WorldWideScience

Sample records for current federal law

  1. Review of the Federal Mining Law. [German Federal Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, H.

    1981-01-01

    The Federal Mining Law is a codification of mining law in the Federal Republic of Germany. It contains 178 paragraphs covering all aspects of prospecting and mining of mineral raw materials and related activities. The new law is to replace the former regional mining laws as well as most of the former Federal and regional regulations. All in all, 104 laws and regulations are repealed in sections 174 and 175. Basic principles of the former mining laws have been adhered to, e.g. mineral reserves do not come under the proprietory rights of the land owner, preventive monitoring of operations by means of operation plans, cession of territory under mining law, and the regulations concerning mining and land ownership. However, there are new details in the Federal Mining Law, in particular with regard to concessions and mining damage; this is reflected in a more complicated legal language.

  2. 40 CFR 270.3 - Considerations under Federal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Considerations under Federal law. 270... Considerations under Federal law. The following is a list of Federal laws that may apply to the issuance of... applicable law requires consideration or adoption of particular permit conditions or requires the denial of...

  3. 40 CFR 122.49 - Considerations under Federal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Considerations under Federal law. 122... Conditions § 122.49 Considerations under Federal law. The following is a list of Federal laws that may apply... must be followed. When the applicable law requires consideration or adoption of particular...

  4. 7 CFR 501.14 - Non-Federal law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-Federal law enforcement. 501.14 Section 501.14...-Federal law enforcement. Research Center special policemen may be deputized by State or local law... State or local law enforcement agency, the facilities or services of such State or local law enforcement...

  5. 40 CFR 144.4 - Considerations under Federal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Considerations under Federal law. 144... (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM General Provisions § 144.4 Considerations under Federal law. The following is a list of Federal laws that may apply to the issuance of permits under these...

  6. 40 CFR 258.3 - Consideration of other Federal laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration of other Federal laws... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS General § 258.3 Consideration of other Federal laws. The owner... rules, laws, regulations, or other requirements....

  7. Aktuelles Vaterschaftsrecht Current Paternity Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia C. Groppler

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Das Fachbuch enthält eine sehr vollständige Übersicht über die Entwicklung und die derzeitige rechtliche Situation im Bereich der Vaterschaftsfeststellung und -anfechtung. Das Buch ist in erster Linie für Praktiker/-innen geschrieben, also insbesondere für Familienrichter/-innen, Jugend- und Standesämter sowie für Anwälte und Anwältinnen, die auf dem Gebiet des Vaterschaftsrechts tätig sind. Es ist aber auch geeignet für all diejenigen, die juristisch mit Vaterschaftsproblemen zu tun haben und sich einen fundierten Überblick verschaffen wollen bzw. das Buch als Nachschlagewerk zu einzelnen Problemfeldern des Vaterschaftsrechts nutzen wollen.This specialized book contains a complete overview of the development and current legal situation in the area of the determination and contestation of paternity. The book is primarily written for practitioners, especially for family judges, youth and registry offices, as well as for male and female lawyers who work in the field of paternity law. But it is also suitable for those who deal with legal paternity problems and would like to gain a sound overview, i.e. would like to use the book as a reference work for specific problem areas of paternity law.

  8. Federalism in Pakistan, Current Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razia Musarrat

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this study is to elaborate the political issues and challenges faces by the federation of Pakistan during and after the Gen. Pervez Musharraf government. In this paper effort is made to discuss those issues on the biases of which politics of federalism started in the country. Pinching problems that caused disintegration to Pakistan are also discussed. Those issues are also discussed in details which are a constant threat to the “new federation of Pakistan”. Authors also focus on the 2008 elections and its consequences on Pakistan politics. All the results of this research are proved via review of the previous literature. Researchers have proved that as Pakistan has a diversified culture so federalism is best suited for its political structure. Researchers have also discussed few suggestive solutions for better bureaucracy.

  9. Draft of a Federal Mining Law (BBergG). [German Federal Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Standardization and rearrangement is proposed for all the mining laws in the Federal Republic of Germany, especially of the regulations concerning prospecting and mining of natural resources. The draft provides; 1) creation of a modern, elastic system of concessions for particularly important natural resources withdrawn from the landed property; smoothing of the existing system of mineral rights; 2) development of the instruments of mining law adapted to the special requirements of mining natural resources in view of preventive and current control of the operation and its supervision; 3) first-time authorizations for federal safety and labor protection decrees; 4) reformation of the relationship with the employer's liability insurances and, resulting therefrom, improvement of the accident prevention measures; 5) stronger embodiment of damage-preventing measures in mining-damage law; improvement of the extent of liability and the protection of those damaged; 6) accounting for related new engineering developments (underground tankless storage); 7) final regulation for prospecting and mining of natural resources in the range of the continental shelf; 8) relief of mining law from alien legal matters as well as liquidation of antiquated institutes of mining law.

  10. Federal Workplace Laws: Are Business Work Experience Programs in Compliance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Martha H.; Kurth, Linda A.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews federal laws (Fair Labor Standard Act's child labor regulations, Occupational Safety and Health Act, Immigration Reform and Control Act) for their implications for cooperative education and school-to-work programs. (SK)

  11. Four Washington companies resolve violations of federal chemical storage laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    (Seattle-July 13, 2015) Four Washington companies have signed settlements for violations of federal chemical storage laws, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. EPA's investigations found that the companies failed to properly report storag

  12. Designing and Teaching an Introduction to Federal Indian Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Wynema

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the question has arisen as to whether or not federal Indian law should be taught at tribal colleges and universities (TCUs). To answer this three questions must be asked: (1) Why should such a subject be taught and who would teach it; (2) Which department should be responsible for Indian law courses; and (3) Should they be offered…

  13. Designing and Teaching an Introduction to Federal Indian Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Wynema

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the question has arisen as to whether or not federal Indian law should be taught at tribal colleges and universities (TCUs). To answer this three questions must be asked: (1) Why should such a subject be taught and who would teach it; (2) Which department should be responsible for Indian law courses; and (3) Should they be offered…

  14. Managing Asthma in Elementary and Middle Schools: Adherence to Federal Laws and National Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Ethan J.; Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey; Getch, Yvette Q.; Lease, A. Michele

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined teacher-reported asthma management practices in school and adherence to federal guidelines for students with asthma. 593 kindergarten-eighth grade teachers completed surveys regarding compliance with federal laws and policies, information-seeking behavior, asthma-related professional development, and asthma management…

  15. Managing Asthma in Elementary and Middle Schools: Adherence to Federal Laws and National Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Ethan J.; Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey; Getch, Yvette Q.; Lease, A. Michele

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined teacher-reported asthma management practices in school and adherence to federal guidelines for students with asthma. 593 kindergarten-eighth grade teachers completed surveys regarding compliance with federal laws and policies, information-seeking behavior, asthma-related professional development, and asthma management…

  16. AIDS groups challenge Federal Internet censorship law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-03

    The Communications Decency Act (CDA), a section of the 1996 telecommunications reform law, bans indecent and patently offensive expression from all online systems available to those under the age of 18. AIDS organizations and the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) filed suit in U.S. District Court in Philadelphia, PA,to challenge the law. The ACLU contends that the CDA law is unconstitutional because it criminalizes expression that is protected by the First Amendment, and violates constitutional rights to privacy. The CDA also would impede dissemination of HIV prevention information, according to AIDS online services. Operators of these electronic information systems state that providing explicit language about safe sexual practices is essential if teenagers are to understand how to prevent HIV infection. Additionally, content providers argue that it is almost impossible to know what text or images must be censored in order to avoid government prosecution. Expert witnesses testifying for the U.S. Government stated that there are means available to purge Internet sites of materials that might be regarded as indecent. The ACLU recommends utilizing a software package that would enable parents to control their children's Internet access without requiring broad censorship.

  17. Ohm's law for a current sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, L. R.; Speiser, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    The paper derives an Ohm's law for single-particle motion in a current sheet, where the magnetic field reverses in direction across the sheet. The result is considerably different from the resistive Ohm's law often used in MHD studies of the geomagnetic tail. Single-particle analysis is extended to obtain a self-consistency relation for a current sheet which agrees with previous results. The results are applicable to the concept of reconnection in that the electric field parallel to the current is obtained for a one-dimensional current sheet with constant normal magnetic field. Dissipated energy goes directly into accelerating particles within the current sheet.

  18. Current state of US breastfeeding laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu T; Hawkins, Summer Sherburne

    2013-07-01

    This study systematically examined state-level laws protecting breastfeeding, including their current status and historical development, as well as identified gaps across US states and regions. The National Conference of State Legislatures summarised breastfeeding laws for 50 states and DC as of September 2010, which we updated through May 2011. We then searched LexisNexis and Westlaw to find the full text of laws, recording enactment dates and definitions. Laws were coded into five categories: (1) employers are encouraged or required to provide break time and private space for breastfeeding employees; (2) employers are prohibited from discriminating against breastfeeding employees; (3) breastfeeding is permitted in any public or private location; (4) breastfeeding is exempt from public indecency laws; and (5) breastfeeding women are exempt from jury duty. By May 2011, 1 state had enacted zero breastfeeding laws, 10 had one, 22 had two, 12 had three, 5 had four and 1 state had laws across all five categories. While 92% of states allowed mothers to breastfeed in any location and 57% exempted breastfeeding from indecency laws, 37% of states encouraged or required employers to provide break time and accommodations, 24% offered breastfeeding women exemption from jury duty and 16% prohibited employment discrimination. The Northeast had the highest proportion of states with breastfeeding laws and the Midwest had the lowest. Breastfeeding outside the home is protected to varying degrees depending on where women live; this suggests that many women are not covered by comprehensive laws that promote breastfeeding. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The understanding of law professionals from the Federal District about drug users under the current new law / A compreensão dos operadores de direito do Distrito Federal sobre o usuário de drogas na vigência da nova lei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fátima Olivier Sudbrack

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Drugs users have been receiving contradictory treatments thereby promoting their stigma besides hiding and limiting the understanding of the phenomenon. The objective of this study was to investigate how the District Attorneys and Judges are considering and applying the new law which legislates on the conduct of drug use in Brazil. Eleven Law professionals from the Federal District participated in semi-structured interviews divided in three areas: the point of view in relation to the user of drugs, how the law is being applied, and how they conceive the work of the multidisciplinary teams. The results showed very heterogeneous positions, showing that there is no unanimity on the understanding of the new law. For some, there is a shared belief that drugs abuse is a public health problem, for others, it is believed that the user must receive a punishment for his/her illegal act. An effective and efficient interdisciplinary dialogue should allow a reflective action aiming at favoring those who come to justice.

  20. 31 CFR Appendix K to Subpart C of... - Federal Law Enforcement Training Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Law Enforcement Training...—Federal Law Enforcement Training Center 1. In general. This appendix applies to the Federal Law... and accounting of disclosures for the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center, will be made by the...

  1. A compreensão dos operadores de direito do Distrito Federal sobre o usuário de drogas na vigência da nova lei The understanding of law professionals from the Federal District about drug users under the current new law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Barros Santoucy

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O usuário de drogas tem recebido tratamentos contraditórios que promovem sua estigmatização e clandestinidade e limitam a compreensão do fenômeno. O objetivo foi investigar como Promotores e Juízes estão entendendo e aplicando a nova lei que legisla sobre a conduta de usar e portar drogas no Brasil. Onze operadores do Direito do Distrito Federal (DF participaram de entrevistas semi-estruturadas divididas em três eixos: a visão em relação ao usuário de droga; como a lei vem sendo aplicada; e como concebe o trabalho da equipe multidisciplinar. As respostas demonstraram posições muito heterogêneas, denotando não haver ainda unanimidade quanto à compreensão da nova lei: se por um lado há uma crença compartilhada de que o uso de drogas é um problema de saúde pública, por outro, acredita-se que o usuário deve receber uma punição por seu ato ilegal. Um diálogo interdisciplinar efetivo permitiria uma atuação eficaz e reflexiva visando a beneficiar as pessoas que chegam à justiça.Drugs users have been receiving contradictory treatments thereby promoting their stigma besides hiding and limiting the understanding of the phenomenon. The objective of this study was to investigate how the District Attorneys and Judges are considering and applying the new law which legislates on the conduct of drug use in Brazil. Eleven Law professionals from the Federal District participated in semi-structured interviews divided in three areas: the point of view in relation to the user of drugs, how the law is being applied, and how they conceive the work of the multidisciplinary teams. The results showed very heterogeneous positions, showing that there is no unanimity on the understanding of the new law. For some, there is a shared belief that drugs abuse is a public health problem, for others, it is believed that the user must receive a punishment for his/her illegal act. An effective and efficient interdisciplinary dialogue should allow a

  2. 42 CFR 411.7 - Services that must be furnished at public expense under a Federal law or Federal Government...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... under a Federal law or Federal Government contract. 411.7 Section 411.7 Public Health CENTERS FOR....7 Services that must be furnished at public expense under a Federal law or Federal Government contract. (a) Basic rule. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, payment may not be made for...

  3. The sandbox strategy : the why and how of federal law enforcement integration

    OpenAIRE

    Mandoli, Gregory R.

    2006-01-01

    CHDS State/Local This thesis examines the interoperability of federal law enforcement's Big Six investigative agencies, to include the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Immigration and Customs Enforcement, Drug Enforcement Administration, Alcohol Tobacco Firearms and Explosives, Internal Revenue Service-CID, and the United States Secret Service-Investigations. The main issue is whether, in the post-9/11 environment of transnational and terrorist criminal threats, the current administrative ...

  4. 31 CFR Appendix K to Subpart A of... - Federal Law Enforcement Training Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Law Enforcement Training... of Part 1—Federal Law Enforcement Training Center 1. In general. This apppendix applies to the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center. 2. Public reading room. The public reading room for the Federal...

  5. Federal Law "On Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation": Conditions of Adoption and Development Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris V. Korobeynikov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of the Federal Law "On Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation" in 1992 took place in a tough fight in the time of privatization and restructuring. At this time, revealed numerous violations. Prosecution authorities stood on the position of the rule of law and the interests of the state, has become a serious obstacle to the forces that destroy the state and its economy. In the 90 years of the twentieth century, the prosecutor's office declined status in the society, which is reflected in the text of the new Constitution of the Russian Federation (1993, containing only one, 129 article devoted to the prosecuting authorities, while there were five (Article in the Constitution of the USSR of such articles . 164, 165, 166, 167, 168. Also, the law "On the Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation" does not include an article on the problems of supervision in this direction, as well as Art. 30 "to arrest". These changes to the law the prosecutor's office indicate the desire of the legislator to downplay the independence of the prosecution and its role in countering the massive violation of the law of the initial period of "perestroika". The role of politics in the legal regulation of the activities of the prosecutor's office is determined by the law "On the Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation" and the insertion in the amended. The activities of the prosecution authorities, the powers of prosecutors are regulated by criminal procedure, civil procedure, arbitration procedure and other legislation, which varies due to the effects of many political reasons.

  6. An analysis of the applicability of federal law regarding hash-based searches of digital media

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Matthew B.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Fourth Amendment of the United States (U.S.) Constitution limits the ability of the government to search U.S. persons without cause or justification. The application of the Fourth Amendment to digital forensics search techniques is still evolving. This thesis summarizes current federal law and recent judicial rulings that can apply Fourth Amendment doctrine to current digital forensics techniques. It uses three hypothetical scenari...

  7. 12 CFR 557.11 - To what extent does Federal law preempt deposit-related State laws?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Federal law preempt deposit-related State laws? (a) Under sections 4(a), 5(a), and 5(b) of the HOLA, 12 U... purposes of HOLA. (b) To further these purposes without undue regulatory duplication and burden, OTS...

  8. The climate change law of the federal government. Analyses and proposals to its further development; Das Klimaschutzrecht des Bundes. Analyse und Vorschlaege zu seiner Weiterentwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sina, Stephan; Garstetter, Christiane; Bausch, Camilla; Goerlach, Benjamin; Neubauer, Alexander [Ecologic gGmbH Institut fuer Internationale und Europaeische Umweltpolitik, Berlin (Germany); Rodi, Michael [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer oeffentliches Recht, Finanz- und Steuerrecht

    2011-09-15

    The present report provides an analysis of the current German federal climate change law. Due to the crosssectoral character of this law, the study comprises regulations from different sectors and areas of law such as emissions trading, the energy sector and agriculture. Based on this analysis, proposals for the advancement of the German federal law of climate change are developed in five particular areas: a potential outline for a general climate protection act serving as the central legal act for climate change law, further considerations on the structure of climate change law, development proposals related to energy grids, federal requirements for municipal climate protection as well as agricultural land use. (orig.)

  9. The Russian Federation legislation. The new laws. Prospects for international cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, A. YE. [Department of project management TENEX, 26, Staromonetnyi Per., 109180 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2002-07-01

    Survey of the regulatory basis for the international cooperation of the Russian Federation in the area of foreign commercial and research spent fuel management. Analysis of the latest legislative amendments. Complex approach and environmental priorities of the new legislative initiatives (three Federal laws): Amendments to Articles 1, 47 and 64 of the Federal Law on {sup U}tilization of atomic energy{sup ;} Amendments to Articles 50 of the Federal Law on {sup E}nvironmental protection{sup ;} The new Federal Law {sup O}n Special ecological programs for the clean- up of areas, contaminated by radiation{sup .} (author)

  10. 29 CFR 570.25 - Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor standards..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Certificates of Age Provisions of Other Laws § 570.25 Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor standards...

  11. An Unbroken Axial Vector Current Conservation Law

    CERN Document Server

    Sharafiddinov, Rasulkhozha S

    2015-01-01

    The mass, energy and momentum of the neutrino of a true flavor have an axial-vector nature. As a consequence, the left-handed truly neutral neutrino in an axial-vector field of emission can be converted into a right-handed one and vice versa. This predicts the unidenticality of masses, energies and momenta of neutrinos of the different components. Recognizing such a difference in masses, energies, momenta and accepting that the left-handed axial-vector neutrino and the right-handed antineutrino of true neutrality refer to long-lived C-odd leptons, and the right-handed truly neutral neutrino and the left-handed axial-vector antineutrino are of short-lived fermions of C-oddity, we would write a new CP-even Dirac equation taking into account the flavor symmetrical axial-vector mass, energy and momentum matrices. Their presence explains the spontaneous mirror symmetry violation, confirming that an axial-vector current conservation law has never violated. They reflect the availability of a mirror Minkowski space i...

  12. 13 CFR 101.106 - Does Federal law apply to SBA programs and activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Does Federal law apply to SBA programs and activities? 101.106 Section 101.106 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATION Overview § 101.106 Does Federal law apply to SBA programs and activities? (a)...

  13. 75 FR 28367 - Notification of Employee Rights Under Federal Labor Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... Executive Order 13496, ``Notification of Employee Rights Under Federal Labor Laws,'' 74 FR 6107, Feb. 4... ``Notification of Employee Rights Under Federal Labor Laws.'' 74 FR 6107, Feb. 4, 2009. The purpose of the... content of the Secretary's proposed notice, which sets forth employee rights under the NLRA. 74 FR...

  14. [Current ascariasis situation in the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darchenkova, N N; Romanenko, N A; Chernyshenko, A I

    2006-01-01

    In the Russian Federation (RF), ascariasis remains to be the most common geohelminthiasis, in children in particular. With its overall reduction, the prevalence of ascariasis is very uneven on the RF territory. In the past 15 years, from 1991 to 2004, there was a steady-state decrease in the incidence of ascariasis from 79.5 to 46.0 per 100,000. Its incidence rates remained higher than the average Russian ones in 33 RF subjects and lower than those in 48 subjects and began reducing in 8 subjects in the past 4 years. Of the 33 RF subjects wherein the incidence rates were constantly greater than the average Russian ones, 27 subjects are located in the natural background-favorable areas. In the past 15 years, there was an increase in the impact of socioeconomic factors on the higher incidence of ascariasis: the population's migration; the delivery and transport of Ascaris egg-contaminated greens, vegetables, berries; the development of hothouse gardening, and, as a result, the occurrence of ascariasis in the northern areas of the country, as well as the use of discharged waters for soil fertilization to grow crops. The territory of Russia was first epidemiologically districted in the context of ascariasis, by taking into account the natural background and socioeconomic factors. The area of ascariasis is on the rise. In all RF subjects, public health and social security bodies should constantly keep in mind the problem in ascariasis control and prevention.

  15. STOPPING DECEPTIVE HEALTH CLAIMS: THE NEED FOR A PRIVATE RIGHT OF ACTION UNDER FEDERAL LAW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Diane; Schwartz, Jack

    2016-01-01

    This Article offers a thorough analysis of an important public health issue, namely how to confront the growing problem of deceptive claims regarding foods and dietary supplements, including increasingly prevalent but unverifiable claims. The authors call for the creation of a limited private right of action under the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Act for deceptive health-related claims for these products. The proposal responds to the growing market for these products and the inadequacy of current laws and enforcement actions to prevent such claims. In crafting the limited private right of action, the authors attempt to enhance consumer protection without undermining federal agency primacy in enforcement. The Article ends with an appendix setting forth proposed language for a statutory amendment to the FTC Act incorporating the authors' proposal.

  16. Renewable Energy Prices in State-Level Feed-in Tariffs: Federal Law Constraints and Possible Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempling, S.; Elefant, C.; Cory, K.; Porter, K.

    2010-01-01

    State legislatures and state utility commissions trying to attract renewable energy projects are considering feed-in tariffs, which obligate retail utilities to purchase electricity from renewable producers under standard arrangements specifying prices, terms, and conditions. The use of feed-in tariffs simplifies the purchase process, provides revenue certainty to generators, and reduces the cost of financing generating projects. However, some argue that federal law--including the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) and the Federal Power Act of 1935 (FPA)--constrain state-level feed-in tariffs. This report seeks to reduce the legal uncertainties for states contemplating feed-in tariffs by explaining the constraints imposed by federal statutes. It describes the federal constraints, identifies transaction categories that are free of those constraints, and offers ways for state and federal policymakers to interpret or modify existing law to remove or reduce these constraints. This report proposes ways to revise these federal statutes. It creates a broad working definition of a state-level feed-in tariff. Given this definition, this report concludes there are paths to non-preempted, state-level feed-in tariffs under current federal law.

  17. Federal Law Spurs Private Companies to Market Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Karla Scoon

    2004-01-01

    For-profit education companies are ramping up their businesses to tap into millions of federal dollars set aside to provide tutoring for students attending struggling schools. Under the federal No Child Left Behind Act, Title I schools that fail to reach state achievement goals three years in a row are required to offer free tutoring to students…

  18. Federal Law Spurs Private Companies to Market Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Karla Scoon

    2004-01-01

    For-profit education companies are ramping up their businesses to tap into millions of federal dollars set aside to provide tutoring for students attending struggling schools. Under the federal No Child Left Behind Act, Title I schools that fail to reach state achievement goals three years in a row are required to offer free tutoring to students…

  19. 26 CFR 44.4422-1 - Doing business in violation of Federal or State law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in nowise authorizes the carrying on of any business in violation of a law of the United States or... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Doing business in violation of Federal or State law. 44.4422-1 Section 44.4422-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  20. 76 FR 78874 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Title 41 Positive Law Codification-Further...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... Positive Law Codification--Further Implementation (DFARS Case 2012- D003) AGENCIES: Defense Acquisition... Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement to conform statutory titles to the new Positive Law Codification of Title 41, United States Code, ``Public Contracts.'' DATES: Comment Date: Comments on the...

  1. Mental Element of Bribery under Nigerian and Us (Federal) Anti-Bribery Laws: an Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Akeem Olajide BELLO

    2014-01-01

    Academic reviews have highlighted the problem of lack of clarity with Nigerian antibribery laws. It is important for the criminal law to clearly state the mental element of bribery. This would communicate to citizens, lawyers and judges what is wrong with bribery. It would also provide a yardstick to distinguish between the socio-cultural practice of gift-giving and bribery. This article analyses the mental element of bribery in Nigeria and federal anti-bribery laws in United Stat...

  2. Legal status of older laws and agreements kept in force according to Federal Mining Law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, H.

    1985-01-01

    A review of Sections 149-159 BBergG shows that great care has been taken not to interfere with existing mining rights. The law had two goals: First, existing prospecting and mining rights were to be integrated in the new law without altering the legal position of their owners. Secondly, rights that have become more pro forma rights were to be abolished by the new law. Both goals have been achieved. (orig./HSCH).

  3. Derivation of the Biot-Savart Law from Ampere's Law Using the Displacement Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschauer, Robert

    2013-12-01

    The equation describing the magnetic field due to a single, nonrelativistic charged particle moving at constant velocity is often referred to as the "Biot-Savart law for a point charge." Introductory calculus-based physics books usually state this law without proof.2 Advanced texts often present it either without proof or as a special case of a complicated mathematical formalism.3 Either way, little or no physical insight is provided to the student regarding the underlying physics. This paper presents a novel, basic, and transparent derivation of the Biot-Savart law for a point charge based only on Maxwell's displacement current term in Ampere's law. This derivation can serve many pedagogical purposes. For example, it can be used as lecture material at any academic level to obtain the Biot-Savart law for a point charge from simple principles. It can also serve as a practical example of the important fact that a changing electric flux produces a magnetic field.

  4. Demonstration of Kirchhoff's First Law for Pure Spin Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batley, Joseph; Rosamond, M. C.; Ali, M.; Linfield, E. H.; Burnell, G.; Hickey, B. J.

    In conventional electronics a fundamental component of circuit design is the principle of fan-out, which allows multiple operations to be performed in order to build up complex logical procedures. A fan-out device relies on the condition that electrical currents obey Kirchoff's laws and in order for spin-logic to be viable, the same must be shown for pure spin currents. Both fan-out and fan-in experiments have been performed to observe how spin currents behave in a multi-terminal circuit. The development of a 3-dimensional nonlocal IV and matrix fitting method provides information about each spin current, along with the thermal current generated at the injection point, and how they interact with each other. The fan-out geometry demonstrates that a pure spin current will divide between the different branches in a circuit, with a magnitude determined through the spin resistances of each arm. The fan-in measurements demonstrate that two pure spin currents will add and subtract with each other in a conventional manner expected from Kirchhoff's first law. These experiments have demonstrated the symmetry of pure spin currents with respect to the injection current and shown that they obey Kirchhoff's current law.

  5. 77 FR 42751 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Office of Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Office of Law Enforcement/Federal Air Marshal Service Mental Health Certification... Security Administration (TSA) invites public comment on one currently approved Information Collection...

  6. The Sandbox Strategy: The Why and How of Federal Law Enforcement Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    codependence of ICE and the FBI has created significant and ongoing tension between the two agencies. The ICE/FBI conflict, while perhaps the most...administration of federal law enforcement agencies, the import of his theory transcends the interagency law enforcement relationships and exposes the... relationships promote information sharing and information sharing improves the U.S. counterintelligence/counterterrorism strategy, then the concept of

  7. To the Question of the Russian Federation Law "About the International Commercial Arbitration" Сhanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Sitkareva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The UN Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL has prepared a Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration (1985, which became the main legislation on arbitration for nearly 70 countries, including Russian Federation, and, thereby, set world legislation standards for arbitration. A number of other international instruments were adopted. In the present article authors consider questions of international law and national regulatory activities of international commercial arbitration tribunals in general, as well as present detail of the provisions of law introduced to the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation on amendments to the Law of the Russian Federation "On International Commercial Arbitration", which is aimed to align provisions of Russian legislation on international commercial arbitration with internationally recognized legislative approaches on key aspects of international commercial arbitration management practice. Author illustrates process of bill consideration and provide detailed characterization of the proposed changes. In addition to considering proposed innovations, authors critically analyze possible implications of the bill as amended and present opinions of specialists, experts, jurists, as well as represent their own justification.

  8. [The Federal Law "On the fundamentals of health protection of citizen in the Russian Federation" and the issues of management of medical care quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenbraten, A P

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the analysis of main statutory provisions of the Federal Law of the Russian Federation No 323-FZ of 21.11.2011 "On the fundamentals of health protection of citizen in the Russian Federation", concerning the issue of medical care quality.

  9. Liability for Sexual Harassment Involving Students under Federal Civil Rights Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckham, Joseph

    1995-01-01

    Discusses school district liability for sexual harassment under two provisions of federal law that are typically invoked as alternative bases for liability for sexual harassment: Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 and Section 1983 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. (78 footnotes) (MLF)

  10. 42 CFR 485.707 - Condition of participation: Compliance with Federal, State, and local laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Agencies as Providers of Outpatient Physical Therapy and Speech-Language Pathology Services § 485.707... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Compliance with Federal, State, and local laws. 485.707 Section 485.707 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES...

  11. 20 CFR 650.3 - Secretary's interpretation of Federal law requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... appeal from a benefit determination to an administrative tribunal with the greatest promptness that is... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Secretary's interpretation of Federal law requirements. 650.3 Section 650.3 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  12. 25 CFR 900.50 - What Federal laws, regulations, and Executive Orders apply to subcontractors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INTERIOR, AND INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTS UNDER THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Procurement Management System Standards § 900.50 What Federal laws, regulations, and...

  13. The Supreme Federal Court of Brazil and the law of oil; O Supremo Tribunal Federal e a Lei do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Marcio Monteiro

    2008-07-01

    The following paper aims to analyze the local oil legal framework and the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court ('STF') footprint pursuant Constitutional Amendment n. 5. Such Amendment allowed local and international companies to act in the Brazilian oil market. This paper also analyses Law 9.478, which created the National Oil Agency ('ANP') with great innovations to the market. Therefore, a historic timeline comparing the enactment of such rules 'vis-a-vis' certain issues raised before STF through Direct Actions of Unconstitutionality will be presented (author)

  14. 28 CFR 1100.29 - The roles and responsibilities of federal law enforcement, immigration, and Department of State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The roles and responsibilities of federal law enforcement, immigration, and Department of State officials under the Trafficking Victims... and responsibilities of federal law enforcement, immigration, and Department of State officials...

  15. 75 FR 34148 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information; Office of Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Collection of Information; Office of Law Enforcement/Federal Air Marshal Service Mental Health Certification... Security Administration (TSA) invites public comment on one currently approved information collection..., Office of Information Technology, TSA-11, Transportation Security Administration, 701 South 12th Street...

  16. Source index A: Federal law, without agreements under international law. As of December 31, 1991. Fundstellennachweis A: Bundesrecht ohne voelkerrechtliche Vereinbarungen. Abgeschlossen am 31. Dezember 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-14

    The Federal Law Catalogue and relevant sources - BGBl. III - is the basis of the source index A, which from 1st Januarey 1966 onwards publishes the sources of laws and statutes announced in the Federal Law Gazette, part I and part II, as well as in the Federal Gazette. The source index A covers the sources of all statutes and amendments since 1st January 1964. Official directives, however, are not always announced in the Federal Law Gazette, or in the promulgation section of the Federal Gazette, but rather in the official journals of the Federal Ministries, and in the announcement section of the Federal Gazette. This also applies to amendments or cancellations of directives first published in the Federal Law Gazette or in the promulgation section of the Federal Gazette. As the latter and the official journals of the ministries are not scanned for the source index A, there is no guarantee as to complete coverage of directives. Subject scope 75 covers acts and directives relating to mining, nuclear energy, electricity, gas and power supply. (orig.).

  17. Mental Element of Bribery under Nigerian and Us (Federal Anti-Bribery Laws: an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akeem Olajide BELLO

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Academic reviews have highlighted the problem of lack of clarity with Nigerian antibribery laws. It is important for the criminal law to clearly state the mental element of bribery. This would communicate to citizens, lawyers and judges what is wrong with bribery. It would also provide a yardstick to distinguish between the socio-cultural practice of gift-giving and bribery. This article analyses the mental element of bribery in Nigeria and federal anti-bribery laws in United States of America. The analysis is undertaken with a view to drawing useful insight to propose reform of Nigerian anti-bribery laws. The article finds that American laws better clarifies the wrongful mental conduct that transforms gift-giving into bribery. Unlike Nigerian statutes that uses the undefined word “corruptly” to capture the mental element of bribery, American statutes while using the word “corruptly” further captures the mental element of bribery in terms of intention to use a bribe to influence official action. The American approach if adopted by the legislature to reform Nigerian anti-bribery laws would provide better guidance to the courts, lawyers and laymen in understanding why the law criminalises bribery. It would also provide a platform to distinguish between gift-giving and bribery.

  18. Too Much Too Soon? A Case for Hesitancy in the Passage of State and Federal Password Protection Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Davis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, significant attention has been given to employers’ concern and involvement over employees’ use of social media. The amount of attention given to social media has resulted in a number of proposed federal laws and multiple state laws discussing employers’ involvement and participation in employees’ social media use. The purpose of this note is to advocate for a more hesitant legislative stance toward social media password protection laws in an effort to avoid unnecessarily over-legislating in an area of privacy law that is still developing. While the author does not make an outright rejection of such legislation, the author argues that the speed and political vigor with which lawmakers are moving forward with such statutes raises the risk of statutory ambiguity, confusion amongst affected parties, and unnecessary burdens on employers. The note provides a thorough review of current trends in employers asking for social media login information, current legislation protecting employees’ social media use, and proposed legislation meant to combat an employer’s ability to obtain social media information.

  19. 77 FR 64819 - New Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Office of Law Enforcement/Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ...: Office of Law Enforcement/Federal Air Marshal Service LEO Reimbursement Request AGENCY: Transportation... expenses incurred by airport operators for the provision of law enforcement officers (LEOs) to support... Request. Affected Public: Law Enforcement Officers. Abstract: Pursuant to 49 U.S.C. Sec. Sec. 106(m) and...

  20. 34 CFR 674.57 - Cancellation for law enforcement or corrections officer service-Federal Perkins, NDSL and Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cancellation for law enforcement or corrections officer... EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Loan Cancellation § 674.57 Cancellation for law enforcement or... November 29, 1990, for full-time service as a law enforcement or corrections officer for an eligible...

  1. Law in the laboratory a guide to the ethics of federally funded science research

    CERN Document Server

    Charrow, Robert P

    2010-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation together fund more than $40 billon of research annually in the United States and around the globe. These large public expenditures come with strings, including a complex set of laws and guidelines that regulate how scientists may use NIH and NSF funds, how federally funded research may be conducted, and who may have access to or own the product of the research. Until now, researchers have had little instruction on the nature of these laws and how they work. But now, with Robert P. Charrow’s Law in the Laboratory, they have a readable and entertaining introduction to the major ethical and legal considerations pertaining to research under the aegis of federal science funding. For any academic whose position is grant funded, or for any faculty involved in securing grants, this book will be an essential reference manual. And for those who want to learn how federal legislation and regulations affect laboratory research, Charrow’s primer wil...

  2. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Two. Federal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the Federal government governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  3. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Two. Federal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the Federal government governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  4. Federal state educational standards of higher professional education. Discipline «Law»: perspectives of introduction in medical institutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erugina М.V.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the positive and negative impact of the new Federal state educational standards of higher professional education on the quality of studying the discipline «Law» in medical schools

  5. Source index A: Federal law, without agreements under international law. As of December 31, 1994; Fundstellennachweis A. Bundesrecht ohne voelkerrechtliche Vereinbarungen. Abgeschlossen am 31. Dezember 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-10

    The Federal Law Catalogue and relevant sources - BGBl. III - is the basis of the source index A, which from 1st January 1966 onwards publishes the sources of laws and statutes announced in the Federal Law Gazette, part I and part II, as well as in the Federal Gazette. The source index A covers the sources of all statutes and amendments since 1st January 1964. Official directives, however, are not always announced in the Federal Law Gazette, or in the promulgation section of the Federal Gazette, but rather in the official journals of the Federal Ministries, and in the announcement section of the Federal Gazette. This also applies to amendments or cancellations of directives first published in the Federal Law Gazette or in the promulgation section of the Federal Gazette. As the latter and the official journals on the ministries are not scanned for the source index A, there is no guarantee as to complete coverage of directives. Subject scope 75 covers acts and directives relating to mining, nuclear energy, electricity, gas and power supply. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit den Fundstellen der Sammlung des Bundesrechts - BGBl. III - als Basis enthaelt der Fundstellennachweis A seit dem 1.1.1966 kontinuierlich die Fundstellen aller nach dem 31.12.1963 im Bundesgesetzblatt Teil I veroeffentlichten und im Bundesgesetzblatt Teil II sowie im Bundesanzeiger verkuendeten Vorschriften einschliesslich der dazu ergangenen Aenderungen. Anordnungen werden nicht in jedem Fall im Bundesgesetzblatt oder im Verkuendungsteil des Bundesanzeigers veroeffentlicht. Die Veroeffentlichung erfolgt zum Teil in den Amtsblaettern der Ministerien und im Bekanntmachungsteil des Bundesanzeigers. Das gilt auch fuer die Faelle, in denen Anordnungen geaendert oder aufgehoben werden, die urspruenglich im Bundesgesetzblatt oder im Verkuendungsteil des Bundesanzeigers veroeffentlicht worden sind. Da die Amtsblaetter der Ministerien und der Bekanntmachungsteil des Bundesanzeigers fuer den Fundstellennachweis A

  6. Temporal association between federal gun laws and the diversion of guns to criminals in Milwaukee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Daniel W; Vernick, Jon S; Bulzacchelli, Maria T; Vittes, Katherine A

    2012-02-01

    The practices of licensed gun dealers can threaten the safety of urban residents by facilitating the diversion of guns to criminals. In 2003, changes to federal law shielded gun dealers from the release of gun trace data and provided other protections to gun dealers. The 14-month period during which the dealer did not sell junk guns was associated with a 68% reduction in the diversion of guns to criminals within a year of sale by the dealer and a 43% increase in guns diverted to criminals following sales by other dealers. The laws were associated with a 203% increase in the number of guns diverted to criminals within a year of sale by the gun store, which was the focus of this study. Policies which affect gun dealer accountability appeared to influence the diversion of guns to criminals.

