In this connection, the technique of carrying out of a structural policy in monospecialized subjects of the Russian Federation taking into account shifts in branches of their industrial specializations is offered.

  17. Dying forests and environmental policy in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaertner, E.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is given on extent and causes of the dying forests in the Federal Republik of Germany and the scientific hypotheses of agents are discussed. The author focuses on the reasons of the widespread disease of forests and reviews from a historical-materialistic point of view the history of foresty and the coherences between industrial pollution and forest damages. A balance of the environmental policy since 1960 is given.

  18. Canadian dairy policy and the returns to federal dairy cattle research

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Glenn; Roberts, Bruce; Brinkman, George L.

    1992-01-01

    The economic surplus approach is used to estimate the returns to federal investments in dairy cattle research in Canada. A national supply function is estimated using time series data. Lagged research expenditures are included as explanatory variables in the model, facilitating the calculation of marginal as well as average benefits from research. Simulation analysis is used to study the effects of product market distortions associated with Canadian dairy policy as well as of the marginal exc...

  19. Communication Received from the Russian Federation Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 10 April 2014 from the Permanent Mission of the Russian Federation to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of the Russian Federation, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the “Guidelines”), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2012. In light of the request expressed by the Government of the Russian Federation in its note verbale of 1 December 1997 concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), the note verbale of 10 April 2014 and the enclosures therewith are circulated for the information of all Member States

  20. Communication received from the Russian Federation concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Director General has received a letter, dated 11 August 2003, from the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (MINATOM) in the enclosures of which the Government of the Russian Federation, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated quantities of plutonium contained in spent fuel from civil reactors as of 31 December 2002. In the light of the request expressed by the Russian Federation in its Note Verbale of 1 December 1997 concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), the enclosures of the letter of 11 August 2003 are attached for the information of all Member States

  1. Demographic indicators of trust in federal, state and local government: implications for Australian health policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Samantha B; Mamerow, Loreen; Taylor, Anne W; Henderson, Julie; Ward, Paul R; Coveney, John

    2013-02-01

    To provide baseline findings regarding Australians' trust in federal, state and local government. A computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) survey was administrated during October to December 2009 to a random sample (n=1109) across Australia (response rate 41.2%). Binary logistic regression analyses were carried out by means of SPSS. Age, household size, household income, IRSD and ARIA were found to be significant indicators for trust in federal, state and local government. Trust in state government is lower for older respondents and respondents living in inner and outer regional areas. Trust in local council is lower in respondents living in inner regional areas, respondents living in disadvantaged areas, and respondents in the income bracket of $60001 to $100000. Trust in federal government is lower for older respondents and respondents living in disadvantaged areas. Of note is diminished trust in government among older, regional and lower income ($30001-$60000) respondents. Trust in all levels of government was found to be the lowest in population groups that are identified by empirical research and media to have the poorest access to government services. As a consequence, improved access to services for these populations may increase trust in health policy. Increased trust in health governance may in turn, ensure effective dissemination and implementation of health policies and that existing inequities are not perpetuated through distrust of health information and policy initiatives.

  2. Perspective on the current realities confronting Canadian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oulton, D.

    1993-01-01

    The importance of the Canadian energy sector is indicated by the large proportion of energy investments in the economy, the significant contribution of energy exports to total exports, the major role of the energy sector in Canada's regional economies, the high per-capita energy consumption, and the high contribution of fossil fuels to Canadian greenhouse gas emissions. The history of Canadian energy policy is characterized by three relatively distinct periods: a period of strong growth and development in the energy sector starting in the late 1940s, a crisis management period starting with the oil crises in the 1970s, and a market orientation in the early 1980s which reduced the role of government in the energy sector. Energy policy has generally focused on two main themes: assuring access to competitively priced energy supplies, and ensuring maximum economic benefit from energy developments. A third theme, environmental responsibility, has emerged since the late 1980s. Current pressures on Canadian energy policies include the increasing integration of energy markets in North America, the influence of international conditions on energy prices, and environmental quality concerns relating to the costs and uncertainties of environmental assessment, climate change, and sustainable development. Further constraints and influences on energy policy come from multilateral agreements with other countries and international agencies, and the need for cooperation among the different levels of Canadian governments. Economic regulation has fallen out of favor with most governments, industry, and the public, and the increased use of regulation to pursue environmental goals in the energy sector seems likely to continue

  3. Adolescent suicide prevention. Current research and social policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, A F; Zigler, E

    1993-02-01

    The rate of adolescent suicide has increased dramatically in the past few decades, prompting several interventions to curb the increase. Unfortunately, many of the intervention efforts have not benefited from current research findings because the communication between researchers and those who develop the interventions is inadequate. Of specific concern are the increasingly popular curriculum-based suicide prevention programs, which have not demonstrated effectiveness and may contain potentially deleterious components. This article reviews the current epidemiological research in adolescent suicide and suggests how this knowledge could be used more effectively to reduce the rate of adolescent suicide. Recommendations include support for integrated primary prevention efforts; suicide prevention education for professionals; education and policies on firearm management; education for the media about adolescent suicide; more efficient identification and treatment of at-risk youth, including those exposed to suicidal behavior; crisis intervention; and treatment for suicide attempters.

  4. FEDERAL SUPPORT OF SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY IN THE UNITED STATES: CURRENT EVOLUTION UNDER THE POLITICAL STRUGGLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Istomin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 2000’s and 2010’s witnessed diminishing margin of the United States in science and technology. Meanwhile, the U.S. remains a clear leader in this fi eld. Major driving force of the country’s success in the second half of the ХХ century remained assertive federal science policy. The article seeks to identify major trends in evolution of the U.S. science policy and the reasons behind relative decline of the level of budget support of the scientifi c research. The author studies evolution of the policies of George Bush and Barack Obama, as well as the views of Democrats and Republicans in the House of Representatives and the Senate. The article also examines the input into the federal policy of the governmental bodies, which are directly responsible for its implementation, as well as non-governmental organizations, which seek to advocate interests of scientists; it studies rising competition between the executive authorities and legislators for the recognition as a major champion of the academic community as well as American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.

  5. Iran's energy policy current dilemmas and perspective for a sustainable energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massarrat, M.

    2005-01-01

    Iran is facing large challenges in the area of energy policy. In order to illuminate these challenges and the problems and possibilities they present, first I will analyze the current energy consumption patterns in Iran as well as the energy policy of the Iranian government-Including its atomic energy programs. Based on this analysis, I will then formulate alternative concepts for Iran's future energy and national security policy. The increase in energy usage in Iran is distinctly out of proportion with the development of economic productivity. Negative structural characteristics of this system are: first, an above-average energy intensity; second, an increase in energy consumption in the traffic sector; third, a high growth rate in the use of electrical energy; and lastly, an above-average amount of stress to the environment. Traditionally, Iran's energy policy has focused on satisfying the growing demand for energy by oil and, in the last fifteen years, by successively expanding natural gas. However, the further development of the natural gas supply only makes sense within the context of a holistic energy policy, which takes into account the principles of sustainable development. In the short term, such a policy would take advantage of both considerable energy-saving techniques, as well as potential renewable energy sources. In the long term, such a policy would strive for the complete transfer to renewable energy sources and technology. The atomic energy program is not a good answer to the future energy needs of Iran, and better solutions should be envisaged for Iran's legitimate security concerns

  6. Technical backgrounder to CAPP input on June 14, 2002 workshop on federal climate change policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    This paper presents arguments regarding the Federal Discussion Paper on Climate Change which presents four options for Canada to implement the Kyoto Protocol. This paper describes some major flaws with the package. The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) believes that policy on climate change should ensure that measures for the trade exposed industry sectors are based on achievable objectives and that all levels of government should take a coordinated approach to greenhouse gases. In addition there should be no unfair burden on any region or unfairness in any sector. Climate change policy objectives should also consider economic, environmental and social objectives. With respect to the Kyoto Protocol in particular, governments should assess the liability that ratification would create and determine whether it makes economic sense. CAPP argues that none of the four options in the federal discussion paper meets requirements for industry objectives and form of policies. In addition, if Canada does not shift industry and emissions to other countries, or buy foreign credits, energy use by consumers would have to be significantly reduced in order to meet the Kyoto target. It was also noted that if the 'polluter pay' policy proposal is to be adopted, it must be based on a thorough understanding of what it implies and be applied in such a way to reflect the reality of international markets

  7. Nuclear energy policy in the United States 1990–2010: A federal or state responsibility?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffron, Raphael J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines from a policy perspective nuclear energy policy in the United States (US) from 1990 to 2010 and questions whether it is or has become a Federal or State responsibility. The present study, as befits policy research, engages with many disciplines (for example, in particular, law and politics) and hence the contributions move beyond that of nuclear energy policy literature and in particular to that on nuclear new build and other assessments of large infrastructure projects. Several examples at the Federal level are identified that demonstrate that the nuclear industry has evolved to a stage where it requires a focus on the power of actions at a more localised (state) level in order to re-ignite the industry. The research concludes that there remains a misunderstanding of the issue of project management for complex construction projects, and it is highly arguable whether many of its issues have been resolved. Further, the research asserts that the economics of nuclear energy are not the most influential reason for no nuclear new build in the US. -- Highlights: •Examines the US nuclear energy sector, 1990–2010. •Nuclear industry has evolved to a stage where an individual state is the key driver. •Misunderstanding of the project management and public administration. •Potential of the power of more localised (state) actions to re-ignite the industry

  8. How Did Youth Mental Health Make It Onto Australia’s 2011 Federal Policy Agenda?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey A. Whiteford

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2011 Australian federal budget included a large investment in youth mental health and early intervention services. In this article, we focus on the critical role of agenda setting in the preceding 4 years to examine how and why these services were given such a high priority at this time. We undertook a systematic review of relevant literature, including parliamentary Hansard transcripts from the House of Representatives and Senate, the final reports of all available parliamentary committees, government policy documents, other pertinent documents held by the Commonwealth Department of Health and Aging, and media reports from five widely circulated Australian publications/news outlets. We used Kingdon’s multiple streams framework to structure analysis. We highlight three factors that were influential in getting youth mental health issues onto the policy agenda: (a the strategic use of quantitative evidence to create a publicly visible “problem,” (b the marshalling of the “public” to create pressure on government, and (c the role of serendipity. Overall, we found the decision to prioritize youth mental health resulted from a combination of advocacy for a well-articulated policy solution by high-profile, influential policy entrepreneurs, and political pressure caused by an up swell of national support for mental health reform. Our findings highlight the socio-political factors that influence agenda setting and health policy formulation. They raise important ethical and strategic issues in utilizing research evidence to change policy.

  9. American policy conflict in the greenhouse: Divergent trends in federal, regional, state, and local green energy and climate change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, John; Hughes, Kristen; Rickerson, Wilson; Kurdgelashvili, Lado

    2007-01-01

    Climate change threatens significant impacts on global ecosystems and human populations. To address this challenge, industrialized nations have ratified the Kyoto Protocol and undertaken commitments to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, the primary agents linked to anthropogenic alteration of earth's climate. By contrast, the US government, led by the Bush Administration, has rejected mandatory targets for curbing emissions under the Protocol, and has instead pursued voluntary mitigation measures amid a larger push for clean coal and 'next generation' nuclear technologies. These actions in total have fueled global perceptions that the US is not acting in substantial ways to address climate change. Nevertheless, action within the US is indeed moving forward, with states, cities and regional partnerships filling the federal leadership vacuum. This paper reviews the diverse policies, strategies, and cooperative frameworks that have emerged at regional, state and local levels to guide climate protection, and identifies the environmental and economic benefits linked to such programs. The paper also attempts to explain the existing federal impasse on climate policy, with attention given to how sub-national efforts may ultimately obviate national governmental inaction

  10. Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy's Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE's Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

  11. Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy`s Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE`s Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

  12. Shared Solar. Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brockway, Anna M. [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Ulrich, Elaine [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-07

    This report provides a high-level overview of the current U.S. shared solar landscape, the impact that a given shared solar program’s structure has on requiring federal securities oversight, as well as an estimate of market potential for U.S. shared solar deployment.

  13. Shared Solar. Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brockway, Anna M. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Ulrich, Elaine [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report provides a high-level overview of the current U.S. shared solar landscape and the impact that a given shared solar program’s structure has on requiring federal securities oversight, as well as an estimate of market potential for U.S. shared solar deployment.

  14. The Rise of International Relations Programs in the Brazilian Federal Universities: Curriculum Specificities and Current Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marcos Alan S. V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this reflection is to study the new international relations (IR) programs introduced by Brazilian federal universities, looking comparatively at their curriculum specificities and current challenges. In recent years, Brazil has seen an increase of IR programs launched in several regions. Since 2003, the Ministry of Education is in the…

  15. FISCAL POLICY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE CURRENT FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTIN SAVA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal policies in the current era are the sovereign right of states to collect and administer taxes on national territory. In this respect, the European Union, which is an association of independent states, did not created an European tax - although many politicians proposing it - and within the Union is found important differences between the tax systems of member states. Due to historical and national different traditions, the EU member states have heterogeneous tax systems and revenue sharing systems because of different conceptions of public policies relative to the role of state in social and economic respective community’s life. The financing of public spending is usually considered the main function of taxation. In the original tradition following Locke1, property protection is the main functions of the state. As a result, the tax must correspond to the services rendered, that is to say, to pay the State for the protection of the rights it provides. Here we are at the origin of the doctrine of the benefit that there should be equivalence between the utility derived by the citizens of public services they consume and the "price" they pay tax.

  16. Technology and public policy: The process of technology assessment in the federal government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, V. T.

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to provide a descriptive and analytical review of the concept of technology assessment and the current status of its applications in the work of the federal executive agencies. The origin of the term technology assessment was examined along with a brief history of its discussion and development since 1966 and some of the factors influencing that development.

  17. Inching toward incrementalism: federalism, devolution, and health policy in the United States and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparer, Michael S; France, George; Clinton, Chelsea

    2011-02-01

    In the United States, the recently enacted Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 envisions a significant increase in federal oversight over the nation's health care system. At the same time, however, the legislation requires the states to play key roles in every aspect of the reform agenda (such as expanding Medicaid programs, creating insurance exchanges, and working with providers on delivery system reforms). The complicated intergovernmental partnerships that govern the nation's fragmented and decentralized system are likely to continue, albeit with greater federal oversight and control. But what about intergovernmental relations in the United Kingdom? What impact did the formal devolution of power in 1999 to Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland have on health policy in those nations, and in the United Kingdom more generally? Has devolution begun a political process in which health policy in the United Kingdom will, over time, become increasingly decentralized and fragmented, or will this "state of unions" retain its long-standing reputation as perhaps the most centralized of the European nations? In this article, we explore the federalist and intergovernmental implications of recent reforms in the United States and the United Kingdom, and we put forward the argument that political fragmentation (long-standing in the United States and just emerging in the United Kingdom) produces new intergovernmental partnerships that, in turn, produce incremental growth in overall government involvement in the health care arena. This is the impact of what can be called catalytic federalism.

  18. Communication received from the Russian Federation concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Director General has received a letter dated 17 July 2002 from the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (MINATOM) in which the Government of the Russian Federation, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available an annual statement of its national holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel, as of 31 December 2001. It has also enclosed a statement relating to its national strategy for the use of plutonium stocks and the establishment of a suitable fuel cycle in the Russian Federation. In the light of the request expressed by the Russian Federation in its note verbale of 1 December 1997 concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), the texts of the enclosures of the letter of 17 July 2002 are attached for the information of all Member States

  19. Communication received from the Russian Federation concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Director General has received a letter dated 22 March 2001 from the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (MINATOM) in which the Government of the Russian Federation in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') has enclosed a statement relating to its national strategy for the use of plutonium stocks and the establishment of a suitable fuel cycle in the Russian Federation; and, in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available data on its national holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and of estimated quantities of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2000. In the light of the request expressed by the Russian Federation in its note verbale of 1 December 1997 concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), the texts of the enclosures to the letter of 22 March 2001 are attached for the information of all Member States

  20. Federal policies to promote the widespread utilization of photovoltaic systems. Supplement: review and critique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.L.

    1980-04-15

    This document is intended as a supplement to the two-volume report entitled Federal Policies to Promote the Widespread Utilization of Photovoltaic Systems that was submitted to Congress by the Department of Energy in February and April of 1980. This supplement contains review comments prepared by knowledgeable experts who reviewed early drafts of the Congressional report. Responses to the review comments by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, preparer of the Congressional report, are also included in this supplement. The Congressional report, mandated in the Solar Photovoltaic Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-590), discusses various issues related to promoting the deployment of photovoltaic systems through the Federal Photovoltaic Program. Various program strategies and funding levels are examined.

  1. Communication received from the Russian Federation concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a letter dated 10 September 2009 from the Permanent Mission of the Russian Federation to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/5491 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2008. In light of the request expressed by the Government of the Russian Federation in its note verbale of 1 December 1997 concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), the letter of 10 September 2009 and the enclosures thereto are attached for the information of all Member States

  2. Federative coordination and collaboration in the policy and management of the ongoing development of teachers from 2003 to 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotenir Damasceno Rabelo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article integrates the studies carried out as part of a concluded research which aimed to analyze the intergovernmental relations established by the federated entities in the implementation of policies created in the framework of the Federal and State Governments    oriented towards the ongoing development of literacy teachers and the role played by the municipalities in the execution of such policies in the period between 2003 and 2006. As an integral part of the broad analysis, this text discusses the policy and management of the ongoing development of teachers in Brazil, considering the federative coordination and collaboration between 2003 and 2006. It presents an analysis carried out in documents of the National Policy of Recognition and Development of Teachers, redesigned in the beginning of 2003, especially the National Network of Ongoing Development of Basic Education Teachers. It also emphasizes the guidelines agreed upon set down to initiate collaborative efforts between the federated entities and universities to implement this policy. The examination reveals signs of a centralized federal formulation and a decentralized offer, and indicates different reactions by states and municipalities to the model of federalism adopted in the policies, giving rise to contradictions in the structure of roles played by the subnational units.

  3. England Policy in Gifted Education: Current Problems and Promising Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Valsa; Smith, Carole Portman; Casey, Ronald

    2018-01-01

    This article presents and analyzes policies in identification and provisions in England with respect to gifted education. England has developed a national policy to provide services to identified students. Surveys and interviews with teachers illustrate how implementation of both identification and provision policy elements were handled. Although…

  4. 34 CFR 97.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.103 Assuring compliance with this... responsibilities for protecting the rights and welfare of human subjects of research conducted at or sponsored by...

  5. Work-Family Balance and Job Satisfaction: The Impact of Family-Friendly Policies on Attitudes of Federal Government Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzstein, Alan L.; Ting, Yuan; Saltzstein, Grace Hall

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of 1991 survey data on federal employees indicates that a variety of presumably family-friendly policies were used to varying degrees. Use of policies and employee perceptions of organizational understanding of family demands had very difference effects on work-family balance and job satisfaction. (Contains 57 references.) (SK)

  6. Policies for second generation biofuels: current status and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egger, Haakan; Greaker, Mads; Potter, Emily

    2011-07-01

    Current state-of-the-art knowledge concludes that green house gas (GHG) emissions must be controlled and reduced within the next 30-40 years. The transport sector contributes almost a fifth of the current global emissions, and its share is likely to increase in the future. The US and a number of European countries have therefore introduced various support schemes for research and development (RandD) of low emission fuels that can potentially replace the current fossil fuels. One such alternative is biofuels. The advantage of biofuels are that it is easy to introduce into the transport sector. On the other hand, recent research papers question whether the supply of feedstock is sufficient, and to what extent biofuels lead to GHG emission reductions. This report reviews the current status of second generation biofuels. Second generation biofuels are made from cellulose, which according to our survey of the literature, is in more abundant supply than the first generation biofuels feedstocks. Furthermore, it seems to have the potential to reduce GHG emissions from the transport sector without leading to devastating land use changes, which recent critique has held against first generation biofuels. Given that governments have decided to support RandD of low emission fuels, we ask the following questions: Should second generation biofuels receive RandD support to the same extent as other low emission fuels like hydrogen? How should support schemes for second generation biofuels be designed? Second generation biofuels can be divided according to the production process into thermo-chemical and bio-chemical. With respect to the thermo-chemical process the potential for cost reductions seems to be low. On the other hand, ethanol made from cellulose using the biochemical conversion process is far from a ripe technology. Expert reports point to several potential technological breakthroughs which may reduce costs substantially. Hence, cellulosic ethanol, should receive direct

  7. Teaching Children to Read : The Fragile Link Between Science & Federal Education Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Camilli

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Teaching Children to Read (TCR has stirred much controversy among reading experts regarding the efficacy of phonics instruction. This report, which was conducted by the National Reading Panel (NRP, has also played an important role in subsequent federal policy regarding reading instruction. Using meta-analysis, the NRP found that systematic phonics instruction was more effective than alternatives in teaching children to read. In the present study, the findings and procedures leading to TCR were examined. We concluded that the methodology and procedures in TCR were not adequate for synthesizing the research literature on phonics instruction. Moreover, we estimated a smaller though still substantial effect (d = .24 for systematic phonics, but we also found an effect for systematic language activities (d = .29 and tutoring (d = .40. Systematic phonics instruction when combined with language activities and individual tutoring may triple the effect of phonics alone. As federal policies are formulated around early literacy curricula and instruction, these findings indicate that phonics, as one aspect of the complex reading process, should not be over-emphasized.

  8. New federalism and intergovernmental fiscal relationships: the implications for health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, T J

    1997-06-01

    This paper explores a number of popular but largely inaccurate myths about American federalism in order to clarify the fundamental structures and processes that characterize American federal governance. Examination of financial and political trends over the past several decades reveals the development of a form of functional specialization among national, state, and local governments based on pragmatic responses to policy problems rather than decisions based on clearly articulated "principles." These responses have increasingly come from states in a wide variety of policy areas, including health care, where the energetic reform activity of the past decade provides a sharp contrast to the inability of the national government to enact reform. Recent pressure to devolve more authority to the states is thus much more than an ideological fad; it reflects widespread agreement among political elites that state and local governments have become capable governing partners. Nonetheless, there are limits to devolution which guarantee that close fiscal and political ties between the nation and the states will remain in place. Devolution does not, because it cannot, mean separation.

  9. Executive federalism and Medicaid demonstration waivers: implications for policy and democratic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Frank J; Burke, Courtney

    2007-12-01

    Executive federalism emphasizes collaboration between the executive branches at the national and state levels to transform grant programs through the implementation process. In this regard, Medicaid demonstration waivers loomed large during the presidencies of Bill Clinton and George W. Bush. This article documents and compares the volume and substance of section 1115 Medicaid waiver activity under the two presidencies. From the perspective of policy performance, Medicaid demonstration waivers provide modest support for the view that states serve as laboratories for policy learning in the health care arena. More broadly, the waivers have not yielded a major solution to the problem of the uninsured and are unlikely to do so. At the same time, they have not (as some have suggested) been a subterranean force for the erosion of Medicaid. To the contrary, these waivers have often enhanced health services for low-income people; above all, they have helped preserve Medicaid as an entitlement by undercutting support for those seeking to convert the program into a block grant. From the perspective of the democratic process, we find that Congress has been a more significant player in shaping waivers than the executive federalism model suggests. While the decision processes surrounding Medicaid waivers often fall short of democratic standards with respect to transparency and opportunities for public input, they still compare favorably to certain alternatives.

  10. Progress in realization of the state policy in RW and SNF Management in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borzunov, Andrey I.

    1999-01-01

    The basic infrastructure at the majority of the enterprises for management of radioactive waste (RW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) built in Russia in the 1960s and 1970s are now morally and technically obsolete and require reconstruction. As stated in this presentation, the most complicated problem is the shortage of financial resources, and International support is very important. The presentation is organised in sections discussing (1) the problem, (2) basic aspects of the State policy in this field, (3) the federal institutions in charge, (4) the principles upon which the State policy is grounded, (5) the main objectives of the RW and SNF management in Russia, (6) the federal programme: Radioactive wastes and spent nuclear materials management, their disposal and burial for the period 1996-2005, (7) plans for impending solution of the problems of the Northern and Pacific regions of Russia, (8) some top priority work of Minatom, (9) measures planned at the Russian power plants, (10) some basic results so far, (11) international co-operation

  11. Progress in realization of the state policy in RW and SNF Management in the Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borzunov, Andrey I

    1999-07-01

    The basic infrastructure at the majority of the enterprises for management of radioactive waste (RW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) built in Russia in the 1960s and 1970s are now morally and technically obsolete and require reconstruction. As stated in this presentation, the most complicatedproblem is the shortage of financial resources, and International support is very important. The presentation is organised in sections discussing (1) the problem, (2) basic aspects of the State policy in this field, (3) the federal institutions in charge, (4) the principles upon which the State policy is grounded, (5) the main objectives of the RW and SNF management in Russia, (6) the federal programme: Radioactive wastes and spent nuclear materials management, their disposal and burial for the period 1996-2005, (7) plans for impending solution of the problems of the Northern and Pacific regions of Russia, (8) some top priority work of Minatom, (9) measures planned at the Russian power plants, (10) some basic results so far, (11) international co-operation.

  12. Government policy, research and stakeholder confidence - Current Trends in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letourneau, Carmel

    2006-01-01

    The author addressed the topic of government Policy, research and stakeholder Confidence from the perspective of government policy makers in Canada. The presentation reviewed the question: why carry out more research into methods of long-term management of nuclear fuel waste? In addressing this question, the author provided some perspectives that were expressed by the Canadian public, since reflected in the Final Study of management approaches led by the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), an organization set up by the nuclear industry to study options for the long-term management of nuclear fuel waste. The Final Study was submitted to the federal Minister of Natural Resources in November 2005 as required under the Nuclear Fuel Waste Act. The NWMO's Final Study emphasized the important role of continuous learning, a key element in the NWMO's recommendation of Adaptive Phased Management. It was reported that the NWMO work had identified many reasons to carry out further research. Regardless of the management approach adopted, activities to manage radioactive waste will continue for a very long time. Any management program could be expected to apply the best practice available at the time. A program that will evolve over a long period of time will have many opportunities for improvements to increase performance, enhance effectiveness, and address rising societal concerns. It was suggested that, to realize these benefits, there needs to be a vibrant and robust research and development effort during management program development and execution, a period that will last many generations, and enable implementers to adapt to a changing environment. Among the reasons put forward for continuing research were, to: - Embody the principles of continuous learning which encourages standards of excellence and integrity; - Prepare for facility siting, design, licensing, development and operations to improve designs, minimize costs, enhance schedules, and reduce

  13. Current Policy Issues in Early Foreign Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Enever

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of policy in relation to language learning at the early primary level of schooling has received only limited attention in the literature on policy studies in general, and within the framework of an emerging education policy space across Europe specifically. This paper offers an introductory discussion of the growth of education policy in Europe, identifying the extent to which the histories of national language policies are being re-shaped by the rise of numerical data and comparison within a newly-formed European education space. A summary review of key measures of particular relevance to early language learning illustrates thescale of “soft” policy mechanisms now available as tools in an on-going process of shaping, adapting and refining policy in response to the continuously shifting language priorities that arise particularly during periods of economic instability. This paper draws on key themes from a transnational, longitudinal study of early language learning in Europe to discuss the extent to which implementation in schools has so far been moulded by a plethora of recommendations, reports and indicators formulated in response to the step change in policy development that has occurred since the publication of the Lisbon Strategy (2000.

  14. Current alcohol policy in the Republic of Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    Razvodovsky, Y. E.

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the state alcohol policy is presented. The dynamics of total alcohol consumption, unregistered alcohol consumption and alcohol sales in Belarus were evaluated for the period 1980-2009. It was shown that the implementation of measures within the framework of the state alcohol policy resulted in a significant reduction in unregistered alcohol consumption and a slight reduction in total alcohol consumption.

  15. Perspective: Improving nutritional guidelines for sustainable health policies: Current status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magni, Paolo; Bier, Dennis M; Pecorelli, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    a constructive coalition among scientists, policy makers, and communication professionals for sustainable health and nutritional policies. Currently, a strong rationale and available data support a personalized dietary approach according to personal variables, including sex and age, circulating metabolic...

  16. Shifting currents: Progress, setbacks, and shifts in policy and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Dunning, Charles; Robertson, Dale M.

    2016-01-01

    clean water future. More than a decade has passed since our first statewide WOW conversation and the report that captured recommendations from its participants: Waters of Wisconsin: The Future of Our Aquatic Ecosystems and Resources. Drawing from a diverse and growing set of stakeholders from across the state, the Wisconsin Academy initiated a new conversation in 2012 (known as WOW II) to assess progress in regard to our 2003 recommendations. We also sought to review the status of waters in Wisconsin today. The result of this renewed conversation is Shifting Currents: Progress, Setbacks, and Shifts in Policy and Practice. The new report assesses progress in brief, and explores in greater depth the continuing and emerging challenges to water quality, supply, and aquatic ecosystems in Wisconsin.In this report, we first review the context and frameworks for public decision-making about water and then examine some of the root causes—or “drivers”—and ecological stressors that underlie many of the symptoms we see in the form of pollution or ecosystem degradation in Wisconsin. This is followed by a summary of current water issues, many of which had been identified in the 2003 report and remain relevant today. We examine progress since 2003 but also setbacks, and discuss issues that we are likely to continue to face in the coming decades, including controlling agricultural runoff, mitigating climate change and grappling with its effects on the state’s waters, protecting groundwater from bacterial contamination and other pollutants, and preventing groundwater depletion. We also attempt to anticipate issues on the horizon. We offer a deeper look at some particular challenges, such as phosphorus pollution and groundwater contamination. We then consider the current decision-making framework and how it is shaping our capacity to respond to water challenges in Wisconsin. Finally, we offer recommendations and identify opportunities to safeguard Wisconsin’s waters in the

  17. ECONOMIC COOPERATION BETWEEN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS IN THE FIELD OF MIGRATION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Strel'chenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the general trends of migration processes between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus, briefly describes the main features of the socio-economic development and migration policy of the two countries, including in the context of their cooperation within the framework of the Eurasian Economic Union. The article defines the key directions of economic cooperation between Russia and Belarus on migration policies and the promotion of desirable forms of migration. The relevance of the topic chosen due to both diversity and unsystematic legal framework that regulates the various aspects of migration policy and the lack of established legal concepts of migration, the migration process and the migration policy. In addition, in recent years can be seen working mobility growth in the context of globalization, which creates conditions for employment are not only highly qualified professionals in the fields of finance, insurance, banking, communications, and migrant workers employed in agriculture, construction, landscaping, catering, hotel service.Methodology. In conducting this study the main sources of raw data served as the information contained in scientific, reference, periodical literature on the subject in question, including the sources in the "Internet" information and telecommunications network. The basis of methodological developments laid the comparative methods of analysis and synthesis of the available data.Conclusions / relevance. Supporters of immigration openness believes that the strengthening of migration one of the solutions to the demographic problems of Russia and the problem of replenishment of the labor market. Their opponents believe that immigration creates an excess supply in the labor market, allowing employers to permanently reduce the level of payment of labor and social security, working conditions deteriorate.Practical application of the results of this work will improve the forecasting and

  18. Policies for Resource Efficient and Effective Solutions : A review of concepts, current policy landscape and future policy considerations for the transition to a Circular Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Milios, Leonidas

    2016-01-01

    This report presents basic concepts around resources, resource efficiency and the Circular Economy. The limitations and the opportunities within the Circular Economy are identified and clearly presented. The current policy landscape in the EU as well as in Sweden is thoroughly analysed and a set of policy areas with a significant untapped potential for resource efficiency is identified. The policy areas which have been underutilised so far include policies for re-use, repair and remanufacturi...

  19. An Assessment of Current Policy Initiatives in Zambia's Cotton Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Zulu, Ballard; Tschirley, David L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper assesses three of these policy initiatives: input credit provision for smallholder producers of selected cash crops including cotton, the proposed creation of a Cotton Board, and the emergence in 2003 of District Council levies as a point of conflict between local governments and cotton companies. The purpose of the paper is to provide guidance to public and private decision makers regarding key modifications which may need to be made to these policies to ensure continued healthy d...

  20. Children and U.S. federal policy on health and health care: seen but not heard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Glenn; Lesley, Bruce

    2014-12-01

    Children account for 73.5 million Americans (24%), but 8% of federal expenditures. Data on health and health care indicate that child well-being in the United States has been in decline since the most recent recession. Childhood poverty has reached its highest level in 20 years, 1 in 4 children lives in a food-insecure household, 7 million children lack health insurance, a child is abused or neglected every 47 seconds, and 1 in 3 children is overweight or obese. Five children are killed daily by firearms, 1 in 5 experiences a mental disorder, racial/ethnic disparities continue to be extensive and pervasive, and major sequester cuts and underfunding of pediatric research have damaged our global leadership in biomedical research and hobbled economic growth. In this analysis, we identify 10 urgent priorities for the health and health care of US children, including poverty, food insufficiency, lack of health insurance, child abuse and neglect, overweight and obesity, firearm deaths and injuries, mental health, racial/ethnic disparities, immigration, and research. Overwhelming, bipartisan support by voters exists for enhancing our nation's investments in children's health and well-being. Federal policy action steps are proposed to successfully address these priorities and ensure a healthy, productive future for US children and the nation.

  1. Ward Valley and the Federal Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    In his State of the Union Address delivered on 23 January 1996, President Clinton said, speaking generally, open-quotes Passing a law - even the best possible law - is only a first step. The next step is to make it work.close quotes The president is right, of course; faithful execution of any law is the key. Unfortunately, this lesson appears lost on his own administration when it comes to making the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act work. That act is one of the most important environmental laws of the 1980s. It was designed by Congress and the state governors to assure both sufficient disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) and regional equity in the siting of new disposal facilities. Former Congressman Morris Udall (D-Ariz.), who was chairman of the House Interior Committee and a congressional environmental leader, was author of the act. No state has done more to make the law work than California. No state has made more progress toward developing a new disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste as mandated by the act. But further progress, that is, actual construction and operation of a disposal facility, has been stymied by the federal administration, which has refused to convey federal desert lands to California for use as the site of the proposed disposal facility

  2. Current state of seagrass ecosystem services: Research and policy integration

    KAUST Repository

    Ruiz-Frau, A.

