WorldWideScience

Sample records for current experimental situation

  1. Current experimental situation in heavy-ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, D.K.

    1978-06-01

    A detailed survey of the present experimental situation in heavy-ion physics is presented. The discussion begins by considering the simple excitation of discrete states in elastic scattering, transfer, and compound-nucleus reactions; it then turns to more drastic perturbations of the nucleus high in the continuum through fusion, fission, and deeply inelastic scattering, and concludes with the (possibly) limiting asymptotic phenomena of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. 138 figures, 5 tables, 451 references. (RWR)

  2. [Uterus transplantation. Current situation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, T; Piver, P; Mesnard, C; Marquet, P; Pichon, N; Guillaudeau, A; Drouet, M; Gardet, E; Laskar, M; Essig, M; Aubard, Y

    2012-11-01

    Except adoption, absolute uterine factor infertility lacks solution in case of motherhood desire. Gestational surrogacy is still not approved in France. Over the last decade, uterus transplantation experimentation made advances. Data from animal research, progress in immunosuppressive treatment and knowledge about pregnancy after transplantation provide a scenario in which a human allotransplantation project can become reality.

  3. [Current situation for nursing specialities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Máximo González

    2008-01-01

    Almost three years ago, on May 6, 2005, the Spanish government published in its official register, the Boletin Oficial de Estado, a decree on Nursing Specialities. This law is one which answers one of the historical Spanish nursing profession complaints. Its development will radically change the structure of the Spanish health system. An event which bears such consequences requires certain steps and a serene undertaking for those steps which will become the fundamental bases for each of them. Nonetheless, for professionals who greeted the passage of this decree with pleasure and illusion, this whole process has been one long wait. Now is the time to analyze the different specialities and to know the developmental situation of each one. The overall balance is seen in a very positive light.

  4. [Current malaria situation in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockchinar, T; Kalipsi, S

    2001-01-01

    Geographically, Turkey is situated in an area where malaria is very risky. The climatic conditions in the region are suitable for the malaria vector to proliferate. Due to agricultural infrastructural changes, GAP and other similar projects, insufficient environmental conditions, urbanization, national and international population moves, are a key to manage malaria control activities. It is estimated that malaria will be a potential danger for Turkey in the forthcoming years. The disease is located largely in south-eastern Anatolia. The Diyarbakir, Batman, Sanliurfa, Siirt, and Mardin districts are the most affected areas. In western districts, like Aydin and Manisa, an increase in the number of indigenous cases can be observed from time to time. This is due to workers moving from malaria districts to western parts to final work. Since these workers cannot be controlled, the population living in these regions get infected from indigenous cases. There were 84,345 malaria cases in 1994 and 82,096 in 1995, they decreased to 60,884 in 1996 and numbered 35,456 in 1997. They accounted for 36,842 and 20,963 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. In Turkey there are almost all cases of P. vivax malaria. There are also P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria cases coming from other countries: There were 321 P. vivax cases, including 2 P. falciparum ones, arriving to Turkey from Iraq in 1995. The P. vivax malaria cases accounted for 229 in 1996, and 67, cases P. vivax including 12 P. falciparum cases, in 1997, and 4 P. vivax cases in 1998 that came from that country. One P. vivax case entered Turkey from Georgia in 1998. The cause of higher incidence of P. vivax cases in 1995, it decreasing in 1999, is the lack of border controls over workers coming to Turkey. The other internationally imported cases are from Syria, Sudan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nigeria, India, Azerbaijan, Malaysia, Ghana, Indonesia, Yemen. Our examinations have shown that none of these internationally imported cases

  5. Experimental Section: On the magnetic field distribution generated by a dipolar current source situated in a realistically shaped compartment model of the head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijs, J.W.H.; Bosch, F.G.C.; Peters, M.J.; Lopes da silva, F.H.

    1987-01-01

    The magnetic field distribution around the head is simulated using a realistically shaped compartment model of the head. The model is based on magnetic resonance images. The 3 compartments describe the brain, the skull and the scalp. The source is represented by a current dipole situated in the

  6. Therapy of Human African Trypanosomiasis: Current Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Atouguia

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the current situation of the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis. The existing approved drugs are old, toxic and/or expensive. Therapeutic failures are common. Several factors may contribute to the problems of chemotherapy, including differences in the epidemiology of the disease, difficulties in the diagnosis and staging of the infection, availability, distribution and pharmacologic properties of drugs, standardization of treatment regimens, response to therapy, follow-up period, and relapses and clinical trials. The new therapeutic approaches include the development and approval of new drugs, the use of new therapeutic regimens, the study of drug combinations, and the development of new formulations.

  7. Current Economic Situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Mirascic

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the current economic situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Beginning in the second half of 2008, macroeconomic conditions in B&H began precipitating a decline in economic activity. While the global financial crisis was among the factors contributing to this decline, it was far from the only factor. Problematic macroeconomic conditions were also a result of B&H’s own structural and political problems, caused largely by the shortcomings of a political entity comprising two autonomous entities. Due to such problems, the governments of B&H turned to the International Monetary Fund for assistance. This article analyzes the effects of the first two “stand by” arrangements made between the IMF and B&H and discusses implications for further, ongoing stand by arrangements made between the IMF and B&H. This paper also examines the lack of unified economic space between The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and The Republic of Srpska, which has resulted not only in ineffective monetary policy but also in different fiscal and taxation systems between the two entities. While various existing analyses claim that B&H has little hope of resolving its economic woes due to its current political and economic structure, this article offers solutions and measures that, if successfully implemented, would lead to more efficient recovery and self-sustainable economic growth.

  8. 偏头痛实验动物模型的研究现状%The Current Research Situation of Experimental Animal Models of Migraine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁博博

    2011-01-01

    偏头痛是一种由体外触发和体内病理生理机制相互作用、伴有神经心理及胃肠症状、具有遗传性及复发性的头痛综合征.其发病机制至今尚未完全明了,动物模型基于三叉神经血管学说、皮层扩散抑制学说和血管学说等理论而建立.现从造模机制、特点、适用范围及效度等方面对目前常用的偏头痛动物模型的研究现状进行综述.%Migraine is a genetically related recurrent headache syndrome appearing with neuro-psychological and gastrointestinal symptoms, implicating interaction between external triggers and internal pathophysiology. Its pathogenesis is still not completely clarified, animal models are established on the basis of trigeminovascular theory,cortical spreading depression theory and neurovascular theory. Here is to review the current migraine experimental animal models from the perspectives of modeling mechanism, characteristics,scope and validity, etc.

  9. Current situation of lipoprotein apheresis in Saxony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julius, U; Taseva, K; Fischer, S; Passauer, J; Bornstein, S R

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the situation pertinent to treatment via lipoprotein apheresis in the federal state of Saxony, Germany in 2010. In total, 119 predominately male patients were treated in 10 centers; the majority of the patients was older than the mean age of the general population. Several risk factors were present, particularly a familial predisposition and hypertension. All patients had experienced cardiovascular events and the majority was taking statins. Patient data from the University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus in Dresden concurred with data derived from patients treated at nephrological practices. In the mean, patients attended the centers for about 6 years, the majority weekly. LDL cholesterol concentrations prior to apheresis were clearly higher than target levels; apheresis sessions decreased LDL cholesterol by 69%. Lipoprotein(a) levels could be measured in 75 patients and were effectively reduced by lipoprotein apheresis. In Saxony, 29 patients per 1 million inhabitants received lipoprotein apheresis, which is higher than the proportion of patients treated in Germany as a whole. The need for this extracorporeal treatment seems to be much greater than its current utilization. Among the patients only one homozygous patient with familial hypercholesterolemia was observed. Physicians should be actively informed about this therapeutic possibility to reduce the cardiovascular risk efficiently. The introduction of new drugs may alter the position of lipoprotein apheresis within the therapeutic spectrum.

  10. CURRENT SITUATION OF MEDICINE III AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Masako Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Describe the current situation of the area Medicine III of CAPES and detect challenges for the next four years of evaluation. Methods: The area's documents and reports of meetings were read from 2004 to 2013 Medicine III Capes as well as reports and evaluation form of each Postgraduate Program (PPG of the area and the sub-page of the area from the Capes website. The data relating to the evaluation process, the assessment form and faculty, student and scientific production data of all of Post-Graduate Programs of Medicine III were computed and analyzed. From these data were detected the challenges of the area for the next four years (2013-2016. Results: Among the 3,806 PPG, Medicine III had 41 PPG during last triennial evaluation and progressed from 18% to 43% of PPG very good or more concept (triennium 2001-2003 and 2010-2012. Most PPG were located in the South-East region (32, three in the South and two in the North-East. There was no PPG in North or Central-West regions. In 2013 and 2014 there were four approved Professional Master Degree Programs and one Master (M and Doctorate (PhD. The average of permanent professors was 558 teachers with about three students/professor. The number of PhD graduates has increased as well as the reason PhD/MD. The proportion of in high impact periodicals (A1, A2, B1 and B2 jumped from 30% to 50% demonstrating positive community response to the policy area. The challenges identified were: decrease regional asymmetry, increase the number of masters and doctors of excellence, reassessment of Brazilian journals, stimulate and set internationalization indicators, including post-doctors and definition of its indicators, the PPG nucleation analysis, PPG 3x3, include primary and secondary education, professional master and indicators of technological scientific production and solidarity. Conclusion: Medicine III has been scientifically consolidated and their scientific researchers demonstrated maturity

  11. Evolving PBPK applications in regulatory risk assessment: current situation and future goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation includes current applications of PBPK modeling in regulatory risk assessment and discussions on conflicts between assuring consistency with experimental data in current situation and the desire for animal-free model development.

  12. Bulgaria in the Current Geopolitical Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    have clashed with those of the Ottoman Empire , Austria-Hungary, Britain, France, and later - in Germany and the United States. Russia sees its...twentieth century, the United States patiently built their empire . American hegemony in the world was maintained 9 more by economic rather than...of the new status of Kosovo.P57F58 The situation in Macedonia is closely related to processes in Kosovo. The international community imposes the

  13. CURRENT SITUATION OF MEDICINE III AND CHALLENGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2015-01-01

    Describe the current situation of the area Medicine III of CAPES and detect challenges for the next four years of evaluation. The area's documents and reports of meetings were read from 2004 to 2013 Medicine III Capes as well as reports and evaluation form of each Postgraduate Program (PPG) of the area and the sub-page of the area from the Capes website. The data relating to the evaluation process, the assessment form and faculty, student and scientific production data of all of Post-Graduate Programs of Medicine III were computed and analyzed. From these data were detected the challenges of the area for the next four years (2013-2016). Among the 3,806 PPG, Medicine III had 41 PPG during last triennial evaluation and progressed from 18% to 43% of PPG very good or more concept (triennium 2001-2003 and 2010-2012). Most PPG were located in the South-East region (32), three in the South and two in the North-East. There was no PPG in North or Central-West regions. In 2013 and 2014 there were four approved Professional Master Degree Programs and one Master (M) and Doctorate (PhD). The average of permanent professors was 558 teachers with about three students/professor. The number of PhD graduates has increased as well as the reason PhD/MD. The proportion of in high impact periodicals (A1, A2, B1 and B2) jumped from 30% to 50% demonstrating positive community response to the policy area. The challenges identified were: decrease regional asymmetry, increase the number of masters and doctors of excellence, reassessment of Brazilian journals, stimulate and set internationalization indicators, including post-doctors and definition of its indicators, the PPG nucleation analysis, PPG 3x3, include primary and secondary education, professional master and indicators of technological scientific production and solidarity. Medicine III has been scientifically consolidated and their scientific researchers demonstrated maturity reaching a high level and matched to areas of greatest

  14. Current Situation of English Translation Courses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋蕾

    2016-01-01

    After 1978, according to the foreign language teaching program and outline requirements which were established by the Ministry of Education, most colleges and universities identified translation as important foreign language professional courses for English majors. But currently, there are still many errors in positioning the teaching English translation at most colleges and universities, and their teaching and research are also at the margins.

  15. [Current situation of health surveys in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, María Luisa; Suárez, Mónica; Pérez, Óscar

    2013-01-01

    To describe the evolution of health interview surveys in Spain (as of 01/01/2012), whether national or regional, its main characteristics and methodology, and in the case of general health surveys (GHIS), its contents. An adapted version of Eurostat quality control template European Health Interview Survey Technical and Methodological Report was filled in by those responsible for GHIS in each region (autonomous communities) and at the national level. The first part (11 questions) gathers general information about health surveys, both GHIS and surveys targeted to specific populations or health problems (SHIS). The second part (109 questions) asks about methodological characteristics of most recent GHIS. 1) regional or supra-regional scope; 2) for the second part, GHIS currently active series. Quality control was performed using double data entry and validated by informants.100 HIS were identified. 16 were GHIS and 84 SHIS. 32 (38%) of the latter were national and 52 (62%) regional. Nutrition 21 (25%), drug use 10 (12%), opinion polls 7 (9%) and dental health 7 (9%) were the most frequent topics in SHIS. Highest GHIS density was reached after year 2000, with several surveys on field at a time (mode=3). 11 GHIS (2 national, 9 regional) met inclusion criteria for the second part. All complied with general quality benchmarks. Few differences were observed in content.GHIS show more similarities than differences in objectives, methods and content. Rationalization and harmonization are needed. Physical activity, alcohol consumption, quality of life and mental health instruments are not yet consensual. Valid and comparable data are required on health status and its determinants to inform health policy.

  16. Current Situations and Developing Tendency of China Post's Logistic Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ru-wei; LI Xue-ping

    2004-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces the construction of China Post's physical network and information network and offers some general ideas about how to develop modern postal logistics. It dwells on the sortation technology, the Chinese Character Recognition Technology and the current situations and tendencies of the Research and Development (R&D) of the Logistic Information Management System.

  17. Educational Research in Mainland China: Current Situation and Developmental Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miantao

    2011-01-01

    The influence of Confucian culture in Chinese Mainland China is reflected in the current situation and contextual trends of educational research content of educational thought of Confucianism, educational issues grounded on theoretical views of Confucianism, and the influence of the inclusiveness of Confucianism. In terms of research method, the…

  18. Educational Research in Mainland China: Current Situation and Developmental Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miantao

    2011-01-01

    The influence of Confucian culture in Chinese Mainland China is reflected in the current situation and contextual trends of educational research content of educational thought of Confucianism, educational issues grounded on theoretical views of Confucianism, and the influence of the inclusiveness of Confucianism. In terms of research method, the…

  19. Current situation and development of solar heating technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Ruicheng

    2009-01-01

    It is introduced the current situation and development for solar heating technology including passive solar heat-ing and solar heating combisystems in China in this paper. Combined with the engineering application projects, the au-thor gave the technical and economic analysis of the passive solar and solar heating combisystems in China and summa-rized the developing obstacle and the spreading tactics for raising marketing of the solar heating in China.

  20. The Current Situation of Informatics Education in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambuu UYANGA

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Mongolia started using Information and Communication Technology (ICT in secondary education relatively late. The computer training and informatics has been included as a subject in the secondary school curriculum in Mongolia since 1988 and in the university curriculum since 1982. This paper presents current situation of informatics education in Mongolia. SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat analysis of Informatics Education in Mongolia, conclusions and future recommendations are also presented.

  1. EVOLUTION DES CONCEPTIONS SUR LA FERMENTATION ALCOOLIQUE DANS UNE SITUATION DE CONCEPTION DE PROTOCOLE EXPERIMENTAL

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    National audience; This article is about knowledge modeling to generate error diagnosis in an experimental situation in biology (alcoholic fermentation). ATD is the framework we use. A protocol structure is proposed on a computing platform, which support difficultiesa priori. We present the evolution of student current thinking about alcoholic fermentation.; Cet article s'inscrit dans un travail de modélisation des connaissances pour effectuer un diagnostic des erreurs dans une situation expé...

  2. Current Development Situation and Prospects of Blueberry in Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixia; GAO; Hualan; XIAO; Sen; LI; Fengmin; LIU; Aiqiong; MO

    2015-01-01

    With high nutrition and health value,blueberry receives much concern in recent years. Blueberry experts in the world are cultivating new blueberry varieties. They have come up with constructive theoretical support and planting technology researches and are constantly devoted to expanding blueberry planting latitudes. This paper elaborated researches of blueberry at home and abroad,current development situation of blueberry in China and Guangdong Province,analyzed strengths of planting blueberry in Guangdong. Besides,it came up with recommendations for development of blueberry industry. Finally,it discussed development prospects of blueberry planting in Guangdong.

  3. Chinese Cuisine Culture and Current Situation of its Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yi-dan

    2013-01-01

    Chinese cuisine is the main reflection of our country’s cuisine culture. It contains profound historical and cultural background. Besides, it permeates folk-custom taste and local manners. Since the name of a cuisine is the first impression given to a dining person, undoubtedly, its translation is very important in cultural dissemination and communication. But actually, there are many problems exist in Chinese cuisine translation at present. This paper is based on a massive collection of Chinese cuisine ’s translation, classification, analysis. Besides, it has found out cultural connotation, current situation and the causes from the cultural angle;discussed the basic requirements of translating Chinese cuisine.

  4. Current situation of wind energy in the world and Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alper Kaplan, Yusuf; San, Ismail [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Anadolu University (Turkey)], email: yakaplan@anadolu.edu.tr, email: isan@anadolu.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    This paper gives an overview of the current situation of wind power in Turkey and in the world by evaluating installed wind power using current data. It also looks at the political conditions of Turkey in relation to the current installed wind energy power in Turkey compared with that of certain developed countries. The problems encountered are also illustrated as a basis for proposing solutions. Turkey's wind energy potential is 48,000 MW but installed wind power was only 1,329 MW as of 2011. Wind energy is at present one of the most cost-competitive renewable energy technologies in the world when technical, geographical and social issues are taken into consideration. Economic sources should be researched. The development of current potential and the market entry of renewable energy resources requires a legal and regulatory framework that support suitable mechanisms. Local support is recommended together with tax exemptions. Long-term fixed-price guarantees should also be considered by government.

  5. Waste management in Greenland: current situation and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Waste management in Greenland (56 000 inhabitants) is characterized by landfilling, incineration and export to Denmark of small quantities of metals and hazardous waste. The annual amount of waste is estimated to about 50 000 tons but actual data are scarce. Data on the waste composition is basic...... are small and equipped with only moderate flue gas cleaning technology. This report summarizes the current waste management situation in Greenland and identifies important challenges in improving the waste management.......Waste management in Greenland (56 000 inhabitants) is characterized by landfilling, incineration and export to Denmark of small quantities of metals and hazardous waste. The annual amount of waste is estimated to about 50 000 tons but actual data are scarce. Data on the waste composition...... is basically lacking. The scattered small towns and settlements, the climate and the long transport distances between towns and also to recycling industries abroad constitute a complex situation with respect to waste management. The landfills have no collection of gas and leachate and the incinerators...

  6. Legal assessment of current situation on orphan patients in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokiene, Indre

    2008-01-01

    After Lithuania joined the European Union, the Regulation (EC) No. 141/2000 on orphan medicinal products and Commission Regulation (EC) No. 847/2000 came into force as part of national legislation. Member States must adopt specific measures to increase knowledge on rare diseases and to improve their detection, diagnosis, and treatment. The aim of this article was to present and to assess the current legal situation on orphan patients and their treatment in Lithuania, to identify legislation gaps, and to propose some ideas how to facilitate the solution of the existing problems in this field. For this purpose, European Union and Lithuanian legal documents on rare medicinal products are examined using a comparative method. With reference to inventory of Member States' incentives for rare diseases in national level, the most important issues, which orphan patients face to in Lithuania, are singled out. In Lithuania, the situation of orphan patients in terms of protection of patient rights is insufficiently determined. The access to effective health care services or approved therapies in some cases is restricted. Working relationships between genetic services and various clinical specialists as well as with those in primary care are not legally determined; the number of clinical trials aimed at orphan medicinal products is low. These results suggest a need for awareness raising among Lithuanian Government, health care specialists, patient organizations about the importance to improve practical implementation of European Union legislation and progressive experience of some European countries in this field.

  7. [First-aid in France. Current situation and future perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcan, Alain; Julien, Henri

    2010-06-01

    First-aid--treatment aimed at enabling a victim to survive pending the arrival of qualified medical support--is less well developed in France than in many other industrialized countries, especially among the general public. The current status of first-aid in France is paradoxical: schooling is free and obligatory, the ambulance service and emergency services are of the highest quality, but the general public are too often passive and unknowledgeable when faced with an emergency situation. This situation is due to several factors, including the complexity of first-aid training and regulations, the involvement of too many public bodies, the legal liability of the first-aider, and a lack of ongoing training. The French National Academy of Medicine recommends 8 measures to improve this situation: Provide a legal definition of first-aid: "a set of recognized measures aimed, in an emergency setting, at preserving the physical and psychological integrity of the victim of an accident or illness, notably pending the arrival of professional medical assistance". Waive, as in many other countries, civil and legal responsibility for the non professional first-aider, except in case of clear negligence. Reinforce the organization of first-aid in France in order to monitor the number and quality of first-aiders, and to ensure theoretical and pedagogic research; create a communications department capable of supporting and promoting first-aid. Improve access to first-aid training by increasing the number of situations in which it is obligatory (driving tuition, school and university examinations, group responsibility, at-risk practices), by providing financial assistance for certain groups, and by ensuring routine training at school, in the armed forces, and in the workplace. Create a progressive and integrated citizen first-aid training course with individual modules, ensuring that first-aiders update and perfect their knowledge throughout life. Soften pedagogic rules and shorten

  8. Global panorama of energy access: Current situation, challenges and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galichon, Ines; Lacroix, Olivier; Wiedmer, Damien

    2014-07-15

    Globally 1.3 billion people do not have access to electricity. If this figure is projected to decline 1 billion by 2030, the global population who relies on the traditional use of biomass for cooking is expected to substantially increase, from 2.6 billion to 2.7 billion people. In its commitment to energy access, ENEA published a synthesis on the current situation and the further development perspectives of energy access worldwide, a crucial issue of human and economic development and an opportunity for the private sector. This synthesis present the ecosystem of the actors involved in the improvement of energy access and the technical solutions that serve the needs of this high-potential market. The five main challenges energy access has to address are presented in this publication: energy prices, equipment financing, distribution, change of scale and environmental performances.

  9. Current situation and countermeasures of port logistics park information construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Improve work efficiency of logistics park department, and drive the economy of the park and its surrounding areas. Design/methodology/approach: Analyze the information development situation and existent questions of current national logistics park, and design proper scheme to meet the demand of port logistics park. Findings: Proposed an information construction implementation plan using technology of the Internet of things which can be applied to port logistics park. Designed a scheme for the park information construction and explained the system's implementation strategy and implementation steps. Practical implications: The proposed construction program is particularly suitable for the northwest port logistics parks in China, and also has reference function to other logistics park construction. Originality/value: Group the information construction of the logistics park into four levels, three types of users, and two requirements. The scheme is innovative and comprehensive, which can ensure the development of port logistics park.

  10. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL - Currents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have currents data. *These services are for testing and evaluation use...

  11. Top Quark Current Experimental Status

    CERN Document Server

    Juste, A

    2006-01-01

    Ten years after its discovery at the Tevatron collider, we still know little about the top quark. Its large mass suggests it may play a key role in the mechanism of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking (EWSB), or open a window of sensitivity to new physics related to EWSB and preferentially coupled to it. To determine whether this is the case, precision measurements of top quark properties are necessary. The high statistics samples being collected by the Tevatron experiments during Run II start to incisively probe the top quark sector. This report summarizes the experimental status of the top quark, focusing in particular on the recent measurements from the Tevatron.

  12. [Drug treatment of obesity--current situation and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainer, Vojtech

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy of obesity should be an integral part of the comprehensive obesity management program which includes diet, exercise and cognitive behavioural intervention. Currently available antiobesity drugs result in only modest weight loss, however it is still accompanied by reduction of cardiometabolic health risks. In the past several antiobesity drugs were removed from the market because of serious adverse effects (psychostimulatory, cardiovascular, pulmonary hypertension, valvular disease, depression, addiction etc.). Such situations led some investigators and clinicians to nihilistic approaches to the drug treatment of obesity. This paper aims to review the data on clinical efficiency and safety of currently available antiobesity drugs and to summarize our knowledge on the recently discovered antiobesity agents which underwent clinical trials (such as lorcaserin, tesofensine, cetilistat, combination drugs, gut hormone analogues etc.). Approaches with two drug combination of decreased doses were recommended to increase both safety and efficacy of antiobesity treatment. However, previous experiences that antiobesity drug combinations (e.g. fenfluramine/phentermine) may also potentiate adverse events should be carefully considered in the evaluation of recently tested compounds. Administration of physiological doses of gut hormones - derived appetite regulating agents seems to be a promising, efficient, specific and thus, low side-effect approach in the treatment of obesity. To confirm the strong role of antiobesity drugs in the treatment of obesity and its complications further long-term studies evaluating their effect on morbidity and mortality end points in appropriate target populations are needed.

  13. The Current Situation on Malaria in Astrakhan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Arakelian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study. To describe the current situation on malaria in Astrakhan region for 2000–2014. Materials and methods. The first data on malarious situation in the Astrakhan region belongs to 1894, when in the Astrakhan province there were registered 54 952 cases of malaria. The results of the study. In Astrakhan region for the period from 2000 to 2014 there were registered 90 cases of human malaria, including imported cases from the CIS — 70 (78 %, secondary from imported — 11 (12 % and relapse — 9 (10 %. Geographically, the foci of malaria were distributed as follows: Astrakhan — 58 foci (65 %, including Leninskyi district — 27 cases (46 % of all urban cases, the Kirov and the Soviet districts — 15 foci (26 % and Truso district — 1 case (2 % and passing through Astrakhan — 2 foci (2 %; Astrakhan region — 30 sites (33 %, including Krasnoyarsk district — 9 sites (30 %, Narimanov district — 8 CL. (27 % of all rural cases, Akhtubinsky district — 5 cases (17 %, Kharabalinskyi district — 4 sites (13 %, Chernoyarskyi district — 2 sites (7 %, Kamyziakskyi and Limansky districts 1 site (3 %. Conclusions. On the territory of Astrakhan region throughout the transmission season of effective contamination of mosquitoes (May — September over the last 10 years there have been imported cases of malaria. The maximum number of reported imported malaria cases was observed in 2001 — 35 cases. In Astrakhan region the most frequently recorded is the three-day malaria — 94 %. The importation of malaria in the region was carried out in 78 % of cases from Azerbaijan and Tajikistan. After a long break, in Astrakhan region there were registered new active lesions, indicating the presence of secondary from imported malaria cases and the emergence of new active foci of the 1st degree. The disease was recorded more often in the warmer months, as evidenced by the incidence — 80 % of all reported cases.