  7. 45 CFR 304.21 - Federal financial participation in the costs of cooperative arrangements with courts and law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cooperative arrangements with courts and law enforcement officials. 304.21 Section 304.21 Public Welfare... § 304.21 Federal financial participation in the costs of cooperative arrangements with courts and law... financial participation (FFP) at the applicable matching rate is available in the costs of...

  8. Sub-Federal Enforcement of Immigration Law: An Introduction to the Problem of Pretextual Enforcement and Inadequate Remedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Rosenbaum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sub-federal enforcement of immigration law has expanded significantly in the last decade raising questions concerning policing, rights violations, and remedies. While the Fourth Amendment has historically provided an avenue for potentially suppressing evidence obtained in violation of a criminal defendant’s civil rights, its applicability in the immigration removal context has been circumscribed. Thus, the avenues to protect the rights of unauthorized noncitizens in immigration removal proceedings are less clear where sub-federal agents act outside of their authorization, particularly in the context of Secure Communities, and enforce immigration law. In the context of immigration exceptionalism, racial profiling has historically played a unique role in immigration law. The lack of adequate measures to deter rights violations where sub-federal agents enforce immigration law raises questions concerning the relationship between criminal and immigration law, and the importance of deterring civil rights violations such as racial profiling, in immigration enforcement. This article will examine the problem of sub-federal law enforcement agents’ use of criminal law violations as a pretext to enforce immigration law and the lack of adequate deterrence of civil rights violations.

  9. Anti-choice group seeks Supreme Court review of federal clinic access law; Congress holds hearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-05-19

    The Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act (FACE) is a federal statute which was signed into law May 1994 prohibiting the use of force, threat of force, or physical obstruction to intentionally injure, intimidate, or interfere with anyone providing reproductive health services. Since FACE was enacted, seven federal district courts and one federal appellate court have found the measure constitutional, although one federal district court in Wisconsin did rule against FACE. Anti-choice activists have argued that neither the Commerce Clause nor the Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution empower Congress to enact FACE. Congress relied upon both constitutional provisions when it enacted the statute, recognizing that illegal, violent acts against abortion providers and their patients threaten to disrupt medical care nationwide and eliminate the right to choose abortion. The US Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit on February 13, 1995, however, unanimously upheld a lower court's dismissal of the case, finding that FACE does not violate the US Constitution. Relying upon an April 26 Supreme Court decision in United States vs. Lopez, which held that Congress did not have the power under the Commerce Clause to enact a federal statute prohibiting the possession of a firearm within 100 feet of a school zone, an anti-choice group and several individuals petitioned the US Supreme Court in a May 12 filing to review the appellate court ruling in American Life League vs. Reno. The petitioners also challenge the broad powers of Congress under the Fourteenth Amendment to remedy infringements upon constitutional rights and assert FACE violates the First Amendment and the Religious Freedom Restoration Act.

  10. An Unbroken Axial-Vector Current Conservation Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafiddinov, Rasulkhozha S.

    2016-04-01

    The mass, energy and momentum of the neutrino of a true flavor have an axial-vector nature. As a consequence, the left-handed truly neutral neutrino in an axial-vector field of emission can be converted into a right-handed one and vice versa. This predicts the unidenticality of masses, energies and momenta of neutrinos of the different components. Recognizing such a difference in masses, energies, momenta and accepting that the left-handed axial-vector neutrino and the right-handed antineutrino of true neutrality refer to long-lived C-odd leptons, and the right-handed truly neutral neutrino and the left-handed axial-vector antineutrino are of short-lived fermions of C-oddity, we would write a new CP-even Dirac equation taking into account the flavor symmetrical axial-vector mass, energy and momentum matrices. Their presence explains the spontaneous mirror symmetry violation, confirming that an axial-vector current conservation law has never violated. They reflect the availability of a mirror Minkowski space in which a neutrino is characterized by left as well as by right space-time coordinates. Therefore, it is not surprising that whatever the main purposes experiments about a quasielastic axial-vector mass say in favor of an axial-vector mirror Minkowski space-time.

  11. Who is an astronaut? The inadequacy of current international law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyall, F.

    2010-06-01

    The concept of 'astronaut' as found in law in the 'space treaties' and elsewhere does not fit well with the modern proposals for commercial space tourism. Will the 'rescue and return' provisions apply to commercial flights? Many national laws will apply to space tourism but for the future the international legal regime should be reconsidered. Finally what may happen in a crisis in space?

  12. TYPES OF MUNICIPALITIES IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION: THE ANALYSIS OF LEGISLATION AND LAW ENFORCEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Shugrina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 342.53The question of the concept and characteristics of a municipal formation has a very practical embodiment: in disputes about territorial foundations of local self-government, the courts often have to infer the presence or absence of the municipality, to investigate the presence or absence of signs of a municipal formation have a specific territory. The objective is to study the concepts and characteristics of the municipality in the materials of law enforce-ment, a comparative analysis of different types of municipalities. The study used the dialec-tical, system-structural, functional, comparative-legal and other methods of cognition. The article compares the types of municipalities found in the Federal legislation and the legisla-tion of subjects of the Russian Federation, explores the question of the powers of the con-stituent entities of the Russian Federation on the establishment of new types of municipal formations. For example, the practice of the constitutional Court, materials of the State Duma emphasized that in providing different types of municipalities, the Federal legislator has quite clearly articulated its desire to establish their differences. Special attention is paid to the analysis of differences in the legal status of municipalities belonging to the same species. Analysis of legal material, law enforcement practice allows the following attributes of municipal formation: territory, permanently or primarily resident population, municipal property and local budgets, bodies of local self-government, the Charter and the system of municipal legal acts, official symbols. When considering the question of the legal status of municipalities stated that the question of equality of different types of municipal for-mations is not so straightforward. Most of the differences in the legal status of different types of municipalities is established by Federal laws and is driven by the desire to make local government more efficient

  13. Teaching Voltage-Current Relationships without Ohm's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIldowie, Eric

    1998-01-01

    Outlines a course based on a series of experiments in which students are introduced to the behavior of electrical components without any references to Ohm's law. Argues that this approach has advantages over the traditional presentation. (DDR)

  14. Current Developments in Communications Law in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadl, Robert D.

    1973-01-01

    Article reviews some of the major developments in communications law in the United States in the past year (1972). Significant events are covered in the areas of cable television, television programming and domestic satelites. (Author)

  15. Law status of journalists and bloggers in the newest information legislation of Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapustina Anna Georgievna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The author carries out a comparative analysis of Russian national rights and responsibilities of journalists and bloggers, distinguishes fundamental differences in the legal status of the subject of information relations, determines the trend of development of the Russian legislation activity regulation of participants of information relations in the Russian segment of the Internet. On August 1, 2014 the Law on bloggers entered into force that, on the one hand fixed the differences between journalism as a profession and the blogosphere as a kind of social activity. On the other hand, at the legislative level it has solved the problem of the responsible attitude to bloggers - often influential and popular sources of information - to the broadcasting of messages. It is obvious that in Russian Federation it is being actively formed a system of legal regulation of information relations on the Internet, existed for many years legal gaps in this area are gradually disappearing.

  16. The Influence of All-China Women's Federation on the Revision of the Marriage Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuJialiang

    2005-01-01

    The process of participation by All-China Women' s Federation (ACWF) in the revision of the Marriage Law reveals two characteristics. First, participation is a process that combines various interests. The Federation undertook nationwide surveys and research focusing on the desires and demands of Chinese women in relation to revision of the law. In addition, it held numerous informal discussions and held training classes to collect opinions on the revision from a variety of circles. The process of participation presents a convergence of interests;

  17. 20 CFR 416.1484 - Appeals Council review of administrative law judge decision in a case remanded by a Federal court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 416.1484 Appeals Council review of administrative law judge decision in a case remanded by a Federal... proceedings leading to the final decision in your case or subsequently considered by the administrative law... reversing the decision of the administrative law judge, or it will remand the case to an administrative law...

  18. Current issues of space law before the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1974-01-01

    The United Nations' activities in the area of space law and the accomplishments of the Outer Space Committee are discussed. Two draft conventions, the draft treaty on the moon and the draft treaty on the registration of space objects are considered. Other issues covered include the direct broadcast by satellite, the boundary between air space and outer space, and remote sensing from space.

  19. 17 CFR 14.7 - Finding of violation of Commodity Exchange Act or Federal securities laws in another proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finding of violation of Commodity Exchange Act or Federal securities laws in another proceeding. 14.7 Section 14.7 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES RELATING TO SUSPENSION OR DISBARMENT FROM...

  20. The current state of Contract Law in Australia and why it is important for rural managers to understand it

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Farmers are business managers and as such they must understand the law or they are likely to fall foul of it. This especially applies to contract law, with which they deal constantly. Contract law is made up of the common law – as the courts have decided it – and statute law- as the state and federal parliaments have enacted statutes which modify the common law. The most important and most recent of the latter is the new Australian Consumer Law.

  1. Air gun wounding and current UK laws controlling air weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce-Chwatt, Robert Michael

    2010-04-01

    Air weapons whether rifles or pistols are, potentially, lethal weapons. The UK legislation is complex and yet little known to the public. Hunting with air weapons and the laws controlling those animals that are permitted to be shot with air weapons is even more labyrinthine due to the legal power limitations on the possession of air weapons. Still relatively freely available by mail order or on the Internet, an increasing number of deaths have been reported from the misuse of air weapons or accidental discharges. Ammunition for air weapons has become increasingly sophisticated, effective and therefore increasingly dangerous if misused, though freely available being a mere projectile without a concomitant cartridge containing a propellant and an initiator.

  2. The law of similars: current biases in its application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Silvestri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Homeopathic prescription is based on the so-called law of similars, i.e. 1 on a patient sharing symptoms with the artificial and reversible disease caused by a drug taken in the state of health in a proving (Materia Medica Pura; 2 on systematic observations of pathogenetic effects due to accidental drug abuse (toxicology. However, in contemporary homeopathy, distortions in the application of the law are not infrequent, and they will be considered here. Methods. Two main biases are described and analyzed: 1 the shift towards the law of the same, concerning methods like isopathy and homotoxicology; 2 the a priori attribution of therapeutic properties to high dilutions of a given substance. The first twist can be retraced to the extension of the concept of drainage. Drainage is aimed to restore a blocked function by making use of a drug with affinity for a given anatomic district or a specific function – tropism. To some extent this technique is compatible with classical homeopathy, though not based on the law of similars. In any case, drainage has limited effects and typically precedes the use of a simillimum identified within a holistic view. The second kind of distortion is due to the influence of the ancient doctrine of signaturae. In the Organon S. Hahnemann warns against the temptation of ascribing to remedies any effect or property without a preliminary screening through proving. However, while doctrine of signaturae was regarded by classical masters as a further support to experimental findings, rather than being used to infer ex novo substance properties, several homeopaths have expanded its application to the point of using it as an alternative approach to Materia Medica. Conclusions. In a picture of contemporary homeopathy based on these premises, we can draw a line which goes from methods combining isopathy and drainage, acting only on a local level, to approaches somewhat related to the doctrine

  3. Is current EU food safety law geared up for fighting food fraud?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Malicious intent appears to be a blind spot in European Union (EU) food safety law. The current system of law has been created in reaction to food safety incidents. As a consequence it has been designed to deal with accidental problems not with intentionally deceitful actions of people. The horse

  4. 20 CFR 404.984 - Appeals Council review of administrative law judge decision in a case remanded by a Federal court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Council review of administrative law judge decision in a case remanded by a Federal court. (a) General. In... final decision in your case or subsequently considered by the administrative law judge in the... of the Commissioner after remand, or it will remand the case to an administrative law judge for...

  5. Religious Music, the Public Schools, and the Establishment Clause: A Review of Federal Case Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranmore, Jeff; Fossey, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Various issues relating to education and religion continue to appear in federal court. One issue that is most relevant to music educators is the use of religious music in school music curriculum. Although no federal guidelines exist as to what is acceptable usage, a number of federal cases have addressed the various issues, from the use of…

  6. Current issues of international law on offshore abandonment, with special reference to the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiguo [Univ. of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    1997-11-01

    This article attempts to provide an up-to-date overview of the recent developments of international law on offshore abandonment. It scrutinizes the current issues and debates on the subject at both international and national levels, with special reference to the legislation and practice in the United Kingdom. Through a study of the current issues and trends in international law and policy developments, the articles undertakes to provide, where possible, practical considerations as to the possible resolution of some of the prominent problems faced by the international community in general, and some member states in particular. The future direction of international abandonment law also is briefly outlined.

  7. BANK DEPOSIT CONTRACT: CURRENT STATUS OF LEGISLATION AND LAW ENFORCEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Kozhevnikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 347.734The relevance of the study is determined by the debates around legal rules devoted to the bank deposit contract, as well as an extensive judicial practice, revealing the problems of existing legislation. Purpose: to systematize the main problems of enforcement related to the bank deposit contract and to suggest ways of improving the current legislation. Meth-ods: general and special scientific methods (systemic, comparative, formal-logical and other are used. Results: on the basis of the comparative experience of Belarus, Kazakhstan and other foreign countries, analysis of judicial practice proposals to improve existing legislation are presented (including types of contract, investigation of deposits, bail-in.The authors conclude, it is necessary to supplement Chapter 44 of Russian Civil Code by rules on types of bank deposit agreement, establish the order of registration of the deposit and deposited funds with the remote technology, by list of requirements as to the form of deposit and savings certificates, by details and peculiarities of treatment, as well as consolidate the definition of "interest capitalization" and establish the list of cases of restriction of the rights of depositors for disposal of deposits. Procedural rules on the investigation of the deposits, determining the jurisdiction of cases on the protection of investors, are also should be improved.

  8. Source index A: Federal law, without agreements under international law and treaties with the GDR. As of December 31, 1990. Fundstellennachweis A: Bundesrecht ohne voelkerrechtliche Vereinbarungen und Vertraege mit der ehemaligen DDR. Abgeschlossen am 31. Dezember 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-18

    The Federal Law Catalogue and relevant sources - BGBl. III - is the basis of the source index A, which from 1st January 1966 onwards publishes the sources of laws and statutes announced in the Federal Law Gazette, part I and part II, as well as in the Federal Gazette. The source index A covers the sources of all statutes and amendments since 1st January 1964. Official directives, however, are not always announced in the Federal Law Gazette, or in the promulgation section of the Federal Gazette, but rather in the official journals of the Federal Ministries, and in the announcement section of the Federal Gazette. This also applies to amendments or cancellations of directives first published in the Federal Law Gazette or in the promulgation section of the Federal Gazette. As the latter and the official journals of the ministries are not scanned for the source index A, there is no guarantee as to complete coverage of directives. Subject scope 75 covers acts and directives relating to mining, nuclear energy, electricity, gas and power supply. (orig.).

  9. 29 CFR 825.702 - Interaction with Federal and State anti-discrimination laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... maternity leave if the employer normally provides short-term disability benefits to employees with the same..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Effect of Other Laws, Employer.... Thus, the leave provisions of the are wholly distinct from the reasonable accommodation obligations of...

  10. 77 FR 35879 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Title 41 Positive Law Codification-Further...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ...: Title 41 Positive Law Codification--Further Implementation (DFARS Case 2012- D003) AGENCY: Defense... titles throughout the DFARS to the new Positive Law Codification of Title 41, United States Code, ``Public Contracts.'' DATES: June 15, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Amy G. Williams, telephone...

  11. Statistical interpretation of transient current power-law decay in colloidal quantum dot arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibatov, R T, E-mail: ren_sib@bk.ru [Ulyanovsk State University, 432000, 42 Leo Tolstoy Street, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-08-01

    A new statistical model of the charge transport in colloidal quantum dot arrays is proposed. It takes into account Coulomb blockade forbidding multiple occupancy of nanocrystals and the influence of energetic disorder of interdot space. The model explains power-law current transients and the presence of the memory effect. The fractional differential analogue of the Ohm law is found phenomenologically for nanocrystal arrays. The model combines ideas that were considered as conflicting by other authors: the Scher-Montroll idea about the power-law distribution of waiting times in localized states for disordered semiconductors is applied taking into account Coulomb blockade; Novikov's condition about the asymptotic power-law distribution of time intervals between successful current pulses in conduction channels is fulfilled; and the carrier injection blocking predicted by Ginger and Greenham (2000 J. Appl. Phys. 87 1361) takes place.

  12. Some comments on the current (and future status of Muslim personal law in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Rautenbach

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The state law of South Africa consists of the common law and the customary law. However, in reality there exist various cultural and religious communities who lead their private lives outside of state law. For example, the Muslim community in South Africa is a close-knit community which lives according to their own customs and usages. Muslims are subject to informal religious tribunals whose decisions and orders are neither recognised nor reviewable by the South African courts.The non-recognition of certain aspects of Muslim personal law causes unnecessary hardships, especially for women. A Muslim woman is often in a "catch two" situation. For example, on the one hand her attempts to divorce her husband in terms of Muslim law may be foiled by the relevant religious tribunal and, on the other hand, the South African courts may not provide the necessary relief, because they might not recognise the validity of her Muslim marriage. Increasingly, South African courts are faced with complex issues regarding the Muslim community. The last few years there has been a definite change in the courts' attitude with regard to the recognition of certain aspects of Muslim personal law. Contrary to pre-1994 court cases, the recent court cases attempt to develop the common law to give recognition to certain aspects of Muslim personal law. This article attempts to give an overview of the recent case law that dealt with issues regarding the recognition of aspects of Muslim personal law. Another issue, which eventuates from the current situation, is whether the South African legal order should continue to have a dualistic legal order or whether we should opt for a unified legal order or even a pluralistic legal order. In order to address this issue, some comments on the current status of Muslim personal law will be made and, finally, in order to contribute to the debate regarding the recognition of Muslim personal law, optional models for the recognition of Muslim

  13. 76 FR 9968 - Regulation for the Enforcement of Federal Health Care Provider Conscience Protection Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... performance of induced abortions, or make arrangements for the provision of such training. For the purposes of... the Federal Register on December 19, 2008. The Rule contained definitions of terms used in the federal...--from discriminating against any applicant or employee in hiring, discipline, promotion, termination, or...

  14. Federal Holidays

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Federal law (5 U.S.C. 6103) establishes the following public holidays for Federal employees. Please note that most Federal employees work on a Monday through Friday...

  15. Shared Solar. Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brockway, Anna M. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Ulrich, Elaine [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report provides a high-level overview of the current U.S. shared solar landscape and the impact that a given shared solar program’s structure has on requiring federal securities oversight, as well as an estimate of market potential for U.S. shared solar deployment.

  16. Shared Solar. Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brockway, Anna M. [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Ulrich, Elaine [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-07

    This report provides a high-level overview of the current U.S. shared solar landscape, the impact that a given shared solar program’s structure has on requiring federal securities oversight, as well as an estimate of market potential for U.S. shared solar deployment.

  17. The Rise of International Relations Programs in the Brazilian Federal Universities: Curriculum Specificities and Current Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marcos Alan S. V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this reflection is to study the new international relations (IR) programs introduced by Brazilian federal universities, looking comparatively at their curriculum specificities and current challenges. In recent years, Brazil has seen an increase of IR programs launched in several regions. Since 2003, the Ministry of Education is in the…

  18. Transparency and Accountability: What if the Federal Gainful Employment-Debt Measures Regulations Applied to Law Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, Kari Ann

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to compare current guidelines of the American Bar Association (ABA) for law schools to those of the U.S. Department of Education's Gainful Employment-Debt Measures regulations in order to assess their transparency and accountability. This analysis is relevant in a time of increasing tuition costs and record…

  19. Student Records: Complying with Federal Privacy Laws May be Simpler than You Think

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoop, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) was passed in 1974 and revised in 1996. This act, also known as the Buckley Amendment, guarantees parents access to their children's education records and limits the disclosure of those records. The revised law regards most information that teachers, school administrators, and education…

  20. 31 CFR 103.100 - Information sharing between Federal law enforcement agencies and financial institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS Special Information Sharing Procedures To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist... money laundering—(1) In general. A law enforcement agency investigating terrorist activity or money... suspected based on credible evidence of engaging in, terrorist activity or money laundering; include enough...

  1. Exploring Faraday's Law of Electrolysis Using Zinc-Air Batteries with Current Regulative Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Masahiro; Paku, Miei

    2007-01-01

    Current regulative diodes (CRDs) are applied to develop new educational experiments on Faraday's law by using a zinc-air battery (PR2330) and a resistor to discharge it. The results concluded that the combination of zinc-air batteries and the CRD array is simpler, less expensive, and quantitative and gives accurate data.

  2. Federal Privacy Laws That Apply to Children and Education. Safeguarding Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data Quality Campaign, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This table identifies and briefly describes the following federal policies that safeguard and protect the confidentiality of personal information: (1) Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA); (2) Protection of Pupil Rights Amendment (PPRA); (3) Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA); (4) Children's Online Privacy…

  3. Geothermal energy and the law. I. The Federal Lands Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, C.D.; McNamara, J.

    1975-09-30

    A broad range of problems in the legal and institutional environment which hampers the development of the geothermal industry is discussed. The topics include: the development of geothermal energy; pre-leasing procedures--public vs. private assessment; exploratory permits and related strategies; the rate of geothermal leasing-past and future; compensation strategies; lessee qualifications; lands available for leasing; noncompensatory lease terms; ongoing leasehold and production requirements; problems of ''secondary'' geothermal uses; and water law conflicts. (LBS)

  4. Peculiarities of us Border Guard Officers’ Training at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center Using Online Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloshchynskyi Ihor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Professional training of future US border guard officers at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center using e-FLETC Online Campus has been substantiated in the article. Special attention has been paid to revealing such topical areas of Online Campus computer-based training modules (crime scene, driver training, drugs, firearms, health, interviewing, investigative, legal, mapping, maritime, officer safety, technology, terrorism, traffic stops, training that include over 120 lessons and 20 videos which are available on a wide range of topics. Web-based training lessons which include topics such as counterterrorism, crime scene preservation and documentation, disaster, crisis and emergency strategies and management, domestic violence, drug endangered children, drug related crimes, elder abuse, firearms, fitness and healthy lifestyles, human trafficking, interacting with special needs populations, intelligence led policing, interpersonal skills and conflict management, interviews and interrogations, investigating technology related crimes (protecting and collecting digital evidence, investigative skills and techniques, knowledge of laws and regulations, leadership and management, lessons learned (previous case analysis, maritime law enforcement, etc. have been revealed. Besides, examples of “Firearms” and “Use of Force” curricula in e-FLETC Online Campus have been presented.

  5. An Analysis of the Applicability of Federal Law Regarding Hash-Based Searches of Digital Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    medicine , caused birth defeats in their children because the medicine was used during pregnancy. The suit was eventually moved to federal court on...use of the medicine had not been shown to be a risk factor. The petitioners did not contest the published report but instead submitted testimony from... marijuana was being grown in the home of Danny Lee Kyllo due to circumstances involving another investiga- tion. Knowing that the indoor growth of marijuana

  6. Legal rights during pandemics: federalism, rights and public health laws--a view from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, B

    2009-03-01

    Pandemic influenza will cause significant social and economic disruption. Legal frameworks can play an important role in clarifying the rights and duties of individuals, communities and governments for times of crisis. In addressing legal frameworks, there is a need for jurisdictional clarity between different levels of government in responding to public health emergencies. Public health laws are also informed by our understandings of rights and responsibilities for individuals and communities, and the balancing of public health and public freedoms. Consideration of these issues is an essential part of planning for pandemic influenza.

  7. 287(g): Cross-Delegating State and Local Law Enforcement Officers with Federal Immigration Authority - Homeland Security Remedy or Rue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Proyecto Latino de Utah.146 I also have an immigration rights website as a forum for my people. I think our current immigration laws are in dire need of...nothing 146 Proyecto Latino de Utah, “Tony Yapias,” http://www.utahlatinos.com/author.html (accessed...accessed November 3, 2007). Proyecto Latino de Utah. “Tony Yapias.” http://www.utahlatinos.com/author.html accessed August 28, 2008). Tully

  8. Reinstatement of the sexual harasser: the conflict between federal labor law and Title VII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskorski, T J

    1993-01-01

    Greater numbers of employers are adopting and vigorously enforcing policies prohibiting sexual harassment in the workplace. Discipline, including possible termination of employment, often is prescribed for the violation of such policies. When employees are represented by a union and covered by a collective bargaining agreement, final decisions relating to discipline often are made by arbitrators pursuant to the agreement's grievance and arbitration procedure. For a variety of reasons, arbitrators may decide that a lesser form of discipline than that imposed by the employer is warranted for acts of sexual harassment. Such arbitration awards present a substantial conflict between two compelling public policies--the public policy favoring the private resolution of workplace disputes and the public policy against sexual harassment. This article will address the several federal courts of appeals' decisions that have attempted to resolve this conflict.

  9. ABOUT APPLICATION OF MEDIATION IN CRIMINAL CASES (FROM THE EXPERIENCE OF LAW-ENFORCEMENT PRACTICE IN FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Kravchuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The matters in the fight against crime through a prism of foreign countries are in the centre of attention of a domestic and foreign criminal law science and lawenforcement practice. The modern science of criminal law has a theoretically reasonable doctrine answering positions and principles about a lawful state, the complete concept of punishment; however, there is an inevitable practice of wide application punishment of custodial sanction which against a steady tendency of growth of registered criminality becomes a sharp social and legal problem. In this sense experience of mediation’s application in criminal cases in court practice of Federal Republic of Germany is interesting as comparable alternative form of conflicts solution which is enough effective. Mediation means development of an extrajudicial decision for victims, a conciliation procedure for all participants of the conflict with assistance of one or several intermediaries who are independent, neutral and external persons carrying out exchange and communications function between the parties, with the purpose of conflict settlement by participants. Mediation gives the opportunity of constructive handling with criminal cases and is a good addition to traditional court practice as it means the co-operative and constructive decision of problems existing between the direct parties and contributes to internal security provision, so a share of relapses after processes of reconciliation of the criminal and a victim is much more low than in comparable cases in traditional criminal procedures. Authors describe short chronology of contemporary history of mediation, legal and organizational bases in realization of reconciliation process between a victim and the criminal being the offer of conflict settlement by means of the third participating parties.

  10. Derivation of the Biot-Savart Law from Ampere's Law Using the Displacement Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschauer, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The equation describing the magnetic field due to a single, nonrelativistic charged particle moving at constant velocity is often referred to as the "Biot-Savart law for a point charge." Introductory calculus-based physics books usually state this law without proof. Advanced texts often present it either without proof or as a special…

  11. [German practice of involuntary commitment at both federal and state level after introduction of the Guardianship law (1992-2009)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes-Stauber, J; Deinert, H; Kilian, R

    2012-05-01

    Given the steady rise of psychiatric coercive measures in Germany, the question arises whether this development is significantly influenced by the corresponding legal basis or through epidemiological, socio-economic or socio-structural factors. Based on full surveys of the Federal Ministry of Justice we examined the development and associations of 10 indicators of coercive psychiatric measures over a period of 18 years. Time trends of all indicators have been descriptively analysed. Statistical associations between time trends and between involuntary and admissions economic indicators were analysed by regression models. All annual involuntary commitment rates have increased, judicial ordered physical restraint measures particularly strongly (848%). The rate of judicial rejections of applied involuntary measures showed the lowest increase. On the other hand, quotas of involuntary admissions remained stable. In former East Germany, the involuntary admission rates are only a third of those in the former West Germany. Results of regression analyses indicate an excess increase of physical coercive measures in psychiatric hospitals in relation to the increase of psychiatric admissions. In former East Germany the rate of involuntary admissions at the federal state level is negatively correlated with the average gross income. The continuous increase of coercive psychiatric measures in consequence to the change in the Guardianship law suggests that this change has influenced the practice. The differences at federal and state levels, and the sharper rise in the former East Germany by lower rates in comparison to the former West Germany need an explanation, as well as the fact that the rate of involuntary admissions is associated at least in the former East Germany with economic conditions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Public Participation and the Rights of the Child: Reflection on International Law Standards in the Legal System of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Riekkinen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the much debated issue of children’s public participation from the perspective of legal practices in the Russian Federation. Having emerged at the level of national jurisdictions, the practice of engaging minors in decision-making processes on issues of public significance – or the practice of public participation of children – is stipulated by the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, based on Article 12 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Public participation of minors implies that children have clearly defined opportunities to take part in decision-making processes concerning those political and public matters affecting their interests.Albeit limited by the clause “regarding the issues concerning them,” the claims for such participation are dictated by emerging standards of international law. The author has examined the process of devising these standards in Russian public law. Moreover, an analysis of the evolution of academic views on public participation of children in Russian legal scholarship is also included in this article.Relying extensively on the method of legal analysis and the comparative analysis of the conformity of national public law standards with respect to international law, the author proposes several legal amendments to the Federal law “On the Basic Guarantees of the Rights of the Child in the Russian Federation,” which would lead to anchoring more solidly the participatory right of minors in the legal system of the Russian Federation.

  13. The Distinction between Civil and Criminal Law: A Lesson Plan for High School Law-Related Educators To Support "Understanding the Federal Courts."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administrative Office of the United States Courts, Washington, DC.

    The O. J. Simpson trials taught much of the United States a basic lesson in the difference between criminal law and civil law. Many students learn in their government classes that a person cannot be tried twice for the same crime. A person found innocent in a criminal trial, however, can be sued under civil law procedures for damages. It is…

  14. 78 FR 23885 - Federal Seed Act Program; Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Federal Seed Act Program; Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently... collection 7 CFR part 201 for Federal Seed Act Labeling and Enforcement. DATES: Comments on this document... submitted online at www.regulations.gov or sent to Fawad S. Shah, Director, Seed Regulatory and...

  15. Origins of a Current Conflict? An Examination of Stock-Nonstock Cooperative Law

    OpenAIRE

    Suhler, Diane Rizzuto; Cook, Michael L.

    1993-01-01

    The earliest state cooperative laws in the United States were stock laws modeled upon the Rochdale experience and were adaptations of basic corporate laws of incorporation to the cooperative form of organization. They emphasized stock as the basis of membership and the distribution of profits to members in proportion to patronage. After 1911, the dominant form of cooperative law became the nonstock law. which emphasized service at cost and the personal. fraternal nature of membership in a coo...

  16. Law of Federal Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-08

    Cir. 1993); Afifi v. United States Dep’t of Interior, 924 F.2d 61, 62 (4th Cir. 1991); Manning v. MSPB, 742 F.2d 1424 (Fed. Cir. 1984); Long v. United...district court, and bifurcated proceedings are prohibited. See Afifi , 924 F.2d at 62-63; Williams, 715 F.2d at 1490-91. According to one court, the no

  17. Intellectual property law and competition law in China - Analysis of the current framework and comparison with the EU approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeung Nga Man

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Yeung Nga Man looks at the question of protection of intellectual property rights in the Chinese legal system with comparative reference to policy and practice in the European Union. What is the best way to stimulate competition but yet also protect innovation? Part I of the essay examines the present IPRs protection in China. In Part II, contrary to the myth that competition and IP law conflict with one another, the author argues that both foster innovation and development, and enhance consumer welfare. Part III discusses the competition law regime in China with a specific focus on AML and evaluation of the enforcement of the regime. Part IV outlines the European Union approach, which China might consider adopting. Part V discusses the Block Exemptions approach from the E.U. on horizontal agreements.

  18. 3 CFR 13496 - Executive Order 13496 of January 30, 2009. Notification of Employee Rights Under Federal Labor Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Labor Laws By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United... contracts, it is hereby ordered that: Section 1. Policy. This order is designed to promote economy...

  19. The Federal Communications Commission: Current Structure and Its Role in the Changing Telecommunications Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-14

    4 FCC Structure .......................................................................................................................6...for additional information on the history of the FCC. The Federal Communications Commission Congressional Research Service 6 FCC Structure The

  20. Agreements concluded by the Federal Republic of Germany under international law in the field of environmental protection. Source index in the Federal Law Gazette, part II. As of June 1, 1992. Voelkerrechtliche Vereinbarungen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland auf dem Gebiet des Umweltschutzes. Fundstellen im Bundesgesetzblatt II. Stand 1. Juni 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohse, S. (comp.)

    1992-06-01

    This compilation contains all agreements under international law in the field of environmental protection, the FRG has joined and that have been published and/or announced in the Federal Law Gazette, part II. The summary is of September 15, 1987. The classification is made according to the subjects: waste management law, pollution is made according to the date of treaty/agreement. For easier access, there are a chronological index, an index of the contracting states and an index of the places of contract. In the annex the relevant treaties with the German Democratic Republic are indicated. (orig.)

  1. Benefit-cost analysis of DOE's Current Federal Program to increase hydrothermal resource utilization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-10

    The impact of DOE's Current Federal Program on the commercialization of hydrothermal resources between 1980 and 2000 is analyzed. The hydrothermal resources of the United States and the types of DOE activities used to stimulate the development of these resources for both electric power and direct heat use are described briefly. The No Federal Program and the Current Federal Program are then described in terms of funding levels and the resultant market penetration estimates through 2000. These market penetration estimates are also compared to other geothermal utilization forecasts. The direct benefits of the Current Federal Program are next presented for electric power and direct heat use applications. An analysis of the external impacts associated with the additional hydrothermal resource development resulting from the Current Federal Program is also provided. Included are environmental effects, national security/balance-of-payments improvements, socioeconomic impacts and materials requirements. A summary of the analysis integrating the direct benefits, external impacts and DOE program costs concludes the report.

  2. Iniciativa de ley federal del patrimonio cultural de la nacion (Draft of Federal Law for the Cultural Heritage of the Nation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mexico.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of the draft of a law for the preservation of Mexican national heritage, particularly for the protection, conservation, and recuperation of cultural objects. The document consists of twelve chapters and six articles. Chapter 1 declares the protection, conservation,…

  3. Iniciativa de ley federal del patrimonio cultural de la nacion (Draft of Federal Law for the Cultural Heritage of the Nation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mexico.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of the draft of a law for the preservation of Mexican national heritage, particularly for the protection, conservation, and recuperation of cultural objects. The document consists of twelve chapters and six articles. Chapter 1 declares the protection, conservation,…

  4. Converging cylindrical magnetohydrodynamic shock collapse onto a power-law-varying line current

    KAUST Repository

    Mostert, W.

    2016-03-16

    We investigate the convergence behaviour of a cylindrical, fast magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shock wave in a neutrally ionized gas collapsing onto an axial line current that generates a power law in time, azimuthal magnetic field. The analysis is done within the framework of a modified version of ideal MHD for an inviscid, non-dissipative, neutrally ionized compressible gas. The time variation of the magnetic field is tuned such that it approaches zero at the instant that the shock reaches the axis. This configuration is motivated by the desire to produce a finite magnetic field at finite shock radius but a singular gas pressure and temperature at the instant of shock impact. Our main focus is on the variation with shock radius, as, of the shock Mach number and pressure behind the shock as a function of the magnetic field power-law exponent, where gives a constant-in-time line current. The flow problem is first formulated using an extension of geometrical shock dynamics (GSD) into the time domain to take account of the time-varying conditions ahead of the converging shock, coupled with appropriate shock-jump conditions for a fast, symmetric MHD shock. This provides a pair of ordinary differential equations describing both and the time evolution on the shock, as a function of, constrained by a collapse condition required to achieve tuned shock convergence. Asymptotic, analytical results for and are obtained over a range of for general, and for both small and large . In addition, numerical solutions of the GSD equations are performed over a large range of, for selected parameters using . The accuracy of the GSD model is verified for some cases using direct numerical solution of the full, radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the GSD solutions, it is found that the physical character of the shock convergence to the axis is a strong function of . For μ≤0.816, and both approach unity at shock impact owing to the dominance of the strong

  5. International human rights law aspects of forced migrations, evictions and displacement: current issues and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Scholten, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is an analysis of the categories of evictions, forced migrations and internal displacement in the context of international human rights law. Forced migrations and selected categories of internal displacement are important issues of international human rights law and international humanitarian law for more than forty years. The UDHR, adopted in 1948, does not contain any provisions related to forced human mobility and internal displacement. Despite this fact ...

  6. Where Theory and Law Meet: Trends in Establishment Clause Jurisprudence in the US Federal Courts and Implications for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lance E.; Southerland, Sherry A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, federal court opinions and writings of legal scholars, spanning 63 years of establishment clause jurisprudence in the US federal courts were analysed in an effort to determine dominant trends in judicial philosophy that are of significance to science educators. The study's findings suggest that the dominant legal theory underpinning…

  7. Renewable Energy Prices in State-Level Feed-in Tariffs. Federal Law Constraints and Possible Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempling, Scott [National Regulatory Research Inst., Silver Spring, MD (United States); Elefant, Carolyn [Law Offices of Carolyn Elefant, Washington, DC (United States); Cory, Karlynn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This report details how state feed-in tariff (FIT) programs can be legally implemented and how they can comply with federal requirements. The report describes the federal constraints on FIT programs and identifies legal methods that are free of those constrains.

  8. Shared Solar: Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-27

    This presentation provides a high-level overview of the current U.S. shared solar landscape, the impact that a given shared solar program's structure has on requiring federal securities oversight, as well as an estimate of market potential for U.S. shared solar deployment.

  9. 77 FR 12069 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... their aircraft against acts of criminal violence or air piracy. With the enactment of Vision 100... collected to assess the qualifications and suitability of prospective and current FFDOs through an...