    2017-10-12

    Seagrasses contribute to the maintenance of human wellbeing. However certain aspects of their role as ecosystem service (ES) providers remain understudied. Here, we synthesise the state of seagrass ES (SGES) research and policy implications. Additionally, we recommend ways in which SGES research can be integrated in to policy design, by drawing lessons from the case of Blue Carbon (BC). SGES research suffers from three main biases: a geographical bias, SGES has been restricted to chartered seagrass areas; a type of service research bias, provisioning and regulating services have received extensive attention while cultural services remain understudied; a type of discipline bias, the ecological aspects of SGES have been well documented while economic and social aspects remain in comparison understudied. These are particularly important, as an understanding of the social and economic considerations of the provision of ES is fundamental to facilitate its integration into policy frameworks. Lessons drawn from the operationalization process of BC show the reoccurrence of certain aspects that have enabled the integration of BC into policy. These aspects are grouped under 4 different categories. From the analysis of these elements we draw lessons that could facilitate the operationalization of other ecosystem services and their incorporation into management policy frameworks.

  3. Two Hundred Years of Federalism: A Perspective on National Fiscal Policy in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    1987-01-01

    Divides the history of educational federalism into three eras: (1) Presidential Federalism (from the Constitution's enactment to the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) in 1958); (2) Congressional Federalism (from ESEA until Reagan's election); and (3) Gubernatorial Federalism (the 1980's). Federal aid to education has been reduced,…

  4. Environmental economics and policy making in developing countries. Current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta, R.S. da

    2001-01-01

    In developing countries, where growth expectations are high, least-cost environmental policies are crucial since they can reduce the conflict between economic growth and the environment. In view of this, policymakers in these economies must be very aware of the relationship between economic and environmental issues to offer policy initiatives which can increase efficiency and improve equity. The authors provide a comprehensive analysis of topics varying from the general problems of growth and conservation to specific applications such as; pollution costs, environmental taxation, deforestation and climate change. This volume also offers policymakers a comprehensive view of the challenges they face, and the legacies they leave, in order to convert environmental policy making into an actual programme of welfare improvement. (author)

  5. Sovereignty and social justice: how the concepts affect federal American Indian policy and American Indian health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Donalee

    2018-04-19

    The health disparities that are prevalent among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities are connected to the ideology of sovereignty and often ignored in social work and public health literature. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to examine the health outcomes of American Indians from the time of contact with European settlers to the present through the ideology of sovereignty and federal government AI health policy. The foundation for the health outcomes of AIs and the governmental policies affecting them lie in the ideology of tribal sovereignty. This ideology has greatly impacted how the government views and treats AIs and consequently, how it has impacted their health. From the earliest treaties between European settlers and AIs, this legal relationship has been and remains a perplexing issue. With the examination of tribal sovereignty comes the realization that colonization and governmental polices have greatly contributed to the many social and health problems that AIs suffer from today. Understanding that the health disparities that exist among AI/AN populations cannot only be attributed to individual behavior and choice but is driven by societal, economic and political factors may be used to inform social work education, practice, and research.

  6. Understanding the Great Depression: Lessons for Current Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen G. Cecchetti

    1997-01-01

    Over the four years beginning in the summer of 1929, financial markets, labor markets and goods markets all virtually ceased to function. Throughout this, the government policymaking apparatus seemed helpless. Since the end of the Great Depression, macroeconomists have labored diligently in an effort to understand the circumstances that led to the wholesale collapse of the economy. What lessons can we draw from our study of these events? In this essay, I argue that the Federal Reserve played ...

  7. Language Policy in Ethiopia: History and Current Trends | Getachew ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interviews were conducted with various bodies that are concerned with developing, implementing and monitoring language use policies, such as the Ethiopian Language Research Center, the Ministry of Tourism and Culture, the information and education bureaus of three regional states, namely the Amhara, Oromiya and ...

  8. Revenue Sharing: An Assessment of Current Policies at UK Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzard, James; Brown, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    The transfer of academic technologies to industry is an important process underpinning innovation and economic development. Various approaches have been adopted by universities to encourage academics to participate in commercial activities. Many have implemented revenue sharing policies, through which the revenues generated from university-owned…

  9. Current policies affecting the market penetration of biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermann, B.G.; Patel, M.K.; Blok, K.

    2011-01-01

    Policies aimed at supporting the bio-based economy have so far centered on biomass use for electricity and fuels. But using biomass for the production of materials offers higher greenhouse gas savings than bioenergy per kg feedstock as well as per hectare. This has received comparatively little

  10. Modern problems of evaluation of the family policy effectiveness in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kuchmaeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the multifaceted and complex problems, associated with comprehensive evaluation of the effectiveness of the state family policy. A significant stage in the development of state family policy is the adoption of the concept of state family policy in 2014. Evaluation of measures’ effectiveness in the field of family policy is the subject of many publications. However, most authors pay their attention to the individual events. It appears that the effectiveness of implementation of strategic documents is defined by the detailed development of the documents, objective approach to formation of system of target indicators.The aim of the article is the analysis of the structure of the Concept of family policy, adopted in 2014, and implementation plan of its first stage. It allows identifying whether the ineffectiveness of family policy is determined by the logic strategic documents in the field of family policy. The possibilities for monitoring the effectiveness of the action plan and the first results of the implementation of the Concept, consistency of the logic in these documents are considered.Materials and methods. The conclusions of the article are based on the analysis of quantitative and qualitative indicators of family policy. The data of statistical monitoring of family policies based on official statistical reporting and representative sample surveys of ROSSTAT, and the experience of monitoring the National strategy of actions in interests of children served as the information base of the study.Results. Currently, the performance evaluation is conducted formally; complexity evaluation for the implementation of the Concept of family policy is largely related to the logic of formation of the Concept and its expected results, the disadvantages of the formation of plans for its implementation, the lack of necessary information and special monitoring in the framework of the implementation of the Concept. In the framework

  11. Poliomyelitis in the United States: A Historical Perspective and Current Vaccination Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farizo, Karen M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines poliomyelitis in the United States by reviewing clinical manifestations and outcomes, history, recent epidemiologic characteristics, characteristics of currently available vaccines, controversies surrounding vaccination policy, current poliovirus vaccination recommendations, and prospects for worldwide eradication. Poliomyelitis remains…

  12. Overview of current energy-efficiency policies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Nan; Levine, Mark D.; Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    From 1970 to 2001, China was able to significantly limit energy demand growth through aggressive energy-efficiency programs. Energy use per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) declined by approximately 5% per year during this period. However, the period 2002-2005 saw energy use per unit of GDP increase an average of 3.8% per year. To stem this out-of-control growth in energy demand, in November 2005 the Chinese government enunciated a mandatory goal of 20% reduction of energy intensity between 2006 and 2010. The National People's Congress passed legislation identifying the National Reform and Development Commission as the lead agency to design and carry out programs in support of this goal. These policies and programs, created after almost a decade of decline of the energy-efficiency policy apparatus, have had considerable impact. Although initial efforts have not been sufficient to meet the annual declines required to reach the ambitious 20% energy intensity target, the latest reports indicate that China may now be on track to meet this goal. The paper provides an assessment of these policies and programs to begin to understand issues that will play a critical role in China's energy and economic future. Activities undertaken in China will have a significant influence on the global effort to reduce the growth, and later the absolute quantity, of greenhouse gas emissions.

  13. Current nuclear non-proliferation policies in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Mitsuru

    1997-01-01

    Although a global nuclear confrontation between the U.S. and the Soviet Union has disappeared, many challenges to nuclear non-proliferation have emerged. Sources of concern, like a nuclear weapon program by Iraq and suspicions of North Korea have caused the adoption of a variety of political and technical measures in order to meet these challenges in the post-Cold War era. This paper describes the following ten policies for non-proliferation: 1) Strengthening the NPT; 2) Nuclear reduction; 3) CTBT and cut-off treaty; 4) Establishment of NWFZs; 5) Counterproliferation; 6) Strengthening the IAEA Safeguards; 7) Control and disposal of nuclear material from dismantled nuclear weapons; 8) Export control; 9) Registration of plutonium; and 10) Actions against nuclear smuggling. The first four measures can be said to be mainly political policies, the fifth measure (counterproliferation), can be categorized as basically a military policy, and the last five measures can be said to be technical. (J.P.N.)

  14. 76 FR 38399 - Assessing the Current Research, Policy, and Practice Environment in Public Health Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Docket Number CDC-2011-0008] Assessing the Current Research, Policy, and Practice Environment in Public Health... information helpful to assess the current research, policy, and practice environment in public health genomics...

  15. Progress towards and barriers to implementation of a risk framework for US federal wildland fire policy and decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Calkin; Mark A. Finney; Alan A. Ager; Matthew P. Thompson; Krista M. Gebert

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we review progress towards the implementation of a riskmanagement framework for US federal wildland fire policy and operations. We first describe new developments in wildfire simulation technology that catalyzed the development of risk-based decision support systems for strategic wildfire management. These systems include new analytical methods to measure...

  16. How federal health-care policies interface with urban and rural areas: a comparison of three systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracskay, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Global public health policies span national borders and affect multitudes of people. The spread of infectious disease has neither political nor economic boundaries, and when elevated to a status of pandemic proportions, immediate action is required. In federal systems of government, the national level leads the policy formation and implementation process, but also collaborates with supranational organisations as part of the global health network. Likewise, the national level of government cooperates with sub-national governments located in both urban and rural areas. Rural areas, particularly in less developed countries, tend to have higher poverty rates and lack the benefits of proper medical facilities, communication modes and technology to prevent the spread of disease. From the perspective of epidemiological surveillance and intervention, this article will examine federal health policies in three federal systems: Australia, Malaysia and the USA. Using the theoretical foundations of collaborative federalism, this article specifically examines how collaborative arrangements and interactions among governmental and non-governmental actors help to address the inherent discrepancies that exist between policy implementation and reactions to outbreaks in urban and rural areas. This is considered in the context of the recent H1N1 influenza pandemic, which spread significantly across the globe in 2009 and is now in what has been termed the 'post-pandemic era'.

  17. A Legal Analysis of Federal Disability Law as Related to Emerging Technology: Guidelines for Postsecondary Leadership, Policy, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Roderick Dwayne

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation identified and described the legal requirements imposed by federal disability mandates and case law related to emerging technology. Additionally, the researcher created a legal framework (guidelines) for higher education institutions to consider during policy development and implementation of emerging technology by providing an…

  18. Annotated Bibliography on School Finance: Policy and Political Issues; Federal Government; State Issues; Non-Public Schools; Accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Joella

    Limited to periodical literature, this annotated bibliography on school finance contains 81 references grouped in 5 categories: (1) policy and politica issues, (2) federal government, (3) state issues, (4) aid to nonpublic schools, and (5) accountability. Following the bibliographic citations, annotations range from 4 to 15 lines and conclude by…

  19. 25 CFR 900.5 - Effect of these regulations on Federal program guidelines, manual, or policy directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT General Provisions § 900.5 Effect of these regulations... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of these regulations on Federal program guidelines, manual, or policy directives. 900.5 Section 900.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  20. Temporary oil production, current account deterioration and the role of monetary and fiscal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvie, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper extends earlier work on the macroeconomic adjustment processes arising for an economy experiencing a temporary period of oil production. Emphasis is placed on developments in the current account, as reflected in foreign asset stock movements, after oil production ceases, as well as on the role that monetary, fiscal or fiscal/monetary policy can play in influencing current-account developments during this same period. The results presented suggest that, to improve the performance of the current account, irrespective of the wage adjustment mechanism operative, after oil production ceases, the major thrust of macroeconomic policy should operate through fiscal rather than monetary policy. However developments in non-oil output would be influenced by the wage adjustment mechanism. With wage indexation, a tight fiscal policy after oil production ceases leads to a higher level of non-oil output than in the no policy response case, or one where monetary policy alone is used. With no wage indexation, the use of monetary and/or fiscal policy leads to lower levels of non-oil output. The use of fiscal policy also has the added benefit of contributing to a lower consumer price level, again irrespective of the operative wage adjustment mechanism. If the emphasis of policy operates through monetary policy, irrespective of the wage adjustment mechanism, the current-account problem will be exacerbated since foreign assets stocks will be lower. In addition, non-oil output and consumer prices will be lower. (Author)

  1. Energy industry and energy policy in the Federal Republic of Germany now facing new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziesing, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    After the Chernobyl reactor accident, discussions about the latest deep plunge of oil prices and the consequences for the economic and energy market situation have promptly been pushed to the background, and now it is the well-known controversy about the pros and cons of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy that flares up again. The author of the paper in hand is well aware that the very complex problems posed by the task to weigh the risks of energy supply with or without nuclear energy generation can by far not be solved within this framework, so that the paper picks out only a few aspects of a decision to abandon nuclear power, and some consequences to be considered. As an introduction to the problem, the author presents a survey of the current energy situation and current energy policy, and of the related perspectives. (orig./UA) [de

  2. 228 Empirical Analysis of Fiscal Policy Shocks and Current Account ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2013-01-28

    Jan 28, 2013 ... budget deficit on the current account balance in Nigeria but their claims and results are sketchy at ..... financial sector variables on Nigeria's CAB. The results ..... 08/60 (Washington: International Monetary Fund). Looney, R. E. ...

  3. 12 CFR 614.4100 - Policies governing lending through Federal land bank associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... lending through Federal land bank associations. (a) Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks may delegate authority to make credit decisions to Federal land bank associations that demonstrate the ability... Farm Credit Bank and each agricultural credit bank lending through Federal land bank associations shall...

  4. 76 FR 39240 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Encouraging Contractor Policies To Ban Text Messaging While Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... Executive Order (E.O.) 13513, dated October 1, 2009, entitled ``Federal Leadership on Reducing Text..., entitled ``Federal Leadership on Reducing Text Messaging while Driving.'' The rule requires Government... modified to include the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) definitions of electronic...

  5. The effect of current and prospective policies on photovoltaic system economics: An application to the US Midwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesmero, Juan; Jung, Jinho; Tyner, Wallace

    2016-01-01

    This study models fundamental features of current and prospective policies encouraging adoption of residential photovoltaic (PV) systems. A key finding is that time-of-day (ToD) pricing can enhance or worsen the economics of PV systems. Moreover, increased responsiveness of electricity demand to its price diminishes the effectiveness of ToD pricing in the absence of net metering, but does not affect it otherwise. An application to plausible conditions in the State of Indiana, USA, shows that current policies are unlikely to trigger adoption by a risk-neutral forward-looking residential customer. However, adoption of PV systems can be induced if the Federal Tax Credit is increased to cover 48% of capital cost (instead of the current 30%), which could imply a cost to the Federal Government of about $0.95/kW of installed capacity depending on the panel’s size. We demonstrate that implementation of ToD pricing can trigger adoption under a range of on- and off-peak price combinations. But our analysis also shows that the cost-effectiveness of ToD pricing is enhanced at higher ratios of on-peak to off-peak prices. - Highlights: •Time-of-day (ToD) pricing can enhance or worsen the economics of PV systems. •Effect of ToD is independent of demand elasticity if combined with net metering. •Adoption of PV system requires that Federal Tax Credit cover half of capital cost. •To induce adoption, ToD must act as a tax on grid electricity. •Cost-effectiveness of ToD enhanced at higher ratios of on-peak to off-peak prices.

  6. Economic instruments of environmental policy - USA and Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troge, A.

    1983-01-01

    The basic orientation of American practice should induce us to develop constructive ideas. The principle is simple: Companies profit directly by emission reductions, and thus air-pollution abatement is enhanced. Even after a short period, an emmission relief and cost reduction are perceptible which is encouraging. Further options under the current licensing procedures must be carefully examined, and even though they may not, at first glance, appear to be equally rational and systematic which fact fascinates many because the suggestions on an environmental levy are so obviously aiming at specific targets. We should, therefore, not turn a deaf ear to a step-by-step approach with instruments of environmental policy which gains by experiments and errors.

  7. Current anti-doping policy: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Bengt; Mauron, Alexandre; Miah, Andy

    2007-03-29

    Current anti-doping in competitive sports is advocated for reasons of fair-play and concern for the athlete's health. With the inception of the World Anti Doping Agency (WADA), anti-doping effort has been considerably intensified. Resources invested in anti-doping are rising steeply and increasingly involve public funding. Most of the effort concerns elite athletes with much less impact on amateur sports and the general public. We review this recent development of increasingly severe anti-doping control measures and find them based on questionable ethical grounds. The ethical foundation of the war on doping consists of largely unsubstantiated assumptions about fairness in sports and the concept of a "level playing field". Moreover, it relies on dubious claims about the protection of an athlete's health and the value of the essentialist view that sports achievements reflect natural capacities. In addition, costly antidoping efforts in elite competitive sports concern only a small fraction of the population. From a public health perspective this is problematic since the high prevalence of uncontrolled, medically unsupervised doping practiced in amateur sports and doping-like behaviour in the general population (substance use for performance enhancement outside sport) exposes greater numbers of people to potential harm. In addition, anti-doping has pushed doping and doping-like behaviour underground, thus fostering dangerous practices such as sharing needles for injection. Finally, we argue that the involvement of the medical profession in doping and anti-doping challenges the principles of non-maleficience and of privacy protection. As such, current anti-doping measures potentially introduce problems of greater impact than are solved, and place physicians working with athletes or in anti-doping settings in an ethically difficult position. In response, we argue on behalf of enhancement practices in sports within a framework of medical supervision. Current anti

  8. An overview of current NAMA guidance. Policy Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, L.R. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    The International Climate Initiative formed a number of working groups within an Enhanced NAMA Cooperation Group. The Tools and Guides working group seeks to coordinate current efforts on NAMA related tools, guidebooks and templates, as well as reduce repetition of such work by different organisations. As a first step towards this goal, this brief analysis looks at the 8 main guides on NAMA development that have been published, or made available in draft form, as of May 2013. This note summarises the approach found in these guides and identifies a number of areas, or gaps, that would benefit from further effort to provide supporting resources and guidance. It also aims to provide the basis for further discussion within the working group.

  9. The political economy of Malaysian federalism: Economic development, public policy and conflict containment

    OpenAIRE

    Jomo, K. S.; Hui, Wee Chong

    2002-01-01

    Conflicts within the Malaysian federation have been rooted in socio-economic disparities and the struggle for control of natural resource rents, which State Governments previously had exclusive control over, as originally provided for by the federal constitution. The advance of fiscal centralization since then has also aggravated federal-state tensions, which have been relatively ignored due to the long-standing Malaysian pre-occupation with inter-ethnic tensions. Inter-regional resource tran...

  10. ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT STATE OF THE BUDGET SYSTEM OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Bandurin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the budgetary system of the Russian Federation. The elements of the budgetary system and the types of fiscal federalism. Particular attention is paid to the problem of the audit (control budget formulation and execution, the external and internal state financial control. 

  11. Toxic substances: Federal-provincial control. Revised edition. Current issue review No. 88-11E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, K; Johansen, D

    1993-01-01

    There is widespread public concern about the effect of toxic substances on human health and the environment. This document looks at the federal-provincial control on toxic substances. It specifically examines the control of toxic substances under the Canadian constitution; the political arena; the federal- provincial co-operation; the Green Plan; and the 1991 Auditor General's Report.

  12. Viewpoint – Swimming against the Current: Questioning Development Policy and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Mørck Jensen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The water world is dominated by normative policies prescribing what 'good development' is all about. It is a universe of its own where policies live their own lives and feed in and out of each other. As new buzzwords continue to be invented or reinvented, policies continue to maintain their shiny images of how water resources or water supply should be managed. There are many water professionals acting as missionaries in the service of policies but probably fewer professionals acting up against blindfolded policy promotion. It is when water policies are being implemented in the real world that the trouble starts. In spite of their well-intended mission, water policies often suffer shipwreck on the socio-economic and political realities in developing countries. Through cases from India and the Mekong, the author demonstrates what happens when normative water polices are forced out of their comfort zone and into social and political realities. Although policies are made of stubborn material they need to be questioned through continuous analytical insight into developing country realities. But undertaking critical analysis and questioning the wisdom of water policies are easier said than done. It takes a lot of effort to swim against the policy current.

  13. Institutional factors of energy policy in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehfeld, D.

    1986-01-01

    Energy policy serves to demonstrate the interrelation of political field analysis and conceptional political discussion. A theoretical political field analysis results in the fact that energy policy must not be considered a clearly defined political field but rather a domain affected by economic policy. Based on this principle the publication is entering into an empirically founded discussion of topical aspects of political science (policy science, corporatism, governability, marxian theories). The respective problems at issue are applied to energy policy in order to work out the potential and topical problems of all aspects involved. (orig.) [de

  14. Federal Economic Policy and the Finance of Elementary and Secondary Education in the Eighties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, F. Howard

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the United States' fiscal situation and the outlook for local, state, and federal government support of education. Focuses on the impact of decentralization of education financing under a conservative government and on the influence of federal budget deficits on school finance. Includes suggestions for educators in seeking financial…

  15. 41 CFR 102-73.305 - What relocation assistance policy must Federal agencies follow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... displaced person for actual— (a) Reasonable moving expenses (in moving himself, his family, and business... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What relocation... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL...

  16. The Federal Role in Adolescent Literacy from Johnson through Obama: A Policy Regimes Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptli, Meghan V.; Cohen-Vogel, Lora

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the federal role in adolescent literacy from its roots in Lyndon B. Johnson's administration with the Economic Opportunity Act (1964) through the Reading for Understanding grants of 2010. The authors consider the extent to which the recent attention to and changes in the federal approach to adolescent literacy can be…

  17. 41 CFR 102-76.10 - What basic design and construction policy governs Federal agencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What basic design and... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL... must be timely, efficient, and cost effective. (b) Use a distinguished architectural style and form in...

  18. Immigration and cultural policies: a bone of contention between the Province of Quebec and the Canadian federal government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, L

    1995-01-01

    "This article addresses the way in which the Province of Quebec has obtained increasing power in the area of immigration.... Data from interviews with key members of [the Ministry of Immigration] and from selected documents are drawn on to illustrate Quebec's cultural politics. The Quebec position on the question of immigration as it has evolved in the context of immigration policies defined by the federal government in Ottawa is examined.... In particular, the present article considers how attempts to construct a cultural identity and a nation-state in Quebec have had important consequences for immigration policy and for attitudes and policies concerning Quebec's cultural minorities. The emergence of the notion of 'cultural communities' as a result of the constitutional rivalry and the on-going struggle for legitimacy between Quebec and Ottawa is also explored." excerpt

  19. Corporal Punishment in U.S. Public Schools: Prevalence, Disparities in Use, and Status in State and Federal Policy. Social Policy Report. Volume 30, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Font, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    School corporal punishment is currently legal in 19 states, and over 160,000 children in these states are subject to corporal punishment in schools each year. Given that the use of school corporal punishment is heavily concentrated in Southern states, and that the federal government has not included corporal punishment in its recent initiatives…

  20. State shipment fees as a supplement to federal financial assistance under section 180(c) of the nuclear waste policy act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janairo, L.R.

    2009-01-01

    In Section 180(c) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), Congress requires the Secretary of Energy to provide financial and technical assistance to states and tribes that will be affected by shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) to a national repository or other NWPA-mandated facility. Although Section 180(c) assistance may be an important source of revenue for some states, two major limitations will reduce its effectiveness in preparing state and local personnel along shipping routes for their oversight and emergency response roles in connection with shipments to a national repository. First, Section 180(c) applies only to shipments to facilities mandated by the NWPA, therefore unless Congress amends the NWPA, the Secretary has no obligation to provide assistance to states and tribes that are affected by shipments to private facilities or to other federal storage locations. Second, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has interpreted Section 180(c) assistance as solely intended 'for training', not for actually carrying out activities such as inspecting or escorting shipments. No mechanism or mandate currently exists for DOE to provide states with assistance in connection with operations - related activities. This paper looks at state shipment fees as a supplement to or a substitute for the federal financial assistance that is available through Section 180(c) specifically with regard to states. Using DOE' s data on projected shipment numbers, representative routes, and affected population, and following the department's proposed formula for allocating Section 180(c) assistance, the author examined the potential revenues states could reap through a standard fee as opposed to the NWPA-mandated assistance . The analysis shows that, while more states would likely derive greater benefit from Section 180(c) grants than they would from fees, the states with the highest projected shipment numbers would appear to gain by foregoing Section

  1. Economic security of the Russian Federation: current status, level and threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Grigoryeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of national and economic security maintenanceis aggravating in modern conditions of globalization and international competition related to controlof market channels, technological, information and natural resources.Today Russia is making all efforts to protect its position on the world stage and improve the lives of its citizens.Despite the worsening of the present economic, political and social differences in the world, the Russian Federation has its own national interests, which can be possible to fulfill only on the basis of sustainable development of the national economic security system.The latter traditionally determines the ability of the state economic system to maintain normal conditions for the national economy functioning and the population activity. The national economic securitystabilitycan be estimated only by the application of elaborate tools of the economic development indicators analysis and the threshold values examinationaimed at the determination of the quality characteristic of actual and the most successful model of the economic activity.The analysis of the current Russian economic situation showed the presence of some serious problems existing in the national economy. The economic security level of Russia, having a tendency to increase in the period of 1998-2013, has been sharply reduced to critical points since 2014. So, it is necessary to take some measures to restructure the system of economic security of the state. Based on the research it was identified the list of the most dangerous threats to the modern Russian economy, which includes: low level of the country industrial production; the economy dependence on goods import and raw materials export; low living standards of the population; the rapid growth of the shadow economy and corruption; the lack of civil science and innovationdevelopment. The main strategic directions for economic security levelincrease in Russia today and in the future are aimed at

  2. Projected impacts of federal tax policy proposals on mortality burden in the United States: A microsimulation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    The public health consequences of federal income tax policies that influence income inequality are not well understood. I aimed to project the impacts on mortality of modifying federal income tax structures based on proposals by two recent United States (U.S.) Presidential candidates: Donald Trump and Senator Bernie Sanders. I performed a microsimulation analysis using the latest U.S. Internal Revenue Service public-use tax file with state identifiers (2008 tax year), containing nationally-representative data from 139,651 tax returns. I considered five tax plan scenarios: 1) actual 2008 tax structures; proposals in 2016 by then-candidates 2) Trump and 3) Sanders; 4) a modified Sanders plan with higher top tax rates (75%); and 5) a modified Sanders plan with higher top rates plus revenue redistribution to lower-income households (Trump and Sanders plans, respectively. Under the modified Sanders plan including higher top rates, 68,919 (95% CI: 25,221-113,561) fewer deaths/year are projected. Under the modified Sanders plan with redistribution, 333,504 (95% CI: 192,897-473,787) fewer deaths/year are expected. Policies that both raise federal income tax rates and redistribute tax revenue could confer large reductions in the total number of annual deaths among Americans. In this era of high income inequality and growing public support to address the rich-poor gap, policymakers should consider joint federal tax and redistributive policies as levers to reduce the burden of mortality in the United States. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 76 FR 70037 - Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards Included in the Semiannual Agenda of..., and Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB) Cost Accounting Standards. DATES: The withdrawal is...

  4. The impact of federal policy on teachers' use of science manipulatives: A survey of teacher philosophy and practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgoe, Catherine A.

    Recently, educators in public K-12 schools have added testing of science knowledge to the measures of Adequate Yearly Progress required by the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation. Research of the impact of NCLB policy on general teaching practices had credited the policy with improving instruction; however, negative impacts noted included the concern that teachers "teach to the test," narrowing the curriculum. Testing as an assessment strategy was not advocated by the professional educators and scientists responsible for the National Science Education Standards (NSES). Results from previous studies pointed to a potential conflict between the NCLB reforms and the National Science Education Standards science standards, in which teachers might reduce or eliminate hands-on activities and other constructivist practices in order to focus class time on other topics and tasks. Most research on NCLB policy, however, had not evaluated instructional practices regarding science education. This study examined the relationship among teacher beliefs, specifically the strength of their constructivist versus traditional beliefs, teachers' responses to NCLB policy, and teachers' use of constructivist practices in the form of manipulatives. This study showed that national policy did have an impact on teachers; however, that impact was not specific to the hands-on practices in science education. Teachers who responded to this survey had found many benefits in student learning using manipulatives and those positive impacts on their students justified the increased use of manipulatives in the classroom. The strength of teachers' constructivist beliefs showed a weak positive correlation to choices related to curriculum priorities, learning goals and advantages in using manipulatives. However, a relationship to beliefs was not found in the changes teachers made to various instructional practices, or in how they viewed certain manipulative materials, or in how they viewed

  5. Shared Solar: Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-27

    This presentation provides a high-level overview of the current U.S. shared solar landscape, the impact that a given shared solar program's structure has on requiring federal securities oversight, as well as an estimate of market potential for U.S. shared solar deployment.

  6. 75 FR 10267 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of January 26 and 27, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... the Federal Reserve's balance sheet to expand significantly in coming months. The Committee directs... developments regarding the System's balance sheet that could affect the attainment over time of the Committee's...

  7. 75 FR 2544 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of December 15 and 16, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... will cause the size of the Federal Reserve's balance sheet to expand significantly in coming months... developments regarding the System's balance sheet that could affect the attainment over time of the Committee's...

  8. Addressing Public Stigma and Disparities Among Persons With Mental Illness: The Role of Federal Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, Janet R.; Lucas, Stephen M.; Druss, Benjamin G.

    2013-01-01

    Stigma against mental illness is a complex construct with affective, cognitive, and behavioral components. Beyond its symbolic value, federal law can only directly address one component of stigma: discrimination.

  9. THE CURRENT STATE OF SEED PRODUCTION OF VEGETABLES AND GOURDS IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION; NATIONAL FOOD SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Sirota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current state of seed market of vegetable and gourds in Russian Federation in the frame of national food safety program is given in the article. Russia as a country with well-developed  seed production  in the last century has now  ceded  its  position,  and according  to  last experts’ association estimations the 80%  of  required volume of seeds of vegetables and gourds, amounting from 8 to 12 thousand per year is imported.  Not  less than 15 thousands  of  hectares  are  needed  to  be  necessary  for demand  of  Russian seed  production  sector,  however, presently only 2 thousands of hectares is a total certified land used for seed production.  Moreover, the seed production sector of some countries that export seeds rises becoming a profitable branch of agriculture, and providing local employment. The lack of competitiveness in Russia causes that many foreign companies increase annually purchasing prices for seeds and their production services. Therefore, now the total volume of seeds imported  in  Russian Federation has nearly been  twice less for the last years than in 2012, but in currency earnings in exporting countries the insignificant changes can be seen, where deviation is only 19-25%  from  average annual value, that means 1675 thousand dollars per year. Besides, for the Russian budget in the ruble currency the total cost of imported seeds has become 2.5 times more expensive since 2012, but the increase of combined cost of  marketable  vegetables  has been  over  2.7  billion  of rubles.  The  main  idea  that  the  seed  production  is  a process requiring the participation of breeders, seed producers and seed companies is main factor to succeed in recovering seed production sector. Exception of any participant or ignoring his interests may destroy all process. For instance, there is a chronic problem of plagiarism and royalty nonpayment causes the break between the business and

  10. Taxation, revenue allocation and fiscal federalism in Nigeria: Issues, challenges and policy options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salami Adeleke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxation is one of the most important and easy sources of revenue to any government, as the government possesses inherent power to impose taxes and levies. Nigeria tax system has been weak due largely to inadequate data of the tax base and heavy reliance on oil revenue. With the volatility in oil prices and excruciating impacts of the recent global financial crisis, taxation deserves more attention now than ever before in Nigeria. One issue that is critical to domestic resource mobilization and utilization is the issue of fiscal federalism. Nigeria operates three tiers of government; Federal, State and Local Governments with separate revenue, expenditure, and assigned responsibilities each. However, all decisions including resources are controlled from the centre and the vertical revenue allocations tilt more towards the direction of federal government, contrary to the tenets of federalism the country is practicing. Both vertical and horizontal revenue in Nigeria is engulfed in controversy. The paper presents key issues, trend and challenges of taxation and fiscal federalism in Nigeria. In addition, the paper highlights a number of suggestions that would stimulate increase in tax revenue and guarantee fiscal assignment acceptable to the federal and sub-national government.

  11. Evolving the policy framework: Budget strategies, legislative authorities, and management strategies to facilitate federal forest adaptation and collaborative partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Topik; Paige Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Some of the greatest challenges to the management of federal forests in the Unites States result from inadequate public and private investment in proactive forest restoration projects. This situation has been exacerbated by the growing fiscal and logistical demands of wildfire suppression activities, which currently consume at least 40 percent of the U.S. Forest...

  12. 76 FR 60357 - Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... derived from 41 U.S.C. 1501. Cost Accounting Standards are rules governing the measurement, assignment... Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards Included in the Semiannual Agenda of..., and Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB) Cost Accounting Standards. OMB Circulars and OFPP Policy...

  13. Current status of radon and radium monitoring at the Federal University of Technology (UTFPR), PR, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Schelin, Hugo R.; Denyak, Valeriy; Barbosa, Laercio; Perna, Allan F.N.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous and systematic studies performed in different countries for many decades resulted in the explicit conclusion that radon exposure, as well as its progeny, is the main cause of lung cancer among non-smokers. All three natural radon isotopes ( 222 Rn, 220 Rn and 219 Rn) are produced in the three principal natural radioactive decay chains. Specifically, the 222 Rn is produced by the decay series of 238 U and proceeded from α-decay of 226 Ra. Current work describes the present status and obtained results concerning indoor radon survey in dwellings, radon in water supply and soil gas tests performed by the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology (UTFPR) within Curitiba urban area. For radon in air activity measurements, it was used polycarbonate etched track detectors such as LEXAN (GE) and CR-39, mounted in diffusion chambers. For soil gas measurements, the experimental setup was based on the Professional Radon Monitor (AlphaGUARD, Genitron/SAPHYMO) connected to the air pump with filter vessels and to specially developed in our Laboratory the Soil Gas Probe. In the case of radon tests in drinking water, the experimental setup was based on the AlphaGUARD Radon monitor and Electronic radon detector RAD7 (Durridge Company, Inc.) connected to special kit of glass vessels through the air pump. Obtained results permitted to identify few dwellings where radon concentration in air was found bigger than 600 Bq/m 3 which is considered as the action level by most of the European Community and the World Health Organization (WHO). In the case of studied artesian wells, collected samples of water presented the average 222 Rn activity about 60 Bq/L which is 6 times bigger than maximum level recommended by USEPA. Some artesian wells presented the radon activity of almost 200 Bq/L. More over, it was identified the radioactivity of radium ( 226 Ra) salts which are soluble in water and almost all water samples presented results bigger than

  14. Vietnam's energy sector: A review of current energy policies and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tien Minh Do; Sharma, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of market-oriented economy in 1986, Vietnam has made noticeable socio-economic progress. In this progress, the energy sector has played a vital role. This role is likely to deepen in the years to come as Vietnam strives to achieve even higher levels in economic progress. Such deepening in the role of energy, this paper argues, will heighten concerns about the security of energy supply, and economic, environmental, social and political consequences. In order to address these issues, Vietnam has over the last decade, developed a suite of energy policies. A deeper review of these policies suggests that they are typified by economic-growth orientation, exclusive focus on a single-sector or single issue, and largely neglect the significance of cross-sectoral and cross-thematic issues arising from the interdependencies between energy, economy, and the polity at large. The existing energy policy settings are, therefore, unlikely to be able to provide a satisfactory redress to the challenges noted above. This paper provides an overview of the current energy policies with a view to identify areas where further policy effort is needed in order to facilitate a sustainable development of the Vietnamese energy sector. - Highlights: → Identifying challenges faced by the Vietnamese energy sector. → Analyzing limitations of the existing energy policy settings (policies, strategies and institutions) in addressing these challenges. → Developing recommendations on improving the existing energy policy settings to provide a satisfactory redress for the challenges noted above.