  14. 上海市试点中小学体育场馆对外开放现状%The Current Situations of Opening-up of the Sports Venues of Experimental Middle and Primary Schools in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王哲; 梁红霞; 舒盛芳

    2011-01-01

    The questionnaire and interview surveys of the present situation of the sports venues' opening up to the public in some experimental middle and primary schools in Shanghai were conducted to explore and analyze the effect of the sports resource sharing with the society.The results show: the school leaders have high theoretical level of awareness and positive attitudes towards the opening up to the public of the school sports venues,not enough support to the further and larger opening up;those which have opened up are mainly outdoor sports venues,and the opening time and items are far away from the demand of the public;the organizing of the mass activities and management of the sports venues still need solving;the operation mode of the government buying the service,the market sharing the risk and the society involving in the management is the system guarantee to promote the school sports venues to open up to the public.The paper suggests: make a further study of the policies and measures of the public sports resources and strengthen publicity;speed up the construction and integration of urban sports resources and gradually realize the balance of regional sports resources in the development;give great support to the non-profit and profit public sports and culture service institutions in charge of the management of the school sports venues opening up.%运用问卷调查法和访谈法等方法,对上海市试点中小学校体育场馆对外开放现状进行调查,探析学校体育场馆资源与社会共享的效果.结果表明:学校领导对开放学校体育场馆具有较高的理论认识水平和较积极的态度,但对进一步加大体育场馆对外开放力度的支持不够;对外开放主要是室外体育场馆,对外开放的时间和项目与群众需求有较大差别;群众活动的组织与体育场馆的管理问题仍是需要进一步解决的问题;政府购买服务、市场分担风险、社会参与管理的运作模式是推动

  15. [Social and health resources in Catalonia. Current situation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullich-Marín, Ingrid; Sánchez-Ferrín, Pau; Cabanes-Duran, Concepció; Salvà-Casanovas, Antoni

    2017-03-20

    The network of social and health care has advanced since its inception. Furthermore, news services have been created and some resources have been adapted within the framework of respective health plans. This article presents the current situation of the different social and health resources in Catalonia, as well as the main changes that have occurred in recent years, more specifically in the period of the Health Plan 2011-2015. This period is characterised by an adaptation of the social and health network within the context of chronic care, for which the development of intermediate care resources has become the most relevant aspect. There is also a need to create a single long-term care sector in which the health care quality is guaranteed. Moreover, in this period, integral and cross-care level is promoted in the health system through a greater coordination between all different levels of care. The social and health network, due to its trajectory and expertise, plays a key role in the quality of care for people with social and medical needs. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. The Current Situation of Wind Energy in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raşit Ata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy applications and turbine installations at different scales have increased since the beginning of this century. As wind energy is an alternative clean energy source compared to the fossil fuels that pollute the atmosphere, systems that convert wind energy to electricity have developed rapidly. Turkey’s domestic fossil fuel resources are extremely limited. In addition, Turkey’s geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of wind power. In this context, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Among the renewable sources, Turkey has very high wind energy potential. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD Turkey theoretically has 166 TWh a year of wind potential. However the installed wind power capacity is approximately 14% of total economical wind potential. In this study, Turkey’s installed electric power capacity and electric energy production are investigated and also the current situation of wind energy in Turkey is examined. The wind data used in this study were taken from Turkish Wind Energy Association (TUREB for the year 2012. This paper reviews the assessment of wind energy in Turkey as of the end of July 2012 including wind energy applications.

  17. Educating teachers in Switzerland – reform and current situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Wiśniewska-Paź

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Educating teachers in the scope of higher (non-academic education sector has been a relatively new phenomenon in Switzerland. Until the end of the 90's, when Higher Pedagogical Schools were established, teachers had been educated at teaching seminars.Establishment of Higher Pedagogical Schools gave rise to a thorough reform in educating teachers in Switzerland, which aimed at improving the quality of work and professionalism of the teachers through science-oriented education (similar to the university education, and at establishing international and all-Swiss system of acknowledging diplomas received in particular canton institutions of higher education. This system makes it possible for the graduates to commence work at schools/ kindergarten departments not only in a canton of their choice, but also in a country chosen by them. At present, 12 000 students study in higher pedagogical schools, which constitutes 7% of all students in both (academic and non-academic sectors of higher education. This article describes current situation of this type of universities in Switzerland, their location, specializations, availability issues, duration of the studies and also the number of students (including percentage of foreigners, as well as the issues of prestige of the profession of a teacher, average age of the personnel in relation to education levels, degree of feminization of the profession and the demands.

  18. Current Situations and Countermeasures of Organic Tobacco Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Current situations of organic tobacco development at both home and abroad,indicating that organic tobacco is one of the innovation directions for sustainable,healthy,environmental protection and low carbon development of modern tobacco industry.On the basis of foreign cultivation technical system for organic agriculture,the cultivation technical system for organic tobacco is summed up as follows:first,keep the diversity and continuity of space and time;second,ensure closeness of nutrient cycle;third,improve self-regulatory system and protection ability of crops.Then,the development trend of organic tobacco is analyzed and corresponding measures are put forward:establish production base and assessment system for organic tobacco;establish technical system for production of organic tobacco;establish and perfect evaluation system for management,production and supervision of organic tobacco;strengthen popularization of production and concept of organic tobacco;improve management of organic tobacco purchase,industry commerce handover,and redrying.

  19. Current Situation in Vocational Schools: Issues and Some Suggested Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reha Metin ALKAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vocational Schools which have undertaken various missions throughout history were established in order to train intermediate staff s with suff icient knowledge and skills in their fields, in accordance with the requirements of trade, industry and services sectors and they are the most important components of ‘vocational and technical education system' today. Analyzing the education given in the vocational schools in accordance with the national and international requirements, developing technologies and the needs of business world and making the necessary arrangements in line with these will contribute to the employability and preferability of graduates of these schools in an eff icient way. Many industrialists/businessmen in our country stated that they experienced serious problems in the supply of qualified staff with suff icient knowledge and skills needed in sectors. Although much progress has been achieved in this subject, it is a fact that there are still a lot of work to be done. In this study, current situation and main troubles in vocational schools are discussed in the light of the experiences gained at Hitit University Vocational School which was established about 40 years ago in Çorum and which is one of the first high schools in Turkey and some solutions are suggested in accordance with the problems mentioned.

  20. Eradication of malaria through genetic engineering:the current situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wing-Chui Chong; Rusliza Basir; Yam Mun Fei

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is an intra-cellular parasitic protozoon responsible for millions of deaths annually.Host and parasite genetic factors are crucial in affecting susceptibility to malaria and progression of the disease.Recent increased deployment of vector controls and new artemisinin combination therapies have dramatically reduced the mortality and morbidity of malaria worldwide.However, the gradual emergence of parasite and mosquito resistance has raised alarm regarding the effectiveness of current artemisinin-based therapies.In this review, mechanisms of anti-malarial drug resistance in thePlasmodium parasite and new genetically engineered tools of research priorities are discussed.The complexity of the parasite lifecycle demands novel interventions to achieve global eradication.However, turning laboratory discovered transgenic interventions into functional products entails multiple experimental phases in addition to ethical and safety hurdles.Uncertainty over the regulatory status and public acceptance further discourage the implementation of genetically modified organisms.

  1. Preparation and Current Situation of Proton-ICCHIBAN-2 Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchihori, Yukio; Yasuda, Nakahiro; Kitamura, H.; Kodaira, S.; Benton, Eric; Hajek, Michael; Berger, Thomas; Jadrnickova, Iva; Ploc, Ondrej

    The ICCHIBAN (Inter Comparison for Cosmicrays with Heavy Ion Beams at NIRS) working group has organized and performed various ICCHIBAN runs for active and passive radiation detectors at HIMAC, NIRS, Japan, Loma Linda and Brookhaven, USA and CERN, Switzer-land since the start of the ICCHIBAN project in the year 2002. One of the main focus points of this project is to understand the response of the applied detector systems (either active or passive) for personal and area dosimetry in space environment to a simulated sub-set of the space radiation environment, focusing on the heavy ion response. This is of special importance for the further intercomparison of space radiation data gathered by various international in-stitutes and universities for space radiation experiments as MATROSHKA, DOSIS, DOBIES, BRADOS, MATROSHKA-R etc. The ICCHIBAN experiments have created a big database of response data, especially for all the different passive radiation detectors and detector materials (Thermoluminescence (TLD) and Optical Luminescence (OSL)) over the last 7 years, resulting in a better understanding of how and why we still have differences in the measurement results from common space experiments -as the Space ICCHIBAN 2 experiment. One of the reasons why for the differences in the TLD/OSL results is the lack of intercomparison and response data for low LET particles up to around 10 keV/m, especially protons. Due to the fact, that the main contribution to absorbed dose in low earth orbit is due to protons, the ICCHIBAN working group has started the set-up of a Proton ICCHIBAN intercomparison experiment at NIRS. The Proton ICCHIBAN run has been performed at the cyclotron at NIRS, Chiba in February 2010. 15 institutes from 12 countries sent or brought their dosimeters and exposed them to 40 and 70 MeV proton beams with the same doses and exposure conditions. In this paper, the experiment procedures and current situation of the intercomparision experiments will be shown.

  2. [Current epidemiological malaria situation in Kyrgyzstan (1995-1999)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdikarimov, S T

    2001-01-01

    Kyzgyzstan is situated in an area which is potentially at risk for malaria. In 1995-1999, 58 cases of malaria were recorded, six of them were local cases. The factors that promote the spread of malaria in Kyrgyzstan are the widespread and constant migration of people from Tajikistan and close economic ties between Kyrgyzstan and a number of Asian countries with widespread malaria epidemics. Most cases of malaria in Kyrgyzstan were imported from Tajikistan (39 cases or 75% of all imported cases). Plasmodium vivax, P. falciparum and P. malariae were identified in 95.9, 1.7, and 2.1%, respectively. There is a widespread irrigation network in the country, along with a large number of reservoirs, ponds, lakes, springs, streams, gullies, and marshy floodplains. As of 1 January 2000, there are 2833 water areas that can support Anopheles mosquitoes, with a total area of 5008.5 ha. The total length of the sewerage and drainage system is 5,440 km. There is a great potential for the spread of malaria in the south of the republic, i.e. the Osh and Zhalalabad Regions, especially due to a large number of state rice (paddy) fields covering an area of over 3,500 ha. Small rice-growing plots close to private dwellings, which are cultivated without any mosquito control measures, currently provide further breeding grounds for mosquitoes. Almost 80% of the population of these areas is at risk for malaria. Almost all species of malaria mosquitoes have been identified in Kyrgyzstan. An. claviger and An. messeae have too, two other species have also spread through the country, these are An. martinius and An. superpictus which became the main vectors of malaria epidemics in the south in the 1930s-1950s. Large-scale development of the pre-imago stages of the mosquito (a larval, water-based stage) takes place 5-7 months within which 4-6 mosquito generations develop. At present, there is a shortage of staff in Kyrgyzstan, especially at a local level, who has thorough knowledge of malaria and

  3. Current Situation and Countermeasures for Green Electricity in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Rui; Gao Yang

    2007-01-01

    @@ The present situation of the green electricity in Shanghai is briefly introduced. The author analyzes various advantages in natural environment, market environment and social environment as well as various disadvantages in the respects of cost, price, economy for Shanghai to develop green electricity. It is pointed out that governments, non-government organizations, consumers and enterprises shall jointly make efforts to promote the green electricity in Shanghai. Finally,concrete countermeasures and suggestions are put forward.

  4. 学前教育专业实验性课程评价的现状及改进方案%On the Current Situation and Improvement Scheme of Experimental Course Evaluation for Preschool Education ;Major

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽君

    2015-01-01

    高等院校学前教育专业肩负着培养未来优秀幼师的重任,学生中的大部分未来要从事一线教学工作,教学评价的发展性功能在某些程度上能够对幼儿的学习起到促进作用,因此学前教育阶段的评价将会越来越充当学前教育研究的重点。本文在新的评价标准指导下,从实验性课程出发,探索学习评价在学前教育阶段的重要作用和教育阶段的学习评价研究,以及如何进行教学评价。全文以学前教育阶段实验性课程为基础,综合利用各类研究方法,通过查找文献、观察取材、访谈了解以及文本分析等方式,将影响学习评价研究的因素分为教师的个人因素、教学的环境因素和教学内容因素、社会和家庭因素等方面,综合对学习评价进行探索和研究。%The preschool education major of higher education e-valuation shoulders an important mission of cultivating excellent teachers for preschool education in the future. Most preschool e-ducation majors will be engaged in frontline teaching in the fu-ture. The developmental function of teaching evaluation can pro-mote children's learning in some ways, so the evaluation at the stage of preschool education has become a focus of preschool ed-ucation research. Guided by the new evaluation standard, starting from experimental courses, this paper explores the important role of learning evaluation at the stage of preschool education, focus-ing on the research of learning evaluation at the education stage and how to carry out teaching evaluation. Based on experimental courses at the stage of preschool education, this paper compre-hensively uses multiple research methods, such as literature, ob-servation, interview and text analysis, to classify the factors influ-encing learning evaluation research into teachers' individual fac-tors, factors of teaching environment, factors of teaching content, family and social factors, and makes a

  5. Current Situation and Progress in Integrative Medicine in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In the past 50 years,integration of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine,known as the Chinese version of integrative medicine (IM),has achieved significant developments.In this article,the present situation and progress in IM development in China are summarized from the aspects of IM application,policy making,scientific research,education,academic exchanges,and its future development.With continuous support from the Chinese government and successful scientific achievements in the past 50 years,the authors believe that IM will be moving forwards to a full globalization.

  6. Current Situations and Development Ideas of Buckwheat Tea Industry in Liangshan Prefecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fayong; GONG; Shiming; XIAO; Jing; LI

    2013-01-01

    This paper firstly introduces current situations of buckwheat tea industry in Liangshan Prefecture,current situations of intellectual property right of buckwheat tea in whole China,and total flavonoid content in buckwheat tea. On the basis of these current situations,it analyzes drawbacks of buckwheat tea sold in the market. Finally,it presents development ideas of buckwheat tea industry in Liangshan Prefecture.

  7. [Current situation of the most frequent zoonosis in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza Ramos, Juan

    2010-01-01

    Control and eradication of zoonoses is a priority because there can only be human health if there is animal health, and both will not exist if the environment is not healthy. This concept is called "One Health" Mexico has demonstrated its capacity to eradicate various zoonoses such as Venezuelan equine encephalitis, yellow fever cattle screwworm, and highly pathogenic avian influenza. Zoonoses and emerging and reemerging diseases and food-borne diseases are called neglected diseases. They provoke disease and diminish food security. Their presence is seen in marginalized populations with lags in their development that reflect the lack of equity in our society; these diseases are the product of the lack of attention to the social determinants of health and risk factors. Tackling these diseases should be comprehensive, with intersectoral, interdisciplinary, and transdisciplinary approaches. Government agencies located in the human/animal health environment interface do not have established limits of liability and there are overlapping and empty spots; legislation is insufficient to guarantee collaboration. It is urgent to have reforms and new forms of organizations, regionalized according to the epidemiological situation; at the municipal level, a priority is to formalize an effective service of veterinary public health. New impetuses to address the persistent social and health lags are proposed.

  8. [Current situation of the most frequent zoonosis in the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Castro, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Zoonoses are at the present time more important than ever due to their magnitude and impact. The international trade in animals, products and sub products, as well as the intense travel of people around the world, represent risks of dissemination of infectious diseases, and are the reason for a new age of emerging and reemerging zoonotic diseases. Under these conditions, public health and animal health authorities are obliged to work together in order to get more efficient control programs. In this paper the actual situation of some important emerging and reemerging zoonoses is analyzed, including: anthrax, rabies, tuberculosis, brucellosis, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, hanta virus, Hendra and Nipah virus. Particular attention is given to leptospirosis, due to the fact that it is considered by WHO and OIE as the widest spread zoonotic disease in the world. Zoonoses caused by ingestion of animal food products are discussed. They are responsible for the death of almost 2.2 million people. Bacteria of genus salmonella and campylobacter are considered. Some recommendations are given for the control and prevention of zoonoses, emphasizing the "One Health" concept.

  9. Dental laboratory technology education in China: current situation and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liwei; Yue, Li; Zhou, Min; Yu, Haiyang

    2013-03-01

    Modern dentistry and dental education in China were first introduced from abroad by Dr. Lindsay in 1907. However, advancements in the field of dental laboratory technology did not occur to the same degree in specialties such as prosthodontics and orthodontics. Since the 1990s, orders from abroad demanding dental appliances surged as the image of China as the "world's factory" strengthened. The assembly line model, in which technicians work like simple procedure workers, was rapidly applied to denture production, while the traditional education system and apprenticeship systems demonstrated little progress in these years. The lack of advancement in dental laboratory technology education caused insufficient development in China's dental technology industry. In order to alter the situation, a four-year dental laboratory technology undergraduate educational program was established in 2005 by West China School of Stomatology, Sichuan University (WCSS, SCU). This program was based on SCU's undergraduate education and WCSS's junior college education systems. The program introduced scientific methods in relevant subjects into laboratory technicians' training and made many improvements in the availability of trained faculty, textbooks, laboratory facilities, and curriculum.

  10. Under the new situation and the current situation of our English education and reform development prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Ruan

    2015-01-01

    Since the reform and opening up, China has achieved a certain degree of English education development. However, with the global trend of strengthening economic integration in the new era background, English education is gradually showing some difficult problems. Therefore, strengthening English education reform has become a hot topic of concern. The author based on the status quo of China' s English education, focusing on analysis of the content of the current English education reform.

  11. Science communication in India: current situation, history and future developments

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzonetto Marzia

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays, India is experiencing a widespread diffusion of science communication activities. Public institutions, non-governmental organisations and a number of associations are busy spreading scientific knowledge not only via traditional media but also through specific forms of interaction with a varied public. This report aims to provide a historical overview of the diffusion of science communication in India, illustrating its current development and its future prospects.

  12. Current situation of geoengineering and its impact on biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Interests in the process of geoengineering have grown and geoengineering is a focus for the Convention on Biological Diversity now. Geoengineering programs and experiments have been carried out tovarying extent globally and are of significance to Chinese interests. This paper originates from a review of a conference discussion and of relevant literatures. It introduces the concept of geoengineering, describes the current status of its development and discusses the potential impacts geoenginee...

  13. Current Situation of University Bilingual Teaching and Countermeasures Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜有为

    2012-01-01

      The development of education in China has become increasingly international. Therefore, carrying out bilingual teach⁃ing in Universities is of great significance to cultivating international talents. However, the current bilingual teaching in Universities of our country is not optimistic, facing many difficulties and challenges. In order to provide students with advanced international and dynamic culture, educators should continue to explore research and analyze bilingual teaching rationally and work out effective measures.

  14. Current Situation of International Nuclear Arms Control and Nuclear Disarmament

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong; Xianfu

    2014-01-01

    <正>Currently,international nuclear arms control and nuclear disarmament process is showing both encouraging and frustrating signs,with a stress on the latter.The following is a general picture:First,the new U.S.-Russian nuclear disarmament process faces challenges and prospect of a new round of nuclear disarmament negotiation is grim.As a result of implementing the New START signed in February 2011,as of March 1,2014,the United States has 1585

  15. Pediatric minimally invasive surgery in Africa: limitations and current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, Jerome; Numanoglu, Alp; Hay, Sameh Abdel

    2012-05-01

    The second largest and most populous continent, with an exploding pediatric population, Africa has an overwhelming burden on its very limited pediatric surgical services. In an international environment of progressively advancing endoscopic and robotic surgical techniques, the authors focus on the current role of endoscopic surgery on the continent and explore the potential reasons for its delayed acceptance and implementation. They proceed to document the spectrum of what is available and, using their "African experience," expand on financially viable models of further rolling out these techniques, including discussion around suitable training models for surgeons and their teams. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The current situation of treatment systems for alcoholism in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee Wook; Lee, Boung Chul; Kang, Tae-Cheon; Choi, Ihn-Geun

    2013-02-01

    Alcoholism is becoming one of the most serious issues in Korea. The purpose of this review article was to understand the present status of the treatment system for alcoholism in Korea compared to the United States and to suggest its developmental direction in Korea. Current modalities of alcoholism treatment in Korea including withdrawal treatment, pharmacotherapy, and psychosocial treatment are available according to Korean evidence-based treatment guidelines. Benzodiazepines and supportive care including vitamin and nutritional support are mainly used to treat alcohol withdrawal in Korea. Naltrexone and acamprosate are the drugs of first choice to treat chronic alcoholism. Psychosocial treatment methods such as individual psychotherapy, group psychotherapy, family therapy, cognitive behavior therapy, cue exposure therapy, 12-step facilitation therapy, self-help group therapy, and community-based treatment have been carried out to treat chronic alcoholism in Korea. However, current alcohol treatment system in Korea is not integrative compared to that in the United States. To establish the treatment system, it is important to set up an independent governmental administration on alcohol abuse, to secure experts on alcoholism, and to conduct outpatient alcoholism treatment programs and facilities in an open system including some form of continuing care.

  17. Nuclear energy: current situation and prospects to 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Sue

    2007-04-15

    For close to half a century nuclear fission has been providing reliable supplies of electricity to the UK, with virtually no emissions of carbon dioxide. Over that period, the UK nuclear industry has avoided the emission of over one and a half billion tonnes of CO2. Yet no nuclear plant has been built in the UK for over two decades even though many of the stations in our current fleet are now within a decade or so of the end of their lifetime. Without new plants being ordered soon, the UK's nuclear capacity will decline dramatically, from 23% today to 3% post-2020--just as considerations of supply security and climate change are becoming increasingly important. Elsewhere in the world, many countries such as China, India, Japan, South Korea, Finland and France are building new stations. Other countries such as the USA, South Africa, and some nations that currently do not have nuclear stations (such as Indonesia and Poland) are making preparations for future nuclear stations. Globally capacity factors for nuclear plants are higher than they have ever been, averaging around 85% and with the best stations achieving well over 90%. Lifetime can be 60 years. That the economics of such stations compete well with other technologies is well founded and easily verifiable--especially in the face of rising fossil fuel prices and the pricing in of costs for CO2 emissions--both of which stand to improve the economics of nuclear energy still further. Waste volumes arising from modern plants are just a fraction of those of some earlier stations, and the technologies are in place to deal with them safely and effectively. Following recent reviews and international developments, there is growing confidence that internationally available competitive designs of nuclear plant will provide part of the solution to the UK's long-term energy needs.

  18. Europe: history, current situation and control measures for infectious bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RC Jones

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and nature of different strains of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV in Europe are described. Infectious bronchitis (IB is the most important endemic viral respiratory disease where highly pathogenic Newcastle disease and avian influenza are not present. IB was first described in the UK in 1948 and identified as Massachusetts type. In the 1970s and 80s new serotypes were reported in Holland and elsewhere and new vaccines were developed. The 1990s saw the emergence of the major variant commonly called 793B, again needing a new vaccine. Two novel types have been recognised since 2000, Italy 02 and QX. Italy 02 appears to be well controlled by the use of two different live vaccines (H120 and the 793B-related 4/91 while for QX, associated with nephritis in young birds and silent layers, new vaccines are in development. The use of two vaccines as above is a widely used protocol and is capable of protecting against a wide range of different types. Alternative approaches to IB vaccination are discussed. The importance of constant surveillance for prevalent and novel IBV types is emphasised and the value of experimental infections in chickens to determine the pathogenesis and pathology of new types in addition to testing efficacy of vaccines is outlined.

  19. Current situation and development of wind power in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Nengsheng; NI Weidou

    2007-01-01

    The current development of wind power in China was presented in this paper.Many regions such as Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region,Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and southeast coastal region,etc.in China have abundant wind energy resource.At the same time,the utilization of wind power in China has been developing quickly and its prospect is promising in spite of many some obstacles.With the implementation of the Renewable Energy Law,some previous obstacles have been or are being eliminated.Much investment and many enterprises start to enter this field.In spite of this,there still exist some financial and technological obstacles.One of the technological obstacles is the stability of local power grid owing to the increasing proportion of the wind power capacity.Because the centralized development mode of wind power was adopted,the quick fluctuation of wind speed will influence the voltage and frequency stability of local power grid.In addition,large wind farm has little dispatching ability because of the uncontrollability,randomness and fluctuation of natural incoming wind.To erase these obstacles,a novel hybrid power system combining wind farm and small gas turbine power plants is discussed.

  20. Current situation of geoengineering and its impact on biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senlu Yin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Interests in the process of geoengineering have grown and geoengineering is a focus for the Convention on Biological Diversity now. Geoengineering programs and experiments have been carried out tovarying extent globally and are of significance to Chinese interests. This paper originates from a review of a conference discussion and of relevant literatures. It introduces the concept of geoengineering, describes the current status of its development and discusses the potential impacts geoengineering may have on biodiversity. Arguments about geoengineering in the Convention on Biological Diversity are also discussed. Researches show that geoengineering programs mainly affect biodiversity by changing the local or regional climate and environment. Large scale geoengineering programs may be prohibited in future due to uncertainty over their potential impacts on biodiversity. However, the necessity for energy saving and obligationsto reduce emissions will drive the progress of geoenginering. The future development of geoengineering is also examined. It is concluded that the techniques involved need to be of a high standard, highly efficient, low in cost and environmentally safe. Precautionary measures should be taken in the implementation of geoenginering related activities, and mechanisms for monitoring their effects should be thoroughly explored.

  1. Sentinel Node Mapping for Breast Cancer: Current Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Vidal-Sicart

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Axillary node status is a major prognostic factor in early-stage disease. Traditional staging needs levels I and II axillary lymph node dissection. Axillary involvement is found in 10%–30% of patients with T1 (<2 cm tumours. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a minimal invasive method of checking the potential nodal involvement. It is based on the assumption of an orderly progression of lymph node invasion by metastatic cells from tumour site. Thus, when sentinel node is free of metastases the remaining nodes are free, too (with a false negative rate lesser than 5%. Moreover, Randomized trials demonstrated a marked reduction of complications associated with the sentinel lymph node biopsy when compared with axillary lymph node dissection. Currently, the sentinel node biopsy procedure is recognized as the standard treatment for stages I and II. In these stages, this approach has a positive node rate similar to those observed after lymphadenectomy, a significant decrease in morbidity and similar nodal relapse rates at 5 years. In this review, the indications and contraindications of the sentinel node biopsy are summarized and the methodological aspects discussed. Finally, the new technologic and histologic developments allow to develop a more accurate and refinate technique that can achieve virtually the identification of 100% of sentinel nodes and reduce the false negative rate.

  2. Current Situation Analysis for Oral English Learning of Vocational College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶

    2013-01-01

    Through the questionnaire, this paper makes survey and analysis on the current oral English learning situation of the vocational college students, and explores the methods and approaches to improve the vocational college students ’oral English communication ability.

  3. Building an information security strategy for EHR: guidelines for assessing the current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Yara; Stergioulas, Lampros

    2010-01-01

    This paper is looking at electronic health record (EHR) systems and their information security strategy. It focuses on the first step of building an information security strategy which is analysing the current situation of an EHR system. This research is based on different research methods applied to different EHR systems. In this paper we define eight elements that can be used as guidelines for how best to assess the current situation of any EHR system.

  4. Current Situations and Countermeasures of Development of Kiwifruit Industry in Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wei; WAN Ming-chang; YANG Sheng-jun; ZHANG Xue; QIAO Rong

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of current development situations of planting, scientific research and processing of kiwifruit industry in Guizhou Province, the paper analyzes main factors restricting development of kiwifruit industry, including lack of unified planning, standardized planting specifications, and backward management of kiwifruit orchard. In accordance with current development situations and restricting factors, the paper presents some countermeasures for development of kiwifruit industry in Guizhou Province, including scientific planning, optimizing variety structure, management of cultivation technology, training of kiwifruit farmers, as well as marketing.

  5. How to Improve Current Situation of the Communicative Approach in High School EFL Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽芳

    2009-01-01

    The Communicative Approach has been used in EFL teaching of China for years; but still there are some problems centers around it when it is applied in high school English teaching. This paper explores the current situation of the Communicative Approach in Chinese high school EFL teaching by first looking at a simple case study, and then some suggestions are given as to how to improve this situation.

  6. A study on current situations of college students' foreign language anxiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bi Ran

    2015-01-01

    An empirical study on current situations of college students' foreign language anxiety is concerned with in this paper. The author adopted Horwitz's Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) to measure the level of foreign language anxiety of 325 participants and then the conclusions are drawn.

  7. Current situation of endoscopic biliary cannulation and salvage techniques for difficult cases: Current strategies in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Ichiro; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Bhatia, Vikram

    2016-04-01

    In the pancreatobiliary session at Endoscopic Forum Japan (EFJ) 2015, current trends of routine biliary cannulation techniques and salvage techniques for difficult biliary cannulation cases were discussed. Endoscopists from nine Japanese high-volume centers along with two overseas centers participated in the questionnaires and discussion. It was concluded that, currently, in Western countries, the wire-guided cannulation (WGC) technique is favored during initial cannulation attempts. However, the conventional technique using an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography catheter with contrast medium injection is still used as first choice at most Japanese high-volume centers. The WGC technique is used as the second choice at some institutions only. After failed biliary cannulation attempts, the initial salvage option preferred in most centers includes pancreatic guidewire placement, followed by precut techniques as the second salvage choice. Among several precut techniques, the free-hand needle knife sphincterotomy with cutting upwards from the pancreatic duct is most popular. Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided rendezvous technique is also carried out as a final salvage option at select institutions.