  10. Offshore Finfish Aquaculture in the United States: An Examination of Federal Laws That Could be Used to Address Environmental and Occupational Public Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian P. Fry

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Half of the world’s edible seafood comes from aquaculture, and the United States (US government is working to develop an offshore finfish aquaculture industry in federal waters. To date, US aquaculture has largely been regulated at the state level, and creating an offshore aquaculture industry will require the development of a new regulatory structure. Some aquaculture practices involve hazardous working conditions and the use of veterinary drugs, agrochemicals, and questionable farming methods, which could raise environmental and occupational public health concerns if these methods are employed in the offshore finfish industry in the US. This policy analysis aims to inform public health professionals and other stakeholders in the policy debate regarding how offshore finfish aquaculture should be regulated in the US to protect human health; previous policy analyses on this topic have focused on environmental impacts. We identified 20 federal laws related to offshore finfish aquaculture, including 11 that are relevant to preventing, controlling, or monitoring potential public health risks. Given the novelty of the industry in the US, myriad relevant laws, and jurisdictional issues in an offshore setting, federal agencies need to work collaboratively and transparently to ensure that a comprehensive and functional regulatory structure is established that addresses the potential public health risks associated with this type of food production.

  11. Offshore finfish aquaculture in the United States: An examination of federal laws that could be used to address environmental and occupational public health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Jillian P; Love, David C; Shukla, Arunima; Lee, Ryan M

    2014-11-19

    Half of the world's edible seafood comes from aquaculture, and the United States (US) government is working to develop an offshore finfish aquaculture industry in federal waters. To date, US aquaculture has largely been regulated at the state level, and creating an offshore aquaculture industry will require the development of a new regulatory structure. Some aquaculture practices involve hazardous working conditions and the use of veterinary drugs, agrochemicals, and questionable farming methods, which could raise environmental and occupational public health concerns if these methods are employed in the offshore finfish industry in the US. This policy analysis aims to inform public health professionals and other stakeholders in the policy debate regarding how offshore finfish aquaculture should be regulated in the US to protect human health; previous policy analyses on this topic have focused on environmental impacts. We identified 20 federal laws related to offshore finfish aquaculture, including 11 that are relevant to preventing, controlling, or monitoring potential public health risks. Given the novelty of the industry in the US, myriad relevant laws, and jurisdictional issues in an offshore setting, federal agencies need to work collaboratively and transparently to ensure that a comprehensive and functional regulatory structure is established that addresses the potential public health risks associated with this type of food production.

  12. DNA-based identification of invasive alien species in relation to Canadian federal policy and law, and the basis of rapid-response management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Vernon G; Hanner, Robert H; Borisenko, Alex V

    2016-11-01

    Managing invasive alien species in Canada requires reliable taxonomic identification as the basis of rapid-response management. This can be challenging, especially when organisms are small and lack morphological diagnostic features. DNA-based techniques, such as DNA barcoding, offer a reliable, rapid, and inexpensive toolkit for taxonomic identification of individual or bulk samples, forensic remains, and even environmental DNA. Well suited for this requirement, they could be more broadly deployed and incorporated into the operating policy and practices of Canadian federal departments and should be authorized under these agencies' articles of law. These include Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Transport Canada, Environment Canada, Parks Canada, and Health Canada. These efforts should be harmonized with the appropriate provisions of provincial jurisdictions, for example, the Ontario Invasive Species Act. This approach necessitates that a network of accredited, certified laboratories exists, and that updated DNA reference libraries are readily accessible. Harmonizing this approach is vital among Canadian federal agencies, and between the federal and provincial levels of government. Canadian policy and law must also be harmonized with that of the USA when detecting, and responding to, invasive species in contiguous lands and waters. Creating capacity in legislation for use of DNA-based identifications brings the authority to fund, train, deploy, and certify staff, and to refine further developments in this molecular technology.

  13. Puerto Rico Pesticides Distributors Agree To Come into Compliance with Federal Law and Provide Training To Settle Case Involving Illegal Sale of Methyl Bromide Pesticides In Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA News Release: Puerto Rico Pesticides Distributors Agree To Come into Compliance with Federal Law and Provide Training To Settle Case Involving Illegal Sale of Methyl Bromide Pesticides In Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands

  14. A Study of Second-Year Engineering Students' Alternative Conceptions about Electric Potential, Current Intensity and Ohm's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periago, M. Cristina; Bohigas, Xavier

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate and analyse second-year industrial engineering and chemical engineering students prior knowledge of conceptual aspects of "circuit theory". Specifically, we focused on the basic concepts of electric potential and current intensity and on the fundamental relationship between them as expressed by Ohm's law.…

  15. Current status of radon and radium monitoring at the Federal University of Technology (UTFPR), PR, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Schelin, Hugo R.; Denyak, Valeriy; Barbosa, Laercio; Perna, Allan F.N. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Numerous and systematic studies performed in different countries for many decades resulted in the explicit conclusion that radon exposure, as well as its progeny, is the main cause of lung cancer among non-smokers. All three natural radon isotopes ({sup 222}Rn, {sup 220}Rn and {sup 219}Rn) are produced in the three principal natural radioactive decay chains. Specifically, the {sup 222}Rn is produced by the decay series of {sup 238}U and proceeded from {alpha}-decay of {sup 226}Ra. Current work describes the present status and obtained results concerning indoor radon survey in dwellings, radon in water supply and soil gas tests performed by the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology (UTFPR) within Curitiba urban area. For radon in air activity measurements, it was used polycarbonate etched track detectors such as LEXAN (GE) and CR-39, mounted in diffusion chambers. For soil gas measurements, the experimental setup was based on the Professional Radon Monitor (AlphaGUARD, Genitron/SAPHYMO) connected to the air pump with filter vessels and to specially developed in our Laboratory the Soil Gas Probe. In the case of radon tests in drinking water, the experimental setup was based on the AlphaGUARD Radon monitor and Electronic radon detector RAD7 (Durridge Company, Inc.) connected to special kit of glass vessels through the air pump. Obtained results permitted to identify few dwellings where radon concentration in air was found bigger than 600 Bq/m{sup 3} which is considered as the action level by most of the European Community and the World Health Organization (WHO). In the case of studied artesian wells, collected samples of water presented the average {sup 222}Rn activity about 60 Bq/L which is 6 times bigger than maximum level recommended by USEPA. Some artesian wells presented the radon activity of almost 200 Bq/L. More over, it was identified the radioactivity of radium ({sup 226}Ra) salts which are soluble in water and almost

  16. Current trends in animal law and their implications for the veterinary profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Charlotte A

    2006-03-01

    In the last decade, the veterinary profession has experienced many changes, including the birth of a new area of law known as "animal law," and an increased scrutiny by the legal community and veterinary state boards. This article provides a sampling of some of the more challenging issues the profession is facing in the early part of the 21st century, namely, guardianship versus ownership, the awarding of non-economic damages in negligence lawsuits, and challenges in maintaining medical records.

  17. Existence of a current price as a precondition for abstract method for calculating damages in international and Serbian sales law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fišer-Šobot Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available If the contract is avoided and there is a current price for the goods, the party claiming damages may recover the difference between the price fixed by the contract and the current price at specific time and at specific place. Abstract calculation of loss is possible only when the contract goods have current price. Current price is the price generally charged for such goods sold under comparable circumstances in the trade concerned. According to the CISG and Serbian Law of Obligations, for the determination of the current price is relevant time of avoidance. This general rule is not applicable in international sales law when the party claiming damages has avoided the contract after taking over the goods. In that case, the current price at the time of taking over shall be applicable instead of the current price at the time of avoidance. Current price rule contained in the Art. 76(2 of the CISG presupposes that the current price is the price prevailing at the place where the delivery of the goods should have been made, or if there is no current price at the place, the price at such other place as serves as a reasonable substitute, making due allowance for differences in the cost of transporting the goods. Pursuant to Art. 524(2 Of Serbian Law of Obligations, however, relevant is the price in the market of the place of effecting the transaction. Formulation place of effecting the transaction is unclear and vague and can create different problems. Therefore, this rule should be amended and the relevant place should be the place of delivery.

  18. Federal energy conservation programs pursuant to section 381 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94-163). Annual report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-21

    This report provides an overview of the activities and achievements of the executive branch of the Federal Government in implementing the energy conservation requirements and provisions of section 381 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) of 1975 (Public Law 94-163). The report describes Federal actions to develop procurement policies that promote energy conservation and efficiency, develop a Federal 10-Year Buildings Energy Conservation Plan, develop responsible public education and information programs, encourage energy conservation and energy efficiency, and promote vanpooling and carpooling arrangements. About half of the Nation's energy is used in our homes and automobiles. Another 48 percent is used by State and local governments, business and insutry, in providing needed goods and services. The Federal Government is the Nation's largest energy user, accouting for 2.2 percent of the total national energy used in 1977. This energy is used by nearly 6 million people in more than 400 thousand buildings and in the operation of more than 600 thousand vehicles. While energy conservation and energy efficiency measures alone cannot solve our immediate problems, they are an essential part of our transition to an era of scarce and expensive energy supplies.

  19. Myths and stereotypes about adat law: A reassessment of Van Vollenhoven in the light of current struggles over adat law in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keebet von Benda-Beckmann

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent analyses of the ‘revitalisation of tradition’ have rekindled earlier discussions of the ‘creation of customary law’ in colonial states. For Indonesia, critics have deconstructed a ‘myth of adat’, arguing that adat law was an invention of the adat law scholar Van Vollenhoven and his followers. The assessment of that period also shapes interpretations of developments in Indonesia after 1998. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that in some respects the critique of colonial scholarship was misconceived, and that these misconceptions hamper a proper understanding of the current revitalisation of adat in Indonesia. Many interpretations of colonial legal science and practice have become anachronistic and stereotypical. We argue that most interpretations were and are largely based on a legalistic conception of ‘law’ and ‘customary law’, that authors selectively generalise interpretations from specific contexts, and that they do not take into account what such interpretations say over legal realities beyond these contexts. Lastly we think that the target of the critique is somewhat misconceived as it is directed at those scholars who were aware of the danger of legal ethnocentrism and criticised it, while not looking at those colonial scholars and courts, who grossly misinterpreted local normative systems in terms of Dutch legal categories. We argue that some assumptions and propositions of these earlier and contemporary critical deconstructions are in need of re-evaluation. Given its presence in current analyses, reconsidering Van Vollenhoven and his followers is more than a return to a history long gone by. We substantiate our propositions with a discussion of the history of the village commons, ulayat, in West Sumatra, which has always been a central illustration in all discussions of adat law.

  20. Roman Criminal Law. Contributions to Current Problems in Connection with “Crimes against Public Administration”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Espitia Garzón

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The secular and detailed study of Roman Private Law institutions has, for centuries, diverted the attention to institutions pertaining to the Public Law sphere. Such studies were a consequence of the triumph of bourgeois ideas from the Enlightenment, which were structured on a set of principles (separation of powers, the principle of legality both considered absolute truths, even though today they seem more like myths. This understanding shifted during the second half of the twentieth century, when scholars of Roman Law began to more comprehensively analyze Rome’s constitutional institutions as well as its criminal repression. This paper begins with a review of some of the most important works and articles produced since the fifties until present day about the so called ‘general ’and ´special’ Criminal Law, and the Law of Criminal Procedure, it then focuses on how useful those texts are in order to solve actual problems, taking as an example the subject of crimes against public administration, given the actual need to pursue the assets obtained from such activities, despite the perpetrator’s death, which means going beyond the principle of the individual nature of penalties.

  1. An examination of the Total Quality Management (TQM) concept given current Federal/DoD competition initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, Michael E.

    1992-06-01

    Quality is vital to our defense and quality improvement is key to increasing productivity. The Department of Defense (DoD) Total Quality Management (TQM) effort has been given top priority by the Secretary of Defense. Many questions exist concerning the problems encountered when implementing TQM throughout DoD. This thesis looks at the compatibility of the TQM philosophy with current Federal Acquisition Regulation competition requirements. The writer concludes that the TQM philosophy implementation is compatible with existing competition policy.

  2. Some current topics on nonlinear conservation laws lectures at the morningside center of mathematics, 1

    CERN Document Server

    Hsiao, Ling

    2000-01-01

    This volume resulted from a year-long program at the Morningside Center of Mathematics at the Academia Sinica in Beijing. It presents an overview of nonlinear conversation laws and introduces developments in this expanding field. Xin's introductory overview of the subject is followed by lecture notes of leading experts who have made fundamental contributions to this field of research. A. Bressan's theory of L^1-well-posedness for entropy weak solutions to systems of nonlinear hyperbolic conversation laws in the class of viscosity solutions is one of the most important results in the past two decades; G. Chen discusses weak convergence methods and various applications to many problems; P. Degond details mathematical modelling of semi-conductor devices; B. Perthame describes the theory of asymptotic equivalence between conservation laws and singular kinetic equations; Z. Xin outlines the recent development of the vanishing viscosity problem and nonlinear stability of elementary wave-a major focus of research in...

  3. First detection of global dawn-dusk ionospheric current intensities using Ampere's integral law on Orsted orbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stauning, P.; Primdahl, Fritz

    2000-01-01

    The magnetic measurements by the Orsted satellite in noon-midnight orbits have enabled the derivation of the global dawn-dusk oriented ionospheric currents from an Ampere's law closed loop line integral of the geomagnetic vector field along the satellite track. The globally integrated dawn......-to-dusk ionospheric current is found to be proportional to the gee-effective solar wind electric field and is around 1 million ampere for a typical solar wind electric field of 2 mV/m. Dividing the Ampere integral into semi-orbit parts has enabled us to show that the hemispherical total current intensities depend...

  4. The "Biogenetic Law" in zoology: from Ernst Haeckel's formulation to current approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Lennart; Levit, Georgy S; Hoßfeld, Uwe

    2017-06-01

    150 years ago, in 1866, Ernst Haeckel published a book in two volumes called "Generelle Morphologie der Organismen" (General Morphology of Organisms) in which he formulated his biogenetic law, famously stating that ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny. Here we describe Haeckel's original idea and follow its development in the thinking of two scientists inspired by Haeckel, Alexei Sewertzoff and Adolf Naef. Sewertzoff and Naef initially approached the problem of reformulating Haeckel's law in similar ways, and formulated comparable hypotheses at a purely descriptive level. But their theoretical viewpoints were crucially different. While Sewertzoff laid the foundations for a Darwinian evolutionary morphology and is regarded as a forerunner of the Modern Synthesis, Naef was one of the most important figures in 'idealistic morphology', usually seen as a type of anti-Darwinism. Both Naef and Sewertzoff aimed to revise Haeckel's biogenetic law and came to comparable conclusions at the empirical level. We end our review with a brief look at the present situation in which molecular data are used to test the "hour-glass model", which can be seen as a modern version of the biogenetic law.

  5. Preliminary scaling laws for plasma current, ion kinetic temperature, and plasma number density in the NASA Lewis bumpy torus plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Parametric variation of independent variables which may affect the characteristics of bumpy torus plasma have identified those which have a significant effect on the plasma current, ion kinetic temperature, and plasma number density, and those which do not. Empirical power law correlations of the plasma current, and the ion kinetic temperature and number density were obtained as functions of potential applied to the midplane electrode rings, the background neutral gas pressure, and the magnetic field strength. Additional parameters studied included the type of gas, the polarity of the midplane electrode rings, the mode of plasma operation, and the method of measuring the plasma number density. No significant departures from the scaling laws appear to occur at the highest ion kinetic temperatures or number densities obtained to date.

  6. [The 'Myozyme' decision of the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland and German Law: a constitutional rights and health insurance law perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huster, Stefan; Bohmeier, André

    2012-01-01

    In November 2010, the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland dismissed a plea seeking reimbursement for treatment of glycogen storage disease type II - a very rare genetic metabolic disease also referred to as acid maltase deficiency (AMD) or Pompe disease -with a drug called 'Myozyme'. The Court held that the medication was not sufficiently effective or, alternatively, there was insufficient evidence for its effectiveness. The Court argued that the cost was out of balance with respect to the effects of the drug and concluded that it would be against the principle of legal equality if taxpayers were required to defray excessive expenses benefiting only an extremely small fraction of the population. Cost-effectiveness, however, cannot be accepted as a standard criterion governing the allocation of health insurance benefits because diversity of individual health must be regarded as a risk which nature has distributed equally among the members of the population. Therefore, it is a manifestation, rather than a violation, of the principle of legal equality that a public health insurance provider should pay for medical treatment in a particular case even if such treatment could not necessarily be administered to all other insured parties as well. At the same time, if cost-effectiveness in public health care is taken into account carefully, the risk of irrational resource allocation may be minimised. (As supplied by publisher).

  7. [Data protection and data access (I): federal data protection law and the social welfare code with reference to carrying out occupational medicine epidemiologic studies in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigelt, E; Scherb, H

    1992-11-01

    The regulations applicable to research in occupational epidemiology are the federal data protection (confidentiality) law (BDSG), the social welfare code (SGB), medical professional secrecy regulations and the federal statistics law (BStatG). The SGB, medical professional secrecy, and BStatG codes take precedence over BDSG rulings. This paper discusses BDSG and SGB. Medical professional secrecy and BStatG will be the topic of another publication (Datenschutz and Datenzugang II). The BDSG permits processing and utilization of personal data only if 1. this is permitted by BDSG or a law with higher priority, or 2. if the individual concerned has given her or his informed consent. According to the BDSG private research institutes can have access to personal data collected within non-public institutions only via section 28 (2) without consent of the individual. The "research paragraph" section 40 governs the processing and utilisation of personal data by research institutions. As a rule, the SGB permits access to epidemiological data sources only with the informed consent of the individuals concerned. The exception is section 75 SGBX. This paragraph permits disclosure of personal data without the individual's consent by the relevant public institution only if public interest considerably outweighs the private concerns. To our knowledge, however, this clause has had no practical significance. The concept of "informed consent" is discussed in detail, including the requirements for a legal form for informed consent. The legal codes of the BDSG, professional secrecy, and BStatG permit the transfer of personal data if the individuals concerned remain anonymous. This paper deals in detail with the concept of "anonymity".(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Neither Here Nor There: The Current Status of Transsexual and Other Transgender Persons Under Hong Kong Law

    OpenAIRE

    Emerton, R

    2004-01-01

    This is the first of two articles on the law relating to transgender persons in Hong Kong. This article examines the current administrative and legal status of Hong Kong's transgender persons. It argues that, whilst various policies and practices adopted by the authorities undoubtedly facilitate the every day lives of certain transgender persons, the legal situation (which perpetually condemns them to their biological sex as designated at birth) is inhumane and should no longer be tolerated. ...

  9. FEDERAL SUPPORT OF SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY IN THE UNITED STATES: CURRENT EVOLUTION UNDER THE POLITICAL STRUGGLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Istomin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 2000’s and 2010’s witnessed diminishing margin of the United States in science and technology. Meanwhile, the U.S. remains a clear leader in this fi eld. Major driving force of the country’s success in the second half of the ХХ century remained assertive federal science policy. The article seeks to identify major trends in evolution of the U.S. science policy and the reasons behind relative decline of the level of budget support of the scientifi c research. The author studies evolution of the policies of George Bush and Barack Obama, as well as the views of Democrats and Republicans in the House of Representatives and the Senate. The article also examines the input into the federal policy of the governmental bodies, which are directly responsible for its implementation, as well as non-governmental organizations, which seek to advocate interests of scientists; it studies rising competition between the executive authorities and legislators for the recognition as a major champion of the academic community as well as American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.

  10. Determination of Death and the Dead Donor Rule: A Survey of the Current Law on Brain Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikas, Nikolas T; Bordlee, Dorinda C; Moreira, Madeline

    2016-06-01

    Despite seeming uniformity in the law, end-of-life controversies have highlighted variations among state brain death laws and their interpretation by courts. This article provides a survey of the current legal landscape regarding brain death in the United States, for the purpose of assisting professionals who seek to formulate or assess proposals for changes in current law and hospital policy. As we note, the public is increasingly wary of the role of organ transplantation in determinations of death, and of the variability of brain death diagnosing criteria. We urge that any attempt to alter current state statutes or to adopt a national standard must balance the need for medical accuracy with sound ethical principles which reject the utilitarian use of human beings and are consistent with the dignity of the human person. Only in this way can public trust be rebuilt. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Results of operation and current safety performance of nuclear facilities located in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, V. M.; Khvostova, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    After the NPP radiation accidents in Russia and Japan, a safety statu of Russian nuclear power plants causes concern. A repeated life time extension of power unit reactor plants, designed at the dawn of the nuclear power engineering in the Soviet Union, power augmentation of the plants to 104-109%, operation of power units in a daily power mode in the range of 100-70-100%, the use of untypical for NPP remixed nuclear fuel without a careful study of the results of its application (at least after two operating periods of the research nuclear installations), the aging of operating personnel, and many other management actions of the State Corporation "Rosatom", should attract the attention of the Federal Service for Ecological, Technical and Atomic Supervision (RosTekhNadzor), but this doesn't happen. The paper considers safety issues of nuclear power plants operating in the Russian Federation. The authors collected statistical information on violations in NPP operation over the past 25 years, which shows that even after repeated relaxation over this period of time of safety regulation requirements in nuclear industry and highly expensive NPP modernization, the latter have not become more safe, and the statistics confirms this. At a lower utilization factor high-power pressure-tube reactors RBMK-1000, compared to light water reactors VVER-440 and 1000, have a greater number of violations and that after annual overhauls. A number of direct and root causes of NPP mulfunctions is still high and remains stable for decades. The paper reveals bottlenecks in ensuring nuclear and radiation safety of nuclear facilities. Main outstanding issues on the storage of spent nuclear fuel are defined. Information on emissions and discharges of radioactive substances, as well as fullness of storages of solid and liquid radioactive waste, located at the NPP sites are presented. Russian NPPs stress test results are submitted, as well as data on the coming removal from operation of NPP

  12. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF AVAILABILITY OF THE MEDICINES FOR PRIVILEGED CATEGORIES OF CITIZENS SUFFERING FROM DIABETES MELLITUS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND UKRAINE BASED ON THE PHARMACEUTICAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapovalov VV (Jr

    2015-04-01

    pharmaceutical law. In the study researched the particularities of legal documents in the Ukraine and Russian Federation aimed at organizing rules regulating circulation of the drugs used in the pharmacotherapy of diabetes. Found that pharmaceutical law in the field of public administration in the Russian Federation and Ukraine is the foundation and guarantor in protecting the rights of states declared the privileged category of people suffering from diabetes mellitus on unrestricted access to essential drugs. Established that the Ministry of Healthcare of Ukraine and the Ministry of Healthcare of Russian Federation must provide scientific advice for the prevention of diabetes mellitus; update in accordance to the European standards and directives, standards of diagnosis, clinical protocols and rules of care for patients suffering from diabetes mellitus; raise public awareness about the global epidemic of diabetes; analyze forensic and pharmaceutical practice as a result of violations of the rights of patients with diabetes to ensure preferential (free drugs. Ensuring the rights of patients with diabetes mellitus and providing vital medicines of all classification and legal groups, should base solely on the norms of medical and pharmaceutical law, the Constitution and laws of Ukraine. This will enable to the government to control the process of the licensing conditions for the implementation of activities related to the circulation of drugs among the healthcare facilities (pharmacies and hospitals.

  13. Impact of state and federal law on development of geothermal resources in Texas. Project L/R-9, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T.

    1974-10-31

    The significant geothermal resource in Texas consists of enormous reservoirs of hot, geopressed water, which formed along the Gulf Coast when water-laden sediments were deposited between surrounding impermeable features, so that the water which would otherwise have been forced out of the sediments was unable to escape. These deposits exist under tremendous pressure created by the weight of the overburden. A geopressure source absorbs heat indirectly, because the geopressured deposits create an insulating barrier that traps and absorbs the thermal energy of the underlying magma. The water from a geopressure source will not be as hot as water from a dry steam or wet steam source, but the quantity available is enormous, and the water pressure itself would be an additional energy source along with the thermal energy. The water may be fresh, or nearly so, and it will contain significant amounts of recoverable methane gas in solution. It may be possible to utilize the water pressure, thermal energy, and the methane gas to generate electricity in small power plants at the recovery site, and the water that has been passed through the turbines and heat exchangers may be a valuable by-product in itself, depending on its quality and regional demands for agriculture and industry. One of the impediments to the development of this resource, given the very sizable commitments of capital entailed, is the uncertain legal status of geothermal resources. This report attempts to locate geothermal resources within the general framework of Texas property law and to determine whether these resources can be developed under the law as it now exists. (MCW)

  14. Of Otakus and Fansubs: A Critical Look at Anime Online in Light of Current Issues in Copyright Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan S. Hatcher

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The advent of digital technology and increased global connectivity has, to put it mildly, caused some ripples for the entertainment industry specifically and copyright law generally. In the aftermath, many are searching for new ways to incorporate the benefits of digital copies and the internet while minimizing the harms. To some, the anime industry and its fans offer examples of how an industry can benefit and even grow from allowing copyright infringement. This article examines the anime industry in-depth with this suggestion in mind and places the industry among current copyright policy debates, such as those suggested by Lawrence Lessig.

  15. The local property taxes and municipal federalism. Current and future inequity condition of Italian Property Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Argiolas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to analyze and compare the current local tax on real estate and the future and assessing criticality. The tax base is calculated by applying calculation methods that differ depending on the type of property you must tax. For buildings used for residential, the tax base is calculated on the basis of the cadastral income; in the case of building land is rather used the market value of land and buildings and, for rent, rural manor. The land property values are always lower than market values, which is because some time trying to implement a revision of the class with the objective of bringing the two values. The reclass procedure has recently been adopted in the municipality of Milano where it was decided to reclass of buildings located within a few micro-climates for the most central, in which houses were originally built affordable housing to meet the housing needs of the social classes poor and that over time turned into mansions in the city center. From 1 January 2012, the Imu will come into force, only municipal tax, which replaces the current Ici; the two taxes differ in the higher fixed rate (7.6 ‰, which does not involve substantial modifications to the old system tax. In this way, the result will be to produce an increase in the tax burden without solving the inequalities of the old system but increasing the gap. The Implementation Act contains provisions which IMU when applied to allow municipalities to solve some problems present in the Ici.

  16. Current principles and practice of ethics and law in perinatal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berceanu, C; Albu, Simona Elena; BoȚ, Mihaela; Ghelase, M Șt

    2014-01-01

    One of the most controversial discussion topics in modern bioethics, science or philosophy is represented by the beginning of the individual human life. It is ethically, medically and scientifically correct that the human conception product to be born, so to gain personality and individuality, to be treated as a patient since the intrauterine life. Intrauterine foetal interventions, performed in various therapeutic purposes are still in the experimental stage even in centres with rich experience in perinatal medicine. Progresses truly outstanding are present especially in the prenatal diagnostic methods. Non invasive prenatal testing represents without a doubt a great progress in prenatal diagnosis, but from this point of view, the role of practitioners in the field of perinatal medicine, on counselling and addressing the indication of this test becomes essential. Beyond cultural, national, social or related differences, in perinatal medicine practice is particularly important to respect and permanently reassess the ethical codes. Our paper is targeting to spotlight the essential principles and practice of ethics and law in perinatal medicine nowadays on one hand, and to bring an update review on a controversial topic on the other hand.

  17. Biquaternionic Model of Electro-Gravimagnetic Field, Charges and Currents. Law of Inertia

    CERN Document Server

    Alexeyeva, Lyudmila

    2016-01-01

    One the base of Maxwell and Dirac equations the one biquaternionic model of electro-gravimagnetic (EGM) fields is considered. The closed system of biquaternionic wave equations is constructed for determination of free system of electric and gravimagnetic charges and currents and generated by them EGM-field. By using generalized functions theory the fundamental and regular solutions of this system are determined and some of them are considered (spinors, plane waves, shock EGMwaves and others). The properties of these solutions are investigated.

  18. Smartphone use in dermatology for clinical photography and consultation: Current practice and the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Lisa M; Magnusson, Roger S; Gibbs, Emma; Smith, Saxon D

    2017-02-28

    Smartphones are rapidly changing the way doctors capture and communicate clinical information, particularly in highly visual specialties such as dermatology. An understanding of how and why smartphones are currently used in clinical practice is critical in order to evaluate professional and legal risks, and to formulate policies that enable safe use of mobile technologies for the maximal benefit of practitioners and patients. Australian dermatologists and dermatology trainees were surveyed on their current practices relating to clinical smartphone use. Of the 105 respondents, 101 provided useable results. The data show clinical smartphone use is common and frequent, with more than 50% of respondents sending and receiving images on their smartphones at least weekly. Clinical photographs were usually sent via multimedia message or email and were commonly stored on smartphones (46%). Security measures adopted to protect data were limited. There was inadequate documentation of consent for transmission of photographs and advice provided. Only 22% of respondents were aware of clear policies in their workplace regarding smartphone use, and a majority desired further education on digital image management. Given the frequency of use and the degree of importance placed on the ability to send and receive clinical images, clinical smartphone use will persist and will likely increase over time. Current practices are insufficient to comply with professional and legal obligations, and increase practitioners' vulnerability to civil and disciplinary proceedings. Further education, realistic policies and adequate software resources are critical to ensure protection of patients, practitioners and the reputation of the dermatological profession. © 2017 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  19. 29 CFR 1471.135 - May the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service exclude a person who is not currently...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service exclude....135 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General § 1471.135 May the Federal Mediation...

  20. An Analytical Model of Wave-Induced Longshore Current Based on Power Law Wave Height Decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    the notation (0, v) is used to denote the x and y-components of tne steady current. The arrows indicate vector quantlties. me absolute value c - the...8217n - ’ ,F4.2,2X, ’P =’ ,FLS.2,2X, ’Brea~ing wiav e’,*. A-N2-1 .0 -HETAP-3A14159*THETA/180.0 3>NT32-(S:N(THETAR))**2 BETA1) -1 .0 DELTA(1) =1.0 SUMA ...LT1.1.0)FACN2.0 A(II)-A(II)*SINT32 *#7 SINT32*A(I::-l BETA(II).SINTB2*BETA I: -I SUMA -SU;MA+A(I SUXB=S’UMB+BETA ) SUC=SUMC+DELTA(rI SNMA=-sNMA<’N+Z) A (I

  1. The Law of Federal Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    hardly be characterized as the "last act" defined in Marbury v. Madison . Furthermore, it would seem to us very odd that the Government appointive process...level limits do not apply to these placements. S5-7. Grades, Grade-Intervals, and Equivalents a. Grades vs . grade-intervals. The grade limits of an...Appellant, ) vs . ) MSPB Case No:) Date:) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, ) Agency. MOTION FOR THE ISSUANCE OF SUBPOENAES DUCES TECUM COMES NOW, THE

  2. Law of Federal Employment. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    hardly be characterized as the "last act" defined in Marbury v. Madison . Furthermore, it would seem to us very odd that the Government appointive...Appellant, vs . MSPB Case No: Date: DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, Agency. MOTION FOR THE ISSUANCE OF SUBPOENAES PUCES TECUM COMES NOW, THE DEPARTMENT...Appellant, vs . DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, Agency. MSPB Case No. Date: MOTION TO COMPEL ANSWERS TO INTERROGATORIES COMES NOW, THE DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY

  3. Impacto económico de la Ley Federal de Sanidad Vegetal en el mercado mexicano de limón persa Economic impact of the Federal Plant Health Law on the mexican market for persian lemon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Herbert Ruíz

    Full Text Available La globalización comercial exige que los mercados mundiales de productos agroalimentarios, realicen prácticas de inocuidad en sus productos libres de contaminantes químicos, biológicos y físicos. En este contexto, México modificó el 26 de julio de 2007 la Ley Federal de Sanidad Vegetal, la cual ahora tiene como objetivo la aplicación, verificación y certificación de los sistemas de reducción de riesgos de contaminación en la producción y empaque de vegetales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar el impacto económico, que tiene la aplicación inmediata de esta ley en la oferta de limón persa mexicano y en consecuencia, el ingreso de los productores de este cítrico en 2007. Para ello se realizó un estudio de campo (encuestas en el municipio de Martínez de la Torre, Veracruz; principal zona productora de limón persa a nivel nacional. Además, se construyó un modelo probit que estableció los principales factores determinantes en la adopción de buenas prácticas agrícolas; siendo el rendimiento que presentó mayor efecto marginal (2.08%. Se planteó un escenario donde ante un incremento del rendimiento promedio 10% (ceteris paribus, se obtuvo un cambio de 342 personas en la población dispuestas a adoptar las buenas prácticas agrícolas; y en consecuencia, la oferta de limón persa se incrementaría 3.98%. Lo anterior manifiesta que si se acompaña la producción de limón persa con políticas que eleven el rendimiento, las buenas prácticas agrícolas aumentarán y por ende, la exportación de dicho producto.Commercial globalization demands that the world markets of food and agriculture products carry out innocuity practices in their products free of chemical, biological and physical pollutants. In this context, on July 26th., 2007, Mexico modified its Federal Plant Health Law, which now aims the aplication, verification and certification of the pollution risk reduction systems in the production and packaging of

  4. The Laws Are Yours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawyers' Wives of Wisconsin, Racine.

    The pamphlet briefly describes various facets of the law and legal system in Wisconsin, and defines many legal terms. The objective is to further public understanding of the law and of the legal profession, particularly in Wisconsin. No attempt is made to answer specific legal questions. Sections cover civil and criminal law; the federal court…

  5. Elaboration of the international transfer mechanism of reduction in greenhouse gas emissions on the basis of the Russian federal law {sup A}bout agreements of products sharing'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toivonen, N.R.; Koulikovskaya, L. [Petrozavodsk State University (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    Suggestions for a comprehensive legal framework for the implementation in Russia of the flexibility mechanisms established under the Kyoto Protocol (i.e. joint implementation; clean development mechanism; international emissions trading) are proposed. It is suggested that the legal framework be established using the principles embodied in the existing Russian federal law, 'About agreements of product sharing' adopted in 1995. As a basic requirement, it is suggested that the new federal law must include the fundamental elements required to create possibilities for the Russian Federation to participate in the process of certified emission reductions (CER) transfer, emissions reduction unit (ERU) negotiation, and adjusted amount units (AAU) trading within the framework of the Kyoto Protocol implementation. The new law must also embody the basic procedures required to enter into agreements at the international, inter-regional and inter-sectoral levels. Failure to develop the legislative support and the legal framework to facilitate valid Russian participation in the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol will prevent many valuable initiatives and projects from being realized.

  6. Mini Simulation of a Supreme Court Oral Argument: A Lesson Plan for High School Law-Related Educators To Support "Understanding the Federal Courts."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administrative Office of the United States Courts, Washington, DC.

    Every year the Supreme Court hears dozens of cases related to key constitutional issues. These cases can be used to teach enduring concepts in government and law. With this lesson plan, students learn about important concepts in Fourth Amendment law and stage a mock Supreme Court oral argument in small groups on a case decided in the 1999-2000…

  7. Land use politics and law in the 1970's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, C. M.

    1975-01-01

    Political facets of the general land use challenge faced in the United States, and the legal authority for governmental action by state and federal officials under given conditions are discussed. Some current and future implications of these political and legal developments are presented. An overview of local versus state versus federal powers is presented along with practices for solving the nation's land use challenge. An analysis is provided of land use law and politics in five states playing active roles in land control. Land use politics and law at the federal level is addressed, with emphasis on three key legislative measures.

  8. Environmental Education--A Future-Oriented Task: Current Situation and Prospects in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Education and Science, Bonn (Germany).

    The Federal Republic of Germany has identified the conservation and the protection of the environment as a major challenge of the 1990s. Environmental education is further identified as an important part of anticipatory environmental policy. The document is separated into two parts. The first part presents the aims, content, and organizational…

  9. Legal rights to safe abortion: knowledge and attitude of women in North-West Ethiopia toward the current Ethiopian abortion law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzeyen, R; Ayichiluhm, M; Manyazewal, T

    2017-07-01

    To assess women's knowledge and attitude toward Ethiopian current abortion law. A quantitative, community-based cross-sectional survey. Women of reproductive age in three selected lower districts in Bahir Dar, North-West Ethiopia, were included. Multi-stage simple random sampling and simple random sampling were used to select the districts and respondents, respectively. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire comprising questions related to knowledge and attitude toward legal status of abortion and cases where abortion is currently allowed by law in Ethiopia. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data and multivariable logistic regression computed to assess the magnitude and significance of associations. Of 845 eligible women selected, 774 (92%) consented to participate and completed the interview. A total of 512 (66%) women were aware of the legal status of the Ethiopian abortion law and their primary sources of information were electronic media such as television and radio (43%) followed by healthcare providers (38.7%). Among women with awareness of the law, 293 (57.2%) were poor in knowledge, 188 (36.7%) fairly knowledgeable, and 31 (6.1%) good in knowledge about the cases where abortion is allowed by law. Of the total 774 women included, 438 (56.5%) hold liberal and 336 (43.5%) conservative attitude toward legalization of abortion. In the multivariable logistic regression, age had a significant association with knowledge, whereas occupation had a significant association with attitude toward the law. Women who had poor knowledge toward the law were more likely to have conservative attitude toward the law (adjusted odds ratio, 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.23-0.61). Though the Ethiopian criminal code legalized abortion under certain circumstances since 2005, a significant number of women knew little about the law and several protested legalization of abortion. Countries such as Ethiopia with high maternal mortality records need to lift

  10. Cyber stalking victimisation of women: Evaluating the effectiveness of current laws in India from restorative justice and therapeutic jurisprudential perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halder Debarati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Victimisation of women through cyber stalking is one of the most serious crimes against women. Many countries including India have developed laws regulating cyber stalking. This article argues that since both, restorative justice (RJ and therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ are victim oriented, the issue of cyber stalking of women may be dealt with by RJ process and the laws in this regard must be analysed by the legal actors with a background in RJ and TJ philosophy. India had earlier taken up therapeutic punishment policy to enforce rights of the accused. But the modern principles of TJ have still not been considered in the RJ background in cyber stalking cases. This article therefore examines whether RJ and TJ principles can replace retributive principles for cyber stalking victimisation. It also examines the Indian cyber stalking law from RJ and TJ perspectives to assess its effectiveness for victims.