  15. Vietnam's energy sector: A review of current energy policies and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien Minh Do, E-mail: tmdo@eng.uts.edu.au [Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST), 1 Dai Co Viet Street, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Sharma, Deepak [University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), Broadway, Ultimo, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    Since the introduction of market-oriented economy in 1986, Vietnam has made noticeable socio-economic progress. In this progress, the energy sector has played a vital role. This role is likely to deepen in the years to come as Vietnam strives to achieve even higher levels in economic progress. Such deepening in the role of energy, this paper argues, will heighten concerns about the security of energy supply, and economic, environmental, social and political consequences. In order to address these issues, Vietnam has over the last decade, developed a suite of energy policies. A deeper review of these policies suggests that they are typified by economic-growth orientation, exclusive focus on a single-sector or single issue, and largely neglect the significance of cross-sectoral and cross-thematic issues arising from the interdependencies between energy, economy, and the polity at large. The existing energy policy settings are, therefore, unlikely to be able to provide a satisfactory redress to the challenges noted above. This paper provides an overview of the current energy policies with a view to identify areas where further policy effort is needed in order to facilitate a sustainable development of the Vietnamese energy sector. - Highlights: > Identifying challenges faced by the Vietnamese energy sector. > Analyzing limitations of the existing energy policy settings (policies, strategies and institutions) in addressing these challenges. > Developing recommendations on improving the existing energy policy settings to provide a satisfactory redress for the challenges noted above.

  16. Privacy Protection: Mandating New Arrangements to Implement and Assess Federal Privacy Policy and Practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Relyea, Harold C

    2004-01-01

    When Congress enacted the Privacy Act of 1974, it established a temporary national study commission to conduct a comprehensive assessment of privacy policy and practice in both the public and private...

  17. Communication received from the Russian Federation Concerning Its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Director General has received a letter dated 9 March 2007 from the Permanent Mission of the Russian Federation to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Russian Federation, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2006 [es

  18. Constitutional Principles and E-Government: An Opinion about Possible Effects of Federalism and the Separation of Powers on E-Government Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Paul T.

    2002-01-01

    Examines how Constitutional principles, specifically the doctrines of Federalism and the separation of powers, relate to e-government policies and practices. Suggests that the move toward e-government, with emphasis on the simplification of access to government information and services, must be considered with regard to Federalism and separation…

  19. How federal government and university policies need to change to achieve more and better research and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieman, Carl

    2011-04-01

    The Obama administration has repeatedly emphasized that the economic future of the country will depend heavily on the future success of both its scientific research and its science education. Research universities play a vital role in both of these activities. Unfortunately, universities are facing increasing difficulties in maintaining and enhancing the quality of their research and educational activities. There are some particularly notable unmet opportunities for improving science education. I will offer some ideas for how federal and university policies on research funding and education might be modified in tandem to enhance both research and educational outputs.

  20. Development and release of phenological data products—A case study in compliance with federal open data policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Langseth, Madison L.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2018-01-31

    In Autumn 2015, USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) staff implemented new U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) data-management policies intended to ensure that the results of Federally funded research are made available to the public. The effort aimed both to improve USA-NPN data releases and to provide a model for similar programs within the USGS. This report provides an overview of the steps taken to ensure compliance, following the USGS Science Data Lifecycle, and provides lessons learned about the data-release process for USGS program leaders and data managers.

  1. An Analysis of Alternatives to New York City's Current Marijuana Arrest and Detention Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bruce D; Golub, Andrew; Dunlap, Eloise; Sifaneck, Stephen J

    2008-01-01

    During the 1990s, the New York Police Department (NYPD) instituted a policy of arresting and detaining people for minor offenses that occur in public as part of their quality-of-life (hereafter QOL) policing initiative. The number of NYPD arrests for smoking marijuana in public view (MPV) increased from 3,000 in 1994 to over 50,000 in 2000, and have been about 30,000 in the mid 2000s. Most of these arrestees (84%) have been minority; blacks have been 2.7 more likely and Hispanics 1.8 times more likely to be detained than whites for an MPV arrest. Minorities have been most likely to receive more severe dispositions, even controlling for demographics and prior arrest histories.This paper examines the pros and cons of the current policy; this is compared with possible alternatives including the following: arrest and issue a desk appearance ticket (DAT); issue a non-criminal citation (violation); street warnings; and tolerate public marijuana smoking. The authors recommend that the NYPD change to issuing DATs on a routine basis. Drug policy reformers might wish to further pursue changing statutes regarding smoking marijuana in public view into a violation (noncriminal) or encourage the wider use of street warnings. Any of these policy changes would help reduce the disproportionate burden on minorities associated with the current arrest and detention policy. These policies could help maintain civic norms against smoking marijuana in public.

  2. A systems approach to improving fleet policy compliance within the US Federal Government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deason, Kristin S. [The George Washington University, 1776 G St. NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Jefferson, Theresa [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1101 King St, Suite 610 Alexandria, VA 22314 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    To reduce dependence on foreign sources of energy, address climate change, and improve environmental quality, the US government has established a goal of reducing petroleum fuel use in its federal agencies. To this end, the government requires its agencies to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, use alternative fuel, and adopt other strategies to reduce petroleum consumption. Compliance with these requirements, while important, creates challenges for federal fleet managers who oversee large, geographically dispersed fleets. In this study, a group of 25 experienced federal fleet managers participated in a pilot study using a structured methodology for developing strategies to comply with fleet requirements while using agency resources as efficiently as possible. Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods were used to identify and quantify agency priorities in combination with a linear programming model to optimize the purchase of fleet vehicles. The method was successful in quantifying tradeoffs and decreasing the amount of time required to develop fleet management strategies. As such, it is recommended to federal agencies as a standard tool for the development of these strategies in the future. (author)

  3. "Execucrats," Politics, and Public Policy: What Are the Ingredients for Successful Performance in the Federal Government?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccucci, Norma M.

    1995-01-01

    Case studies of six high-level federal government administrators examined their political skills, management/leadership abilities, technical expertise, and personality. Among the ingredients of effective performance were good planning, organizational communication, goal orientation, good interpersonal skills, honesty, and high ethical standards.…

  4. A systems approach to improving fleet policy compliance within the US Federal Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deason, Kristin S.; Jefferson, Theresa

    2010-01-01

    To reduce dependence on foreign sources of energy, address climate change, and improve environmental quality, the US government has established a goal of reducing petroleum fuel use in its federal agencies. To this end, the government requires its agencies to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, use alternative fuel, and adopt other strategies to reduce petroleum consumption. Compliance with these requirements, while important, creates challenges for federal fleet managers who oversee large, geographically dispersed fleets. In this study, a group of 25 experienced federal fleet managers participated in a pilot study using a structured methodology for developing strategies to comply with fleet requirements while using agency resources as efficiently as possible. Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods were used to identify and quantify agency priorities in combination with a linear programming model to optimize the purchase of fleet vehicles. The method was successful in quantifying tradeoffs and decreasing the amount of time required to develop fleet management strategies. As such, it is recommended to federal agencies as a standard tool for the development of these strategies in the future. (author)

  5. 75 FR 60264 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Encouraging Contractor Policies To Ban Text Messaging While Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... other outreach to employees about the safety risks associated with texting while driving. (d... Driving AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services Administration (GSA), and National... 13513, issued on October 1, 2009, entitled ``Federal Leadership on Reducing Text Messaging while Driving...

  6. 76 FR 71926 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Applicability of Hexavalent Chromium Policy to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... 0750-AH39 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Applicability of Hexavalent Chromium... the use of materials containing hexavalent chromium. DATES: Comment Date: Comments on the proposed... human health and environmental risks related to the use of hexavalent chromium. Hexavalent chromium is a...

  7. Competing definitions: a public policy analysis of the federal recreational fee demonstration program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. E. More

    2003-01-01

    Problem definition theory specifies that however controls the definition of a problem is in a unique position to control debate over the issue, influence others, and determine the problem's place on the agenda. This paper uses a rhetorical analysis and a questionnaire survey of congressional aides to examine the federal Recreational Fee Demonstration Program....

  8. Governance and the Gulf of Mexico Coast: How Are Current Policies Contributing to Sustainability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Jordan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The quality of life and economies of coastal communities depend, to a great degree, on the ecological integrity of coastal ecosystems. Paradoxically, as more people are drawn to the coasts, these ecosystems and the services they provide are increasingly stressed by development and human use. Employing the coastal Gulf of Mexico as an example, we explore through three case studies how government policies contribute to preventing, mitigating, or exacerbating the degradation of coastal ecosystems. We consider the effectiveness of the current systems, what alternate or additional policy solutions might be needed to ensure the sustainability of the region and its quality of life, and what this example can tell us about the sustainability of coastal systems globally. In our examples, among other aspects, policies that are proactive and networked governance structures are observed to favor sustainable outcomes, in contrast to reactive policies and hierarchical models of governance.

  9. Local food policies can help promote local foods and improve health: a case study from the Federated States of Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englberger, Lois; Lorens, Adelino; Pretrick, Moses; Tara, Mona J; Johnson, Emihner

    2011-11-01

    The Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) and other countries throughout the Pacific are facing an epidemic of non-communicable disease health problems. These are directly related to the increased consumption of unhealthy imported processed foods, the neglect of traditional food systems, and lifestyle changes, including decreased physical activity. The FSM faces the double burden of malnutrition with both non-communicable diseases and micronutrient deficiencies, including vitamin A deficiency and anemia. To help increase the use of traditional island foods and improve health, the Island Food Community of Pohnpei has initiated a program in the FSM to support and promote local food policies, along with its Go Local awareness campaign. Such local food policies are defined broadly and include individual and family commitments, community group local food policies and policies established by government, including presidential proclamations and increased taxation on soft drinks. The aim of this paper is to describe this work. An inter-agency, community- and research-based, participatory and media approach was used. Partners are both non-governmental and governmental. The use of continuing awareness work along with local food policy establishment and the acknowledgement of the individuals and groups involved are essential. The work is still in the preliminary stage but ad hoc examples show that this approach has had success in increased awareness on health issues and improving dietary intake on both an individual and group basis. This indicates that further use of local food policies could have an instrumental impact in FSM as well as other Pacific Island countries in promoting local foods and improving dietary intake and health, including the control of non-communicable diseases and other dietary-related health problems.

  10. Policy responses to problematic video game use: A systematic review of current measures and future possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király, Orsolya; Griffiths, Mark D; King, Daniel L; Lee, Hae-Kook; Lee, Seung-Yup; Bányai, Fanni; Zsila, Ágnes; Takacs, Zsofia K; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2017-09-01

    Background and aims Empirical research into problematic video game playing suggests that overuse might cause functional and psychological impairments for a minority of gamers. Therefore, the need for regulation in the case of video games (whether governmental or self-imposed) has arisen but has only been implemented in a few countries around the world, and predominantly in Asia. This paper provides a systematic review of current and potential policies addressing problematic gaming. Methods After conducting a systematic search in the areas of prevention, treatment, and policy measures relating to problematic Internet and video game use, papers were selected that targeted problematic gaming policies (N = 12; six in English and six in Korean). These papers served as the basis of this review. Results Policies were classified into three major groups: (i) policy measures limiting availability of video games (e.g., shutdown policy, fatigue system, and parental controls), (ii) measures aiming to reduce risk and harm (e.g., warning messages), and (iii) measures taken to provide help services for gamers. Beyond the attempt to classify the current and potential policy measures, the authors also tried to evaluate their efficiency theoretically and (if data were available) empirically. Discussion and conclusions Overall, it appears that although several steps have been taken to address problematic video game playing, most of these steps were not as effective as expected, or had not been evaluated empirically for efficacy. The reason for this may lie in the fact that the policies outlined only addressed or influenced specific aspects of the problem instead of using a more integrative approach.

  11. Perspectives on the Structure of American Agriculture. Volume II: Federal Farm Policies--Their Effects on Low-Income Farmers and Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Kenneth M., Ed.

    Agriculture and farming are the economic context for rural education. This is the second of two volumes of papers describing the impact of national agricultural policy on the poor. The nine articles in this volume (shot-titled below) analyze federal policy from the standpoint of the low-income farmer: (1) "Agricultural Price Supports,"…

  12. "Current Good Manufacturing Practices" and the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Beth F.

    1995-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (hereinafter, FDA) regulates food, drugs, and cosmetics in order to ensure that these products are safe and truthfully labelled. As part of its responsibilities under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (hereinafter, Act), the FDA monitors the manufacturing practices of companies involved in the production of food, drugs, and medical devices. The manufacturing practices used by these companies must comply with certain standards, identified in the Act as "...

  13. Current Trends in Malaysian Higher Education and the Effect on Education Policy and Practice: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapragasem, Selvaraj; Krishnan, Anbalagan; Mansor, Azlin Norhaini

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia has evolved from a production-based to knowledge-based economy in order to stay relevant and compete in the global marketplace. Thus, the purpose of this article is to discuss current trends in Malaysian higher education and how these affect education policies and practices. Four main trends are discussed in this study: Globalization,…

  14. Considering departures from current timber harvesting policies: case studies of four communities in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Con H Schallau; Paul E. Polzin

    1983-01-01

    U.S. Department of Agriculture regulations permit departures from current National Forest timber harvesting policies when "implementation of base harvest schedules.., would cause a substantial adverse impact upon a community .... " This paper describes the kinds of information needed for forest managers to adequately assess the relevance of the departure...

  15. Soft regulations in pharmaceutical policy making : an overview of current approaches and their consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wettermark, B.; Godman, B.; Jacobsson, B.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F.M.

    2009-01-01

    It is a challenge to improve public health within limited resources. Pharmaceutical policy making is a greater challenge due to conflicting interests between key stakeholder groups. This paper reviews current and future strategies to help improve the quality and efficiency of care, with special

  16. Place of Diversity in the Current Ethiopian Education and Training Policy: Analysis of Cardinal Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sime, Tariku; Latchanna, Gara

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate to what extent the diversity dimensions are addressed in the current Education and Training Policy. To that end, document analysis was employed. The major diversity dimensions were analyzed based on their cardinal features. The study demonstrated that there is an ambitious need to address issues of…

  17. Reproductive health policy affecting low-income women: historical precedents and current need for social work action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averitt Taylor, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the historical arguments surrounding reproductive health policy and current policy initiatives. Because reproductive policy itself is a vast subject matter with sometimes blurry boundaries, the struggle concerning the advent of birth control is used to illustrate the historic complexities of policy affecting such a wide array of individuals. The battle over introduction of the birth control pill is pertinent because the very same arguments are used today in debates over reproductive health policy.

  18. Energy report of the Federal German Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In its governmental declaration of May 4th, 1983, the Federal German Government has pointed out how it will safeguard the continuous, economical, and non-polluting supply of energy to the Federal Republic of Germany. By that report the Federal Government strikes a balance of its policy and defines its position with regard to topical questions, especially the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The report comprises four chapters: 1. peaceful use of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany, 2. Summary statement on energy policy, 3. Current situation in the energy market and long-term perspectives, 4. Points of main emphasis of future energy policy. (orig./UA) [de

  19. Federal STEM Policy and Politics and Their Impact on Astronomy EPO: Reflections and Provocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, G.; Storksdieck, M.; Canright, S.

    2015-11-01

    The federal government invests more than $3 billion each year across its various units in supporting STEM education and outreach. Efforts in recent years to understand and better coordinate these investments have resulted in considerable pushback, particularly those efforts that aimed at consolidation and elimination of programs deemed ineffective or duplicative. While initial plans to streamline federal STEM education were defeated, many agencies nonetheless saw cuts and elimination, and a high-level effort to coordinate STEM education at the cross-agency level is now gaining steam (CoSTEM: Committee on Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education). What do all of these developments mean for education and public outreach in astronomy and related fields? How should this community operate within the opportunities and threats that CoSTEM might pose? Former director of the National Academy of Science's Board on Science Education, and now director of the Center for Research on Lifelong STEM Learning, Martin Storksdieck, reflected on past and recent developments from the perspective of a close observer, and from the perspective of someone who has been involved in astronomy education research and evaluation for nearly 20 years. Shelley Canright, Senior Advisor for Education Integration at the NASA Office of Education, shared her insights and perspectives with respect to CoSTEM and EPO, in particular from co-chairing the Federal Coordination in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education (FC-STEM) group.

  20. Music in U.S. Federal Education Policy: Estimating the Effect of "Core Status" for Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elpus, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the political and empirical record within music education surrounding the Goals 2000: Educate America Act and reports a new study evaluating the effects of the law on music and arts education policies in U.S. high schools. School-level data (N = 670 schools) from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 and the…

  1. 78 FR 77664 - Defense Policy Board (DPB); Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ...: (a) Issues central to strategic DoD planning; (b) policy implications of U.S. force structure and force modernization and on DoD's ability to execute U.S. defense strategy; (c) U.S. regional defense... public or interested organizations may submit written statements to the membership of the DPB at any time...

  2. 42 CFR 52b.14 - Other federal laws, regulations, executive orders, and policies that apply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories. 36 CFR part 1190—Minimum guidelines and requirements for... Department of Health and Human Services—effectuation of title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. 45 CFR part.... (1) Design Policy and Guidelines (1996). Division of Engineering Services, National Institutes of...

  3. Collection Development Policy: Federal Government Publications at Eastern Washington University Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselle, Ann; Chan, Karen

    This collection development policy serves as a guide for the selection and retention of depository government documents by the Government Publications Unit of the Kennedy Memorial Library of Eastern Washington University (EWU) in Cheney, Washington. The library selects approximately 65 percent of the depository items distributed by the U.S.…

  4. Substate federalism and fracking policies: does state regulatory authority trump local land use autonomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Charles

    2014-01-01

    State officials responsible for the regulation of hydraulic fracturing (fracking) operations used in the production of oil and gas resources will inevitably confront a key policy issue; that is, to what extent can statewide regulations be developed without reducing land use autonomy typically exercised by local officials? Most state regulators have historically recognized the economic importance of industry jobs and favor the adoption of uniform regulatory requirements even if these rules preempt local policymaking authority. Conversely, many local officials seek to preserve land use autonomy to provide a greater measure of protection for public health and environmental quality goals. This paper examines how public officials in three states-Colorado, Pennsylvania, and Texas-address the question of state control versus local autonomy through their efforts to shape fracking policy decisions. While local officials within Texas have succeeded in developing fracking ordinances with relatively little interference from state regulators, Colorado and Pennsylvania have adopted a tougher policy stance favoring the retention of preemptive oil and gas statutes. Key factors that account for between state differences in fracking policy decisions include the strength of home rule provisions, gubernatorial involvement, and the degree of local experience with industrial economic activities.

  5. Language Policy in Canada: Current Issues. A Selection of the Proceedings of the Papers Dealing with Language Policy Issues in Canada at the Conference "Language Policy and Social Problems" (Curacao, Venezuela, December, 1983). Publication B-150.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobarrubias, Juan, Ed.

    The papers related to Canadian language policy at an international conference are presented: "Language Policy in Canada: Current Issues" (Juan Cobarrubias); "Multiculturalism and Language Policy in Canada" (Jim Cummins, Harold Troper); "Defining Language Policy in a Nationalistic Milieu and in a Complex Industrialized…

  6. The territorial approach to EU cohesion policy: Current issues and evidence from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoidou Elisavet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance attributed to the territorial dimension of the European Union cohesion policy steadily influences its successive reforms and adaptations, while in recent years there has been an evolution in the way this particular dimension of cohesion policy is perceived. Important evidence for this is the way in which the Community Strategic Guidelines on cohesion 2007-13 take account of the territorial dimension of cohesion policy. This paper discusses the territorial approach to cohesion policy in relation to both policy and practice. Specifically, it examines the territorial dimension of regional development planning in Greece as it has emerged in the relevant official documents, namely the successive three Community Support Frameworks since 1989 and the National Strategic Reference Framework for the current 2007-13 period. The territorial dimension of the organization of the planning system is also considered in an effort to understand limitations and prospects, in light of the importance of the territorial approach to cohesion policy post-2013.

  7. Current status of alcohol marketing policy--an urgent challenge for global governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casswell, Sally

    2012-03-01

    To review research literature and available information on the extent and impacts of marketing, current policy response and the interests engaged in the policy debate in order to inform recommendations for policy change on alcohol marketing. Relevant literature, including systematic reviews and publicly available information (websites and participant observation) is reviewed and synthesized. Alcohol marketing has expanded markedly in the past 50 years and, while there remains uncertainty about the impact across the population, there is now clear evidence of its impact on the consumption of young people. Few countries have effective policy in place restricting alcohol marketing, and there is a lack of an international response to alcohol marketing which crosses national boundaries. The protection of alcohol marketing has been a major focus for vested interest groups and this has affected governmental response at national and international levels. There has been a lack of non-governmental organization engagement. The policy response to tobacco marketing provides a clear contrast to that of alcohol marketing policy and provides a model for alcohol marketing policy. The global exposure of young people to alcohol marketing requires an urgent policy response. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provides an appropriate model for global governance to control alcohol marketing. There are extant examples of national level legislation achieving comprehensive bans with France's Loi Evin providing a feasible model. Resources from philanthropic organizations to allow non-governmental organization engagement are urgently required, as is engagement by the governmental sector independent of commercial influence. © 2012 The Author, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. Global forces and local currents in Argentina's science policy crossroads: restricted access or open knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Javier Etchichury

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the tensions between two competing approaches to scientific policy in Argentina. The traditional vision favors autonomous research. The neoliberal conception fosters the link between science and markets. In the past few years, a neodevelopmentalist current also tries to stress relevance of scientific research. Finally, the article describes how the Open Access movement has entered the debate. The World Bank intervention and the human rights dimension of the question are discussed in depth. The article introduces the notion of open knowledge as a guiding criterion to design a human-rights based scientific policy.

  9. Health policies and federative gaps in Brazil: an analysis of regional capacity of services delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, José Mendes; Moreira, Marcelo Rasga; Ouverney, Assis Mafort; Silva, Cosme Marcelo Furtado Passos da

    2017-04-01

    This paper analyzes Brazilian health regions according to their service delivery capacity from the debate on the crisis of cooperative federalism in the SUS that resulted from decentralizing process established in the 1988 Constitution. Service delivery capacity tracer indicators were selected by regions and statistical analyses evidenced greater regional capacity in hospital care and large asymmetries with regard to the availability of physicians, high complexity equipment and private insurance coverage. In conclusion,we argue that further solutions are required to strengthen governmental capacity to reduce regional inequalities throughincreased central coordination.

  10. Communication received from the Russian Federation Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a letter dated 15 July 2010 from the Permanent Mission of the Russian Federation to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2009 [es

  11. Communication Received from the Russian Federation Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 26 October 2012 from the Permanent Mission of the Russian Federation to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2011 [es

  12. Communication received from the Russian Federation Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a letter dated 18 October 2011 from the Permanent Mission of the Russian Federation to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2010 [es

  13. Communication received from the Russian Federation Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a letter dated 18 October 2011 from the Permanent Mission of the Russian Federation to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2010

  14. Communication received from the Russian Federation Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a letter dated 15 July 2010 from the Permanent Mission of the Russian Federation to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2009

  15. Underground disposal of hazardous waste in the Federal Republic of Germany - principles and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewitz, W.; Brasser, T.

    1991-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany the final disposal of radioactive waste and the permanent enclosure of defined types of toxic wastes in deep geological formations are being pursued with a view towards preventing hazardous material from reaching the biosphere. A detailed site- and waste-specific safety analysis will be required to substantiate the effiency of underground repositories. In this respect the longterm behaviour of wastes and possible interactions need to be evaluated, taking into consideration the geochemical-hydrogeological conditions such as groundwater movement and solution potentials. (au)

  16. Communication Received from the Russian Federation Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 26 October 2012 from the Permanent Mission of the Russian Federation to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2011

  17. Communication Received from the Russian Federation Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 26 October 2012 from the Permanent Mission of the Russian Federation to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2011 [fr

  18. The energy policies of the Federal government from 1958 until 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, M.

    1977-01-01

    After introductory problem formulations and definitions, the following subjects are dealt with in the contribution at hand: 1) Development of the energy economy structure under the influence of foreign oil combines; 2) the importance of the development of the energy consumption in the FRG for the competitiveness of the FRG's industry and subsequent problems concerning safety policies and ecology; 3) character and scope of governmental interventions in the energy economy of the FRG. (RW) [de

  19. To the Question of Personnel Policy in Divisions of Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga L. Chechko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Present article is devoted to the actual questions of human rights management at the Prosecutor's Office of Russian Federation. Main content of this research is analysis of the human resource management characteristics at the present stage. Author pays special attention to research issues of relevant training courses for prosecutors. Author substantiates the view that skilled personnel are the basis of the successful functioning of prosecutorial unit. Requirement for candidates for job in the prosecutor’s office is to have high moral standards, namely, honesty, objectivity, self-critical and demanding of themselves and others, integrity and responsible attitude toward human rights and freedoms, legal culture as the highest social values, poise, tact, humility and moral purity, realities of profession require careful attention to the person’s ability to resist any form of pressure on them. Author examines key requirements for individuals to serve in the prosecution. Author's opinion, based on the experience of working in the as prosecutor’s office may be of interest to human resources specialists and applicants for the position of the Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation.

  20. Environmental cost-effectiveness of bio diesel production in Greece: Current policies and alternative scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliopoulos, Constantine; Rozakis, Stelios

    2010-01-01

    Following European Directive 2003/30/EC, the Greek Government adapted legislation that introduces and regulates the bio diesel market. The implemented quota scheme allocates the country's annual, predetermined, tax exempt production of bio diesel to industries based on their ability to meet several criteria. A number of bio diesel supply chain stakeholders have criticized this policy for being efficiency-robbing and vague. This paper uses 2007 data from energy crop farms and three bio diesel-producing companies in order to assess these criticisms. We study the economic and environmental aspects of the currently adopted policy and compare them to three alternative scenarios. We conclude that such criticisms have a merit and that policy makers need to reconsider their alternative options regarding the promotion of bio diesel in transport. Permission of sales directly to local consumers and promotion of forward integration by farmers are efficiency enhancing and environment-friendly means of promoting the use of bio diesel in transport.

  1. Results of operation and current safety performance of nuclear facilities located in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, V. M.; Khvostova, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    After the NPP radiation accidents in Russia and Japan, a safety statu of Russian nuclear power plants causes concern. A repeated life time extension of power unit reactor plants, designed at the dawn of the nuclear power engineering in the Soviet Union, power augmentation of the plants to 104-109%, operation of power units in a daily power mode in the range of 100-70-100%, the use of untypical for NPP remixed nuclear fuel without a careful study of the results of its application (at least after two operating periods of the research nuclear installations), the aging of operating personnel, and many other management actions of the State Corporation "Rosatom", should attract the attention of the Federal Service for Ecological, Technical and Atomic Supervision (RosTekhNadzor), but this doesn't happen. The paper considers safety issues of nuclear power plants operating in the Russian Federation. The authors collected statistical information on violations in NPP operation over the past 25 years, which shows that even after repeated relaxation over this period of time of safety regulation requirements in nuclear industry and highly expensive NPP modernization, the latter have not become more safe, and the statistics confirms this. At a lower utilization factor high-power pressure-tube reactors RBMK-1000, compared to light water reactors VVER-440 and 1000, have a greater number of violations and that after annual overhauls. A number of direct and root causes of NPP mulfunctions is still high and remains stable for decades. The paper reveals bottlenecks in ensuring nuclear and radiation safety of nuclear facilities. Main outstanding issues on the storage of spent nuclear fuel are defined. Information on emissions and discharges of radioactive substances, as well as fullness of storages of solid and liquid radioactive waste, located at the NPP sites are presented. Russian NPPs stress test results are submitted, as well as data on the coming removal from operation of NPP

  2. Iran`s petroleum policy: Current trends and the future outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezeshki, S.; Fesharaki, F.

    1994-12-01

    The Iranian economy and political situation have undergone radical changes since the 1979 Islamic revolution. The excesses of the early years of the revolution have gradually given way to moderation and a more pragmatic economic policy--based on the principles of the free market. The petroleum policy, as a subset of the economic policies, has been somewhat affected by the political and economic developments in Iran. The petroleum policy has changed from a position of no foreign participation to a position that includes a desire for foreign participation, the text of a model contract, and an attempt to introduce new technologies in the upstream sector. This report provides an overview of the key issues facing the Iranian oil industry and the economic context in which the oil industry is operating in Iran. It describes the evolution of policies meant to move the oil industry toward the free market; it discusses Iran`s oil trading partners, the outlook for refining and project investments, and current and likely future developments in the natural gas and petrochemical sectors. In short, the report provides an up-to-date assessment of the Iranian petroleum sector and its likely evolution in the future.

  3. Assessment of current Dutch energy transition policy instruments for the existing housing stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tambach, Milly; Hasselaar, Evert; Itard, Laure

    2010-01-01

    This research assesses to what extent current Dutch energy transition policy instruments for the existing housing stock can fulfil local executive actors' needs and instigate adoption of energy efficiency measures by them. This is done by studying energy policy instruments for the existing housing stock in the Netherlands and in other European countries, and by an empirical research, which analyses barriers and needs of local executive actors. We found that, despite current Dutch energy transition policy instruments for the existing housing stock seem to fulfil local executive actors' needs to a large extent, complementary policy instruments are needed to stimulate and pressure the incumbent renovation regime. A long-term oriented financial rewarding system is needed to build up a structural market for the deployment of renewables, to increase the number of specialist jobs in the building sector, and to stimulate the development of integrated, standardized, building components. Furthermore, a long-term oriented financial rewarding system for energy efficiency investments in housing renovation projects, and a low VAT rate applied to energy efficient renovation measures, are needed. Finally, enforcement possibilities and sanctions (fines) should become an integrative part of Dutch energy certification regulation to make the certificate become part of a value chain.

  4. Small Business and Defense Acquisitions: A Review of Policies and Current Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Office of Management and Budget xviii Small Business and Defense Acquisitions: A Review of Policies and Current Practices PSC Product and Service Code...themselves as minority-owned, women-owned, veteran- owned, or small disadvantaged businesses . The resulting database gives sourcing managers a tool for...REPORT DATE 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Small Business and Defense Acquisitions: A

  5. Information Technology in New Zealand: Review of Emerging Social Trends, Current Issues, and Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Erturk, Emre; Fail, Derwyn

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the general state of information technology in New Zealand society, current issues, and policies. It is a qualitative study that reviews recent scholarly articles, periodicals, and surveys in order to create an understanding of some of the information technology issues and trends in New Zealand. After reviewing previous research, it assesses the potential existence and nature of a 'digital divide' in New Zealand society whilst also evaluating possible strategic responses ...

  6. History and current activities of the International Diabetes Federation-Western Pacific Region (IDF-WPR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, S

    1994-10-01

    International Diabetes Federation (IDF) is one of the biggest non-governmental organizations with its 44-year history since 1950. In 1993, 114 diabetes associations in 96 countries participated in the IDF. In 1982, it was decided to divide the globe into seven regions and to promote the diagnosis, treatment, care and education of diabetes based on the environment, natural features, culture and race of the each region. On January 24, 1984, the IDF-WPR establishment meeting was held in Melbourne, Australia, with eight original member countries (Australia, New Zealand, Korea, The Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, Fiji and Japan). In 1993, 13 diabetes associations in 12 countries joined the IDF-WPR. New member associations are from China (Beijing and Taipei), Hong Kong, Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. The IDF-WPR has been holding congresses and council meetings every 3 or 4 years since 1984 as well as formulating strategic action plans in the scientific, clinical, health care and education fields of diabetes.

  7. The evolution of the federal funding policies for the public health surveillance component of Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Laerte Pinto Junior

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Health surveillance (HS is one of the key components of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS. This article describes recent changes in health surveillance funding models and the role these changes have had in the reorganization and decentralization of health actions. Federal law no. 8.080 of 1990 defined health surveillance as a fundamental pillar of the SUS, and an exclusive fund with equitable distribution criteria was created in the Basic Operational Norm of 1996 to pay for health surveillance actions. This step facilitated the decentralization of health care at the municipal level, giving local authorities autonomy to plan and provide services. The Health Pact of 2006 and its regulation under federal decree No. 3252 in 2009 bolstered the processes of decentralization, regionalization and integration of health care. Further changes in the basic concepts of health surveillance around the world and in the funding policies negotiated by different spheres of government in Brazil have been catalysts for the process of HS institutionalization in recent years.

  8. The evolution of the federal funding policies for the public health surveillance component of Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Vitor Laerte; Cerbino Neto, José; Penna, Gerson Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Health surveillance (HS) is one of the key components of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). This article describes recent changes in health surveillance funding models and the role these changes have had in the reorganization and decentralization of health actions. Federal law no. 8.080 of 1990 defined health surveillance as a fundamental pillar of the SUS, and an exclusive fund with equitable distribution criteria was created in the Basic Operational Norm of 1996 to pay for health surveillance actions. This step facilitated the decentralization of health care at the municipal level, giving local authorities autonomy to plan and provide services. The Health Pact of 2006 and its regulation under federal decree No. 3252 in 2009 bolstered the processes of decentralization, regionalization and integration of health care. Further changes in the basic concepts of health surveillance around the world and in the funding policies negotiated by different spheres of government in Brazil have been catalysts for the process of HS institutionalization in recent years.