  8. Current Situation and Developing Countermeasures of Postgraduate Innovation Center in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Can

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is the driving force to promote the development of our nation. Postgraduate education, as an important approach to cultivate high-level talents, is a major part of the national innovation system. The establishment of the Postgraduate Innovation Center has an important significance for the cultivation of innovative talents in colleges and universities. This paper expounds the connotation and characteristics of Postgraduate Innovation Center and analyzes its current situation, operation mode, function orientation, institution settings and the innovative products. The paper also points out the problems in the current situation of the Postgraduate Innovation Center and finds the factors which restrict the development of the center. Finally, the paper puts forward some corresponding countermeasures.

  9. The current situation of deaf people in the labour market in the Czech Rebublic

    OpenAIRE

    Vyšínová, Kateřina

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the current situation of deaf people in the labour market in the Czech Republic. It emphasizes on differentiation of individual hearing impairment which is very important to explore the issue. The work examines the offer of education for deaf and deals with obstacles in the transition from school to working life, which is closely related to future labour market outcomes. It also focuses on organizations that help deaf people to overcome these barriers. It defines employ...

  10. Hospital based ethics, current situation in France: between "Espaces" and committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrier, M

    2006-09-01

    Unlike research ethics committees, which were created in 1988, the number of functioning hospital based ethical organisations in France, such as clinical ethics committees, is unknown. The objectives of such structures are diverse. A recent law created regional ethical forums, the objectives of which are education, debate, and research in relation to healthcare ethics. This paper discusses the current situation in France and the possible evolution and conflicts induced by this law. The creation of official healthcare ethics structures raises several issues.

  11. Current situation of Chinese forestry tactics and strategy of sustainable development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the current situation of Chinese forestry and aseries of ecological, environmental, economic, and social problems, this paper emphasized on the importance of forests in social and economic development in China The author pointed out that sustainable development, particularly the sustainable development of forestry, is the inevitable choice to solve the problems of ecological environment and social economics. The objectives, criteria, and strategies of sustaining forestry were also demonstrated and expounded, from the viewpoints of ecology, economics, and sociology.

  12. Current situation for cultivating reflective thinking in English reading instruction--The influence of teaching models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Qinglan

    2013-01-01

    Reflective thinking plays an essential role in cultivating students’creative ability. It’s essential to cultivate this ability in the process of reading instruction,while the present traditional English teaching models hinder its development. This paper tries to analyze the current situation in cultivating students’reflective thinking in English reading instruction from the traditional teaching models,in the hope of refreshing the teachers’consciousness on their teaching methods.

  13. [Current situation of endemic status, prevention and control of neglected zoonotic diseases in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Zhu, Hong-Run; Yang, Guo-Jing

    2013-06-01

    Neglected zoonotic diseases not only threaten the health of human, especially to the livestock keepers in poverty-stricken areas but also cause great economic losses to the animal husbandry. This paper reviews the current situation of the endemic status, prevention and control of neglected zoonotic diseases existing in China including rabies, bovine tuberculosis, brucellosis, anthrax, leptospirosis, echinococcosis, cysticercosis, leishmaniasis and fascioliasis, so as to provide the basic information for better controlling, even eliminating, the neglected zoonotic diseases in China.

  14. Analysis of the Mechanism and the Current Situation of the Plasma Purification Technology for Diesel Exhaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuli Guo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the mechanism and the current situation of the plasma purification technology for diesel exhaust is introduced. Research indicates that cleaning the diesel exhaust with the plasma produced by corona discharge or dielectric barrier discharge has too high energy consumption to direct use without catalyst. To solve this problem, the study gives some new ways about cleaning diesel exhaust with arc discharge.

  15. Current Situation of Heavy Metal Pollution in Farmland Soil and Phytoremediation Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanfei HUANG; Guifen CHEN; Liumei XIONG; Yuyi HUANG

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation technology is a newly-developed way of soil heavy metal pollution repair with high efficiency and good ecological comprehensive benefit. This paper briefly introduces the soil heavy metal pollution status at home and abroad,and focuses on the analysis of harm,sources and current situation of soil heavy metal pollution at home and abroad as well as mechanism and application of phytoremediation.Finally it discusses the key problems in phytoremediation technology that need to resolve in the future.

  16. Current Development Situations of Ziziphus Jujuba Industry in South Xinjiang and Recommendations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinwen; JIN; Xuedong; YAO; Chengjiang; LIU; Hai; LIN; Zheng; LOU; Zhenjiang; GAO

    2015-01-01

    Through surveying current development situations and existing problems of planting and processing of Ziziphus jujuba in south Xinjiang,this paper discussed planting,processing mode of Ziziphus Jujuba in south Xinjiang and development direction of enterprises in Ziziphus Jujuba production. It is expected to ensure and increase quality and sales volume of Ziziphus Jujuba and promote sound and sustainable development of Ziziphus Jujuba industrial chain in south Xinjiang.

  17. Plagiarism: A Shared Responsibility of All, Current Situation, and Future Actions in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthanna, Abdulghani

    2016-01-01

    As combating plagiarism is a shared responsibility of all, this article focuses on presenting the current situation of higher education in Yemen. The critical review of four implementable policy documents and interviews revealed the absence of research ethics code, research misconduct policy, and institutional policies in the country. This led to the presence of several acts of research dishonesty. The article concludes with an initiative for necessary future actions in the nation.

  18. Current Situation of Land Use in Three-gorges Reservoir Region in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuhai; WANG; Qigang; ZHOU; Fei; YANG; Pengwu; YANG; Yao; WANG

    2014-01-01

    Land is rare natural resource.Production and construction of all sectors in a region must be based on land.Thus,overall research and analysis on current situation of land use can reveal scope,depth and reasonableness of land use,is helpful for analyzing internal mechanism land use change,and can reflect production scale,level and characteristics,and also can provide basis for optimization and adjustment of land use structure.Based on RS and GIS technologies,with the aid of TM image data of the Three-gorges Reservoir Region in 2010,the data of current situation of land use in Three-gorges Reservoir Region was obtained,and current land use situation was analyzed using geographimetrics and landscape ecology methods.Results show that since natural,social and economic conditions are different,land type diversity,combination type and location index of counties in the Three-gorges Reservoir Region are varied.In the land use diversity index,Xingshan County has the most single land use type(mainly forest land); in land use degree,Yuzhong District has the highest land use degree; in the integrated index of land use,Changshou District has the lowest integrated index of land use.This study is expected to provide reference and basis for formulating policies of protecting ecological environment of the Three-gorges Reservoir Region.

  19. The 1957 Valencia flood: hydrological and sedimentological reconstruction and comparison to the current situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Puertes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to improve the knowledge of the flood that took place in Valencia, Spain, in 1957. In other words, the aim is to test if it is possible to explain the flood waves with the incorporation of sediment cycle to a distributed hydrological model. Furthermore, this work aims to be aware of the current consequences of a similar event, taking into account land use changes, particularly, the urban rise in the lower basin, and the current flood defenses of the city. To do this, the hydrological model was implemented in the current basin situation. Once implemented, a reconstruction of precipitation at hourly discretization for the 1957 event was made and the sedimentological sub-model was calibrated. Then, the hydrographs in the chosen points were obtained. Finally, a simulation using the 1957 precipitation in the current basin situation was made, in order to be aware of the current consequences.

  20. The current situation and prospect of oil steel pipe in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; He-lin; JI; Ling-kang; XIE; Li-hua

    2005-01-01

    The oil steel pipe in the petroleum industry is very important for its high price, large consumption volume and great effect on thedevelopment of petroleum industry. The oil steel pipe mainly includes oil well pipe (drill pipe, drill collar, casing and tubing etc. ) and oil-gas transportation pipe. This paper is an attempt to make a comprehensive review on the current situation and prospect of the oil steel pipe in China, presenting the past , today and future of the China oil pipe.The first section is a historical review of the China oil pipe. The developing course and progress of the oil steel pipe products are presented. The second section is about the current situation of the China oil pipe. The general situation of the China's steel pipe corporation and their products types,capability, etc. is introduced. The third section is about the prospect of the China oil pipe. This part mainly describes the new product research and development in China steel pipe corporations,which are facing more and more strict technical requirements of the petroleum industry in oil pipe,and reveals the prosperity of China's steel pipe corporations.

  1. Analysis on Current Situation of Xinjiang Photography Current Situation Analysis and Development Ponders%新疆摄影现状简析与发展之思辩

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李太保

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the current situation of Xinjiang photography, and focuses on the analysis of two viewpoints, which are "The scenery photography hindered Xinjiang photography's all-round development" and "Xinjiang shotfld develop the scenery photography primarily". The author thinks that, both views are biased, only emphasized the side, and ignored the other side. In the history new starting point of Xin- jiang leapfrog development, Xinjiang photography is necessary to make great efforts to foster the develop- ment of Xinjiang documentary photography, but also insists on the development of Xinjiang's landscape photography, h is necessary to advocate diversity, but also should pay attention to features and brand.%文章简析了当前新疆的摄影现状,并重点对“风光摄影阻碍了新疆摄影的全面发展”和“新疆应该以发展风光摄影为主”的观点进行了剖析。在新疆跨越式发展的历史新起点上,新疆摄影界既要下大力培育发展新疆的纪实摄影,又要坚持发展新疆的风光摄影;既要大力倡导多元化,又要抓特色、闯品牌。

  2. The Hydraulic Option in Former Soviet Central Asia. Historical Perspective and Current Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Vea Rodríguez

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the situation of water resource management in the five Central Asian republics that formed part of the USSR. By way of introduction, it lists the characteristics of water as a resource and then analyses the uses and distribution of water in the region.For this, it outlines a brief historical approach which helps to understand, in all its magnitude, the current situation of ecological degradation and how it determines living conditions in the region. Likewise, it deals with the policies of intervention in water resource management of the Central Asian states and of international institutions, and it includes the description of two specific case studies which form part of initiatives devoted to reversing a processwhich has led to the greatest ecological disaster on the planet, the most well-known aspect of which is the practical disappearance of the Aral Sea.

  3. Current situation of depression healthcare in Spain: results of a psychiatrists' survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Martín-Águeda

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the current situation of healthcare for depression in Spain, according to psychiatrists opinion, and how it has evolved over the last 20 years, comparativily with the results reported in previous studies of our group. Methods: Throughout 2002, we recorded the opinions of 101 specialists in psychiatry after asking them to fill out structured questionnaires in which they rated care, clinical, therapeutic and care quality. Results: The presence of depressive disorders in healthcare is substantial, despite the high figures for "concealed epidemiology", with an increase in these last 20 years of disorders comorbid with anxiety. Currently, most patients arrive at the psychiatrist having been referred by their general practitioners (GP, as there is now less reluctance in depressive patients to such referral. In the last years there has been an increase in pharmacological treatment, with adverse effects of the drugs representing the major obstacle to non-adherence to such treatment. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs constitute the pharmacological group of choice, and are the drugs most commonly used in the treatment of depression, together with venlafaxine. Areas where there is a need for improvement are time devoted to consultation, coordination between GPs and psychiatrists, waiting lists, and resources available to Mental Health Units. Conclusions: Current situation of depression healthcare in Spain has substantially changed in recent years, improving in some aspects, thanks, in part, to the attitudes of GPs with this disorder and to evolution of pharmacological treatment.

  4. [Current situation of toxicity classification of Chinese materia medica and its research thoughts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenyan; Hou, Xiujuan; Wang, Bin; Zhu, Yuelan; Zhang, Shuofeng; Chang, Hongsheng; Sun, Jianning

    2012-08-01

    Toxicity of Chinese materia medica (CMM) is an important part of Chinese herbal nature theory. In clinical application, the dosage, time limitation and compatibility of CMM is mainly determined by toxicity. At present, there is no uniform toxicity classification standard for the evaluation of Chinese herbal toxicity. Therefore, it is significant to research toxicity classification of CMM. The current situation of toxicity classification of CMM is reviewed in this paper, and proposed research thoughts are as follows: the measurement of toxicity parameters, the confirmation of poisoning target organs, the investigation on toxic mechanism by serum pharmacology and toxicokinetics, the comprehensive evaluation on toxicity based on quantitative theory.

  5. [Current quality management situation and administration countermeasure study of enterprises marketing corneal contact lens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yungui; Yao, Ying; Shangguan, Shihao; Gu, Qun; Gao, Wuming; Chen, Yaoshui

    2014-05-01

    Study the current quality management situation of enterprises marketing corneal contact lens via systemic investigations and explore effective administration countermeasures in the future. The quality management indicators of sixty-two corneal contact lens marketing enterprises in Xuhui district of Shanghai were systematically investigated and enterprises of different operation models was compared and analyzed. Wholesale enterprises and retail chain enterprises are apparently better than independent enterprises almost in all facets. Facilitate market accession of corneal contact lens marketing enterprises, encourage the business model of retail chain, enhance supervision of corneal contact lens marketing enterprises, especially independent franchisors.

  6. Analysis of the status’current situation and reflection on the development of circular economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟程

    2013-01-01

    It is the mainstream of the times building a moderately prosperous society, build a harmonious home, guiding eco-nomic development with scientific Outlook on Development. It is the objective requirements of social development, current more and more prominent, ecological construction and environmental protection increasingly grim situation along with Chi-na's rapid economic growth and increasing population, water, land, mineral, etc. like this it is particularly important and urgent. According to the scientific development concept, vigorously develop the circular economy;accelerate the establishment of a resource-saving society.

  7. Current Development Situations and Countermeasures for Tobacco Farmers’ Specialized Cooperatives in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinbin; LUO; Jianqiang; XU

    2013-01-01

    This paper firstly introduces development history of China’s farmers’ specialized cooperatives and connotation and mechanism of tobacco farmers’ specialized cooperatives. Then, it analyzes current development situations of tobacco farmers’ specialized cooperatives in Hunan Province. On the basis of analysis, it puts forward development countermeasures, including realizing circulation of tobacco land, strengthening propaganda of laws on tobacco farmers’ specialized cooperatives, increasing operation effect of tobacco farmers’ specialized cooperatives, enhancing guidance and supervision of tobacco farmers’ specialized cooperatives, as well as improving specialized service level.

  8. Current Situations of Agricultural Sci-tech Innovation and Development Path in Nantong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Chun-xin; SUN Qing-shan; QIU Hai-rong; ZHU Hai-yan; TANG Ming-xia; XUE Chen-xia

    2012-01-01

    Nantong is a typical region of large population and little land.The conflict between resources and environment is growing.Thus,the improvement of independent innovation ability based on current situations,oriented towards the future and relying on scientific and technological force directly decides the effect of strong economic city construction.Through analysis on achievements of agricultural sci-tech innovation works,existing problems and demand for developing modern agriculture in Nantong,we present development ideas,target orientation and basic principles of agricultural sci-tech innovation works in Nantong,and put forward eight paths.

  9. Current Situation of Introduction and Use of African Crop Germplasm Resources and Recommendations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zili; DING; Minghua; YAO; Chunhai; JIAO

    2015-01-01

    Africa is the origin center of many crops. It is rich in original ecological resources,especially special resources which are excellent materials for breeding research. With acceleration of commercial seeds in agriculture of African countries,some original ecological resources are disappearing. Through experience of introduction of African varieties in recent years,it analyzed current situation of introduction and use of African crop germplasm resources. Finally,it came up with recommendations for rescuing and taking full advantage of excellent African resources,solving difficult problem restricting crop breeding,enriching China’s crop germplasm bank,and improving China’s and African crop breeding level and innovation ability.

  10. Traditional Medicine in Madagascar - Current Situation and the Institutional Context of Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pierlovisi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Following WHO recommandations and in order to improve medical coverage, Madagascar officially recognized in 2007 its traditional medicine as a legitimate practice.UNESCO, to sustain traditional healers in the Indian Ocean, wanted to use anthropological tools to explore the current situation in Madagascar.Despit a plurality of practices, data collected for three months in the Southeast of the Island, allowed us to identify some fundamental aspects of Malagasy traditional medicine, such as the omnipresence of symbolism or the complexity of healers’ roles at the crossroads of social, sacred and therapeutic registries.The study shows that the national policy on traditional medicine improves gradually the promotion of these practices too often undervalued. Nevertheless, the institutional context exposes weaknesses which might explain the difficulty encountered by some tradipractitioners to find their place in this new regulation. Indeed, regarding the current context, a reducing process of the healers' practices is likely to emerge.

  11. Analysis on Current Situations of Endangered P.intermedius S.Y.Chen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We carried out a general survey of current situations of P.intermedius S.Y.Chen.Results show that P.intermedius S.Y.Chen is distributed in Dongkeng Township,Jingnan Township and Yanxi Township.It covers an area of 262.51 hm2.The distribution areas are narrow and limited.What’s worse,it suffers from serious destruction and has been withered in large areas.Besides,according to current introduction test,it is difficult to survive in other places.In accordance with Exploring the Criteria for Endangered Categories of Bamboo Species from China put forward by Ma Naixun et al from the Research Institute of Subtropical Forestry of Chinese Academy of Forestry(RISFCAF),we propose incorporating P.intermedius S.Y.Chen into vulnerable species for protection.

  12. Current Situation of the Solid Waste Management in Gjirokastra Region: Problems and Challenges for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ORNELA ÇUÇI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The system of collecting waste and the current situation in their management is the main objective of this paper, to help the local government for sustainable waste management in the district of Gjirokastra. Through this study it was possible the provision of a database for the management of actual waste at the regional level, an analysis of actual system of waste management, the criteria necessary for managing them through an approach of sustainable development environmental, economic and social. Geographical space, which is the objective of this study is Gjirokastra district, consisting of three districts and currently, according to the new territorial division of 6 municipalities. To provide data on the current situation of waste used the data of municipalities and communes under the old territorial division. Processing of this database, the most important qualities and characteristics of the area are classified into 6 new municipalities functioning. Also they have interviewed over 250 employees and stakeholders the respective municipalities, and are inventoried evidence on policy practices and technologies used. They were examined waste prevention policies at national, regional and local enforcement practices, and based on general descriptions of available activities to prevent / reuse / recycling has prepared a detailed SWOT analyze. With SWOT analysis and data arising from it the results of this study suggest measures for the sustainable management of waste in the district of Gjirokastra, because the waste generated is collected without any prior sorting and no recycling process for hazardous waste appliances (batteries, etc. together with them even hospital waste. Disposal of waste from communities and municipalities realized using plastic bags or not, but without any preliminary separation according to their content or without taking into consideration all the resource sharing and protection from further urbanization

  13. Comparing the Current Situation versus Desirable Perspective of Academic Libraries in Yazd University in Implementation of Total Quality Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathemeh Makkizadeh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available : Implementation of total quality management plays an important role as a progressive phenomenon in educational and cultural organizations. The main objective of this study is to compare the current situation versus desirable perspective of academic libraries in Yazd University in implementation of total quality management evaluated by managers and staff of the libraries. Independent t-test results suggested the managers have estimated the situation (M= 3.33. The independent t-test results to assess the difference in employees' attitudes about the desirable situation, was obtained as 4.33, compared with that of the managers which was 4.22. Apparently, the employees have higher expectations over the desirable situation rather than the managers. The dependent t-test results to assess the difference in managers’ attitudes about the current versus desirable situation, showed a meaningful difference of (p<0.01. The employees’ attitude towards the desirable situation (s= 0.39, M= 4.15 had a meaningful difference with their attitudes towards the current situation (s= 0.65, M= 3.04. People’s attitudes towards the current and desirable situation, had a high meaningfulness among all the eleven principles of quality management (p< 0.01. Meaningful differences were observed in multivariate analysis of variance aiming at assessing the effects of position and qualifications on the current eleven principles (p< 0.05. The results of multivariate analysis of variance to assess the effects of position and qualifications on the current eleven principles suggested that the effect of position on the components of desirable situation was not meaningful. Meanwhile, the results in effects of qualification suggested that individuals with different qualifications and university degrees had diverse attitudes towards the principles regarding the desirable situation.

  14. Aspects of the Current Fiscal - Budgetary Situation in Some Euro Area Countries. Implications for Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Criste

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial and economic global crisis has exacerbated some of the imbalances existent in all EU Member States, in particular the fiscal-budgetary imbalances. For some countries whose currency is euro, the fiscal and budgetary challenges seem to threaten even the stability of the euro area. Thus, in the context of financial and economic global crisis, this article aims at identifying a number of negative aspects of the fiscal-budgetary situation of some euro area countries, more seriously affected (Greece, Italy, Portugal, Ireland, Spain and at revealing a series of possible implications of this phenomenon for Romania, thus giving originality of the conducted analysis. A fulcrum in this approach is the economic literature and the authors’ research work in the field of European integration. Through a comparative approach, the authors have identified some weaknesses of the Romanian economy generated by the current situation of some euro area countries. Given the place of the theme within the frame of present interest researches, the article’s results will be of interest for both academics and practitioners.

  15. Drug interaction studies on new drug applications: current situations and regulatory views in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Drug interaction studies on new drug applications (NDAs) for new molecular entities (NMEs) approved in Japan between 1997 and 2008 are examined in the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA). The situations of drug interaction studies in NDAs have changed over the past 12 years, especially in metabolizing enzyme and transporter-based drug interactions. Materials and approaches to study drug-metabolizing enzyme-based drug interactions have improved, and become more rational based on mechanistic theory and new technologies. On the basis of incremental evidence of transporter roles in human pharmacokinetics, transporter-based drug interactions have been increasingly studied during drug development and submitted in recent NDAs. Some recently approved NMEs include transporter-based drug interaction information in their package inserts (PIs). The regulatory document "Methods of Drug Interaction Studies," in addition to recent advances in science and technology, has also contributed to plan and evaluation of drug interaction studies in recent new drug development. This review summarizes current situations and further discussion points on drug interaction studies in NDAs in Japan.

  16. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON DIFFICULTY OF EVACUATION FROM UNDERGROUND SPACES UNDER INUNDATED SITUATIONS USING REAL SCALE MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Yasuyuki; Ishigaki, Taisuke; Toda, Keiichi; Nakagawa, Hajime

    Many urbanized cities in Japan are located in alluvial plains, and the vulnerability of urbanized areas to flood disaster is highlighted by flood attacks due to heavy rain fall or typhoons. Underground spaces located in the urbanized area are flood-prone areas, and the intrusion of flood watar into underground space inflicted severe damages on urban functions and infrastructures. In a similar way, low-lying areas like "bowl-shaped" depression and underpasses under highway and railroad bridges are also prone to floods. The underpasses are common sites of accidents of submerged vehicles, and severe damage including human damage occasionally occurs under flooding conditions. To reduce the damage due to inundation in underground space, needless to say, early evacuation is one of the most important countermeasures. This paper shows some experimental results of evacuation tests from underground spaces under inundated situations. The difficulities of the evacuation from underground space has been investigated by using real scale models (door, staircase and vehicle), and the limit for safety evacuation is discussed. From the results, it is found that water depth of 0.3 - 0.4m would be a critical situation for the evacuation from underground space through staircases and door and that 0.7 - 0.8m deep on the ground would be also a critical situation for safety evacuation though the doors of the vehicle. These criteria have some possibility to vary according to different inundated situations, and they are also influenced by the individual variation like the difference of physical strength. This means that these criteria requires cautious stance to use although they show a sort of an index of the limitation for saftty evacuation from underground space.

  17. Characteristics of gifted and talented student: the current situation in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Almeida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the current situation in Portugal with regard to high capability and talented students, focusing on the authors’ experience in the National Association for Study and Intervention in Giftedness (ANEIS. In a sequential argument, we focus on the concept of giftedness, the most specific characteristics of high ability students, and the procedures used in their initial identification and assessment. Also, the most frequent educational responses to these students are described. Finally, we underline some studies conducted as a result of the collaboration between ANEIS and several Portuguese universities. These studies refer to the instruments and procedures used for the assessment of giftedness and talent, and the impact of the implemented educational measures.

  18. Current situation and development tendency of thermal spraying materials in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU; Yue-guang

    2005-01-01

    The current situations of thermal spraying materials in China are described in this paper.The thermal spraying technology in China has a great progress over tens of years. More than one hundred varieties of material products serve thermal spraying producing now. They belong to three kinds, powders,wires and rods. Technologies for producing alloy, ceramic and composite powders, alloy and cored wires,and oxide ceramic rods are applied to large-scale production. Many research and development works on advanced materials for thermal spraying are carrying out recent years. They show that the general tendencies of thermal spraying materials in China are composite or low-impurity component, ultrafine or nanosized microstructure, high properties, and specialized and systematized applications. Thermal spraying materials have great prospects with the development of saving society in China.

  19. The Current Situation of Quality Supervision and Production Safety of Aquatic Products in Nanjing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoqin; ZHOU; Wenjie; LI

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the work of quality supervision and production safety of aquatic products in Nanjing City has been carried out rapidly, and the system of "origin exit, market access, sign traceability, real-time monitoring" has been basically formed, initially realizing the whole-process monitoring on the quality safety of aquatic products from "pond to table". We take the current situation of quality supervision and production safety of aquatic products in Nanjing City as the study object, take the basic work of supervision on aquatic products in Nanjing City and advancing both in scope and in depth as breakthrough point, to sum up the results achieved in the work of quality supervision and production safety of aquatic products in Nanjing City in recent years; make initial exploration and research, in order to consolidate the existing achievements, and further enhance the level of supervision on quality safety of aquatic products in Nanjing City.

  20. Publishing in Psychology: A description of the current situation in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREAS FREY

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current publication situation in the German field of psychology from an author’s viewpoint and examines the authors’ acceptance regarding open access journals. The review is based on the answers of 28 authors to a questionnaire on official statistics about psychological journals and on information obtained from journal editors. The results show that accessibility to journals does not pose problems to authors in Germany. The authors are clearly oriented towards the Anglo-American branch of scientific psychology, writing mostly in the English language and submitting their manuscripts to international journals. The whole publication process takes rather long but could be substantially quicker if the publication lag was abbreviated. Most of the authors appreciate the general idea of open access journals but see serious challenges that need to be overcome when a new journal is to be established. The circumstances under which a new psychological open access journal could be successful are briefly discussed.

  1. Current Situation and Demand of Rural Endowment Security in Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunmei; LIU; Lutang; LI

    2013-01-01

    With intensification of population aging and rise in elderly dependency ratio,the demand for endowment security becomes higher and higher,particularly in rural areas.Taking Shaanxi Province as an example,the authors selected people older than 65 in 18 natural villages in north Shaanxi,south Shaanxi and Guanzhong.With the aid of survey data and related official statistical data,they made an evaluation of current situation of the rural endowment security in Shaanxi Province.Results indicate that home-based endowment is the major endowment method of rural elderly,but such method is influenced by family’s economic support ability and children’s support willingness,thus facing big demand gap.On the basis of analyzing gap problem,the authors recommended that government should increase financial and policy supports,optimize management and monitoring,actively develop non-government organizations,and promote socialization of rural endowment service.

  2. Goals and priorities of socio-economic reforms with consideration of the current economic situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dykha Mariya V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article defines goals and priorities of reforms in Ukraine with consideration of the current situation in economy and social sphere. It marks the necessity of changing strategic goals and giving realistic orientation to the process of reformation. The author marks the necessity of development of institutional grounds of state management, activation of internal reserves of development of socio-economic processes, development of science intensive technologies and innovation activity, development of the weighted socio-economic policy, refusal from the paternalistic model and consequent establishment of conditions for activation of possibilities of the population to solve their social problems independently. The article provides a strategic contour of participation of the state in achievement of goals of socio-economic development, which includes a strategic analysis and identification of goals, strategic and tactical levels of goal-setting, strategic control and regulation of socio-economic development.