  11. A Fiscal Cliff: The Current U.S. Federal Budget, Potential Cuts, and Impacts on Science Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenbrock, K. M.; Landau, E. A.; Hankin, E. R.

    2012-12-01

    As lawmakers on Capitol Hill face challenges to reach an agreement on how to cut the deficit while growing the economy, scientists must join the discussion and outline the serious impacts cuts to federal science programs will have on our society. Consistent and sustained federal science funding (discretionary spending) is an ever increasing struggle with the rising costs of mandatory spending and decrease in revenues. In 2011 Congress passed the Budget Control Act, which will require automatic across-the-board cuts, known as sequestration, and will take effect on 2 January 2013. Estimated cuts of $1.2 trillion and discretionary spending caps set at Fiscal Year 2012 levels will trigger non-defense program cuts of 9.8% in the first year as reported by the Congressional Research Service. Funding from non-defense program agencies such as NSF, NASA, DOE, NOAA, USGS, and others drive science and technological innovation, support public safety, create jobs, educate generations of scientists, stimulate the economy, protect our environment, and enrich lives. With non-defense discretionary programs representing less than one-fifth of the federal budget, severe cuts to these programs will not alleviate our deficit, but instead restrict our growth.

  12. The federal law of the Revenue Agency responsibility, the national oil industry and the determination of the average price of the Mexican mixture for export: implications and limitations; La ley federal de responsabilidad hacendaria, la industria petrolera nacional y la determinacion del precio promedio de la mezcla mexicana de exportacion: implicaciones y limitaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltierra, Lauro; Huerta, Carlos E.; Ruiz Alarcon, Fluvio Cesar [LX legislatura, Camara de Diputados, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-11-15

    The present article refers to the implications that result from the promulgation, in April, 2006, of the Ley Federal de Presupuesto y Responsabilidad Hacendaria (Federal Law of Budget and Revenue Agency Responsibility) in the national oil industry and in the country's economy, when allowing a financing process of the sector, as well as the implications that are originated of the immovable fixation of the petroleum price by legal enforcement. As this limits the constitutional powers of the House of Representatives when denying the faculty, that exerted until the expedition of the Law, of evaluating the estimations of the Federal Executive with respect to the average price of the Mexican mixture for export. In the first section a balance is made of how the Presupuesto de Egresos de la Federacion projects itself as an instrument to restrain the public investment in the oil sector. In the second section aspects related to the estimation of the oil price from the Ley Federal de Presupuesto y Resposabilidad Hacendaria (Federal Law of Budget and Revenue Agency Responsibility) are taken care of, indicating the inconsistency that means to establish a formula for the determination of the same. In the third section, the sub-valuation of the crude prices is addressed as a key factor for the discretional use of the oil surpluses. In the fourth section, the General Criteria of Economic Policy for year 2007 are analyzed, that according to the new Federal Law of Budget and Revenue Agency Responsibility was sent to the House of Representatives by the Federal Executive in the month of April. Finally, the estimations of the Mexican mixture for export for 2007 are presented, that to the consideration of the authors, will oscillate between 50 and 51 dollars as annual average. [Spanish] El presente articulo refiere las repercusiones que resultan de la promulgacion, en abril de 2006, de la Ley Federal de Presupuesto y Responsabilidad Hacendaria en la industria petrolera nacional y

  13. Solar power generation in the light of the current tax laws; Solare Stromerzeugung im Licht des Steuerrechtes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seltmann, T. [Krauss Energie fuers Leben, Merkendorf (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    The author investigates various aspects of the operation of a grid-connected solar system, with particular regard to taxation and regulative law. (orig/AKF) [Deutsch] Der Autor will in seinem Beitrag den Betrieb einer netzgekoppelten Solarstromanlage aus verschiedenen Fragestellungen heraus betrachten und den Betreibern Hinweise fuer die steuerliche und ordnungsrechtliche Behandlung dieser Anlagen geben. (orig./AKF)

  14. Developments of the climate protection law and the climate change policy 2014-2015. Pt. 2. Federal government, federal states and municipalities; Entwicklungen des Klimaschutzrechts und der Klimaschutzpolitik 2014/2015. T. 2. Bund, Bundeslaender und Kommunen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staesche, Uta [Hochschule fuer Wirtschaft und Recht (HWR), Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Klimaschutz, Energie und Mobilitaet (IKEM)

    2015-08-14

    According to the motto of the energy transition the Federal Government set herself targets in the areas of greenhouse gas emissions, renewable energy and energy efficiency. Main emphasis of its climate change policy is the implementation of the 2014/15 Action Programme Climate Protection 2020. A key measure discussed here is the climate contribution of the German electricity sector, is now being implemented in a significantly modified form. With a view on the long-term climate objectives prepares the federal government the national climate change plan 2050; the federal government promote locally climate protection within the framework of the National Climate Protection Initiative (NKI) in a Variety of projects. On the level of the federal states intensifies clearly the trend of the legal protection of federal climate protection targets. In addition to the federal levels are also the municipalities still active in various climate protection projects. [German] Unter dem Leitwort der Energiewende hat sich die Bundesregierung Ziele in den Bereichen Treibhausgasemissionen, erneuerbare Energien und Energieeffizienz gesetzt. Schwerpunkt ihrer Klimaschutzpolitik bildet 2014/15 die Umsetzung des Aktionsprogramms Klimaschutz 2020. Als eine zentrale Massnahme wurde hier der Klimabeitrag des deutschen Stromsektors diskutiert, der nun in deutlich abgewandelter Form umgesetzt wird. Mit Blick auf die langfristigen Klimaschutzziele bereitet die Bundesregierung den nationalen Klimaschutzplan 2050 vor; Klimaschutz vor Ort foerdert sie im Rahmen der Nationalen Klimaschutzinitiative (NKI) in einer Vielzahl von Projekten. Auf Ebene der Bundeslaender verstaerkt sich deutlich der Trend der gesetzlichen Absicherung von Landesklimaschutzzielen. Neben den ueberregionalen Ebenen sind auch die Kommunen weiterhin in vielfaeltigen Klimaschutzprojekten aktiv.

  15. 31 CFR 210.3 - Governing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Governing law. 210.3 Section 210.3... CLEARING HOUSE § 210.3 Governing law. (a) Federal law. The rights and obligations of the United States and..., are governed by this part, which has the force and effect of Federal law. (b) Incorporation...

  16. 7 CFR 1900.102 - Applicable law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicable law. 1900.102 Section 1900.102 Agriculture... GENERAL Applicability of Federal Law § 1900.102 Applicable law. Loans made by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 are authorized and executed pursuant to Federal programs adopted by Congress...

  17. Comparison between the Gauss' law method and the zero current method to calculate multi-species ionic diffusion in saturated uncharged porous materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesson, Björn

    2010-01-01

    There exist, mainly, two different continuum approaches to calculate transient multi species ionic diffusion. One of them is based on explicitly assuming a zero current in the diffusing mixture together with an introduction of a streaming electrical potential in the constitutive equations...... are compared with existing results from the solutions of the Gauss’ law method. For the studied case the calculated concentrations of the ionic species, using the two different methods, differed very little....

  18. Using Surveys to Track Student Sexual Behavior and Attitudes in the Public Schools: Current Case Law and Future Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Ronald K.

    2008-01-01

    Two recent federal court cases have addressed the constitutionality of using sexual surveys in public schools. This article compares these cases with an earlier case dealing with the same issue but reaching different results. This article also describes the constitutional rights of parents to educate their children and the school's rights to…

  19. Los Derechos de las Personas Incapacitadas Bajo la Ley Federal. Seccion 504 de la Ley de Rehabilitacion de 1973 (Handicapped Persons's Rights under Federal Law. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    This Spanish-language pamphlet explains Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, which outlaws disability discrimination in programs receiving federal funds and the extensive regulations stemming from Section 504. The rights and responsibilities of handicapped persons are related to the following issues: eligibility for coverage under the…

  20. Radioprotective drugs: a synopsis of current research and a proposed research plan for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, R.; Anspaugh, L.

    1985-04-01

    FEMA has broad roles in the management of disasters potentially involving substantial amounts of radioactive contamination. These could be either peacetime or wartime disasters. A meeting was held in March 1985 to see if there are any research contributions that FEMA might reasonably make in the area of radioprotective drugs that would substantially enhance its ability to perform its mission. The other federal agencies presently sponsoring research in the field were represented at the meeting. A few selected researchers also participated to provide complementary viewpoints. Activities of a modest scale that FEMA might undertake were identified, as were larger scale activities that might be undertaken in the event of long-term, major funding-level increases for FEMA. 2 refs.

  1. Information Law and Copyright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Peter A.

    1986-01-01

    Because of information law's inability to keep up with rapid changes in information technology and impreciseness of the law, copyrighting of databases poses unique problems. Interpretation of fair use doctrine, privately owned computer "downloading," impact of federal electronic filing, and questions concerning information businesses need to be…

  2. At what point does what’s mine become yours? A critical analysis of the current law on common intention constructive trusts and cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Fullbrook

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the current state of the law in relation to the use of common intention constructive trusts to determine disputes arising from the breakdown of relationships between cohabiting, non-married couples. It is clear that there is a need to protect vulnerable parties to a relationship and to maintain certainty with regard to property ownership, but this is a difficult balance to strike.  This examination has been conducted by analysing the key cases that have been heard in the senior courts in relation to this matter since the landmark ruling of the House of Lords in Stack v Dowden almost ten years ago.  This has identified three key issues with the current state of the law: (1 judicial confusion over whether the existence of beneficial shares in property should be imputed or implied by the courts; (2 the creation of unrealistic expectations as to the reliance that the court will place on non-financial contributions to a relationship; and (3 practical and evidential difficulties caused by its implementation.  Further analysis of the Cohabitation Rights Bill suggests that it is unlikely to overcome any of these issues because it seeks to increase, rather than reduce the role of the courts.  This article concludes that the law should be simplified such that couples are allocated the same portion of the beneficial interest in the property as their legal interest unless they expressly declare otherwise.

  3. Axial magnetic field and toroidally streaming fast ions in the dense plasma focus are natural consequences of conservation laws in the curved axisymmetric geometry of the current sheath

    CERN Document Server

    Auluck, S K H

    2014-01-01

    Direct measurement of axial magnetic field in the PF-1000 dense plasma focus (DPF), and its reported correlation with neutron emission, call for a fresh look at previous reports of existence of axial magnetic field component in the DPF from other laboratories, and associated data suggesting toroidal directionality of fast ions participating in fusion reactions, with a view to understand the underlying physics. In this context, recent work dealing with application of the hyperbolic conservation law formalism to the DPF is extended in this paper to a curvilinear coordinate system, which reflects the shape of the DPF current sheath. Locally-unidirectional shock propagation in this coordinate system enables construction of a system of 7 one-dimensional hyperbolic conservation law equations with geometric source terms, taking into account all the components of magnetic field and flow velocity. Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions for this system lead to expressions for the axial magnetic field and three components of ...

  4. 78 FR 19193 - Richard Phillips, Currently Incarcerated at: Inmate No. 81783-079, FCI Ray Brook Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Richard Phillips, Currently Incarcerated at: Inmate No. 81783- 079, FCI.... District Court, Eastern District of New York, Richard Phillips (``Phillips'') was convicted of violating...)) (``IEEPA''). Specifically, Phillips was convicted of knowingly, intentionally and willfully attempting to...

  5. Modeling of the Critical-Current Behavior of Nb3Sn Subsized Cables Under Transverse Load Using 2D Finite Element Analysis and a Strain Scaling Law

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, T; Takayasu, M; Bordini, B

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms causing the critical-current degradation of ITER-type Nb3Sn Cable-in-Conduit-Conductors have been studied in the past decade. One of the origins of the degradation of the performance is the Lorentz load during magnet operations. The strands within the cable subjected to the transverse loads locally experience larger strains than the ones caused by tensile loads. Results obtained with experiments on full size cables are limited due to their cost and difficulty so, to predict the degradations of a Nb3Sn CICC under transverse loads, empirical laws should be established. Strain scaling laws are available but have never been used to determine the behavior of strands under transverse load. We propose a new method, by which the critical-current behavior of a subsized cable under transverse loads is derived from the critical-current behavior under uni-axial strains. This method is based on the strain state of the Nb3Sn filaments obtained by finite element analysis (FEA). The FEA strain results are used...

  6. Regulatory approaches to obesity prevention: A systematic overview of current laws addressing diet-related risk factors in the European Union and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisnowski, Jana; Handsley, Elizabeth; Street, Jackie M

    2015-06-01

    High prevalence of overweight and obesity remains a significant international public health problem. Law has been identified as a tool for obesity prevention and selected high-profile measures have been reported. However, the nature and extent of enacted legislation internationally are unclear. This research provides an overview of regulatory approaches enacted in the United States, the European Union, and EU Member States since 2004. To this end, relevant databases of primary and secondary legislation were systematically searched to identify and explore laws addressing dietary risk factors for obesity. Across jurisdictions, current regulatory approaches to obesity prevention are limited in reach and scope. Target groups are rarely the general population, but instead sub-populations in government-supported settings. Consumer information provision is preferred over taxation and marketing restrictions other than the regulation of health and nutrition claims. In the EU in particular, product reformulation with industry consent has also emerged as a popular small-scale measure. While consistent and widespread use of law is lacking, governments have employed a range of regulatory measures in the name of obesity prevention, indicating that there is, in principle, political will. Results from this study may serve as a starting point for future research and policy development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hidden Galilean symmetry, conservation laws and emergence of spin current in the soliton sector of chiral helimagnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostrem, I.G. [Department of Physics, Ural State University, Ekaterinburg 620083 (Russian Federation); Kishine, J. [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan); Lavrov, R.V. [Department of Physics, Ural State University, Ekaterinburg 620083 (Russian Federation); Ovchinnikov, A.S. [Department of Physics, Ural State University, Ekaterinburg 620083 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: alexander.ovchinnikov@usu.ru

    2009-01-26

    An appearance of the transport spin current in chiral helimagnet is mathematically justified based on the symmetry arguments. Although the starting Lagrangian of the chiral magnet with the Berry phase term and the parity-violating Dzyaloshinskii-Morya coupling is not manifestly Galilean invariant, the Lie point group symmetry analysis and the variational symmetry analysis elucidate the hidden Galilean symmetry and the existence of the linear momentum as a conserved Noether current, respectively.

  8. The Law and Catholic Schools: Approaching the New Millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Mary Angela

    The laws affecting education in the United States today can generally be classified according to four categories: (1) Constitutional law (both state and federal); (2) statutes and regulations; (3) common law principles; and (4) contract law. Students and teachers in private schools are not protected by federal Constitutional law because they are…

  9. Health care law versus constitutional law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status.

  10. Business Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föh, Kennet Fischer; Mandøe, Lene; Tinten, Bjarke

    Business Law is a translation of the 2nd edition of Erhvervsjura - videregående uddannelser. It is an educational textbook for the subject of business law. The textbook covers all important topic?s within business law such as the Legal System, Private International Law, Insolvency Law, Contract law......, Instruments of debt and other claims, Sale of Goods and real estate, Charges, mortgages and pledges, Guarantees, Credit agreements, Tort Law, Product liability and Insurance, Company law, Market law, Labour Law, Family Law and Law of Inheritance....

  11. Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and National Trails: An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, Alaska, and Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, James A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Krummel, John R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hlava, Kevin J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moore, H. Robert [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Orr, Andrew B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schlueter, Scott O. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sullivan, Robert G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zvolanek, Emily A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-11-21

    As has been noted in many reports and publications, acquiring new or expanded rights-of-way for transmission is a challenging process, because numerous land use and land ownership constraints must be overcome to develop pathways suitable for energy transmission infrastructure. In the eastern U.S., more than twenty federally protected national trails (some of which are thousands of miles long, and cross many states) pose a potential obstacle to the development of new or expanded electricity transmission capacity. However, the scope of this potential problem is not well-documented, and there is no baseline information available that could allow all stakeholders to study routing scenarios that could mitigate impacts on national trails. This report, Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and National Trails: An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, was prepared by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). Argonne was tasked by DOE to analyze the “footprint” of the current network of National Historic and Scenic Trails and the electricity transmission system in the 37 eastern contiguous states, Alaska, and Hawaii; assess the extent to which national trails are affected by electrical transmission; and investigate the extent to which national trails and other sensitive land use types may be affected in the near future by planned transmission lines. Pipelines are secondary to transmission lines for analysis, but are also within the analysis scope in connection with the overall directives of Section 368 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, and because of the potential for electrical transmission lines being collocated with pipelines.

  12. Business Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föh, Kennet Fischer; Mandøe, Lene; Tinten, Bjarke

    Business Law is a translation of the 2nd edition of Erhvervsjura - videregående uddannelser. It is an educational textbook for the subject of business law. The textbook covers all important topic?s within business law such as the Legal System, Private International Law, Insolvency Law, Contract law...

  13. A novel modeling to predict the critical current behavior of Nb3Sn PIT strand under transverse load based on a scaling law and Finite Element Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Tiening; Takayasu, Makoto; Bordini, Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    Superconducting Nb3Sn Powder-In-Tube (PIT) strands could be used for the superconducting magnets of the next generation Large Hadron Collider. The strands are cabled into the typical flat Rutherford cable configuration. During the assembly of a magnet and its operation the strands experience not only longitudinal but also transverse load due to the pre-compression applied during the assembly and the Lorentz load felt when the magnets are energized. To properly design the magnets and guarantee their safe operation, mechanical load effects on the strand superconducting properties are studied extensively; particularly, many scaling laws based on tensile load experiments have been established to predict the critical current dependence on strain. However, the dependence of the superconducting properties on transverse load has not been extensively studied so far. One of the reasons is that transverse loading experiments are difficult to conduct due to the small diameter of the strand (about 1 mm) and the data curre...

  14. Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and National Trails. An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, Alaska, and Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, James A; Krummel, John R; Hlava, Kevin J; Moore, H Robert; Orr, Andrew B; Schlueter, Scott O; Sullivan, Robert G; Zvolanek, Emily A

    2014-03-25

    As has been noted in many reports and publications, acquiring new or expanded rights-of-way for transmission is a challenging process, because numerous land use and land ownership constraints must be overcome to develop pathways suitable for energy transmission infrastructure. In the eastern U.S., more than twenty federally protected national trails (some of which are thousands of miles long, and cross many states) pose a potential obstacle to the development of new or expanded electricity transmission capacity. However, the scope of this potential problem is not well-documented, and there is no baseline information available that could allow all stakeholders to study routing scenarios that could mitigate impacts on national trails. This report, Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and National Trails: An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, was prepared by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). Argonne was tasked by DOE to analyze the “footprint” of the current network of National Historic and Scenic Trails and the electricity transmission system in the 37 eastern contiguous states, Alaska, and Hawaii; assess the extent to which national trails are affected by electrical transmission; and investigate the extent to which national trails and other sensitive land use types may be affected in the near future by planned transmission lines. Pipelines are secondary to transmission lines for analysis, but are also within the analysis scope in connection with the overall directives of Section 368 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, and because of the potential for electrical transmission lines being collocated with pipelines. Based on Platts electrical transmission line data, a total of 101 existing intersections with national trails on federal land were found, and 20 proposed intersections. Transmission lines and pipelines are proposed in Alaska; however there are no

  15. State Constitutional Law: Teaching and Scholarship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    State constitutional law is an emerging area for legal education, partly because of state supreme court decisions relying on state rather than federal constitutional law. Studying state constitutional law highlights similarities and diversity of legal and governmental systems. Interest in establishment of curricula and materials in state law is…

  16. 21 CFR 1309.26 - Exemption of law enforcement officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of law enforcement officials. 1309.26... Exemption of law enforcement officials. (a) The requirement of registration is waived for the following... Administration, any other Federal officer who is lawfully engaged in the enforcement of any Federal law relating...

  17. 美国关于中药法律法规的历史沿革及展望%Development of US Federal Laws and Regulations Regarding Chinese Herbal Medicine:History and Outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈涛

    2013-01-01

    Chinese medicine, categorized as the complementary and alternative medicine in the United States, is one of many kinds of traditional medicines. By far, no speciifc law or regulation is released in U.S. particularly aimed at the Chinese herbal medicine ( CHM ). The legal restriction and management for CHM were scattered in other different laws and regulations. The Guide for Botanical Drugs released in 2004 has opened a door for Chinese medicine into the American mainstream pharmaceutical market. The Chinese medicine enterprises should make full use of the guide, selecting some traditional Chinese medicine products that have remarkable curative effects and meet the FDA requirements, to complete their new drug applications in the United States and push them to the American pharmaceutical market as soon as possible. This article mainly studied the laws, regulations and policies regarding CHM published by US federal government and the Food and Drug Administration, analyzed their inlfuence on CHM development and investigated the developing trend of CHM in the U.S..%中医药在美国只是相对西药独立存在的多种传统医药的一种。为与西医进行区分,美国人将这些不同的医学统一称为补充与替代医学。迄今为止,美国尚无对中药管理的专门法律法规,对中药的要求分散在不同的法律法规中。2004年,美国颁发了《植物药物产品指南》,为以植物药为主的中药进入美国主流医药市场开启了一扇大门。我国中医药企业应充分利用《植物药物产品指南》,选择能够在较短时间内满足FDA相关要求并具有显著疗效的中药产品,完成中药在美国的新药申请并尽快上市。

  18. Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    <> book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....... book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....

  19. World law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Berman

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.

  20. Constitutional Law--Elective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Joan; Wood, Robert J.

    The elective unit on Constitutional Law is intended for 11th and 12th grade students. The unit is designed around major course goals which are to develop those concepts whereby students recognize and understand the following three topic areas: 1) Role of the Federal Judicial Branch of Government, 2) Supreme Court Cases Involving the Three Branches…

  1. 76 FR 70510 - Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance Program: New Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... MANAGEMENT Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance Program: New Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance... Management (OPM) is announcing changes in premiums for certain Federal ] Employees' Group Life Insurance... coincided with the implementation of the Federal Employees' Life Insurance Improvement Act, Public Law...

  2. How Law Affects Lending

    OpenAIRE

    Haselmann, Rainer; Pistor, Katharina; Vig, Vikrant

    2006-01-01

    A voluminous literature seeks to explore the relation between law and finance, but offers little insights into dynamic relation between legal change and behavioral outcomes or about the distributive effects of law on different market participants. The current paper disentangles the law-finance relation by using disaggregate data on banks’ lending patterns in 12 transition countries over a 8 year period. This allows us to control for country level heterogeneity and differentiate between differ...

  3. The Golden Arches Meet the Hallowed Halls: Franchise Law and the Law School Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Danaya

    1995-01-01

    A law school course in franchise law focuses on how various legal issues and categories interact within the context of the narrowly defined business relationship of a franchise. Four major topics included federal and state disclosure regulations, trademarks and service marks, common law contract issues, and antitrust law. Class exercises included…

  4. Federalism Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, A. E. Dick

    1987-01-01

    Examines the concept of federalism in terms of its past history and its encouraging future. Calls for a revival of concern for federalism not simply as a convenient administrative arrangement but as a fundamental constitutional value. (BSR)

  5. System implementation of electromobility, challenges to the energy industry law, current status. Pt. 1; Systemintegration von Elektromobilitaet, Herausforderung an das Energiewirtschaftsrecht, eine Standortbestimmung. T. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keil, Eric [Verband kommunaler Unternehmen e.V., Berlin (Germany). Sachgebiet Netzzugang, Strom, Entflechtung; Schmelzer, Knut [Jena Univ. - Kompetenzzentrum fuer Technik, Wirtschaft, Recht e.V. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaftsrecht

    2010-11-15

    The authors of the first part of the contribution under consideration report on generic considerations on the implementation of electrical mobility in the valid energy industry law. Moreover, the authors report on the fundamental question whether and to what extent electrical mobility can be understood as an extended task of supply in the sense of the valid energy industry law.

  6. State-federal interactions in nuclear regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasternak, A.D.; Budnitz, R.J.

    1987-12-01

    The Atomic Energy Act of 1954 established, and later Congressional amendments have confirmed, that except in areas which have been explicitly granted to the states, the federal government possesses preemptive authority to regulate radiation hazards associated with the development and use of atomic energy. Since the passage of the original Act, numerous decisions by the courts have reaffirmed the legitimacy of federal preemption, and have defined and redefined its scope. In this study, the aim is to explore the underlying issues involved in federal preemption of radiation-hazard regulation, and to recommend actions that the Department of Energy and other agencies and groups should consider undertaking in the near term to protect the preemption principle. Appropriate roles of the states are discussed, as well as recent state-level activities and their rationale, and several current arenas in which state-federal conflicts about regulation of hazards are being played out. The emphasis here is on four particular arenas that are now important arenas of conflict, but the issues discussed are far broader in scope. These four arenas are: state-level moratorium activity; emergency planning for reactors; conflicts arising from state financial regulation; and inroads in federal preemption through litigation under state law.

  7. China Disabled Persons' Federation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China Disabled Persons' Federation (CDPF), founded in Beijing in 1988, is a national organization of/for all persons with disabilities (PWDs) of different categories in China. Mr. Deng Pufang is currently the Chairman.

  8. Flexible Workplace Policies: Lessons from the Federal Alternative Work Schedules Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechty, Janet M.; Anderson, Elaine A.

    2007-01-01

    This case study uses a feminist framework to examine the 7-year process by which the Federal Alternative Work Schedules Act (1978-1985) became law and the reasons for reenergized implementation in the 1990s. We analyze the legislative discourse for rationale in support of and opposition to this policy, connect findings to current flexible work…

  9. Outer space law: A problem of astronautics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, V.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of space law is discussed from the point of view of similarities and differences between hypothetical space law and current (1932) aviation law. International legal aspects and economic and cultural effects are also addressed.

  10. LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    Lecturer, Faculty of Law, University of the. Western Cape ... In this article, the current socio-economic position of persons with disabilities in. South Africa will be ..... (b) To ensure access by persons with disabilities, in particular women and girls.

  11. The School in the Legal Structure. American School Law Series. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolmeier, Edward C.

    This book provides a general survey of current law governing schools in the United States. Constitutional, statutory, and administrative provisions affecting the schools are examined at both the federal and state levels; however, primary emphasis of the discussion is on court decisions pertaining to educational issues. A total of 105 new cases…

  12. Russian Contract Law for Foreigners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Shirvindt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The book by Maria Efremova, Svetlana Yakovleva and Jane Henderson aims to serve as a short introduction to Russian contract law for a foreign lawyer. Assuming that the target readership are mainly English lawyers the book’s second aim, expressly stated by the authors (pp. i, 1, is to make lawyers from common law countries familiar with codified law, with Russian law being just an example. The book covers most of the general law of obligations as well as some questions of formation and invalidity of contracts that belong to the general part of the Civil Сode, with this preceded by a brief introduction into the Russian law dealing with its history, federal structure and state agencies of Russia, its court system, sources of law and legal profession.

  13. Natural gas: federal versus state competence; Competencia federal versus competencia estadual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Rodrigo Garcia da; Correia, Andre de Luizi [Wald Associados Advogados, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This article highlights the difficulties in regulating the natural gas sector in Brazil, which has hindered the development of the full potential of this industry. It analyzes the partition of competencies between the federative entities according to the Federal Constitution, the 'Law of oil' and the project of the 'Law of gas'.

  14. Workers' compensation law: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorker, B

    1994-09-01

    1. The workers' compensation system provides benefits to workers who are injured or made ill in the course of employment or their dependents regardless of fault. 2. The current workers' compensation laws benefit both the employer and the employee; however, workers' compensation is an exclusive remedy which bars recovery through a negligence lawsuit. 3. Workers' compensation regulations interact with other federal statutes such as the Americans With Disabilities Act and the Family Medical Leave Act. 4. Workers' compensation covers occupational injuries and occupational diseases, which may include cumulative trauma and mental stress claims. Nurses may be instrumental in evaluating and planning for an injured employee's return to work and occasionally in detecting fraudulent claims.

  15. Federalism and Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Alan Tarr

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available President Barack Obama proposed a major overhaul of the American healthsystem, and in 2010 the U.S. Congress enacted his proposal, the PatientProtection and Affordable Care Act. Opponents of the Act challenged itsconstitutionality in federal court, claiming that it exceeds the powers grantedto the federal government under the Commerce Clause and the NecessaryProper Clause of the federal Constitution. Some courts have upheldthe law, but others have agreed with the critics, in particular ruling thatthe provision requiring citizens to buy health insurance is unconstitutional.Eventually the U.S. Supreme Court will rule on the issue. This article tracesthe controversy, surveys the interpretation of pertinent constitutional provisionsin past cases, analyzes the constitutional arguments presented byproponents and opponents of the Act, and concludes that the Act is constitutional.

  16. The Drafting of a Law against Discrimination on the Grounds of Racial or Ethnic Origin in Germany - Constraints in Constitutional and European Community Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Selbmann

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available On 29 June 2000 the European Council adopted the Race Equality Directive, which outlaws, inter alia, direct and indirect discrimination based on racial or ethnic origin regarding access to employment and supply of goods and services, which are available to the public. EC member states now have to adopt laws to comply with the directive. Thus, the German Federal Ministry of Justice introduced a Discussion Draft Law on the Prevention of Discrimination in the Private Sector. The publication of the discussion draft led to a debate among scholars and players in the field of anti-discrimination. some scholars endorsed the draft law. Other authors claimed that the draft law violates not only the constitution but also common sense. This article gives an overview of current German regulations against discrimination on the grounds of racial or ethnic origin, the discussion on the draft law and its compatibility with constitutional and European Community law. It will show, that most of the arguments against the draft law are unfounded. The author argues that the primary basis for an assessment of the compatibility with higher-ranking law is European Community law and not German constitutional law. However, a carefully drafted discrimination law in the sector of private and labour law would be consistent with the Basic Law. Owing to the recent election campaign in Germany, the adoption of the Draft Law was postponed. Thus, the author also discusses consequences deriving from European Community law, should it be the case that Germany fails to implement the Race Equality Directive, in the period prescribed by the directive.

  17. World law

    OpenAIRE

    Berman, Harold J.; Robert W. Woodruff; James Barr Ames

    1999-01-01

    In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the ...

  18. European Asylum Law : and its Relation to International Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battjes, H.

    2006-01-01

    In Chapter 1 I introduce the question of enquiry, the relation between Community and international law on asylum. Further, I sketch the content of the Refugee Convention, other relevant international law, the historical background of current Community asylum law (i.e. the asylum acquis from before 2

  19. Project of law authorizing the approval of the agreement between the government of the French republic and the government of the Russian federation relative to the civil liability by way of nuclear damage owing to the supply of materials from the French republic devoted to nuclear facilities in the Russian federation; Projet de loi autorisant l'approbation de l'accord entre le gouvernement de la republique francaise et le gouvernement de la federation de Russie relatif a la responsabilite civile au titre de dommages nucleaires du fait de fournitures en provenance de la republique francaise destinees a des installations nucleaires en federation de Russie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffarin, J.P.; Villepin, D. de

    2002-07-01

    An agreement between France and Russia was signed on June 20, 2000 about the civil liability of Russia because of the supply of French material devoted to Russian nuclear facilities. This agreement was necessary because Russia do not belong to any of the two big international civil liability systems relative to nuclear energy, i.e. the Paris convention from July 29, 1960 (in the OECD framework) and the Vienna convention from May 21, 1963 (in the IAEA framework). This agreement offers a protection to the French nuclear suppliers against any damage claims in the case of a nuclear accident occurring on the Russian federation territory. This project of law aims at approving this agreement. (J.S.)

  20. Analysis on the Current Situation of College Students"Rule of Law"in the Context of Promoting"Ruling the Country by Law"%全面推进“依法治国”背景下大学生“法治”观的现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖青松; 赵文力

    2016-01-01

    current problems, in order to respond to the requirements of the rule of law.

  1. 5 CFR 2421.10 - Chief Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chief Administrative Law Judge. 2421.10 Section 2421.10 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL... § 2421.10 Chief Administrative Law Judge. Chief Administrative Law Judge means the Chief...

  2. A proposal for amending administrative law to facilitate adaptive management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Robin K.; Ruhl, J. B.; Brown, Eleanor D.; Williams, Byron K.

    2017-07-01

    In this article we examine how federal agencies use adaptive management. In order for federal agencies to implement adaptive management more successfully, administrative law must adapt to adaptive management, and we propose changes in administrative law that will help to steer the current process out of a dead end. Adaptive management is a form of structured decision making that is widely used in natural resources management. It involves specific steps integrated in an iterative process for adjusting management actions as new information becomes available. Theoretical requirements for adaptive management notwithstanding, federal agency decision making is subject to the requirements of the federal Administrative Procedure Act, and state agencies are subject to the states’ parallel statutes. We argue that conventional administrative law has unnecessarily shackled effective use of adaptive management. We show that through a specialized ‘adaptive management track’ of administrative procedures, the core values of administrative law—especially public participation, judicial review, and finality— can be implemented in ways that allow for more effective adaptive management. We present and explain draft model legislation (the Model Adaptive Management Procedure Act) that would create such a track for the specific types of agency decision making that could benefit from adaptive management.

  3. Comparing Efficacy of Online and In-person Versions of a Training on U.S. Federal Wage and Hour, Child Labor Laws and Hazardous Occupations Orders for Secondary School Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek G. Shendell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The New Jersey Safe Schools Program (NJSS offers courses required for secondary school vocational-career-technical education teachers to become school-sponsored structured learning experience supervisors. The Federal Wage and Hour and Child Labor Laws, Regulations and Hazardous Order Course (FWH was originally conducted in-person by U.S. Department of Labor-Wage and Hour Division from 2005-summer 2013, at which time NJSS began conducting this course in-person (October 2013-April 2015. Beginning March 2015, this course was conducted online; beta-/pilot tests were conducted winter 2014-15. Starting in May 2015, this course was offered exclusively online. This paper analyzes data from the in-person and online versions of the FWH, including overall course evaluation data comparing two versions with similar questions/constructs.Methods: NJSS modifications to FWH included adding information regarding the Fair Labor Standards Act’s Section 14(c and supplemental case studies. The online version included information/resources provided during the in-person training plus assessments to supplement each module; the online version was split into modules to allow participants scheduling flexibility. Participants were allowed multiple possible attempts to achieve a minimum passing grade of 70%, excluding two ungraded activities (crossword puzzles simply completed. Descriptive statistics evaluated user satisfaction with the online compared to the in-person version of FWH, and performance on aforementioned online assessments replacing in-person discussions/interactions.Results: Between October 2013-April 2015, 160 participants completed the training in-person; 156 had complete data. Between April-November 2015, 78 participants completed the training online; 74 participants had complete data. Other enrolled participants were in progress (not done as of 12/23/2015. Overall satisfaction was similarly high for in-person and online versions of FWH; over

  4. The new radiation protection law. What does it mean for radiography? From the view of a Federal state authority; Das neue Strahlenschutzgesetz. Was bedeutet dies fuer die Radiographie? Aus dem Blick einer Landesbehoerde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Joachim [Saechsisches Staatsministerium fuer Umwelt und Landwirtschaft, Dresden (Germany)

    2017-08-01

    As a consequence of the implementation of the guideline 2013/59/EURATOM the German environmental ministry BMUB has revised the radiation protection law. The contribution discusses the impact of the revised law on the radiation protection authority in Saxonia. The new requirements concerning the application of radioactive materials for radiographic testing are summarized.

  5. The need for drugged driving per se laws: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, Robert L; Voas, Robert B; Walsh, J Michael; Shea, Corinne; Talpins, Stephen K; Neil, Mark M

    2012-01-01

    Triggered by the new federal commitment announced by the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONCDP) to encourage states to enact drugged driving per se laws, this article reviews the reasons to establish such laws and the issues that may arise when trying to enforce them. A review of the state of drunk driving per se laws and their implications for drugged driving is presented, with a review of impaired driving enforcement procedures and drug testing technology. Currently, enforcement of drugged driving laws is an adjunct to the enforcement of laws regarding alcohol impairment. Drivers are apprehended when showing signs of alcohol intoxication and only in the relatively few cases where the blood alcohol concentration of the arrested driver does not account for the observed behavior is the possibility of drug impairment pursued. In most states, the term impaired driving covers both alcohol and drug impairment; thus, driver conviction records may not distinguish between the two different sources of impairment. As a result, enforcement statistics do not reflect the prevalence of drugged driving. Based on the analysis presented, this article recommends a number of steps that can be taken to evaluate current drugged driving enforcement procedures and to move toward the enactment of drug per se laws.