  9. The fundamentals of the Russian Federation National Policy in the non-nuclear fuel cycle radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latypov, E.M.; Rikunov, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    Extensive manufacture and use of sources of ionizing radiation result inevitably in the generation of a considerable amount of radioactive waste. The crucial objective within the context of the general problem of radioactive waste management involves the safe isolation of radioactive waste from the environment for the entire period of the existence of their potential hazardous impacts upon it. The complex nature of the problem requires substantial efforts to be placed for the establishment of an integrated radioactive waste management system providing a national control in medicine, industry and science. To this end, the fundamentals of the national policy for the safe management of radioactive waste from non-nuclear fuel cycle activities are being developed in the Russian Federation. The essential components of the national policy are: development of a scientifically sound concept of radioactive waste management; adoption of legislative documents such as standards and acts, relevant to this area; implementation and enforcement of state regulations and supervision of the relevant activities; development of a national programme on radioactive waste management; provision and maintaining of a national radioactive waste inventory; radiation monitoring

  10. The educational policy field origins in Argentina: the case of Buenos Aires and La Plata Federal Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Susana Garcias Franco

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents partial results of an ongoing study whose objective is to map the approaches and theoretical trends in the educational policy theoretical field. More specifically, this study characterizes and describes the theoretical trends of the subject Educational Policy contents in the 50s of the last century in the Buenos Aires and La Plata Federal Universities. 46 programs were analyzed in the period 1917-1959, as well as the bibliography and theoretical background linked to the professors who were responsible for the subject. Surveying professors’ biographies, it was observed that in the period prior to the institutionalization of this field, the debate focused on the positivism or anti-positivism theoretical trends. Later on, the theoretical trends that permeated the programs from 1953 to 1954 had more distinct shades of positivism and anti-positivism than those of the beginning of the century, and three axes were observed: the national tradition, the pedagogical progressivism and the Spanish Krausism.

  11. Management for Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak Suppression: Does Relevant Science Support Current Policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana L. Six

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While the use of timber harvests is generally accepted as an effective approach to controlling bark beetles during outbreaks, in reality there has been a dearth of monitoring to assess outcomes, and failures are often not reported. Additionally, few studies have focused on how these treatments affect forest structure and function over the long term, or our forests’ ability to adapt to climate change. Despite this, there is a widespread belief in the policy arena that timber harvesting is an effective and necessary tool to address beetle infestations. That belief has led to numerous proposals for, and enactment of, significant changes in federal environmental laws to encourage more timber harvests for beetle control. In this review, we use mountain pine beetle as an exemplar to critically evaluate the state of science behind the use of timber harvest treatments for bark beetle suppression during outbreaks. It is our hope that this review will stimulate research to fill important gaps and to help guide the development of policy and management firmly based in science, and thus, more likely to aid in forest conservation, reduce financial waste, and bolster public trust in public agency decision-making and practice.

  12. Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and National Trails. An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, Alaska, and Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, James A; Krummel, John R; Hlava, Kevin J; Moore, H Robert; Orr, Andrew B; Schlueter, Scott O; Sullivan, Robert G; Zvolanek, Emily A

    2014-03-25

    As has been noted in many reports and publications, acquiring new or expanded rights-of-way for transmission is a challenging process, because numerous land use and land ownership constraints must be overcome to develop pathways suitable for energy transmission infrastructure. In the eastern U.S., more than twenty federally protected national trails (some of which are thousands of miles long, and cross many states) pose a potential obstacle to the development of new or expanded electricity transmission capacity. However, the scope of this potential problem is not well-documented, and there is no baseline information available that could allow all stakeholders to study routing scenarios that could mitigate impacts on national trails. This report, Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and National Trails: An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, was prepared by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). Argonne was tasked by DOE to analyze the “footprint” of the current network of National Historic and Scenic Trails and the electricity transmission system in the 37 eastern contiguous states, Alaska, and Hawaii; assess the extent to which national trails are affected by electrical transmission; and investigate the extent to which national trails and other sensitive land use types may be affected in the near future by planned transmission lines. Pipelines are secondary to transmission lines for analysis, but are also within the analysis scope in connection with the overall directives of Section 368 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, and because of the potential for electrical transmission lines being collocated with pipelines. Based on Platts electrical transmission line data, a total of 101 existing intersections with national trails on federal land were found, and 20 proposed intersections. Transmission lines and pipelines are proposed in Alaska; however there are no

  13. Current Government Actions and Potential Policy Options for Reducing Obesity in Queensland Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser A. Alsharairi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available School nutrition policies provide promising avenues towards the improvement of children’s eating habits and the prevention of obesity. Childhood obesity rates and related chronic diseases are increasing in Queensland, in part as a result of unhealthy eating habits and lack of physical activity. There is a very high investment by the Queensland government in maintaining healthy weight and promoting nutrition and physical activity among schoolchildren through delivering a range of initiatives across the state. However, there is a lack of evidence concerning the effectiveness of nutrition/physical education and parental involvement programs addressing obesity delivered in Queensland schools. This paper can be used to guide government and policy-makers regarding the most effective policy options that will promote healthy eating and physical activity among Queensland schoolchildren. The aim of this paper is to: (i summarize current evidence on Queensland government responses to obesity; and (ii discuss potential policy options that could support healthy eating and regular physical activity, and examine the evidence base for each option and suggest new areas for future research.

  14. World Federation for Medical Education Policy on international recognition of medical schools' programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karle, Hans

    2008-12-01

    The increasing globalisation of medicine, as manifested in the migration rate of medical doctors and in the growth of cross-border education providers, has inflicted a wave of quality assurance efforts in medical education, and underlined the need for definition of standards and for introduction of effective and transparent accreditation systems. In 2004, reflecting the importance of the interface between medical education and the healthcare delivery sector, a World Health Organization (WHO)/World Federation for Medical Education (WFME) Strategic Partnership to improve medical education was formed. In 2005, the partnership published Guidelines for Accreditation of Basic Medical Education. The WHO/WFME Guidelines recommend the establishment of proper accreditation systems that are effective, independent, transparent and based on medical education-specific criteria. An important prerequisite for this development was the WFME Global Standards programme, initiated in 1997 and widely endorsed. The standards are now being used in all 6 WHO/WFME regions as a basis for quality improvement of medical education throughout its continuum and as a template for national and regional accreditation standards. Promotion of national accreditation systems will have a pivotal influence on future international appraisal of medical education. Information about accreditation status - the agencies involved and the criteria and procedure used - will be an essential component of new Global Directories of Health Professions Educational Institutions. According to an agreement between the WHO and the University of Copenhagen (UC), these Directories (the Avicenna Directories) will be developed and published by the UC with the assistance of the WFME, starting with renewal of the WHO World Directory of Medical Schools, and sequentially expanding to cover educational institutions for other health professions. The Directories will be a foundation for international meta-recognition ("accrediting the

  15. Analysis of Russian Federation Foreign Policy in the Field of International Information Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. Zinovieva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies (ICT play an essential role in the improvement of the quality of life, economic and socio-political of individual countries and humanity in general. However, ICT development is fraught with new challenges and threats to international and national security. Interstate rivalry in the information sphere generates conflicts, an extreme form of which is an information war. Since 1998, the Russian initiative supports the international cooperation on information security at the global and regional level as well as within the framework of the bilateral relations. The article analyzes the characteristics of the global information society, which has a decisive influence on the international security in the information age, as well as international cooperation in this field. The analysis of Russian foreign policy initiatives in the field of international information security is also presented. Today more than 130 countries develop cyber capabilities, both defensive and offensive, that pose serious threats to the international stability. It's difficult to trace the source of information attacks and its consequences can be devastating and cause retaliation, including the use of conventional weapons. In this situation Russian approach, advocating for the development of the rules of conduct of States and demilitarization of information space in order to ensure its safety, seems urgent and relevant with the international situation.

  16. The Economics of the Drug War: Effective Federal Policy of Missed Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    currently accepted for medical use, with severe restrictions. Schedule II substances include morphine, PCP, cocaine, methadone , and methamphetamine...excerpt is a synopsis of how cocaine is produced: Cocaine hydrochloride , which is cocaine in its powdered form, is primarily produced from the leaves...of heroin (when used alone- i.e., without methadone ) was 491.7 milligrams. (Uchtenhagen et al, 1999, p. 20) The Swiss report goes on to say that

  17. Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and National Trails: An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, Alaska, and Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, James A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Krummel, John R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hlava, Kevin J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moore, H. Robert [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Orr, Andrew B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schlueter, Scott O. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sullivan, Robert G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zvolanek, Emily A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-11-21

    As has been noted in many reports and publications, acquiring new or expanded rights-of-way for transmission is a challenging process, because numerous land use and land ownership constraints must be overcome to develop pathways suitable for energy transmission infrastructure. In the eastern U.S., more than twenty federally protected national trails (some of which are thousands of miles long, and cross many states) pose a potential obstacle to the development of new or expanded electricity transmission capacity. However, the scope of this potential problem is not well-documented, and there is no baseline information available that could allow all stakeholders to study routing scenarios that could mitigate impacts on national trails. This report, Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and National Trails: An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, was prepared by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). Argonne was tasked by DOE to analyze the “footprint” of the current network of National Historic and Scenic Trails and the electricity transmission system in the 37 eastern contiguous states, Alaska, and Hawaii; assess the extent to which national trails are affected by electrical transmission; and investigate the extent to which national trails and other sensitive land use types may be affected in the near future by planned transmission lines. Pipelines are secondary to transmission lines for analysis, but are also within the analysis scope in connection with the overall directives of Section 368 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, and because of the potential for electrical transmission lines being collocated with pipelines.

  18. Ronald Reagan's "New Federalism."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Joseph B.

    1982-01-01

    Describes how changes in federal fiscal policies affect the federal government's relationship to state and local government. Franklin D. Roosevelt's and Ronald Reagan's formulas for "New Federalism" are compared. (AM)

  19. Aproximación a la inteligencia policial (la Policía Federal de México, 2006-2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Pablo Moloeznik; Manuel I. Balcázar Villarreal

    2013-01-01

    Del 2006 al 2012, la política criminal del gobierno del presidente Felipe Calderón Hinojosa le dio preeminencia a la Secretaría de Seguridad Pública Federal, encarnada en la Policía Federal, a la que se dotó de una moderna plata forma tecnológica para la inteligencia; por lo tanto, esta contribución se centrará sobre la inteligencia policial y el derrotero de los últimos seis años de la inteligencia de la Policía Federal mexicana.

  20. Virtuous and Vicious Circles: Lessons for Current European Policies from Italian Post-War Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioacchino Garofoli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the Italian economic development, explaining the main features and the crucial variables in the long-term transformation process. The Italian economy has been analysed taking into account the different and changing international rules in medium and long-term to understand their role on the development strategies and on the changing competitive position of the country. The comparative international analysis on selected crucial variables shows some contradictions between expectations and effective outcomes of changing institutional rules and introduced economic policies. This underlines both the emergence of unexpected trajectories and economic performances and the lasting of structural differences among European countries. The selection of consistent economic policies in Europe, then, should take into account these phenomena. The paper underlines the crucial role of long-term economic analysis to fully understand not only the crucial structural variables but even opportunities and challenges for strategic decisions in the current economic crisis.

  1. Conflict between civil liberties and nuclear energy safeguards: an analysis of current and prospective Federal regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.N.

    1977-01-01

    The high regard that the U.S. has traditionally placed on individual rights and liberties makes it imperative that nuclear-safeguards measures currently in use or suggested by evaluated in terms of their social costs. A nuclear-safeguards strategy that minimizes civil-liberties impacts as a social cost and allows adequate protection against the threats of nuclear theft and sabotage in the rapidly developing nuclear energy industry must be arrived at. This study explores the possible civil-liberties impacts and the effectiveness of nuclear-safeguards measures which may be or are being used. Case law and statutory law are extensively analyzed to classify the type of civil-liberties impacts that particular nuclear-safeguards measures may impose. Literature addressing the effectiveness of safeguards measures is examined in various contexts often completely outside of the ''security'' disciplines. A comparison of both the civil liberties impact and effectiveness of each nuclear safeguards measure reveals a cost/benefit factor from which conclusions may be drawn. The real issue is whether or not a nuclear safeguards system will interfere with historic respect governmental institutions have given rights and liberties guaranteed in the U.S. It is concluded that physical access controls present only minor civil liberties costs while providing substantial protection against theft and sabotage. Recommendations are made in the form of suggested statutes, regulations, and regulatory guides. Certain inter-agency relationships and methods for establishing those relationships are also suggested

  2. Current Policies and New Directions for Speech-Language Pathology Assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul-Brown, Diane; Goldberg, Lynette R

    2001-01-01

    This article provides an overview of current American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) policies for the appropriate use and supervision of speech-language pathology assistants with an emphasis on the need to preserve the role of fully qualified speech-language pathologists in the service delivery system. Seven challenging issues surrounding the appropriate use of speech-language pathology assistants are considered. These include registering assistants and approving training programs; membership in ASHA; discrepancies between state requirements and ASHA policies; preparation for serving diverse multicultural, bilingual, and international populations; supervision considerations; funding and reimbursement for assistants; and perspectives on career-ladder/bachelor-level personnel. The formation of a National Leadership Council is proposed to develop a coordinated strategic plan for addressing these controversial and potentially divisive issues related to speech-language pathology assistants. This council would implement strategies for future development in the areas of professional education pertaining to assistant-level supervision, instruction of assistants, communication networks, policy development, research, and the dissemination/promotion of information regarding assistants.

  3. The impact of managed care and current governmental policies on an urban academic health care center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J L; Peterson, D J; Muehlstedt, S G; Zera, R T; West, M A; Bubrick, M P

    2001-10-01

    Managed care and governmental policies have restructured hospital reimbursement. We examined reimbursement trends in trauma care to assess the impact of this market driven change on an urban academic health center. Patients injured between January 1997 and December 1999 were analyzed for Injury Severity Score (ISS), length of hospital stay, hospital cost, payer, and reimbursement. Between 1997 and 1999, the volume of patients with an ISS less than 9 increased and length of stay decreased. In addition, overall cost, payment, and profit margin increased. Commercially insured patients accounted for this margin increase, because the margins of managed care and government insured patients experienced double-digit decreases. Patients with ISS of 9 or greater also experienced a volume increase and a reduction in length of stay; however, costs within this group increased greater than payments, thereby reducing profit margin. Whereas commercially insured patients maintained their margin, managed care and government insured patients did not (double- and triple-digit decreases). Managed care and current governmental policies have a negative impact on urban academic health center reimbursement. Commercial insurers subsidize not only the uninsured but also the government insured and managed care patients as well. National awareness of this issue and policy action are paramount to urban academic health centers and may also benefit commercial insurers.

  4. Federal policies to promote the widespread utilization of photovoltaic systems. Volume two. Technical document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-02-01

    The question of photovoltaic system interactions with electric utility grids is addressed. Discussions of system configurations, effects on utility dispatch and generation planning, effects of utility rate structures on photovoltaic deployment and vice versa, interactions of photovoltaic and electrical storage systems, effects on end-use reliability, and the ultimate limitations on photovoltaic penetration into electric grids are presented. Photovoltaic system economic issues are considered. Discussions of the high first cost and the Program plans and strategies to reduce costs (and PV prices), expected evolution of photovoltaic technology, effects of various financial incentives on photovoltaics, implications of utility vs non-utility ownership of photovoltaics, likelihood that sufficient capital will be available to adequately finance the deployment of photovoltaic systems, current status and expected evolution of the photovoltaic supply industry, and the programmatic activities directed at aiding the evolution of a healthy, competitive industry are presented. The basic issues of photovoltaic market development are studied. The potential of various market segments and the complexity involved in defining and identifying the various segments; issues to be faced in deployment of dispersed photovoltaic systems including innovation acceptance on the part of the building industry, building codes, zoning, insurance, information dissemination, public acceptance, solar access, state and local solar photovoltaic incentives, and the implications for urban and suburban land use; and the need for, and method of development of, photovoltaic standards and warranties on photovoltaic systems are discussed. The conclusions of the report with respect to the information requested by Congress are summarized, and findings for congressional action are presented. (WHK)

  5. Active transportation: do current traffic safety policies protect non-motorists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Emily M; Zick, Cathleen D

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the impact that state traffic safety regulations have on non-motorist fatality rates. Data obtained from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) were analyzed through a pooled time series cross-sectional model using fixed effects regression for all 50 states from 1999 to 2009. Two dependent variables were used in separate models measuring annual state non-motorist fatalities per million population, and the natural log of state non-motorist fatalities. Independent variables measuring traffic policies included state expenditures for highway law enforcement and safety per capita; driver cell phone use regulations; graduated driver license regulations; driver blood alcohol concentration regulations; bike helmet regulations; and seat belt regulations. Other control variables included percent of all vehicle miles driven that are urban and mean per capita alcohol consumption per year. Non-motorist traffic safety was positively impacted by state highway law enforcement and safety expenditures per capita, with a decrease in non-motorist fatalities occurring with increased spending. Per capita consumption of alcohol also influenced non-motorist fatalities, with higher non-motorist fatalities occurring with higher per capita consumption of alcohol. Other traffic safety covariates did not appear to have a significant impact on non-motorist fatality rates in the models. Our research suggests that increased expenditures on state highway and traffic safety and the initiation/expansion of programs targeted at curbing both driver and non-motorist intoxication are a starting point for the implementation of traffic safety policies that reduce risks for non-motorists. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of Federal tax policy and electric utility rate schedules upon the solar building/electric utility interface. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, S.L.; Wirtshafter, R.M.; Abrash, M.; Anderson, B.; Sullivan, P.; Kohler, J.

    1978-10-01

    An analysis is performed to show that a utility solar-passive strategy can be used rather effectively in aiding the utility to obtain more efficient load factors and lower costs. The objectives are to determine the impact of active and passive solar energy designs for space conditioning and hot water heating for the residential sector upon the diurnal and annual load curves for several utilities, to assess the effect of present utility pricing policies, and to examine alternative pricing schemes, as well as Federal and state tax credits, as they may affect the optimal sizing and configuration of active solar and passive solar building components. The methodology, the systems model, an overall building design, building cost determination, and a description of TRNSYS are presented. The major parameters discussed that distinguish variation in the cost-effectiveness of particular building design fall into 5 categories: the weather, building configurations, building costs, utility costs and rates, and financial parameters (inclusive of tax credits for solar and energy conservation investment). Five utilities are studied: Colorado Springs Department of Public Utilities; Public Service Co. of New Mexico; New England Electric System; Pacific Gas and Electric; and Georgia Power Co.

  7. Threshold power. Nuclear energy and foreign policy of the Federal Republic of Germany from 1949 until 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons is one of the most serious problems for international security today. Since the end of the Cold War states like India, Pakistan and North Korea performed tests of nuclear explosive devices and the number of nuclear weapons states seems to be growing even more. Iran is pursuing actively a nuclear programme with unclear prospects and despite the catastrophe at Fukushima other states remain interested in the use of nuclear energy. In principle it is not possible to distinguish clearly between civil and military use of nuclear technology. The international regime to prevent the misuse of nuclear power and the dissemination of nuclear weapons is based on the Nonproliferation Treaty of 1970 and several other treaties and informal agreements. While the legal aspects of the nonproliferation regime are well studied, much less attention has been paid to the evolution of this regime, which was set up during the Cold War. Especially the role of the nonnuclear weapons states in this process remains unclear. This work explores the influence of the Federal Republic of Germany, one of the most influential nuclear threshold powers, on the formulation of the international nonproliferation regime as well as the role of nuclear energy in German foreign policy in general.

  8. 21 CFR 1404.135 - May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is not currently...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is not currently participating in a nonprocurement transaction? 1404.135 Section 1404.135 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General § 1404.135 May the...

  9. Online media coverage of air pollution risks and current policies in India: A content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukutla, Nandita; Negi, Nalin S; Puri, Pallavi; Mullin, Sandra; Onyon, Lesley

    2017-09-01

    institution or organization - such as the government or industry groups - as the primary responsible stakeholder, thus leaving ambiguous the organizations whose leadership was necessary to mitigate air pollution. Conclusion Gaps exist in the current media discourse on air pollution, suggesting the need for strengthening engagement with the media as a means of creating citizen engagement and enabling policy action. Through greater elaboration of the health burdens and evidence-based policy actions, the media can play a critical role in galvanizing India's action on air quality. These data may suggest opportunities for media advocacy and greater public and policy engagement to address issues around air quality in India.

  10. 29 CFR 1471.135 - May the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service exclude a person who is not currently...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service exclude....135 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General § 1471.135 May the Federal Mediation and...

  11. 'Penetrated system' or 'normal' state? An exploration of INF arms control policy, East-West economic relations, and inter-German policy in the Federal Republic of Germany, 1979-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    The thesis explores policy-making processes in the Federal Republic from 1979-1987 in three areas: INF arms control policy, East-West economic relations, and inter-German policy. Each case study assesses the degree of complexity and domestic accountability in policy-making processes and evaluates the relative influence of domestic and external factors on policy choices. It argues that the trends in West German foreign policy toward greater assertiveness reflected the evolution of the FRG as a state, society, and polity. The 'maturation' of the Federal Republic has introduced greater complexity into foreign policy-making processes, and more frequent societal intervention into what heretofore were elite deliberations. Domestic actors have begun to demand greater accountability, while West German leaders, in turn, have become more assertive and confident in defending German national interests. As the FRG has gained respect and self-respect, it has begun to assume the international role that might be expected of a state of its size, population, geo-political importance, and level of political and economic development. The FRG has become a 'normal' state

  12. Penetrated system' or normal' state An exploration of INF arms control policy, East-West economic relations, and inter-German policy in the Federal Republic of Germany, 1979-1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    The thesis explores policy-making processes in the Federal Republic from 1979-1987 in three areas: INF arms control policy, East-West economic relations, and inter-German policy. Each case study assesses the degree of complexity and domestic accountability in policy-making processes and evaluates the relative influence of domestic and external factors on policy choices. It argues that the trends in West German foreign policy toward greater assertiveness reflected the evolution of the FRG as a state, society, and polity. The maturation' of the Federal Republic has introduced greater complexity into foreign policy-making processes, and more frequent societal intervention into what heretofore were elite deliberations. Domestic actors have begun to demand greater accountability, while West German leaders, in turn, have become more assertive and confident in defending German national interests. As the FRG has gained respect and self-respect, it has begun to assume the international role that might be expected of a state of its size, population, geo-political importance, and level of political and economic development. The FRG has become a normal' state.

  13. Controlling liver cancer internationally: A qualitative study of clinicians' perceptions of current public policy needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, John Fp; Gallego, Gisselle; Blauvelt, Barri M

    2011-07-28

    Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer in men and the seventh for women. Usually because of late diagnosis, the prognosis for liver cancer remains poor, resulting in liver cancer being the third most common cause of death from cancer. While some countries have treatment guidelines, little is known or understood about the strategies needed for liver cancer control internationally. To explore leading liver cancer clinician's perceptions of the current public policy needs to control liver cancer internationally. Key informant interviews were conducted with a range of liver cancer clinicians involved in policy in eleven countries. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, translated (where necessary), de-identified and analyzed by two researchers using a constant comparative method. Twenty in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted in: Australia, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, South Korea, Taiwan, Turkey and the United States. Nine themes were identified and cluster into three groups: 1) Promoting prevention via early risk assessment, focusing on viral hepatitis and other lifestyle factors; 2) Increasing political, public and medical community awareness; and 3) Improving funding for screening, liver cancer surveillance and treatment. This study is an important step towards developing an evidence-based approach to assessing preparedness for implementing comprehensive liver cancer control strategies. Evaluation mechanisms to assess countries' performance on the needs described are needed. Future research will concentrate of understanding how these needs vary across countries and the optimal strategies to improve the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with liver cancer internationally.

  14. Current situation of used household batteries in Iran and appropriate management policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, A Daryabeigi; Abduli, M A

    2008-11-01

    Used household batteries are considered as hazardous wastes in many countries due to the potential environmental and human health risks associated with the heavy metals present in batteries. This article presents the current situation of waste household batteries and policies in Iran. Iran with more than 70 million people is a developing country where latest technologies like cell phones and laptops are in widespread use and battery consumption increases accordingly. The household battery demand in Iran has rapidly grown since 2001 and it is expected to increase more quickly in next years, due to increasing technological development. Based on the available data, more than 9800 metric tons of household batteries were imported into Iran in recent decade, with the market value of about US$ 42.6 million. At present, there is no program available in Iran regarding to collection, separation, recycling or safe disposal of used batteries. Therefore, almost all of the spent household are discarded into municipal solid waste (MSW) and sent to sanitary landfills. Appropriate policies to meet safe disposal of household batteries in Iran is also discussed in this investigation.

  15. Why the Japanese Nuclear Power Plants are not trusted? Verification of current nuclear energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Hitoshi

    2007-01-01

    Since the liberalization of electric power following the trend of structural reform and government's economic and financial rebuild had impacted the management of electric utilities in 1990, current nuclear power comes to be subject to government's leadership and support to promote nuclear energy. The Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy Japan of atomic energy commission in 2005 aims to (1) maintain the 30 to 40% or more share of nuclear energy in electricity generation up to 2030 and afterwards, (2) promote the nuclear fuel cycle and (3) commercialize the fast-breeder reactors. Nuclear Energy National Plan of ministry of economy, trade and industry in 2006 makes reference to construction of FBR demonstration reactor by 2025, development of Japanese next-generation LWR and also construction of second reprocessing plant. Major stakeholders related with nuclear power generation such as politicians, government (the authorities concerned), electric utilities and local governments play respective important role in nuclear policy as 'a tetrahedral structure'. The Niigataken Chuets-oki earthquake reminded risk problems of nuclear power management and shook the nuclear tetrahedron structure, which might collapse with loss of public trust. (T. Tanaka)

  16. The impact of current visa regime policy on tourism recovery and development in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Zengeni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results on the impact of the current visa regime policy on tourism recovery and development in Zimbabwe. The focus was on finding out how the visa regime could impact on efforts to bring into the country more visitors following the decline in visitor inflows from 2000 to 2008. Data was collected from selected visitors from different member states which require visas to enter into the county in the period between January 2010 and July 2010.The findings shows that visa restrictions play a small part in discouraging visitors to visit Zimbabwe. The visa regime policy was designed in such a way that it was easy for passport holders from traditional markets to have relatively easy passage into Zimbabwe. It was also discovered that visa restrictions were part of international travel conditions but how to get the visa became the competitive advantage or disadvantage a destination can have compared with its competitors. Zimbabwe’s traditional markets believed that the visa was not difficult to get nor was it too expensive as to scare away visitors. However, the emerging markets such as China who are in Group C had problems getting the visa as they were required to apply for the visa before traveling to Zimbabwe.

  17. Current status and analysis of renewable promotional policies in Indian restructured power sector - A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Randhir; Sood, Yog Raj

    2011-01-01

    Restructuring has changed the traditional mission and mandates of power utilities in complex ways, and had large impacts on environmental, social, and political conditions for any particular country. At the same time, new regulatory approaches are being found for reducing environmental impacts in restructured power sectors. India has a vast supply of renewable energy resources, and it has one of the largest programs in the world for deploying renewable energy based products and systems. So this paper attempts to review the various policies and measures undertaken by Indian government for promotion of renewable energy. The aim of this paper is also to review the current policy mechanisms, especially investment- or generation-based price-driven and capacity-driven mechanisms, ranging from investment incentives for the development of renewable energy projects, feed-in tariffs, production tax incentives, tradable green certificates, and their effects upon the prospects of encouraging as well as expanding the development of renewable energy in Indian restructured power sector. This will make renewable more attractive in the Indian future electricity market. (author)

  18. Black Truffle Harvesting in Spanish Forests: Trends, Current Policies and Practices, and Implications on its Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Barreda, Sergi; Forcadell, Ricardo; Sánchez, Sergio; Martín-Santafé, María; Marco, Pedro; Camarero, J. Julio; Reyna, Santiago

    2018-04-01

    The European black truffle is a mycorrhizal fungus native to Spanish Mediterranean forests. In most Spanish regions it was originally commercially harvested in the second half of the 20th century. Experts agree that wild truffle yields suffered a sharp decline during the 1970s and 1980s. However, official statistics for Spanish harvest are scarce and seemingly conflicting, and little attention has been paid to the regime for the exploitation of truffle-producing forests and its implications on the sustainability of this resource. Trends in harvest from 1969 to 2013 and current harvesting practices were analyzed as a case study, taking into account that Spain is a major truffle producer worldwide, but at the same time truffles have only recently been exploited. The available statistical sources, which include an increasing proportion of cultivated truffles since the mid-1990s, were explored, with estimates from Truffle Harvesters Federation showing higher consistency. Statistical sources were then compared with proxies for wild harvest (rents from truffle leases in public forests) to corroborate time trends in wild harvesting. Results suggest that black truffle production is recovering in recent years thanks to plantations, whereas wild harvest is still declining. The implications of Spanish legal and institutional framework on sustainability of wild truffle use are reviewed. In the current scenario, the decline of wild harvest is likely to continue and eventually make commercial harvesting economically unattractive, thus aggravating sustainability issues. Strengthening of property rights, rationalization of harvesting pressure, forest planning and involvement of public stakeholders are proposed as corrective measures.

  19. Sugars and health: a review of current evidence and future policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Charlotte Elizabeth Louise

    2017-08-01

    The automation of the process of extracting sugars in the 1900s reduced cost and increased availability of sugars leading to a dramatic rise in consumption, which reached a peak in the 1970s. There are different definitions for sugars not naturally available in foods, and free sugars is the term used by WHO. The epidemiological evidence of the associations between sugars and obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus is fairly strong and consistent, particularly for sugar sweetened drinks in adults. The Department of Health in the UK and many other countries have recently updated their recommendations for free sugars as a result of this scientific evidence. In the UK the recommended amount of free sugars is currently 5 % of energy (reduced from 10 %), which is difficult to meet and very different from current British dietary patterns. Reducing intakes of free sugars is a challenge and will necessitate a range of different actions and policies. Public Health England has put forward eight suggestions but the four most likely to improve dietary behaviour based on available evidence are social marketing, reduction of marketing of high sugar foods and drinks to children, reformulation and reductions in portion size and a sugar excise tax. Any action taken needs to be evaluated to check inequalities are not widened. The new childhood obesity strategy has incorporated some but not all of these strategies and may not go far enough. It is likely that government policies alone will not be sufficient and a change in the food culture is necessary to see real progress.

  20. Current Measures on Radioactive Contamination in Japan: A Policy Situation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Stuart; Miyagawa, Shoji; Kasuga, Fumiko; Shibuya, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    radioactive contamination. Monitoring of radioactive materials in food products in the prefectures has been mainly conducted before shipment to restrict the distribution of radio-contaminated foods. Between March 2011 and March 2012, 133,832 tests of non-commercial and commercial products were conducted, and 1,204 tests (0.9%) were found to violate the provisional standards. Since April 2012, 278,275 tests were conducted, and 2,372 tests (0.9%) were found to violate the revised standards. MHLW assessment of representative market baskets of foodstuffs at 15 locations throughout Japan between February and March 2014 found very low estimated dietary intake of radioactive cesium (0.0007-0.019 mSv/year), as did assessments of the contents of an average day's food. Monitoring of fisheries products in coastal areas affected by the nuclear accident found very limited and declining radio-contamination of live fish outside of Fukushima prefecture. Fisheries monitoring is of limited geographical scope and covers only certain fishes. Area-specific bans on production and distribution have been effective in preventing radioactive contamination in the Japanese food market. Currently there is no major concern about radioactive cesium concentrations in retail foodstuffs in Japan, and very low levels of contamination at the production and wholesale stage. However, because the residue limits and food safety policies were revised on an ad hoc, emergency basis after the nuclear accident, the monitoring procedure needs to be reviewed based on objective and scientifically rational criteria. A transparent and objective scientific framework is needed for prioritizing foodstuffs for inspection and revising Prefecture-specific restrictions. Monitoring of fishes and other seafood products in the wild should be regularized and the information made more publicly accessible, and monitoring activities expanded to identify foodstuffs that are no longer a food safety risk. Consultation with producers and

  1. Current Measures on Radioactive Contamination in Japan: A Policy Situation Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Gilmour

    areas at risk of radioactive contamination. Monitoring of radioactive materials in food products in the prefectures has been mainly conducted before shipment to restrict the distribution of radio-contaminated foods. Between March 2011 and March 2012, 133,832 tests of non-commercial and commercial products were conducted, and 1,204 tests (0.9% were found to violate the provisional standards. Since April 2012, 278,275 tests were conducted, and 2,372 tests (0.9% were found to violate the revised standards. MHLW assessment of representative market baskets of foodstuffs at 15 locations throughout Japan between February and March 2014 found very low estimated dietary intake of radioactive cesium (0.0007-0.019 mSv/year, as did assessments of the contents of an average day's food. Monitoring of fisheries products in coastal areas affected by the nuclear accident found very limited and declining radio-contamination of live fish outside of Fukushima prefecture. Fisheries monitoring is of limited geographical scope and covers only certain fishes.Area-specific bans on production and distribution have been effective in preventing radioactive contamination in the Japanese food market. Currently there is no major concern about radioactive cesium concentrations in retail foodstuffs in Japan, and very low levels of contamination at the production and wholesale stage. However, because the residue limits and food safety policies were revised on an ad hoc, emergency basis after the nuclear accident, the monitoring procedure needs to be reviewed based on objective and scientifically rational criteria. A transparent and objective scientific framework is needed for prioritizing foodstuffs for inspection and revising Prefecture-specific restrictions. Monitoring of fishes and other seafood products in the wild should be regularized and the information made more publicly accessible, and monitoring activities expanded to identify foodstuffs that are no longer a food safety risk. Consultation with

  2. Barefoot and in a German kitchen: federal parental leave and benefit policy and the return to work after childbirth in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrich, J; Spiess, C K; Yang, Q

    1996-01-01

    "Since 1979 German federal maternity leave and benefit policy has given women incentives to stay at home and take care of their newborn and youngest children. In 1986 this leave and benefit policy was changed in several ways, turning it into a powerful instrument for delaying mothers' return to work after childbirth.... We estimate post childbirth return to work hazards for women during the federally protected leave protection period and immediately upon completion of this leave period. During the leave mothers are less likely to return to work the longer is the time left in the leave protection period; however, this result cannot be attributed generally to high levels of maternity benefits. When the leave protection period ends, mothers with strong labor force attachment who are still on leave return to their jobs." excerpt

  3. Exploring the Interweaving of Contrary Currents: Transnational Policy Enactment and Path-Dependent Policy Implementation in Australia and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Keita

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the neo-institutional theory of global policy convergence, or "isomorphism", by comparatively examining one of its most recent manifestations--the global diffusion of national standardised testing--in Australia and Japan. By understanding the particular configurations of national testing as being conditioned by both…

  4. ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT STATE ON LABOUR POLICIES IN THE ROMANIAN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂLĂNEASA MARIA-CRISTINA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The policies on labour relations can be considered as the philosophy or values promoted by an organization and help ensure a unitary approach within it. The existence of such policies in each organization has the maximum utility because helps employees to understand the values promoted by them and the behaviour that must be adopted. The main areas that can be covered by policies concerning labour relations are human resources planning, the quality of the employees, hiring and promoting employees, work-life balance, non-discrimination, dismissal, work discipline, complains, substance abuse, smoking at work, employment and relations with employees infected with HIV and other fields mentioned in the paper. Throughout the study, the attention was given preponderantly on three categories of policies: discipline policy, equal opportunities policy and work-life balance policy, the last two also being promoted by European institutions. Therefore, these policies were analysed in practical terms within Romanian organizations. We found that discipline policies are widely used at work, while the other two types of policies exist at a lower percentage within the analysed establishments. Most units having such policies concerning non-discrimination and work-life balance are oversized. This situation requires action from the management of small and medium-sized units in order to draw up and respect the non-discrimination policy and the balance between work and family life.