  3. Science communication in Brazil: A historical review and considerations about the current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarani, Luisa; Moreira, Ildeu DE Castro

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present a historical overview of the science communication activities in Brazil since the nineteenth century and we analyze the current situation and its main concerns. The principal scopes and tools for science communication discussed here are the following: science centers and museums, mass media and large public events for communicating science and technology (S&T). In recent years, such activities have had a significant breakthrough in Brazil. Yet, there is still a long way to go in order to deliver a quality and extensive science and technology communication to the Brazilians as well as to achieve a suitable level of social appropriation of knowledge on S&T by the Brazilian society. Some of the main challenges that we are facing are discussed herein.

  4. Current Situation and Suggestions of Decorative Fishery Development in Hainan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi; ZHANG; Ning; YANG; Hai; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    Decorative fishery is an important part of recreational fisheries,Hainan has the potential to develop decorative fishery.In this paper,on the basis of the deep-going survey on the current situation of decorative fishery development in Hainan,the main questions of decorative fish cultivation and market were discussed.At the same time,many suggestions were brought up,such as exploiting the biological resources of Hainan Island,strengthening scientific research efforts,introducing new varieties of ornamental species,strengthening industrial guidance and market management,etc.,which will benefit the rational utilization of tropical biological resources and increase the whole competitive advantage of decorative fishery in Hainan Province.

  5. Study on the Current Situation and Protection Countermeasures of Wild Plant Resources in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the current situation and protection countermeasures of wild plant resources in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve. [Method] The current situation of wild plant resources in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve was researched by means of route survey, sample plot survey and literature survey, and then the main impact factors of wild plant resources were analyzed by using participatory rural appraisal and problem tree analysis, finally protection countermeasures were put ...

  6. Experimental observation of direct current voltage-induced phase synchronization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Haihong Li; Weiqing Liu; Qiongling Dai; Jinghua Xiao

    2006-09-01

    The dynamics of two uncoupled distinct Chua circuits driven by a common direct current voltage is explored experimentally. It was found that, with increasing current intensity, the dominant frequencies of these two Chua circuits will first vary at different speeds, approach an identical value for a certain current intensity and then separate. Techniques such as synchronization index and phase difference distribution were employed to analyze the phase coherence between these two Chua circuits.

  7. Veterinary medicinal products for the bees - the current situation and future strategies - an important topic discussed at European level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Karina Draghici,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the current situation and future issues relating to health and treatment options bees, bee breeders in Europe, agencies and drug manufacturers in Europe have held several meetings. One of thesetook place last year in December at the EMEA (European Medicines Agency in London, United Kingdom. The purpose of this meeting was to consider the current situation of pathology in bees to identify the most common diseases found in this species, identification and lack of treatment options for some diseases, and identifying solutions to improve the situation.

  8. Cystic Echinococcosis in Spain: Current Situation and Relevance for Other Endemic Areas in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Vazquez, Francisco A.; Pardo-Lledias, Javier; Francos-Von Hunefeld, Marcelo; Cordero-Sanchez, Miguel; Alamo-Sanz, Rufino; Hernandez-Gonzalez, Ana; Brunetti, Enrico; Siles-Lucas, Mar

    2011-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) remains an important health problem in many regions of the world, both where no control measures have been implemented, and where control programs have been incompletely successful with ensuing re-emergence of the disease. In Spain, official data on CE show an increase in the proportion of intermediate hosts with CE during the last few years, and autochthonous pediatric patients have been reported, a sign of active local transmission of disease. A similar picture emerges from data reported to the European Food Safety Authority by other European countries. Nevertheless, several crucial aspects related to CE that would help better understand and control the disease have not been tackled appropriately, in particular the emergence of infection in specific geographical areas. In this respect, while some data are missing, other data are conflicting because they come from different databases. We review the current situation of CE in Spain compared with areas in which similar problems in the CE field exist, and offer recommendations on how to overcome those limitations. Specifically, we believe that the introduction of national registries for CE with online data entry, following the example set by the European Registry for Alveolar Echinococcosis, would help streamline data collection on CE by eliminating the need for evaluating and integrating data from multiple regions, by avoiding duplication of data from patients who access several different health facilities over time, and by providing much needed clinical and epidemiological data that are currently accessible only to clinicians. PMID:21283615

  9. [Survey of current situation of schistosomiasis health education in Wuxi City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiao-jun; Gao, Dong-lin; Zhang, Xuan; Lu, Bing

    2015-04-01

    To understand the current situation of schistosomiasis health education in in Wuxi City where schistosomiasis transmission has been interrupted, so as to provide the evidence for formulating the health education strategies. Face to face interviews and a professional designed questionnaire were used to collect the information of the current schistosomiasis health education and investigate the awareness of schistosomiasis knowledge in primary and middle schools and in communities. The total awareness rate of schistosomiasis knowledge was 87.7% among 873 students and the figure was 83.0% among 693 community residents. The students who studied in the schools with more than 1 class hour of schistosomiasis health education, completed schistosomiasis health education material or teaching plan, and implementing health education through multiple ways had higher knowledge awareness rates compared with the schools without (χ2 = 291.408, 709.622, 13.751, all P education through broadcast/TV or square propaganda had a higher knowledge awareness rate compared with the communities without (χ2= 90.772, 47.436, all P education should be strengthened.

  10. WNV infection - an emergent vector borne viral infection in Serbia: Current situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Tamaš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a neurovirulent mosquito-borne Flavivirus with zoonotic potential. Virus is maintained in nature in an enzootic transmission cycle between avian hosts and mosquito vectors, but occasionally infects other vertebrates. The infection in horses and humans can be asymptomatic or it can have different clinical manifestations ranging from light febrile diseases to fatal meningoencephalitis. Recently, the number, frequency and severity of outbreaks with neurological consequences for birds, humans and horses have increased dramatically throughout central and south Europe, including Serbia, posing a serious veterinary and public health problem. The emergency of WNV infections in Serbia is described through the current epidemiology situation based on recent data on the incidence of WNV infection among virus natural hosts and vectors; sentinel (horses and other animal species, and in human population. The results of the WNV serology studies conducted on horse blood samples collected in different occasions during the last six years, and the results of the serology studies conducted among other animal species like pigs, wild boars, roe deer and dogs in Serbia are presented and discussed. Also, the results of the first studies on WNV presence in mosquito vectors and in wild birds as virus natural hosts in Serbia are presented and analyzed. In addition, the data on the WNV serology studies conducted in human population in Serbia in the last few years, and the existing data of WNV outbreaks in 2012 and 2013 are included. Regarding the existing knowledge on WNV epidemiology situation, the crucial role of veterinary service in early detection of WNV presence and ongoing national program of WNV surveillance in sentinel animals, mosquitoes and wild birds are discussed.

  11. An experimental analysis of situation awareness for cockpit display interface evaluation based on flight simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Hengyang; Zhuang Damin; Wanyan Xiaoru; Wang Qun

    2013-01-01

    Aircraft cockpit display interface (CDI) is one of the most important human-machine interfaces for information perceiving.During the process of aircraft design,situation awareness (SA) is frequently considered to improve the design,as the CDI must provide enough SA for the pilot to maintain the flight safety.In order to study the SA in the pilot-aircraft system,a cockpit flight simulation environment is built up,which includes a virtual instrument panel,a flight visual display and the corresponding control system.Based on the simulation environment,a human-in-the-loop experiment is designed to measure the SA by the situation awareness global assessment technique (SAGAT).Through the experiment,the SA degrees and heart rate (HR) data of the subjects are obtained,and the SA levels under different CDI designs are analyzed.The results show that analyzing the SA can serve as an objective way to evaluate the design of CDI,which could be proved from the consistent HR data.With this method,evaluations of the CDI design are performed in the experimental flight simulation environment,and optimizations could be guided through the analysis.

  12. Emotional, psychophysiological and behavioral responses elicited by the exposition to cyberbullying situations: Two experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona C.S. Caravita

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Two experimental studies investigated whether the exposure to cyberbullying situations produces in bullied youth, and in young people in general, higher levels of stress, negative emotions, and attention levels, in comparison to other peer interactions, including bullying. In both studies, participants' physiological activation (Study 1 and 2 and behavioral data (Study 2 were recorded while watching four 1-minute videos representing cyberbullying, face-to-face bullying, prosocial, and neutral interactions. Self-report questionnaires assessed participants' emotional responses to the videos, and victimization. Sixty-one adolescents (65.7% girls participated in Study 1; 35 young adults (60% girls participated in Study 2. Results indicate that cyberbullying causes higher stress and negative emotions than prosocial and neutral peer interactions, but not than bullying. Cyberbullying also elicited higher levels of stress and negative emotions in victims than non-victims, but only for adolescents.

  13. Experimental Setup for the Investigation of Superconducting Persistent Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    NOTES 14. ABSTRACT We report on a recent experimental setup for the investigation of the relaxation rate of the persistent current in an assembly of...at cryo-temperatures in magnetic field at time scale of seconds to hours. 15. SUBJECT TERMS persistent current, 2G HTS, coated conductor, relaxation ... activation . One unknown aspect is the variation of the coils’ position with temperature from room to cryogenic. A better design of the coils assembly

  14. The current economic situation in China and its impact on the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Stverkova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many companies try to enter to the international sector and to extend here their activity. Their international cooperation is an integral part of the action; it is necessary to know the cultural differences. Therefore it is important to understand the social development including the Social Progress Index and the secondary analysis of an economic situation in China; and its subsequent impact on the economy not only in the Czech Republic based on evaluation of Czech-Chinese business relations. China was in the last five years the male rotor of the world economic growth and became a significant importer of commodities. Last year, the Chinese economic growth rate slowed down, which could have negative consequences on other economies. This is also the possible reason for some Czech companies leaving the Chinese market; they transfer their production parts back to Europe or India. A presumption of high living standard, which all countries of the world and their inhabitants want to achieve, is according to the current paradigm of economic science the economic growth. The economy does not take pace in a vertical line, but at the horizontal level as the meaning of sharing in the net among the individuals. And the cooperation does not take place in the horizontal line but in the vertical line, which essentially changes the way of people's working.

  15. [Current situation in clinical trials with vaccines in the Czech Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čečetková, B; Smetana, J; Chlíbek, R

    2014-11-01

    Clinical trials are an important part of clinical research. The conduction of clinical trials is strictly regulated and has to comply with an approved protocol. Local regulatory authorities, independent ethic committees, sponsors of clinical trials as well as the investigators are involved from the submission until the very end of the trial. All clinical trials performed in the Czech Republic have to be approved by the State Institute for Drug Control and by the Ethics Committee. The regulatory bodies and independent ethics committees evaluate and continuously supervise the justification and protocol of the clinical trial, quality of the investigational medicinal products and, primarily, the safety of the participants (patients and/or healthy volunteers) in clinical trials. In the Czech Republic there are many advanced clinical research centres, either located in private practices or within hospitals. The investigators are able to conduct a wide variety of clinical trials and recruit a high number of subjects for the trials, as well as to comply with the Good Clinical Practice guidelines and other regulatory requirements. The aim of this article is to summarise the current situation of clinical trials in the Czech Republic as well as the opportunities for getting involved in clinical trials and obligations arising for health professionals from such an involvement.

  16. Current situation of high-dose-rate brachytherapy for cervical cancer in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rogerio Matias Vidal da; Souza, Divanizia do Nascimento, E-mail: rmv.fisica@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil); Pinezi, Juliana Castro Dourado [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Goias (PUC-Goias), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Macedo, Luiz Eduardo Andrade [Hospital Chama, Arapiraca, AL (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    To assess the current situation of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for cancer of the cervix in Brazil, regarding apparatuses, planning methods, prescription, fractionation schedule and evaluation of dose in organs at risk. Materials and methods: in the period between March/2012 and May/2013, a multiple choice questionnaire was developed and sent to 89 Brazilian hospitals which perform HDR brachytherapy. Results: sixty-one services answered the questionnaire. All regions of the country experienced a sharp increase in the number of HDR brachytherapy services in the period from 2001 to 2013. As regards planning, although a three-dimensional planning software was available in 91% of the centers, conventional radiography was mentioned by 92% of the respondents as their routine imaging method for such a purpose. Approximately 35% of respondents said that brachytherapy sessions are performed after teletherapy. The scheme of four 7 Gy intracavitary insertions was mentioned as the most frequently practiced. Conclusion: the authors observed that professionals have difficulty accessing adjuvant three-dimensional planning tools such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. (author)

  17. [Current situation of suicide in Japan, and what pharmacists contribute to suicide prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

      In Japan, a national countermeasure has been forwarded since the enactment of the Basic Act on Suicide Countermeasures in 2006 and the Comprehensive Suicide Prevention Initiative in 2007. The distinctive policy of the Japanese countermeasure is expressed as the word, "comprehensive," which means that suicide prevention may not only be carried out only by mental health measures but also by comprehensive measures including chance of administrative practices. This policy is proper, although mental health measures appear to be too simple inclining to psychiatric treatments for the classic type of "depression" by a pharmacotherapy. The authors have insisted that mental health measures including psychiatric treatments are also required to be more comprehensive. This paper describes that benzodiazepine (BZ)-abuse problems including overdosing by suicidal intents have got worse recently as psychiatric clinics have increased and most of BZ abusers obtain the abused drugs form psychiatrists. This current situation indicates that pharmacists need to monitor psychiatrists' prescribing behavior and qualities of psychiatric treatment is required to be refined, suggesting pharmacists may be one of the "Gate Keeper," as supporting resources for suicide prevention. Additionally, this paper explained that basic attitudes and responses acquired by pharmacists as a supporter for suicide prevention.

  18. The current situation and development of medical device testing institutes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaofang; Mu, Ruihong; Fan, Yubo; Wang, Chunren; Li, Deyu

    2017-04-01

    This article analyses the current situation and development of Chinese medical device testing institutes from the perspectives of the two most important functions - testing functions and medical device standardization functions. Areas Covered: The objective of the Chinese government regulations for medical device industry is to ensure the safety and effectiveness of medical devices for Chinese patients. To support the regulation system, the Chinese government has established medical device testing institutes at different levels for example, the national, provincial, and municipal levels. These testing institutes also play an important role in technical support during medical device premarket registration and post market surveillance, they are also the vital practitioners of Chinese medical device standardization. Expert Commentary: Chinese medical device testing institutes are technical departments established by government, and serve the regulatory functions of government agency. In recent years, with the rapid development of medical device industry as well as constantly increasing international and domestic medical device market, the importance of medical device testing institute is more prominent, However, there are still some problems unsolved, such as their overall capacity remains to be improved, construction of standardization is to be strengthened, etc.

  19. Analysis of the current situation regarding the aging rural population in China and proposed countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Bo; Li, Xiyuan; Liu, Jie; Mao, Jiawen

    2012-06-01

    China has become a country with an aging population. Compared with the aged in urban areas, the aged in rural areas have low income and are subject to social security deficiencies; the oldest among them are the most vulnerable group. If an effective mechanism for handling health risk is not available, the poor health of the rural elderly will cause an increase in their poverty level, which in turn will cause their health to become worse. Therefore, it is essential to analyze the current situation regarding rural population aging in China and to develop countermeasures. Data from 4 national health services surveys were used to analyze the differences between urban and rural populations. The results of the analysis revealed that the aged population in rural areas has poor health; economic security for the aged population is insufficient; and resources for the aged are lacking in rural areas. The Chinese government should improve medicare for the aged in rural areas, and establish a medical treatment subsidy system and a medical support system for the aged in rural areas.

  20. Current Situation and Problems of Export-oriented Tilapia Processing in Guangxi and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying; ZHANG; Gaozhong; JIANG; Qiong; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region is an excellent area for tilapia breeding in China,and the development of tilapia industry has received high attention of both the state and Guangxi government. The foreign exchange earning is an essential industrial form of tilapia industry in Guangxi. Thus,enhancing the competitiveness of export-oriented tilapia processing is of great significance to the development of tilapia industry. On the basis of field survey,this paper analyzed current situation of export-oriented tilapia processing in Guangxi. At present,tilapia processing industry in Guangxi has realized preliminary standardization,large-scale and grouping,but it is still faced with some problems and challenges,such as low industrialization level,no balanced marketing,and imperfect product quality safety monitoring measures. Therefore,it is required to create favorable environment for export-oriented tilapia processing industry in Guangxi through enhancing policy support,increasing financial input and supporting tilapia processing leading enterprises.

  1. Water quality, agriculture and food safety in China:Current situation, trends, interdependencies, and management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-nan; GUO Qiu-ping; SHEN Xiao-xue; YU Sheng-wen; QIU Guo-yu

    2015-01-01

    Water quality in China is becoming a severe chalenge for agriculture and food safety, and it might also impact health of populationvia agriculture and food. Thus, it is causing widespread concern. Based on extensive literatures review and data mining, current situation of water polution in China and its effects on food safety were analyzed.The 2nd National Water Resource Survey in China show that the surface water al over the country was under slight polution and about 60% of groundwater is poluted. Drinking water quality is basicaly guaranteed in urban area but it is worrisome in rural areas. In addition, China is the largest consumer of fertilizer and pesticide in the world and the amounts of application stil show increasing trends. Fertilizers and pesticides are the most important sources of polution, which affect human health as persistent organic polutants and environmental endocrine disruptors. Eutrophication of surface water and nitrate polution of groundwater are serious threats to drinking water safety. Sewage irrigation is becoming a polution source to China’s water and land because of lacking of effective regulations. Although, with the advance in technology and management level, control of nitrogen and phosphorus emissions and reducing water polution is stil a major chalenge for China.

  2. [Current situation and measures to promote anti-doping activities in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Shin

    2011-01-01

    After the Ministry of Edcation, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan has ratified the UNESCO "International Convention Fight against Doping in Sport" in December 2006, the government increased its support to Anti-Doping activities. About 5 years ago, the total number of doping control samples a year in Japan was around 2000, and this number was not enough to demonstrate Japanese athletes' cleanness to the rest of the world. However, after the government's ratification of the UNESCO international convention, the government increased its support both financially and politically. By receiving the increased support from the government, testing number has increased and reached 5000 samples a year. 5 years ago, our target athletes range was only international level athletes who compete in the Olympics or international events. As we expanded our testing numbers, the target range of the athletes was also expanded and national level athletes also became our targets. As a result, athletes without having adequate knowledge about anti-doping regulations became our target. This situation caused inadvertent anti-doping rule violation cases. Most of those anti-doping rule violations were the result of taking over-the-counter medicines, etc. In order to cope with those inadvertent anti-doping rule violation problems, we, Japan Anti-Doping Agency launched "Sport Pharmacist Project" in cooperation with Japan Pharmaceutical Association. In this project, we provide anti-doping information/regulation to the pharmacists and make those pharmacists knowledgeable about the current anti-doping rules and regulations.

  3. Current Situations of the Integration of RTIs Prevention and Treatment into Routine FP Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-xia DOU; Wei YUAN; Meng-ye PENG; Er-sheng GAO

    2007-01-01

    Objective To understand the current situation of the integration of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) prevention and treatment into routine Family planning (FP) program. Methods Literature review, in depth interview and focus group discussion were employed to collect the related information. Questionnaire survey was conducted in 59 county level FP facilities. Results Both central and local governments provide policy supports to RTIs prevention and treatment. Nearly 98.3% of local FP facilities had integrated this work into their routine FP program. A comprehensive network system of family planning has been established in China and there were plenty of FP human resources. The existing FP resource should be effectively used, which could produce great social benefit if RTIs prevention and treatment be integrated into routine FP program. However, some problems still need to be solved in the integrated program, such as insufficient finance support, low quality of service, lack of co-operations between different sectors, etc. Conclusion It is possible and feasible to develop RTIs controlling projects in the family planning system. However, intensive training and close co-operation need to be applied respectively into FP staffs and relative departments.

  4. Heat supply from municipal solid waste incineration plants in Japan: Current situation and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Tomohiro; Tsai, Peii

    2016-02-01

    The use of waste-to-energy technology as part of a municipal solid waste management strategy could reduce the use of fossil fuels and contribute to prevention of global warming. In this study, we examined current heat and electricity production by incineration plants in Japan for external use. Herein, we discuss specific challenges to the promotion of heat utilisation and future municipal solid waste management strategies. We conducted a questionnaire survey to determine the actual conditions of heat production by incineration plants. From the survey results, information of about 498 incineration plants was extracted. When we investigated the relationship between heat production for external use and population density where incineration plants were located, we found that regions with a population density heat. We also found that external use of such energy for factories, markets, and related use, was noted in cities with a population density of 2000 to 4000 persons (km(2))(-1). Several incineration plants have poor performance for heat production because there are few facilities near them to provide demand for the energy. This is the result of redundant capacity, and is reflected in the heat production performance. Given these results, we discussed future challenges to creating energy demand around incineration plants where there is presently none. We also examined the challenges involved in increasing heat supply beyond the present situation.

  5. Water Utility Management Strategies in Turkey: The current situation and the challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, E.; Aksoy, M. N.; Koçer, B.

    2013-12-01

    As the effects of climate change becomes more prominent, current challenges related to water and wastewater management is becoming more serious. Providing water that satisfies environmental and safety standards in terms of quantity and quality is needed to maintain human life without compromising the need of future generations. Besides providing safe and affordable water, necessary treatment should be achieved according to several important factors such as receiving body standards, discharge standards, water reuse options. Therefore, management of water becomes more crucial than ever that states have to provide accessibility of safe water with affordable cost to its citizens with the means of effective utility management, including water treatment facilities, wastewater treatment facilities, water supply facilities and water distribution systems. Water utilities encounter with several challenges related to cost, infrastructure, population, legislation, workforce and resource. This study aims to determine the current situation and the necessary strategies to improve utility management in Turkish municipalities in a sustainable manner. US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) has formed a tool on effective utility management that assists utilities to provide a solution for both current and future challenges. In this study, we used EPA's guidelines and developed a survey consists of 60 questions under 10 sub-topics (Product Quality, Employee & Leadership Development, Stakeholder Understanding & Support, Operational Optimization, Infrastructure Stability, Financial Viability, Community Sustainability, Customer Satisfaction, Operational Resiliency, and Water Resource Adequacy). This survey was sent to the managers of 25 metropolitan municipalities in Turkey to assess the current condition of municipalities. After the evaluation of the survey results for each topic, including the importance given by managers, facilities were rated according to their level of achievement

  6. Experimental typography : reviewing the modernist and the current approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Makal, Eray

    1993-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Graphic Design and Institute of Fine Arts, Bilkent Univ., 1993. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1993. Includes bibliographical references leaves 65-66. The intention of this study is to evaluate the experimental typography within the history of graphic design by taking in consideration of two epochs. The Modernist and The Current. Makal, Eray M.S.

  7. Halo current diagnostic system of experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D. L.; Shen, B.; Sun, Y.; Qian, J. P., E-mail: jpqian@ipp.ac.cn; Wang, Y.; Xiao, B. J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031 (China); Granetz, R. S. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    The design, calibration, and installation of disruption halo current sensors for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak are described in this article. All the sensors are Rogowski coils that surround conducting structures, and all the signals are analog integrated. Coils with two different cross-section sizes have been fabricated, and their mutual inductances are calibrated. Sensors have been installed to measure halo currents in several different parts of both the upper divertor (tungsten) and lower divertor (graphite) at several toroidal locations. Initial measurements from disruptions show that the halo current diagnostics are working well.

  8. Halo current diagnostic system of experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D. L.; Shen, B.; Granetz, R. S.; Sun, Y.; Qian, J. P.; Wang, Y.; Xiao, B. J.

    2015-10-01

    The design, calibration, and installation of disruption halo current sensors for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak are described in this article. All the sensors are Rogowski coils that surround conducting structures, and all the signals are analog integrated. Coils with two different cross-section sizes have been fabricated, and their mutual inductances are calibrated. Sensors have been installed to measure halo currents in several different parts of both the upper divertor (tungsten) and lower divertor (graphite) at several toroidal locations. Initial measurements from disruptions show that the halo current diagnostics are working well.

  9. Studying the start of the Maunder Minimum to understand the current situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhäuser, Ralph; Neuhäuser, Dagmar L.

    2016-04-01

    To investigate whether we now enter a Maunder-like grand minimum, we have to compare the current situation with the time around the start of the Maunder minimum. Sunspot observations in the 1610s are of particular importance and relevance, because they are shortly before the start of the Maunder Grand Minimum. While the Maunder Minimum it is usually dated from 1645 to 1715, Vaquero & Trigo (2015) argue that what they call the "Extended Maunder Minimum" would have started in 1618 during or around a Schwabe cycle minimum around that time. We have therefore studied the sunspot record of that time in detail. Hoyt & Schatten (1998) compiled for all known telescopic observers a list of their observations; recent solar activity studies for the past four centuries are based on their compilation. In addition to 12 observers listed by Hoyt & Schatten (1998) for the 1610s, we list six more observers with datable spot observations. Furthermore, while Hoyt & Schatten (1998) argue that Simon Marius would have observed from mid 1617 to the end of 1618 almost every day, but would have never seen a spot, we can show with the original reports by Marius that he observed from Aug 1611 to spring 1619 with a lot of sunspot detections. Similar, while Hoyt & Schatten (1998) argue that Giovanni Riccioli would have observed on almost every day in 1618, but would have never seen a spot, he did not report any own observations at all that year, but quoted Argoli for that there were no spots during the periods with comets in 1618. The data base by Hoyt & Schatten (1998) has several more errors in the 1610s, as we show also for the observations by Harriot, Scheiner, Malapert, Saxonius, and Tarde. We also compare drawings from Jungius with the observations by Harriot, Galilei, and Marius. In contrast to what is specified in Hoyt & Schatten (1998), after Harriot, the two Fabricius (father and son), Scheiner and Cysat, Marius and Schmidnerus are among the earliest datable telescopic sunspot

  10. An Investigation on the Current Situation of Management Information Systems Discipline in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar YARLIKAŞ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the development of management information systems field by evaluating the theses conducted at universities in Turkey in the departments of management information systems and science of management information systems. First, this study aims to determine the distribution of the theses in terms of years, subjects and the research methods used. Another purpose of this study was to determine which of the related disciplines of management information systems are used most in the theses. In addition, as a result of the study, the compatibility degree between the theses written and the courses taught in the graduate programs of management information systems were determined. In this research, content analysis method is used. Through this method, each of the theses was evaluated with a 10-question ‘thesis evaluation question set' constructed towards the purpose of the study. Through this evaluation, the current situation of the field was determined. It was observed that the number of doctoral theses associated with the field was less. Using the combination of qualitative and quantitative techniques most in the theses denoted that the interdisciplinary approaches were adopted in the theses associated with management information systems. It was observed that the literature analysis and survey techniques were the most studied research methods in the theses. Besides, statistical techniques were used highly in the theses. As a result of this study, it was concluded that out of the associated disciplines of management information systems, management science, computer science and statistics disciplines were more associated with the investigated theses. When the study results were evaluated as a whole, it was seen that significant progress was made in the discipline of management information systems compared to the early 2000s.

  11. TBLT IN CHINA (2001-2011: THE CURRENT SITUATION, PREDICAMENT AND FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Shaoqian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: With the reform of English education in China since 2001, a communicative and task-based language teaching has emerged into Chinese English classroom. To understand task-based language teaching (TBLT practice in China, a synthesis study was conducted to analyze the current situation and predicament of TBLT in China over the last ten years based on the published TBLT articles (2001-2011 in Chinese journals and educational newspapers. The study shows that there is questioning and criticism on the effectiveness of TBLT in the forein languagae teaching classes despite the amazing growth of research in TBLT in China. It is also found that the predicament of TBLT may be attributable to a variety of factors such as no professional and systematic training TBLT for teachers, little knowledge of the latest development of TBLT, differences in student English proficiency, gap between local educational levels, no enough educational funds as well as misunderstanding and mispractice of TBLT. Thus, how to appropriately adapt and localize TBLT in China has become the major concern of researchers and educators as well as teachers. To solve the problem, this paper puts forward some suggestions to localize TBLT in the Chinese context, which is concerned with (1 task design; (2 integrating target tasks and pedagogical tasks; (3 balance between meaning and form; (4 tasks for big classes; (5 developing school based textbooks and (6 combining tasks and other teaching principles. Such a context-based approach to TBLT could provide a reference for other contexts similar to China.