  6. Obtaining Laws through Quantifying Experiments: Justifications of Pre-Service Physics Teachers in the Case of Electric Current, Voltage and Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntylä, Terhi; Hämäläinen, Ari

    2015-01-01

    The language of physics is mathematics, and physics ideas, laws and models describing phenomena are usually represented in mathematical form. Therefore, an understanding of how to navigate between phenomena and the models representing them in mathematical form is important for a physics teacher so that the teacher can make physics understandable…

  7. [Civil and criminal laws regarding the donation, removal and transfer of organs (Transplantation Law) in Germany with respect to administrative and clinical autopsies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufková, J

    2000-07-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, transplantation medicine, which is relatively young and still developing, is now regulated by the law governing the donation, removal and transfer of organs (Transplantation Law--TPG) of 05. 11. 1997 and has been given a legal basis which satisfies even present-day standards. By evaluating the highly personal rights to potential organ donor and of his next-of-kin against the interests of maintaining life and health of others, the law works along the lines of the so-called extended consent solution. The basic civil law stipulations of sections 3 + 4 TPG, while protecting the donor's individual freedom of decision, give his next-of-kin or trusted confidant at or immediately following death the right to communicate his presumes wishes. In addition, it must be stated that through recent decisions handed down by the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht) in response to various complaints, this regulation has been recognised as conforming to constitutional laws. The basic content of the penal regulations states that violations of civil law rules and trafficking in organs are an offence. Current disclosed requirements for suitable donor organs, in particular for 1998, make it appear likely that the current deficit can be eliminated by the introduction of the organisational measures contained in the law. In conclusion, the situation with regard to autopsy should be addressed since, in contrast to the federal transplantation law which applies to all states, autopsy is regulated differently and, from a legal-political standpoint, unsatisfactorily by each individual state. It is desirable that this legal ambiguity be corrected by standardising the inconsistent and at times non-existent legal stipulations.

  8. Property Law

    OpenAIRE

    Dean Lueck; Thomas J. Miceli

    2004-01-01

    This chapter examines the economics of property rights and property law. Property law is a fundamental part of social organization and is also fundamental to the operation of the economy because it defines and protects the bundle of rights that constitute property. Property law thereby creates incentives to protect and invest in assets and establishes a legal framework within which market exchange of assets can take place. The purpose of this chapter is to show how the economics of property r...

  9. Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of theUnited States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  10. The Delinquencies of Juvenile Law: A Natural Law Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Washington

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a substantive analysis tracing the legal, philosophical, social, historical, jurisprudence and political backgrounds of juvenile law, which is an outgrowth of the so-calledProgressive movement - a popular social and political movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. I also trace how this socio-political cause célèbre became a fixture in Americanculture and society due to existential child labor abuses which progressive intellectuals used as a pretext to codify juvenile law in federal law and in statutory law in all 50 states by 1925. Moreover the dubious social science and Machiavellian political efforts that created the juvenile justice system out of whole cloth has done much more harm to the Constitution and to the children it was mandated to protect than any of the Progressive ideas initially envisioned rooted in Positive Law (separation of law and morals. Finally, I present am impassioned argument for congressional repeal of all juvenile case law and statutes because they are rooted in Positive Law, contrary to Natural Law (integration of law and morals, the original intent of the constitutional Framers and are therefore patently unconstitutional.

  11. Constitutionalization of Peruvian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Landa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Constitutionalizaton of Law’s different areas is a phenomenon gradually more ingrained in our cultural and legal framework. Maybe the best demonstration is the increasingly prominent role of the Constitutional Court (TC – Constitution’s Supreme Interpreter – in defining and redefining concepts, rights and legal principles touching a range of subjects, from TaxLaw to Human Rights. This is relevant to understand the Law and its current effects whether it is valued positively or negatively.

  12. Thoughts on Current Situation of Science and Technology Law System in China%我国科技法律制度现状思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范国强

    2005-01-01

    科技法(Technology Law)的概念大约是在20世纪80年代提出的,有专家认为是中国人最先提出的,也有专家认为是美国人最先提出的。比较而言,我国在科技法方面发展极为缓慢。在美国已有Harvard Journal of law & Technology,Stanford Technology law Review等研究科技法律制度的著名期刊,我国台湾也有专门研究机构,如台湾交通大学科技法律研究所等7个科技法研究中心。

  13. 17 CFR 200.14 - Office of Administrative Law Judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Organization § 200.14 Office of Administrative Law Judges. (a) Under the Administrative Procedure Act (5 U.S.C. 551-559) and the federal securities laws, the Office of Administrative Law Judges conducts hearings in proceedings instituted by the Commission. The Administrative Law Judges are responsible for the fair...

  14. 78 FR 21787 - Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... and 3 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No... and Trademark Office 37 CFR Parts 1 and 3 RIN 0651-AC85 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty.... SUMMARY: The Patent Law Treaties Implementation Act of 2012 (PLTIA) amends the patent laws to...

  15. 24 CFR 291.520 - Eligible law enforcement officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligible law enforcement officers... Neighbor Next Door Sales Program § 291.520 Eligible law enforcement officers. A person qualifies as a law... law enforcement agency of the federal government, a state, a unit of general local government, or an...

  16. Law 302.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This publication outlines a law course intended as part of a business education program in the secondary schools of Manitoba, Canada. The one credit course of study should be taught over a period of 110-120 hours of instruction. It provides students with an introduction to the principles, practices, and consequences of law with regard to torts,…

  17. Current rates, degression and calculation examples according to the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) from 4th August 2011 ('EEG 2012'); Verguetungsansaetze, Degression und Berechnungsbeispiele nach dem neuen Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG) vom 04. August 2011 ('EEG 2012')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    On 30st June 2011, the German Bundestag has passed the Law on the revision of the legal framework for the promotion of power generation from renewable energy sources. With this, the Renewable Energy Law has been amended substantially. The amendment was signed on 4 August 2011 at the Federal Law Gazette (BGBl I, page 1634) proclaimed and came into force on 1 January 2012. The tables in the contribution under consideration present the minimum feed-in tariffs, bonuses and annual degression steps for the power generation from renewable energy and coal mine gas under the Renewable Energy Law in the new version. These tables are valid for installations which are put into operation from 1st January 2012. For plants which have been put into operation before 2012, generally the existing law remains in force, subject to certain transitional provisions.

  18. Law and public health at CDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Richard A; Moulton, A; Matthews, G; Shaw, F; Kocher, P; Mensah, G; Zaza, S; Besser, R

    2006-12-22

    Public health law is an emerging field in U.S. public health practice. The 20th century proved the indispensability of law to public health, as demonstrated by the contribution of law to each of the century's 10 great public health achievements. Former CDC Director Dr. William Foege has suggested that law, along with epidemiology, is an essential tool in public health practice. Public health laws are any laws that have important consequences for the health of defined populations. They derive from federal and state constitutions; statutes, and other legislative enactments; agency rules and regulations; judicial rulings and case law; and policies of public bodies. Government agencies that apply public health laws include agencies officially designated as "public health agencies," as well as health-care, environmental protection, education, and law enforcement agencies, among others.

  19. Fiscal Federalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Xingyuan; Ljungwall, Christer; Guo, Sujian

    2013-01-01

    in the Western literature? Second, are there any problems with existing principles of fiscal federalism and, if so, how to refine them? Third, how are refined principles relevant to the Chinese case and what policies should the Chinese government pursue in the future? Based on an in-depth and critical review...... relations is not without controversy. This paper aims to make a theoretical contribution to the ongoing debate on ‘fiscal federalism’ by addressing crucial questions regarding China's central–local fiscal relations: first, to what extent do Chinese central–local fiscal relations conform to fiscal federalism...

  20. Law of 22 April 2005 on patients' rights and the end of life in France: setting the boundaries of euthanasia, with regard to current legislation in other European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clin, Bénédicte; Ophélie, Ferrant

    2010-10-01

    The term 'euthanasia' is not clearly defined. Euthanasia is evoked in many aspects of terminal care: interruption of curative treatment at the end of life, palliative care or the act of deliberately provoking death through compassion. A law on 'patients' rights and the end of life', promulgated in France on 22 April 2005, led to changes in the French Code of Public Health. In this work, we have first outlined the key provisions of this law and the changes it has brought, then we have compared current legislation on the subject throughout Europe, where a rapid overview of current practice in terminal patient care revealed four different types of legislation: the first authorizes euthanasia (in the sense of provoking death, if this choice is medically justified), the second legalizes 'assisted suicide', the third, which is sometimes referred to as 'passive euthanasia', consists of the non-administration of life-sustaining treatment and, finally, the fourth prohibits euthanasia in any form whatsoever. In the last section, we have attempted to clarify the as yet indistinct notion of 'euthanasia' in order to determine whether the conception of terminal care in the Law of 22 April 2005 was consistent with that put forward by the philosopher Francis Bacon, who claimed that, 'The physician's role is to relieve pain, not only when such relief can lead to healing, but also when it can proffer a calm and trouble-free death, thus putting an end to the suffering and the agony of death' (modern adaptation of the original quote).

  1. Case - Case-Law - Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadl, Urska

    2013-01-01

    Reasoning of the Court of Justice of the European Union – Constr uction of arguments in the case-law of the Court – Citation technique – The use of formulas to transform case-law into ‘law’ – ‘Formulaic style’ – European citizenship as a fundamental status – Ruiz Zambrano – Reasoning from...

  2. Case studies of geothermal leasing and development on federal lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trummel, Marc

    1978-09-29

    In response to a widely expressed need to examine the impact of the federal regulatory system on the rate of geothermal power development, the Department of Energy-Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE) has established a Streamlining Task Force in cooperation with appropriate federal agencies. The intent is to find a way of speeding development by modification of existing laws or regulations or by better understanding and mechanization of the existing ones. The initial focus was on the leasing and development of federal lands. How do the existing processes work? Would changes produce positive results in a variety of cases? These are questions which must be considered in a national streamlining process. This report presents case studies of federal leasing actions on seven diverse locations in the western region. Characteristics of existing high geothermal potential areas are quite diverse; geography, environment, industry interest and the attitudes and activities of the responsible federal land management agencies and the interested public vary widely. Included are descriptions of post and current activities in leasing exploration and development and discussions of the probable future direction of activities based on current plans. Implications of these plans are presented. The case studies were based on field interviews with the appropriate State and District BLM officer and with the regional forester's office and the particular forest office. Documentation was utilized to the extent possible and has been included in whole or in part in appendices as appropriate.

  3. PingFederate

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — PingFederate Server provides Identity Federation and Single Sign On Capabilities. Federated identity management (or identity federation) enables enterprises to...

  4. 27 CFR 478.134 - Sale of firearms to law enforcement officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AMMUNITION Records § 478.134 Sale of firearms to law enforcement officers. (a) Law enforcement officers... complete Form 4473 or Form 5300.35. The law enforcement officer purchasing the firearm may purchase a...) In Federal law enforcement offices, the supervisor in charge of the office to which the Federal...

  5. Need for consent of a law extending the operating life of nuclear power plants; Zustimmungsbeduerftigkeit eines Gesetzes zur Verlaengerung der Laufzeiten von Kernkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degenhart, Christoph [Leipzig Univ. (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    The article deals with the question whether a law extending nuclear power plant life beyond the residual periods of time laid down in the law of April 22, 2002 requires consent of the Federal Council. The Atomic Energy Act needed the consent of the Federal Council pursuant to Article 87c, Basic Law, as its Section 24 determines that central functions of licensing and supervision be exercised by the federal states on behalf of the Federal Government. This has not changed after the current version of the norm. Increasing the residual quotas of electricity by amending Annex 3 of Sec.7, Para.1a, Atomic Energy Act, per se does not require consent. This is a substantive provision. Sec.24, Atomic Energy Act, does not need to be amended. The Federal Council, which consented to the original legislation, thus does not bear continued responsibility for the law. Every law must be treated as a separate entity in terms of legislative method. The Federal Council, with its first consent to the piece of legislation, ''approves'' this systemic shift. Renewed consent is required only in case of another systemic shift. This is the case when the provision about administrative responsibility takes on a very different meaning and impact no longer supported by the earlier consent. According to decisions by the Federal Constitutional Court, this expressly applies also to administration by commission. What is required is a comparison of administrative duties before and after entry into force of the amending law; mere quantitative shifts of administrative burdens do not cause a systemic shift. Whether the inclusion of backfitting obligations would be associated with regulations in administrative procedures has not been decided. In its ruling of May 4, 2010, the Federal Constitutional Court confirms that these do not require consent within the framework of Art.85 Para.1, Basic Law. (orig.)

  6. An Argument for States to Outlaw 'Revenge Porn' and for Congress to Amend 47 U.S.C. §230: How Our Current Laws Do Little to Protect Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Martinez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This note examines the intersection of law and technology as it relates to the issue of revenge porn.  Revenge porn comes in many forms but most commonly refers to the online posting of sexually explicit photos or videos of past lovers, without their consent, after the relationship has ended.  The author explains how the current legal framework has left many victims without legal recourse to punish those who have posted their intimate photos or videos without consent, and few options to have their images removed from the internet once they have been posted.  The note argues that in order to protect victims, states should make laws to criminalize the posting of revenge porn and the Communications Decency Act should be amended to give victims the power to have their images removed from websites.

  7. Creeping Federalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    that make taxharmonization difficult to impose. Other types of harmonization have a less clear-cut costbenefitanalysis. A federal commercial code that is uniform across member states reducestransaction and information costs, compared to leaving important code issues to memberstates; further, many states may...

  8. THE SYSTEM OF CRIMINAL LAW OF RUSSIA: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irek Anasovich Bikkinin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The principle of socio-political and economic foundations of criminal law protection of the public relations and the need to improve its efficiency, requires a coherent and consistent criminal legislation. We have to admit that the basic characteristics of modern law-making process in the criminal justice field, demonstrate the lack of a shared vision of improvement of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation.The paper is exploratory in nature, reflected in the fact that it conducted a comprehensive analysis of the current criminal legislation and practice of the modernization of this legislation, conducted research, and expert surveys. On this basis, development of proposals on optimization of the basic directions of development of the criminal law.Purpose. Development of proposals on optimization of the basic directions of development of the criminal law.Methodology. A comprehensive analysis of the current criminal legislation and practice of the modernization of this legislation, conducted research, and expert surveys.Results. Proposals on optimization of the basic directions of development of the criminal law.Practical implications. Lawmaking.

  9. 罗斯福新政时期美国联邦劳工法的发展——以州际关系为视角的研究%Development of Federal Labor Laws during Roosevelt's New Deal:A Study from Perspective of Interstate Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨成良

    2015-01-01

    罗斯福新政之前,美国各州的劳工法有所发展,但联邦劳工立法因固守二元联邦主义理论的最高法院的抵制而举步维艰.新政第一阶段通过的相关法律也被最高法院判为违宪, 理由是它们超出了国会州际贸易条款下的权力,而且联邦政府也无权为消除州际竞争而制定统一劳工保护标准.后来,由于罗斯福总统的坚持,再加上最高法院内部人事变动和观念转变, 新政第二阶段有关劳工保护的法律得到肯定. 至此,美国有了联邦统一的劳工保护标准,在一定程度上消除了因各州劳工权益保护水平差异而导致的州际不公平竞争.%Before Roosevelt's New Deal, several states had developed their labor laws in a great way, but federal labor legislation was frustrated by the Supreme Court, which held dual federalism steadily.Relevant laws passed by Congress during the first stage of the New Deal were also annulled by the Supreme Court, reasons given were that they were beyond the Congress's power under the interstate commerce clause, and the federal government had no power to set uniform labor standards to eliminate interstate competitive practices.During the second stage of the New Deal, thanks to President Roosevelt's persistence and changes of members and concepts of the Supreme Court, federal labor laws were conformed.From then on, United States had uniform federal labor standards, which greatly restrained unfair interstate competition caused by various labor standards in different states.

  10. Challenge: Code of environmental law; Herausforderung Umweltgesetzbuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    Within the meeting ''Challenge: Code of environmental law'' at 16th February, 2007, in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany) and organized by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (a) the new code of environmental law as a contribution to more modernness and efficiency in the environmental politics (Sigmar Gabriel); (b) The code of environmental law from the view of the economy (Martin Wansleben); (c) Significance of the code of environmental law from the view of jurisprudence (Michael Kloepfer); (d) Targets, content and utility of the code of environmental law: Summary of the panel discussion (Tanja Goenner, Klaus Mittelbach, Juergen Resch, Hans-Joachim Koch, Alfred Wirtz, Andreas Troge (moderator)); (e) Considerations to the coding of water law in the code of environmental law (Helge Wendenburg); (f) Considerations to the coding of water law: Summary of te discussion; (g) Considerations to the coding of nature conservation law (Jochen Flasbarth); (h) Considerations to the coding of nature conservation law: Summary of the discussion.

  11. Third-party protection and residual risk in Atomic Energy Act. On legally dogmatic classification of paragraph 7 Atomic Energy Act in the jurisprudence of the Federal Constitutional Law and Federal Administrative Court; Drittschutz und Restrisiko im Atomrecht. Zur rechtsdogmatischen Einordnung des paragraph 7d AtG in die Rechtsprechung des Bundesverfassungs- und des Bundesverwaltungsgerichts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arndt, Hans-Wolfgang

    2012-03-15

    On 25th June 2009, the Council of the European Union has passed the directive 2009/71/EURATOM on a common framework for nuclear safety of nuclear installations. At first, the 12th Law amending the Atomic Energy Act supplements the Atomic Energy Act by regulations which implement the directive 2009/71/EURATIM into national law. In addition, paragraph 7 Atomic Energy Act introduces a new substantive obligation of the operators of nuclear power plants. The author of the contribution reports on whether paragraph 7 Atomic Energy Act provides additional nuclear protection or reduces the potential protection by law and jurisprudence.

  12. 略论我国专利法的完善%On the Improvement of the Current Patent Law of Our Country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田宝会

    2001-01-01

    There exist serious defects both in the stipulations and expression of the contents of patent rights and in the use and management of the three big patent rights.At the same time some stipulations can not meet the needs of establishing socialist market economy and modern enterprise system.Therefore we should carry out the modification and perfection for the patent law.%我国现行专利法在专利权的内容的规定和表述上、在三大专利权的使用管理上均存在严重缺陷,同时有些规定已经不能适应建立社会主义市场经济和现代企业制度的需要。因此,应对专利法进行修改和完善。

  13. Labor Laws Affecting Private Household Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Wages and working conditions for private household workers have not kept pace with other occupations, partly because of lack of coverage by labor laws. This pamphlet describes the protection available to domestics under both federal and state laws. Not only wages and hours, but also coverage by Unemployment Compensation, Workmen's Compensation,…

  14. Protection provided by criminal law against hazards of nuclear energy and the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Also a survey of the history of definition of offences against the atomic energy law and radiation protection law in the Federal Republic of Germany. Der strafrechtliche Schutz vor den Gefahren der Kernenergie und den schaedlichen Wirkungen ionisierender Strahlen. Zugleich eine Darstellung der historischen Entwicklung der Kernenergie- und Strahlendelikte in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, M.

    1989-01-01

    The subjects, principles and purpose of the atomic energy law and the radiation protection law are set out, and criminal offences under atomic energy law are outlined explaining the legal terminology applied. The peaceful uses of nuclear energy and radioactive materials are briefly discussed, primarily looking at the hazards involved and the protective role of criminal law principles that have been developed in connection with the atomic energy law and its application in practice. The draft version of the 16th criminal law amendment act - Act to combat environmental delinquency - is discussed, which aims at adoption of all criminal offences under atomic energy law by the Criminal Code. The book furthermore presents considerations about basic features of delinquency under atomic energy and radiation protection law, revealing elements and facts of offences defined, and particular problems resulting thereof. The question arises, e.g., whether an incorporation of the provisions into the Special Annex to the Criminal Code, in sections 27 and 28, is a wise and suitable decision. The book finally discusses the development of definition of criminal offences by a de lege feranda approach, referring to (1) the Chernobyl reactor accident, (2) the Nuclear Safeguards agreements, and (3) the definition of maximum permissible radiation dose. (HP).

  15. Impact Factors on Transformer Neutral Point Current and Its Laws%变压器中性点电流的影响因素及其规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓毛; 谢应耿; 夏成军

    2014-01-01

    针对广东电网多回直流输电系统对变电站主变压器的影响,从电路原理出发,设计了一个简单的电流分布计算模型,并推导出地中直流电流的数学表达式,论证了中性点电流的主要影响因素;引入线性回归分析方法计算各影响因素与中性点电流关系的回归模型,利用回归方程来估计直流极的影响范围。分析计算以±800 kV楚穗直流输电线路为例,验证了变压器中性点电流与直流输送功率的线性特点,并且说明了在合适位置投入直流抑制装置,可以抑制区域内流入电网的直流电流的总值。%Aiming at impact on the main transformer of substation by multi-loop direct current power transmission system in Guang-dong power grid,a simple current distribution calculation model was design based on principles of electric circuits,mathematical ex-pression for direct current was derived and main impact factors on neutral point current were demonstrated.In addition,a linear re-gression analysis method was introduced to calculate the regression model of various impact factors and neutral point current.Mean-while,the regression equation was used to estimate impact range of the direct current pole.Taking ±800 kV Chusui direct current power transmission lines as analysis and calculation example,linear characteristics of transformer neutral point current and direct current transmission power were verified.Meanwhile,it was proved to be effective in restraining total value of direct current flow-ing into the power grid in the region by installing direct current suppression device.

  16. 对《俄罗斯社会经济超前发展区联邦法》及相关法律的解读%Interpretations to Federal Acts of Russian Social and Economic Advancing Development Zone and Its Relevant relevant laws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳会新

    2015-01-01

    2014年底,俄罗斯出台《俄罗斯社会经济超前发展区联邦法》,目的是建立良好的投资环境,实现社会经济加速发展,创造宜居条件.规定了建设基础设施的资金保障、管理及市政监管、海关监管等方法.为配合该法,俄政府对联邦税法等相关法律进行了修订.%In the end of 2014, Russia issued Federal Acts of Russian Social and Economic Advancing Development Zone, aiming to establish good investment environment, accelerate the social and economic development and create favorable living conditions. The methods such as capital guarantee and management for infrastructure construction as well as municipal administration supervision and customs supervision, etc. are regulated. To cooperate with this Act, the Russian government made some revisions to the Federation Tax Law and relevant laws.

  17. Revaluation on the Level of Rule-by-law in Internal Governance of Sport Federation-An Empirical Analysis on the Dispute Resolution Mechanism of Chinese Football Association%体育协会内部治理的法治度评估--以中国足协争端解决机制为样本的实证考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春良

    2015-01-01

    The sport society is composed by federations ,organizations and individuals ;while ev‐ery federation is the main subject to carry out the Rule‐by‐Law of sports .The internal govern‐ances of federations reflect the level of Rule‐by‐Law ,problems and the tendency .Chinese Foot‐ball Association (CFA ) has established the division and cooperation modes among authority , administrative and judicial institutions .The separation of judicial power represents the spirit of Rule‐by‐Law ,but the arbitration committee as the judicial organ of CFA is still an internal in‐stitution and responsible for administrative organ .It is a moderate way to improve the separa‐tion of arbitration committee ;while the best way is to establish a uniform and independent arbi‐tration institution .It is a long way for Chinese sport society to carry out the spirit of principle Rule‐by Law .%中国体育行业是“总会‐协会或团体‐个体”三位一体的组织结构,协会是促进体育行业法治的中坚力量,其内部治理的法治状态表征了我国体育法治的程度、问题和演进方向。中国足协是适当的样本,它建立起了“权力机构‐行政机构‐司法机构”的分工合作模式,司法职能的相对独立化使其内部治理彰显出法治精神,但作为足协司法机构的仲裁委员会仍属内设机构,且对足协行政机构负责,法治化不彻底。治标方案是在足协内部改良司法职能的独立性;治本方略则是推动协会内部司法职能的彻底外化,设置统一的体育仲裁机制,实现体育行业总体上的司法职能独立化、专业化和权威化。样本考察显示,中国体育法治在途中。

  18. Secrets Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Helena Guamanzara Torres

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of the book The Law of Secrets, of the author Juan Carlos Martínez-Villalba Riofrío studying the secrets and how law does protect. To this end, the author has analyzed the general theory of secrecy, secrets and methodology, its overall rating, essential elements and their different legal dimensions, the secret as a subjective right. It also establishes that professional secrecy is protected by constitutional principles such as the right to privacy.

  19. Health Insurance Coverage and Use of Family Planning Services among Current and Former Foster Youth: Implications of the Health Care Reform Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworsky, Amy; Ahrens, Kym; Courtney, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This research uses data from a longitudinal study to examine how two provisions in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act could affect health insurance coverage among young women who have aged out of foster care. It also explores how allowing young people to remain in foster care until age twenty-one affects their health insurance coverage, use of family planning services, and information about birth control. We find that young women are more likely to have health insurance if they remain in foster care until their twenty-first birthday and that having health insurance is associated with an increase in the likelihood of receiving family planning services. Our results also suggest that many young women who would otherwise lack health insurance after aging out of foster care will be eligible for Medicaid under the health care reform law. Because having health insurance is associated with use of family planning services, this increase in Medicaid eligibility may result in fewer unintended pregnancies among this high-risk population. PMID:23262773

  20. Outstanding Questions In First Amendment Law Related To Food Labeling Disclosure Requirements For Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2015-11-01

    The federal and state governments are increasingly focusing on food labeling as a method to support good health. Many such laws are opposed by the food industry and may be challenged in court, raising the question of what is legally feasible. This article analyzes outstanding questions in First Amendment law related to commercial disclosure requirements and conducts legal analysis and policy evaluation for three current policies. These include the Food and Drug Administration's draft regulation requiring an added sugar disclosure on the Nutrition Facts panel, California's proposed sugar-sweetened beverage safety warning label bill, and Vermont's law requiring labels of genetically engineered food to disclose this information. I recommend several methods for policy makers to enact food labeling laws within First Amendment parameters, including imposing factual commercial disclosure requirements, disclosing the government entity issuing a warning, collecting evidence, and identifying legitimate governmental interests. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  1. Challenges imposed by International Environmental Law to Classical International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Augusto Cárdenas Castañeda

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of international environmental law has produced important challenges to the very foundations of public international law. Traditional concepts such as state sovereignty, subjects of international law, and the early perspectives of national security are being transformed. The needs of the contemporary international society differ from the ones of the Wesphalian conception, situations which clearly explains the raise of alternative views for the understanding of the current dynamics of international law, where concepts like res communis, common concerns and simply “commons” take a privileged place in the study of international law. The foregoing has been strengthened by the international development of the so called erga ommnes obligations, label which is being used by international environmental law as the perfect explanation of its own existence. This academic article presents and studies the abovementioned concepts trying to compare what international law used to be before the emergence of international environmental law and what it is and what it should be in order to attend the developments and challenges imposed by the contemporary international society, particularly by international environmental law, a new fi eld of the corpus juris of public international law.

  2. Escassez de recursos, custos dos direitos e reserva do possível na jurisprudência do STF Resource limitation, cost of rights and the 'under reserve of the possibilities' clause in the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court case-law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wei Liang Wang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa os temas da escassez de recursos, custos dos direitos e cláusula de reserva do possível na jurisprudência do Supremo Tribunal Federal brasileiro. Por meio do estudo dessas decisões, procuro, primeiramente, descobrir em que tipo de matéria esses temas são comumente debatidos nos julgamentos do Supremo Tribunal Federal. Em um segundo momento, procuro entender a forma como o tribunal trata esses temas em sua jurisprudência e os critérios utilizados em suas análises. Por fim, busco examinar se a análise jurídica dos ministros leva em consideração preocupações relativas às conseqüências econômicas e distributivas das decisões. A pesquisa de acórdãos foi feita com base nestes três temas: direito à saúde, direito à educação e intervenção federal por não pagamento de precatórios. Em uma primeira fase, analiso o tratamento dado aos custos dos direitos, à reserva do possível e à escassez de recursos dentro de cada um desses temas. E, em um segundo momento, cruzo os resultados obtidos em cada tema para mostrar as diferenças de tratamento.This article presents an analysis the concepts of costs of rights, resource limitation and the "under reserve of the possibilities" clause are featured in the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court case-law. By analyzing Brazilian Supreme Court's decisions, my aim is to verify, firstly, in which subjects these themes appear more frequently. Secondly, I intend to assess how this court deals with the referred themes in its case law and what are the criteria applied. finally, I attempt to examine if the judges decision making process takes into consideration economic and distributive consequences. The survey on court decisions was based on three categories of legal discussions: right to health, right to education, and federal intervention for the non-payment of judicial debts. Initially, I examine the treatment received by the concepts of costs of rights, resource limitation

  3. Preparing for the Mumbai-Style Attack: Interstate Law Enforcement Mutual Aid in the Absence of a Declared Emergency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Alberto Gonzalez, on May 31, 2006, wrote to the governors of all 50 states requesting that they review and update their laws to allow for federal...law enforcement aid in the event of a disaster ( Gonzales , 2007). Attorney General Gonzalez sought to create a federal law enforcement response that...that federal law enforcement could be provided post disaster ( Gonzales , 2007). State and local law enforcement officers receive their authority from

  4. Morality, care, and international law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Held

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Whether we should respect international law is in dispute. In the United States, international law is dismissed by the left as merely promoting the interests of powerful states. It is attacked by the right as irrelevant and an interference with the interests and mission of the United States. And it follows from the arguments of many liberals that in the absence of world government the world is in a Hobbesian state of nature and international law inapplicable. This article reviews the thinking of Kant, Locke, and Rawls, among others and shows how arguments against respect for international law can be answered. It questions arguments based on the analogy between states and individuals, and between international law as it has developed and law based on an ideal social contract between individuals. It then turns to the ethics of care, a recent addition to moral theory, and examines its major characteristics and recommendations. It considers how the ethics of care would view international law and the guidance this moral approach could provide for international relations. The article shows how the ethics of care is compatible with various current trends, and how thinking about globalization and greater international interdependence would benefit from greater attention to it. The article argues that the ethics of care would clearly support respect for international law as it has developed, but that it would even more strongly support addressing current problems in ways that would, in the longer term, make appeals to law and its enforcements ever less necessary.

  5. Draft law concerning the agreement concluded on 22 October 1986 by the Federal Republic of Germany and the Swiss Confederation, on third party liability in the nuclear energy field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-10-06

    The bill is intented to improve the liability regime for the protection of the population of the two neighbour countries against possible transfrontier effects of nuclear facilities of the two countries. The third-party liability agreement has been signed on 22 October 1986 in Bern/Switzerland to the effect that the Swiss Confederation is regarded as having acceded to the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability. The bill in hand is to create the basis for a ratification of the agreement, in accordance with Art. 59, para 2, 1st sentence of the Basic Law.

  6. Islamic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doranda Maracineanu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The law system of a State represents the body of rules passed or recognized by that State inorder to regulate the social relationships, rules that must be freely obeyed by their recipients, otherwisethe State intervening with its coercive power. Throughout the development of the society, pedants havebeen particularly interested in the issue of law systems, each supporting various classifications; theclassification that has remained is the one distinguishing between the Anglo-Saxon, the Roman-German,the religious and respectively the communist law systems. The third main international law system is theMuslim one, founded on the Muslim religion – the Islam. The Islam promotes the idea that Allah createdthe law and therefore it must be preserved and observed as such. Etymologically, the Arabian word“Islam” means “to be wanted, to obey” implying the fact that this law system promotes total andunconditioned submission to Allah. The Islamic law is not built on somebody of laws or leading cases,but has as source. The Islam is meant as a universal religion, the Koran promoting the idea of the unityof mankind; thus, one of the precepts in the Koran asserts that “all men are equal (…, there is nodifference between a white man and a black man, between one who is Arabian and one who is not,except for the measure in which they fear God.” The Koran is founded mainly on the Talmud, Hebrewsource of inspiration, and only on very few Christian sources. The Islam does not forward ideas whichcannot be materialized; on the contrary its ideas are purely practical, easy to be observed by the commonman, ideas subordinated to the principle of monotheism. The uncertainties and gaps of the Koran, whichhave been felt along the years, imposed the need for another set of rules, meant to supplement it – that isSunna. Sunna represents a body of laws and, consequently, the second source of the Koran. Sunnanarrates the life of the prophet Mohamed, the model to

  7. 76 FR 76037 - Office of the Attorney General; Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal Jurisdiction in Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... country is subject to State criminal jurisdiction under Public Law 280 (18 U.S.C. 1162(a)) to request that... committed by or against Indians. Specifically, the Public Law 280 criminal-jurisdiction provision codified... violations of general Federal criminal statutes that apply nationwide, such as Federal narcotics laws,...

  8. International Space Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lits

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the modern day technologies that drive our global society are highly dependent on the use of outer space. For example, daily activities such as sending emails, making phone calls and carrying out bank transactions cannot be done unless satellite technologies are involved. When you catch a plane, the air traffic control is dependent on GPS. Even natural disaster management is dependent on satellite imaging. Taking into account the importance of this, it becomes increasingly necessary to be knowledgeable in the field of international law as it is the only sphere of law that reaches beyond the physical boundaries of the Earth, goes deep into space and provides protection for today’s society. With new steps being taken to exploit further the potentials of outer space, and with increasing talk of new space missions and new discoveries, current international space law is being placed under scrutiny, for it should be remembered that the major international legal documents in this field were adopted in the middle of the 20th century, and thus there are fears that the law may have become obsolete, irrelevant in the face of new challenges in the use of outer space. This paper delivers an analysis of existing international space law and attempts to raise several crucial issues pertinent in the area.

  9. Sexuality and the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portelli, C J

    1998-01-01

    Federal, state, and local laws in the US now govern almost every aspect of sexuality. This includes sexuality at the workplace, sexuality education, adolescent sexuality, access to sexuality information and sexually explicit materials, sexual orientation, and sexually transmitted disease(STD)/HIV transmission. Almost 33% of the US Supreme Court's docket this past term concerned sexuality issues. In contrast to 50 years ago, when sexuality law was confined to the criminal arena, contemporary "sex crimes" primarily relate to nonconsensual and exploitative behaviors. It is time for lawmakers, judges, lawyers, policy analysts, lobbyists, and advocates to realize they cannot legislate or litigate how, when, or why people fall in love. Rather, the role of the law should be to create and preserve models of justice and equality that seek to preserve one's individual rights to privacy and freedom to choose in matters related to one's sexuality. This includes free access to age-appropriate sexuality information, the right to marriage and children regardless of sexual orientation, comprehensive sexuality education that encompasses information about avoiding unwanted pregnancies and HIV/STDs, access to contraception and abortion, protection from sexually abusive or exploitative relationships, and access to sexual health care.

  10. 31 CFR 91.14 - Penalties and other law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalties and other law. 91.14... CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.14 Penalties and other law. Whoever...). Nothing contained in the regulations in this part shall be construed to abrogate any other Federal laws...

  11. Cooperation in USDA studies and evaluations, and full use of federal funds in nutrition assistance programs nondiscretionary provisions of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010, Public Law 111-296. Final Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    This final rule incorporates into the regulations governing the Programs authorized under the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (NSLA) and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (CNA) two nondiscretionary provisions of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFK Act). The HHFK Act requires State and local cooperation in Department of Agriculture studies and evaluations related to Programs authorized under the NSLA and the CNA. The HHFK Act also amends the NSLA to stipulate that Federal funds must not be subject to State budget restrictions or limitations, including hiring freezes, work furloughs, and travel restrictions. This final rule amends regulations for the National School Lunch Program; the Special Milk Program for Children; the School Breakfast Program; the Summer Food Service Program; the Child and Adult Care Food Program; State Administrative Expense Funds ; the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children; and the WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition Program. These provisions will strengthen program integrity by ensuring that sufficient data is made available for studies and evaluations. Additionally, exempting Federal funds from State budgetary restrictions or limitations is intended to increase the ability of State agencies to administer USDA's nutrition assistance programs effectively.

  12. A Relationship between Lotka's Law, Bradford's Law, and Zipf's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ye-Sho; Leimkuhler, Ferdinand F.

    1986-01-01

    A common functional relationship among Lotka's law, Bradford's law, and Zipf's law is derived. The proof takes explicit account of the sequences of observed values of the variables by means of an index. This approach results in a more realistic and precise formulation of each law. (Author/EM)

  13. Fiscal Federalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mosteanu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The central budget of a country collects only a fraction of the total fiscal revenues and executes only o fraction of the national public expenditures, the rest of the revenues and expenditures becoming the responsability of subnational governments. The economist Charles Tiebout developed a theoretical model which although makes an imperfect description of the reality, shows that people’s mobility is being influenced by tax rates and the amount of state/local expenditures. Thus, he suggests that the degree of responsibility that can be appointed to the local budgets should subscribe to the tax – benefits ratio, the extend of the positive externalities and the scale economies of public goods. Also, the issue of revenues distribution among communities is being raised, being identified three kinds of grants used by the public authorities: matching grants, block grants and conditional block grants. In the concept of fiscal federalism there can be found a limited analogy between national public finance theory and international public finance theory, with the international taxation as the pivotal element.

  14. The Implications of Federal Education Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Clifton; Cosand, Joseph

    The significant role of the federal government in the support of higher education is noted in a survey of the development and changing patterns of federal support, and a critical review of the directions of current federal policy is offered. Implications are drawn about the effects of this policy on such national concerns as providing equal…

  15. Does China Need an Animal Protection Law?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On September 18,a number of Chinese law experts announced that they had drafted an animal protection act. China currently lacks a comprehensive basic law on animal protection. The underdeveloped legal system is thus unable to put all animals under effective protection. Thus,scholars suggested drafting China’s first law on the protection of

  16. 48 CFR 52.250-1 - Indemnification Under Public Law 85-804.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Law 85-804. 52.250-1 Section 52.250-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.250-1 Indemnification Under Public Law 85-804. As prescribed in 50.104-4, insert the following clause: Indemnification Under Public Law 85-804 (APR 1984) (a) Contractor's principal officials, as...

  17. 77 FR 65701 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Office of Law Enforcement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... OMB Review: Office of Law Enforcement/Federal Air Marshal Service Mental Health Certification AGENCY.... Information Collection Requirement Title: Office of Law Enforcement/Federal Air Marshal Service Mental Health.... Forms(s): TSA Form 1164. Affected Public: Law Enforcement Officers/Air Marshal Applicants. Abstract: TSA...