  5. Controlling liver cancer internationally: A qualitative study of clinicians' perceptions of current public policy needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridges John FP

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer in men and the seventh for women. Usually because of late diagnosis, the prognosis for liver cancer remains poor, resulting in liver cancer being the third most common cause of death from cancer. While some countries have treatment guidelines, little is known or understood about the strategies needed for liver cancer control internationally. Objective To explore leading liver cancer clinician's perceptions of the current public policy needs to control liver cancer internationally. Methods Key informant interviews were conducted with a range of liver cancer clinicians involved in policy in eleven countries. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, translated (where necessary, de-identified and analyzed by two researchers using a constant comparative method. Results Twenty in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted in: Australia, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, South Korea, Taiwan, Turkey and the United States. Nine themes were identified and cluster into three groups: 1 Promoting prevention via early risk assessment, focusing on viral hepatitis and other lifestyle factors; 2 Increasing political, public and medical community awareness; and 3 Improving funding for screening, liver cancer surveillance and treatment. Conclusion This study is an important step towards developing an evidence-based approach to assessing preparedness for implementing comprehensive liver cancer control strategies. Evaluation mechanisms to assess countries' performance on the needs described are needed. Future research will concentrate of understanding how these needs vary across countries and the optimal strategies to improve the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with liver cancer internationally.

  6. Federal energy conservation programs pursuant to section 381 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94-163). Annual report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-21

    This report provides an overview of the activities and achievements of the executive branch of the Federal Government in implementing the energy conservation requirements and provisions of section 381 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) of 1975 (Public Law 94-163). The report describes Federal actions to develop procurement policies that promote energy conservation and efficiency, develop a Federal 10-Year Buildings Energy Conservation Plan, develop responsible public education and information programs, encourage energy conservation and energy efficiency, and promote vanpooling and carpooling arrangements. About half of the Nation's energy is used in our homes and automobiles. Another 48 percent is used by State and local governments, business and insutry, in providing needed goods and services. The Federal Government is the Nation's largest energy user, accouting for 2.2 percent of the total national energy used in 1977. This energy is used by nearly 6 million people in more than 400 thousand buildings and in the operation of more than 600 thousand vehicles. While energy conservation and energy efficiency measures alone cannot solve our immediate problems, they are an essential part of our transition to an era of scarce and expensive energy supplies.

  7. Federalism, Collaboration Regime and the Articulated Actions Plan as an inductive instrument of educational policies: an analysis based on academic production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Cardoso de Araújo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to analyze the studies that address the implementation of the Articulated Actions Plan (PAR, published in the period from 2009 to 2016, identifying in them the results that point to this tool as an instrument for the induction of public policies by the Central Government. The study is part of the bibliographic survey of the Research Project "Regulation and Implementation of the National Education System in Brazil: Intergovernmental Relations for the Guarantee of the Right to Education", a project funded by CNPq, in an initiative of the Federalism Research Group and Educational Policies "Of the Graduate Program of the Education Center of the Federal University of Espírito Santo. Among the 28 works found on the PAR theme, in this time cut and publication vehicles, 23 indicated induction characteristics in the implementation of PAR in counties of several states of the federation, and the action was largely consolidated vertical form directly from the central government to the municipalities, without state intermediation. These observations refer to the discussions on coordination, cooperation and collaboration, and also on centralization and decentralization, which historically go through the whole debate about the nature of Brazilian federalism.

  8. Toxic substances: Federal-provincial control -- rev. revised edition. Current issue review No. 88-11E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, K

    1994-12-31

    This document provides a background and analysis on federal-provincial control of toxic substances, including their control under the Canadian Constitution, legislation passed by both levels of government, political aspects, federal-provincial cooperation, the Green Plan, and the Auditor General`s report. Parliamentary action taken and a chronology of events are also included.

  9. Current status and policies on biodiesel industry in Malaysia as the world's leading producer of palm oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, A.Z.; Salamatinia, B.; Mootabadi, H.; Bhatia, S.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses current status of palm oil-based biodiesel industry in Malaysia, the policies introduced and strategies for its implementation. Due to renewability, high production rate, technical feasibility and role in reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emission, palm oil is in the right position to supply the energy needs by the incorporation into the diesel supply. As a leading producer of palm oil, Malaysia has embarked on a comprehensive palm biofuel program since 1982. It has successfully established the use of palm biodiesel blend (B5) as a suitable fuel for the transport and industrial sectors through the introduction of the National Biofuel Policy. The current scenario of biodiesel program in Malaysia, as well as biofuel policies with respect to its use, technology, export, environmental issues and implementation aspects are thoroughly discussed. The roles of the policy towards the prosperity of the stakeholders, oil price and the reduction of greenhouse gasses are also highlighted. (author)

  10. Developments of the climate protection law and the climate change policy 2014-2015. Pt. 2. Federal government, federal states and municipalities; Entwicklungen des Klimaschutzrechts und der Klimaschutzpolitik 2014/2015. T. 2. Bund, Bundeslaender und Kommunen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staesche, Uta [Hochschule fuer Wirtschaft und Recht (HWR), Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Klimaschutz, Energie und Mobilitaet (IKEM)

    2015-08-14

    According to the motto of the energy transition the Federal Government set herself targets in the areas of greenhouse gas emissions, renewable energy and energy efficiency. Main emphasis of its climate change policy is the implementation of the 2014/15 Action Programme Climate Protection 2020. A key measure discussed here is the climate contribution of the German electricity sector, is now being implemented in a significantly modified form. With a view on the long-term climate objectives prepares the federal government the national climate change plan 2050; the federal government promote locally climate protection within the framework of the National Climate Protection Initiative (NKI) in a Variety of projects. On the level of the federal states intensifies clearly the trend of the legal protection of federal climate protection targets. In addition to the federal levels are also the municipalities still active in various climate protection projects. [German] Unter dem Leitwort der Energiewende hat sich die Bundesregierung Ziele in den Bereichen Treibhausgasemissionen, erneuerbare Energien und Energieeffizienz gesetzt. Schwerpunkt ihrer Klimaschutzpolitik bildet 2014/15 die Umsetzung des Aktionsprogramms Klimaschutz 2020. Als eine zentrale Massnahme wurde hier der Klimabeitrag des deutschen Stromsektors diskutiert, der nun in deutlich abgewandelter Form umgesetzt wird. Mit Blick auf die langfristigen Klimaschutzziele bereitet die Bundesregierung den nationalen Klimaschutzplan 2050 vor; Klimaschutz vor Ort foerdert sie im Rahmen der Nationalen Klimaschutzinitiative (NKI) in einer Vielzahl von Projekten. Auf Ebene der Bundeslaender verstaerkt sich deutlich der Trend der gesetzlichen Absicherung von Landesklimaschutzzielen. Neben den ueberregionalen Ebenen sind auch die Kommunen weiterhin in vielfaeltigen Klimaschutzprojekten aktiv.

  11. Implications of Harmonizing the Future of the Federal Depository Library Program within E-Government Principles and Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, John A.; Jaeger, Paul T.; Bertot, John Carlo

    2010-01-01

    For more than 150 years, the United States Government Printing Office (GPO), along with its Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP), has supported an informed citizenry and democracy by ensuring access and preservation to a broad swath of federal government information. This collaborative national public information program between local…

  12. 41 CFR 102-80.80 - With what general accident and fire prevention policy must Federal agencies comply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agencies must— (a) Comply with the occupational safety and health standards established in the Occupational... Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention § 102...

  13. Climate policy conception of the Federal Environmental Agency. Necessary position of points 2009; Konzeption des Umweltbundesamtes zur Klimapolitik. Notwendige Weichenstellungen 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoche, Guido; Luenenbuerger, Benjamin; Hain, Benno; Mueschen, Klaus

    2009-10-15

    The report on the climate policy concept of the Federal Environmental Agency covers the following issues: Climatic change and the consequences: climatic change until today, future climatic change, consequences in Germany, effects on environment, society and industry. Goals of climate policy: maximum global warming of 2 deg C, reversal of global greenhouse gas emissions until 2020, sustainable development and adaptation strategies. Adaptation: international adaptation, national and regional instruments, adaptation concerning public health, environmental protection, including biodiversity in agriculture and forestry, economics. Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions: international treaty beyond 2013, reduced emissions in industrial and developing countries, national goals, climate protection instruments, reduction within electricity, heat and traffic, reduction of fluorine containing gases in agriculture, economical cost and benefit considerations, effects on economic growth and employment. Synergies and conflicts between climate policy and other environmental goals: climate protection, public health and ecosystems, biomass conversion and sustainable agriculture, climate and resources protection, development of a sustainable energy supply.

  14. Effects of accelerated wildfire on future fire regimes and implications for the United States federal fire policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan A. Ager

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wildland fire suppression practices in the western United States are being widely scrutinized by policymakers and scientists as costs escalate and large fires increasingly affect social and ecological values. One potential solution is to change current fire suppression tactics to intentionally increase the area burned under conditions when risks are acceptable to managers and fires can be used to achieve long-term restoration goals in fire adapted forests. We conducted experiments with the Envision landscape model to simulate increased levels of wildfire over a 50-year period on a 1.2 million ha landscape in the eastern Cascades of Oregon, USA. We hypothesized that at some level of burned area fuels would limit the growth of new fires, and fire effects on the composition and structure of forests would eventually reduce future fire intensity and severity. We found that doubling current rates of wildfire resulted in detectable feedbacks in area burned and fire intensity. Area burned in a given simulation year was reduced about 18% per unit area burned in the prior five years averaged across all scenarios. The reduction in area burned was accompanied by substantially lower fire severity, and vegetation shifted to open forest and grass-shrub conditions at the expense of old growth habitat. Negative fire feedbacks were slightly moderated by longer-term positive feedbacks, in which the effect of prior area burned diminished during the simulation. We discuss trade-offs between managing fuels with wildfire versus prescribed fire and mechanical fuel treatments from a social and policy standpoint. The study provides a useful modeling framework to consider the potential value of fire feedbacks as part of overall land management strategies to build fire resilient landscapes and reduce wildfire risk to communities in the western U.S. The results are also relevant to prior climate-wildfire studies that did not consider fire feedbacks in projections of future

  15. Public and private sector in the health care system of the Federation bosnia and herzegovina: policy and strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slipicevic, Osman; Malicbegovic, Adisa

    2012-01-01

    In Bosnia and Herzegovina citizens receive health care from both public and private providers. The current situation calls for a clear government policy and strategy to ensure better position and services from both parts. This article examines how health care services are delivered, particularly with respect to relationship between public and private providers. The paper notes that the public sector is plagued by a number of weaknesses in terms of inefficiency of services provision, poorly motivated staff, prevalent dual practice of public employees, poor working conditions and geographical imbalances. Private sector is not developing in ways that address the weaknesses of the public sector. Poorly regulated, it operates as an isolated entity, strongly profit-driven. The increasing burdens on public health care system calls for government to abandon its passive role and take action to direct growth and use potential of private sector. The paper proposes a number of mechanisms that can be used to influence private as well as public sector, since actions directed toward one part of the system will inevitable influence the other.

  16. Energy policy programmes of the Federal Government 1973 to 2017; Energiepolitische Programme der Bundesregierung 1973 bis 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [World Energy Council, London (United Kingdom). World Energy Resources

    2017-11-15

    An analysis of the energy policy programs presented since 1973 shows that all government coalitions have been known in the past 45 years in principle for the objectives of security of supply, efficiency and affordability as well as environmental protection and conservation of resources - together with the statement that these goals should be pursued on an equal footing. In fact, there has never been this ''consonance'' of goals. Rather, concrete events or political currents have led to a changing prioritization of individual goals. At the same time, the intensity of government intervention in the management of supply and demand has changed. [German] Eine Analyse der seit 1973 vorgelegten energiepolitischen Programme zeigt: Alle Regierungskoalitionen haben sich in den vergangenen 45 Jahren im Grundsatz zu den Zielen Versorgungssicherheit, Wirtschaftlichkeit und Bezahlbarkeit sowie Umweltschutz und Ressourcenschonung bekannt - verknuepft mit der Aussage, dass diese Ziele gleichrangig zu verfolgen seien. Tatsaechlich hat es diesen ''Gleichklang'' der Ziele nie gegeben. Konkrete Ereignisse oder politische Stroemungen haben vielmehr zu einer wechselnden Priorisierung einzelner Ziele gefuehrt. Parallel dazu hat sich die Eingriffsintensitaet des Staates in die Steuerung von Angebot und Nachfrage veraendert.

  17. Policy of George W. Bush administration and Barak Obama first administration towards the Russian Federation and other states of the CIS (2001-2012: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D. Solovey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of policies of the two latest American presidents George W. Bush (2001-2008 and Barack Obama (his fi rst administration, 2009-2012 towards Russian Federation and its neighbors – states of the CIS. The author in detail considers main milestones of this policy, its aims, ways, methods and results. The author highlights and analyzes main reasons of degradation of bilateral relations during George W. Bush presidency and considers positive results of “Reset” policy of fi rst Barack Obama’s administration, at the same time noting their limitation and maintenance of disagreements in a few important problems. Policy of the USA towards Russia and other states of the CIS is considered in broader context of fundamental attitudes in foreign policy of neoconservative Republican George W. Bush’ administration and Democratic Barack Obama’s administration. The author makes the main conclusion that as a whole policy of the Democrats towards the Russian Federation and its neighbors was more reasonable, fl exible and effective and let the United States because of softening of rhetoric and a few small compromises return relations with Russia to constructive cooperation and get from this country assistance in all key areas. But by the end of the fi rst Barack Obama’s term a few negative trends became obvious, and these trends developed during the second term of Obama’s presidency. Post-Soviet area has remained potential “battlefi eld” in relations between the two countries, and later this fact has led to the crisis in Crimea and Ukraine, which continues nowadays.

  18. A Study of Heavy Metal Pollution in China: Current Status, Pollution-Control Policies and Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Hu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past 30 years, China’s economy has experienced rapid development, which led to a vast increase in energy consumption and serious environmental pollution. Among the different types of pollution, heavy metal pollution has become one of the major environmental issues in China. A number of studies show that high level of heavy metal exposure is a frequent cause of permanent intellectual and developmental disabilities. In recent years, some traditional pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide, have been put under control in China. However, heavy metal pollution, which poses even greater risks to public health and sustainable development, has yet to gain policymakers’ attention. The purpose of this paper is to explore effective countermeasures for heavy metal pollution in China. The present study reviews the current status of China’s heavy metal pollution and analyzes related public policies and countermeasures against that pollution. It also presents a few recommendations and measures for prevention of heavy metal pollution.

  19. Alternatives to current HIV/AIDS policies and practices in South African prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyer, K C; Gow, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    Prisoners in South Africa face problems of overcrowding, violence and poor nutrition. Added to this burden in recent times is the increased threat from HIV. The HIV epidemic has been relatively late in coming to South Africa but infection rates are now 20% in the adult population. However, there is no data available on the level of HIV infection in the prison population. Overseas studies suggest that the characteristics of prisoners place them at much greater risk of HIV infection. Factors which contribute to increased levels of HIV infection include poor health care facilities, lack of condoms and lack of disinfectants. Current policies and practices on HIV in prison attempt to balance the constraints of limited resources with the need to preserve prisoner human rights. The outcomes include: mass testing not freely available, HIV education is limited, and early release of prisoners with advanced AIDS is not allowed. Constraints on the implementation of effective HIV prevention strategies include: bureaucratic inefficiency, lack of resources, and a reluctance by prison authorities to address the issue of HIV in prison. These problems can possibly be overcome by addressing the issue from both management and prisoner perspectives. On the management side, increased resources, increased training of prison officials, and increased political commitment to address the issue are required. Outside partnerships are probably required for an effective response. Prisoners require better nutrition, better living conditions, better health care, freely available condoms and disinfectants.

  20. A synthesis of ethnohistorical materials concerning the administration of Federal Indian policy among the Yakima, Umatilla, and Nez Perce Indian people: Working draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebow, E.B.; Younger, C.A.; Broyles, J.A.

    1987-11-01

    For the purposes of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakima Indian Nation, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, and the Nez Perce Tribe have been accorded the status of ''Affected Indian Tribe'' and have become party to the proceedings to determine a suitable location for the nation's first commercial waste repository. Each of the Tribes has expressed concerns about the suitability of the Hanford Site in eastern Washington. These concerns, in general, address the proposed repository's effects on traditional spiritual beliefs and cultural practices, on tribal sovereignty and the Tribes' right to self-government, on the natural resources under tribal management jurisdiction, and on the health and socioeconomic characteristics of the Tribes' reservation communities. The Yakima, Umatilla, and Nez Perce have distinctive cultural traditions that may be adversely affected by activities related to the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP). Further, the Tribes enjoy a unique relationship with the federal government. Because of their distinctive cultures and governmental status, particular attention will be paid to expressed interests of the Tribes, and to ways in which these interests may be affected by the repository program. Monitoring is needed to describe current conditions among the Affected Tribes' populations, to describe BWIP site characterization activities affecting the Tribes, and to measure any changes in these conditions that may occur as a direct result of site characterization. This paper reports our first efforts at gathering historical information. It summarizes materials contained in two sources: the reports of field agents to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs (1854-1936), and the dockets of the Indian Claims Commission. 24 refs., 3 figs

  1. Employment-related administrative roentgenograms: characteristics of policy formulation and current practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gift, D.A.; Harris, G.I.; Gard, J.W.; Alexander, G.P.; Potchen, E.J.

    1983-01-01

    A significant proportion of diagnostic medical procedures are used in response to public or private policy rather than in response to an individual patient-physician interaction. We have studied the system whereby such policies are developed and implemented in the case of employment-related chest and lumbar spine roentgenograms, which were found to account for about 11% of the total use of diagnostic radiographs in the state of Michigan. We observed that factors influencing formulation of policy are diverse and largely nonmedical, organizational policies developed in similar environments are often very dissimilar and are highly subject to external influence, and perceptions of policy success and examination utility are typically subjective and uncertain. It is concluded that considerable opportunity exists to enhance the efficacy of such radiographic examinations through leverage provided by their policy-driven nature

  2. ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT STATE ON LABOUR POLICIES IN THE, ROMANIAN ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    BALANEASA MARIA-CRISTINA

    2013-01-01

    The policies on labour relations can be considered as the philosophy or values promoted by an organization and help ensure a unitary approach within it. The existence of such policies in each organization has the maximum utility because helps employees to understand the values promoted by them and the behaviour that must be adopted. The main areas that can be covered by policies concerning labour relations are human resources planning, the quality of the employees, hiring and promoting employ...

  3. Climate policies in China, India and Brazil: current issues and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellevrat, Elie

    2012-07-01

    Emerging countries will have to tackle different social and economic development challenges in the future, which translate nationally into the concepts of 'harmonious society' in China and 'inclusive growth' in India, and into the Brazilian slogan 'a wealthy country is a country without poverty'. Per capita (current US$), Brazil is more than two times richer than China, which in turn is three times richer than India. This graduation explains the variety of priorities of those countries: reducing inequalities and achieving the development processes in China and Brazil, alleviating poverty and enhancing energy access in India. Furthermore, these countries are increasingly linked internationally, along with the globalization process. Energy security is a key issue for China and India, while Brazil aims at playing a key role on future international energy markets. Emerging economies are progressively laying the foundations for low-carbon development strategies that will depend on their national contexts and priorities. Investments in building and transport infrastructures are increasingly important in all those countries, creating the conditions today for tomorrow's low-carbon economic development. China recently made important resolutions in the framework of its 12. Five-Year Plan, decoupling economic growth from GHG emissions. India has developed eight 'National Missions' on climate change and is now exploring future low-carbon strategies. And Brazil is affirming its position internationally, pushing for innovative 'green growth' concepts, within the framework of the Rio+20 Conference. All countries have already implemented several energy and climate policies and plan to develop them further, through innovative policy institutions and instruments. They are switching progressively from command- and-control to economic instruments. In particular, market-based mechanisms are increasingly used in all countries: mandatory pilot Emission Trading Systems (ETS) in China

  4. Current challenges to U.S. nuclear fuel cycle policies: arguments and tactics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, G.C. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The nuclear debate has become virulent in the United States in recent years. Opponents of nuclear power have developed the debate in Congress, in Federal Courts and Federal Agencies which are the principal forums. They use mass media, elaborate strategies, adopt arguments and tactics of a political, economic and technical nature. This paper examines several aspects of their intervention in the nuclear decision-making process of the authorities. (NEA) [fr

  5. Report on Current Praxis of Policies and Activities Supporting Societal Engagement in Research and Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhn, Rainer; Mbungu, Grace; Anderson, Edward; Chonkova, Blagovesta; Damianova, Zoya; Davis, Houda; Dencker, Siri; Jørgensen, Marie-Louise; Kozarev, Ventseslav; Larsen, Gy; Mulder, Henk; Pfersdorf, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the “Engage2020 Project” 1 is to promote the use of engagement methods and policies that support societal engagement in research and innovation by mapping what is practiced and spreading awareness of the opportunities amongst researchers, policy makers, and other interested parties. The

  6. Information Policy for (Digital Information in Archaeology: current state and suggestions for development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Börjesson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of digital data capturing and management technologies has transformed information practices in archaeology. Digital documentation and digital infrastructures are integrated in archaeologists' daily work now more than ever. International and national institutions and projects have contributed to the development of digital archiving and curation practices. Because knowledge production in archaeology depends heavily on documentation and information dissemination, and on retrieval of past documentation, the question of how information is managed is profoundly intertwined with the possibilities for knowledge production. Regulations at different levels articulate demands and expectations from the emerging digital information practices, but how are these different regulations coordinated, and do they support archaeological knowledge production? In this article we look into the state of information policy - the sum of principles guiding decisions about information - in archaeology and related areas. The aim of the article is to shed light on how information policy directs practice in archaeology, and to show that analysis of such policies is therefore vital. Information policy in legislation and guidelines in Swedish archaeology serves as a case study, and examples from development-led archaeology and the museum sector illustrate how information policies have varied roles across different heritage sectors. There are historical and local trajectories in the policy documents specific to Sweden, but the discussion shows that the emergence of Swedish policies have many parallels with processes in other countries. The article provides recommendations for information policy development for archaeology and related areas.

  7. A Review and Analysis of the Current Policy on Early Childhood Education in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Pan, Yue-Juan

    2013-01-01

    Compared with the former policies on early childhood education, the policies recently issued in mainland China clearly defined early childhood education as an integral part of education and social public welfare and stipulated the responsibilities of the government in its development, shifting the developmental orientation to promoting social…

  8. Evaluation of policies to promote physical activity in afterschool programs: are we meeting current benchmarks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W; Rooney, Laura; Tilley, Falon; Beighle, Aaron; Webster, Collin

    2010-01-01

    Policies now recommend afterschool programs (ASP, 3-6 pm) provide children a minimum amount of physical activity daily. We examined the extent to which children attending ASPs meet existing national and state-level policies that specify expected levels of physical activity (PA). Accelerometer-derived physical activity (light and moderate-to-vigorous, MVPA) of 253 children (5-13 years) was compared to policies that recommend varying amounts of PA children should achieve during an ASP. The proportion of children achieving a policy ranged from 0.0% (California 60 min MVPA and North Carolina 20% of daily program time devoted to MVPA), 1.2% (California 30 min MVPA), to 48.2% (National Afterschool Association 30 min light plus MVPA). Random effects logistic models indicated boys (odds ratio [OR] range 2.0 to 6.27) and children from a minority background (Black/Hispanic, OR range 1.87 to 3.98) were more likely to achieve a recommended level of physical activity, in comparison to girls and White children. Neither age nor BMI were related to achieving a policy. The PA of children attending ASP falls below policy recommended levels; however, these policies were developed in absence of data on expected PA levels during ASPs. Thus, concerted effort towards building a stronger ASP evidence-base for policy refinement is required. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Women's Views about Gender Equality on the Current Social Policy in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztop, Hülya; Finkel, Müge

    2015-01-01

    Women's equal participation in all aspects of social, political and economic life is an essential requirement for sustainable development and democratic governance. How to engage women in these different spheres of policy, increase their access to information and ensure their participation in policy debates are therefore among the key questions…

  10. DNA-based identification of invasive alien species in relation to Canadian federal policy and law, and the basis of rapid-response management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Vernon G; Hanner, Robert H; Borisenko, Alex V

    2016-11-01

    Managing invasive alien species in Canada requires reliable taxonomic identification as the basis of rapid-response management. This can be challenging, especially when organisms are small and lack morphological diagnostic features. DNA-based techniques, such as DNA barcoding, offer a reliable, rapid, and inexpensive toolkit for taxonomic identification of individual or bulk samples, forensic remains, and even environmental DNA. Well suited for this requirement, they could be more broadly deployed and incorporated into the operating policy and practices of Canadian federal departments and should be authorized under these agencies' articles of law. These include Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Transport Canada, Environment Canada, Parks Canada, and Health Canada. These efforts should be harmonized with the appropriate provisions of provincial jurisdictions, for example, the Ontario Invasive Species Act. This approach necessitates that a network of accredited, certified laboratories exists, and that updated DNA reference libraries are readily accessible. Harmonizing this approach is vital among Canadian federal agencies, and between the federal and provincial levels of government. Canadian policy and law must also be harmonized with that of the USA when detecting, and responding to, invasive species in contiguous lands and waters. Creating capacity in legislation for use of DNA-based identifications brings the authority to fund, train, deploy, and certify staff, and to refine further developments in this molecular technology.

  11. Colombian ancillary services and international connections: Current weaknesses and policy challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvajal, S.X.; Serrano, J.; Arango, S.

    2013-01-01

    Ancillary services are required to maintain the unity, stability, and quality of power systems. In Colombia these services are required to operate the national power system and the international connections with the neighboring countries. The system is influenced by factors ranging from system's topology to social and political aspects, such as the large number of terrorist attacks. In light of these particularities, we consider Colombia as a learning lab for ancillary services in the region. Colombia's power system relies on three ancillary services for its operation, namely frequency regulation, voltage control, and blackstart service. From 2010 Special Protection Systems were also added. In this paper we first analyze the technical aspects, operational restrictions, financial management, and the most relevant regulatory conditions of these ancillary services of the SIN. We also take into consideration the main regulatory characteristics and statistical data related to energy exchanges that have taken place between Colombia and Venezuela and Ecuador. Thereafter, we depict the main weaknesses and policy challenges that Colombia must address in order to increase the effectiveness and coverage of ancillary services in both the SIN and in the international interconnections. Finally, we propose new market oriented regulations to encourage investments and new tools for international connections. - Highlights: ► Blackout of 2007 forces Colombian regulator to improve security of power system. ► Four ancillary services are currently used for secure operation of Colombian system. ► Special Protection Systems service added in 2010. ► Frequency control is the only remunerated service in Colombia. ► Legislation should exist for remuneration of voltage control and black start services.

  12. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dumbaugh, Kerry

    2007-01-01

    .... policy makers have adopted tougher stances on issues involving China and U.S.-China relations, concerned about the impact of the PRC's strong economic growth and a more assertive international diplomacy...

  13. Correlation and regression analysis of tools influencing on targets of monetary policy of Central Bank of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordyachkova O. V.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available the article presents the correlation and regression analysis of the influence of the Central Bank tools of Russian monetary policy on its aims. Such analysis is the basic method of estimating monetary policy efficiency by means of quantity-related parameters. The results outlined by the authors prove the lack of efficiency of influencing tools: inflation, money supply and the exchange rate.

  14. Flexible working policies and environments in UK Local Authorities: current practice

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Ilfryn

    2001-01-01

    The research surveys the uptake of 'modern' or flexible working practices in UK Local Authorities, especially as it impacts on property and office accommodation.\\ud Nearly all permit flexible starting and finishing times for as many employees as is practical while forms of accredited hours working for at least some appropriate employees are policy in a majority. Flexible practices with property and ICT implications, working from home without a dedicated work station, formal policies, 'hot' de...

  15. The Evolving Arctic: Current State of U.S. Arctic Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    to advance national interests. The U.S. has not yet acceded to UNCLOS, and trails its Arctic neighbors in regards to national policy and direction...maritime transportation, and maritime tourism are expanding exponentially. As commercial opportunities increase in the region, the U.S. needs an...UNCLOS without having ratified it, it trails behind the remainder of the Arctic states on its policy and in asserting its

  16. 78 FR 23885 - Federal Seed Act Program; Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service [Doc. No. AMS-LS-13-0008] Federal Seed...: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Request for comments. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. Chapter 35), this document announces the Agricultural Marketing Service's...

  17. Sexual Violence Prevention and Response at Institutions of Higher Education in a Changing Federal Landscape: A Feminist Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royster, Leigh-Anne A.

    2017-01-01

    Gender based violence is experienced at higher rates on college campuses than in other communities. One in five women experience acquaintance rape during their academic career and less than 5% of college women who have experienced sexual assault report their victimization (Fisher, Cullen, & Turner, 2000). Recent federal guidance is meant to…

  18. Key Informant Perspectives on Federal Research Agency Policy and Systems and Scientific Workforce Diversity Development: A Companion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Corey L.; Wang, Ningning; Davis, Dytisha; Aref, Fariborz; Manyibe, Edward O.; Washington, Andre L.; Johnson, Jean; Eugene-Cross, Kenyotta; Muhammad, Atashia; Jennings-Jones, Desiree

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In the previous analysis of key informant perspectives on minority research leaders' career development factors, we identified individual and sociocultural, institutional, and federal research agency (i.e., National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research; National Institutes of Health; Agency for…

  19. Early and School-Age Care in Santa Monica: Current System, Policy Options, and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Ashley; Karoly, Lynn A.; Zellman, Gail L.; Beckett, Megan K.

    2014-01-01

    The landscape of early learning and out-of-school-time programs in the City of Santa Monica is complex, with numerous providers and funding streams. This complexity reflects its evolution in response to changes in federal, state, and local priorities and initiatives. Future shifts in funding levels, program auspices, and other features are likely.…

  20. Averting Current and Future Special Education Faculty Shortages: Policy Implications and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jane E.; Hardman, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    The federal government plays an indispensable role in preparing special education personnel to become teacher educators in higher education. The 2011 Special Education Faculty Needs Assessment study documents a continued supply-demand imbalance of special education faculty. It also documents effectiveness and impact of the Office of Special…

  1. 76 FR 76622 - Federal Management Regulation; Motor Vehicle Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ...; Docket 2011-0011; Sequence 2] RIN 3090-AJ14 Federal Management Regulation; Motor Vehicle Management... Administration is amending the Federal Management Regulation (FMR) by revising current policy on the definitions... CONTACT: For clarification of content, contact Mr. James Vogelsinger, Director, Motor Vehicle Management...

  2. Dress codes and appearance policies: challenges under federal legislation, part 2: title VII of the civil rights act and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S; Koen, Clifford M; Darden, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    As more and more individuals express themselves with tattoos and body piercings and push the envelope on what is deemed appropriate in the workplace, employers have an increased need for creation and enforcement of reasonable dress codes and appearance policies. As with any employment policy or practice, an appearance policy must be implemented and enforced without regard to an individual's race, color, gender, national origin, religion, disability, age, or other protected status. A policy governing dress and appearance based on the business needs of an employer that is applied fairly and consistently and does not have a disproportionate effect on any protected class will generally be upheld if challenged in court. By examining some of the more common legal challenges to dress codes and how courts have resolved the disputes, health care managers can avoid many potential problems. This article, the second part of a 3-part examination of dress codes and appearance policies, focuses on the issue of gender under the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Pertinent court cases that provide guidance for employers are addressed.

  3. Physician payment 2008 for interventionalists: current state of health care policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Giordano, James

    2007-09-01

    Physicians in the United States have been affected by significant changes in the pattern(s) of medical practice evolving over the last several decades. These changes include new measures to 1) curb increasing costs, 2) increase access to patient care, 3) improve quality of healthcare, and 4) pay for prescription drugs. Escalating healthcare costs have focused concerns about the financial solvency of Medicare and this in turn has fostered a renewed interest in the economic basis of interventional pain management practices. The provision and systemization of healthcare in North America and several European countries are difficult enterprises to manage irrespective of whether these provisions and systems are privatized (as in the United States) or nationalized or seminationalized (as in Great Britain, Canada, Australia and France). Consequently, while many management options have been put forth, none seem to be optimally geared toward affording healthcare as a maximized individual and social good, and none have been completely enacted. The current physician fee schedule (released on July 12, 2007) includes a 9.9% cut in payment rate. Since the Medicare program was created in 1965, several methods have been used to determine physicians' rate(s) for each covered service. The sustained growth rate (SGR) system, established in 1998, has evoked negative consequences on physician payment(s). Based on the current Medicare expenditure index, practice expenses are projected to increase by 34.5% from 2002 to 2016, whereas, if actual practice inflation is considered, this increase will be 90%. This is in contrast to projected physician payment cuts that are depicted to be 51%. No doubt, this scenario will be devastating to many practices and the US medical community at large. Resolutions to this problem have been offered by MedPAC, the Government Accountability Office, physician organizations, economists, and various other interested groups. In the past, temporary measures have

  4. The European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics Policy Statement No 14, The role of the Medical Physicist in the management of safety within the magnetic resonance imaging environment, EFOMP recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hand, J.; Bosmans, H.; Caruana, C.; Keevil, S.; Norris, David Gordon; Padovani, R.; Speck, O.