  12. Open access to journal articles in oncology: current situation and citation impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, F; Sun, H; Walsh, T; Glenny, A-M; Worthington, H

    2017-10-01

    Recent years have seen numerous efforts and resources devoted to the development of open access (OA), but the current OA situation of the oncology literature remains unknown. We conducted this cross-sectional study to determine the current share and provision methods of OA in the field of oncology, identify predictors of OA status (OA versus non-OA), and study the association between OA and citation counts. PubMed was searched for oncology-related, peer-reviewed journal articles published in December 2014. Google, Google Scholar, PubMed, ResearchGate, OpenDOAR and OAIster were manually checked to assess the OA status of each included article. Citation data were extracted from Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the OA proportion (primary outcome) and OA provision methods. Multivariable logistic regression and multilevel generalized linear model analyses were performed to study predictors of OA status and the association between OA and citation counts, respectively. In a random sample of 1000 articles, 912 were deemed eligible and therefore included. Of these, the full-texts of 530 articles (58.1%; 95% CI: 54.9-61.3) were freely available online: 314 (34.4%) were available from publishers ('Gold road' to OA), 424 (46.5%) were available via self-archiving ('Green road' to OA). According to multivariable regression analyses, impact factor, publisher type, language, research type, number of authors, continent of origin, and country income were significant predictors of articles' OA status; OA articles received a citation rate 1.24 times the incidence rate for non-OA articles (95% CI: 1.05-1.47; P = 0.012). Based on our sample, in the field of oncology, 42% of recent journal articles are behind the pay-wall (non-OA) 1 year after publication; the 'Green road' of providing OA is more common than the 'Gold road'; OA is associated with higher citation counts.

  13. 肉类食品的现状%The Current Situation of Meat Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王盼盼

    2009-01-01

    Meat products are indispensable food resource in human life. The safety of meat products has great influential in human body health. This article reviewed the present situation, problem and countermeasure of meat product's safety system.

  14. Comparison of Pavlovian serial conditional discrimination in rats and hamsters in the same experimental situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L.O. Bueno

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study compares behavioral changes between two distinct rodent groups, hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus and Wistar rats, when submitted in the same homogeneous experimental situations to a serial conditional discrimination procedure which involves water deprivation and the processing of temporal variables. Both hamsters and rats acquired serial positive conditional discrimination as indicated by higher frequencies of magazine-oriented behavior during the tone followed by reinforcement (T+ and preceded by the feature stimulus light (L and during the empty interval, than during the tone alone not followed by reinforcement (T-. Rats' frequencies of magazine-oriented behavior were high during T+ and T-, initially during training, and decreased during T- as the training progressed. However, the hamsters' frequencies of magazine-oriented behavior started very low and increased only during T+ as the training progressed. Comparison of the frequencies of magazine-oriented behavior during the empty interval in relation to the frequencies during the preceding L period showed that rats' frequencies remained very high and hamsters' frequencies increased during training. These results suggest that rats and hamsters have different behavioral strategies for the acquisition of a conditional discrimination. The results of the comparisons made in these experiments support the view of the importance of an ecological psychology approach to the understanding of complex learning in animals.

  15. Experimental Gravity Currents Propagating Downslope Over A Synthetic Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos Cuevas, Andrea; Ruiz-Angulo, Angel; Palacios-Morales, Carlos

    2016-11-01

    Lock-release gravity currents are studied experimentally in order to investigate their dynamics and the mixing process between them and the ambient fluid. We produced these currents in a laboratory tank and allow them to propagate downslope first in a flat slope and then in a rough one with a synthetic topography. This topography is similar to the one of a side of a mountain near mexico's valley. Our aim is to investigate the dynamics of gravity currents as similar as possible to the mountain breezes that can develop around this valley. To the best of our knowledge, there are few experimental investigations that take into account the roughness of the slope. For each experiment, we obtain the instantaneous velocity fields using the standard piv technique. From the velocity fields, we estimate the entrainment coefficient time series. We found that this coefficient depends on the roughness of the surface where the current propagates. Besides, pressure time series were obtained in synthetic stations along the rough profile. These series showed a very clear signal of the gravity current propagating along the slope.

  16. Foot-and-mouth disease control in Zambia: A review of the current situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yona Sinkala

    2012-06-01

    . Presented with the current poverty levels failure to institute result oriented control measures will exacerbate the already life-threatening situation.

  17. Current situation on the reporting quality of randomized controlled trials in 5 leading Chinese medical journals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Wei; Li Tiejun; Wu Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The Consolidated Standards for Reporting of Trials (CONSORT) statement has already proved to be an efficient standard for reporting quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). However, most of the Chinese medical journals have not endorsed the CONSORT statement. The current situation about the reporting quality of RCTs in Chinese medical journals is still unclear. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the reporting quality of RCTs on papers published in 5 leading Chinese medical journals. Methods: We evaluated 232 original RCT papers using a reporting quality scale based on CONSORT statement from 2001 to 2006 in 5 Chinese medical journals (Journal type 1) without adoption of CONSORT and Chinese Journal of Evidence-based Medicine (Journal type 2) which adopted CONSORT in 2004. We measured the inclusion of 26 items for the reporting quality scale and 6 core items of each RCT report, gave score to each item and calculated the total score obtained in each report and the proportion of reports including individual items. The reporting quality of RCT trials from 2001 to 2003 (pre-adoption period) was compared with that from 2004 to 2006 (post-adoption period). Results: The average reporting quality of RCTs was moderate (mean score, 15.18), and the mean score of the 6 core items was low (mean score, 1.09)in 5 leading journals. The difference in the total score and the score of the 6 core items between pre-adoption period (2001-2003) and post-adoption period (2004-2006) was statistically significant (P=0.003; P=0.000). Interaction between journal type and period was not significant (F=0.76; P=0.383). We concluded that the change tendency of reporting quality between Journal type 1 and 2 was not different. But as to the core items of sequence concealment and intention-to-treat analysis,the increases were greater for Journal type 2 when evaluated against Journal type 1 (P=0.038; P=0.016). Conclusion: The reporting quality of RCT trials in 5 leading Chinese

  18. Cerâmicas odontológicas: o estado atual Ceramic in dentistry: current situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Gomes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available As cerâmicas dentais são conhecidas pela sua excelência em reproduzir artificialmente os dentes naturais. No século XVIII foi empregada pela primeira vez na Odontologia como dente artificial para próteses totais. A partir do século XX passou a ser utilizada para a confecção de restaurações metalocerâmicas e mais recentemente, com o aprimoramento da tecnologia cerâmica, surgiram as restaurações livres de metal. As cerâmicas têm apresentado rápida evolução em âmbito científico com o intuito de melhorar suas propriedades físicas e mecânicas para suprir as necessidades estéticas que são cada vez mais exigidas pela sociedade moderna. Nesse contexto, é preciso conhecer cada sistema cerâmico disponível atualmente no mercado, desde suas principais características até suas limitações, para saber indicá-lo de modo correto em cada situação clínica específica.Dental ceramics are known for their excellence in artificially reproduce natural teeth. In the XVIII century they were employed for the first time in Dentistry as artificial tooth for complete dentures. Since the XX century they were used to fabricate metal ceramic restorations and, nowadays, all-ceramic restorations are obtained as a result of ceramic technology improvement. Ceramics present a fast progress in the scientific field in order to improve their physical and mechanical properties to provide for aesthetic needs so required by modern society. In this context, it is important to know each ceramic system currently available on the market, regarding not only its main features but also its limitations, to an accurate indication for each specific clinical situation.

  19. Current Situation of Job Burnout of Junior High School Teachers in Shangqiu Urban Areas and Its Relationship with Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhongying

    2008-01-01

    This study surveyed the current situation of teacher burnout in a sample of 400 teachers from urban junior high school in Shangqiu of Henan Province with scales, and examined the relationship between dimensions of teacher burnout and sources and types of social support they received. The results show that Shangqiu urban junior high school…

  20. Current Situation and Reforms Making Way for Future Positive Developments in the National Education System of Bulgaria: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Teodora

    2015-01-01

    This paper on the education system of Bulgaria is aimed at presenting its structure, current situation, problems and challenges that it faces, and on-going reforms leading to some positive trends in the development of the national education sector. At the moment of writing this paper in the year 2015, we will mark the 1160th anniversary of the…

  1. The current situation of wood plastic composites%塑木复合材料发展现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何阳; 郑德; 黄锐

    2012-01-01

    The current situation of wood plastic composties are introduced, the development of wood plastic composties are analyzed in the future.%介绍了塑木复合材料的发展现状,并对其未来的发展作了分析。

  2. Experimental simulation of gravity currents in erodible bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, A.; La Roca, M.; Medina, V.

    2009-04-01

    Gravity currents are commonly met in nature, when a flow of denser fluid moves into a less dense one. A typical example of a gravity current is given by the sea water which flows into the bottom of a river during the summer, in correspondence of the estuary, when the river's discharge attains low values. In this case, dangerous consequences can occur, because of the polluting of the aquifer caused by the salty water. Density currents also occurs in lakes and reservoirs, because of a change in temperature or because a flood, both can produce some environmental impacts that are of interest to the local water Agency of the different countries. Of particular relevance is also the interaction of the gravity current with the movement of the sediments from the bottom of the bed. The international state of the art is particularly concerned with experimental and numerical investigation on gravity currents on fixed and porous bed [1-2-3], while, to the authors' knowledge, the interaction of a gravity current with an erodible bed is still an open field of investigation. In this paper experiments concerning with the propagation of a gravity current over fixed and erodible bed are presented. The experiments, conducted at the laboratory of Hydraulics of the Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (actually in the Prof. Bateman's blue room), were concerned with a transparent tank 2 m long, 0.2 m wide and 0.3 m deep, partly filled with salty water and partly with fresh water, up to a depth of 0.28 m. The salty water, whose density was in the range 1050John E. Simpson. Gravity Currents [3] J.J. Monaghan, R.A.F. Cas, A.M. Kos, M. Hallworth, Gravity currents descending a ramp in a stratified tank, The Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 379, 1999

  3. Current Situation of English Major Students’ Web-based Autonomous English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新华

    2015-01-01

    Through an interview of three English major students and a field observation, the study explores English major students’ web-based autonomous English learning situation and the problems on their way. The findings show that web-based English materials are most helpful to speaking and listening, and that students’ insufficient information retrieval skill is the main problem on their way.

  4. SUSY effects in Rb: Revisited under current experimental constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei; Yang, Jin Min

    2016-06-01

    In this note we revisit the SUSY effects in Rb under current experimental constraints including the LHC Higgs data, the B-physics measurements, the dark matter relic density and direct detection limits, as well as the precision electroweak data. We first perform a scan to figure out the currently allowed parameter space and then display the SUSY effects in Rb. We find that although the SUSY parameter space has been severely restrained by current experimental data, both the general MSSM and the natural-SUSY scenario can still alter Rb with a magnitude sizable enough to be observed at future Z-factories (ILC, CEPC, FCC-ee, Super Z-factory) which produce 109-1012Z-bosons. To be specific, assuming a precise measurement δRb = 2.0 ×10-5 at FCC-ee, we can probe a right-handed stop up to 530 GeV through chargino-stop loops, probe a sbottom to 850 GeV through neutralino-sbottom loops and a charged Higgs to 770 GeV through the Higgs-top quark loops for a large tan ⁡ β. The full one-loop SUSY correction to Rb can reach 1 ×10-4 in natural SUSY and 2 ×10-4 in the general MSSM.

  5. Current Measures on Radioactive Contamination in Japan: A Policy Situation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Stuart; Miyagawa, Shoji; Kasuga, Fumiko; Shibuya, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11th March 2011 and the subsequent Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster caused radioactive contamination in the surrounding environment. In the immediate aftermath of the accident the Government of Japan placed strict measures on radio-contamination of food, and enhanced radio-contamination monitoring activities. Japan is a pilot country in the WHO Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG), and through this initiative has an opportunity to report on policy affecting chemicals and toxins in the food distribution network. Nuclear accidents are extremely rare, and a policy situation analysis of the Japanese government's response to the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident is a responsibility of Japanese scientists. This study aims to assess Japan government policies to reduce radio-contamination risk and to identify strategies to strengthen food policies to ensure the best possible response to possible future radiation accidents. We conducted a hand search of all publicly available policy documents issued by the Cabinet Office, the Food Safety Commission, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW), the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery (MAFF) and prefectural governments concerning food safety standards and changes to radiation and contamination standards since March 11th, 2011. We extracted information on food shipment and sales restrictions, allowable radio-contamination limits, monitoring activities and monitoring results. The standard for allowable radioactive cesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) of 100 Bq/Kg in general food, 50 Bq/Kg in infant formula and all milk products, and 10 Bq/Kg in drinking water was enforced from April 2012 under the Food Sanitation Law, although a provisional standard on radio-contamination had been applied since the nuclear accident. Restrictions on the commercial sale and distribution of specific meat, vegetable and fish products were released for areas at risk of

  6. [The current state of the organizational component of the personality identification procedures for the unrecognized casualties of emergency situations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkutin, V V; Stepanov, A A; Minaeva, P V

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of analysis of organizational problems related to personality identification of unrecognized casualties in a variety of emergency situations. The necessity of purpose-oriented introduction of high-technology methods into the practical work of forensic medical experts is emphasized. The priority of the organizational component in the interdepartmental interactions during joint expertise actions at the sites of emergency situations is substantiated. The specific features of injuries in unrecognized subjects who died or suffered in emergency situations are considered with reference to the latter's peculiar conditions. The authors discuss prospects for the further development of organizational and legal basis of research for the purpose of personality identification with the use of the database of human medico-biological characteristics as envisaged by the current legislation.

  7. Current Situation of English Major Students’ Web-based Autonomous English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新华

    2015-01-01

    Through an interview of three English major students and a fi eld observation,the study explores English major students’web-based autonomous English learning situation and the problems on their way.The findings show that web-based English materials are most helpful to speaking and listening,and that students’insufficient information retrieval skill is the main problem on their way.

  8. Current situation of hospital-based endocrinology and clinical nutrition in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles Gálvez Moreno, M

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, the Healthcare Commission of Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition did a survey in order to know the actual situation of endocrinology and clinical nutrition healthcare in Public Sanitary Systems in Spain. The survey has been more extensive than the last and it has taken up number and geographical distribution of specialists in Spain in addition to data about clinical assistance. The mean of public hospitals with endocrinologist participation has been 50%.

  9. Current Measures on Radioactive Contamination in Japan: A Policy Situation Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Gilmour

    Full Text Available The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11th March 2011 and the subsequent Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster caused radioactive contamination in the surrounding environment. In the immediate aftermath of the accident the Government of Japan placed strict measures on radio-contamination of food, and enhanced radio-contamination monitoring activities. Japan is a pilot country in the WHO Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG, and through this initiative has an opportunity to report on policy affecting chemicals and toxins in the food distribution network. Nuclear accidents are extremely rare, and a policy situation analysis of the Japanese government's response to the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident is a responsibility of Japanese scientists. This study aims to assess Japan government policies to reduce radio-contamination risk and to identify strategies to strengthen food policies to ensure the best possible response to possible future radiation accidents.We conducted a hand search of all publicly available policy documents issued by the Cabinet Office, the Food Safety Commission, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery (MAFF and prefectural governments concerning food safety standards and changes to radiation and contamination standards since March 11th, 2011. We extracted information on food shipment and sales restrictions, allowable radio-contamination limits, monitoring activities and monitoring results. The standard for allowable radioactive cesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137 of 100 Bq/Kg in general food, 50 Bq/Kg in infant formula and all milk products, and 10 Bq/Kg in drinking water was enforced from April 2012 under the Food Sanitation Law, although a provisional standard on radio-contamination had been applied since the nuclear accident. Restrictions on the commercial sale and distribution of specific meat, vegetable and fish products were released for

  10. Experimentally studied laser fluorescence method for remote sensing of plant stress situation induced by improper plants watering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Fedotov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stressful situations of plants can be caused by a lack of nutrients; mechanical damages; diseases; low or high temperatures; lack of illumination; insufficient or excess humidity of the soil; soil salinization; soil pollution by oil products or heavy metals; the increased acidity of the soil; use of pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, etc.At early stages it is often difficult to detect seemingly that the plants are in stressful situations caused by adverse external factors. However, the fluorescent analysis potentially allows detection of the stressful situations of plants by deformation of laser-induced fluorescence spectra. The paper conducts experimental investigations to learn the capabilities of the laser fluorescent method to monitor plant situations at 532nm wavelength of fluorescence excitation in the stressful situations induced by improper watering (at excess of moisture in the soil and at a lack of moisture.Researches of fluorescence spectra have been conducted using a created laboratory installation. As a source to excite fluorescence radiation the second harmonica of YAG:Nd laser is used. The subsystem to record fluorescence radiation is designed using a polychromator and a highly sensitive matrix detector with the amplifier of brightness.Experimental investigations have been conducted for fast-growing and unpretentious species of plants, namely different sorts of salad.Experimental studies of laser-induced fluorescence spectra of plants for 532nm excitement wavelength show that the impact of stressful factors on a plant due to the improper watering, significantly distorts a fluorescence spectrum of plants. Influence of a stressful factor can be shown as a changing profile of a fluorescence spectrum (an identifying factor, here, is a relationship of fluorescence intensities at two wavelengths, namely 685 nm and 740 nm or (and as a changing level of fluorescence that can be the basis for the laser method for monitoring the plant

  11. Experimental comparison of 2D and 3D technology mediated paramedic-physician collaboration in remote emergency medical situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Maurin, Hanna; Cairns, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    and remote, consulting physician. Post-questionnaire data illustrate that the information provided by the consulting physician was perceived to be more useful by the paramedic in the 3D condition than the 2D condition. However, the data pertaining to the quality of interaction and trust between...... techniques. This may be of benefit in diagnosing and treating patients in emergency situations where specialized medical expertise is not locally available. We conducted an experimental evaluation, simulating an emergency medical situation and examining the interaction between the attending paramedic...... the consulting physician and paramedic showed mixed results. The implications of these results are discussed....

  12. Current Situation and Development Tendency of China’s Electronic Copper Foil Industry——Part Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The China’s import & export data of the electronic copper foil industry in recent years is a microcosm of the current development situation of the industry, which may help us gain a deeper understanding of product level, competitive strength, technological and management level as well as national foreign trade policies of the industry.China now has become the largest copper foil

  13. Experimental Study of Generalized Subspace Filters for the Cocktail Party Situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Knud Bank; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Boldt, Jesper B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential performance of generalized subspace filters for speech enhancement in cocktail party situations with very poor signal/noise ratio, e.g. down to -15 dB. Performance metrics output signal/noise ratio, signal/ distortion ratio, speech quality rating and speech...

  14. Experimental evaluation of a Critical Thinking Tool to support decision making in crisis situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.; Eikelboom, A.R.; Dongen, C.J.G. van; Brake, G.M. te

    2005-01-01

    Building up proper situation awareness is one of the most difficult tasks in the beginning stages of large-scale accidents. As ambiguous information about the events becomes available, decision makers are often tempted to quickly choose a particular story to explain the events. Subsequent informatio

  15. [Adolescent pregnancy in Peru: its current situation and implications for public policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Walter; Subiría, Gracia

    2013-07-01

    This article ellaborates on the relation between peruvian pregnant adolescents of 15 to 19 years of age and poverty, malnutrition and social exclusion, proposing alternatives for their medical care within the frame of social programs and the fight against poverty. Likewise, it describes and analyzes the trends recorded over the past 20 years, emphasizing the multiple and persistent inequalities. Over this period, prevalences have not changed substantially, despite a slight drop recorded in the rural area. First, the article analyzes these trends in the light of their closest determinants, including changes in teenagers'exposure to the risk of an unplanned pregnancy. Then, it describes the impact this situation has on adolescents and their children, as well as the economic and labour impacts. Finally, it examines the experiences of countries with social programs similar to the one in Peru, highlighting those which could be implemented in our country.

  16. Current Situation and Prospect of White Carbon Black Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Chunyu

    2011-01-01

    1.Analysis of Market Operation in 2010 Year 2010 is the ending year of the "11th Five-Year Plan".Under the effect of a series of central government policies including coping with the international financial crisis,accelerating the transformation of economic development pattern and economic restructuring,and promoting steady and rapid development of economy,the situation is basically established that industrial economy operation changes from turnaround to steady growth,and industrial economy develops steadily and rapidly.This can be shown in the white carbon black industry,through the whole year,white carbon black industry maintains steady and rapid development,and the output of which has grown greatly compared with last year.

  17. Current situation and consideration of training base hospitals for residents of neurosurgical specialization in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-zeng JIAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Resident training of neurosurgical specialization will be tried and carried out in all over China. From the point of view of training base hospitals, a majority of 3A level hospitals have sufficient patients and good equipments which will ensure the success of training process; however, division of subspecialty, teaching motivation and teaching method still have a great potential to improve. In order to establish and improve training bases for residents of specialization, supervision from national administrative department should be strengthened; professional society also plays an important role in standardizing and controlling the training quality. Considering our nation's situation, integration of postgraduate education and resident training is worth of discussion. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.07.015

  18. [School escorts in inclusive education- the current situation in the state of Baden-Wurttemberg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Katharina; Thurn, Leonore; Besier, Tanja; Künster, Anne K; Fegert, Jörg M; Ziegenhain, Ute

    2014-11-01

    In the context of inclusive education, so-called «Schulbegleiter» (school escorts) have been installed to assist children with special needs. However, adequate conceptions of their role are lacking, and no provisions exist describing the exact tasks and duties of these school escorts. This article presents data on a statewide empirical study and provides information on the professional background, qualifications, and assignments of such escorts as well as the nature of the assisted children in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. The data were collected in nearly 50 % of all schools providing general education in Baden-Württemberg, and a total of 526 school escorts completed a questionnaire on their work. Children with special needs who received such assistance were aged 6 to 19 years (M = 10.4) and had a mental disorder in nearly three-fourths of all cases, with autism spectrum disorders being most common (59.4 %). The most frequent assignments of the escorts were providing practical assistance during classes and mobilizing the child as well as providing direct support in emotionally challenging situations. Such escorts can make a significant contribution to the inclusive education of disabled children. They do, however, need an adequate qualification and practical competences to meet the diverse challenges of children with special needs. Child and adolescent psychiatrists are supposed to stay involved in the process, not only by planning interventions, but also during the course of inclusive education itself. Thus, the emotional situation and adjustment of included children with mental disorders over time must be monitored adequately.

  19. Experimental Investigation of Turbulence Specifications of Turbidity Currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Firoozabadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the turbulence characteristic of turbidity current experimentally. The three-dimensional Acoustic-Doppler Velocimeter (ADV was used to measure the instantaneous velocity and characteristics of the turbulent flow. The experiments were conducted in a three-dimensional channel for different discharge flows, concentrations, and bed slopes. Results are expressed at various distances from the inlet, for all flow rates, slopes and concentrations as the distribution of turbulence energy, Reynolds stress and the turbulent intensity. It was concluded that the maximum turbulence intensity happens in both the interface and near the wall. Also, it was observed that the turbulence intensity reaches its minimum where maximum velocity occurs.

  20. Current situation and future potential of further integration between UK and EU

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The article analyses potential consequences of Brexit as well as the current costs and benefits of UK’s membership in the EU, furthermore focusing on alternative agreements that may result between the members.

  1. [The current situation with amendments to the scale of remuneration for physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulf, W

    2012-08-01

    The regulation for the scale of remuneration for physicians (GÖA) is a Federal act which must be approved by the Federal Council. The structure and specification of the services in the current scales are out of date. The current performance ratings should be replaced by a strict economic analysis calculation model. This is the only way the Medical Council (BÄK) can foresee that higher performance ratings for services can be enforced against the health insurance companies.

  2. Recent experimental results of KSTAR RF heating and current drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S. J., E-mail: sjwang@nfri.re.kr; Kim, J.; Jeong, J. H.; Kim, H. J.; Joung, M.; Bae, Y. S.; Kwak, J. G. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejoen, 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-10

    The overview of KSTAR activities on ICRH, LHCD and ECH/CD including the last experimental results and future plan aiming for long-pulse high-beta plasma will be presented. Recently we achieved reasonable coupling of ICRF power to H-mode plasma through several efforts to increase system reliability. Power balance will be discussed on this experiment. LHCD is still struggling in the low power regime. Review of antenna spectrum for the higher coupling in H-mode plasma will be tried. ECH/CD provides 41 sec, 0.8 MW of heating power to support high-performance long-pulse discharge. Also, 170 GHz ECH system is integrated with the Plasma Control System (PCS) for the feedback controlling of NTM. Status and plan of ECH/CD will be discussed. Finally, helicon current drive is being prepared for the next stage of KSTAR operation. The hardware preparation and the calculation results of helicon current drive in KSTAR plasma will be discussed.

  3. Experimental Validation of Switching Strategy for Tracking Control with Collision Avoidance in Non-Cooperative Situation Using Toy Model Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogiso, Kiminao; Noguchi, Makoto; Hatada, Kazuyoshi; Kida, Naoki; Hirade, Naofumi; Sugimoto, Kenji

    This paper presents some experimental validation results of an already-proposed switching control method for simultaneous achievement of collision avoidance and tracking control for a vehicle in a non-cooperative situation. To validate the method, an experimental control system is made, in which the vehicle is a toy model car possible to remotely control via infrared ray and a camera is used to measure the vehicle's state. After presenting the constructed control system, the effectiveness of the method is investigated with the results obtained from the several control experiments.

  4. Fish farming of native species in Colombia: current situation and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Casallas, P. E.; Medina-Robles, V. M.; Velasco-Santamaria, Y. M.

    2011-01-01

    . The Colombian pisciculture is based on red Tilapia Oreochromis sp. (Linnaeus), Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) and cachama blanca Piaractus brachypomus (Cuvier), which currently represent around 96% of the total national production. The remaining 4% comes from other farmed species such as bocachico......, food conversion and disease resistance. The limited offer of Colombian fish farmed species determines its currently low competitiveness and restricted impact on the international markets; thus making necessary to explore the potential of new fish species in order to introduce them to the pisciculture...

  5. Current situation and challenges in implementing Malaria control strategies in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanchi, N K; Shakoor, S; Thaver, A M; Khan, M S; Janjua, A; Beg, M A

    2016-08-01

    Malaria transmission is unstable in Pakistan with the highest number of cases reported during the monsoon season. Despite its high incidence, malaria is still a poorly resourced, poorly funded and an uncontrolled disease especially in far-flung areas. Pakistan's National Malaria Control Program (NMCP), although operational since its inception in 1947, has suffered due to the unstable political, socioeconomic and financial situation prevalent in the country. In Pakistan, more than 300 000 cases of malaria are reported every year with 68% of the cases caused by Plasmodium vivax. It is estimated that about 70-80% of the population accesses the private sector for treatment. As the private sector does not routinely report data to the government, the actual malaria burden could be 4-5 times higher than reported. P. vivax now accounts for more than 85% of all cases requiring hospital admission compared to 54% in 2000. In this review, we have described the saga of poor control of malaria in Pakistan over several years in context of restructuring of the Malaria Control Program, challenges to improvement, and way forward.