  18. 75 FR 57049 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Office of Law Enforcement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... OMB Review: Office of Law Enforcement/Federal Air Marshal Service Mental Health Certification AGENCY.... Information Collection Requirement Title: Office of Law Enforcement/Federal Air Marshal Service Mental Health.... Form(s): TSA Form 1164. Affected Public: Law Enforcement Officers/Air Marshal Applicants. Abstract: TSA...

  19. Target Benefit Plans: Improving Access for Federally Regulated Employees

    OpenAIRE

    Randy Bauslaugh

    2014-01-01

    Despite having been available for decades, target benefit pension plans (TBPs) will continue to be resisted by federally regulated employers unless a legal flaw is fixed, according to a report from the C.D. Howe Institute. In “Target Benefit Plans: Improving Access for Federally Regulated Employees,” author Randy Bauslaugh finds that TBPs are rarely adopted by federally regulated private-sector employers because federal pension law casts doubt over the ability of employers to limit their fina...

  20. Energy transition in federalism; Energiewende im Foederalismus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Thorsten; Kahl, Hartmut (eds.)

    2015-07-01

    The conference transcript assemble the presentations of the 10th Wuerzburg discussions for environmental energy law. The contributions discuss the political development objectives of the Federal Government and Federal States as well as the coordination tasks between the different political levels, inter alia, of constitutional and European law perspective. [German] Der Tagungsband versammelt die Vortraege der 10. Wuerzburger Gespraeche zum Umweltenergierecht. Die Beitraege eroertern die politischen Ausbauziele des Bundes und der Laender sowie die Koordinierungsaufgaben zwischen den verschiedenen Politikebenen u.a. aus verfassungs- und europarechtlicher Perspektive.

  1. Public health law research: exploring law in public health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Burris, Scott; Hays, Scott

    2012-11-01

    The importance of law in the organization and operation of public health systems has long been a matter of interest to public health lawyers and practitioners, but empirical research on law as a factor in health system performance has been limited in quantity and sophistication. The emergence of Public Health Law Research and Public Health Systems and Services Research within a coordinated effort to strengthen public health research and practice has dramatically changed matters. This article introduces Public Health Law Research as an integral part of Public Health Systems and Services Research, discusses the challenges of integrating the 2 fields, and highlights 2 examples of current research that demonstrate the benefits of an integrated approach to improve the use of law in public health practice.

  2. [Consequences of the judgment of the Federal Constitutional Court on the fighting dog problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülsenbusch, M

    2005-03-01

    The Federal Constitutional Court decided with its "Dangerous dog-judgment" about the constitutional complaint of 53 dog breeders on the federal act combating dangerous dogs. This judgment was a so-called Pyrrhic Victory for the appellants. The Court declared the legislative competence of the federal level in this issue for null and void. But the statutory prohibition for breeding Pitbull-Terrier-, American Staffordshire-Terrier-, Staffordshire-Bullterrier-, Bullterrier-races and cross breeding out of this dogs will be governed in police laws by the Laender finally. The Standing Conference of the Ministers for Internal Affairs declared an appropriate recommendation. The use of the category "race" was refused by experts in discussions as completely wrong and not acceptable. But the Federal Constitutional Court reasons that the legislator can use the category "race" within his scope of evaluation and prognostication in accordance with the Constitution for the ban of import of dangerous dogs. The Court demands--because of the weak data background - that the legislator monitors the legislation, to adjust it according to current developments. The Constitutional Court creates with the judgment "dangerous dogs" legal certainty. The jurisprudence of the administrative courts of the Laender and of the Federal Administrative Court based on the category "race" was approved as well as the police laws of the Laender dealing with dangerous dogs.

  3. 論美國專利訴訟之專家證人資格―以美國聯邦巡迴上訴法院與聯邦證據規則第702條有關之判決為中心 Qualification of Expert Witnesses in United States Patent Litigation: A Review of Federal Circuit Case Law Regarding Rule 702 of the Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    陳秉訓 Ping-Hsun Chen

    2014-06-01

    monetary remedies. While expert witnesses play an important role in patent litigation, fewer studies explore the relevant case law about the qualification of experts or the admissibility of expert opinions. So, this paper is intended to address Federal Circuit case law regarding those issues. While Title 35 of the United States Code speaks nothing about expert witnesses, Rule 702 of the Federal Rules of Evidence is the only statutory basis for the requirements of qualified experts. In this paper, the case law review begins by examining the judicial interpretation of Rule 702. Three U.S. Supreme Court cases and several Federal Circuit cases will be analyzed. Then, this paper focuses on two categories of experts: technical experts and damages experts. Cases related to either category will be discussed. While Rule702 requires an expert to have “scientific, technical, or other specialized knowledge,” it is opt to a district court judge to admit or exclude expert witnesses or expert opinions as evidence heard by a jury. Besides, the Federal Circuit’s review standard is an abuse of discretion. So, a district court judge usually has much leeway. Furthermore, based on the analysis of the Federal Circuit cases, this article provides legal principles or propositions related to expert testimony.

  4. First interim report of the Federal Fleet Conversion Task Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The Federal Fleet Conversion Task Force was created by Executive Order 12844, signed by President Clinton on April 21, 1993. In the Order, the President directed that purchases of alternative fueled vehicles by the Federal Government be substantially increased beyond the levels required by current law. The President charged the Task Force with developing recommendations for carrying out the Executive Order, with special emphasis on setting a course that will lead to the widespread use of alternative fueled vehicles by Federal, State, and local government fleets, by private fleets and, ultimately, by individuals. The chief recommendation of the Task Force is the establishment of a Presidential Clean Cities Initiative. To support creation of the Presidential Initiative, the Task Force identified 38 cities and regions, prioritized into three tiers, for concentrating the Initiative`s efforts in Fiscal Years 1994 through 1996. This concentration of effort is key to the effectiveness of the Initiative. The 38 cities and regions would receive priority funding for Federal vehicle purchases and for infrastructure development. In addition, the Task Force has made specific recommendations for overcoming numerous regulatory, economic, and technical barriers that have slowed the introduction of alternative fueled vehicles into general use.

  5. Federal technology policy in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, K.H.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses federal energy and environmental policies and their impact on the U.S. economy. A brief history of the federal government`s role in developing scientific and technological infrastructure is given. Current trends in technology are summarized, with an emphasis on global aspects, and their impact on the economy is discussed. The need for a national technology policy, including continued research and development funding, is discussed and key elements of such a policy are outlined.

  6. Administrative Law: The Hidden Comparative Law Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Peter L.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the main contribution of the Administrative Law course to law students is that it presents problems which contrast with those of the standard court-centered curriculum and can illuminate other areas of law, repeatedly confronting students with doctrinal differences. Offers several examples from civil procedure, constitutional law, and…

  7. Opinião de estudantes dos cursos de Direito e Medicina da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte sobre o aborto no Brasil Opinion of Medical and Law students of Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte about abortion in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Dias de Medeiros

    2012-01-01

    legalidade do aborto no Brasil, aliado a uma tendência favorável à ampliação do permissivo legal para outras situações não previstas em lei. Ressalta-se a importância da inclusão dessa temática nos currículos de graduação e do desenvolvimento de estratégias de ensino interprofissional.PURPOSE: To analyze and compare the knowledge and opinions of Law and Medical students regarding the issue of abortion in Brazil. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 125 graduate students from the class of 2010. Of these, 52 were medical students (MED group and 73 law students (LAW group. A questionnaire was applied based on published research about the topic. Dependent variables were: monitoring the abortion debate, knowledge concerning situations where abortion is permitted under Brazilian law, opinion about situations that agree with extending legal permission to terminate pregnancy and prior knowledge of someone who has undergone induced abortion. Independent variables were: sex, age, household income and graduation course. Statistical analysis: χ² and Fisher's exact tests, with the level of significance set at 5%. RESULTS: Most interviewees reported monitoring the debate on abortion in Brazil (67.3% of the MED group and 70.2% of the LAW group, p>0.05. When assessing knowledge on the subject, medical students had a significantly higher percentage of correct answers than law students (100.0 and 87.5%, respectively; p=0.005 regarding the legality of abortion for pregnancies resulting from rape. Elevated percentages of correct responses were also recorded for both groups in relation to pregnancies that threaten the life of the mother (94.2 and 87.5% for MED and LAW groups, respectively, but without statistical significance. A significant percentage of respondents declared they were in favor of extending legal abortion to other situations, primarily in cases of anencephaly (68%, pregnancy severely harming the mother's physical health (42.1% or that of the fetus

  8. A ASSISTÊNCIA EDUCACIONAL NO SISTEMA PENITENCIÁRIO FEDERAL – A PENITENCIÁRIA FEDERAL EM PORTO VELHO/RO. EDUCATIONAL ASSISTANCE IN FEDERAL PRISON SYSTEM – A FEDERAL PRISON IN PORTO VELHO/RO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane Silva de Araujo.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a educação é um direito de todos. Assim, a Lei de Execução Penal Brasileira determina a obrigatoriedade de o Estado garantir este direito também às pessoas privadas de liberdade. A fim de executar a política educacional e providenciar o cumprimento de outros preceitos legais, em 2009, o Sistema Penitenciário Federal lotou Pedagogos com formação de nível superior em seu quadro funcional. Considerando os instrumentos normativos existentes, os mencionados profissionais constituíram parcerias com instituições educacionais para que o direito à educação de qualidade fosse efetivado no interior das Penitenciárias Federais. Este artigo apresenta um relato de experiência acerca da Assistência Educacional desenvolvida na Penitenciária Federal em Porto Velho/Rondônia, com alguns dos presos considerados mais perigosos do país. Tem-se como objetivo focalizar a inserção da Educação no interior de uma Penitenciária Federal, através de parcerias que vêm sendo executadas e alcançam atualmente índices diversos das demais prisões brasileiras, proporcionando assim, gradual inserção social dos apenados.In Brazil, education is a right for all. Thus, the Brazilian criminal law determines the obligation of the State to guarantee this right also to people who are deprived of freedom. To implement educational policy and provide compliance with other law principles, in 2009, the Federal Prison System brought educators with top-level training to its staff. Considering the existing rules, the aforementioned professionals formed partnerships with educational institutions so that the right for quality education was guaranteed within Federal Prisons. This article presents an experience report about the work of Educational Assistance developed at the federal prison of Porto Velho, Rondônia, Brazil, where some of the inmates are considered the most dangerous in the country. The aim is to focus on the insertion of Education within a

  9. Analysis on Current Laws and Regulations of Medical Device Clinical Trial in China%对我国现阶段医疗器械临床试验法规热点的解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王悦; 李天萍; 梁宁霞

    2014-01-01

    A series of laws and regulations are the essential legal requirement in the field of clinical trial of medical device currently in China, especial y the Provision for Clinical Trial of Medical Device. On the basis of current situation of medical device clinical trial, systemic analysis on the hot spot topics in the regulations was conducted to explore the way of improving the control system of clinical trial of medical device in China, which wil provide the reference for medical device industry and the investigators of the clinical trial of medical device.%《医疗器械临床试验规定》等一系列法规是目前我国进行医疗器械临床试验的主要法律依据。该文基于我国医疗器械临床研究的现状,对这些法规中若干热点问题加以解读和剖析,旨在探索完善我国医疗器械临床试验监管体系的途径,为医疗器械业内人士及医疗器械临床试验的研究者和管理者提供参考。

  10. International Criminal Law & Its Paradoxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin Bree

    2017-01-01

    This article challenges international criminal tribunals' (ICTs) capacity to perform the socially constitutive work of transitional justice. Highlighting paradigmatic ICT jurisprudence, it shows both the "progress" and "justice" constructs central to the work and legitimacy of international crimi...... criminal law are unrealizable under current ICT practice. This is due to international criminal law's foundational, legitimizing basis in natural law, rather than political liberalism. The article calls for a revision of ICT institutional accountability structures.......This article challenges international criminal tribunals' (ICTs) capacity to perform the socially constitutive work of transitional justice. Highlighting paradigmatic ICT jurisprudence, it shows both the "progress" and "justice" constructs central to the work and legitimacy of international...

  11. Serving Undocumented Students: Current Law and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildersleeve, Ryan Evely; Rumann, Corey; Mondragon, Rodolfo

    2010-01-01

    Families migrate to the United States for opportunity. Whether they leave extreme poverty or violence or reunite with relatives who made the move before them, immigrants seek opportunity. Sometimes circumstances force families to make tough decisions. Sometimes circumstances and tough decisions manifest in families entering the United States…

  12. Constitutive laws for the neutron density current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto [Area de Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186 Col. Vicentina, Mexico, D.F., 09340 (Mexico)], E-mail: gepe@xanum.uam.mx; Morales-Sandoval, Jaime B. [Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Mor. (Mexico); Vazquez-Rodriguez, Rodolfo [Area de Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186 Col. Vicentina, Mexico, D.F., 09340 (Mexico); Espinosa-Martinez, Erick-G. [Retorno Quebec 6, Col. Burgos de Cuernavaca 62580, Temixco, Mor. (Mexico)

    2008-10-15

    In this technical note, a fractional wave equation for the average neutron motion in nuclear reactor is considered. This representation covers the full spectrum of the average neutron transport behavior, i.e., Fickian and non-Fickian effects. The fractional diffusion model retains the main dynamic characteristics of the neutron motion in which the relaxation time associated with a rapid variation in the neutron flux contains a fractional exponent that can be manipulated to obtain the best representation of the neutron transport phenomena. The detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method is presented in this paper to estimate the fractional exponent.

  13. 41 CFR 102-74.440 - What is the policy concerning weapons on Federal property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... concerning weapons on Federal property? 102-74.440 Section 102-74.440 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Conduct on Federal Property Weapons § 102-74.440 What is the policy concerning weapons on Federal property? Federal law prohibits the possession of firearms or other dangerous...

  14. 转基因主粮商业化对现行法律的挑战与对策分析%Challenges of Commercialization of Genetically Modified Staple Foods to Current Laws and Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付文佚

    2014-01-01

    The commercialization of genetically modified (GM)staple foods is a critical issue concerning the national economy and people’s livelihood.Today debates are focusing on whether or not to commercialize GMsta-ple foods,and seldom on the huge drawbacks of current law facing with commercialization.After a comprehen-sively analysis current rules on GM crops and foods,huge drawbacks are found in ideas,measures,procedures and remedies in legal system.Reasons for legislation dilemma are due to GMprocess,hard to distinction between GMand non GMproducts,also huge interests’conflicts exist in staple food.Before pushing commercialization of GMstaple foods,legislation must change,including guiding ideas and principles being modified,special law and new measures being regulated,with more information transparency and public engagement,increasing punishment and identifying the tort liability etc.In conclusion,current laws are not sufficient for the commercialization of GM staple foods.If decisions are rashly made,huge and irreversible damage may result.%转基因主粮的商业化是涉及国计民生的重大问题,舆论上对其是否商业化争论不休,少有研究涉及当前法律在商业化情形下存在的巨大不足。现行的转基因法律、法规和规章在法律理念、法律制度、法律程序和法律救济方面等存在诸多问题。转基因作为生产过程,在区分困难的客观特性和主粮问题上根本利益的严重冲突导致转基因立法的举步维艰。转基因主粮商业化决策之前,必须先进行法律的整体更新和完善,包括转变立法理念,确定法律原则,通过专门立法、革新法律制度,完善信息公开、增加公众参与,加重违法成本、明确侵权责任等。总之,我国目前现尚不具备转基因主粮商业化的法律环境,贸然推行商业化,将带来严重危害后果。

  15. 48 CFR 52.233-4 - Applicable Law for Breach of Contract Claim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Provisions and Clauses 52.233-4 Applicable Law for Breach of Contract Claim. As prescribed in 33.215(b), insert the following clause: Applicable Law for Breach of Contract Claim (OCT 2004) United States law... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicable Law for...

  16. 43 CFR 422.9 - Reclamation law enforcement contracts and cooperative agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROJECTS Program Requirements § 422.9 Reclamation law enforcement contracts and cooperative agreements. (a... Federal laws. (b) Each contract and cooperative agreement authorizing the exercise of Reclamation law... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reclamation law enforcement contracts...

  17. 34 CFR 99.8 - What provisions apply to records of a law enforcement unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What provisions apply to records of a law enforcement... RIGHTS AND PRIVACY General § 99.8 What provisions apply to records of a law enforcement unit? (a)(1) Law..., State, or Federal law, or refer to appropriate authorities a matter for enforcement of any local, State...

  18. Through the quarantine looking glass: drug-resistant tuberculosis and public health governance, law, and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, David P; Gostin, Lawrence O; Markel, Howard

    2007-01-01

    The incident in May-June 2007 involving a U.S. citizen traveling internationally while infected with drug-resistant tuberculosis involved the U.S. federal government's application of its quarantine and isolation powers. The incident and the isolation order raised numerous important issues for public health governance, law, and ethics. This article explores many of these issues by examining how the exercise of quarantine powers provides a powerful lens through which to understand how societies respond to and attempt to govern threats posed by dangerous, contagious pathogens. The article considers historical aspects of governmental power to quarantine and isolate individuals and groups; analyzes the current state of quarantine and isolation law in the United States in light of the recent incident with drug-resistant tuberculosis; and explores global aspects of public health governance and law highlighted by this incident.

  19. Economic Analysis of Law

    OpenAIRE

    Louis Kaplow; Steven Shavell

    2005-01-01

    This entry for the forthcoming The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (Second Edition) surveys the economic analysis of five primary fields of law: property law; liability for accidents; contract law; litigation; and public enforcement and criminal law. It also briefly considers some criticisms of the economic analysis of law.

  20. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  1. The problems of determining the competence of the subjects of the Russian Federation in the field of family protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Narutto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 342This article is dedicated to one of the problematic issues of Russian federalism – the definition of the competence of subjects of the Russian Federation in the social sphere related to the protection of the family.Results. It examines in detail the legislative powers of the regions on the subjects of joint conducting with the Russian Federation providing the state guarantee protection and family support. The author addresses to the analysis of the provisions of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, charters and constitutions of subjects of Federation, the current Federal and regional laws, decisions of the constitutional (Charter courts of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, devoted to family relations. Attention is drawn to the variety of regional sources, including the codified legislative acts.Special attention is paid to the analysis of additional safeguards for the support of family, motherhood, fatherhood and childhood, established by the Federation.Among the measures of social support of families with children are allocated 1 a single, monthly and annual cash payments; 2 provide in-kind assistance; 3 provision of benefits; 4 organization of social services. Analyzed regional laws establishing benefits for newborn children measures of social support of large families and young families, specific support to traveller families, as well as laws about the rights of children, safeguards the rights of children-orphans and children left without parental care, about public tutors of minors, commissioners for the rights of the child.Conclusion. Geographic, geopolitical, economic, political, ethnic and other peculiarities of the Russian regions attract particular creation and activities of their government, including lawmaking. The necessity of preserving the rights of subjects of the Russian Federation on advancing the legal regulation in subjects of joint conducting.Criticized Federal legislation, annually changing

  2. The Importance of Traditional Labor Law in the Legal Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Wilson

    1993-01-01

    It is proposed that traditional labor law retain its current place in the legal curriculum, despite its limited applicability, but with emphasis on its theoretical importance rather than its technicalities. Traditional labor law is found to provide more rigorous inquiry into the nature of law than broader "employment law." (MSE)

  3. INDONESIAN SALVAGE LAW WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF CONTEMPORARY MARITIME LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiana Puspitawati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Located in a strategic position, that is between two great oceans and two land masses have made Indonesia a centre of international trade and shipping. In fact, 90% of international trades are carried out through the ocean. It is therefore crucial to assure that the activities in carrying goods across the ocean are incident free. However, if accident happens, assistance from professionals to preserve items of property is desirable. In such, salvage law emerged. This paper discusses comprehensively Indonesian salvage law within the framework of contemporary maritime law. While Indonesian maritime law is mostly based on its national law on the carriage of goods by the sea, in fact, the development of maritime law is highly affected by international practices which are largely based on international conventions and regulations. This research finds that while Indonesian salvage law can be found in Book II Chapter VII article 545-568k Wetboek Van Koophandel or known as Kitab Undang-undang Hukum Dagang (KUHD, which focused narrowly on the value of salved property as the primary measures of success, yet Indonesian salvage law has not been developed in accordance with current international salvage law, which adopted a broader and more balanced approached in both commercial and environmental aspects. Although it is believed that such approached is “culturally unrecognized” in Indonesia, this research argued that since Indonesian waters are part of international waters, all process by waters including salvage should confirm the relevant international practices and regulations. While Indonesia has taken out salvage law from KUHD and regulates it within Act Number 17/2008 on navigation, however, such act only provides one article for salvage stating that salvage will be regulates further by Ministry Regulation. Untill this paper was written no such government regulation produced yet by Indonesia. Since Indonesian waters is the centre of international

  4. Federal Freedom of Information Policy: Highlights of Recent Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relyea, Harold C.

    2009-01-01

    For the Federal government of the United States, freedom of information policy is expressed in statutory law--the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), enacted in 1966, being the first such expression in this regard. Other transparency laws would follow. The FOIA, however, was legislated in the face of considerable opposition by the executive branch.…

  5. 3 CFR - Federal Benefits and Non-Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Promoting Compliance with Existing Law Requiring Federal Workplaces to be Free of Discrimination Based on... executive departments and agencies regarding compliance with, and implementation of, the civil service laws... of these devoted Americans have same-sex domestic partners. Leading companies in the private sector...

  6. Sovereignty in International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana MAFTEI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We aimed at highlighting in this paper, after analyzing the transformations that took place in the international society, the importance of a particularly sensitive and current topic for public international law, namely the sovereignty. A political and legal concept at the same time, the state sovereignty remains permanently into the attention of researchers in an attempt to determine its role in international relations governed by the international law. The concept of sovereignty is complex, it can be analyzed in terms of the national law, but as a member of international society, a State participates in international relations on the basis of sovereign equality principle, which causes another meaning of sovereignty, which completes the one specific to the internal life. We have analyzed the evolution of the concept of sovereignty and we have identified the causes that led to changes in its characteristics, in order to predict the tendencies in its development. We have highlighted the aspects of the exercise of sovereignty as a result of limiting the powers of state in the favor of international bodies. In preparing this article we have used as research methods the analysis of the problems generated by mentioned subject with reference to the doctrinal views expressed in specialized papers, documentary research, and interpretation of legal norms in the field.

  7. 12 CFR 560.2 - Applicability of law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Applicability of law. (a) Occupation of field. Pursuant to sections 4(a) and 5(a) of the HOLA, 12 U.S.C. 1463(a... of the HOLA. To enhance safety and soundness and to enable federal savings associations to...

  8. Law Enforcement Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Law Enforcement Locations in Kansas Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are...

  9. 77 FR 46425 - Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Health Board Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Health Board Meeting AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act of 1972... amended), and 41 CFR 102-3.150, and in accordance with section 10(a)(2) of Public Law, a meeting of...

  10. Preventive legal obligations and principles in modern international environmental law. The current status of international environmental exploitation and protection. Praeventive Rechtspflichten und -prinzipien des modernen Umweltvoelkerrechts. Zum Stand des Umweltvoelkerrechts zwischen Umweltnutzung und Umweltschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohmann, H.

    1992-01-01

    The doctoral dissertation first examines the contribution of international organisations and bodies to the development of international environmental law outside of international agreements. It then analyses the international agreements on the protection of the environment. The three characteristics of modern international environmental law, namely direct protection of environmental media, relationship of several states, who are emitters or have protective obligations, to a multitude of spatially distant victim states, and thinking in terms of common responsibilities, regional cooperation or global common-concern criteria are shown to be also present in the environmental agreements. The author comes to the conclusion that a switch of paradigms has taken place in international environmental law. Traditional international law, with its fixation on the efficient allocation of resources, has developed since roughly 1982/1987 into the modern form of international environmental law, which is primarily concerned with environment protection, and is largely characterized by precautionary/preventive legal obligations and principles. (orig./HSCH).

  11. Assessment of the Effects of Climate Change on Federal Hydropower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, Michael J. [M.J. Sale and Associates, Hanson, MA (United States); Shih-Chieh, Kao [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ashfaq, Moetasim [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kaiser, Dale P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Martinez, Rocio [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Webb, Cindy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wei, Yaxing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2012-10-01

    As directed by Congress in Section 9505 of the SECURE Water Act of 2009 (Public Law 111-11), the US Department of Energy (DOE), in consultation with the federal Power Marketing Administrations (PMAs) and other federal agencies, including federal dam owners, has prepared a comprehensive assessment examining the effects of climate change on water available for hydropower at federal facilities and on the marketing of power from these federal facilities. This Oak Ridge National Laboratory report, referred to as the “9505 Assessment,” describes the technical basis for the report to Congress that was called for in the SECURE Water Act.

  12. Effects of Climate Change on Federal Hydropower. Report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-01

    This is a formal Department of Energy report to Congress. It outlines the findings of an assessment directed by Congress in Section 9505 of the SECURE Water Act of 2009 (Public Law 111-11), the US Department of Energy (DOE), in consultation with the federal Power Marketing Administrations (PMAs) and other federal agencies, including federal dam owners, has prepared a comprehensive assessment examining the effects of climate change on water available for hydropower at federal facilities and on the marketing of power from these federal facilities.

  13. Tenancy Law Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml......Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml...

  14. Democratic contract law

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the normative relationship between contract law and democracy. In particular, it argues that in order to be legitimate contract law needs to have a democratic basis. Private law is not different in this respect from public law. Thus, the first claim made in this article will be that also for contract law a democratic basis is a necessary condition for legitimacy. A fully democratic basis may also be a sufficient condition for a legitimate and just contract law. However,...

  15. 41 CFR 102-74.426 - May a woman breastfeed her child in a Federal building or on Federal property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May a woman breastfeed... woman breastfeed her child in a Federal building or on Federal property? Yes. Public Law 108-199, Section 629, Division F, Title VI (January 23, 2004), provides that a woman may breastfeed her child...

  16. 5 CFR 2430.12 - Administrative Law Judge's decision; contents; service; transfer of case to the Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY AWARDS OF ATTORNEY FEES AND OTHER EXPENSES § 2430.12 Administrative Law... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative Law Judge's...

  17. 20 CFR 404.985 - Application of circuit court law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application of circuit court law. 404.985... and Decisions Court Remand Cases § 404.985 Application of circuit court law. The procedures which... release an Acquiescence Ruling for publication in the Federal Register for any precedential circuit...

  18. 16 CFR 240.2 - Applicability of the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability of the law. 240.2 Section 240.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.2 Applicability of the law. (a)...

  19. 16 CFR 460.23 - Other laws, rules, and orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other laws, rules, and orders. 460.23 Section 460.23 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.23 Other laws, rules, and orders. (a) If an outstanding FTC Cease...

  20. The Internet and the Law: What Educators Need To Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen

    This book discusses the key legal issues public schools face in using the World Wide Web, e-mail, and other computer technologies. Chapter 1 covers the foundations of school Internet law, including Supreme Court decisions, the legal standard of conduct, standards for technology literacy, and federal vs. state law. Chapter 2 discusses freedom of…

  1. Basic Substantive Law for Paralegals: Contracts, Torts, and Due Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcin, Raymond B.

    Part of the paralegal, or legal assistant, training materials prepared by the National Paralegal Institution under a Federal grant, the text comprises an overview of the basic legal concepts usually found in introductory law courses concerning contracts, torts, and the due process area of constitutional law. Part 1, Contracts, covers: definition,…

  2. On Boolean Stable Laws

    CERN Document Server

    Arizmendi, Octavio

    2012-01-01

    We determine which Boolean stable law is freely infinitely divisible and which is not. Some positive Boolean stable laws and a mixture of them have completely monotonic densities and they are both freely and classically infinitely divisible. Freely infinitely divisible Boolean stable laws and the corresponding free stable laws are non trivial examples whose free divisibility indicators are infinity.

  3. Tax Law System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsindeliani, Imeda A.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with consideration of the actual theoretic problems of the subject and system of tax law in Russia. The theoretical approaches to determination of the nature of separate institutes of tax law are represented. The existence of pandect system intax law building as financial law sub-branch of Russia is substantiated. The goal of the…

  4. Democratic contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the normative relationship between contract law and democracy. In particular, it argues that in order to be legitimate contract law needs to have a democratic basis. Private law is not different in this respect from public law. Thus, the first claim made in this article will

  5. Operational Law Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Law* implications. R-5 3. Wills for both spouses. 4. Powers of Attorney. 5. Consumer law issues. B. 1ypically readiness exercises and rapid...Soldiers’ & Sailors’ Civil Relief Act JA 261 Real Property Guide JA 262 Wills Guide JA 263 Family Law Guide JA 265 Consumer Law Guide JA 267 Legal

  6. Censorship, Schooling, and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Louis; Sorenson, Gail Paulus

    1979-01-01

    This essay highlights issues in the legal aspects of school related censorship and summarizes the current law under the following categories: general considerations, the Tinker principle, prior review of student publications, censorship of classroom speech and materials, and censorship of library resources. (Author)

  7. The Law and Special Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yell, Mitchell L.

    This textbook provides information on the legal development of special education, the current legal requirements in providing a free appropriate public education to students with disabilities, and the procedures involved in obtaining legal information in law libraries and on the Internet. Specifically, the 16 chapters address: (1) sources of law…

  8. Conn. hospital's conduct violated labor law--court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burda, D

    1992-01-20

    A federal appeals court in New York has ruled that Waterbury (Conn.) Hospital violated federal labor law in 1986 when it hired replacement nurses rather than returning striking nurses to fill certain hospital jobs. The court said the hospital didn't meet all the conditions under which it is allowable to hire permanent replacements during a strike.

  9. Principles of private law

    OpenAIRE

    Andraško, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Principles of private law The reason of choosing "Principles of private law" for my thesis is that private law is built on untouchable values. For example, basic values like freedom and equality, which are represented by these principles. Many of them are indispensable in the relation of functionality of the whole system of law. Most of them have Roman law origin. The purpose of my thesis is to describe and summarize the main principles of private law that mostly appear in Czech law, especial...

  10. 75 FR 77745 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-47; Small Entity Compliance Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... specified below: Item I--Notification of Employee Rights Under the National Labor Relations Act (FAR Case... Executive Order 13496, Notification of Employee Rights Under Federal Labor Laws, as implemented by the... includes employee rights under the National Labor Relations Act, 29 U.S.C. 151 et seq. This Act...

  11. 75 FR 77721 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-47; Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... Notification of Employee 2010-006 McFadden. Rights Under the National Labor Relations Act (Interim). II HUBZone... as specified below: Item I--Notification of Employee Rights Under the National Labor Relations Act... implement Executive Order 13496, Notification of Employee Rights Under Federal Labor Laws, as implemented...

  12. Law across nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of participants keen to work together to promote research and policy development in such a lively forum." - Professor Steve Saxby PhD, Cert Ed., MBCS Professor of IT Law and Public Policy, Solicitor, Deputy Head of School (Research), Faculty of Business and Law, University of Southampton, Editor...... not only the original themes of Legal, Security and Privacy Issues in IT Law and International Law and Trade but more recently two new conferences on International Public and Private Law. The papers in this volume then represent the contributions to all these fields and reflect the strong desire......-in-Chief, The Computer Law & Security Review - The International Journal of Technology Law and Practice (Elsevier), www.elsevier.com/locate/clsr, Editor, The Encyclopedia of Information Technology Law (Sweet & Maxwell), Director ILAWS - Institute for Law and the Web - School of Law, Southampton University, www...

  13. Medium-term forecast up to 2016 as required by the Renewable Energies Law; Die EEG-Mittelfristprognose bis 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichmuth, Matthias [Leipziger Institut fuer Energie GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Article 3 of the Ordinance on the Implementation of the Ordinance on the Further Development of the Federal Compensation Mechanism obliges transmission system operators to publish not only the following year's reallocation charge pursuant to the Federal Electricity Feed-in Law but also, by the 15 November of each calendar year, a forecast on the probable range of the reallocation charge in the year after next, and further of expected electricity feed-in rates and electricity sales for the following five calendar years. For this purpose they must also determine and publish the progress over time of the average compensation due to plant operators and the amounts of network charges avoided and must do so separately for each of the energy carriers promoted under Renewable Energies Law. The present article shows the results of the current feed-in forecast in compact form.

  14. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution, cervical cancer screening practices and current status of vaccination implementation in Russian Federation, the Western countries of the former Soviet Union, Caucasus region and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogovskaya, Svetlana I; Shabalova, Irina P; Mikheeva, Irina V; Minkina, Galina N; Podzolkova, Nataly M; Shipulina, Olga Y; Sultanov, Said N; Kosenko, Iren A; Brotons, Maria; Buttmann, Nina; Dartell, Myassa; Arbyn, Marc; Syrjänen, Stina; Poljak, Mario

    2013-12-31

    Limited data are available on the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) and its associated diseases in the Russian Federation, the Western Countries of the former Soviet Union (Belarus, Republic of Moldova, Ukraine), the Caucasus region and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan). Both the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer are higher in these countries than in most Western European countries. In this article, we review available data on HPV prevalence and type distribution in women with normal cytology, women from the general population, cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer, as well as data on national policies of cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination initiatives in these countries. Based on scarce data from the 12 countries, the high-risk HPV (hrHPV) prevalence among 5226 women with normal cytology ranged from 0.0% to 48.4%. In women with low-grade cervical lesions, the hrHPV prevalence among 1062 women varied from 29.2% to 100%. HrHPV infection in 565 women with high-grade cervical lesions ranged from 77.2% to 100% and in 464 invasive cervical cancer samples from 89.8% to 100%. HPV16 was the most commonly detected hrHPV genotype in all categories. As the HPV genotype distribution in cervical diseases seems to be similar to that found in Western Europe the implementation of HPV testing in screening programs might be beneficial. Opportunistic screening programs, the lack of efficient call-recall systems, low coverage, and the absence of quality assured cytology with centralized screening registry are major reasons for low success rates of cervical cancer programs in many of the countries. Finally, HPV vaccination is currently not widely implemented in most of the twelve countries mainly due to pricing, availability, and limited awareness among public and health care providers. Country-specific research, organized nationwide screening programs, registries and well

  15. EU Labour Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    The focus in this book is upon EU labour law and its interaction with national and international labour law. The book provides an analysis of the framework and sources of European labour law. It covers a number of substantive topics, notably collective labour law, individual employment contracts......, discrimination on grounds of sex and on other grounds, free movement of persons, restructuring of enterprises, working environment and enforcement of rights derived from EU labour law....

  16. The Power of Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s draft Energy Law is now under consideration China’s draft Energy Law has been submitted to the State Council’s Legislative Affairs Office and will be considered at this year’s executive meeting, said a key member of the expert panel drafting the law. If the law makes it through the council, the National People’s Congress (NPC), China’s supreme law-making body, will vote on it.

  17. Law System in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea Lorena Ponaru

    2007-01-01

    This article attempts to present and explain the main features of the japanese law system. Japanese Law system was reformed during the domination of Tokugawa shogun family. In 1870, Foreign Governmental Systems Study Office was founded. By judicial sentences many french laws were introduced in Japanese law system. Roma-Tokyo-Berlin Alliance (1936) introduced a strong German influence in the law system. The Japanese judicial system has known five periods. In the first (1869-1888) were introduc...

  18. The Law of Federal Labor-Management Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    union of the time and place of the meeting so that it might choose its own representative. McClellan AFB , 29 FLRA 594 (1987). There is no right of... McClellan AFB , supra. This right exists even if the employee does not want the union present because the union represents the interests of all...petition for an election has been filed within 12 months of the decertification election. See Sacramento Army Depot and Michael M. Burnett, 49 FLRA

  19. WORKER PROTECTION: Federal Contractors and Violations of Labor Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    24CA06335) Sheiwin-Williams Co. 59 (32CA12396) Simplex Wire & Cable Co. 59 (Tyco International Ltd .) (01CA29899) Simpson Paper Co. 59 (Simpson...25CA22608) Windsor Castle Health Care Facilities, Inc. (34CA06259) (34CA04597) Woolworth , F.W. Co. (19CA21256) Wylie Construction Co., C.E. (21CA25857...Incident occurred at a facility in Emeryville, California. Simplex Wire & Cable Co. (Tyco International Ltd .) (01CA29899) Contracts with the

  20. 24 CFR 50.4 - Related Federal laws and authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... source aquifers. The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 (42 U.S.C. 201, 300 et seq., and 21 U.S.C. 349), as... the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 U.S.C. 6901 et seq.), and later enactments....

  1. The Law of Federal Labor-Management Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    communication to the electorate as the union on the ballot, if only to solicit a vote rejecting the petitioner, thereby preserving its right to bid for...use of its facilities. It should have given them a means to inform the electorate (use of a bulletin board, distribution system, etc.) but did not...of the organization; or that when apprised of participacion zn the proWlited act by organization representatives and/or by employees represented by

  2. Protecting those who Protect Us: Federal Law Enforcement Deconfliction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    persistent. January 2012 will become the date that etched a new chapter in my life, thanks to him. Now, the academic growth I have experienced at the...Naval Postgraduate School Center for Homeland Defense and Security is one of my most valued honors. In support of this incredible academic ...undermine stability and trust  Churn: turnover of stakeholders  Fraud: flat out dishonesty and deception Deconfliction efforts can touch many of

  3. The Law of Federal Labor-Management Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-04

    because they are contrary to the provisions of the Mandatory Guidelines. In AFGE and Sierra Army Depot, 37 FLRA 1439 (1990) the union proposed...Human Services, Social Security Administration, Modesto , CA, 48 FLRA 489,496 (1993). Given the Authority’s interpretation of management’s right to

  4. Power laws, Pareto distributions and Zipf's law

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, M E J

    2004-01-01

    When the probability of measuring a particular value of some quantity varies inversely as a power of that value, the quantity is said to follow a power law, also known variously as Zipf's law or the Pareto distribution. Power laws appear widely in physics, biology, earth and planetary sciences, economics and finance, computer science, demography and the social sciences. For instance, the distributions of the sizes of cities, earthquakes, solar flares, moon craters, wars and people's personal ...