    2013-01-01

    This European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics (EFOMP) Policy Statement outlines the way in which a Safety Management System can be developed for MRI units. The Policy Statement can help eliminate or at least minimize accidents or incidents in the magnetic resonance environment and is

  5. A Fiscal Cliff: The Current U.S. Federal Budget, Potential Cuts, and Impacts on Science Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenbrock, K. M.; Landau, E. A.; Hankin, E. R.

    2012-12-01

    As lawmakers on Capitol Hill face challenges to reach an agreement on how to cut the deficit while growing the economy, scientists must join the discussion and outline the serious impacts cuts to federal science programs will have on our society. Consistent and sustained federal science funding (discretionary spending) is an ever increasing struggle with the rising costs of mandatory spending and decrease in revenues. In 2011 Congress passed the Budget Control Act, which will require automatic across-the-board cuts, known as sequestration, and will take effect on 2 January 2013. Estimated cuts of $1.2 trillion and discretionary spending caps set at Fiscal Year 2012 levels will trigger non-defense program cuts of 9.8% in the first year as reported by the Congressional Research Service. Funding from non-defense program agencies such as NSF, NASA, DOE, NOAA, USGS, and others drive science and technological innovation, support public safety, create jobs, educate generations of scientists, stimulate the economy, protect our environment, and enrich lives. With non-defense discretionary programs representing less than one-fifth of the federal budget, severe cuts to these programs will not alleviate our deficit, but instead restrict our growth.

  6. [Health and indigenous peoples in Brazil: notes on some current policy mistakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Marina Denise

    2014-04-01

    This article aims to analyze health policies for indigenous peoples in Brazil with reference to the 1988 National Constitution and its consequences for their healthcare. Three components are central to this analysis: the management model, based on the concepts of "autonomy" and "social control", but essentially expressing the forms of indigenous representation and participation in public policies; the concept of "differential care" for establishing an inclusive (but operationally normative) healthcare model; and the relationship between the management model for indigenous healthcare and indigenous therapeutic practices.

  7. The Current Mind-Set of Federal Information Security Decision-Makers on the Value of Governance: An Informative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroup, Jay Walter

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mind-set or perceptions of organizational leaders and decision-makers is important to ascertaining the trends and priorities in policy and governance of the organization. This study finds that a significant shift in the mind-set of government IT and information security leaders has started and will likely result in placing a…

  8. Vast Rise of Unconventional Hydraulic Fracturing in the United States, and the Extensive Adverse Ecological and Legal Consequences, Resulting from Failed Federal and State Regulatory Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krokus, A.

    2017-12-01

    The quantity of unconventional HF campaigns has increased immensely, predominantly in the US, over the past decade. Numerous scholars have published research pertaining to the negative consequences resulting from HF. The principal contributor of the detrimental damage sustained, is the regulations administering HF, fail to protect against adverse externalities such as the increased frequency and intensity of injection induced seismicity. Induced earthquakes are now associated within the scope of civil litigation. Historically, seismicity has been perceived as an unpredictable catastrophic event. Currently, there is a plethora of litigation transpiring due to induced seismicity. These credible cases pose as a peril to existing legal theory, generating the potential to manifest profound consequences. Conducting qualitative policy oriented research indicated that regulations which protect against unfavorable repercussions, are administered by state authorities and corporations, who provide absolute governance. The EPA of 2005, 42 USCS § 15801 exempted HF from CWA, 33 USCS § 1251 and SWDA, 42 USCS § 300f. Applying an analytical jurisprudence approach, utilizing qualitative, longitudinal, and explanatory indagation, this study reviewed judicial dictum, orbiter dictum, along with transcripts related to every pending, dismissed, or settled litigated claim, related to damages involving induced seismicity in the states of AR, OK, and TX. Concluding that plaintiffs seeking declaratory and injunctive relief under RCRA, 42 U.S.C. § 6972(a)(1)(B) will be unsuccessful. District judges have followed precedent established by 319 U.S. 315 (1943), recently demonstrated in Sierra Club v. Chesapeake Operating, 5:16-CV-00134, and Pawnee Nation v. Eagle Road Oil, No. CIV-2017-803. Federal legislators can enact safe regulations under U.S. Const. art. I, § 8, cl. 3, articulated in 312 U.S. 100 (1941), reaffirmed by 317 U.S. 111 (1942), and 514 U.S. 549 (1995). OR has predicted a 40

  9. Performance-Based Design for Arson Threats: Policy Analysis of the Physical Security for Federal Facilities Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    standard, the ISC published a companion document, the DBT, which includes 31 scenarios potential adversaries might employ to attack federal facilities. The... companion documents fall short of this objective in several ways. The scenarios are inconsistently defined, and some significant (albeit not criminal...impossible, because if the Almighty Allah commanded to destroy, He destroys. (AQ Chef , 2012, p. 35) A second article in the same Inspire issue

  10. Communication Received from the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Director General has received a note verbale, dated 1 October 2002, from the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Germany to the IAEA in the enclosure of which the Government of Germany, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in document INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998) has made available the data on the plutonium inventory on German territory as of 31 December 2001

  11. Communication Received from the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Director General has received a note verbale, dated 1 October 2002, from the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Germany to the IAEA in the enclosure of which the Government of Germany, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in document INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998) has made available the data on the plutonium inventory on German territory as of 31 December 2001

  12. Integrated primary health care in Greece, a missing issue in the current health policy agenda: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Lionis

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past years, Greece has undergone several endeavors aimed at modernizing and improving national health care services with a focus on PHC. However, the extent to which integrated primary health care has been achieved is still questioned. Purpose: This paper explores the extent to which integrated primary health care (PHC is an issue in the current agenda of policy makers in Greece, reporting constraints and opportunities and highlighting the need for a policy perspective in developing integrated PHC in this Southern European country. Methods: A systematic review in PubMed/Medline and SCOPUS, along with a hand search in selected Greek biomedical journals was undertaken to identify key papers, reports, editorials or opinion letters relevant to integrated health care. Results: Our systematic review identified 198 papers and 161 out of them were derived from electronic search. Fifty-three papers in total served the scope of this review and are shortly reported. A key finding is that the long-standing dominance of medical perspectives in Greek health policy has been paving the way towards vertical integration, pushing aside any discussions about horizontal or comprehensive integration of care. Conclusion: Establishment of integrated PHC in Greece is still at its infancy, requiring major restructuring of the current national health system, as well as organizational culture changes. Moving towards a new policy-based model would bring this missing issue on the discussion table, facilitating further development.

  13. 40 CFR 26.103 - Assuring compliance with this policy-research conducted or supported by any Federal Department or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.103 Assuring compliance with this... responsibilities for protecting the rights and welfare of human subjects of research conducted at or sponsored by...

  14. Dress codes and appearance policies: challenges under federal legislation, part 1: title VII of the civil rights act and religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S; Koen, Clifford M; Moore, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    As more and more individuals choose to express themselves and their religious beliefs with headwear, jewelry, dress, tattoos, and body piercings and push the envelope on what is deemed appropriate in the workplace, employers have an increased need for creation and enforcement of reasonable dress codes and appearance policies. As with any employment policy or practice, an appearance policy must be implemented and enforced without regard to an individual's race, color, sex, national origin, religion, disability, age, or any other protected status. A policy governing dress and appearance based on the business needs of an employer that is applied fairly and consistently and does not have a disproportionate effect on any protected class will generally be upheld if challenged in court. By examining some of the more common legal challenges to dress codes and how courts have resolved the disputes, health care managers can avoid many potential problems. This article addresses the issue of religious discrimination focusing on dress and appearance and some of the court cases that provide guidance for employers.

  15. Linking Housing and School Integration Policy: What Federal, State and Local Governments Can Do. Issue Brief No. 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegeler, Philip

    2015-01-01

    This Issue Brief states that, in spite of the obvious "reciprocal relationship" between housing and school policy, government housing and education agencies have rarely collaborated to promote the common goals of racial and economic integration. Recent efforts to promote collaboration among housing and school agencies have focused on…

  16. Policies for patient access to clinical data via PHRs: current state and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sarah A; Vawdrey, David K; Kukafka, Rita; Kuperman, Gilad J

    2011-12-01

    Healthcare delivery organizations are increasingly using online personal health records (PHRs) to provide patients with direct access to their clinical information; however, there may be a lack of consistency in the data made available. We aimed to understand the general use and functionality of PHRs and the organizational policies and decision-making structures for making data available to patients. A cross-sectional survey was administered by telephone structured interview to 21 organizations to determine the types of data made available to patients through PHRs and the presence of explicit governance for PHR data release. Organizations were identified based on a review of the literature, PHR experts, and snowball sampling. Organizations that did not provide patients with electronic access to their data via a PHR were excluded. Interviews were conducted with 17 organizations for a response rate of 81%. Half of the organizations had explicit governance in the form of a written policy that outlined the data types made available to patients. Overall, 88% of the organizations used a committee structure for the decision-making process and included senior management and information services. All organizations sought input from clinicians. Discussion There was considerable variability in the types of clinical data and the time frame for releasing these data to patients. Variability in data release policies may have implications for PHR use and adoption. Future policy activities, such as requirement specification for the latter stages of Meaningful Use, should be leveraged as an opportunity to encourage standardization of functionality and broad deployment of PHRs.

  17. Contested Discourses of Teacher Professionalism: Current Tensions between Education Policy and Teachers' Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausethagen, Solvi; Granlund, Lise

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses constructions and redefinitions of teacher professionalism by focusing on the discursive negotiations between the government and the teachers' union in Norway. Based on an examination of three white papers on teacher education from the past 15 years and policy documents put forth by the Union of Education Norway during the…

  18. Teacher Quality, Teacher Effectiveness and the Diminishing Returns of Current Education Policy Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skourdoumbis, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    This paper engages with an overt policy storyline, namely that the effective classroom teaching practice(s) of quality teachers not only corrects for but overcomes post-Fordist capital insecurities. Increasingly considered the sole and only solid foundations needed to enhance student achievement as preparation for twenty-first century economic…

  19. Valuation of Drug Abuse: A Review of Current Methodologies and Implications for Policy Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schori, Maayan

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the use of several valuation methods as they relate to drug abuse and places them within the context of U.S. policy. First, cost-of-illness (COI) studies are reviewed and their limitations discussed. Second, three additional economic methods of valuing drug abuse are reviewed, including cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA),…

  20. Learning Disabilities: Current Policy and Directions for Community Involvement among the Arab Community in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabareen-Taha, Samaher; Taha, Haitham

    2016-01-01

    This article seeks to identify and review the basic characteristics of learning disability which are specifically mentioned in the literature. In addition, the article intends to conduct a brief analysis on learning disability policy in Israel and the differentiation problems at the level of awareness among the Arab society in Israel. Despite the…

  1. Student Loan Debt and Economic Outcomes. Current Policy Perspective No. 14-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Daniel; Wang, J. Christina

    2014-01-01

    This policy brief advances the growing literature on how student loan debt affects individuals' other economic decisions. Specifically, it examines the impact of student loan liabilities on individuals' homeownership status and wealth accumulation. The analysis employs a rich set of financial and demographic control variables that are not…

  2. Federalism and bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Hagel, Alisa

    2014-01-01

    The absence of comprehensive federal oversight of human biotechnologies in the United States continues to stimulate academic discourse on the relative merits of European-style regulatory agencies as compared to the current, decentralized approach. Many American bioethicists support the latter, maintaining that the key features of federalism--policy experimentation and moral pluralism--allows for the efficient regulation of these complex and contentious issues. This paper examines state-level regulation of oocyte donation to assess claims regarding the superiority of this decentralized regulatory approach. Further, this paper introduces an additional element to this examination of state law, which concerns the degree to which the health and safety of key participants is addressed at the state level. This inquiry assesses one facet of fertility medicine and biomedical research law, oocyte donation, an analysis that can be used to inform the broader discourse regarding the regulation of human biotechnologies and bioethical issues by the states.

  3. Testing the price and affordability of healthy and current (unhealthy) diets and the potential impacts of policy change in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amanda J; Kane, Sarah; Ramsey, Rebecca; Good, Elizabeth; Dick, Mathew

    2016-04-12

    Price and affordability of foods are important determinants of health. Targeted food pricing policies may help improve population diets. However, methods producing comparable data to inform relevant policy decisions are lacking in Australia and globally. The objective was to develop and pilot standardised methods to assess the price, relative price and affordability of healthy (recommended) and current (unhealthy) diets and test impacts of a potential policy change. Methods followed the optimal approach proposed by INFORMAS using recent Australian dietary intake data and guidelines. Draft healthy and current (unhealthy) diet baskets were developed for five household structures. Food prices were collected in stores in a high and low SES location in Brisbane, Australia. Diet prices were calculated and compared with household incomes, and with potential changes to the Australian Taxation System. Wilcoxen-signed rank tests were used to compare differences in price. The draft tools and protocols were deemed acceptable at household level, but methods could be refined. All households spend more on current (unhealthy) diets than required to purchase healthy (recommended) diets, with the majority (53-64 %) of the food budget being spent on 'discretionary' choices, including take-away foods and alcohol. A healthy diet presently costs between 20-31 % of disposable income of low income households, but would become unaffordable for these families under proposed changes to expand the GST to apply to all foods in Australia. Results confirmed that diet pricing methods providing meaningful, comparable data to inform potential fiscal and health policy actions can be developed, but draft tools should be refined. Results suggest that healthy diets can be more affordable than current (unhealthy) diets in Australia, but other factors may be as important as price in determining food choices.

  4. Testing the price and affordability of healthy and current (unhealthy diets and the potential impacts of policy change in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J. Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Price and affordability of foods are important determinants of health. Targeted food pricing policies may help improve population diets. However, methods producing comparable data to inform relevant policy decisions are lacking in Australia and globally. The objective was to develop and pilot standardised methods to assess the price, relative price and affordability of healthy (recommended and current (unhealthy diets and test impacts of a potential policy change. Methods Methods followed the optimal approach proposed by INFORMAS using recent Australian dietary intake data and guidelines. Draft healthy and current (unhealthy diet baskets were developed for five household structures. Food prices were collected in stores in a high and low SES location in Brisbane, Australia. Diet prices were calculated and compared with household incomes, and with potential changes to the Australian Taxation System. Wilcoxen-signed rank tests were used to compare differences in price. Results The draft tools and protocols were deemed acceptable at household level, but methods could be refined. All households spend more on current (unhealthy diets than required to purchase healthy (recommended diets, with the majority (53–64 % of the food budget being spent on ‘discretionary’ choices, including take-away foods and alcohol. A healthy diet presently costs between 20–31 % of disposable income of low income households, but would become unaffordable for these families under proposed changes to expand the GST to apply to all foods in Australia. Conclusions Results confirmed that diet pricing methods providing meaningful, comparable data to inform potential fiscal and health policy actions can be developed, but draft tools should be refined. Results suggest that healthy diets can be more affordable than current (unhealthy diets in Australia, but other factors may be as important as price in determining food choices.

  5. Payment of research participants: current practice and policies of Irish research ethics committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Eric; King, Romaine; Mohan, Helen M; Gavin, Blanaid; McNicholas, Fiona

    2013-09-01

    Payment of research participants helps to increase recruitment for research studies, but can pose ethical dilemmas. Research ethics committees (RECs) have a centrally important role in guiding this practice, but standardisation of the ethical approval process in Ireland is lacking. Our aim was to examine REC policies, experiences and concerns with respect to the payment of participants in research projects in Ireland. Postal survey of all RECs in Ireland. Response rate was 62.5% (n=50). 80% of RECs reported not to have any established policy on the payment of research subjects while 20% had refused ethics approval to studies because the investigators proposed to pay research participants. The most commonly cited concerns were the potential for inducement and undermining of voluntary consent. There is considerable variability among RECs on the payment of research participants and a lack of clear consensus guidelines on the subject. The development of standardised guidelines on the payment of research subjects may enhance recruitment of research participants.

  6. Federal policy on criminal offenders who have substance use disorders: how can we maximize public health and public safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Keith

    2012-01-01

    The Obama Administration is striving to promote both public health and public safety by improving the public policy response to criminal offenders who have substance use disorders. This includes supporting drug courts, evidence-based probation and parole programs, addiction treatment and re-entry programs. Scientists and clinicians in the addiction field have a critical role to play in this much-needed effort to break the cycle of addiction, crime and incarceration.

  7. U.S.-Vietnam Relations in 2011: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    a policy of neutrality on the claims by the parties, which also include Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia , the Philippines, and Taiwan. Throughout 2009...territorial disputes. Roughly one and a half times the size of the Mediterranean Sea, it is ringed by China, Vietnam, Malaysia , Indonesia, Brunei...government to monitor data processed by these companies and/or more susceptible to government pressure on issues such as censorship .36 Many of the

  8. The climate end energy policy of the German Federal Government. Contribution to the French-German dialogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bausch, Camilla; Duwe, Matthias; Goerlach, Benjamin

    2014-07-01

    The German energy turnaround is at the heart of its climate and energy policy, but also determines Germany's attitude in international negotiations. Apart from the necessary revision of the Renewable Energy Act, the new coalition that took power in December 2013 will probably continue the previous climate and energy policy. The main changes are of a structural nature, and relate to a new distribution of competences between the Economy and Environment Ministries, which are, furthermore, for the first time headed by members of the same political party. At the EU level, Berlin could recover, thanks to a unified approach, its ability to influence climate and energy policies, and thus facilitate an agreement on the 2030 climate and energy package. Besides, for its own interests, Germany needs Europe to have high ambitions in so far as its national goals would be less difficult and costly to attain if they form part of an overall European approach. The personal engagement of the chancellor would certainly be an important variable in the negotiations, since Germany will chair the G7 in 2015. Similarly, in view of France hosting the United Nations climate summit (COP 21) in Paris in the same year, enhanced Franco-German cooperation would be in the interest of both countries and generate a strong political dynamic. (authors)

  9. Current policy and research on radioactive waste management in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsstroem, H.; Taylor, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    Each Member State of the European Union is responsible for the safe management and disposal of the radioactive waste produced on its own territory. This includes setting the policy and taking the necessary steps to ensure that the radioactive waste does not constitute a threat to the health of workers and to the general public. For the practical implementation of the policy, specific waste management organizations have been established. Extensive cooperation, not least in the area of research, is taking place between these organizations and between the regulatory authorities, both bilaterally and through the European Commission. Cooperation takes place through the European Commission by two different mechanisms, the Community Plan of Action in the field of radioactive waste and the EURATOM framework programme on research and training. In view of the future enlargement of the European Union, the Commission is also actively involved in the development of waste management practices in the Central and Eastern European countries. Waste management is also an important aspect of the Tacis and other nuclear safety support programmes to the States of the former Soviet Union. The general policies for waste management in all Member States are in harmony with the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. The specific policies are, however, dependent on the specific conditions of that State, e.g. the existence, size and time perspective of the nuclear power programme, the geological formations available for disposal (clay, salt, crystalline rock), etc. The management of short lived waste is an established practice in many Member States and the research needs are consequently low. Most of the policy efforts and research are thus dedicated to the management, treatment, conditioning and geological disposal of long lived waste and spent fuel. Each Member State with a nuclear power programme also has an important

  10. Questioning the Federal Role in Educational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, David H.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the Reagan administration's proposed budget cuts for education, educational research, and social science research. Holds that examples used to bolster the administration's criticisms of social and behavioral research come from the late 1960s/early 1970s, and ignore federally funded work currently focusing on educational practice, policy,…

  11. Radioprotective drugs: a synopsis of current research and a proposed research plan for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, R.; Anspaugh, L.

    1985-04-01

    FEMA has broad roles in the management of disasters potentially involving substantial amounts of radioactive contamination. These could be either peacetime or wartime disasters. A meeting was held in March 1985 to see if there are any research contributions that FEMA might reasonably make in the area of radioprotective drugs that would substantially enhance its ability to perform its mission. The other federal agencies presently sponsoring research in the field were represented at the meeting. A few selected researchers also participated to provide complementary viewpoints. Activities of a modest scale that FEMA might undertake were identified, as were larger scale activities that might be undertaken in the event of long-term, major funding-level increases for FEMA. 2 refs

  12. Monetary Policy in the Greenspan Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Møller; Nielsen, Heino Bohn

    2009-01-01

    Relationships between the Federal funds rate, unemployment, inflation and the long-term bond rate are investigated with cointegration techniques. We find a stable long-term relationship between the Federal funds rate, unemployment and the bond rate. This relationship is interpretable as a policy...... Taylor-type target, where inflation appears instead of the bond rate, does not seem congruent with the data....... target because deviations are corrected via the Federal funds rate. Deviations of the actual Federal funds rate from the estimated target give simple indications of discretionary monetary policy, and the larger deviations relate to special episodes outside the current information set. A more traditional...

  13. Alternative fuel buses currently in use in China: Life-cycle fossil energy use, GHG emissions and policy recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Xunmin; Zhang Xiliang; Chang Shiyan

    2010-01-01

    The Chinese government has enacted policies to promote alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), including city bus fleets. The life cycle (LC), energy savings (ES) and GHG reduction (GR) profiles of AVFs/AFVs are critical to those policy decisions. The well-to-wheels module of the Tsinghua-CA3EM model is employed to investigate actual performance data. Compared with conventional buses, AFVs offer differences in performance in terms of both ES and GR. Only half of the AFVs analyzed demonstrate dual benefits. However, all non-oil/gas pathways can substitute oil/gas with coal. Current policies seek to promote technology improvements and market creation initiatives within the guiding framework of national-level diversification and district-level uniformity. Combined with their actual LC behavior and in keeping with near- and long-term strategies, integrated policies should seek to (1) apply hybrid electric technology to diesel buses; (2) encourage NG/LPG buses in gas-abundant cities; (3) promote commercialize electric buses or plug-in capable vehicles through battery technology innovation; (4) support fuel cell buses and hydrogen technology R and D for future potential applications; and (5) conduct further research on boosting vehicle fuel efficiency, applying low-carbon transportation technologies, and addressing all resultant implications of coal-based transportation solutions to human health and natural resources.

  14. Alternative fuel buses currently in use in China: Life-cycle fossil energy use, GHG emissions and policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou Xunmin, E-mail: oxm07@mails.tsinghua.edu.c [School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang Xiliang, E-mail: zhang_xl@tsinghua.edu.c [China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chang Shiyan [China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The Chinese government has enacted policies to promote alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), including city bus fleets. The life cycle (LC), energy savings (ES) and GHG reduction (GR) profiles of AVFs/AFVs are critical to those policy decisions. The well-to-wheels module of the Tsinghua-CA3EM model is employed to investigate actual performance data. Compared with conventional buses, AFVs offer differences in performance in terms of both ES and GR. Only half of the AFVs analyzed demonstrate dual benefits. However, all non-oil/gas pathways can substitute oil/gas with coal. Current policies seek to promote technology improvements and market creation initiatives within the guiding framework of national-level diversification and district-level uniformity. Combined with their actual LC behavior and in keeping with near- and long-term strategies, integrated policies should seek to (1) apply hybrid electric technology to diesel buses; (2) encourage NG/LPG buses in gas-abundant cities; (3) promote commercialize electric buses or plug-in capable vehicles through battery technology innovation; (4) support fuel cell buses and hydrogen technology R and D for future potential applications; and (5) conduct further research on boosting vehicle fuel efficiency, applying low-carbon transportation technologies, and addressing all resultant implications of coal-based transportation solutions to human health and natural resources.

  15. Alternative fuel buses currently in use in China. Life-cycle fossil energy use, GHG emissions and policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Xunmin [School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Xiliang; Chang, Shiyan [China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The Chinese government has enacted policies to promote alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), including city bus fleets. The life cycle (LC), energy savings (ES) and GHG reduction (GR) profiles of AVFs/AFVs are critical to those policy decisions. The well-to-wheels module of the Tsinghua-CA3EM model is employed to investigate actual performance data. Compared with conventional buses, AFVs offer differences in performance in terms of both ES and GR. Only half of the AFVs analyzed demonstrate dual benefits. However, all non-oil/gas pathways can substitute oil/gas with coal. Current policies seek to promote technology improvements and market creation initiatives within the guiding framework of national-level diversification and district-level uniformity. Combined with their actual LC behavior and in keeping with near- and long-term strategies, integrated policies should seek to (1) apply hybrid electric technology to diesel buses; (2) encourage NG/LPG buses in gas-abundant cities; (3) promote commercialize electric buses or plug-in capable vehicles through battery technology innovation; (4) support fuel cell buses and hydrogen technology R and D for future potential applications; and (5) conduct further research on boosting vehicle fuel efficiency, applying low-carbon transportation technologies, and addressing all resultant implications of coal-based transportation solutions to human health and natural resources. (author)

  16. APA guidelines: their importance and a plan to keep them current: 2013 annual report of the Policy and Planning Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    When guidelines are approved by APA, they become association policy, and it is imperative that they remain current. The revision of guidelines poses several challenges to the association. These challenges range from the availability and allocation of resources to support the complicated processes involved in developing and updating these policies to the lack of a clearly defined process that includes identification of tasks, assignments of responsibilities, and so forth. For this reason, the APA Board of Directors asked the Policy and Planning Board (P&P) to work with the boards of the four directorates (i.e., the Education Directorate, the Practice Directorate, the Public Interest Directorate, and the Science Directorate) to create a proposal that would (a) make recommendations with regard to how the review and revision of guidelines documents might best be accomplished in accordance with the APA Strategic Plan and existing policies and procedures and (b) make suggestions regarding the association resources that might be required. The Board of Directors approved the proposed review process in December 2013. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  17. New directions in federal energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsberg, M.

    1993-01-01

    The fuel embargo of 1973, followed by the oil disruption of 1979 heightened national security concerns over the availability and price of foreign oil to sustain all sectors of the U.S. economy. As a result of our growing dependence on foreign oil and diminishing resources at home, the Federal government has worked since 1974 to identify and implement a variety of measures to reduce energy consumption in Federal buildings and operations. Federal energy expenditures peaked at almost $14 billion in 1982 but has now been reduced to approximately $10 billion a year. However, much more needs to be done. Since the 1973 oil embargo, a series of legislative initiatives and Presidential authorities established the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) and then expanded it to address a broad range of energy-related issues affecting the Federal sector. Administered by the U.S. Department of Energy, FEMP coordinates the design and implementation of energy-saving programs for Federal buildings and operations. This includes working with other Federal agencies through interagency committees to interpret and implement Federal policy, to provide technical assistance to other Federal agencies, and to collect and report Federal energy consumption data to Congress. In addition, with the passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, concerns over global climate change and a range of man-made and natural pollutants, environmental issues now play a critical role in our nation's energy policy. As a major consumer of energy, the Federal sector can serve as an important model for other sectors of the economy as a result of some of the innovative and cost-effective measures planned or currently underway. My talk today will focus on the Federal government's plans to ensure the energy efficient design and operation of Federal facilities, with an emphasis on life-cycle cost analyses

  18. The Value of CCS under Current Policy Scenarios: NDCs and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Casie L.; Dahowski, Robert T.; McJeon, Haewon C.; Clarke, Leon E.; Iyer, Gokul C.; Muratori, Matteo

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes preliminary results of analysis using the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) to evaluate the potential role of CCS in addressing emissions reduction targets. Scenarios are modelled using the Paris-Increased Ambition (PIA) case developed by Fawcett et al. (2015), and a more aggressive Paris Two-Degree Ambition (P2A) case. Both cases are based upon nationally determined contributions (NDCs) agreed to at the UNFCCC Conference of Parties (COP-21) in December 2015, coupled with additional mitigation effort beyond the 2030 Paris timeframe, through the end of the century. Analysis of CCS deployment and abatement costs under both policy scenarios suggests that, as modelled, having CCS in the technological portfolio could reduce the global cost of addressing emissions reduction targets specified under the policy scenario by trillions of dollars, primarily by enabling a smoother and lower-cost transition to next-generation technologies. Through the end of the century, total global abatement costs associated with the PIA case – with five percent annual reduction in emission intensity and reaching 2.2 degrees by 2100 – are reduced by $15 trillion USD in the scenario where CCS is available to deploy by 2025 and remains available through 2100, reflecting a 47 percent savings in the cost of climate change abatement. Under the more ambitious P2A case, with 8 percent annual reduction in emission intensity and reaching 1.9 degrees by 2100, the availability of CCS reduces global abatement costs by $22 trillion USD through the end of the century, again nearly halving the costs of addressing the policy, relative to achieving the same target using an energy portfolio that does not include CCS. PIA and P2A scenarios with CCS result in 1,250 and 1,580 GtCO2 of global geologic storage by the end of the century, respectively.

  19. An Analysis of Alternatives to New York City's Current Marijuana Arrest and Detention Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Bruce D.; Golub, Andrew; Dunlap, Eloise; Sifaneck, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    During the 1990s, the New York Police Department (NYPD) instituted a policy of arresting and detaining people for minor offenses that occur in public as part of their quality-of-life (hereafter QOL) policing initiative. The number of NYPD arrests for smoking marijuana in public view (MPV) increased from 3,000 in 1994 to over 50,000 in 2000, and have been about 30,000 in the mid 2000s. Most of these arrestees (84%) have been minority; blacks have been 2.7 more likely and Hispanics 1.8 times mo...

  20. The absorption of UE funds in the current context of the cohesion policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrescu, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Romania continues to be affected by the global recession. It has suffered a significant reduction in foreign investment since the start of the recession, as investors have moved away from emerging markets in search for security. Developing an appropriate, focused strategy for the allocation of EU funds is only the first, though perhaps the most important step in implementing the EU cohesion policy. The successful implementation of EU co-funded projects is contingent not only upon the effectiveness of these countries’ administrative systems, but also on the activity of the potential beneficiaries.

  1. Federated Identity Management

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract. This paper addresses the topic of federated identity management. It discusses in detail the following topics: what is digital identity, what is identity management, what is federated identity management, Kim Camerons 7 Laws of Identity, how can we protect the users privacy in a federated environment, levels of assurance, some past and present federated identity management systems, and some current research in FIM.

  2. The framing of unconventional natural gas resources in the foreign energy policy discourse of the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocelík, Petr; Osička, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The advent of unconventional resources of natural gas has altered the order on global as well as continental gas markets. With rising liquidity, the position of established dominant suppliers is eroding. We focus on the initial response of Russia, the leading supplier of natural gas to Europe, to the new situation, building the research on unit-level constructivism and discourse analysis. We use frame analysis to reveal what image of unconventional resources was constructed in Russian foreign energy policy discourse (FEPD) in the period between 2009 and 2011, when the “unconventional revolution” did not yet have any sharp contours. We conclude that in Russian FEPD the unconventionals are considered as a distinctive and inferior source of energy compared to conventional natural gas. Emphasis is put on their economic irrationality and environmental hazards. The bottom line of the discourse is the idea that there is a choice between conventional and unconventional sources, with this choice being framed as one between good and bad, or right and wrong. - Highlights: • We examine the image of “unconventional gas” in Russian foreign energy policy discourse. • Two main frames (reliable supplier and triumphant natural gas) were identified. • Two main argumentation schemes (economic and environmental) were identified. • The “unconventional gas” is defined as a mistaken and inferior source of energy

  3. Medication management policy, practice and research in Australian residential aged care: Current and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluggett, Janet K; Ilomäki, Jenni; Seaman, Karla L; Corlis, Megan; Bell, J Simon

    2017-02-01

    Eight percent of Australians aged 65 years and over receive residential aged care each year. Residents are increasingly older, frailer and have complex care needs on entry to residential aged care. Up to 63% of Australian residents of aged care facilities take nine or more medications regularly. Together, these factors place residents at high risk of adverse drug events. This paper reviews medication-related policies, practices and research in Australian residential aged care. Complex processes underpin prescribing, supply and administration of medications in aged care facilities. A broad range of policies and resources are available to assist health professionals, aged care facilities and residents to optimise medication management. These include national guiding principles, a standardised national medication chart, clinical medication reviews and facility accreditation standards. Recent Australian interventions have improved medication use in residential aged care facilities. Generating evidence for prescribing and deprescribing that is specific to residential aged care, health workforce reform, medication-related quality indicators and inter-professional education in aged care are important steps toward optimising medication use in this setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental policy between repair and prevention. An introduction, with reference to the Federal Republic of Germany in the international context. Umweltpolitik zwischen Reparatur und Vorbeugung. Eine Einfuehrung am Beispiel Bundesrepublik im internationalen Kontext

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaeser, B

    1989-01-01

    With reference to the Federal Republic of Germany, the author first of all describes the origin and development of a national environmental policy and its instruments. Subsequently, selected problem fields (air, water, soil, waste, chemicals) are dealt with in greater detail. Basic facts and issues of 'transfrontier environmental pollution' of an 'external policy for the environment', and of environmental policy in developing countries form the objects of the following chapters. At last the 'consequences for environmental strategies in industrialized and developing countries' are discussed. The author pleads for greater emphasis to be placed on ecological ethics and calls for a more preventively oriented, i.e. prospective and anticipatory, environmental policy. (orig.).

  5. Health care justice and its implications for current policy of a mandatory waiting period for elective tubal sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moaddab, Amirhossein; McCullough, Laurence B; Chervenak, Frank A; Fox, Karin A; Aagaard, Kjersti Marie; Salmanian, Bahram; Raine, Susan P; Shamshirsaz, Alireza A

    2015-06-01

    Tubal sterilization during the immediate postpartum period is 1 of the most common forms of contraception in the United States. This time of the procedure has the advantage of 1-time hospitalization, which results in ease and convenience for the woman. The US Collaborative Review of Sterilization Study indicates the high efficacy and effectiveness of postpartum tubal sterilization. Oral and written informed consent is the ethical and legal standard for the performance of elective tubal sterilization for permanent contraception for all patients, regardless of source of payment. Current health care policy and practice regarding elective tubal sterilization for Medicaid beneficiaries places a unique requirement on these patients and their obstetricians: a mandatory waiting period. This requirement originates in decades-old legislation, which we briefly describe. We then introduce the concept of health care justice in professional obstetric ethics and explain how it originates in the ethical concepts of medicine as a profession and of being a patient and its deontologic and consequentialist dimensions. We next identify the implications of health care justice for the current policy of a mandatory 30-day waiting period. We conclude that Medicaid policy allocates access to elective tubal sterilization differently, based on source of payment and gender, which violates health care justice in both its deontologic and consequentialist dimensions. Obstetricians should invoke health care justice in women's health care as the basis for advocacy for needed change in law and health policy, to eliminate health care injustice in women's access to elective tubal sterilization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The current state of external quality control surveys in the German Federal Republic in the field of peptide hormone radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marschner, I.; Scriba, P.C.; Wood, W.G.; Breuer, H.; Jungbluth, D.; Roehle, G.