  6. The public debt of the Republic of Serbia: The current situation and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošnjak Marinko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the internal and external debt situation of the Republic of Serbia based on the data relating to 2000 and 2004, issued by the Ministry of Finance, as well as the basic macroeconomic assumptions for the regular servicing of debts. The general results of this research indicate that the key institutional assumptions for the strengthening of annuity payment ability are consistent reforms and economic policies, and the key economic assumptions for debt repayment are economics growth, stability and reduction in the volume and changing the structure of government consumption. Investment and export growth which provides for growth in gross domestic product and income in foreign currency, which should be sufficient for debts repayment in the next five years, expressed in time periods as well as annuity payments per year, are the key significance for servicing of debts. Increase in economy efficiency, as well as the efficient use of resources obtained by credit facilities, are guaranties of maintaining the balance between volume and repayment capabilities of debts.

  7. Funding of Ukrainian universities: Current situation and possible ways of its solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Konstantiuk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a comparative analysis of Ukrainian education funding and funding education of some developed countries. The relationship between the financing of education and GDP is shown in article. It proved the importance of higher education in economic development of the country. However, despite the importance of higher education, Ukrainian universities have significant difficulties. Three groups of the challenges are discovered that are faced today Ukrainian universities. All groups of problems mentioned above, which the higher educational institutions deal with, cause the worsening of their financial situation and result in the disadvantage of the national science and education. Expenditures on education and science are offered viewed as an investment in human capital and the country's economy. Such investments in the sphere of education have proved to be correct, because the reversible effect is seen. These are those countries, which are the leaders in the amount of GDP in the world. That is, the investments in education are justified for both the country and the individual. So, the system of higher education is very important for future economic development of Ukraine. But it doesn't have enough financial resources for successful existence. All this results in looking for the intensive means of financial support of the higher educational institutions, the most important of which can be financial diversification and broadening of the institution autonomy.

  8. Prospects for Vascular Access Education in Developing Countries: Current Situation in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganuma, Toshihide; Takemoto, Yoshiaki

    2017-09-05

    We report our activities training doctors on vascular access procedures at International University (IU) Hospital in Cambodia through a program facilitated by Ubiquitous Blood Purification International, a nonprofit organization that provides medical support to developing countries in the field of dialysis medicine. Six doctors from Japan have been involved in the education of medical personnel at IU, and we have collectively visited Cambodia about 15 times from 2010 to 2016. In these visits, we have performed many operations, including 42 for arteriovenous fistula, 1 arteriovenous graft, and 1 percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Stable development and management of vascular access is increasingly required in Cambodia due to increased use of dialysis therapy, and training of doctors in this technique is urgently required. However, we have encountered several difficulties that need to be addressed, including (1) the situation of personnel receiving this training, (2) problems with facilities, including medical equipment and drugs, (3) financial limitations, and (4) problems with management of vascular access. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Current Situation of Household Income as a Factor, Having Impact on Mortgage Lending in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuselchimeg Batbileg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Amount of household income is the most important factor for housing loan. The article studies mortgage lending in Ulaanbaatar in 2007–2009, the factor, having great impact on the current economy of Mongolia, carries out the comparative analysis of capital’s medium and low income households and presents methods, which will help to solve these problems.

  10. Factitious prey and artificial diets for predatory lady beetles: current situation, obstacles, and approaches for improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predatory lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are important natural enemies of many pests in crop ecosystems throughout the world. Although several species are currently mass-reared and sold by biocontrol companies, there is an urgent need to reduce rearing costs. Cost effective mass rearing of...

  11. Current Situation and Characteristics Analysis on Cerebral Palsy Rehabilitation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琴玉

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic characteristics and patterns of cerebral palsy rehabilitation in China. Method: To elaborate the specific acupuncture methods and action mechanism of cerebral palsy in China by combining analysis on the therapeutic situation of cerebral palsy from both home and abroad with research literatures. Conclusion: Acupuncture has great potential in social and economic benefits in the treatment of cerebral palsy. It is necessary to develop prospective, multi-center and randomly controlled trials on acupuncture treatment of cerebral palsy with exact and feasible therapeutic plans and establish acupuncture-centered cerebral palsy rehabilitation system with Chinese characteristics.%目的:探讨中国脑性瘫痪的康复治疗特点及模式.方法:分析国内外脑性瘫痪治疗现状,结合文献详细阐述国内采用针灸治疗脑瘫的具体方法及其机理研究.结论:针灸治疗脑瘫有着极大的潜在社会效益和经济效益.宜开展针灸治疗小儿脑瘫的前瞻性、多中心、随机对照试验,探索出疗效确切、可行性强的针灸治疗方案,建立以针灸为中心的有中国特色的脑性瘫痪康复体系.

  12. The use of elearning in medical education: a review of the current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choules, A P

    2007-04-01

    Computers are increasingly used in medical education. Electronic learning (elearning) is moving from textbooks in electronic format (that are increasingly enhanced by the use of multimedia adjuncts) to a truly interactive medium that can be delivered to meet the educational needs of students and postgraduate learners. Computer technology can present reliable, reusable content in a format that is convenient to the learner. It can be used to transcend geographical boundaries and time zones. It is a valuable tool to add to the medical teacher's toolkit, but like all tools it must be used appropriately. This article endeavours to review the current "state of the art2 in use of elearning and its role in medical education alongside non-electronic methods-a combination that is currently referred to as "blended" learning.

  13. Current Situation and Issues in Career Support for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    石井, 正博; 篠田, 晴男

    2014-01-01

    We briefly reviewed the current problems in career support for students with developmental disorders. Specifically, wefocused on studies concerning autism spectrum disorder because of the difficulty students with these disorders often face in finding jobs. The majority of studies suggested that the acquisition of basic life skills is essential for a successful transition from the educational setting to the workplace. We also discussed carrier decision-making as it relates to the accuracyof th...

  14. THE KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY AND THE INFORMATION SOCIETY. THE CURRENT SITUATION IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    STELIAC Nela; POP Ciprian-Viorel; Diana-Aderina MOISUC

    2012-01-01

    Currently, human societies are experiencing a new type of economy: the knowledge economy which is founded on a knowledge society. The main driver of social and economic growth is knowledge itself. The new economy requires a rethinking of the production theory in that traditional factors change into secondary factors, while knowledge becomes the main, essential, production factor. An information society is a prerequisite stage towards a knowledge society; hence it needs to be implemented first...

  15. The Analysis of Current Situation of Cultural Self-Confidence of College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛玉成; 黄秋生

    2013-01-01

    The high level of the cultural confidence is essential to instruct college students to integrate individual dream into Chinese dream, which is also the spirit source to transmit positive social energy. However,the current part of college students lack of cultural self-confidence,the loss display mainly that they are cognitive deficiencies on the national traditional culture,they blind recognition of western culture,they do not pay attention to contemporary Chinese advanced culture.

  16. The Current Situation of the Study on Twisted Tape Inserts in Pipe Exchangers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changzhong Man; Chong Wang; Jinyu Yao

    2014-01-01

    Heat transfer enhancement is used in many applications including heat exchangers, air conditioning, and refrigeration systems;hence many researchers have conducted experimental and numerical researches on heat transfer enhancement and have developed various techniques and methods. As a passive heat transfer technique, twisted tapes are widely used in various industries for their cost savings, lower maintenance requirements and the fact that they are easily set up. This paper introduces the principle of heat transfer enhancement of twisted tapes and reviews some of the experimental works done by researchers on this technique in recent years. The variously modified twisted tape inserts are widely researched and used to enhance heat transfer efficiency for heat exchangers. Twisted tapes perform better in low Re conditions and in square tubes. However, they could also cause higher pressure drops. Twisted tapes have great potential and profound implications if they can be used in traditional heat exchangers. Besides this, some correlations between the Nusselt number and friction factors are presented in this paper.

  17. ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) current drive and heating physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevins, W.M.; Lindquist, W. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Fujisawa, N.; Kimura, H. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan)); Hopman, H.; Rebuffi, L.; Wegrowe, J.G. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany, F.R.). NET Design Team); Parail, V.; Vdovin, V. (Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow (USSR). Inst. Atomnoj Ehn

    1990-01-01

    The ITER Current Drive and Heating (CD H) systems are required for: Ionization and current initiation; Non-inductive current ramp-up assist; Heating of the plasma; Steady-state operation with full non-inductive current drive; Current profile control; and Burn control by modulation of the auxiliary power. Steady-state current drive is the most demanding requirement, so this has driven the choice of the ITER current drive and heating systems.

  18. The resources of adaptability in a situation of frustration: a comparative experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila M. Kolpakova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with mechanisms for mobilizing the resources of the individual in a situation to overcome the frustration that is studied in the framework of the methodology of the subjective approach. The analysis used data from the experiment, organized as situation of frustration for students during the examination session. Used methods: φ* criterion (angular conversion Fischer, Q criterion Rosenbaum, goodness of fit Pearson (χ 2; methods comparison, analysis and synthesis. The results showed that at students with the characteristic of subjective autonomy more stable indicators of adaptability in a situation of frustration than at others. Indicators have been defined as the inherent benefits of these students: ontological components of confidence (p≤0.01; p≤ 0.05; self-regulation (p≤0.05; emotional state (p≤0,01; p≤0,05. The use of strategies of coping with frustration that make them more effective: "volitional control over the senses"; "a change in its system of relations"; "rethinking and the search for solutions"; "rational approach to the study of experiences». The use of «Autonomy», as evidenced by the correlation of two important factors, where "autonomy" has a greater number of links compared to others. The discovered connection between "autonomy» and – "confidence in "Me" (R=0,42, "confidence in significance" (p=0,43, "the ability to accept failure, amend life strategies (R=0.41, "self-regulation" (R=0,39, "capacity for flexible behavior" (p=0.39. This indicates the stability of the expression and complex multicomponent structure of autonomy and also that from the level of expression of any of these components depend the characteristics of the manifestation of its symptoms. Where "autonomy" has a greater number of links compared to others parameter. The results can help clinical psychologists, physicians in their scientific researches and practical activities, as well as other experts on the problem of individual

  19. Current situation of Leishmania infantum infection in shelter dogs in northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miró Guadalupe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine leishmaniosis (CanL caused by Leishmania infantum is a widespread endemic disease in the Mediterranean basin, though, so far, the north of Spain has been considered a non-endemic area. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of specific antibodies to L. infantum among stray dogs living in shelters in this area, and to evaluate the clinical status (both clinical signs and clinico-pathological abnormalities of seropositive dogs. Besides L. infantum infection, the epidemiological role of variables like sex, breed and age was also assessed. Methods Over the year 2011 a cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 418 stray dogs. A preliminary entomological survey was carried out using CDC-light traps. The chi-squared test was used to examine relationships between L. infantum seroprevalence and the remaining variables. Results The overall seroprevalence of L. infantum infection detected was 3% in the Cantabrian coast. In Orense the seroprevalence was 35.6%. In this latter region, the presence of sand fly, Phlebotomus perniciosus was also detected. In general, seropositivity for L. infantum was related to size (large breed dogs versus small and age, with a significantly higher seroprevalence recorded in younger (0-3 years and older dogs (> 7 years than adult dogs. Clinical signs of CanL were observed in 41.3% of the seropositive dogs. The seropositivity for L. infantum infection associated with the presence of clinical signs and/or abnormal laboratory findings shows a prevalence of 4.5%. Conclusion Our data provide new insight into the prevalence of CanL across northern Spain. The situation observed in Orense seems to be worsening compared to the few reports available, with figures being similar to those cited for known endemic areas of Spain. Besides, the presence of P. perniciosus in Orense points out to a risk of the spread of this zoonotic disease in this geographical area. These findings

  20. The use of heat pipes in thermal control system for electronics: current situation and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairnasov S. M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, the widespread application of cooling systems based on heat pipes makes significant contribution to the solution of the thermal control of electronic equipment. The use of heat pipes as heat transfer devices and heat exchanging equipment allows creating an efficient new-generation heat sinks. Nowadays, heat pipes are widely used in the following areas: electronic equipment, special application computer equipment (from small computers to large data centres, high power electronics. The article provides an analysis of the current state and prospects of heat pipes application in thermal control systems for ground-based electronic equipment.

  1. The current situation of impact of coal mine developing on environment in China and government proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Yang [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Ministry of Land and Resources

    2005-07-01

    Current environmental problems caused by coal mining in China, the importance of management of the environment, impact of coal mining on land and water resources, and upcoming coal development are discussed. It is suggested that the government should act in two ways: take responsibility for management of reclamation of mines existing before 1986, and set up mechanisms to protect the environment, starting with the publishing of relevant laws and regulations. Methods for solving environmental issues include: prepare a practical plan, establish an environmental control fund, establish a special fund to protect the environment, and develop new ways to combine protection of the biological environment and land reclamation. 5 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. Current Situation,Problems and Countermeasures of World Heritage Protection in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The development of World Heritage protection in China can be characterized by four facts,which are the increasing number,the domination of cultural heritages,the uneven spatial distribution,and the abundant candidate reserve for nomination.Currently,the problems of the dislocation of understanding,the absence of planning,the disorder of management,the lack of relevant institutions still exist in the field of World Heritage protection,aiming at which,the author puts forward some countermeasures,such as completing legislation system,carrying out scientific planning,implementing hierarchical and assorted administration,strengthening supervision,increasing investments,and enhancing propaganda and education.

  3. Ecotourism in nature reserves in China: current situation,problems and solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Ju-chun; ZHENG Jing-ming

    2008-01-01

    Our presentation focuses on some important issues associated with ecotourism in nature reserves in mainland China. Conducting ecotourism in certain areas in nature reserves is important for its protection. However, some problems do exist because of special conditions in our society and in the current projects of nature reserves themselves, such as water and air pollution, unplanned construction of roads and facilities, damage of core zones and buffer zones, and confused ownership of nature reserves. These problems are discussed and solutions are proposed in detail, and we emphasize the participation of local communities in order to help residents fight against poverty.

  4. Smart grids in the colombian electric system: Current situation and potential opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Mauricio Giral Ramírez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: This paper focuses on providing a functional analysis of smart grids, with the purpose of establishing a framework to identify the main characteristics of the current electric interconnection system in Colombia. It also names the positive incentives proposed by the Colombian government to support both research and development projects that implement non-conventional energy sources and promoting energy management based on efficiency. Method: An architecture model that describes the components interoperability of a smart grid is presented using a descriptive methodology. Results: The results include a list of the objectives established by the Colombian public and private entities related to energy development, specially focusing on the opportunities to provide some kind of artificial intelligence to the current electrical system. Conclusions: It is necessary for the Colombian energy system to supply the energy demand considering electrical safety, social equity, and the minimum environmental impact. These restrictions impose new challenges for the energy system itself: From a technical point of view, the traditional electrical grid must be outfitted with the characteristics of a smart grid, and from a legal perspective, it is essential to generate a clear regulatory framework that promotes the development of this type of technology.

  5. Labeling programs and efficiency standards to control the energy consumption of household appliances: current situation, main results and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menanteau, Ph.

    2000-09-01

    To control the rise in electricity consumption for specific uses, the industrialized countries started by introducing special programs aimed at improving energy efficiency. Among the different instruments available, labeling programs and minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) have proved to be very effective. The first part of this document presents the current situation, the main results and recommendations concerning the labeling programs and efficiency standards to control the energy consumption of household appliances. This analyze is done for each country in details providing the name of the program or measure, the date of implementation, the objective and the main characteristics of the program, the impacts and evaluation. (A.L.B.)

  6. Current Situation and Evaluation of Clinical Studies on Acupuncture and Moxibustion Treatment of Peripheral Facial Paralysis at Selected Stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying; WU Xi; HU Ka-ming; CHEN Xiao-qin

    2010-01-01

    @@ Peripheral facial paralysis is a frequently encountered disease with a high incidence, and it is one of the most common diseases in acupuncture and moxibustion treatment. Because there are rich literatures in clinical studies on acupuncture and moxibustion treatment for this disease, and clinically, it is divided into different stages, in the present paper the current situation of clinical studies about acupuncture and moxibustion treatment for peripheral facial paralysis according to different stages in resent years are analyzed and evaluated including the stage division,the optimal time for treatment, location of injured nerves and assessment of the therapeutic effect, etc.

  7. The Current Situation of ICT Development in the Middle East and ICT Support Policies. The Case of Syrian Arab Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Yamamoto

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine how ICT development is progressing and what kind of political and social effects have been occurring (or could occur in the near future in Middle Eastern Arabic countries. To examine this theme, this paper will adopt the Syrian Arab Republic as a case. To understand the Syrian government's policy toward the ICT development, it is necessary to examine the domestic political situation, since they are closely related. Under the Bashar Al- Asad's regime, we can confirm several reasons why they have to move forward on their ICT development policy and why it has become a crucial issue, which they cannot evade, as they had done under the previous regime, Hafez Al- Asad's regime. The situation that the Syrian government is facing right now is known by the term, "Dictator's Dilemma". This paper tries to provide bases in order to examine and explore this dilemma in Syria. Also, when we examine ICT development in Syria, it is important to consider the ICT support policies, which are mainly conducted by OECD countries and international organizations and stem from the issue of "Digital Divide". This is why international assistances could have great effect on ICT development in Syria. As a provisional conclusion of this paper, I will summarize how we can understand the current situation of ICT development in Syria, and I will also comment on the future prospect of the dilemma that the Syrian government is facing at the present time.

  8. Analysis of the Current Situation in North Africa & the Middle East

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Hongyu; Li Xiaosan

    2011-01-01

    After the upsurge of domestic turmoil in Tunis last December, unrest spread rapidly through North Africa and the Middle East, having a profound effect on current international relations. It will continue to affect relations between the major powers and the international system as a whole for some time to come. The regional turmoil of North Africa and the Middle East is of particular interest to International Political Economy (IPE) studies. It seems to embody a geostrategic conflict between the US and the EU in contending for leadership in North Africa and the Middle East. It is also an expression of the competition for dominance of the global financial structure between the major powers during a period of transition in the international system. Lastly, it is a manifestation of America's struggle to maintain its global economic hegemony.

  9. Quality management of eLearning for medical education: current situation and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrusch, Jasmin; Marienhagen, Jörg; Böckers, Anja; Gerhardt-Szép, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In 2008, the German Council of Science had advised universities to establish a quality management system (QMS) that conforms to international standards. The system was to be implemented within 5 years, i.e., until 2014 at the latest. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a QMS suitable for electronic learning (eLearning) domain of medical education to be used across Germany has meanwhile been identified. Methods: We approached all medical universities in Germany (n=35), using an anonymous questionnaire (8 domains, 50 items). Results: Our results (response rate 46.3%) indicated very reluctant application of QMS in eLearning and a major information deficit at the various institutions. Conclusions: Authors conclude that under the limitations of this study there seems to be a considerable need to improve the current knowledge on QMS for eLearning, and that clear guidelines and standards for their implementation should be further defined. PMID:26038685

  10. Inventory of managed aquifer recharge sites in Europe: historical development, current situation and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, C.; Hartog, N.; Hernández, M.; Vilanova, E.; Grützmacher, G.; Scheibler, F.; Hannappel, S.

    2017-03-01

    Different types of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) schemes are widely distributed and applied on various scales and for various purposes in the European countries, but a systematic categorization and compilation of data has been missing up to now. The European MAR catalogue presented herein contains various key parameters collected from the available literature. The catalogue includes 224 currently active MAR sites found in 23 European countries. Large quantities of drinking water are produced by MAR sites in Hungary, Slovakia, the Netherlands, Germany, Finland, Poland, Switzerland and France. This inventory highlights that, for over a century, MAR has played an important role in the development of European water supply and contributes to drinking-water production substantially. This development has occurred autonomously, with "trial-and-error" within the full range of climatically and hydrogeologically diverse conditions of the European countries. For the future, MAR has the potential to facilitate optimal (re)use and storage of available water resources and to take advantage of the natural purification and low energy requirements during MAR operations. Particularly with respect to the re-use of wastewater treatment-plant effluent and stormwater, which is currently underdeveloped, the use of MAR can support the public acceptance of such water-resource efficient schemes. Particularly for the highly productive and urbanized coastal zones, where the pressure on freshwater supplies increases by growing water demand, salinization and increased agricultural needs for food production (such as along the Mediterranean and North Sea coasts), MAR is expected to be increasingly relied on in Europe.

  11. Inventory of managed aquifer recharge sites in Europe: historical development, current situation and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, C.; Hartog, N.; Hernández, M.; Vilanova, E.; Grützmacher, G.; Scheibler, F.; Hannappel, S.

    2017-09-01

    Different types of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) schemes are widely distributed and applied on various scales and for various purposes in the European countries, but a systematic categorization and compilation of data has been missing up to now. The European MAR catalogue presented herein contains various key parameters collected from the available literature. The catalogue includes 224 currently active MAR sites found in 23 European countries. Large quantities of drinking water are produced by MAR sites in Hungary, Slovakia, the Netherlands, Germany, Finland, Poland, Switzerland and France. This inventory highlights that, for over a century, MAR has played an important role in the development of European water supply and contributes to drinking-water production substantially. This development has occurred autonomously, with "trial-and-error" within the full range of climatically and hydrogeologically diverse conditions of the European countries. For the future, MAR has the potential to facilitate optimal (re)use and storage of available water resources and to take advantage of the natural purification and low energy requirements during MAR operations. Particularly with respect to the re-use of wastewater treatment-plant effluent and stormwater, which is currently underdeveloped, the use of MAR can support the public acceptance of such water-resource efficient schemes. Particularly for the highly productive and urbanized coastal zones, where the pressure on freshwater supplies increases by growing water demand, salinization and increased agricultural needs for food production (such as along the Mediterranean and North Sea coasts), MAR is expected to be increasingly relied on in Europe.

  12. Current hepatitis B virus infection situation in Indonesia and its genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusida, Maria Inge; Juniastuti; Yano, Yoshihiko

    2016-08-28

    Indonesia has a moderate to high endemicity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The risk for chronic HBV infection is highest among those infected during infancy. Since 1997, hepatitis B (HepB) vaccination of newborns has been fully integrated into the National Immunization Program. Although HBV infection has been reduced by the universal newborn HepB immunization program, it continues to occur in Indonesia. The low birth dose coverage and the presence of vaccine escape mutants might contribute to this endemicity among children. Although limited information is available for an analysis of occult HBV infection (OBI), several variations and substitutions in the pre-S/S region have been detected in Indonesian HBV strains. Additionally, persistent infection and disease progression of chronic hepatitis B are related to not only viral factors but also the host genome. Indonesia is one of the most ethnically heterogeneous nations, with Javanese and Sundanese as the two highest ethnic groups. This multi-ethnicity makes genomic research in Indonesia difficult. In this article, we focused on and reviewed the following aspects: the current hepatitis B immunization program and its efficacy, OBI, HBV infection among high-risk patients, such as hemodialysis patients, and research regarding the host genome in Indonesia.

  13. Induced abortion in Thailand: current situation in public hospitals and legal perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warakamin, Suwanna; Boonthai, Nongluk; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2004-11-01

    Abortion is illegal in Thailand unless the woman's health is at risk or pregnancy is due to rape. This study, carried out in 1999 in 787 government hospitals, examined the magnitude and profile of abortion in Thailand, using data collected prospectively through a review of 45,990 case records (of which 28.5% were classified as induced and 71.5% as spontaneous abortions) and face-to-face interviews with a sub-set of 1854 women patients. The estimated induced abortion ratio was 19.5 per 1000 live births. Almost half the induced abortions were in young women under 25 years of age, many of whom had little or no access to contraception. Socio-economic reasons accounted for 60.2% of abortions. Serious complications were observed in almost a third of cases, especially following abortions performed by non-health personnel. Government physicians' current provision of induced abortion went beyond the provisions of the law in almost half of cases, most commonly for intrauterine death and for congenital anomalies. The paper proposes a framework for policy discussions of the grey areas of maternal and fetal indications leading to legal reform, in order to facilitate safe abortion. A recommendation to amend the abortion law has been proposed to the Ministry of Public Health and the Thai Medical Council.

  14. Current Situation for Management of Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources in Japan - 13025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusama, Keiji; Miyamoto, Yoichi [Japan Radioisotope Association, Radiopharmaceutical and Radioisotope Supply Business Promotion Department (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    As for the Sealed Radioactive Source currently used in Japan, many of them are imported from overseas. The U.S., Canada, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and Czech Republic are the main exporting States. Many of disused sealed radioactive sources are being returned to exporting States. The sealed radioactive sources which cannot be returned to exporting States are appropriately kept in the domestic storage facility. So, there are not main problem on the long term management of disused sealed radioactive sources in Japan. However, there are some difficulties on repatriate. One is reservation of a means of transport. The sea mail which conveys radioactive sources owing to reduction of movement of international cargo is decreasing in number. And there is a denial of shipment. Other one is that the manufacturer has already resigned from the work and cannot return disused sealed radioactive sources, or a manufacturer cannot specify and disused sources cannot be returned. The disused sealed radioactive source which cannot be repatriated is a little in term of radioactivity. As for the establishment of national measure of final disposal facility for disused sealed radioactive sources, in Japan, it is not yet installed with difficulty. Since there are many countries for which installation of a final disposal facility for disused sealed radioactive sources is difficult, the source manufacture country should respond positively to return the source which was manufactured and sold in the past. (authors)

  15. Human resources for mental health care: current situation and strategies for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuma, Ritsuko; Minas, Harry; van Ginneken, Nadja; Dal Poz, Mario R; Desiraju, Keshav; Morris, Jodi E; Saxena, Shekhar; Scheffler, Richard M

    2011-11-05

    A challenge faced by many countries is to provide adequate human resources for delivery of essential mental health interventions. The overwhelming worldwide shortage of human resources for mental health, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries, is well established. Here, we review the current state of human resources for mental health, needs, and strategies for action. At present, human resources for mental health in countries of low and middle income show a serious shortfall that is likely to grow unless effective steps are taken. Evidence suggests that mental health care can be delivered effectively in primary health-care settings, through community-based programmes and task-shifting approaches. Non-specialist health professionals, lay workers, affected individuals, and caregivers with brief training and appropriate supervision by mental health specialists are able to detect, diagnose, treat, and monitor individuals with mental disorders and reduce caregiver burden. We also discuss scale-up costs, human resources management, and leadership for mental health, particularly within the context of low-income and middle-income countries.

  16. Opening the black box of Anaplasma phagocytophilum diversity: current situation and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugat, Thibaud; Lagrée, Anne-Claire; Maillard, Renaud; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Haddad, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic obligate intracellular bacterium known to be transmitted by ticks belonging to the Ixodes persulcatus complex. This bacterium can infect several mammalian species, and is known to cause diseases with variable symptoms in many domestic animals. Specifically, it is the causative agent of tick-borne fever (TBF), a disease of important economic impact in European domestic ruminants, and human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), an emerging zoonotic disease in Asia, USA and Europe. A. phagocytophilum epidemiological cycles are complex and involve different ecotypes, vectors, and mammalian host species. Moreover, the epidemiology of A. phagocytophilum infection differs greatly between Europe and the USA. These different epidemiological contexts are associated with considerable variations in bacterial strains. Until recently, few A. phagocytophilum molecular typing tools were available, generating difficulties in completely elucidating the epidemiological cycles of this bacterium. Over the last few years, many A. phagocytophilum typing techniques have been developed, permitting in-depth epidemiological exploration. Here, we review the current knowledge and future perspectives regarding A. phagocytophilum epidemiology and phylogeny, and then focus on the molecular typing tools available for studying A. phagocytophilum genetic diversity. PMID:26322277

  17. Current hepatitis B virus infection situation in Indonesia and its genetic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusida, Maria Inge; Juniastuti; Yano, Yoshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia has a moderate to high endemicity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The risk for chronic HBV infection is highest among those infected during infancy. Since 1997, hepatitis B (HepB) vaccination of newborns has been fully integrated into the National Immunization Program. Although HBV infection has been reduced by the universal newborn HepB immunization program, it continues to occur in Indonesia. The low birth dose coverage and the presence of vaccine escape mutants might contribute to this endemicity among children. Although limited information is available for an analysis of occult HBV infection (OBI), several variations and substitutions in the pre-S/S region have been detected in Indonesian HBV strains. Additionally, persistent infection and disease progression of chronic hepatitis B are related to not only viral factors but also the host genome. Indonesia is one of the most ethnically heterogeneous nations, with Javanese and Sundanese as the two highest ethnic groups. This multi-ethnicity makes genomic research in Indonesia difficult. In this article, we focused on and reviewed the following aspects: the current hepatitis B immunization program and its efficacy, OBI, HBV infection among high-risk patients, such as hemodialysis patients, and research regarding the host genome in Indonesia. PMID:27621573

  18. [Nursing education in Taiwan: the current situation and prospects for the future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meei-Shiow

    2004-08-01

    Two factors which have a close bearing on nursing education are social and technological change. How nursing education meets social needs and how nursing students are best equipped with professional knowledge, attitudes, and skills in a rapidly changing society have become important issues. The purposes of this paper are to describe the current state of nursing education and to identify problems that need to be solved, including the complexity of the educational system, the quality and quantity of nursing manpower, the degree of compatibility between the aims of education and future social needs, the quality of nursing educators, courses and course delivery, and the clinical competence of nursing graduates. Based on the paradigm shifts of International Medical Care and higher education described by McBride, several suggestions for future educational reform are proposed, including simplifying the educational system, improving the development of both the quality and quantity of nursing manpower, matching educational aims with future social needs, bridging the gap between theory and clinical practice, promoting both instructional and clinical skills among nursing educators and enhancing the ability of graduates to deal with a contingency strain. It is expected that in order to meet the challenges presented by a rapidly changing society, nursing educators will have to develop a mixed role including clinical proficiency, outstanding research skills, and excellent leadership skills.