  5. 76 FR 5787 - Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant Programs... Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study (FWS), and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant (FSEOG... Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Work-Study Program, and Federal Supplemental Educational...

  6. International Private Law and Communitarian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelardo Posso Serrano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Private international law is justified at a time when the legal systems of nation states seeking a way to extend their areas and competencies. This desire led to the conflict between national laws, which grew smaller as did the novel concept of "international community", but did not suppress national relativism. A new law began to settle, then, with the progress of the integration process. Community laws have mechanisms to be applied, even when states would try to ignore them or to fulfill a relative way.

  7. Federal Fleet Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Annual report of Federal agencies' motor vehicle fleet data collected in the Federal Automotive Statistical Tool (FAST), a web-based reporting tool cosponsored by...

  8. TAP Service Federation Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, A. C.; Krause, A.; Holliman, M.; Mann, R. G.; Noddle, K.; Voutsinas, S.

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes a prototype federation service for multiple TAP endpoints. Users can create a new TAP resource that allows them to query the federation as if all tables were in a single database.

  9. The trouble with European data protection law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    • The trouble with European data protection law, as with Alfred Hitchcock's Harry, is that it is dead. The current legal reform will fail to revive it, since its three main objectives are based on fallacies. • The first fallacy is the delusion that data protection law can give individuals control ov

  10. Law Enforcement School Programs. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas Safe Schools Initiative Division, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The school shooting incidents during the decade of the 1990's prompted an increase of law enforcement presence in schools. The School Violence Resource Center (SVRC) at the Criminal Justice Institute (CJI) University of Arkansas System undertook a project to determine what programs law enforcement agencies currently provide in their local schools…

  11. Health Law as Social Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Lindsay F

    2014-01-01

    Health law is in the midst of a dramatic transformation. From a relatively narrow discipline focused on regulating relationships among individual patients, health care providers, and third-party payers, it is expanding into a far broader field with a burgeoning commitment to access to health care and assurance of healthy living conditions as matters of social justice. Through a series of incremental reform efforts stretching back decades before the Affordable Care Act and encompassing public health law as well as the law of health care financing and delivery, reducing health disparities has become a central focus of American health law and policy. This Article labels, describes, and furthers a nascent "health justice" movement by examining what it means to view health law as an instrument of social justice. Drawing on the experiences of the reproductive justice, environmental justice, and food justice movements, and on the writings of political philosophers and ethicists on health justice, I propose that health justice offers an alternative to the market competition and patient rights paradigms that currently dominate health law scholarship, advocacy, and reform. I then examine the role of law in reducing health disparities through the health justice lens. I argue that the nascent health justice framework suggests three commitments for the use of law to reduce health disparities. First, to a broader inquiry that views access to health care as one among many social determinants of health deserving of public attention and resources. Second, to probing inquiry into the effects of class, racial, and other forms of social and cultural bias on the design and implementation of measures to reduce health disparities. And third, to collective action grounded in community engagement and participatory parity. In exploring these commitments, I highlight tensions within the social justice framework and between the social justice framework and the nascent health justice movement

  12. 75 FR 4273 - Conduct on Postal Property; Penalties and Other Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 232 Conduct on Postal Property; Penalties and Other Law AGENCY: Postal Service. ACTION: Final rule.... Nothing contained in these rules and regulations shall be construed to abrogate any other Federal laws...

  13. Gun laws and the involuntarily committed: a California road map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Sohrab; Burchuk, Robert; Stone, David C; Kopelowicz, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The 2007 incident at Virginia Tech brought the question of gun ownership by the mentally ill to the forefront of public attention. Moreover, it underscored the potentially devastating consequences of the imperfect connection between federal and state laws that apply to the right of gun ownership by a psychiatric patient. The laws are complex, and, as demonstrated in this article, conflicting. We present a case report of an involuntarily committed patient in the state of California, and discuss details of state and federal laws that applied to him.

  14. 2010 Northwest Federal Market Assessment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlon, Tim; Sandusky, William F.

    2011-09-01

    The primary intent of this market assessment is to provide insights on the effectiveness of current energy efficiency and renewable energy program offerings available to Federal sites in the region. The level of detail, quality and currency of the data used in this market assessment varies significantly by Federal agency and energy efficiency service provider. Limited access to some Federal sites, limited availability of key points of contact, time/resource constraints, and other considerations limited the total number of Federal agencies and energy efficiency service providers participating in the survey.

  15. 42 CFR 2.22 - Notice to patients of Federal confidentiality requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) A statement that reports of suspected child abuse and neglect made under State law to appropriate... qualified personnel for research, audit, or program evaluation. Violation of the Federal law and regulations... suspected child abuse or neglect from being reported under State law to appropriate State or...

  16. “I Just Bought a Flat Screen T.V. in Kolkata?” Application of Laws for International Outsourcing Related Identity Theft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Grant

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Because the internet makes it economical to do so, many American companies have sent their customer service jobs overseas. Workers in these outsourced jobs often have access to personal financial information of American citizens. Recent identity thefts, both in America and abroad, highlight the need for laws mandating tighter security by the companies that hold and trade personal information. This paper explores American legislation attempting to deal with identity theft crime as well as parallel laws in India, where many of the outsourced jobs are located. Furthermore, this paper suggests that any federal legislation ought not to preempt state law, as California law is currently protecting consumer privacy stronger than proposed legislation would.

  17. Federal Technology Alert: Ground-Source Heat Pumps Applied to Federal Facilities--Second Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, Donald L.

    2001-03-01

    This Federal Technology Alert, which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Federal Energy Management Programs, provides the detailed information and procedures that a Federal energy manager needs to evaluate most ground-source heat pump applications. This report updates an earlier report on ground-source heat pumps that was published in September 1995. In the current report, general benefits of this technology to the Federal sector are described, as are ground-source heat pump operation, system types, design variations, energy savings, and other benefits. In addition, information on current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are provided.

  18. Public attitudes about different types of anti-bullying laws: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Luedicke, Joerg; King, Kelly M

    2015-02-01

    State anti-bullying laws have been enacted across the United States to address bullying both by and of youths. Although these statutes can provide critical protection to youth, there is debate about whether such laws should enumerate protected classes of youth. Weight-based bullying is an increasingly prevalent form of harassment and it has been overlooked in policy initiatives. Enumeration in existing laws might help protect overweight victims. As no research has examined this issue, we conducted a national survey of American adults (N=1155) to assess public opinion about enactment of anti-bullying laws that vary according to whether or not they enumerate distinguishing characteristics. Our results demonstrated substantial public agreement (ranging from 2/3 to 3/4 of participants) with enactment of state and federal anti-bullying laws that enumerate distinguishing characteristics, including physical appearance and weight, which are currently absent in most statutes. Our evidence can inform policy and legal approaches to protect youth effectively from bullying.

  19. Caring for elder parents: a comparative evaluation of family leave laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y Tony; Gimm, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    As the baby boomer generation ages, the need for laws to enhance quality of life for the elderly and meet the increasing demand for family caregivers will continue to grow. This paper reviews the national family leave laws of nine major OECD countries (Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Spain, and the United Kingdom) and provides a state-by-state analysis within the U.S. We find that the U.S. has the least generous family leave laws among the nine OECD countries. With the exception of two states (California and New Jersey), the U.S. federal Family Medical Leave Act of 1993 provides no right to paid family leave for eldercare. We survey the current evidence from the literature on how paid leave can impact family caregivers' employment and health outcomes, gender equality, and economic arguments for and against such laws. We argue that a generous and flexible family leave law, financed through social insurance, would not only be equitable, but also financially sustainable.

  20. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  1. Entanglement area law in superfluid 4He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdman, C. M.; Roy, P.-N.; Melko, R. G.; Maestro, A. Del

    2017-06-01

    Area laws were first discovered by Bekenstein and Hawking, who found that the entropy of a black hole grows proportional to its surface area, and not its volume. Entropy area laws have since become a fundamental part of modern physics, from the holographic principle in quantum gravity to ground-state wavefunctions of quantum matter, where entanglement entropy is generically found to obey area law scaling. As no experiments are currently capable of directly probing the entanglement area law in naturally occurring many-body systems, evidence of its existence is based on studies of simplified qualitative theories. Using new exact microscopic numerical simulations of superfluid 4He, we demonstrate for the first time an area law scaling of entanglement entropy in a real quantum liquid in three dimensions. We validate the fundamental principle that the area law originates from correlations local to the entangling boundary, and present an entanglement equation of state showing how it depends on the density of the superfluid.

  2. Drought, Sustainability, and the Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Adler

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Researchers and responsible officials have made considerable progress in recent years in efforts to anticipate, plan for, and respond to drought. Some of those efforts are beginning to shift from purely reactive, relief-oriented measures to programs designed to prevent or to mitigate drought impacts. Considerably less attention has been given to laws that may affect practices and policies that either increase or decrease drought vulnerability. Water law regimes, drought response and relief legislation, and laws governing broader but related issues of economic policy—especially agricultural policy—should be evaluated more comprehensively to enhance incentives for more ―water sustainable‖ practices in agriculture and other sectors of the economy. Those changes will be increasingly important if current climate change models are correct in their prediction that many parts of the world can expect more frequent and more severe conditions of meteorological drought in the ensuing decades.

  3. 77 FR 43083 - Information Collection; Nondiscrimination in Federal Financial Assistance Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ..., Nondiscrimination in Federal Financial Assistance Programs, by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov : http... civil rights laws and regulations that apply to Federal Financial Assistance programs administered by... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GENERAL SERVICES...

  4. 26 CFR 31.6402(a)-3 - Refund of Federal unemployment tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refund of Federal unemployment tax. 31.6402(a... Provisions of Subtitle F, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6402(a)-3 Refund of Federal unemployment tax... 3301 of the Federal Unemployment Tax Act or a corresponding provision of prior law, or (b) Interest...

  5. 76 FR 49477 - Termination of Federal Home Loan Bank Resolution Funding Corporation Obligation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... satisfy their obligation to contribute to the RefCorp debt service payments. Public Law 110-289, Title I... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE... Housing Finance Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) has...

  6. Legal Regulation Of Citizens Of The Russian Federation Participation In The Electoral Process At The Present Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy O. Ezhevskiy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author analyzes features of the current legislation about elections in the Russian Federation with the latest changes. We consider legal regulation of Russian citizens participation in the electoral process, as well as the role and importance of the state and its agencies as participants in the electoral process. Legitimacy of free and fair elections at all levels requires that they relied on a solid legal basis, created in the democratic rule of law. Ongoing in the Russian Federation reforms of the political and economic systems are designed through the democratization of all aspects of life to connect the interests of the individual and society, in fact, to put people at the center of social development, to provide them decent living conditions, freedom and the opportunity to participate in managing state affairs both directly and through their elected representatives. According to the author, in terms of democratization of state and society an important role is played by the polling relationships, based on the electoral law and the electoral process in the Russian Federation. In conclusion, author underlines that the distinguishing feature of the legal status of election commissions, government agencies, local governments, enterprises, organizations, institutions, media, as well as their officials is that they have the right to participate in the electoral legal relations strictly within their authority and cannot go beyond these powers, no matter what reasons motivated the necessity and expediency of actions that go beyond the law.

  7. Report to Congress on Server and Data Center Energy Efficiency: Public Law 109-431

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alliance to Save Energy; ICF Incorporated; ERG Incorporated; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Brown, Richard E; Brown, Richard; Masanet, Eric; Nordman, Bruce; Tschudi, Bill; Shehabi, Arman; Stanley, John; Koomey, Jonathan; Sartor, Dale; Chan, Peter; Loper, Joe; Capana, Steve; Hedman, Bruce; Duff, Rebecca; Haines, Evan; Sass, Danielle; Fanara, Andrew

    2007-08-02

    This report was prepared in response to the request from Congress stated in Public Law 109-431 (H.R. 5646),"An Act to Study and Promote the Use of Energy Efficient Computer Servers in the United States." This report assesses current trends in energy use and energy costs of data centers and servers in the U.S. (especially Federal government facilities) and outlines existing and emerging opportunities for improved energy efficiency. It also makes recommendations for pursuing these energy-efficiency opportunities broadly across the country through the use of information and incentive-based programs.

  8. Report to Congress on Server and Data Center Energy Efficiency: Public Law 109-431: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alliance to Save Energy; ICF Incorporated; ERG Incorporated; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Brown, Richard E; Brown, Richard; Masanet, Eric; Nordman, Bruce; Tschudi, Bill; Shehabi, Arman; Stanley, John; Koomey, Jonathan; Sartor, Dale; Chan, Peter; Loper, Joe; Capana, Steve; Hedman, Bruce; Duff, Rebecca; Haines, Evan; Sass, Danielle; Fanara, Andrew

    2007-08-02

    This report is the appendices to a companion report, prepared in response to the request from Congress stated in Public Law 109-431 (H.R. 5646),"An Act to Study and Promote the Use of Energy Efficient Computer Servers in the United States." This report assesses current trends in energy use and energy costs of data centers and servers in the U.S. (especially Federal government facilities) and outlines existing and emerging opportunities for improved energy efficiency. It also makes recommendations for pursuing these energy-efficiency opportunities broadly across the country through the use of information and incentive-based programs.

  9. 78 FR 5703 - Delegation of Certain Functions Under Section 6 of Public Law 112-150

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... Under Section 6 of Public Law 112-150 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register... President ] Memorandum of January 15, 2013 Delegation of Certain Functions Under Section 6 of Public Law 112... section 6 of Public Law 112-150. You will exercise these functions in coordination with the Secretary...

  10. 75 FR 33421 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Quality Control Provisions of Title IV of Public Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... Program: Quality Control Provisions of Title IV of Public Law 107-171; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register... Assistance Program: Quality Control Provisions of Title IV of Public Law 107-171 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition... ``Food Stamp Program: Non-Discretionary Quality Control Provisions of Title IV of Public Law...

  11. 77 FR 32168 - Notice of Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Notice of Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Law A meeting of the Advisory Committee on International Law will take place on Wednesday, June 13, 2012, from 9:30 a.m. to approximately 5:30 p.m., at the George Washington University Law School...

  12. Attitudes and Experiences of Belgian Physicians Regarding Euthanasia Practice and the Euthanasia Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smets, Tinne; Cohen, Joachim; Bilsen, Johan; Van Wesemael, Yanna; Rurup, Mette L; Deliens, Luc

    2011-01-01

    ... and controversial medical acts possible, the law includes a mandatory notification procedure requiring physicians to report each euthanasia case to the Federal Control and Evaluation Committee, which assesses whether the physician has respected all the requirements of the law. 2 Since the enactment of the euthanasia law, the frequency and characteris...

  13. 32 CFR 644.542 - Application of anti-trust laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Application of anti-trust laws. 644.542 Section... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Sale Procedure § 644.542 Application of anti-trust laws. The Federal... tend to create or maintain a situation inconsistent with the anti-trust laws. Prior to obligating...

  14. 47 CFR 73.4185 - Political broadcasting and telecasting, the law of.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Political broadcasting and telecasting, the law of. 73.4185 Section 73.4185 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... broadcasting and telecasting, the law of. (a) See “The Law of Political Broadcasting and...

  15. How Can State Law Support School Continuity and Success for Students in Foster Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    First Focus, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This brief is authored by The Legal Center for Foster Care and Education, a collaboration between the American Bar Association Center on Children and the Law, Education Law Center (PA), and Juvenile Law Center. The federal Fostering Connections Act of 2008 and the McKinney-Vento Act both provide education stability for children in foster care,…

  16. 38 CFR 1.218 - Security and law enforcement at VA facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Security and Law Enforcement at Department of Veterans Affairs Facilities § 1.218 Security and law enforcement at VA facilities. (a) Authority and rules of conduct... or concealed, whether loaded or unloaded (except by Federal or State law enforcement officers on...

  17. 中国企业如何依法进行自由竞争——关于中国公司法和反不正当竞争法的变化%How Chinese enterprises live in freedom,competition under the rule of law——on the current changes of Corporate Law and Competition Law in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史际春

    2007-01-01

    China has thoroughly amended its corporate law and hastens to formulate an anti-monopoly law. To rebound then deny the planned economy once adopted, China firmly practices marketization reform. However, common- recognized rules haven't taken shape without sufficient gaming and, lots of quick introduced legislations are only superficial provisions. As the trend of corporate legal system in developed countries, freedom and responsibility are the two contraries but not contradictory directions during the recent reform of China's corporate law. One is deregulation, e.g., introducing one-person company and the transition from approval system to registration system for the establishment of a company; while the other is adding various provisions of responsibility and liability to the Company Law for controlling shareholders, actual controllers, directors, supervisors and top managers. The Anti-Unfair Competition Law of China not only prescribes unfair competition but also counters monopoly. In general, it mainly focuses on anti-monopoly provisions, to popularize the concept and value of free market, making systematic regulations on any kinds of monopoly.This article reviews its background,process,meaning as well as the problems encountered.As there remains somewhat a mystery that China rapidly develops,it may also reflect a fringe of the reason.

  18. 75 FR 12217 - Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant programs... Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study (FWS), and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant (FSEOG.... (2) General Provisions for the Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Work-Study Program, and...

  19. 77 FR 4547 - Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant Programs... requests and documents from postsecondary institutions for the Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study.... (2) General Provisions for the Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Work-Study Program, and...

  20. 78 FR 14776 - Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant Programs... requests and documents from postsecondary institutions for the Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study..., Federal Work-Study Program, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant Program, 34 CFR...

  1. Financial Support of Tour Operator Activities: Issues of Implementation in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Valeryevna Zavyalova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Studying the issues of implementation of financial support of tour operator activities in the Russian Federation, which have so far impeded the guaranteeing of protection of rights and legitimate interests of Russian tourists at a proper level, allows to formulate practical recommendations and suggestions for improvement of Russian legislation in order to enhance the efficiency of legal regulation of tourism field and protection of rights and legitimate interests of Russian citizens. The article presents a comparative study of the Russian financial guarantee institution and its foreign analogues, defines the causes of emergence of the institution of financial support of tour operator activities in Russian legislation and imposition of a prohibition on tour operator activities. We have come to the conclusion that acknowledgment of financial support of tour operator activities as financial guarantees of tour operator’s liability. Analysis of current Russian legislation allowed to detect its contradictions and develop practical recommendations for improvement of Russian tourism legislation. In particular, it allowed to draw a conclusion of the need to eliminate the non-conformance of standards of article 17.6 of the Federal law NO 132-FZ “On foundations of tourist activity in the Russian Federation” (“Tourist activity law” further on issued on 24.11.1996 to the standards of item 1 of article 48; item 1 of article 53; item 1, item 3 of article 56; article 402 of the Civil code of the Russian Federation (part one; federal law № 51-FZ issued on 30.11.1994 (the Civil code of the Russian Federation.

  2. A Healthy Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The National People’s Congress(NPC)published China’s new draft Food Safety Law on April 20 for public discussion.The draft law covers food safety evaluation,monitoring, and recall and information release.

  3. Administrative Law Judges

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Administrative Law Judges conduct hearings and render decisions in proceedings between the EPA and persons, businesses, government entities, and other organizations which are or are alleged to be regulated under environmental laws.

  4. Recent Case Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petz, Thomas; Sagaert, Vincent; Østergaard, Kim

    2004-01-01

    In this section authors from various European countries report the recent case law in their country on the field of private patrimonial law, that is decisions on the law of property, juridical acts, the law of obligations, contract law and prescription. The European Review of Private Law (ERPL......) started this section in 2003. The section aims to give our readers an overview of what is happening in the most recent European case law. We have asked the national reporters to report the juridical essence of the decisions given by the highest courts in their country. These national reports...... not relate the facts of the decision, nor the personal opinion of the reporter. One can find discussions on the most important decisions of European courts in ERPL’s case note section. The recent case law section gives overviews of decisions published in periods of four months. The period of January...

  5. Recent Case Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petz, Thomas; Sagaert, Vincent; Østergaard, Kim

    2004-01-01

    In this section authors from various European countries report the recent case law in their country on the field of private patrimonial law, that is decisions on the law of property, juridical acts, the law of obligations, contract law and prescription. The European Review of Private Law (ERPL......) started this section in 2003. The section aims to give our readers an overview of what is happening in the most recent European case law. We have asked the national reporters to report the juridical essence of the decisions given by the highest courts in their country. These national reports...... not relate the facts of the decision, nor the personal opinion of the reporter. One can find discussions on the most important decisions of European courts in ERPL’s case note section. The recent case law section gives overviews of decisions published in periods of four months. The period of January...

  6. By Law Established

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2017-01-01

    An analysis of the degree and content of statutory law regulation of Nordic Lutheran majority churches in 2017......An analysis of the degree and content of statutory law regulation of Nordic Lutheran majority churches in 2017...

  7. 78 FR 73817 - Information Collection; Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property... currently approved information collection, Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property... Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and...

  8. On Teaching Natural Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, David F.

    1978-01-01

    A brief look at Columbia, Harvard, and Notre Dame law schools shows that the American tradition in teaching natural law has not been strong. The value of teaching natural law is discussed, a separate course or seminar is seen as the most effective option, and a selection of available sources for such a course is appended. (JMD)

  9. Contract law as fairness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Klijnsma

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the implications for contract law of Rawls' theory of justice as fairness. It argues that contract law as an institution is part of the basic structure of society and as such subject to the principles of justice. Discussing the basic structure in relation to contract law is par

  10. European tax law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terra, B.J.M.; Wattel, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    This book is intended as a reference book for tax law and EC law pratitioners, tax administrators, academics, the judiciary and tax or Community law policy makers. For students, an abridged student edition textbook is available. The book offers a systematic survey of the tax implications of the EC T

  11. Operational Law Handbook 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-26

    designations (Note: Soldiers may no longer use the “By Law” designation.) 3. Wills for both spouses. 4. Powers of Attorney. 5. Consumer law issues. 6...Guide JA 263 Family Law Guide JA 265 Consumer Law Guide JA 267 Legal Assistance Office Directory JA 271 Legal Assistance Office Administration

  12. Environmental law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    Modern Danish environmental law has a strong international dimension due to membership of EU and participation in global and regional agreements. The concept of transnational law that includes EU environmental law that has vertical as well as horizontal effects across jurisdictions binding national...

  13. European Criminal Law a! er the Lisbon Treaty, or Europeanization of European law, under the co-responsibility of the Member States

    OpenAIRE

    Arif Riza; Fatmir Halili

    2016-01-01

    Same as EU Law, that presents a new area of law and that it is still in progress, the EU Criminal Law is developing. The development of EU criminal law, of course, is dictated by the development of European Law itself, or the EU itself. Depending on it, the EU will be a supranational structure, or will undergo changes and become a Federal State, or another unified form. Taking into consideration the importance of this area of law, which is created for cooperation among states to combat organi...

  14. European Criminal Law a! er the Lisbon Treaty, or Europeanization of European law, under the co-responsibility of the Member States

    OpenAIRE

    Arif Riza; Fatmir Halili

    2016-01-01

    Same as EU Law, that presents a new area of law and that it is still in progress, the EU Criminal Law is developing. The development of EU criminal law, of course, is dictated by the development of European Law itself, or the EU itself. Depending on it, the EU will be a supranational structure, or will undergo changes and become a Federal State, or another unified form. Taking into consideration the importance of this area of law, which is created for cooperation among states to combat organi...

  15. Judicial Institutions in Albanian Customary Law and in Comparison with Modern Law (The Canon of Lekë Dukagjini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Njomëza Zejnullahu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article compares judicial institutions of customary law and modern law. There are many discussions between authors regarding the relation between customary and modern law, specifically the impact of customary law in modern law. The role of the customary law is of crucial importance especially its impact in the positive law of the country. Although, the customary law was practiced years ago, similarities with current positive law are obvious. Many of the judicial institutions in Albanian customary law can be compared with similar ones in modern law, but is also crucial to identify differences between them. Main judicial institutions that served as enforcement mechanisms in Albanian customary law are identified in this article in comparison with respective institutions of modern law. In addition, it is important to view and analyse customary law in regard to its power as governing law in a given period. In this regard, an analysis of the Albanian customary law in view of Hart’s rule of recognition is provided.

  16. 1998 federal technical standards workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The theme for the 1998 workshop was Standards Management -- A World of Change and Opportunities. The workshop`s goal was to further the implementation of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-113) through the sharing of standards management success stories, lessons learned, and emerging initiatives within the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. The target audience for this workshop included agency/department and contractor personnel and representatives of standards developing organizations that either used technical standards in their work for the Federal Government of participated in standards writing/management activities in support of the missions and programs of Federal agencies/departments. As with previous standards workshops sponsored by the DOE, views on the technical subject areas under the workshop theme were solicited from and provided by agency Standards Executives and standards program managers, voluntary standards organizations, and the private sector. This report includes vugraphs of the presentations.

  17. 5 CFR 2423.31 - Powers and duties of the Administrative Law Judge at the hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... review will cause undue harm to a party or the public. (2) If the motion is granted, the Judge or... Law Judge at the hearing. 2423.31 Section 2423.31 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY AND FEDERAL SERVICE IMPASSES PANEL...

  18. The legal status of cannabis (marijuana) and cannabidiol (CBD) under U.S. law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Alice

    2017-05-01

    In the United States, federal and state laws regarding the medical use of cannabis and cannabinoids are in conflict and have led to confusion among patients, caregivers, and healthcare providers. Currently, cannabis is legal for medical purposes in 50% of the states, and another seventeen states allow products that are high in cannabidiol (CBD) and low in THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) for medical use. Many of these artisanal products are sold in dispensaries or over the internet. However, none of these products has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Understanding how federal laws apply to clinical research and practice can be challenging, and the complexity of these laws has resulted in particular confusion regarding the legal status of CBD. This paper provides an up-to-date overview (as of August 2016) of the legal aspects of cannabis and cannabidiol, including cultivation, manufacture, distribution, and use for medical purposes. This article is part of a Special Issue title, Cannabinoids and Epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Interplay between international law and labour law in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates the interplay between labour law and international law in ... be included in diplomatic contracts of employment after ratification of a treaty, ... law; interplay; inviolability; labour law; principle of extraterritoriality; receiving ...

  20. HIV-INFECTION IN THE NORTH-WESTERN FEDERAL REGION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Smolskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In the current review the results of HIV surveillance in 11 administrative territories of the North-western federal region of the Russian Federation (NWFR in 2009 are summarized. The analysis of epidemic process is based on the data of HIV cases detected in the administrative territories of the NWFR by serological screening and registered in the state reporting forms.

  1. Federal Policies on Civic Education and Service. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Emily Hoban; Levine, Peter; Elrod, Brent

    2006-01-01

    The Federal government supports programs designed to encourage civic participation and increase civic knowledge. This fact sheet summarizes current federal legislation intended to mandate or encourage civic education and service programs for young people. In addition, it contains a list of relevant federally funded programs. (Contains 4 endnotes.)…

  2. Montreal exclusivity versus EU law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđev Dušanka J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current air law is a showcase of multilevel regulation. The rights and obligations of airlines and their passengers are governed both by the Montreal Convention and by EU Regulation 261/2004. The EU placed itself in a difficult position by adopting Regulation 261/2004 shortly after it had signed the Montreal Convention. Both instruments provide for different standards for liability. The issue is whether or not the rules in the Convention is exclusive.

  3. Abortion laws in African Commonwealth countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R J; Dickens, B M

    1981-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the range of current (1981) abortion laws in the African Commonwealth countries, traces the origins of the laws to their colonial predecessors, and discusses legal reform that would positively provide for legal termination of pregnancy. The authors claim that the range of these laws demonstrates an evolution that leads from customary/common law (Lesotho and Swaziland) to basic law (Botswana, The Gambia, Malawi, Mauritius, Nigeria's Northern States and Seychelles) to developed law (Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria's Southern States, Sierra Leone, and Uganda), and, finally, to advanced law (Zambia and Zimbabwe). The authors call for treating abortion as an issue of health and welfare as opposed to one of crime and punishment. Since most of the basic law de jure is treated and administered as developed law de facto, the authors suggest decriminalizing abortion and propose ways in which to reform the law: clarifying existing law; liberalizing existing law to allow abortion based upon certain indications; limiting/removing women's criminal liability for seeking an abortion; allowing hindsight contraception; protecting providers treating women in good faith; publishing recommended fees for services to protect poor women; protecting providers who treat women with incomplete abortion; and punishing providers who fail to provide care to women in need, with the exception of those seeking protection under a conscience clause. The authors also suggest clarifying the means by which health services involving pregnancy termination may be delivered, including: clarification of the qualifications of practitioners who may treat women; specification of the facilities that may treat women, perhaps broken down by gestational duration of the pregnancy; specifying gestational limits during which the procedure can be performed; clarifying approval procedures and consents; and allowing for conscientious objections to performing the procedure.

  4. On how AI & Law can help autonomous systems obey the law: a position paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakken, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    In this position paper I discuss to what extent current and past AI & law research is relevant for research on autonomous intelligent systems that exhibit legally relevant behaviour. After a brief review of the history of AI & law, I will compare the problems faced by autonomous intelligent systems

  5. Conflict of interests in corporate law: colombian regulations and comparative law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Arcila Salazar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper has the goal of discussing the colombian regulations regarding conflict of interests in corporate law based on national doctrine, and comparative law, to understand the current discussions in this matter and to see what the analysis of the future legislative reforms must focus on.

  6. Power laws from linear neuronal cable theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersen, Klas H; Lindén, Henrik Anders; Tetzlaff, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Power laws, that is, power spectral densities (PSDs) exhibiting [Formula: see text] behavior for large frequencies f, have been observed both in microscopic (neural membrane potentials and currents) and macroscopic (electroencephalography; EEG) recordings. While complex network behavior has been...... expressions for the PSD transfer functions for a set of measures of neuronal activity: the soma membrane current, the current-dipole moment (corresponding to the single-neuron EEG contribution), and the soma membrane potential. These PSD transfer functions relate the PSDs of the respective measurements...... to the PSDs of the noisy input currents. With homogeneously distributed input currents across the neuronal membrane we find that all PSD transfer functions express asymptotic high-frequency [Formula: see text] power laws with power-law exponents analytically identified as [Formula: see text] for the soma...

  7. Confidence in Anti-Trust Laws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Cooperation between Chinese and U.S. anti-monopoly enforcers is helping China improve its laws to encourage free competition china and the United States signed a memorandum of understanding regarding cooperation in antitrust and anti-monopoly investigations in Beijing on July 27. China’s National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM) and State Administration for Industry and Commerce (SAIC) signed the document with the U.S. Department of Justice and Federal Trade Commission (FTC).

  8. School Law's Story: Read All about It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2004-01-01

    Cathy Grimes has become something of an expert on the No Child Left Behind Act. She keeps a copy of the hefty federal law at her desk--and has actually read it. Ms. Grimes is not a school administrator or state education official. She does not work at a think tank, either. She's the education reporter for the "Walla Walla Union-Bulletin"…

  9. Reported Federal Drug Abuse Expenditures--Fiscal Years 1981 to 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    RD-AI57 836 REPORTED FEDERAL DRUG ABUSE EXPENDITURES--FISCAL YEARS / 1981 TO i985(U) HERCULES AEROSPACE PRODUCTS CO MAGNA UTp BACCHUS NORKS 83 JUN 85...General Accounting Officec°- IReported Federal Drug Abuse Expenditures-- ~ Fiscal Years 1981 To 1985 GAO’s review centers on the Federal Drug Abuse Budget...Summary, a document which describes federal agencies’ budget author- ity and outlays for drug abuse programs, including drug law enforcement and pre

  10. Jurisdiction in international law : United States and European perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Ryngaert, Cedric

    2007-01-01

    This study starts with a quote by Professor Meessen: “The function of scholars of international law offers less opportunity for creative thinking [compared to scholars of conflict of laws]: they may compile and analyze state practice, but they cannot replace it with their own concepts.”[1] This study, which primarily looks at the phenomenon of jurisdiction through a (public) international law lens, rejects that limiting claim. While the current state of the international law of jurisdiction ...

  11. Genocide as a crime against the peace and security of mankind according to the legislation of the Russian Federation and the Federal Republic of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Valerjevna Serebrennikova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the issues related to the implementation of the international criminal law provisions of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG dated 9 December 1948 in the national legislation of the Russian Federation and Germany. From this point of view Article 357 of the Russian Federation Criminal Code (RF CC and the German Code of Crimes against International Law (CCAIL are analyzed.

  12. Analysis on the Influence of the Current Laws and Regulations on the Doctor-patient Relationship%浅析现行法律法规对医患关系的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟林涛; 王将军; 曾庆; 许树强

    2014-01-01

    近年来,全国各地暴力伤医事件频发。医患关系不和谐,其中重要的因素是现行法律法规不完善。在医疗纠纷处理方面,《侵权责任法》对医疗损害鉴定无明确规定,导致全国医疗损害鉴定缺乏规范性和科学性;部分地方政府以政府令的形式颁布了医疗纠纷的预防与处置办法,但其法律强制力仍然不够;医疗纠纷调解介入也存在困难。在医师权益保障方面,法律对医师权益规定不明确,落实起来亦较难,医务人员的合法权益得不到保障。在医疗机构治安环境方面,《治安管理处罚法》及由卫生部、公安部联合发布的通告对涉医违法行为虽然作了规定,但是没有得到有效落实;而公安机关的差别对待,一定程度上也使医疗机构治安环境不断恶化,使医师执业安全堪忧。本文提出制定《医疗法》和《医疗纠纷预防与处置条例》,完善落实《治安管理处罚法》相关规定,同时以法律的形式统一医疗损害鉴定,完善医疗纠纷人民调解制度,以保障医患双方的合法权益,促进医患关系和谐。%In recent years, violent medical incidents happen frequently all over the country, which is mainly due to the disharmony of doctor-patient relationship and the imperfection of the existing laws and regulations.In dealing with medical disputes, The Law of Liability for Infringement does not provide specific provision for the i-dentification of medical injuries, resulting in the lack of normative and scientific medical damage identification;part of the local government promulgated the measures for the prevention and disposal of medical disputes in the form of decrees but it is still difficult to enforce the law; the legitimate rights and interests of the medical staff cannot be guaranteed. In the aspect of medical institutions of public security environment, illegal medical behav-iors are explicitly stipulated

  13. Water, law, science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2007-10-17

    In a world with water resources severely impacted bytechnology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end,this paper is an earth scientist s attempt to comprehend essentialelements of water law, and to examine their connections to science.Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with apriori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science,observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while inlaw, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law inEurope and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago byRoman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason.Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the seawere governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that theseelements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as privateproperty. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jusgentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast,jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jusgentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in whichscience plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all.This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, followstheir evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit ofscience inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving waterand environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In atechnological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of waterlaw. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophicalunderstanding of the relationships between science and law willcontribute to their constructively coming together in the service ofsociety.

  14. Contradictions of labor law during elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Márquez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Our article is part of a research to understand Uruguayan labour law through an analysis of the contradictions that arise between the rights and obligations derived from public law rules in the current stage where labour law is dispersed within the voluminous set of rules that conforms Uruguayan law. Our argument focuses particularly on the topic of the working hours that officers and public notaries invest whenever citizenship is convened to vote in the electoral polls, the most important act in a democracy. We hope this publication may arise a debate that contributes to the construction of new rules helping in the creation of a better labour law.

  15. Belgian Federalism after the Sixth State Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goossens Jurgen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the most important institutional evolutions of Belgian federalism stemming from the implementation of the sixth state reform (2012-2014. This reform inter alia included a transfer of powers worth 20 billion euros from the federal level to the level of the federated states, a profound reform of the Senate, and a substantial increase in fiscal autonomy for the regions. This contribution critically analyses the current state of Belgian federalism. Although the sixth state reform realized important and long-awaited changes, further evolutions are to be expected. Since the Belgian state model has reached its limits with regard to complexity and creativity, politicians and academics should begin to reflect on the seventh state reform with the aim of increasing the transparency of the current Belgian institutional labyrinth.

  16. The rule of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Murati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The state as an international entity and its impact on the individual’s right has been and still continues to be a crucial factor in the relationship between private and public persons. States vary in terms of their political system, however, democratic states are based on the separation of powers and human rights within the state. Rule of law is the product of many actors in a state, including laws, individuals, society, political system, separation of powers, human rights, the establishment of civil society, the relationship between law and the individual, as well as, individual-state relations. Purpose and focus of this study is the importance of a functioning state based on law, characteristics of the rule of law, separation of powers and the basic concepts of the rule of law.

  17. Statistical laws in linguistics

    CERN Document Server

    Altmann, Eduardo G

    2015-01-01

    Zipf's law is just one out of many universal laws proposed to describe statistical regularities in language. Here we review and critically discuss how these laws can be statistically interpreted, fitted, and tested (falsified). The modern availability of large databases of written text allows for tests with an unprecedent statistical accuracy and also a characterization of the fluctuations around the typical behavior. We find that fluctuations are usually much larger than expected based on simplifying statistical assumptions (e.g., independence and lack of correlations between observations).These simplifications appear also in usual statistical tests so that the large fluctuations can be erroneously interpreted as a falsification of the law. Instead, here we argue that linguistic laws are only meaningful (falsifiable) if accompanied by a model for which the fluctuations can be computed (e.g., a generative model of the text). The large fluctuations we report show that the constraints imposed by linguistic laws...