    1977-01-01

    Two types of quality control surveys (QSC) are performed in the Federal Republic of Germany in the field of hormone assays: 1) The distribution of two lyophilized sera at regular intervals, in which the participants have to determine 7 or 8 different hormones. Because of the lack of reference methods for peptide hormones, the statistical evaluation of the results indicates only whether the results of the participants are 'correct' or contain systematic or nonsystematic errors with respect to the findings of the other participants. 2) The distribution of approximately 20 deep-frozen sera (including a standard curve in hormone-free serum) in which the participant has to assay a single hormone. These 20 sera-QCS are performed only at long intervals for a given hormone. The statistical analysis of the rate of the radioactive counts of the QCS-sera and those of the participants' standard curves allows - together with a methodological inquiry form - detection of probable causes for deviating results. (orig.) [de

  7. Competition in health insurance markets: limitations of current measures for policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Dennis P; Chernew, Michael; Swaminathan, Shailender; Lee, Woolton

    2006-12-01

    Health care reform proposals often rely on increased competition in health insurance markets to drive improved performance in health care costs, access, and quality. We examine a range of data issues related to the measures of health insurance competition used in empirical studies published from 1994-2004. The literature relies exclusively on market structure and penetration variables to measure competition. While these measures are correlated, the degree of correlation is modest, suggesting that choice of measure could influence empirical results. Moreover, certain measurement issues such as the lack of data on PPO enrollment, the treatment of small firms, and omitted market characteristics also could affect the conclusions in empirical studies. Importantly, other types of measures related to competition (e.g., the availability of information on price and outcomes, degree of entry barriers, etc.) are important from both a theoretical and policy perspective, but their impact on market outcomes has not been widely studied.

  8. Energy sector assistance in developing countries: Current trends and policy recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tharakan, Pradeep J.; Castro, Julio de; Kroeger, Timm

    2007-01-01

    An estimated 2.5 billion people remain without access to modern energy supplies. This shortfall is expected to grow as the population in developing countries continues to grow rapidly and the existing infrastructure ages. The United Nations' goal of lowering poverty by half by 2015 will not be attained unless the poor in developing countries gain greater access to basic infrastructure and services, including energy services. The key objective of this paper is to analyze trends in overseas development assistance (ODA) to the energy sector in developing countries during the period 1990-2003, relative to realized private sector investments. This analysis then forms the basis for policy recommendations for consideration by decision makers within countries that are major contributors to ODA

  9. Applying Earlier Literacy Research in Iran to Current Literacy Theory and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Street

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I attempt to bring together approaches toliteracy in theory and in practice, drawing upon variousactivities I have been involved in over the years–research inIranian villages during the 1970s; linking research andtheory to literacy policy, with particular reference to acontribution to the Unesco Global Monitoring Report in2004 and involvement in an ongoing adult literacy trainingprogramme appropriately entitled Learning Empowermentthrough Training in Ethnographic Research (LETTER.IJSCL is interested in publishing original research andreview articles on the relationship between society, culture,and language and in particular ‘linking sound theoreticalapproaches on these fields with visible practical applicationsthat can be used by specialists in anthropology, sociology,linguistics, education, intercultural studies, and policymaking’. I hope that this piece on literacy, with duereference to work in Iran, will fit with that brief.

  10. Current account imbalances in the EMU: An assessment of official policy responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodig Nina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To handle the sovereign debt crisis in general and macroeconomic imbalances in particular the leading EU institutions and the Troika (European Central Bank, European Commission and International Monetary Fund adopted two broad approaches: The short-term approach is based on enhancing the Stability and Growth Pact and to impose fiscal austerity on crisis countries. The medium- to long-term strategy consists of internal devaluation via reducing wage costs. Both approaches were combined with structural adjustment programs in the spirit of the Washington Consensus. The Troika’s policy implies an asymmetric adjustment process burdening only crisis countries. It led to the shrinking of demand and output in crisis countries comparable to the Great Depression and brought the European Monetary Union to the edge of deflation. These polices must be judged as mislead increasing the risk of Japanese disease with more than one lost decade.

  11. Did Brisbane Grow Smartly? Drivers of City Growth 1991-2001 and Lessons for Current Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farjana Mostafiz Shatu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas are growing unsustainably around the world; however, the growth patterns and their associated drivers vary between contexts. As a result, research has highlighted the need to adopt case study based approaches to stimulate the development of new theoretic understandings. Using land-cover data sets derived from Landsat images (30 m × 30 m, this research identifies both patterns and drivers of urban growth in a period (1991-2001 when a number of policy acts were enacted aimed at fostering smart growth in Brisbane, Australia. A linear multiple regression model was estimated using the proportion of lands that were converted from non-built-up (1991 to built-up usage (2001 within a suburb as a dependent variable to identify significant drivers of land-cover changes. In addition, the hot spot analysis was conducted to identify spatial biases of land-cover changes, if any. Results show that the built-up areas increased by 1.34% every year. About 19.56% of the non-built-up lands in 1991 were converted into built-up lands in 2001. This conversion pattern was significantly biased in the northernmost and southernmost suburbs in the city. This is due to the fact that, as evident from the regression analysis, these suburbs experienced a higher rate of population growth, and had the availability of habitable green field sites in relatively flat lands. The above findings suggest that the policy interventions undertaken between the periods were not as effective in promoting sustainable changes in the environment as they were aimed for.

  12. People’s Republic of China and Federal Republic of Germany in current international relations in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Tsvyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the analysis of the current Sino-German relations in the context of world politics and dynamics of international relations as exemplified by the Central Asia region. Basic problems and prospects for cooperation between China and Germany in this region, as well as possible ways of cooperation of the SCO and the EU are under consideration.

  13. Trade reform, policy uncertainty, and the current account: a non expected-utility approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Rapid and comprehensive reduction in barriers to international trade has often been followed by a sharp deterioration in the current account. The macroeconomic counterpart of the deterioration has typically been a decline in private savings; no clear response pattern has been observed for private

  14. Solar Photovoltaic Energy Policy in Europe: Losing Sight of What is Right. Current Developments and Lessons Learned for Policy-makers and Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherrelle, Eid

    2012-01-01

    interesting to examine China and the United States in regard to PV manufacturing and installation capacity. China may be characterized by its high and early PV production, exporting almost 90% of its output. What will this and other developments mean for European PV industry and job creation? At present, the deployment of PV is under much discussion in many countries, within and outside of Europe. Changes in Feed-in-Tariffs (FIT) are following each other closely and motivations behind deployment are presently frequently discussed in the political sphere. Still, there are important points to consider. What are the costs of PV? How are the costs expected to decrease and how effective are current policies concerning PV penetration? Are these policies also effective in eventually reaching the CO 2 reduction targets? PV technologies are still developing and it is important to not be moved by assumptions on efficiencies or effectiveness of the technology. The aim of this report is to provide recommendations for the debate concerning PV deployment in Europe and to provide suggestions for both policy-makers and industry in- and outside of Europe. This is done by analyzing the main developments related to PV worldwide. The report will furthermore present technical developments of PV and will present a comparison in the international context with US and Asia. In Section 2, the position of PV policy is given within the EU renewable projections for 2020. Before continuing with the support policies for PV in Section 4, the main developments in PV technologies with definitions are provided in Section 3. Afterwards, case studies of the five major European countries with the largest European installed capacities in PV are presented with their efforts and policies associated to PV in Section 5. In Section 6, an evaluation of the European Policy is presented, after which a brief review of the US and China and their PV industries is given with their policy incentives to increase PV installation

  15. The Current Situation of ICT Development in the Middle East and ICT Support Policies. The Case of Syrian Arab Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Yamamoto

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine how ICT development is progressing and what kind of political and social effects have been occurring (or could occur in the near future in Middle Eastern Arabic countries. To examine this theme, this paper will adopt the Syrian Arab Republic as a case. To understand the Syrian government's policy toward the ICT development, it is necessary to examine the domestic political situation, since they are closely related. Under the Bashar Al- Asad's regime, we can confirm several reasons why they have to move forward on their ICT development policy and why it has become a crucial issue, which they cannot evade, as they had done under the previous regime, Hafez Al- Asad's regime. The situation that the Syrian government is facing right now is known by the term, "Dictator's Dilemma". This paper tries to provide bases in order to examine and explore this dilemma in Syria. Also, when we examine ICT development in Syria, it is important to consider the ICT support policies, which are mainly conducted by OECD countries and international organizations and stem from the issue of "Digital Divide". This is why international assistances could have great effect on ICT development in Syria. As a provisional conclusion of this paper, I will summarize how we can understand the current situation of ICT development in Syria, and I will also comment on the future prospect of the dilemma that the Syrian government is facing at the present time.

  16. How state and federal policies as well as advances in genome science contribute to the high cost of cancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Scott D

    2015-04-01

    During a time when cancer drug prices are increasing at an unprecedented rate, a debate has emerged as to whether these drugs continue to provide good value. In this article I argue that this debate is irrelevant because under today's highly distorted market, prices will not be set with value considerations in mind. As an alternative, I suggest considering the "value" of three policy changes—Medicare's "average sales price plus 6 percent" payment program, laws that require insurance coverage of all new cancer drugs, and the Affordable Care Act—that are fueling manufacturers' willingness to set higher prices. More important than these issues, however, is the revolution that is occurring in molecular biology and its impact on scientists' ability to detect changes in the cancer genome. The lowered cost of discovery is driving more competitors into the market, which under distorted pricing paradoxically encourages drug makers to charge ever higher prices for their products. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  17. Upgradation and modernization of eye banking services: Integrating tradition with innovative policies and current best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Radhika; Singh, Archita; Gupta, Noopur; Vanathi, M; Gupta, Vivek

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the history and evolution of the National Eye Bank (NEB) and analyze the impact over the years and report the outcome of the invested resources. Review of archival material, records, project reports, policy and procedures' manuals, and publications was done. Descriptive and analytical processing of data obtained was undertaken. Parameters evaluated included total collection, transplantation, utilization rates of donor cornea, changing trends over time in terms of numbers and duration of recipients waiting, impactful research translated into changes in standard operating protocols, new facilities, and subsequent effects on numbers or quality assurance measures and overview of major achievements. Periodic situational analysis with contextual relevance and interpretation of outcomes was done pertaining to national goals and international standards. The NEB and cornea services have played a key leadership role in furthering the development of eye banking and corneal transplantation services. The contribution extends beyond routine patient care to education, training, generation of resources, advocacy, and policymaking. In quantifiable terms, the overall performance has steadily increased over the years. Major contributions include training of doctors, eye bank staff and corneal surgeons, introduction of innovative techniques for corneal transplantation, setting of national standards for eye banking and provision of preservation media, customized corneal, and ocular surface cell replacement therapy in collaboration with other departments and institutes. The eye banking and corneal transplantation facilities have evolved with time providing quality services, modernized as appropriate with updated knowledge and incorporating technological advances supported by the systematic evidence-based approach.

  18. Current account imbalances in the monetary union and the great recession: Causes and policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uxó Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Current account imbalances within the eurozone are at the roots of its economic crisis. We argue that, though relevant, emphasis should shift from competitiveness to differential rates of growth of domestic demand as its chief explanatory factor. Euro core countries have experienced a shortage of domestic demand, with wage restraint playing a key role. This has led them to experience a current account surplus, which could not be understood independently of a buoyant domestic demand in the peripheral countries, funded with private debt. As a byproduct of that strong demand, the periphery suffered from wage inflation and a loss of competitiveness. This dual growth pattern is unsustainable as indebtedness cannot go on without any limit. Neither wage cuts nor fiscal austerity in the periphery will help to solve this mess: although trade balance would be restored, it would lead to a negative shock in aggregate demand, threatening their ability to settle debts at due dates.

  19. Recent developments and current policy issues in road pricing in the US and Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsey, Robin

    2005-01-01

    The United States and Canada lag Europe and Singapore in implementing road pricing on a large scale. But the two countries have shown interest in tolling roads as a way to curb congestion and to generate revenues. The US is funding congestion pricing demonstration projects through its Value Pricing Pilot Program, and Canada has examined new ways to charge for road use and to finance road construction and maintenance. This paper reviews the current state of road pricing and funding...

  20. Analysis of operations and cyber security policies for a system of cooperating Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Laurence R.; Tejani, Bankim; Margulies, Jonathan; Hills, Jason L.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Baca, Micheal J.; Weiland, Laura

    2005-12-01

    Flexible Alternating Current Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices are installed on electric power transmission lines to stabilize and regulate power flow. Power lines protected by FACTS devices can increase power flow and better respond to contingencies. The University of Missouri Rolla (UMR) is currently working on a multi-year project to examine the potential use of multiple FACTS devices distributed over a large power system region in a cooperative arrangement in which the FACTS devices work together to optimize and stabilize the regional power system. The report describes operational and security challenges that need to be addressed to employ FACTS devices in this way and recommends references, processes, technologies, and policies to address these challenges.

  1. Current systematic carbon-cycle observations and the need for implementing a policy-relevant carbon observing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciais, P.; Peregon, A.; Chevallier, F.; Bopp, L.; Breon, F.M.; Broquet, G.; Luyssaert, S.; Moulin, C.; Paris, J.D.; Poulter, B.; Rivier, L.; Wang, R.

    2014-01-01

    A globally integrated carbon observation and analysis system is needed to improve the fundamental understanding of the global carbon cycle, to improve our ability to project future changes, and to verify the effectiveness of policies aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Building an integrated carbon observation system requires transformational advances from the existing sparse, exploratory framework towards a dense, robust, and sustained system in all components: anthropogenic emissions, the atmosphere, the ocean, and the terrestrial biosphere. The paper is addressed to scientists, policy makers, and funding agencies who need to have a global picture of the current state of the (diverse) carbon observations. We identify the current state of carbon observations, and the needs and notional requirements for a global integrated carbon observation system that can be built in the next decade. A key conclusion is the substantial expansion of the ground-based observation networks required to reach the high spatial resolution for CO 2 and CH 4 fluxes, and for carbon stocks for addressing policy-relevant objectives, and attributing flux changes to underlying processes in each region. In order to establish flux and stock diagnostics over areas such as the southern oceans, tropical forests, and the Arctic, in situ observations will have to be complemented with remote-sensing measurements. Remote sensing offers the advantage of dense spatial coverage and frequent revisit. A key challenge is to bring remote-sensing measurements to a level of long-term consistency and accuracy so that they can be efficiently combined in models to reduce uncertainties, in synergy with ground based data. Bringing tight observational constraints on fossil fuel and land use change emissions will be the biggest challenge for deployment of a policy-relevant integrated carbon observation system. This will require in situ and remotely sensed data at much higher

  2. Did the 18 Drinking Age Promote High School Dropout? Implications for Current Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunk, Andrew D; Agrawal, Arpana; Tate, William F; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia; Bierut, Laura J; Grucza, Richard A

    2015-09-01

    Disagreement exists over whether permissive minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) laws affected underage adolescents (e.g., those age 17 years with the MLDA of 18). We used MLDA changes during the 1970s and 1980s as a natural experiment to investigate how underage exposure to permissive MLDA affected high school dropout. MLDA exposure was added to two data sets: (a) the 5% public use microdata samples of the 1990 and 2000 censuses (n = 3,671,075), and (b) a combined data set based on the 1991-1992 National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiological Survey (NLAES) and the 2001-2002 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; n = 16,331). We used logistic regression to model different thresholds of MLDA on high school dropout. We also estimated models conditioned on demographic variables and familial risk of developing alcohol problems. Only the MLDA of 18 predicted high school dropout. Exposure was associated with 4% and 13% higher odds of high school dropout for the census and NLAES/NESARC samples, respectively. We noted greater impact on women (5%-18%), Blacks (5%-19%), and Hispanics (6%). Self-report of parental alcohol problems was associated with 40% higher odds, which equals a 4.14-point increase in dropout rate for that population. The MLDA of 18 likely had a large impact on high school dropout rates, suggesting that the presence of legal-aged peers in a high school setting increased access to alcohol for younger students. Our results also suggest that policy can promote less dangerous drinking behavior even when familial risk of alcohol use disorders is high.

  3. Energy transport corridors: the potential role of Federal lands in states identified by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, section 368(b).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Kuiper, J.; Kolpa, R.; Moore, R.; May, J.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; McLamore, M.R.; Shamsuddin, S. (Decision and Information Sciences); ( EVS)

    2011-09-01

    On August 8, 2005, the President signed the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct) into law. In Subtitle F of EPAct, Congress set forth various provisions that would change the way certain federal agencies (Agencies) coordinate to authorize the use of land for a variety of energy-related purposes. As part of Subtitle F of EPAct, Section 368 addresses the issue of energy transportation corridors on federal land for oil, gas, and hydrogen pipelines, as well as electricity transmission and distribution facilities. Because of the critical importance of improving the nation's electrical transmission grid, Congress recognized that electricity transmission issues should receive added attention when the Agencies address corridor location and analysis issues. In Section 368, Congress specifically directed the Agencies to consider the need for upgraded and new facilities to deliver electricity: In carrying out [Section 368], the Secretaries shall take into account the need for upgraded and new electricity transmission and distribution facilities to (1) improve reliability; (2) relieve congestion; and (3) enhance capability of the national grid to deliver electricity. Section 368 does not require the Agencies to consider or approve specific projects, applications for rights-of-way (ROWs), or other permits within designated energy corridors. Importantly, Section 368 does not direct, license, or otherwise permit any on-the-ground activity of any sort. If an applicant is interested in obtaining an authorization to develop a project within any corridor designated under Section 368, the applicant would have to apply for a ROW authorization and applicable permits. The Agencies would consider each application by applying appropriate project-specific reviews under requirements of laws and related regulations, including, but not limited to, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act (ESA), and Section

  4. Structure of and change in energy policy in the Federal Republic of Germany. Struktur und Wandel der Energiewirtschaft in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, H W

    1985-01-01

    The book offers a closed survey of the energy market in the F.R.G. It is based on a depiction of the organisational structure of the most important energy markets and also the price mechanisms for crude oil, electricity, natural gas and coal. The analysis also concentrates on the structural change which was occasioned by the first energy crisis in 1973 and accentuated by the second in 1979/80. It is suggested that the causes of desired energy-saving in industry, transport, and in the budgetary and consumer sectors lie in the price developments and the measures taken since 1973 via energy policy. It concludes, against a background of the predicted development, with an outline of current trends in energy policy, which is being increasingly influenced by enviromental questions.

  5. Control and management of congenital Chagas disease in Europe and other non-endemic countries: current policies and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Arandes, Antoni; Angheben, Andrea; Serre-Delcor, Nuria; Treviño-Maruri, Begoña; Gómez I Prat, Jordi; Jackson, Yves

    2016-05-01

    Identifying pregnant women infected with Trypanosoma cruzi is one of the major challenges for preventing and controlling Chagas disease (CD) in non-endemic countries. The aim of this paper was to perform a policy evaluation of the current practices of congenital Chagas disease (CCD) control in non-endemic countries and to propose specific targets for enhanced interventions to tackle this emerging health problem outside the endemic areas of Latin America. We conducted a mixed method review of CCD policy strategies by searching the literature in the PubMed, Google Scholar and the World Health Organization (WHO) databases using the key terms 'CCD', 'paediatric Chagas disease' and 'non-endemic countries'; as free text and combined as one phrase to increase the search sensitivity. Reviews, recommendations, guidelines and control/surveillance programme reports were included. Of 427 CCD papers identified in non-endemic countries, 44 matched the inclusion. Although local programmes were launched in different countries with large numbers of Latin American immigrants, there were considerable disparities in terms of the programmes' distribution, delivery, integration and appropriated CCD control strategies. Moreover, Catalonia, Spain is the only region/country with an established systematic monitoring of CCD in pregnant women from Latin American countries. Given the worldwide dissemination of CD, the nature of its vertical transmission, and the gaps of the current strategies in non-endemic countries, there is an urgent need to standardise, expand and reinforce the control measures against CCD transmission. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Current status of wind energy and wind energy policy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaniktepe, B.; Savrun, M.M.; Koroglu, T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Present installations of wind power in the world. • Focus on the current state, potential, and development of Turkey’s wind energy. • Explain the institutional framework and support/incentive mechanisms in Turkey. • Investigate and give information about the new Turkish Renewable Energy Law. - Abstract: Over the past decades, the importance of renewable and sustainable energy resources has increased in the world due to both the rapid increase in energy demand and disadvantages of the fossil fuels. Many countries, such as Turkey, aim to increase the use of renewable and sustainable energy sources with different incentive mechanisms. In parallel with these incentive methods being implemented, wind energy capacity in Turkey has a remarkable increase in the growing rates of renewable energy sources according to installed wind power. Up to now, several wind power projects have been developed at different regions of Turkey. This paper aims to analyze the potential and development of wind energy systems in Turkey. Besides, the current usage and development of wind power installations have been explored for the World and Turkey in detail at the end of the 2011. Furthermore, this study also presents tax exemption, support, and incentive mechanisms to develop new wind energy investments in Turkey

  7. Current State and Development Trends of Education Policy Research in China in the Last Decade (2004-2013): A Statistical Analysis of Papers from Eight Core Chinese Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Guo

    2017-01-01

    The author conducted sampling and statistical analysis of papers on education policy research collected by the China National Knowledge Infrastructure in the period from the years 2004--2013. Under the current state of education policy research in China, the number of papers correlates positively with the year; the papers are concentrated in…

  8. Politika «Severnogo izmerenija»: sovremennoe sostojanie i perspektivy razvitija [The Northern Dimension policy: current state and development prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolotnikova Yekaterina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the evolution and current state of the Northern Dimension policy and its role in Russia-EU relations. The authors analyse the discrepancy between the actual achievements of the Northern Dimension and its potential and the over-high expectations, which accompanied the policy renewal.

  9. What is a pilot or feasibility study? A review of current practice and editorial policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Cindy L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2004, a review of pilot studies published in seven major medical journals during 2000-01 recommended that the statistical analysis of such studies should be either mainly descriptive or focus on sample size estimation, while results from hypothesis testing must be interpreted with caution. We revisited these journals to see whether the subsequent recommendations have changed the practice of reporting pilot studies. We also conducted a survey to identify the methodological components in registered research studies which are described as 'pilot' or 'feasibility' studies. We extended this survey to grant-awarding bodies and editors of medical journals to discover their policies regarding the function and reporting of pilot studies. Methods Papers from 2007-08 in seven medical journals were screened to retrieve published pilot studies. Reports of registered and completed studies on the UK Clinical Research Network (UKCRN Portfolio database were retrieved and scrutinized. Guidance on the conduct and reporting of pilot studies was retrieved from the websites of three grant giving bodies and seven journal editors were canvassed. Results 54 pilot or feasibility studies published in 2007-8 were found, of which 26 (48% were pilot studies of interventions and the remainder feasibility studies. The majority incorporated hypothesis-testing (81%, a control arm (69% and a randomization procedure (62%. Most (81% pointed towards the need for further research. Only 8 out of 90 pilot studies identified by the earlier review led to subsequent main studies. Twelve studies which were interventional pilot/feasibility studies and which included testing of some component of the research process were identified through the UKCRN Portfolio database. There was no clear distinction in use of the terms 'pilot' and 'feasibility'. Five journal editors replied to our entreaty. In general they were loathe to publish studies described as 'pilot'. Conclusion

  10. Risk factors for secondary transmission of Shigella infection within households: implications for current prevention policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boveé Lian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Internationally, guidelines to prevent secondary transmission of Shigella infection vary widely. Cases, their contacts with diarrhoea, and those in certain occupational groups are frequently excluded from work, school, or daycare. In the Netherlands, all contacts attending pre-school (age 0–3 and junior classes in primary school (age 4–5, irrespective of symptoms, are also excluded pending microbiological clearance. We identified risk factors for secondary Shigella infection (SSI within households and evaluated infection control policy in this regard. Methods This retrospective cohort study of households where a laboratory confirmed Shigella case was reported in Amsterdam (2002–2009 included all households at high risk for SSI (i.e. any household member under 16 years. Cases were classified as primary, co-primary or SSIs. Using univariable and multivariable binomial regression with clustered robust standard errors to account for household clustering, we examined case and contact factors (Shigella serotype, ethnicity, age, sex, household size, symptoms associated with SSI in contacts within households. Results SSI occurred in 25/ 337 contacts (7.4%: 20% were asymptomatic, 68% were female, and median age was 14 years (IQR: 4–38. In a multivariable model adjusted for case and household factors, only diarrhoea in contacts was associated with SSI (IRR 8.0, 95% CI:2.7-23.8. In a second model, factors predictive of SSI in contacts were the age of case (0–3 years (IRRcase≥6 years:2.5, 95% CI:1.1-5.5 and 4–5 years (IRRcase≥6 years:2.2, 95% CI:1.1-4.3 and household size (>6 persons (IRR2-4 persons 3.4, 95% CI:1.2-9.5. Conclusions To identify symptomatic and asymptomatic SSI, faecal screening should be targeted at all household contacts of preschool cases (0–3 years and cases attending junior class in primary school (4–5 years and any household contact with diarrhoea. If screening was limited to these groups, only

  11. Federalism and social justice: implications for social work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhorst, Donald M

    2002-07-01

    Federalism is a system of government that divides power between two or more levels of government. During the current conservative political climate in the United States, power has shifted increasingly from the federal government to states, a move that has implications for the achievement of social justice. Consequently, it is now necessary for social workers to engage in political activity at the state and local levels, in addition to the federal level, to promote social justice. Implications for social work policy practice, research, and education for advancing social justice within the federal system of government are explored.

  12. Biogas technology dissemination in Ghana: history, current status, future prospects, and policy significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensah, Edem Cudjoe [Chemical Engineering Department, Kumasi Polytechnic, Box 854, Kumasi (Ghana); Brew-Hammond, Abeeku [Faculty of Mechanical and Agricultural Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Private Mail Bag, Kumasi (Ghana)

    2010-07-01

    Despite numerous benefits derived from biogas technology, Ghana is yet to develop a major programme that will promote the dissemination of biogas plants on a larger scale. This paper reviews biogas installations in Ghana and investigates challenges facing the design, construction, and operation of biogas plants. It further captures the current status and functions of biogas plants as well as the impact of these plants on the people who use them. The study was done by surveying fifty (50) biogas installations, and conducting interviews with both plant users and service providers. From the survey, twenty-nine (58 %) installations were institutional, fourteen (28 %) were household units, and the remaining seven (14 %) were community plants. Fixed-dome and water-jacket floating-drum digesters represented 82 % and 8 % of installations surveyed, respectively. It was revealed that sanitation was the main motivational reason for people using biogas plants. Of the 50 plants, 22 (44 %) were functioning satisfactorily, 10 (20 %) were functioning partially, 14 (28 %) were not functioning, 2 (4 %) were abandoned, and the remaining 2 (4 %) were under construction. Reasons for non-functioning include non-availability of dung, breakdown of balloon gasholders, absence of maintenance services, lack of operational knowledge, and gas leakages and bad odour in toilet chambers of biolatrines. This paper recommends the development of a national biogas programme focussing on three major areas -- sanitation, energy, and agricultural fertilizer production; it further supports the development of standardized digester models. The founding of a national body or the establishment of a dedicated unit within an existing organization with the sole aim of coordinating and managing biogas dissemination in Ghana is proposed.

  13. Considerations on the Current Universal Vaccination Policy against Hepatitis A in Greece after Recent Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellou, Kassiani; Sideroglou, Theologia; Papaevangelou, Vassiliki; Katsiaflaka, Anna; Bitsolas, Nikolaos; Verykouki, Eleni; Triantafillou, Eleni; Baka, Agoritsa; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Greece is the only European Union member state that in 2008 included hepatitis A (HAV) vaccine in the routine national childhood immunization program (NCIP). Given that the resources allocated to public health have dramatically decreased since 2008 and that Greece is a low endemicity country for the disease, the benefit from universal vaccination has been questioned. The aim of this paper is to summarize the available epidemiological data of the disease for 1982-2013, and discuss the effects of universal vaccination on disease morbidity. Descriptive analysis, ARIMA modeling and time series intervention analysis were conducted using surveillance data of acute HAV. A decreasing trend of HAV notification rate over the years was identified (pa progressive increase of the average age of infection in the general population. The mean age of cases before the inclusion of the vaccine to NCIP (24.1 years, SD = 1.5) was significantly lower than the mean age of cases after 2008 (31.7 years, SD = 2.1) (pa population accounting for 1.5% of the country’s total population) and in 2013 three outbreaks with 16, 9 and 25 Roma cases respectively, were recorded, indicating the decreased effectiveness of the current immunization strategy in this group. Data suggest that universal vaccination may need to be re-considered. Probably a more cost effective approach would be to implement a program that will include: a) vaccination of high risk groups, b) universal vaccination of Roma children and improving conditions at Roma camps, c) education of the population and travel advice, and d) enhancement of the control measures to increase safety of shellfish and other foods. PMID:25590132

  14. [Is the structure of surgical clinics in Germany changing? A current investigation into the structure of surgical clinics in the Federal Republic of Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lob, G; Lob, T; Bauer, H; Niethard, F; Polonius, J; Siebert, H

    2009-04-01

    Medical developments have led to extensive specialization in the field of surgery. This has already been reflected for many years in altered structure and organization forms of surgical clinics. Indispensable quality standards, statutory general conditions, increasing competition in service providers and health insurance with transparency of the service procedure all intensify this trend. The aim of this investigation was, therefore, to determine how far this differentiation of service supply in the field of surgery is also reflected in the area and in surgical departments and clinics of basic and routine supply. To achieve this, all available published information on the structure and organization of surgical clinics in the Federal Republic of Germany was classified according to current departmentalization into "undivided" or general/visceral surgery facilities compared to orthopedic/trauma surgery departments.

  15. Cultural aspects of the policies of the European Union countries towards immigrants: The current migrant crisis challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prnjat Dejana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history of mankind, as a result of migration, different cultures came in contact and influenced each other, with different outcomes. In recent years, as a result of more frequent armed conflicts in the world, the influx of migrants to Europe has increased significantly. Even the European Union countries that had traditionally been considered as emigrant, Italy, for example, are becoming immigrant. New situation has influenced the change in attitude of many governments of countries wherein the migrants arrived, and while some still prefer multiculturalism, there is a growing number of those who do not share this position. The aim of this paper is to analyze the cultural aspects of the policies of the European Union countries towards immigrants which evolved as a result of the current migrant crisis.

  16. Online medical professionalism: patient and public relationships: policy statement from the American College of Physicians and the Federation of State Medical Boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnan, Jeanne M; Snyder Sulmasy, Lois; Worster, Brooke K; Chaudhry, Humayun J; Rhyne, Janelle A; Arora, Vineet M

    2013-04-16

    User-created content and communications on Web-based applications, such as networking sites, media sharing sites, or blog platforms, have dramatically increased in popularity over the past several years, but there has been little policy or guidance on the best practices to inform standards for the professional conduct of physicians in the digital environment. Areas of specific concern include the use of such media for nonclinical purposes, implications for confidentiality, the use of social media in patient education, and how all of this affects the public's trust in physicians as patient-physician interactions extend into the digital environment. Opportunities afforded by online applications represent a new frontier in medicine as physicians and patients become more connected. This position paper from the American College of Physicians and the Federation of State Medical Boards examines and provides recommendations about the influence of social media on the patient-physician relationship, the role of these media in public perception of physician behaviors, and strategies for physician-physician communication that preserve confidentiality while best using these technologies.

  17. Federal Catalog System Policy Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    Television GSA 75 B 7ype S,-,o.!) Rc-cords GSA 75 B -c and Sporting Equipment GSA 75 B Yoys, and Wheeled Goods GSA 75 B L.-• rla: and Gymnastic Equipment...B Sr .-tions tt: Dopes., Varnishes and Related GSA 75 B ct 1. s .. ,c Artists ’ Brushes GSA 75 BSr-’,aJive and Sealing Coiapound GSA 75 B GSA 75 B I

  18. The European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics Policy Statement No. 10.1: Recommended Guidelines on National Schemes for Continuing Professional Development of Medical Physicists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofides, Stelios; Isidoro, Jorge; Pesznyak, Csilla; Cremers, Florian; Figueira, Rita; van Swol, Christiaan; Evans, Stephen; Torresin, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Continuing Professional Development (CPD) is vital to the medical physics profession if it is to embrace the pace of change occurring in medical practice. As CPD is the planned acquisition of knowledge, experience and skills required for professional practice throughout one's working life it promotes excellence and protects the profession and public against incompetence. Furthermore, CPD is a recommended prerequisite of registration schemes (Caruana et al. 2014) and is implied in the Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM (EU BSS) and the International Basic Safety Standards (BSS). It is to be noted that currently not all national registration schemes require CPD to maintain the registration status necessary to practise medical physics. Such schemes should consider adopting CPD as a prerequisite for renewing registration after a set period of time. This EFOMP Policy Statement, which is an amalgamation and an update of the EFOMP Policy Statements No. 8 and No. 10, presents guidelines for the establishment of national schemes for CPD and activities that should be considered for CPD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Impact of Extending Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Nondiscrimination Requirements to Federal Contractors

    OpenAIRE

    Badgett, M.V. Lee

    2012-01-01

    A federal executive order that would require contractors to prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity would protect up to 16.5 million more workers than are already protected by state or private anti-discrimination policies. Currently, state laws or private voluntary policies already protect 61% of federal contractor employees from sexual orientation discrimination and 41% from gender identity discrimination. Research also suggests an executive order would not di...

  20. Tax incentives in fiscal federalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelders, Christian; Köthenbürger, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Models of fiscal federalism rarely account for the efficiency implications of intergovernmental fiscal ties for federal tax policy. This paper shows that fiscal institutions such that federal tax deductibility, vertical revenue-sharing, and fiscal equalization (being common features of existing...