  19. General Technical Approvals for Decentralised Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS—The Current Situation in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Dierkes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of decentralised, sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS for the treatment of stormwater runoff is becoming increasingly prevalent in Germany. Decentralised SUDS can offer a viable and attractive alternative to end of pipe treatment systems for stormwater runoff from urban areas. However, there is still some uncertainty regarding the long-term performance of SUDS, and the general legislative requirements for SUDS approval and testing. Whilst the allowable pollution levels in stormwater runoff that infiltrate into ground and/or water table are regulated across Germany by the Federal Soil Protection Law, there is presently no federal law addressing the discharge requirements for surface water runoff. The lack of clear guidance can make it difficult for planners and designers to implement these innovative and sustainable stormwater treatment systems. This study clarifies the current understanding of urban stormwater treatment requirements and new technical approval guidelines for decentralised SUDS devices in Germany. The study findings should assist researchers, designers and asset managers to better anticipate and understand the performance, effective life-spans, and the planning and maintenance requirements for decentralised SUDS systems. This should help promote even greater use of these systems in the future.

  20. THE ASSESSMENT OF ENTREPRENEURIAL PERSONALITY: THE CURRENT SITUATION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Suárez-Álvarez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is fundamental in modern society because it represents an important source of innovation, employment, productivity, and growth. While the first theoretical models arose from economic and sociological approaches, psychology provides models that integrate different aspects such as cognitions, attitudes and personality, which allow a more detailed study. The purpose of this paper is to show the main contributions of psychology to the assessment of the enterprising personality. For this purpose, the main models and instruments developed to date were reviewed. The results confirm that the enterprising personality has a multidimensional structure and eight personality traits can be highlighted: achievement motivation, risk-taking, autonomy, self-efficacy, stress tolerance, innovativeness, internal locus of control, and optimism. From a methodological point of view, Item Response Theory and Computerised Adaptive Tests represent the most advanced and modern methods for assessing enterprising personality. There are currently several measurement instruments available. Future areas of research should be directed at the construction of multidimensional models as well as providing alternatives that facilitate a reduction in social desirability and other biases inherent in self-reports.

  1. Indonesia municiple solid waste life cycle and environmental monitoring: current situation, before and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susmono

    2017-03-01

    Indonesia is a big country with circa 250 million population, with more than 500 Local Governments and they are going to improve their municiple solid waste dumping method from Open Dumping to Sanitary Landfill (SLF) and to promote Reduce-Reuse-Recycling (3R) since many years ago, and it is strengthened by issuing of Solid Waste Management Act No.18/2008, MSW Government Regulation No.12/2012 and other regulations which are issued by Central Government and Local Governments. During “Water and Sanitation Decade 1980-1990” through “Integrated Urban Infrastructures Development Program” some pilot project such as 30 units of 3R station were developed in the urban areas, and modified or simplification of SLF call Controlled Landfill (CLF) were implemented. In the year of 2002 about 45 units of composting pilot projects were developed under “Western Java Environmental Management Project”, and the result was notified that some of them are not sustain because many aspects. At the beginning of 2007 until now, some pilot projects of 3R were continued in some cities and since 2011 some Waste Banks are growing fast. In the year of 2014 was recorded that of 70 % of 3Rs in Java Island well developed (2014, Directorate of Environment Sanitation Report), and in the year of 2012 was recorded that development of Communal Waste Banks were growing fast during two months from 400 units to 800 units (2012, Ministry of Environment report), now more Communal Waste Banks all ready exist. After the last overview monitoring activity by Ministry of Environment and JICA (2008), because of lack of data is very difficult to give current accurate information of Municiple Solid Waste Handling in Indonesia. Nevertheless some innovation are developed because of impact of many pilot projects, Adipura City Cleanest Competition among Local Governments and growing of the spirit of autonomous policy of Local Governments, but some Local Governments still dependence on Central Government support

  2. Use and treatment of olive mill wastewater: current situation and prospects in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiestas Ros de Ursinos, J. A.

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of olive mill wastewater are set out the viewpoint of their pollutant capacity and the problems arising from their tipping in olive-growing areas. The national administration's solutions for preventing pollutions of surface waters are also stated. Special detail is given to the action taken within a research and development program financed by the Spanish Government and the EEC through the Commission MEDSPA 89 for the technical-economic evaluation of different systems for eliminating and treating olive mill wastewater, in order to determine the feasibility of their introduction at industrial level. At the same time the systems currently under evaluation are described: - Intensification of natural evaporation from olive mill wastewater stored in ponds (two systems. - Physical processes using forced evaporation to eliminate the olive mill wastewater, followed by aerobic biological processes or systems of ultrafiltration and inverse osmosis for final treatment of the condensate (two systems. - Application of physico-chemical processes to eliminate the greater part of the organic components of the olive mill wastewaters and the use of aerobic biological processes or systems of ultrafiltration and inverse osmosis for final treatment of the clarified fraction (three systems. - Biological process for the complete treatment of the olive mill wastewaters by the successive application of processes: bioconversion, biomethanisation, aerobic treatment, and physico-chemical treatment. Treatment yields of the order of 99,6% are achieved, at the same time obtaining by-products of commercial interest (one system.

    Las características de los alpechines se establecen desde el punto de vista de su capacidad contaminante y de los problemas típicos que surgen en las zonas de cultivo del olivo. También están descritas las soluciones de la administración del Estado para la prevención de la contaminación de aguas de superficie

  3. Situated learning: The feasibility of an experimental learning of information technology for academic nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayala Gonen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Bachelor’s degree of nursing education, nursing students are exposed to the increasingly complex world of Information Technology. Aim: To evaluate the feasibility of a situated learning approach for Information Technology course by assessing students’ perceptions at the end of the course. Methods: Course participants completed a pre and post-course survey describing their knowledge and perceptions of the course. Results and discussion: Results demonstrated increased knowledge and satisfaction with this new learning strategy, which was also apparent in their good final course grades. Students had considerably more knowledge after the course (comparing to pre course survey, with a positive correlation between students’ perception of the usefulness of the course and their knowledge after completion of the course. Therefore, enhancing learning using a simulated learning curriculum may allow students to be more aware of the challenges that nurses face in actual practice, and may provide a more contextualized understanding of the issues relating to Information Technology.

  4. An Experimental Study on Situated and Dynamic Learning Assessment (SDLA) Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Zeng-Han

    2010-01-01

    The current supplementary web based English learning in Taiwan provides online learning resources and gives assessments at the end of each lesson to evaluate learners' online learning results. Based on the testing results, instructors may adjust their in-class instructional method to focus on the students' weaknesses. For the average classroom…

  5. Experimental study of blockage of monochromatic waves by counter currents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suastika, I.K.

    1999-01-01

    Blockage of waves by a current can occur if waves are propagating on a spatially varying opposing current in which the velocity is increasing in the wave propagation direction. The ongoing waves become shorter and steeper while they are propagating against the current. Blocking occurs at the

  6. Superluminal motions? A bird-eye view of the experimental situation

    CERN Document Server

    Recami, E

    2001-01-01

    In this article (after some brief theoretical considerations) a bird-eye view is presented -with the help of nine figures- of the various experimental sectors of physics in which Superluminal motions seem to appear. In particular, a panorama is presented of the experiments with evanescent waves and/or tunnelling photons, and with the "localized Superluminal solutions" to the Maxwell equations (e.g., with the so-called X-shaped ones). The present paper is sketchy, but is followed by a large enough bibliography to allow the interested reader deepening the preferred topic.

  7. Control of zoonoses in emergency situations: lessons learned during recent outbreaks (gaps and weaknesses of current zoonoses control programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darem Tabbaa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In emergency situations, domestic animals and wildlife are, like people, exposed to infectious diseases and environmental contaminants in the air, soil, water and food. They can suffer from acute and/or chronic diseases from such exposure. Often animals serve as disease reservoirs or early warning systems for the community in regard to the spread of zoonotic diseases. Over 100 years of experience have shown that animal and human health are closely related. During the past few years, emergent disease episodes have increased; nearly all have involved zoonotic agents. As there is no way to predict when or where the next important new zoonotic pathogen will emerge or what its ultimate importance might be, investigation at the first sign of emergence of a new zoonotic disease is particularly important. Today, in many emerging situations, different activities involving zoonotic disease control are at risk because of failed investigative infrastructures or financial constraints. Considering that zoonotic diseases have their own characteristics, their prevention and control require unique strategies, based more on fundamental and applied research than on traditional approaches. Such strategies require cooperation and coordination between animal and public health sectors and the involvement of other disciplines and experts such as epidemiologists, entomologists, environmentalists and climatologists. Lessons learned from the avian influenza pandemic threat, the Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and rabies outbreaks are presented and the gaps and weakness of current control programmes are discussed.

  8. Experimental Study on Current-Driven Domain Wall Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, T.; Yamaguchi, A.; Tanigawa, H.; Yano, K.; Kasai, S.

    2006-06-01

    Current-driven domain wall (DW) motion for a well-defined single DW in a micro-fabricated magnetic wire with submicron width was investigated by real-space observation with magnetic force microscopy. Magnetic force microscopy visualizes that a single DW introduced in a wire is displaced back and forth by positive and negative pulsed-current, respectively. Effect of the Joule heating, reduction of the threshold current density by shape control, and magnetic ratchet effect are also presented.

  9. Experimental study of the dynamics of a thin current sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekelman, W.; DeHaas, T.; Van Compernolle, B.; Daughton, W.; Pribyl, P.; Vincena, S.; Hong, D.

    2016-05-01

    Many plasmas in natural settings or in laboratory experiments carry currents. In magnetized plasmas the currents can be narrow field-aligned filaments as small as the electron inertial length ≤ft(\\tfrac{c}{{ω }pe}\\right) in the transverse dimension or fill the entire plasma column. Currents can take the form of sheets, again with the transverse dimension the narrow one. Are laminar sheets of electric current in a magnetized plasma stable? This became an important issue in the 1960s when current-carrying plasmas became key in the quest for thermonuclear fusion. The subject is still under study today. The conditions necessary for the onset for tearing are known, the key issue is that of the final state. Is there a final state? One possibility is a collection of stable tubes of current. On the other hand, is the interaction between the current filaments which are the byproduct endless, or does it go on to become chaotic? The subject of three-dimensional current systems is intriguing, rich in a variety of phenomena on multiple scale sizes and frequencies, and relevant to fusion studies, solar physics, space plasmas and astrophysical phenomena. In this study a long (δz = 11 m) and narrow (δx = 1 cm, δy = 20 cm) current sheet is generated in a background magnetoplasma capable of supporting Alfvén waves. The current is observed to rapidly tear into a series of magnetic islands when viewed in a cross-sectional plane, but they are in essence three-dimensional flux ropes. At the onset of the current, magnetic field line reconnection is observed between the flux ropes. The sheet on the whole is kink-unstable, and after kinking exhibits large-scale, low-frequency (f ≪ f ci ) rotation about the background field with an amplitude that grows with distance from the source of the current. Three-dimensional data of the magnetic and electric fields is acquired throughout the duration of the experiment and the parallel resistivity is derived from it. The parallel

  10. 耐火保温材料现状及发展%Current situation and development of thermal insulation refractories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小路; 黄晋; 张友寿; 龙威; 夏露; 李四年

    2016-01-01

    The current situation of thermal insulation refractories was expounded mainly on aspect of service temperatures,including glass wool,mineral (rock)wool,calcium silicate,composite silicate,closed pore perlite,hollow microsphere,vermiculite,refractory fibers,and nanopore silica based insulating materials, etc.The development tendency of thermal insulation refractories was forecast.%主要从使用温度范围对目前常用的耐火保温材料,如玻璃棉、矿(岩)棉、硅酸钙、复合硅酸盐、闭孔珍珠岩、漂珠、蛭石、耐火纤维以及纳米孔硅质隔热材料等的现状进行了分类阐述,并且展望了耐火保温材料的发展趋势。

  11. Brief Analysis on Causes and Current Situations of Desertification: A Case Study of Tongyu County in Jilin Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; WANG; Yuqun; SU; Changlong; XUE

    2013-01-01

    Land desertification is a complex concept which refers to land degradation in the arid region, semi-arid region and sub-humid arid region caused by various factors including climate variability and human activities. It is not only an environmental problem, but also a social and economic one[1]. Land desertification will reduce the biological and economic production potential of the land and even exacerbate the trend of land desertification, leaving serious impact on the economic, social development and national lives of Jilin. In addition, it will result in ecological environment deterioration, microclimate variability, an increase in natural disaster and high frequency of sand blowing. Taking the special geographic area in western Jilin (especially the Tongyu County) as an example, this paper discusses the natural and social factors for the forming of desertification in the microcosmic level, analyzes the current situations and provides reasonable recommendations.

  12. 糖尿病足介入治疗现状%Current Situation Concerning Interventional Therapy of Diabetic Foot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀军; 郭志

    2012-01-01

    我国糖尿病发病率逐年增高,糖尿病足是其严重并发症之一.糖尿病足的治疗方法主要包括药物治疗、外科手术和介入治疗等,近年来介入治疗已成为首选方法.现综述目前糖尿病足介入治疗的现状.%The incidence of diabetes has been increasing with each passing year and diabetic foot has become one of the serious complications. The clinical therapies commonly employed for diabetic foot include medication, surgical procedure, interventional management, etc. Interventional management has become the treatment of first choice in dealing with diabetic foot in recent years. This paper aims to make a comprehensive review of the current situation concerning interventional therapy of diabetic foot.

  13. Analysis of the Current Situation of Chinese Animation%中国动画现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨涛; 刘超; 张天翔

    2012-01-01

    The current situation of animation in Europe and the United States and Japan is introduced.The status quo of animation in our country and the problems and hidden dangers of China's animation industry is analyzed and how to solve these problems is expounded.%介绍欧美及日本各国在动画方面的现状,分析我国现在在动画方面的现状以及我国动画产业现在存在的问题与隐患,以及我们如何解决我国动漫产业方面的种种问题。

  14. In search of critically endangered species: the current situation of two tiny salamander species in the Neotropical mountains of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Sandoval-Comte

    Full Text Available Worldwide, one in every three species of amphibian is endangered, 39 species have gone extinct in the last 500 years and another 130 species are suspected to have gone extinct in recent decades. Of the amphibians, salamanders have the highest portion of their species in one of the risk categories, even higher than the frogs. To date there have been few studies that have used recent field data to examine the status of populations of endangered salamanders. In this study we evaluate the current situation of two tiny salamanders, Parvimolge townsendi and Thorius pennatulus, both of which are distributed at intermediate elevations in the mountains of the northern Neotropics and are considered to be critically endangered; the first has been proposed as possibly extinct. By carrying out exhaustive surveys in both historical and potentially suitable sites for these two species, we evaluated their abundance and the characteristics of their habitats, and we estimated their potential geographic distribution. We visited 22 sites, investing 672 person-hours of sampling effort in the surveys, and found 201 P. townsendi salamanders in 11 sites and only 13 T. pennatulus salamanders in 5 sites. Both species were preferentially found in cloud forest fragments that were well conserved or only moderately transformed, and some of the salamanders were found in shade coffee plantations. The potential distribution area of both species is markedly fragmented and we estimate that it has decreased by more than 48%. The results of this study highlight the importance of carrying out exhaustive, systematic field surveys to obtain accurate information about the current situation of critically endangered species, and help us better understand the crisis that amphibians are facing worldwide.

  15. The Current International Situation and Trends%当前国际形势及其发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈向阳

    2012-01-01

    In the post- financial crisis era, the world and regional order is in transition and the current international situation is characterized by complexity, uncertainty and high risk. The major characters of the current international situation include the impact of the economic difficulty of the developed world on the world economic recovery, governance made difficult by global social and political conflicts, the competition-cooperation game between world powers, deteriorating security environment from increasing conventional and non- conventional challenges, and the restructuring of the Asian-pacific geopolitical pattern. In 2012, the world economy will recover slowly, the general election in the states will increase political sensitivity globally, the competition and cooperation between western powers and emerging powers will be more complex, social and political ideas are likely to influence the ideological realm, the restructuring of the Asian-pacific pattern is quite uncertain. The international situation will be quite instable because of the many interactive instability factors.%在"后金融危机时代",世界与地区秩序处于新旧交替之中,复杂性、不确定性与高风险性成为当今国际形势的阶段性主要特征。而发达国家经济困局严重拖累世界经济复苏进程,全球性社会政治抗争风潮迭起加剧各国治理难度,国际战略力量对比新变化催生大国"竞合"博弈,传统与非传统安全挑战同步增长恶化国际安全环境,亚太地缘战略格局复杂重组,这是当前国际形势的五大特征。展望2012年,世界经济复苏温和而曲折,"大选年"加剧国际政治经济敏感性,西方与新兴大国"竞合"关系更趋复杂,社会政治风潮可能向思想与意识形态领域扩散,亚太地缘战略格局重组磨合具有不确定性,各种不稳定因素相互交织、影响全球,国际形势动荡不定。

  16. As it happens: current directions in experimental evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataillon, Thomas; Joyce, Paul; Sniegowski, Paul

    2013-02-23

    Recent decades have seen a significant rise in studies in which evolution is observed and analysed directly-as it happens-under replicated, controlled conditions. Such 'experimental evolution' approaches offer a degree of resolution of evolutionary processes and their underlying genetics that is difficult or even impossible to achieve in more traditional comparative and retrospective analyses. In principle, experimental populations can be monitored for phenotypic and genetic changes with any desired level of replication and measurement precision, facilitating progress on fundamental and previously unresolved questions in evolutionary biology. Here, we summarize 10 invited papers in which experimental evolution is making significant progress on a variety of fundamental questions. We conclude by briefly considering future directions in this very active field of research, emphasizing the importance of quantitative tests of theories and the emerging role of genome-wide re-sequencing.

  17. The Current Situation and Trend in South China Sea%当前南海形势及走向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴士存

    2015-01-01

    南海问题的实质是南沙岛礁主权和海域管辖权争议,涉及“五国六方”。近年来,受美国全球战略调整等多重因素的影响,南海问题持续升温,有关争端国不断加大权益声索和实际管控力度,地区局势愈演愈烈。南海是我国国防安全海上屏障、发展制海权的重要战略出海口、经济和能源安全的海上运输要道及未来的能源和资源基地。新阶段,南海局势将继续保持升温态势,因此我国需要从国家总体发展战略全局出发,把握并延长战略机遇期,通盘考虑国际和国内影响因素,长远谋划妥善处理南海问题战略和战术决策,有效化解面临的巨大挑战,确保整体利益最大化。%The essence of the South China Sea issue is the dispute among five states and Chinese Taiwan over the sovereignty of Nansha Islands and jurisdiction of maritime zones in the South China Sea. In recent years,relevant disputants have been intensifying the attempts to bolster their claims and actual control. Regional situation has been moving towards greater tensions. The South China Sea acts as a maritime shield for China to strengthen na_tional defense,an important sea outlet for China to gain sea power,significant sea lanes for China to safeguard e_conomic and energy security,and a base for China to secure energy and other resources in the future. Therefore, it is imperative for China to maintain the maritime rights. In a new historical period when the South China Sea situation continue to intensify,we should approach the South China Sea issue from the standpoint of overall na_tional development strategy,seek important opportunities for strategic development,take international and domes_tic factors into account,develop long_term strategic and tactical countermeasures to alleviate the current situa_tion and maximize China′s interests.

  18. Experimental Verification of Current Shear Design Equations for HSRC Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attaullah Shah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental research on the shear capacity of HSRC (High Strength Reinforced Concrete beams is relatively very limited as compared to the NSRC (Normal Strength Reinforced Concrete beams. Most of the Building Codes determine the shear strength of HSRC with the help of empirical equations based on experimental work of NSRC beams and hence these equations are generally regarded as un-conservative for HSRC beams particularly at low level of longitudinal reinforcement. In this paper, 42 beams have been tested in two sets, such that in 21 beams no transverse reinforcement has been used, whereas in the remaining 21 beams, minimum transverse reinforcement has been used as per ACI-318 (American Concrete Institute provisions. Two values of compressive strength 52 and 61 MPa, three values of longitudinal steel ratio and seven values of shear span to depth ratio have been have been used. The beams were tested under concentrated load at the mid span. The results are compared with the equations proposed by different international building codes like ACI, AASHTO LRFD, EC (Euro Code, Canadian Code and Japanese Code for shear strength of HSRC beams.From comparison, it has been observed that some codes are less conservative for shear design of HSRC beams and further research is required to rationalize these equations.

  19. Experimental Study on Current Decay Characteristics of Persistent Current HTS Magnet by Alternating Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Gun; Lee, Chang Young; Hwang, Young Jin; Lee, Woo Seung; Lee, Jiho; Jo, Hyun Chul; Chung, Yoon Do; Ko, Tae Kuk

    This paper deals with a current decay characteristics of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnet operated in persistent current mode (PCM). In superconducting synchronous machine applications such as linear synchronous motor (LSM), the superconducting coil is designed to operate in the PCM to obtain steady magnetic field with DC transport current. This superconducting magnet operates on a direct current, but it can be exposed to alternating magnetic field due to the armature winding. When the magnet is subjected to an external time-varying magnetic field, it is possible to result in a decay of the current in PCM system due to AC loss. In this research, a PCM system with armature coil which generates time-varying magnetic field was fabricated to verify current decay characteristics by external alternating magnetic field. The current decay rate was measured by using a hall sensor as functions of amplitude and frequency of armature coil.

  20. Wall conditioning for ITER: Current experimental and modeling activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douai, D., E-mail: david.douai@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, Association Euratom-CEA, 13108 St. Paul lez Durance (France); Kogut, D. [CEA, IRFM, Association Euratom-CEA, 13108 St. Paul lez Durance (France); Wauters, T. [LPP-ERM/KMS, Association Belgian State, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Brezinsek, S. [FZJ, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung Plasmaphysik, 52441 Jülich (Germany); Hagelaar, G.J.M. [Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d’Energie, UMR5213, Toulouse (France); Hong, S.H. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Lomas, P.J. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Lyssoivan, A. [LPP-ERM/KMS, Association Belgian State, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Nunes, I. [Associação EURATOM-IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Pitts, R.A. [ITER International Organization, F-13067 St. Paul lez Durance (France); Rohde, V. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Vries, P.C. de [ITER International Organization, F-13067 St. Paul lez Durance (France)

    2015-08-15

    Wall conditioning will be required in ITER to control fuel and impurity recycling, as well as tritium (T) inventory. Analysis of conditioning cycle on the JET, with its ITER-Like Wall is presented, evidencing reduced need for wall cleaning in ITER compared to JET–CFC. Using a novel 2D multi-fluid model, current density during Glow Discharge Conditioning (GDC) on the in-vessel plasma-facing components (PFC) of ITER is predicted to approach the simple expectation of total anode current divided by wall surface area. Baking of the divertor to 350 °C should desorb the majority of the co-deposited T. ITER foresees the use of low temperature plasma based techniques compatible with the permanent toroidal magnetic field, such as Ion (ICWC) or Electron Cyclotron Wall Conditioning (ECWC), for tritium removal between ITER plasma pulses. Extrapolation of JET ICWC results to ITER indicates removal comparable to estimated T-retention in nominal ITER D:T shots, whereas GDC may be unattractive for that purpose.

  1. Current Situation of World Clean Energy%世界清洁能源发展现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海峰; 李鲜

    2012-01-01

    21世纪人类面临严重的资源、环境考验,因此发展清洁能源、实现经济社会可持续发展已成为当今世界的主流,各国政府竞相争夺未来清洁能源市场,从政策导向到资金支持方面都对清洁能源市场给予厚爱.文章主要依托美国皮尤慈善基金会发布的《谁将赢得世界清洁能源之赛2010》的报告来分析G-20国家清洁能源发展现状和投融资情况.%In the twenty-first Century, human being faces with serious problems of resources and environment, therefore, the development of clean energy, achieving economics and society sustainable development have become the mainstream of the world, governments compete for future clean energy market, from the policy guidance to the capital investment to support the clean energy market. This paper mainly relies on "Who's Winning the Clean Energy Race! 2010 Edition: G-20 Investment Powering Forward" released by the United States Pew Charitable Trusts to analyze the clean energy development and investment in current situation among G-20.

  2. Current Situations and Problems of Logistics for Guangxi Fresh Agricultural Products in the New Period and Recommendations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shixiong; ZHU

    2015-01-01

    In recent years,Guangxi realized consecutive bumper harvests in fresh agricultural products,leading increase of logistics demand;logistics infrastructure begins to take shape,and logistics of fresh agricultural products takes on diversified development form with wholesale market as main form. However,traditional fresh agricultural products are not selling well and it lacks construction of supply chain; the construction of logistics information system for fresh agricultural products lags behind; organizational level of production and operation of fresh agricultural products is low. Through analyzing current situations and existing problems of logistics of Guangxi fresh agricultural products in the new period( 21 st century),this paper came up with recommendations for developing logistics of fresh agricultural products of Guangxi. Government should increase policy and financial support,build and manage supply chain of fresh agricultural products,accelerate construction of logistics information system for agricultural products,and improve organizational level of logistics of fresh agricultural products,to ensure healthy development of logistics of fresh agricultural products in Guangxi.

  3. 膨胀型阻燃剂的研究现状%Current Research Situation of Intumescent Fire Retardants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁基照; 冯金清

    2011-01-01

    The classification, history and recent development of intumescent fire-retardant were reviewed. The performances, advantages and disadvantages, and current research situation of mixed-type intumesceent flame retardant as well as single-component intumesceent flame retardant was introduced. The effects of several flame retardant synergist, such as montmorillonite, silica, zeolite, and metal compounds etc, on intumescent flame retardant system were introduced. Besides, three treatment techniques of intumescent fire-retardant, such as the nanominiaturization, surface modification and microencapsulation, were also briefly introduced.%概述了膨胀型阻燃剂的分类、发展历史和近况.介绍了混合型膨胀阻燃剂和单组分膨胀阻燃剂的性能、优缺点及研究现状.罗列了蒙脱土、二氧化硅、沸石以及金属化合物等多种膨胀协同阻燃助剂在膨胀阻燃体系中的作用.简单介绍了纳米化、表面改性以及微胶囊化三种膨胀型阻燃剂的处理技术.