  18. On Hack's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigon, Riccardo; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Maritan, Amos; Giacometti, Achille; Tarboton, David G.; Rinaldo, Andrea

    1996-11-01

    Hack's law is reviewed, emphasizing its implications for the elongation of river basins as well as its connections with their fractal characteristics. The relation between Hack's law and the internal structure of river basins is investigated experimentally through digital elevation models. It is found that Hack's exponent, elongation, and some relevant fractal characters are closely related. The self-affine character of basin boundaries is shown to be connected to the power law decay of the probability of total contributing areas at any link and to Hack's law. An explanation for Hack's law is derived from scaling arguments. From the results we suggest that a statistical framework referring to the scaling invariance of the entire basin structure should be used in the interpretation of Hack's law.

  19. The Main Law Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doranda Maracineanu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The internal law of a State is the expression of the sovereign will of that Sate; however, thereare some features common to all law systems. The evolution of the society as a whole gave rise tointernational bodies (such as the European Union, through which the signatory countries haveassimilated certain unitary regulations in the internal law system. The origin of this law system is thelaw book of Justinian, during whose time the Roman law was codified. Thus, in the year 528 a. d.Justinian arranged the legal rules of those times in a unitary whole, adapted to the realities of those days.In our country, as per the fundamental law - the Constitution, the treaties and conventions ratified byRomania prevail in case of a conflict between them and the internal legislation regarding the humanrights.

  20. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Matt

    2013-04-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

  1. Zipf's law, power laws, and maximum entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines - from astronomy to demographics to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation [RGF] attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present article I argue that the cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

  2. Borders, Violence, Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER DE LUCAS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between violence, law and borders by analyzing both the violence at the borders and the violence of the borders. In both cases, the author states that violence exerted by means of law, as well as migratory and asylum policies, threaten the universal human rights of the most vulnerable people and cannot be seen as exercising the legitimate monopoly of force, resulting in the destruction of the Rule of Law.

  3. Rhetoric in Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, Jonas

    The bond between law and rhetoric is as old as the subjects themselves. Especially the ancient works on legal rhetoric afford, however, a too narrow depiction of the interaction between law and rhetoric as a purely instrumental discipline of communication in court. In this paper I challenge...... this narrow understanding of legal rhetoric and outline three distinct frames of understanding the relation between law and rhetoric...

  4. Environmental law: Course

    OpenAIRE

    Малярчук, Назар Вікторович

    2013-01-01

    In this course we tried to shed some light on the most important issues of the environmental law: notion, subject, method, system and sources of environmental law, we revealed the context of government management in the field of the protection of environment, legal regulation of conducting environmental examination. The separate subjects determines legal regime of each environmental law objects: lands, water, mineral wealth, forests, air, flora and fauna, natural protection fund of Ukraine. ...

  5. Learning the Law

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Christoph

    2004-01-01

    Hardly any of the law's subjects know the text of the provisions that govern their conduct. Even less would they be able to handle this text properly, were they to get access to it. Nonetheless the law firmly believes that it is not feckless. This paper solves the puzzle by drawing on four bodies of knowledge: neurobiology, developmental psychology, the psychology of learning, and work form social scientists on learning.The paper makes the following claim: typically the law reaches its addres...

  6. Enjoying the Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Henrik Jøker

    2005-01-01

    of the concept of enjoyment is instructive, and looking at it more closely makes it possible to spell out why obedience in itself does not suffice for a moral existence. Subjecting ourselves to the prescriptions of positive law might actually function as a way of escaping the insatiable demands of the moral law....... In this case, the positive law not only sustains our enjoyment (by securing basic liberties), but also comes to function as an object of enjoyment itself....

  7. Federalism, Agenda Setting, and the Dynamics of Federal Education Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Paul

    This paper is part of a larger project on agenda setting in the U.S. federal system and the development of the federal education agenda since 1965. Two questions motivate the paper, one theoretical and the other empirical: (1) how does federalism affect the federal agenda?; and (2) what explains the development of federal involvement in K-12…

  8. Perception of the judiciary law by the law-maker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy V. Lazarev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to develop conceptualtheoretical provisions and scientific recommendations for the implementation of judiciary decisions in the legislation of the Russian Federation. Methods universal dialectic method of cognition as well as the general scientific and private research methods based on it. Results the necessity to analyze the fundamental precedent judicial decisions for the possible implementation of the legal positions of courts into legislative acts. The problem is not confined to the perception of provisions created by the constitutional charter courts. The paper shows the main directions of future activities on the implementation idea. The operation of the Department is shown which was created at the Institute for Legislation and Comparative Law at the Government of the Russian Federation entrusted with the relevant functions. Scientific novelty the mechanism of implementation of judiciary decisions in the Russian legislation has been developed and introduced into scientific circulation. Practical significance the findings of this paper can be used in scientific legislative and lawenforcement activities and the educational process of institutions of higher education.

  9. Criminal Law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    Derived from the renowned multi-volume International Encyclopaedia of Laws, this book provides a practical analysis of criminal law in Denmark. An introduction presents the necessary background information about the framework and sources of the criminal justice system, and then proceeds...... resource for criminal lawyers, prosecutors, law enforcement officers, and criminal court judges handling cases connected with Denmark. Academics and researchers, as well as the various international organizations in the field, will welcome this very useful guide, and will appreciate its value in the study...... of comparative criminal law....

  10. Law before Gratian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume, the third in the series, contains the proceedings of the conference 'Law before Gratian' and covers a wide range of topics from individual and local studies to broader reflections on the status and function of law in medieval European societies before the scholastic legal 'revolution......' of the later twelfth century. Seeking to broaden our view of what constituted law in this period, the articles examine these earlier developments in their own right and provide new insights into the variety and complexity of early and high medieval approaches to law and jurisprudence. Contributors...

  11. Criminal Law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    resource for criminal lawyers, prosecutors, law enforcement officers, and criminal court judges handling cases connected with Denmark. Academics and researchers, as well as the various international organizations in the field, will welcome this very useful guide, and will appreciate its value in the study......Derived from the renowned multi-volume International Encyclopaedia of Laws, this book provides a practical analysis of criminal law in Denmark. An introduction presents the necessary background information about the framework and sources of the criminal justice system, and then proceeds...... of comparative criminal law....

  12. Thinking law: thinking law in motion

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Beth Nielsen

    2014-01-01

    This essay argues that one way to “think law” is to think “law in motion”. I will argue that a “law in motion” perspective embodies four core elements or ‘multiplicities’ which are: (1) multiple methodologies; (2) multiple perspectives; (3) multiple vocalities; and (4) multiple media including objects. As will become evident by the number of inspiring colleagues that have articulated rationales and perspectives for each of these multiplicities, these are not original ideas for which I can cla...

  13. Criminal Law in Nigeria in the Last 53 Years: Trends and Prospects for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akeem Olajide Bello

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The article is an overview of developments in substantive criminal law in Nigeria in the last 53 years. It examines the sharing of constitutional legislative powers to enact criminal laws between the federal (national government and the state (local governments. The examination of federal laws revealed proactive legislative activity responding to emerging local and international criminal law issues. The main development at the state level is the introduction by States in Northern Nigeria of Sharia Penal Codes and the enactment of the Criminal Law of Lagos State 2011. A common trend is the entrenchment of death penalty as punishment for some crimes. Implications: While federal criminal laws have responded to emerging realties, state criminal laws have generally failed to respond to emerging issues at the state level. Consequently, in most of the southern states criminal laws introduced in 1916 have continued to apply. Value: The paper demonstrates the need for southern States to reform their criminal laws to respond to emerging realties, the federal government to respond to some outstanding criminal law issues and calls for a suspension of death penalty and a revaluation of its continued relevance.

  14. FEDERAL AID HANDBOOK, A GUIDE TO FEDERAL PROGRAMS OPERATED IN NEW YORK STATE LOCAL EDUCATIONAL AGENCIES. PROGRAM AREA GUIDE, 1967 EDITION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'CONNOR, J. FRANCIS

    FEDERAL AID HAS BECOME AN IMPORTANT PART OF EDUCATIONAL FINANCE, AND THERE IS INCREASING INTEREST ON THE PART OF EDUCATORS EVERYWHERE IN PROGRAMS WHICH PROVIDE FEDERAL ASSISTANCE. THIS HANDBOOK WAS PREPARED TO PROVIDE SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS AND MEMBERS OF BOARDS OF EDUCATION WITH AN OVERVIEW AND BASIC UNDERSTANDING OF THE MANY LAWS WHICH APPLY TO…

  15. [Status of law-making on animal welfare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polten, B

    2007-03-01

    Since the last report there have been major revisions of laws and ordinances. Deliberations on rules of Community law were also continued. On national level, the Act on the Shoeing of Horses amending the Animal Welfare Act and amendments of animal welfare provisions as well as the Deregulation Act were prepared, some of which have meanwhile entered into force. At legislative level, the work on the ratification laws for the Council of Europe conventions (Strasbourg) was concluded in order to enable Germany to adopt the revisions. They include (1) the European Convention for the protection of animals used for experimental purposes and (2) the European Convention for the protection of animals during international transport. At the level of ordinances, the amendment and extension of the Animal Welfare -Farm Animal Husbandry Ordinance are of vital importance for the sections on pig farming and laying hen husbandry. Another section refers to the husbandry of fur animals, on which an ordinance has been submitted to the Bundesrat (German upper house of Parliament). Deliberations on this issue have been adjourned. Drafts of a circus register were prepared to amend the Animal Welfare Act and to adopt a separate ordinance, and they are being discussed with the federal states and associations. Previously,the rules of Community law in the area of animal welfare were adopted as EC directives which the member states had to transfer in national law. This was done by incorporating them into national laws or ordinances, with non-compliance having to be sanctioned. It is the member states' responsibility to establish sanctions. Yet the Commission has introduced a directly operative animal welfare legislation by adopting EC Regulation 1/2005 on the protection of animals during transport. This means that a national implementation is not required. Nevertheless, the establishment of sanctions continues to be the responsibility of the member states. A special authorisation by the

  16. Essays on the Effects of Medical Marijuana Laws

    OpenAIRE

    Smart, Rosanna

    2016-01-01

    Over half of the US states have adopted "medical marijuana" laws (MMLs), and 58% of Americans now favor marijuana legalization. Despite public support, federal law continues to prohibit the use and sale of marijuana due to public health concerns of increased dependence and abuse, youth access, and drugged driving. These essays contribute toward understanding the likely health consequences of marijuana liberalization using evidence from MMLs.Chapter 1 -- Growing Like Weed: Explaining Variation...

  17. ACA Federal Upper Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Affordable Care Act Federal Upper Limits (FUL) based on the weighted average of the most recently reported monthly average manufacturer price (AMP) for...

  18. Federal Ballpark Estimator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Federal Ballpark E$timate(R) was developed by the Employee Benefit Research Institute(R) and its American Savings Education Council(R) (ASEC(R)) program. It is...

  19. New Mexico Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  20. Integrated vs. Federated Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvschall, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    Oplæg om forskelle og ligheder mellem integrated og federated search i bibliotekskontekst. Holdt ved temadag om "Integrated Search - samsøgning i alle kilder" på Danmarks Biblioteksskole den 22. januar 2009.......Oplæg om forskelle og ligheder mellem integrated og federated search i bibliotekskontekst. Holdt ved temadag om "Integrated Search - samsøgning i alle kilder" på Danmarks Biblioteksskole den 22. januar 2009....

  1. Pharmaceutical marketing practices: balancing public health and law enforcement interests; moving beyond regulation-through-litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesky, Christopher D

    2006-01-01

    Fraudulent or abusive sales and marketing practices by pharmaceutical companies can result in costly overutilization of products that are increasingly paid for by government healthcare programs and may result in adverse health and safety consequences to the patient-beneficiaries of those programs. Federal enforcement efforts in this area are largely modeled on those used to combat white-collar crime, with cases taking years to reach conclusion. This approach overlooks the impact on patients who receive unnecessary care or are denied access to appropriate care during the course of the investigation. Many states are beginning to regulate certain pharmaceutical sales and marketing practices, but state-by-state regulation ignores the importance of a uniform federal regulatory and enforcement approach in an area already occupied by federal law. This Article explores current federal and state efforts to limit overutilization, fraud, and abuse in the sale and marketing of prescription drugs, and illustrates the merits of an expanded role for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to regulate pharmaceutical sales and marketing practices. This approach borrows lessons learned from the FDA's efficient and effective regulatory and enforcement methods and maintains a careful balance between the interests of patient-beneficiaries, the government and industry.

  2. F-rough law and the discovery of rough law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Jinming; Shi Kaiquan

    2009-01-01

    By using function one direction S-rough sets (function one direction singular rough sets), this article presents the concepts of F-law, F-rough law, and the relation metric of rough law; by using these concepts, this article puts forward the theorem of F-law relation metric, two orders theorem of F-rough law relation metric, the attribute theorem of F-rough law band, the extremum theorem of F-rough law relation metric, the discovery principle of F-rough law and the application of F-rough law.

  3. Competency-Based Education and Federal Student Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    Competency-based education is increasingly popular because of the flexibility it provides for students seeking a postsecondary credential. Current federal student aid, however, is geared toward supporting students in traditional, time-based degree programs. This paper discusses why current approaches to federal student aid are not supportive of…

  4. 36 CFR 1212.110 - Are any of my Federal assistance awards exempt from this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Purpose and Coverage § 1212.110 Are any of my Federal assistance awards... obligations of the United States or the laws or regulations of a foreign government....

  5. Climate Change Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farber, D.A.; Peeters, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    This book brings together over seventy fifty authors for a comprehensive examination of the emerging global regime of climate change law. Despite the relative youth of climate change law, we can already begin to see the outlines of legal regimes addressing climate change mitigation and adaptation (a

  6. Social Studies: Law Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Reviews 11 series, texts, supplements, kits, and professional references for law instruction, including civil and criminal law, the Bill of Rights, and controversial legal issues: arson, gun control, capital punishment, and euthanasia. While all grade levels are covered, the emphasis is on secondary-level materials. (SJL)

  7. Pop Goes the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    The Law School Admission Council recently reported that applications were heading toward a 30-year low, reflecting, as a "New York Times" article put it, "increased concern over soaring tuition, crushing student debt, and diminishing prospects of lucrative employment upon graduation." Since 2004 the number of law-school…

  8. EU Food Law Handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The twenty-first century has witnessed a fundamental reform of food law in the European Union, to the point where modern EU food law has now come of age. This book presents the most significant elements of these legal developments with contributions from a highly qualified team of academics and

  9. Haramaya Law Review: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Haramaya Law Review (HLR) is seeking original submissions in English ... including analysis of domestic or international laws and cases, the African Union ... In general, three consecutive words or more copied from a source should be treated .... If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in ...

  10. Law-Abiding Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing has begun work on laws and regulations to guarantee the smooth operation of the 2008 Olympics One of the major tasks for Beijing as host of the 2008 Olympic Games is to establish regulations and laws to govern the preparations for and conduct of the Games. Thus, on April 10 the Olympic Legislation Coordinating

  11. Nanotechnology and the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmoulin-Canselier, Sonia; Lacour, Stéphanie

    Law and nanotechnology form a vast subject. The aim here will be to examine them from the societal standpoint of nanoethics, if necessary without due reference to the work that has been undertaken. For while law differs from ethics, as we shall attempt to explain throughout this reflection, it must also be studied in its relationship with social realities.

  12. Laws of Network Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M.C. Larrosa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The valuation of a social network is an issue that has been addressed based on simplifying approaches. Various value laws have been stipulated, which are largely atheoretical but have been effectively used to estimate the potential economic value of social network-based firms. This review highlights the various contributions used in the recent literature on networks valuation laws.

  13. Teaching Information Technology Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. J.; Jones, R. P.; Haggerty, J.; Gresty, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an approach to the teaching of information technology law to higher education computing students that attempts to prepare them for professional computing practice. As information technology has become ubiquitous its interactions with the law have become more numerous. Information technology practitioners, and in particular…

  14. European food law handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.; Velde, van der M.; Szajkowska, A.; Verbruggen, R.

    2008-01-01

    This handbook analyses and explains the institutional, substantive and procedural elements of EU food law, taking the General Food Law as a focus point. Principles are discussed as well as specific rules addressing food as a product, the processes related to food and communication about food through

  15. EU Food Law Handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The twenty-first century has witnessed a fundamental reform of food law in the European Union, to the point where modern EU food law has now come of age. This book presents the most significant elements of these legal developments with contributions from a highly qualified team of academics and prac

  16. Social Studies: Law Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Reviews 11 series, texts, supplements, kits, and professional references for law instruction, including civil and criminal law, the Bill of Rights, and controversial legal issues: arson, gun control, capital punishment, and euthanasia. While all grade levels are covered, the emphasis is on secondary-level materials. (SJL)

  17. The law and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzaniga, Michael S

    2008-11-06

    Some of the implications for law of recent discoveries in neuroscience are considered in a new program established by the MacArthur Foundation. A group of neuroscientists, lawyers, philosophers, and jurists are examining issues in criminal law and, in particular, problems in responsibility and prediction and problems in legal decision making.

  18. Pop Goes the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    The Law School Admission Council recently reported that applications were heading toward a 30-year low, reflecting, as a "New York Times" article put it, "increased concern over soaring tuition, crushing student debt, and diminishing prospects of lucrative employment upon graduation." Since 2004 the number of law-school…

  19. Language and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, John

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the language of law and its general interest to the field of applied linguistics. Specific focus is on legal language, the problems and remedies of legal communication (e.g., language and disadvantage before the law, improving legal communication) the legislation of language (e.g., language rights, language crimes), and forensic…

  20. Lotka's Law Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, William Gray

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the literature that has become associated with Lotka's Law of Scientific Productivity (a general theoretical estimate of author productivity in the sciences) and attempts to identify the important factors of Lotka's original methodology that should be considered when attempting to test applicability of Lotka's Law. Forty-seven references…

  1. Women and Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    WOMEN’S rights concern the world over. Even though China has a different legal tradition and social system, participants from the Beijing Sino-British Women and Law Symposium discovered that both Chinese and foreign scholars could reach agreement and understanding on many issues. Enacting Laws for Women Professor Yang Dawen, from the

  2. Unilateralism in International Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    international law. This note considers when and how a State or a regional organisation may legitimately take unilateral measures to protect the environment. The note will does not consider the legality of including foreign aircraft within the ETS, which has been dealt with elsewhere. Instead, it will focus...... on the legality and importance of unilateral acts for the development of international law....

  3. [Law 6/84: "an inappropriate law"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroco, L E

    1994-01-01

    The intervention of Dr. Luis Elmano Barroco was evaluated at a meeting on March 19, 1994, on the topic of the state of abortion after 10 years of the new abortion law. Some aspects of the law of 1984 are characterized as inappropriate and inadequate because of the experience of the maternity ward of Dr. Alfredo da Costa. It was expected that in the wake of the publication of the law, official health care institutions would provide services for termination of pregnancy in accordance with legal indications. However, a survey carried out by the Association for Family Planning in July 1993 revealed that more than 50% of hospitals did not perform abortions because of the inexistence of specialized services or lack of resources or on grounds of conscientious objection. Even a revision of the abortion law does not take into consideration the fact that before 12 weeks of gestation it is difficult to precisely confirm grave lesions or the physical and psychological state of health of the pregnant woman which could be potentially life threatening. It was not taken into account either that it is impossible to diagnose definitively chromosomal aberrations, severe diseases, and fetal malformation before the 16th week. The law did not contemplate the prevailing socioeconomical conditions either that lead to clandestine abortion with high morbidity and mortality from cervical lesions, uterine perforation, infections, sepsis, and salpingitis. Prenatal diagnosis for eugenic abortion can be carried out by cytogenetic analysis of the amniotic fluid and ecography, but such diagnosis probably amounts to only 30-40% of risk cases in the whole country. A recent study by the Johns Hopkins University indicated that the chance of survival of a child born before 24 weeks is nil, therefore the limit of induced abortion should be extended to the 24th week to facilitate diagnosis of possible genetic abnormalities.

  4. The impact of EU law on Belgian consumer law terminology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauffman, C.

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of EU directives in the field of consumer law distorted the Belgian legal terminology. In particular, consumer law terminology often differs from civil law terminology. The meaning of traditional civil law concepts is no longer respected in the field of consumer law. Moreover, the

  5. The impact of EU law on Belgian consumer law terminology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauffman, C.

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of EU directives in the field of consumer law distorted the Belgian legal terminology. In particular, consumer law terminology often differs from civil law terminology. The meaning of traditional civil law concepts is no longer respected in the field of consumer law. Moreover, the

  6. 对赌协议法律效力研究--以我国现行法为视角%Research on the Legal Effect of the Valuation Adjustment Mecha nism---Based on the Current Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍陆文英

    2014-01-01

    文章研究了对赌协议的相关理论基础,认定对赌协议的法律性质是一种射幸合同,其法律效力应符合合同法的中合同效力的相关规定,同时作为一种商业合同,公司法及诸多证券方面的监管规定都对对赌协议的内容和效力有所限制,并且实践中债权人保护和上市公司股权明晰是对对赌协议限制最大的因素,建议从合同角度出发评判对赌协议的效力,首先其必须符合主体适格、意思表示真实、内容合法,其次,它不能违反特别法的强制性规定,不得对损害债权人利益,不得影响上市公司股权的公开透明。%This thesis studies the theory foundation of Valuation Adjustment Mechanism ( VAM) , ascertaining the legal nature of VAM is a kind of aleatory contract.Its legal effect should be comply with the relevant provi-sions on the legal effect of contract , at the same time as a commercial contract , VAM ’ s content and legal effect is limited by the company law and the securities regulation .The protection of creditors and listing Cor-poration practice clear stake limits the VAM ’ s legal effect most.We think that the legal effect of VAM can be judged from the contract perspective evaluation , firstly it must comply with the subject qualification , genuine intention expressed and lawful content , secondly , it can not violate mandatory provisions of law , not to damage the interests of the creditors , and shall not affect the transparency of listing Corporation equity.

  7. International resources law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Historical origins of civil code legal systems; Modern civil law practice for mineral lawyers; Treaties and agreements for protection of international investments; Europe 1992-toward a single energy market; Dispute resolution in international agreements; Assessment of political risk; Reducing political risk; Protecting mineral investments from upheaval in developing countries; Typical world petroleum arrangements; government take in the Pacific Rim - Papua New Guinea; Mineral base of the USSR and prospects of investment; International taxation for the mining practitioner; Tax considerations - branch versus subsidiary; Doing business in the host country - nontax considerations; Impact of host-country laws on operations and profits; Mineral development and native rights - New Zealand; Designing the investment vehicle: mining; International oil and gas joint ventures; Selected U.S. laws with extraterritorial effect; U.S. tax and securities laws applied to foreign joint venturers; and Extraterritorial effect of U.S. laws.

  8. Creating EU law judges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral Diaz-Asensio, Juan Antonio; Jaremba, Urszula; Nowak, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The judicial protection system in the European Union (EU) is premised on the fact that national judges are supposed to act as decentralized EU judges. This role is exercised through tools enshrined in, inter alia, primacy, direct and indirect effect of EU law, and the preliminary ruling procedure....... However, a number of studies show that national judges experience difficulties in exercising EU competences due to their lack of knowledge in the field of EU law. In this contribution we study the differences in the level of self-evaluation of EU law knowledge among judges, which consequently influence...... the way judges approach EU law. For that purpose we question the relevance of several institutional and socio-legal factors, such as organization of the judiciary, generation, the system of legal education and judicial training and practical experience with EU law. Our analysis is based on data collected...

  9. Enforcement, Integration, and the Future of Immigration Federalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rodriguez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The federal government has a monopoly over the terms of immigration law, and it superintends the nation’s singular immigration enforcement bureaucracy. But our federalism nonetheless provides a vital playing field for sharp debates over the status of immigrants in American life. The forms of state and local involvement in immigration policy are varied, but they fall into two basic categories of mutually dependent and re-enforcing policies: enforcement federalism and integration federalism. Whereas enforcement federalism concerns the extent to which localities should assist or resist federal removal policies, integration federalism encompasses measures designed to assist immigrants, regardless of status, to plant roots and acculturate to life in the United States. Both forms of immigration federalism take shape through a wide variety of intergovernmental relations, not only between the federal government on the one hand and states and localities on the other, but also between states and the cities within them — an increasingly important dimension of immigration federalism today. These relations have important legal characteristics, and constitutional and statutory law bring them into being and mediate them. But the nature of any given intergovernmental dynamic will be shaped just as much by a combination of ideology and institutional imperatives. These elements can either unite the center and the periphery in common cause or produce the sort of conflict that has made immigration federalism a high-profile issue for decades. Given the density of the intergovernmental dynamics that shape the country’s immigration policy, developing a comprehensive strategy for immigration federalism requires more than a predilection toward or away from centralization of government authority. It requires a clear view on the appropriate metes and bounds of immigration enforcement, as well as a set of beliefs about the proper place in the social order of

  10. Medical innovation laws: an unnecessary innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Bernadette

    2016-06-01

    Objective This paper aims to demonstrate that any suggestion that there is a need for specific innovation laws is flawed. Innovation is central to good medical practice and is adequately supported by current law. Methods The paper reviews the nature of medical innovation and outlines recent attempts in the UK to introduce specific laws aimed at 'encouraging' and 'supporting' innovation. The current legal framework is outlined and the role of the law in relation to medical innovation explored. Results The analysis demonstrates the cyclic relationship between medical advancement and the law and concludes that there is no requirement for specific innovation laws. Conclusions The law not only supports innovation and development in medical treatment but encourages it as central to a functioning medical system. There is no need to introduce specific laws aimed at medical innovation; to do so represents an unnecessary legal innovation and serves to complicate matters. What is known about the topic? Over recent months, there has been a great deal of discussion surrounding the law in the context of medical innovation. This was driven by the attempts in the UK to introduce specific laws in the Medical Innovation Bill. The general subject matter - negligence and the expected standard of care in the provision of treatment - is very well understood, but not in cases where the treatment can be described as innovative. The general rhetoric in both the UK and Australia around the Medical Innovation Bill demonstrates a lack of understanding of the position of the law with regards to innovative treatment. What does this paper add? This paper adds clarity to the debate. It presents the law and explains the manner in which the law can operate around innovative treatment. The paper asserts that medical innovation is both supported and encouraged by existing legal principles. What are the implications for practitioners? The paper presents an argument that can guide the policy position

  11. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LAW

    the Federal Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission (FEACC).4 The primary objective of ... requested to pay a bribe simply to pay tax, duty or other bills to the ... 600 business enterprises across the regional States, revealed that 78.5% of these.

  12. 12 CFR 544.5 - Federal mutual savings association bylaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... by the association. (3) Corporate governance procedures. A Federal mutual association may elect to follow the corporate governance procedures of the laws of the state where the main office of the... corporate governance procedures, and shall file a copy of such bylaws, which are effective upon...

  13. 75 FR 72751 - Voluntary Mergers of Federal Home Loan Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... Bank Act and section 1367 of the Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and Soundness Act of 1992...-established principle of general corporate law, the governance structure of the Banks differs in certain key... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John P. Foley, Senior Financial Analyst, Policy and Program Development,...

  14. 28 CFR 66.26 - Non-Federal audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: (1) Determine whether State or local subgrantees have met the audit requirements of the Act and... the audit requirements of the Act. Commercial contractors (private for-profit and private and... receipt of the audit report in instance of noncompliance with Federal laws and regulations; (4) Consider...

  15. 15 CFR 24.26 - Non-Federal audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: (1) Determine whether State or local subgrantees have met the audit requirements of the Act and... the audit requirements of the Act. Commercial contractors (private for-profit and private and... receipt of the audit report in instance of noncompliance with Federal laws and regulations; (4) Consider...

  16. 38 CFR 43.26 - Non-Federal audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... awards in a fiscal year, shall: (1) Determine whether State or local subgrantees have met the audit... Organizations,” have met the audit requirements of the Act. Commercial contractors (private for-profit and... months after receipt of the audit report in instance of noncompliance with Federal laws and regulations...

  17. 40 CFR 31.26 - Non-Federal audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... awards in a fiscal year, shall: (1) Determine whether State or local subgrantees have met the audit... Organizations,” have met the audit requirements of the Act. Commercial contractors (private for-profit and... months after receipt of the audit report in instance of noncompliance with Federal laws and regulations...

  18. Private Colleges: The Federal Tax System and its Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Gerald P.

    Through its role in administering the laws pertaining to tax-exempt status, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is involved in regulating the activities of those organizations that claim such a special position. The interplay between the federal tax system and private colleges will intensify as the demands increase for additional financial support…

  19. 44 CFR 13.26 - Non-Federal audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO... Organizations.” The audits shall be made by an independent auditor in accordance with generally accepted... months after receipt of the audit report in instance of noncompliance with Federal laws and regulations...

  20. 36 CFR 1207.26 - Non-Federal audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 1207.26 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL..., and Non-Profit Organizations.” The audits shall be made by an independent auditor in accordance with... within six months after receipt of the audit report in instance of noncompliance with Federal laws and...

  1. The Federal-state Intergovernmental Relationship in Ethiopia:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigussie_Afesha

    dictating non-hierarchal relationship between the federal and regional states, the Ethiopian ..... hand, formal IGR is established by the Constitution, subsequent laws or by ...... sector development programmes and to follow up and evaluate the .... monolithic party, the total dominance of EPRDF at both levels of government in.

  2. 30 CFR 910.700 - Georgia Federal program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Enviromental Protection Division, pertaining to solid waste management. (5) Georgia Seed Laws and Rules and....700 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.700 Georgia Federal...

  3. Perplexing Federal Cases from Mississippi: Lessons for School Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Lindon J.

    2010-01-01

    Federal court cases are examined in an effort to view recent First Amendment rights infringements which have occurred in Mississippi. Case law reinforces students' rights to wear same-sex outfits to school functions as well as to bring same-sex dates. Connection to a recent civil rights investigation by the NAACP into a north Mississippi middle…

  4. How dead is the federal constitutional right to assisted suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paola, F A

    1998-06-01

    The US Supreme Court recently upheld state laws in New York and Washington that prohibit assisted suicide. In both cases, the judgment of the Court was unanimous. Closer scrutiny of the opinions in the cases, however, suggests that we may not have seen the last of a federal constitutional right to assisted suicide.

  5. Three laws of robotics and surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael

    2008-08-01

    In 1939, Isaac Asimov solidified the modern science fiction genre of robotics in his short story "Strange Playfellow" but altered our thinking about robots in Runaround in 1942 by formulating the Three Laws. He took an engineer's perspective on advanced robotic technologies. Surgical robots by definition violate the first law, yet his discussions are poignant for our understanding of future potential of robotic urologic surgery. We sought to better understand Asimov's visions by reading his fiction and autobiography. We then sought to place his perceptions of science fact next to the Three Laws (he later added a fourth law, the zeroth). Asimov's Three Laws are often quoted in medical journals during discussions about robotic surgery. His First Law states: "A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm. " This philosophy would directly conflict with the application in surgery. In fact, most of his robotic stories deal with robots that come into conflicts with the laws. Robots in his cleverly orchestrated works evolve unique solutions to complex hierarchical conflicts with these laws. Asimov anticipated the coming maelstrom of intelligent robotic technologies with prescient unease. Despite his scholarly intuitions, he was able to fathom medical/surgical applications in many of his works. These fictional robotic physicians were able to overcome the first law and aid in the care and management of the sick/injured. Isaac Asimov published over 500 books on topics ranging from Shakespeare to science. Despite his widespread influence, he refused to visit the MIT robotics laboratory to see current, state-of-the-art systems. He managed to lay the foundation of modern robotic control systems with a human-oriented safety mechanism in his laws. "If knowledge can create problems, it is not through ignorance that we can solve them " (I Asimov).

  6. Legal and other methods for harmonization of the Macedonian Commercial Law with the European Union Commercial Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koevski Goran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of the Article general differences between the terms harmonization, unification and approximation of law are elaborated. Special emphasize is given to the available legal instruments and methods for harmonization of national law with the acquis communautaire especially in terms of the EU freedom of establishment, including the relevant CJEU case law. Next part of the Article is dedicated to the analyses of the relevant literature and legislation relating to the recent trends (pros and cons in harmonization of the EU Company Law (including EU insolvency legislation, EU Securities Law and EU Contract Law. Last section of the Article enlightens the current situation with the Macedonian Commercial Law harmonization with the respective EU law.

  7. [Recent developments in medical law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schewe, G

    1984-01-01

    The most spectacular aspect is the extremely rapid expansion of medical law. Even if there is a close connection between developments in medicine and in law, the question must be asked as to what extent new discoveries and advances in medicine play a dominant role here, and to what extent the emphasis is on the further development of law. How advances in medicine can give rise to new legal problems was most impressively demonstrated some time ago by the discussion about cerebral death. In view of the progress made in the field of re-animation and intensive care, the current question is whether or not the physician's duties and rights to maintain life should be limited in hopeless cases when patients are incapable of making decisions themselves. This is demonstrated in particular by the discussion about the binding character of "patient testaments" in which healthy subjects declare that they do not want treatment under such circumstances. The decisive factor will continue to be the presumptive will of the patient at the respective time, and this will have to be ascertained considering all circumstances prevailing at that time. New questions with regard to the ethical and legal limitation of the technically feasible also arise from the possibility of culturing embryos from legal abortions or extracorporally fertilized ova to obtain transplants, and from the possibility of implanting extracorporally fertilized ova into the uterus, perhaps that of a "hired childbearing wet-nurse." In addition to ethical and legal problems, questions of parentage would arise here similar to those already of current interest in connection with artificial heterologous insemination. For physicians practicing these methods, questions concerning liability and the limitation of professional secrecy vis-à-vis the semen donor might become the issue of law suits in the near future. Current problems of "unsuccessful sterilization" and nonperformance of an abortion through the physician's fault

  8. The Practice of Transnational Law

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    Contents :"The new law merchant and the global market place" by Klaus Peter Berger, "The CENTRAL enquiry on the use of transnational law in international contract law and arbitration", "The UNIDROIT principles and transnational law" by Michael Joachim Bonell, "Examples for the practical application of transnational law", "The questionnaire and results of the CENTRAL enquiry"

  9. Chemical Laws, Idealization and Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Emma

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of laws in chemistry. Vihalemm ("Found Chem" 5(1):7-22, 2003) argues that the laws of chemistry are fundamentally the same as the laws of physics they are all "ceteris paribus" laws which are true "in ideal conditions". In contrast, Scerri (2000) contends that the laws of chemistry are…

  10. Finance Law Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Education Finance, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Reviews recent state and federal court decisions dealing with issues relevant to educational finance. Within the broad area of elementary-secondary education, specific cases involve allocation of federal school aid, fees charged by public schools for textbooks and instructional materials, property acquisition and school construction, and…

  11. Administrative law risks of the governmental and municipal procurement system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyuzhikov Sergey, A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the administrative law risks of the Russian system of public procurement. The authors analyze the foregoing risks in the view of the correlation of risk situations, risk actions (omission and administrative law prohibitions. The authors are considering problems of the subject and some other characteristics essential to the administrative offenses in terms of the most systemic risk in this sphere – an information risk. The materials on law practice open to general use generated in more than 25 entities of the Russian Federation were used in the paper while preparing.

  12. What Has the Marriage Law Done for Women?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    "LAW" has been drawing closer to the lives ofordinary Chinese people since the 1980s. Overthe past 10 years or so China has issued manylaws in rapid succession. "Governing the statebased on law" was put into the Constitution of thePRC in March 1999, laying a solid foundation forthe realization of the nation’s four modernizations. I became a lawyer in 1985. Since becoming astaff member of the All-China Women’sFederation (ACWF), I have consulted on theMarriage Law and other regulations and clausesrelated to it.

  13. 75 FR 26978 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Reporting System for Public Law 102-477...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Reporting System for Public Law 102... Public Law 102-477 Demonstration Project. This information collection allows IEED to document.... Public Law 102-477 authorizes tribal governments to integrate federally funded employment, training,...

  14. 78 FR 71983 - Delegation of Functions Under Sections 1261(b) and 1262(a) of Public Law 112-239

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... Sections 1261(b) and 1262(a) of Public Law 112-239 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal...(a) of Public Law 112-239 Memorandum for the Secretary of State the Secretary of Commerce By the... section 1262(a) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013, Public Law 112- 239....

  15. 48 CFR 12.505 - Applicability of certain laws to contracts for the acquisition of COTS items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... laws to contracts for the acquisition of COTS items. 12.505 Section 12.505 Federal Acquisition... Items 12.505 Applicability of certain laws to contracts for the acquisition of COTS items. COTS items.... In addition, the following laws are not applicable to contracts for the acquisition of COTS items:...

  16. 77 FR 75696 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting of the Study Group on Family Law The Office of the Assistant Legal Adviser for Private International Law, Department of State, hereby gives notice of a...

  17. 77 FR 52784 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Notice of Annual Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Notice of Annual Meeting The Department of State's Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL) will hold its annual meeting on developments in private international law...

  18. 76 FR 51119 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Notice of Annual Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law: Notice of Annual Meeting The Department of State's Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL) will hold its annual meeting on developments in private international law...

  19. 78 FR 36816 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting of the Study Group on Family Law The Office of the Assistant Legal Adviser for Private International Law, Department of State, hereby gives notice of a...

  20. 8 CFR 212.14 - Parole determinations for alien witnesses and informants for whom a law enforcement authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and informants for whom a law enforcement authority (âLEAâ) will request S classification. 212.14... determinations for alien witnesses and informants for whom a law enforcement authority (“LEA”) will request S...) needed for law enforcement purposes provided that a state or federal LEA: (i) Establishes its intention...