  1. Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In the Russian Federation (RF), management of radioactive wastes will be carried out within the framework of the Federal Target Program for management of radioactive wastes and used nuclear materials for the period 1996-2005. The agency within the RF responsible for this program is the Ministry of Russian Federation on Atomic Energy. Current radioactive waste disposal activities are focused on creating regional repositories for wastes generated by radiochemical production, nuclear reactors, science centers, and from other sources outside of the nuclear-fuel cycle (the latter wastes are managed by Scientific and Industrial Association, 'RADON'). Wastes of these types are in temporary storage, with the exception of non-fuel cycle wastes which are in long term storage managed by SAI 'RADON'. The criteria for segregating between underground or near-surface disposal of radioactive waste are based on the radiation fields and radionuclide composition of the wastes. The most progress in creating regional repositories has been made in the Northwest region of Russia. However, development of a detailed design has begun for a test facility in the Northeast for disposal of radioactive wastes generated in Murmansk and Arkhangelsk provinces. The feasibility study for construction of this facility is being evaluated by state monitoring organizations, the heads of administrations of the Arkhangelsk and Murmansk provinces, and Minatom of Russia

  2. Higher Mortality in registrants with sudden model for end-stage liver disease increase: Disadvantaged by the current allocation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massie, Allan B; Luo, Xun; Alejo, Jennifer L; Poon, Anna K; Cameron, Andrew M; Segev, Dorry L

    2015-05-01

    Liver allocation is based on current Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores, with priority in the case of a tie being given to those waiting the longest with a given MELD score. We hypothesized that this priority might not reflect risk: registrants whose MELD score has recently increased receive lower priority but might have higher wait-list mortality. We studied wait-list and posttransplant mortality in 69,643 adult registrants from 2002 to 2013. By likelihood maximization, we empirically defined a MELD spike as a MELD increase ≥ 30% over the previous 7 days. At any given time, only 0.6% of wait-list patients experienced a spike; however, these patients accounted for 25% of all wait-list deaths. Registrants who reached a given MELD score after a spike had higher wait-list mortality in the ensuing 7 days than those with the same resulting MELD score who did not spike, but they had no difference in posttransplant mortality. The spike-associated wait-list mortality increase was highest for registrants with medium MELD scores: specifically, 2.3-fold higher (spike versus no spike) for a MELD score of 10, 4.0-fold higher for a MELD score of 20, and 2.5-fold higher for a MELD score of 30. A model incorporating the MELD score and spikes predicted wait-list mortality risk much better than a model incorporating only the MELD score. Registrants with a sudden MELD increase have a higher risk of short-term wait-list mortality than is indicated by their current MELD score but have no increased risk of posttransplant mortality; allocation policy should be adjusted accordingly. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  3. Federal Holidays

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Federal law (5 U.S.C. 6103) establishes the following public holidays for Federal employees. Please note that most Federal employees work on a Monday through Friday...

  4. Legal bases of resource policy in the Federal Republic of Germany. A contribution towards law-related geography. Die rechtlichen Grundlagen der Ressourcenpolitik in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Ein Beitrag zur Rechtsgeographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graafen, R

    1983-01-01

    This work from the field of law-related geography deals with the legal regulations issued in the framework of resource policy and with their territorial effects. One of the purpose of law-related geography is to present those legal regulations which bear on territory in a manner easy to survey. The different legal forms to be considered (law, legal regulation, administrative regulation, statutes, law of the (European Community etc.) provide a means of approach. From the peculiarities of the individual legal forms it is possible to tell for instance in how far they possess validity as against citizens or only as against authorities, in how far they are cogent or only constitute recommendations, or whether citizens are allowed to participate in the precise definition of regulations, what standard of European Community law are immediately applied in the Federal Republic of Germany, or what the order of priority of legal regulations is. The study investigates above all the territory-related consequences of regional and land use planning, the federal mining law, energy policy with regard to black coal, brown coal, petroleum and naturel gas, of the planning of power plans sites, local supply concepts, transport infra-structure policy, the federal immission protection law and of regulations for the protection of nature or governing forest and water management. (orig./HSCH).

  5. Freedom to Tweet? Opportunities and Barriers for Federal Scientists on Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, G. T.; Bailin, D.; Rogerson, P.; Renaud, A.; Halpern, M.; Grifo, F.

    2013-12-01

    The recent explosion of social media represents a fundamental shift in how scientists can share their work with the world, and federal scientists are taking advantage of these new tools. A 2009 report by the Chief Information Officers (CIO) Council--an interagency forum on federal information-technology management convened under the E-Government Act of 2002--recommends that all federal agencies develop a social media policy to address security concerns and provide guidance to employees on how they should identify themselves in these venues. In response to this report, and to the changing media landscape in general, many federal agencies have since developed polices to clarify how their employees may engage in social media. But how effective are such policies for federal scientists? Past analysis has looked at agency social media policies with an eye on performance metrics or on security and privacy of government information. Here, we assess the policies from a different angle: Do they provide sufficient guidance to government scientists and other technical experts? Do they adequately guide employees in a way that promotes responsible use while also affording them the freedom to use these tools to share their work? And how do different agencies compare? We analyzed policies, conducted a survey of federal scientists, and utilized Freedom of Information Act requests to assess how well federal policies and practices provide guidance and freedom for federal scientists using social media at 17 federal agencies. We found that some agencies have very thorough policies and practices that clearly guide and encourage their employees' use of social media outlets; while others provide minimal to no guidance to their scientists or discourage use of these tools. From this analysis, we identify opportunities for communication of federal science on social media, as well as barriers currently inhibiting federal scientists from using these tools. Finally, we offer recommendations for

  6. The role to the citizen participation in public policies, under the current scenario of governance: theoretical reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Castillo Cubillos

    2017-09-01

    It is necessary to involve thinking about public policy, as one of the roles in which citizens may or may not make such effective participation. Taking into account, that public policy instruments can encourage and strengthen governance, in scenarios where there is a real participation of citizens. Let us see how true this is.

  7. Current Practice in Research Ethics: Global Trends and New Opportunities for African Universities. Research and Innovation Policy Series. Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Liam

    2007-01-01

    Research Ethics has emerged as one of the most well-developed policy areas within the sphere of Research and Innovation Management. As such, for African institutions looking to strengthen their policy frameworks, develop increased collaborations, and increase research outputs, a thorough understanding of global trends in Ethics will be vital.…

  8. Identification of Liver Transplant Candidates with Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Very Low Dropout Risk: Implications for the Current Organ Allocation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Neil; Dodge, Jennifer L.; Goel, Aparna; Roberts, John P.; Hirose, Ryutaro; Yao, Francis Y.

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) meeting UNOS T2 (Milan) criteria are advantaged compared to patients without HCC under the current organ allocation system for liver transplant (LT). We hypothesize that within T2 HCC, there is a subgroup with a low risk of waitlist dropout, and should not receive the same listing priority. This study evaluated 398 consecutive patients with T2 HCC listed for LT with MELD exception from 2005 to 2010 at our center. Competing risk (CR) regression was used to determine predictors of dropout. Probabilities of dropout due to tumor progression or death without LT by CR analysis were 9.4% at 6 months and 19.6% at 12 months. The median time from listing to LT was 8.8 months, and from listing to dropout or death without LT was 7.2 months. Significant predictors of dropout or death without LT by multivariate CR regression included 1 tumor 3–5 cm (vs. ≤3 cm), 2 or 3 tumors, lack of a complete response to first loco-regional therapy (LRT), and high alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) after the first LRT. A subgroup (19.9%) meeting the following criteria: 1 tumor 2 to 3 cm, complete response after first LRT, and AFP ≤20 ng/mL after first LRT, had 1- and 2-year probabilities of dropout of 1.3% and 1.6%, respectively, compared to 21.6% and 26.5% for all other patients (p=0.004). In conclusion, a combination of tumor characteristics and complete response to the first LRT define a subgroup of patients with a very low risk of waitlist dropout who does not require the same listing priority. Our results may have important implications for the organ allocation policy for HCC. PMID:24285611

  9. Social Security reform: evaluating current proposals. Latest results of the EBRI-SSASIM2 policy simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, C; VanDerhei, J; Salisbury, D L

    1999-06-01

    The present Social Security program has been shown to be financially unsustainable in the future without modification to the current program. The purpose of this Issue Brief, EBRI's fourth in a series on Social Security reform, is threefold: to illustrate new features of the EBRI-SSASIM2 policy simulation model not available in earlier EBRI publications, to expand quantitative analysis to specific proposals, and to evaluate the uncertainty involved in proposals that rely on equity investment. This analysis compares the Gregg/Breaux-Kolbe/Stenholm (GB-KS) and Moynihan/Kerrey proposals with three generic or "traditional" reforms: increasing taxes, reducing benefits, and/or increasing the retirement age. Both proposals would create individual accounts by "carving out" funds from current Social Security payroll taxes. This analysis also examines other proposed changes that would "add on" to existing Social Security funds through the use of general revenue transfers and/or investment in the equities market. President Clinton has proposed a general revenue transfer and the collective investment of some of the OASDI trust fund assets in equities. Reps. Archer and Shaw have proposed a general revenue tax credit to establish individual accounts that would be invested partially in the equities markets. When comparing Social Security reform proposals that would specifically alter benefit levels, the Moynihan/Kerrey bill compares quite favorably with the other proposals in both benefit levels and payback ratios, when individuals elect to use the individual account option. In contrast, the GB-KS bills do not compare quite as favorably for their benefit levels, but do compare favorably in terms of payback ratios. An important comparison in these bills is the administrative costs of managing the individual accounts, since benefits can be lowered by up to 23 percent when going from the assumed low to high administrative costs. Moreover, allowing individuals to decide whether to

  10. Professional Opinions And Attitudes On Tax Policy In Bosnia And Herzegovina With A Special Focus On The Federation Of Bosnia And Herzegovina1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazović-Pita Lejla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is based on tax policy opinion survey data collected in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H among tax experts. A special focus of the survey was to investigate the consequences of the different institutional environments that exist between the two entities of the country. After having reviewed all previous tax reforms in B&H, the most interesting results suggest that respondents agree on the introduction of a progressive personal income tax (PIT and excise duty on luxury products, the maintenance of personal and family allowances and the maintenance of the current value added tax (VAT and corporate income tax (CIT rates. However, differences exist in the respondents’ perceptions about the introduction of reduced VAT rates, the regressivity of the VAT, and giving priority to the equity principle over the efficiency principle in taxation. Probability modelling highlighted these differences and indicated inconsistencies in the definition of the PIT tax base, namely the comprehensiveness of the PIT base under the S-H-S definition of income.

  11. Emission and costs up to and including 2030 for the current environmental policy. Background information for the National Environmental Outlook 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Wee, G.P.; Kuijpers-Linde, M.A.J.; Van Gerwen, O.J.

    2001-03-01

    . Besides this, an additional set of measures has been defined, which will result in an extra 10 Mton emission reduction. The Dutch government wants to realise a reduction of 25 Mton in other countries. Without additional policy the emission of greenhouse gases in 2030 will, from a policy point of view, be about twice that preferred; Up to 2010 emissions of pollutants causing acidification will decrease, thanks to partly already implemented policies. The 2010 targets of the National Environmental Policy Plan will not be met: emission levels will be about 30% higher. The UN-ECE targets are less stringent, except for SO2. Neither will these targets be met. After 2010 emissions will stabilise or increase unless additional policies are implemented. Costs to avoid emissions of NH3, NOx, and SO2 will increase: the cheap measures have already been introduced, while the more expensive ones have not. In almost all sectors, measures additional to those introduced as a result of current policies are available. These are cheaper than the relatively expensive transport measures that will be taken in response to current policy. Emissions of pollutants causing local air quality problems will show a strong decrease, PM10 being the most important exception. In the next decade emissions of PM10 will stabilise. PM10 is one of the most important pollutants expected to cause health impacts. In the period up to 2030 total noise emissions from road, rail and air transport will increase. Noise emissions from passenger cars will either not or hardly decrease. Emissions from lorries will decrease marginally. This decrease is not enough to compensate for the increase in road transport. refs

  12. Structure and Functions of the Federal Reserve System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smale, Pauline

    2005-01-01

    .... The Federal Reserve formulates the nation's monetary policy, supervises and regulates banks, and provides a variety of financial services to depository financial institutions and the federal government...

  13. Federal role in energy research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    The appropriateness of the federal role in each of DOE's major energy R and D programs was evaluated. Several subcriteria were identified by which each program would be judged: (1) the current and expected future scope and amount of private-sector funding relative to requirements for an orderly R and D program; (2) amount of development time to first commercial payoff; (3) degree of market, technical, and policy risks of R and D to private sector development; (4) need for federal energy R and D involvement to support regulatory, environmental, or policy responsibilities. Appropriate primary, complementary, or minimal roles were assigned in each of the energy technology programs: electric-related supply, liquids and gas related supply, conservation and improved end-use utilization, and technology base

  14. An Analysis of Current Energy Policy Initiatives in New Mexico. What are the Potential Impacts to the State's Water Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klise, G. T.; Hart, W. E.; Kobos, P. H.; Malczynski, L. A.; Tidwell, V. C.

    2008-12-01

    Population in New Mexico is increasing rapidly with recent projections showing that the state will add more than 1 million people by 2035. This growth will create a demand for additional energy and water supplies that have yet to be developed. New Mexico currently exports about 50% of the energy generated within the state to neighboring states, and existing power plants predominately utilize traditional fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas. Because traditional electric generation technologies utilize large quantities of water, New Mexico can also be seen as exporting water for the benefit of electricity consumed in neighboring states. As it is, both surface water and groundwater supplies are stretched thin and these internal and external stresses stemming from population growth will have a substantial impact on the state's water resources. In 2004, the Governor laid out a plan to make New Mexico a "Clean Energy State" by implementing renewable portfolio standards, developing renewable energy transmission infrastructure, creating an alternative energy innovation fund and creating state specific tax credits for renewable energy production and manufacturing. Recent work in the National Energy-Water Roadmap has pointed out that certain renewable sources of energy utilize less water than traditional power plants, and technological fixes to existing power plants will result in less water consumption. If New Mexico carries out its energy initiative, what will be the impacts to the state's water resources? Will it be possible to meet competing demands for this water? These questions and others will be analyzed in a decision-support tool that can look at the connection between both the physical and economic systems to see what the tradeoffs might be as a result of specific policy decisions. The ability to plan for future energy needs and understanding potential impacts to the state's limited water resources will be an invaluable tool for decision-makers in New

  15. School District Wellness Policies: Evaluating Progress and Potential for Improving Children's Health Five Years after the Federal Mandate. Brief Report. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie; Resnick, Elissa; Schneider, Linda; Schermbeck, Rebecca; Adcock, Tessa; Carrion, Violeta; Chaloupka, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This brief report updates data published in August 2010 from the most comprehensive, ongoing nationwide analysis of written wellness policies. It includes data from the 2006-07 through the 2010-11 school years, which were the first five years following the required implementation date for wellness policies. The major findings and trends presented…

  16. Contextualização do Instituto Federal do Tocantins na esfera das políticas de educação profissional e tecnológica - Background of the office of federal policy on ball Tocantins Professional Education and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Ferreira Rosa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O artigo apresenta o Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Tocantins no contexto da educação profissional e tecnológica no Brasil. O objetivo consiste em apresentar o Instituto Federal do Tocantins enfatizando a idiossincrasia de sua constituição com recorte para o atendimento assistencial aos alunos do campus Palmas. Utilizou-se da pesquisa bibliográfico-documental e a observação participante. A base teórica ampara-se nas seguintes leis: lei de criação dos institutos federais, no acordo de metas e compromissos para os fins de estruturação, organização e atuação dos institutos federais de educação e no decreto n. 7.234, de 19 de julho de 2010, do Programa Nacional de Assistência Estudantil, entre outros. Apresenta um breve panorama do Instituto Federal do Tocantins. Palavras-chave: institutos federais, educação profissional e tecnológica, assistência estudantil. BACKGROUND OF THE OFFICE OF FEDERAL POLICY ON BALL TOCANTINS PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION AND TECHNOLOGY Abstract The article presents the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Tocantins in vocational and technological education in Brazil. The objective is to present the Federal Institute of Tocantins emphasizing the idiosyncrasy of its constitution with cutout for assistance services to students on campus Palmas. We used the bibliographic and documentary research and participant observation. The theoretical basis bolsters on the following laws: law of the federal institutes of creation, in the target and commitment agreement for the purposes of structuring, organization and performance of the federal education and decree n. 7.234, of July 19, 2010, the National Student Assistance Program, among others. Provides a brief overview of the Federal Institute of Tocantins. Key-words: federal institutes, vocational and technological education, student assistance.

  17. Enhancing Evidence-Based Public Health Policy: Developing and Using Policy Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy, Lisa M; Kietzman, Kathryn G

    2016-06-01

    Academic researchers and clinicians have a critical role in shaping public policies to improve the health of an aging America. Policy narratives that pair personal stories with research statistics are a powerful tool to share knowledge generated in academic and clinical settings with policymakers. Effective policy narratives rely on a trustworthy and competent narrator and a compelling story that highlights the personal impact of policies under consideration and academic research that bolsters the story. Awareness of the cultural differences in the motivations, expectations, and institutional constraints of academic researchers and clinicians as information producers and U.S. Congress and federal agencies as information users is critical to the development of policy narratives that impact policy decisions. The current article describes the development and use of policy narratives to bridge cultures and enhance evidence-based public health policies that better meet the needs of older adults. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(6), 11-17.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Federalism Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, A. E. Dick

    1987-01-01

    Examines the concept of federalism in terms of its past history and its encouraging future. Calls for a revival of concern for federalism not simply as a convenient administrative arrangement but as a fundamental constitutional value. (BSR)

  19. Understanding Federalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickok, Eugene W., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Urges returning to the original federalist debates to understand contemporary federalism. Reviews "The Federalist Papers," how federalism has evolved, and the centralization of the national government through acts of Congress and Supreme Court decisions. Recommends teaching about federalism as part of teaching about U.S. government…

  20. Vocational Assessment. Policy Paper Series: Document 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, Robert A., Ed.

    This collection of four policy papers on vocational assessment for the handicapped deals with personnel development, interagency coordination, current research and development, and providing individualized assessment services. Discussed in the initial paper on program improvement in vocational assessment for the handicapped are federal legislation…

  1. Current systematic carbon-cycle observations and the need for implementing a policy-relevant carbon observing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Ciais; A. J. Dolman; A. Bombelli; R. Duren; A. Peregon; P. J. Rayner; C. Miller; N. Gobron; G. Kinderman; G. Marland; N. Gruber; F. Chevallier; R. J. Andres; G. Balsamo; L. Bopp; F.-M. Bréon; G. Broquet; R. Dargaville; T. J. Battin; A. Borges; H. Bovensmann; M. Buchwitz; J. Butler; J. G. Canadell; R. B. Cook; R. DeFries; R. Engelen; K. R. Gurney; C. Heinze; M. Heimann; A. Held; M. Henry; B. Law; S. Luyssaert; J. Miller; T. Moriyama; C. Moulin; R. B. Myneni; C. Nussli; M. Obersteiner; D. Ojima; Y. Pan; J.-D. Paris; S. L. Piao; B. Poulter; S. Plummer; S. Quegan; P. Raymond; M. Reichstein; L. Rivier; C. Sabine; D. Schimel; O. Tarasova; R. Valentini; R. Wang; G. van der Werf; D. Wickland; M. Williams; C. Zehner

    2014-01-01

    A globally integrated carbon observation and analysis system is needed to improve the fundamental understanding of the global carbon cycle, to improve our ability to project future changes, and to verify the effectiveness of policies aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Building an integrated carbon observation system requires...

  2. THE ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT STATE OF HOUSING AND COMMUNAL SERVICES AND TARIFF POLICY IN THE REPUBLIC OF DAGHESTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Shabanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the condition of housing and communal services in the Republic of Daghestan is considered, the main problems, characteristic for the present stage of development of this sphere are revealed, the priority directions of improvement of tariff policy and management of development of housing and communal services are defined. 

  3. Policy options evaluation tool for managed lanes (POET-ML) users guide and methodology description : Federal Highway Administration HOV lane performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Users guide for a sketch planning tool for exploring policy alternatives. It is intended for an audience of transportation professionals responsible for planning, designing, funding, operating, enforcing, monitoring, and managing HOV and HOT lanes...

  4. The European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics Policy Statement No. 6.1: Recommended Guidelines on National Registration Schemes for Medical Physicists

    OpenAIRE

    Christofides, S; Isidoro, J; Pesznyak, C; Bumbure, L; Cremers, Fn; Schmidt, WF

    2016-01-01

    This EFOMP Policy Statement is an update of Policy Statement No. 6 first published in 1994. The present version takes into account the European Union Parliament and Council Directive 2013/55/EU that amends Directive 2005/36/EU on the recognition of professional qualifications and the European Union Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM laying down the basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation. The European Commission Radiation Protection...

  5. Políticas de saúde no Brasil nos anos 2000: a agenda federal de prioridades Health policies in Brazil in the 2000s: the national priority agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiani Vieira Machado

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa as prioridades da política nacional da saúde no período de 2003 a 2008, correspondente ao Governo Lula. A pesquisa envolveu revisão bibliográfica, análise documental, análise de dados e entrevistas com dirigentes federais. Foram identificadas quatro prioridades na agenda federal da saúde: a Estratégia Saúde da Família, o Brasil Sorridente, os Serviços de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência e o programa Farmácia Popular. A primeira configura uma política de alta densidade institucional, iniciada no governo anterior, constituindo um exemplo de "dependência da trajetória". As demais foram adotadas como marcos de governo e trouxeram inovações em áreas em que havia fragilidades da atuação federal. As quatro políticas prioritárias analisadas se voltam para problemas relevantes do sistema de saúde brasileiro, porém apresentam diferenças quanto à sua trajetória, base de apoio e implicações para os princípios do Sistema Único de Saúde. Apesar de mudanças incrementais, observou-se a predominância de elementos de continuidade na política nacional de saúde no período.This article analyzes Brazilian national health priorities from 2003 to 2008 under the Lula Administration. The study included a literature review, document analysis, and interviews with Federal health administrators. Four priorities were identified on the national health agenda: the Family Health Program, Smiling Brazil, Mobile Emergency Services, and the Popular Pharmacy Program. The first is a policy with high institutional density launched by the previous Administration, constituting an example of path dependence. The other three are innovations in areas where there had been weaknesses in Federal government action. The four policy priorities are strategies focused on solving key problems in the Brazilian health system. However, they display important differences in their historical development, political and institutional base, inclusion on

  6. Current and future groundwater withdrawals: Effects, management and energy policy options for a semi-arid Indian watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sishodia, Rajendra P.; Shukla, Sanjay; Graham, Wendy D.; Wani, Suhas P.; Jones, James W.; Heaney, James

    2017-12-01

    Effects of future expansion/intensification of irrigated agriculture on groundwater and surface water levels and availability in a semi-arid watershed were evaluated using an integrated hydrologic model (MIKE SHE/MIKE 11) in conjunction with biophysical measurements. Improved water use efficiency, water storage, and energy policy options were evaluated for their ability to sustain the future (2035) increased groundwater withdrawals. Three future withdrawal scenarios (low = 20, medium = 30, high = 50 wells/100 km2/year) based on the historical rate of growth of irrigation wells were formulated. While well drying from falling groundwater levels was limited to drought and consecutive below average rainfall years, under the current (2015) withdrawals, significant increases in frequency and duration (17-97 days/year) of well drying along with 13-26% (19-37 mm) reductions in surface flows were predicted under the future withdrawals. Higher (27-108%) energy demands of existing irrigation pumps due to declining groundwater levels and reduced hydroelectric generation due to decreased surface flows would create a vicious water-food-energy nexus in the future. Crop failure, one of the main causes of farmers' emotional distress and death in the region, is predicted to exacerbate under the future withdrawal scenarios. Shift to negative net recharge (-63 mm) and early and prolonged drying of wells under the high scenario will reduce the groundwater availability and negatively affect crop production in more than 60% and 90% of cropped areas in the Rabi (November-February) and summer (March-May) seasons, respectively during a drought year. Individual and combined demand (drip irrigation and reduced farm electricity subsidy) and supply (water storage) management options improved groundwater levels and reduced well drying by 55-97 days/year compared to business-as-usual management under the high scenario. The combined management (50% drip conversion, 50% reduction in subsidy, and

  7. A Self-Instructional Course in Student Financial Aid Administration. Module 2--Federal Student Financial Aid: History & Current Sources. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Consulting Group, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The second of 17 modules in a self-instructional course on student financial aid administration, this module offers novice financial aid administrators and other institutional personnel a systematic introduction to the management of federal financial aid programs authorized by the Higher Education Act Title IV. It traces the history of federal…

  8. A Consideration of What Educational Faculty Need to Know and Be Able to Do: Federal and State Policies and Best Practices for Collaborative Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenot-Scheyer, Marquita; Coots, Jennifer J.; Bishop-Smith, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses how teacher preparation programs can best respond to the broad, complex calls for reform in ways that are locally meaningful and honor academic integrity, but that are also true to the intent of the reform mandates. The authors begin with an overview of some of the federal and state initiatives that are presenting challenges…

  9. Health care reform and federalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Scott L; Jacobson, Peter D

    2010-04-01

    Health policy debates are replete with discussions of federalism, most often when advocates of reform put their hopes in states. But health policy literature is remarkably silent on the question of allocation of authority, rarely asking which levels of government ought to lead. We draw on the larger literatures about federalism, found mostly in political science and law, to develop a set of criteria for allocating health policy authority between states and the federal government. They are social justice, procedural democracy, compatibility with value pluralism, institutional capability, and economic sustainability. Of them, only procedural democracy and compatibility with value pluralism point to state leadership. In examining these criteria, we conclude that American policy debates often get federalism backward, putting the burden of health care coverage policy on states that cannot enact or sustain it, while increasing the federal role in issues where the arguments for state leadership are compelling. We suggest that the federal government should lead present and future financing of health care coverage, since it would require major changes in American intergovernmental relations to make innovative state health care financing sustainable outside a strong federal framework.

  10. "Our federalism" moves indoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, Theodore W

    2013-04-01

    A great deal of the US Supreme Court's federalism jurisprudence over the past two decades has focused on the outer limits of federal power, suggesting a mutually exclusive division of jurisdiction between the states and the federal government, where subjects are regulated by one sovereign or the other but not both. This is not an accurate picture of American governance as it has operated over the past half century - most important areas of American life are regulated concurrently by both the federal government and the states. The Supreme Court's June 2012 decision clearing the way for the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) to move forward thus should not be regarded as an affront to state sovereignty but as a realistic embrace of state power in its active, modern form. The PPACA is infused with multiple major roles for the states, and as the statute goes into operation over the next few years, states retain, and are already exercising, substantial policy discretion.

  11. Without true leadership and ownership, alternative energies will not succeed : the need for policy creation and renewal at the federal, provincial and municipal level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, V. [St. Lawrence College, Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2003-08-01

    Most of the power generated in Eastern Ontario comes from the fossil-fired Lennox Generating Station, plus nuclear power from the Darlington plant near Toronto. Limited local power generation is provided by small hydro plants on the Rideau River system. Ontario provincial policy has favoured the expansion of nuclear power, to the detriment of all other sources. This has resulted in billions of dollars invested in the Greater Toronto Area and western Ontario. Investors are now gaining interest in cost-competitive renewable energy sources as energy industries face greater competition and increased environmental regulation. However, investment in renewable energy sources is not happening because of slow implementation and poorly thought-out processes. The author emphasized that the success of future alternative energy policies lies in partnerships where interested parties can work mutually to effect policy and political change. The International Energy Agency has stated that in the past 5 years, prices for renewable energies have become cost competitive with fossil technologies, but a long-term strategy and policy framework is needed to ensure that the full potential of renewable energy is not bypassed. The changes that are underway within the energy sector should be led by new policies that reflect social, economic and environmental priorities. It was suggested that Canada should follow the example of the European Union and require that a specific percentage of generation must come from renewable energy sources. 4 refs.

  12. The European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics Policy Statement No. 6.1: Recommended Guidelines on National Registration Schemes for Medical Physicists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofides, Stelios; Isidoro, Jorge; Pesznyak, Csilla; Bumbure, Lada; Cremers, Florian; Schmidt, Werner F O

    2016-01-01

    This EFOMP Policy Statement is an update of Policy Statement No. 6 first published in 1994. The present version takes into account the European Union Parliament and Council Directive 2013/55/EU that amends Directive 2005/36/EU on the recognition of professional qualifications and the European Union Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM laying down the basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation. The European Commission Radiation Protection Report No. 174, Guidelines on Medical Physics Expert and the EFOMP Policy Statement No. 12.1, Recommendations on Medical Physics Education and Training in Europe 2014, are also taken into consideration. The EFOMP National Member Organisations are encouraged to update their Medical Physics registration schemes where these exist or to develop registration schemes taking into account the present version of this EFOMP Policy Statement (Policy Statement No. 6.1"Recommended Guidelines on National Registration Schemes for Medical Physicists"). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Dress codes and appearance policies: challenges under federal legislation, part 3: Title VII, the Americans with Disabilities Act, and the National Labor Relations Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S; Koen, Clifford M; Darden, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    As more and more individuals express themselves with tattoos and body piercings and push the envelope on what is deemed appropriate in the workplace, employers have an increased need for creation and enforcement of reasonable dress codes and appearance policies. As with any employment policy or practice, an appearance policy must be implemented and enforced without regard to an individual's race, color, sex, national origin, religion, disability, age, or any other protected status. A policy governing dress and appearance based on the business needs of an employer that is applied fairly and consistently and does not have a disproportionate effect on any protected class will generally be upheld if challenged in court. By examining some of the more common legal challenges to dress codes and how courts have resolved the disputes, health care managers can avoid many potential problems. This article, the third part of a 3-part examination of dress codes and appearance policies, focuses on the issues of race and national origin under the Civil Rights Act, disability under the Americans With Disabilities Act, and employees' rights to engage in concerted activities under the National Labor Relations Act. Pertinent court cases that provide guidance for employers are addressed.

  14. Current use of impact models for agri-environment schemes and potential for improvements of policy design and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primdahl, Jørgen; Vesterager, Jens Peter; Finn, John A; Vlahos, George; Kristensen, Lone; Vejre, Henrik

    2010-06-01

    Agri-Environment Schemes (AES) to maintain or promote environmentally-friendly farming practices were implemented on about 25% of all agricultural land in the EU by 2002. This article analyses and discusses the actual and potential use of impact models in supporting the design, implementation and evaluation of AES. Impact models identify and establish the causal relationships between policy objectives and policy outcomes. We review and discuss the role of impact models at different stages in the AES policy process, and present results from a survey of impact models underlying 60 agri-environmental schemes in seven EU member states. We distinguished among three categories of impact models (quantitative, qualitative or common sense), depending on the degree of evidence in the formal scheme description, additional documents, or key person interviews. The categories of impact models used mainly depended on whether scheme objectives were related to natural resources, biodiversity or landscape. A higher proportion of schemes dealing with natural resources (primarily water) were based on quantitative impact models, compared to those concerned with biodiversity or landscape. Schemes explicitly targeted either on particular parts of individual farms or specific areas tended to be based more on quantitative impact models compared to whole-farm schemes and broad, horizontal schemes. We conclude that increased and better use of impact models has significant potential to improve efficiency and effectiveness of AES. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Climate change and the federal budget. CBO memorandum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    This Congressional Budget Office (CBO) memorandum was prepared at the request of the Senate Committee on the Budget to document current US efforts in the area of global climate change and to review current federal spending programs and tax policies that relate to climate change. The memorandum also describes proposals contained in the President's 1999 budget for funding for those programs and several new tax policies. It should be helpful to policymakers as they consider options to respond to international proposals for reducing the threat of climate change

  16. Tax policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This report contains information on the effects of additional tax incentives for the petroleum production industry. It considers the effects of additional incentives on petroleum production and federal revenues, the federal tax burden on new domestic petroleum production investments under current law, and the comparative tax treatment of petroleum production investments in the United States and other nations

  17. External and internal accidents in PWR power plants. Comparison of current regulations in Belgium, United States, France, Federal Republic of Germany and United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maere, G. de; Roch, M.; Cavaco, A.; Preat, M.

    1986-01-01

    In this report a comparison is made of the rules and practices applied in various countries (Belgium, France, Federal Republic of Germany, United Kingdom and United States of America) in designing PWR plants to resist natural hazards (first part of the report) and hazards associated with human activities (second part). The third part of the report deals with the practices in different countries concerning the protection against accidents of internal origin [fr

  18. Prevention of the Moral Degradation of Society as one of the Purposes of State and Legal Policy of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia O. Bragina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of falling of moral and moral installations, cultural traditions is an actual problem of the modern Russian state. Constitution of the Russian Federation sets justice bases, thereby defining the democratic contents and embodying the requirement of idea of justice and humanity. At the same time concepts of morals, moral thereof, questions of spiritual and moral character are out of a legal framework aren't enshrined in the legislation. On the basis of the Country constitution, according to the Law of the Russian Federation "About education" the Concept of spiritual and moral education of the Russian school students in which basic values are stated is developed: patriotism, social solidarity, civic consciousness, a family, work and creativity, science, those moral installations which would provide successful development of the state.

  19. Senator Fred Harris's National Social Science Foundation proposal: Reconsidering federal science policy, natural science-social science relations, and American liberalism during the 1960s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovey, Mark

    2012-03-01

    During the 1960s, a growing contingent of left-leaning voices claimed that the social sciences suffered mistreatment and undue constraints within the natural science-dominated federal science establishment. According to these critics, the entrenched scientific pecking order in Washington had an unreasonable commitment to the unity of the sciences, which reinforced unacceptable inequalities between the social and the natural sciences. The most important political figure who advanced this critique, together with a substantial legislative proposal for reform, was the Oklahoma Democratic Senator Fred Harris. Yet histories of science and social science have told us surprisingly little about Harris. Moreover, existing accounts of his effort to create a National Social Science Foundation have misunderstood crucial features of this story. This essay argues that Harris's NSSF proposal developed into a robust, historically unique, and increasingly critical liberal challenge to the post-World War II federal science establishment's treatment of the social sciences as "second-class citizens."

  20. Les interactions entre la politique de la Réserve fédérale et l’innovation, une clé de lecture de la « nouvelle économie » aux États-Unis The Interactions between Federal Reserve Policy and Innovation: One Key to Understanding the “New Economy” in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Pavelchievici

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is an analysis of the interactions between monetary policy and innovation in the United States during the 1990s, known as the “new economy” era, and rests on the hypothesis that they resulted in an unprecedented macroeconomic configuration. Its object is to show how the Federal Reserve made its policy credible and transparent, and thereby contributed to creating a climate that was favourable to innovation. Innovation is then analysed in the light of its implications for monetary policy by considering the stance adopted, as well as the Federal Reserve’s perception of stock market speculation.