  4. 糖尿病足介入治疗现状%Current situation concerning the interventional therapy of diabetic foot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀军; 郭志

    2012-01-01

    我国糖尿病发病率逐年增高,糖尿病足是其严重并发症之一.糖尿病足的治疗方法主要包括药物治疗,外科手术和介入治疗等.近年来介入治疗已经成为首选治疗方法.本文综述了目前糖尿病下肢血管病变的临床特点及治疗,介入治疗的进展及存在的问题等现状.%The incidence of diabetes has been increasing with each passing year and diabetic foot has become one of the serious complications. The clinical therapies commonly employed for diabetic foot include medication, surgical procedure, interventional management, etc. Interventional management has become the treatment of first choice in dealing with diabetic foot in the recent years. This paper aims to make a comprehensive review of the current situation concerning interventional therapy of diabetic foot.

  5. Experimental investigation of current free double layers in helicon plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, B. B. [Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities, Dronacharya College of Engineering, Gurgaon 123506 (India); Tarey, R. D. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Ganguli, A. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2014-02-15

    The paper presents investigations of current free double layer (CFDL) that forms in helicon plasmas. In contrast to the other work reporting on the same subject, in the present investigations the double layer (DL) forms in a mirror-like magnetic field topology. The RF compensated Langmuir probe measurements show multiple DLs, which are in connection with, the abrupt fall of densities along with potential drop of about 24 V and 18 V. The DLs strengths (e ΔV{sub p})/(k T{sub e}) are about 9.5 and 6, and the corresponding widths are about 6 and 5 D lengths. The potential drop is nearly equal to the thermal anisotropies between the two plasma regions forming the DL, which is present in the plateau region of mirror, unlike the earlier studies on the DL formation in the region of strong gradients in the magnetic field. Also, it presents a qualitative discussion on the mechanism of DL formation.

  6. CT examination, clinical situation and experimental characteristics of infants with intracranial hemorrhage induced by delayed vitamin K deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiqing Lin; Feng Fang; Min Chen; Guoxiang Cai

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Delayed vitamin K deficiency is characterized by acute onset, severe illness and high fatality rate. 33%-50% survivors accompany with other various nervous system sequelas. Therefore, diagnosis and treatment of intracranial hemorrhage in time become a key factor for improving healing rate and reducing fatality rate and incidence of sequela.OBJECTTVE: To investigate the clinical situation, experimental characteristics, CT examination and terminative characteristics of infants with intracranial hemorrhage induced by delayed vitamin K deficiency.DESIGN: Case analysis.SETTING: Department of Pediatrics, Zhongshan Hospital Affiliated to Xiamen University.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 17 infants with intracranial hemorrhage induced by delayed vitamin K deficiency aged 1-3 months including 11 boys and 6 girls were selected from Department of Pediatrics, Zhongshan Hospital Affiliated to Xiamen University from January 1994 to December 2005. All infants had drowsiness,rejective milk, spiting milk, gaze of both eyes, tic, coma, full anterior fontanelle, high muscular tension and cerebral hernia, etc. Experimental examination demonstrated that infants had anemia at various degrees;prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time were prolonged; platelet count was normal. CT examination indicated that screenages of subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, cerebral parenchyma hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrage were changed. Hemorrhage was stopped by the application of vitamin K. All patients provided informed consent.METHODS: ① Clinical situation and physical sign of infants were observed after hospitalization and scanned with rapid spiral CT scanning system. The thickness and average space of layers were 8-10 mm and the scanning time was 5 s with window width of 30-80 Hu and window position of 28-35 Hu. ② After hospitalization, four items of blood coagulation was measured with Futura meter and biochemical indexes of blood, such as serum calcium, serum

  7. Findings from the UK and Canadian Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Experimentation during the Relocation of SKYNET 5A Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, A.; Scott, L.; Feline, W.

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the planning, execution, analysis and lessons identified from a collaborative Space Situational Awareness (SSA) experiment to observe the SKYNET 5A satellite during a series of orbital maneuvers that occurred in the summer of 2015. In March 2015 Airbus Defence and Space (Airbus DS) announced its intention to relocate the SKYNET 5A satellite from the Atlantic to the Asia Pacific region to increase its global coverage; this provided an opportunity to observe this high value asset to explore the challenges and technical solutions related to deep space SSA. Within the UK the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl, part of the UK Ministry of Defence) were established as the lead agency to plan the observation campaign utilising operational and emerging experimental SSA capabilities. The campaign was then expanded to involve Canada, the United States and Australia under the auspices of the Combined Space Operations (CSpO) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) to further explore the coordination of observations between operational systems and potential fusion of data collected using experimental SSA assets. The focus for this paper is the collaborative work between Dstl and Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) that featured a period of experimentation to explore methods that enable cross cueing between ground-based and space-based SSA sensors, namely the UK Starbrook facility (located on the island of Cyprus), and NEOSSat/ Sapphire space surveillance satellites located in low-Earth orbit. A number of conclusions and lessons are identified in this paper that seek to inform the wider SSA community on the challenges, potential solutions and benefits of operating a distributed SSA architecture such as the one utilized during this experiment.

  8. THE CURRENT SITUATION, PROBLEMS AND COUNTERMEASURES OF THE ZHUANG AND HAN BILINGUAL EDUCATIN:Case Study of the Three Zhuang Language Experimental Schools in Wuming County of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region%壮汉双语教育的现状、问题及对策*--以广西壮族自治区武鸣县三所壮文实验学校为个案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海路

    2015-01-01

    Based on the field investigation in three Zhuang language experimental schools in Wuming county, this paper investigates and analyzes the current main problems and factors influenced the Zhuang and Han bilingual education in terms of attitude of various social groups, toward Zhuang and Han bilingual education and courses, teaching methods, teaching materials, funds, teacher training of bilingual educa-tion.It puts forward countermeasure suggestions to promote the further development of the Zhuang and Han bilingual education.%通过对武鸣县3所壮文实验学校进行实地调查,从社会各群体对壮汉双语教育的态度以及壮汉双语教育的课程设置、教学方法、教材、经费、教师培训等方面,考察分析当前武鸣县壮汉双语教育实施过程中存在的主要问题及影响因素,提出了促进壮汉双语教育进一步发展的对策建议。

  9. [Current situation of pediatric emergency in tertiary and teaching hospitals in 15 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions in China Mainland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Pre-hospital care, emergency department and critical care medicine are the key components of emergency medical service system. Two investigations about the pediatric critical care medicine in China mainland showed great progress. In recent years, most hospitals in China mainland have established emergency department, hardware configuration and staff status were gradually standardized. But most of the emergency departments mainly provide service to adult patients and pediatric emergency medicine lags behind. The purpose of this investigation was to understand the current situation and main problems of pediatric emergency in China mainland. A questionnaire developed by the Subspecialty Group of Pediatrics, Chinese Society of Emergency Medicine and the Subspecialty Group of Emergency Medicine, Chinese Society of Pediatrics was e-mailed to the members of the above-mentioned two subspecialty groups. The contents of the questionnaire included 46 items which were divided into 5 categories: the general situation of the hospital, the pediatric emergency setting and composition, key equipments and techniques, staff status, training program and running data from 2011 to 2012. Sixty-three questionnaires were delivered and 27 (42.9%) hospitals responded which located in 15 different provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. Among the 27 hospitals, 10 (37.0%) had no pediatric resuscitation room; 25 (92.6%) had no equipments for cardiac output monitor and gastric lavage; 13 (48.1%) had no bedside fibrolaryngoscope or fiberbronchoscope; 5 (18.5%) had no blood gas analyzer; 4 (14.8%) without respirator, defibrillator, bedside radiography or ultrasonic equipment; 2 (7.4%) had no neonatal incubator; 9 (33.3%) could not do intraossous infusion. The average ratio of professional emergency pediatricians to all physicians was 43.5%. Twenty hospitals incompletely filled in the pediatric emergency running data. The main problems existing in pediatric emergency include: imperfect

  10. Sensitivity of runoff behaviour of Alpine catchments to system conditions - looking at the current and future situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meißl, Gertraud; Klebinder, Klaus; Kerl, Florian; Dobler, Christian; Geitner, Clemens; Schöberl, Friedrich; Kohl, Bernhard; Markart, Gerhard; Sotier, Bernadette; Formayer, Herbert; Goler, Robert; Gorgas, Theresa; Bürger, Gerd; Bronstert, Axel

    2014-05-01

    Alpine settlements are often situated on alluvial fans at the outlet of small catchments. Thus they are - due to the short response time - exposed to a high risk in case of flash floods. Within the project "Sensitivity of the runoff characteristics of small Alpine catchments to climate change" we aim at identifying the critical combinations of event characteristics (intensity and duration of rain) and system conditions (soil moisture, state of vegetation and land use, snow cover) producing flash floods in order to improve the predictability of such events. We have investigated three Alpine catchments in western Austria with different altitudes and precipitation regimes. On the plot scale, field measurements, especially irrigation experiments, revealed that the rainfall-runoff reaction of slopes producing a high or low amount of surface runoff is relatively independent of the actual soil moisture content. However, plots producing a medium amount of surface runoff at dry conditions may generate significantly increased surface runoff volumes at moist conditions. Intensive grazing raises the amount of surface runoff with the duration of pasture season. Event analysis and mapping of the catchment inventories showed that the catchments with low (Ruggbachtal, 400 - 1000 m a.s.l, Vorarlberg) and medium altitude (Brixenbachtal, 800 - 2000 m a.s.l., Tyrol) tend to be sensitive to antecedent precipitation. Due to the high amount of pastured areas, the Brixenbach catchment shows a seasonal variation of runoff behaviour with a maximum of surface runoff in the late summer. The highly situated catchment (Längental, 2000 - 3000 m a.s.l., Tyrol) may show an increased runoff response at rain-on-snow-events. Because of its high portion of rock and talus slopes the runoff reaction of the catchment is quite insensitive to antecedent soil moisture content and grazing intensity. Currently ongoing hydrological modelling will show how seasonal system conditions (duration of snow cover

  11. Institutional and legal arrangements in the Nile river basin: suggestions to improve the current situation toward adaptive integrated water resources management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Khalid Mohamed El Hassan

    2008-01-01

    A comparative study was conducted in this work in order to investigate the current situation in the Nile river basin (NRB) regarding the institutional and legal arrangements needed to support the adaptive integrated water resources management (AIWRM) strategy. Two similar river basins were selected to achieve this comparison and to introduce suggestions to reform the current situation in the basin. Before that, the ideal situation is investigated to be as a yardstick for the desired situation. The study indicated that the necessary AIWRM criteria may include regulatory as well as implementation organizations that support shared-vision reaching with its all necessary features (cooperation, stakeholders' participation, subsidiarity, and information and knowledge exchange). Thus the main features of the desired situations regarding AIWRM in river basins are stakeholders' participation, learning-driven ability, quick response to risks and uncertainties, and finally a legal framework that could support these criteria. Although the AIWRM criteria seem to be satisfied in NRB, the basin lacks the necessary regulatory institutions as well as the legal framework. According to this, this study recommends to reform the current situation in NRB by creating regulator institutions (policy and decision making level) as well a legal framework to legitimate them.

  12. Realizing life-scalable experimental pyroclastic density currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, S. J.; Lube, G.; Breard, E.; Jones, J.; Valentine, G.; Freundt, A.; Hort, M. K.; Bursik, M. I.

    2013-12-01

    Pyroclastic Density Currents (PDCs) - the most deadly threat from volcanoes - are extremely hot, ground-hugging currents of rock fragments and gas that descend slopes at hundreds of kilometers per hour. These hostile flows are impossible to internally measure, thus volcanologists are persistently blocked in efforts to realistically forecast their internal mechanics and hazards. Attempts to fill this gap via laboratory-scale experiments continue to prove difficult, because they usually mismatch the dynamic and kinematic scaling of real-world flows by several orders of magnitude. In a multi-institutional effort, the first large-scale pyroclastic flow generator that can synthesize repeatable hot high-energy gas-particle mixture flows in safety has been commissioned in New Zealand. The final apparatus stands 15 m high, consisting of a tower/elevator system; an instrumented hopper that can hold >6000 kg (or 3.2 m3) of natural volcanic materials, which can be discharged at a range of controlled rates onto an instrumented, variably inclinable (6-25°) glass-sided chute for examining the vertical profiles of PDCs in motion. The use of rhyolitic pyroclastic material from the 1800 AD Taupo Eruption (with its natural grain-size, sorting and shape characteristics) and gas ensures natural coupling between the solids and fluid phases. PDC analogues with runout of >15 meters and flow depths of 1.5-6 meters are created by generating variably heated falling columns of natural volcanic particles (50-1300 kg/s), dispersed and aerated to controlled particle densities between 3 and 60 vol.% at the base of the elevated hopper. The descending columns rapidly generate high-velocity flows (up to 14 m/s) once impacting on the inclined channel, reproducing many features of natural flows, including segregation into dense and dilute regimes, progressive aggradational and en masse deposition of particles and the development of high internal gas-pore-pressures during flow. The PDC starting

  13. Intern doctors’ views on the current and future antibiotic resistance situation of Chattagram Maa O Shishu Hospital Medical College, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoque R

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rozina Hoque,1 Asma Mostafa,2 Mainul Haque3 1Department of Pharmacology, 2Department of Anatomy, Chattagram Maa O Shishu Hospital Medical College, Agrabad, Chittagong, Bangladesh; 3Unit of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Terengganu, Malaysia Background: Bacterial resistance due to antibiotic misuse is reported every day. Such threat calls for a consensus to develop new strategies to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance of bacteria. Medical doctors must play a pivotal role to control and prevent the misuse of antibiotics. There were complaints that prescribers are lacking behind in updates and advancement in the field. To address such knowledge gap, a study was conducted to know the views of interns on the current antibiotic resistance situation in a teaching hospital in Bangladesh. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional, randomized, and questionnaire-based survey. Interns of the medicine, gynecology, and surgery departments of Chattagram Maa O Shishu Hospital Medical College were the study population. Results: Out of 50 respondents, 98% would like more education on antibiotic selection. All respondents believed that prescribing inappropriate or unnecessary antibiotics was professionally unethical. Ninety percent of the participants were confident in making an accurate diagnosis of infection. Eighty-four percent of them were confident about dosage schedule. In all, 98% participants thought that antibiotic resistance is a national problem and 64% of the respondents thought that same problem also existed in their hospital. Study participants were of the view that 41%–60% of antibiotic usages are irrational in Bangladesh. Fifty-eight percent of the study population thought that antimicrobial resistance (AR would be a greater problem in the future. Conclusion: The interns believe that there is a knowledge gap on AR. More emphasis should be given to AR and its implications in the undergraduate

  14. 道路交通伤的现状和未来%Current situation and future of road traffic injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正国

    2011-01-01

    Road traffic injury is a global public health problem concerned seriously by the great majority of people. Based on the WHO reports, this article introduces the current situation and future of road traffic injury, deeply analyses human factors which lead to road traffic injury such as drinking driving, speeding, youth and road traffic injury ,individual protection, etc. The author presents remarkable progress and existing problems of road traf fic safety , and puts forward some prevention measures on road traffic crashes. It is believed that road traffic crashes will still exist in the future for a long period of time , and even increase in developing countries. Road traffic safety environment can be improved with the hard work of all the people in the world.%道路交通伤是备受关注的全球公共卫生问题.本文根据世界卫生组织道路安全报告,介绍了全球道路交通伤的现状和发生趋势,从酒后驾车、超速驾车、青少年交通伤、个人防护等方面对造成道路交通事故的人员因素作了深度分析,介绍了我国道路交通安全取得的显著进步和存在的问题,并提出了具体的道路交通事故预防措施.作者指出,道路交通事故在今后相当长的一段时间内还会继续存在,甚至有所发展,需要社会所有人士共同努力才能不断改善道路交通安全环境.

  15. Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in raw and drinking water - current situation in Sweden, Denmark and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzhaf, Stefan; Bester, Kai; Filipovic, Marko; Lewis, Jeffrey; Licha, Tobias; Sparrenbom, Charlotte; Barthel, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of anthropogenic environmental pollutants which have been used and produced for more than 60 years. PFASs are used for multiple industrial purposes, e.g. as water repellent on clothing, leather, and paper and as firefighting foam. The most well studied PFASs subgroup are perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA). Two PFAAs of particular interest are perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). These are the most studied homologues which are ubiquitously detected in the aquatic environment, wildlife and humans. Some PFASs are recognized as being potentially toxic for both animals and humans (e.g. PFOS), whereas the majority has not been thoroughly studied yet regarding their toxicity. PFAAs are highly mobile once present in the aquatic environment. Currently, they are not eliminated during conventional wastewater or drinking water treatment and therefore pose a severe threat for drinking water supply. We reviewed the current occurrence of PFAAs in the surface and groundwater and legal situation of PFAAs in Sweden, Denmark and Germany. Although first detections of PFAAs were reported in the early 2000s, PFASs only recently attracted huge media attention raising public concern. In Sweden, for instance, several public waterworks needed to cease operation due to high PFASs concentrations in drinking water. Moreover, threshold values for drinking water are under discussion and a first preliminary guiding value for PFOS was recently presented as a first step (Pettersson et al., 2015). Germany only defined a guiding value for the sum of PFOS and PFOA in drinking water so far (Dieter, 2011). Limits of 0.3 μg/L PFOA and 0.1 μg/L PFOS and PFOSA each have been suggested in Denmark (MST, 2015). In summary, none of the three countries has defined a clear threshold value for any PFAS compound in drinking water so far. This is of huge concern as PFASs are detected at increasing rates while it remains unclear when

  16. Situated University, Situated Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ann M.

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that teaching as a situated, civic activity must be a core intellectual activity in the engaged metropolitan university. Situated writing provides the key pedagogy for the Chicago Civic Leadership Certificate Program at the University of Illinois at Chicago, an engaged public research university. The role of writing, or…

  17. Current situation regarding the co-combustion of waste materials in power plants; Aktuelle Situation der Mitverbrennung von Abfallstoffen in Kraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirmer, U.; Krueger, H.; Puch, K.H. [VGB Technische Vereinigung der Grosskraftwerksbetreiber e.V., Essen (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    In view of the wholly insufficient capacity, relative to current arisings, of waste incineration plants, residue processing plants and plants for the utilisation of other combustible materials we are inevitably faced with the question whether power plant furnaces might not be suited for the thermal treatment and utilisation of wastes and residues. This possibility has been studied by many VGB member companies and seriously investigated for its practicability in several cases. The investigations were premised on the following fundamental positions. The VGB members are prepared to contribute to the solution of the above problems as long as this is possible without detriment to their duties as energy suppliers. They can only assume this responsibility if the requirements of the licensing laws are observed. This concerns the quality and arising quantities of wastes to be taken in, emissions, and the disposal of combustion residues. Power plants typically make more or less complete use of their own process residues, a feature which as far as possible should not be impaired by the co-combustion process. The technical problems posed by the co-combustion of suitable residues and wastes are usually solvable. Co-combustion offers an alternative and a supplement to dedicated waste utilisation plants or plants for the utilisation of suitable residues. Beyond this some companies are interested in profiting from the fees that will be due to them for utilising wastes. From 1990 to 1992 a VGB working group studied the option of co-combustion on the basis of the above premises. The material elaborated by the group now in turn serves as a basis for the following deliberations. [Deutsch] Da die Kapazitaet der Abfallverbrennungsanlagen, der Anlagen zur Reststoffverwertung und der Anlagen zur Nutzung sonstiger brennbaren Stoffe fuer das vorhandene Angebot bei weitem nicht ausreicht, ergibt sich die Frage der Eignung von Kraftwerksfeuerungen zur thermischen Behandlung und Verwertung von

  18. Analysis on Current Situation of English Teaching in Rural Primary Schools-Take Tai gu County in Shan Xi Province as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hui

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, English education in rural areas draws more attention in the society. However, the current situation of Eng-lish teaching is worrying. Visit and investigated Limeizhuang primary school in Taigu County, Shanxi province and found some problems, so as to promote English teaching in rural primary schools.

  19. Currents, HF Radio-derived, Monterey Bay, 1 hr, Meridional, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the 1 hour average of the meridional component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL...

  20. Currents, HF Radio-derived, SF Bay, 1 hr, Zonal, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the 1 hour average of the zonal component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL...

  1. Currents, HF Radio-derived, SF Bay Outlet, 1 hr, Zonal, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the 1 hour average of the zonal component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL...

  2. Currents, HF Radio-derived, SF Bay Outlet, 1 hr, Meridional, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the 1 hour average of the meridional component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL...

  3. Currents, HF Radio-derived, Bodega Bay, 1 hr, Meridional, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the 1 hour average of the meridional component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL...

  4. Currents, HF Radio-derived, Bodega Bay, 1 hr, Zonal, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the 1 hour average of the zonal component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL...

  5. Currents, HF Radio-derived, Ano Nuevo, 1 hr, Zonal, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the 1 hour average of the zonal component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL...

  6. Currents, HF Radio-derived, Ano Nuevo, 1 hr, Meridional, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the 1 hour average of the meridional component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL...

  7. R 22 substitutes - points to be observed. Pt. 1. Current situation and material considerations; Ersatz von R 22 - Was ist zu beachten? T. 1. Ausgangssituation und stoffliche Ueberlegungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckhoff, W. [GHC Gerling, Holz und Co. Handels GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Flohr, F. [Solvay Fluor GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Puhl, C. [Fuchs Europe Schmierstoffe GmbH, Mannheim (Germany); Selmer, K. [Arctos Industriekaelte AG, Soerup (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    The EU-wide impending ban on using new R22 for maintenance purposes from 1 January 2010 has livened up the discussion over finding an optimal substitute to R22 in its many and varied applications. This is the first part of a two-article series in which the subject is discussed both from the view of a refrigerant and oil producer and of a wholesale supplier and plant constructor. The first part starts by discussing the legal boundary conditions, the current situation, and the refrigerant and machine oil situation. (orig.)

  8. Experimentally studied laser fluorescence method for remote sensing of plant stress situation induced by improper plants watering

    OpenAIRE

    Yu. V. Fedotov; O. A. Bullo; M. L. Belov; V. A. Gorodnichev

    2014-01-01

    Stressful situations of plants can be caused by a lack of nutrients; mechanical damages; diseases; low or high temperatures; lack of illumination; insufficient or excess humidity of the soil; soil salinization; soil pollution by oil products or heavy metals; the increased acidity of the soil; use of pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, etc.At early stages it is often difficult to detect seemingly that the plants are in stressful situations caused by adverse external factors. However, the flu...

  9. Current transformers with nanocrystalline alloy toroidal core: analytical, computational and experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Antonio Luciano

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented theoretical analysis and experimental results concerning the performance of toroidal cores used in current transformers. For most problems concerning transformers design, analytical methods are useful, but numerical methods provide a better understanding of the transformers electromagnetic behaviour. Numerical field solutions may be used to determine the electrical equivalent circuit parameters of toroidal core current transformers. Since the exciting current of current transformers alters the ratio and phase angle of primary and secondary currents, it is made as small as possible though the use of high permeability and low loss magnetic material in the construction of the core. According to experimental results presented in this work, in comparison with others soft magnetic materials, nanocrystalline alloys appear as the best material to be used in toroidal core for current transformers.

  10. Flux quantum tunneling effect and its influence on the experimental critical current density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻海虎; 赵忠贤; GriessenR.

    1995-01-01

    By using magnetic sweeping method, the temperature and magnetic field dependencies of the experimental current density and the normalized relaxation rate have been obtained. The true critical current density corresponding to the zero activation energy has been carried out based on the collective-pinning and the thermally-activated flux motion models, and therefore the influences of the quantum tunneling effect and the thermal activation effect on the experimental critical current density are distinguished. It is found that, with temperature lower than 10 K, the relaxation rate will not drop to zero when T approaches zero K because of the occurrence of the flux quantum tunneling. This additional flux motion further reduces the experimental critical current density j making it saturated with lowering temperature.

  11. Experimental study of yttrium barium copper oxide superconducting tape’s critical current under twisting moment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ziauddin Khan; Ananya Kundu; Subrata Pradhan

    2013-10-01

    Critical current (c) characteristics of 2G YBCO superconducting tape under the influence of twisting moment was experimentally investigated at varying current ramp rates in the self-field. Under a uniform twist, the degradation in the current-carrying capacity of YBCO tape up to 30% was observed at 77 K. The degradation is largely attributed to the shear stress and torsional shear strain resulting from the twisting. The superconductor to resistive transition index, , is also found to behave in an identical manner with increase in the twisting. Finite element analysis (FEA) of the tape in the experimental configuration with twisting moment being applied on to it has been carried out in COMSOL. The torsional strain calculated analytically as per the experimental configuration matches closely with that of FEA results, which shows that the critical current degradation is a function of strain.

  12. Performance of current measurement system in poloidal field power supply for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. M.; Li, J.; Wan, B. N.; Lu, Z.; Wang, L. S.; Jiang, L.; Lu, C. H.; Huang, J.

    2016-11-01

    As one of the core subsystems of the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST), the poloidal field power system supplies energy to EAST's superconducting coils. To measure the converter current in the poloidal field power system, a current measurement system has been designed. The proposed measurement system is composed of a Rogowski coil and a newly designed integrator. The results of the resistor-inductor-capacitor discharge test and the converter equal current test show that the current measurement system provides good reliability and stability, and the maximum error of the proposed system is less than 1%.

  13. Experimental identification of an azimuthal current in a magnetic nozzle of a radiofrequency plasma thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Chiba, Aiki; Komuro, Atsushi; Ando, Akira

    2016-10-01

    The azimuthal plasma current in a magnetic nozzle of a radiofrequency plasma thruster is experimentally identified by measuring the plasma-induced magnetic field. The axial plasma momentum increases over about 20 cm downstream of the thruster exit due to the Lorentz force arising from the azimuthal current. The measured current shows that the azimuthal current is given by the sum of the electron diamagnetic drift and \\mathbf{E}× \\mathbf{B} drift currents, where the latter component decreases with an increase in the magnetic field strength; hence the azimuthal current approaches the electron diamagnetic drift one for the strong magnetic field. The Lorentz force calculated from the measured azimuthal plasma current and the radial magnetic field is smaller than the directly measured force exerted to the magnetic field, which indicates the existence of a non-negligible Lorentz force in the source tube.

  14. 中国情境教育实验研究述评%Review of the Experimental Study of the Situation Education in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    濮江; 张玲; 谢顺碧; 黄微淼; 吴娟

    2012-01-01

    In 1978, Li Jilin started the experimental study of the situation education. The construction of the theoretical framework and op- eration system is finished from "fragment language teaching" to the classification and development of the situation courses after two qualitative leaps,which is considered to be a miracle in China' s education emphasizing the combination of theory and practice. With the in - depth re- search of the theoretical framework and the operation system, Li and the situation education experiment will encounter a lot of problems inevita- bly:the discipline orientation of situation education is faced with challenges; situation education encounters limitations caused by different study periods;there are conflicts between situation education and the evaluation mechanisms;the situation education system is not perfect. Therefore, the further experimental study of situation education has to face and solve the increasingly complex practical problems.%李吉林从1978年开始情境教育实验研究,从“片段语言教学”的第一轮实验经过两次质的飞跃到情境课程的分类、开发,构建了情境教育的理论框架和操作体系,被认为是中国教育在理论结合实践研究中的一朵奇葩。随着研究的深入、理论框架和操作体系的建构,情境教育实验研究凸显“高原现象”,主要表现在:情境教育学科化面临挑战;情境教育受学段的限制;情境教育与评价机制相冲突;情境教育自身体系尚不完善。情境教育进一步的实验研究必须面对和解决越来越复杂的现实问题。

  15. Water-waves on linear shear currents. A comparison of experimental and numerical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Bruno; Seez, William; Touboul, Julien; Rey, Vincent; Abid, Malek; Kharif, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Propagation of water waves can be described for uniformly sheared current conditions. Indeed, some mathematical simplifications remain applicable in the study of waves whether there is no current or a linearly sheared current. However, the widespread use of mathematical wave theories including shear has rarely been backed by experimental studies of such flows. New experimental and numerical methods were both recently developed to study wave current interactions for constant vorticity. On one hand, the numerical code can simulate, in two dimensions, arbitrary non-linear waves. On the other hand, the experimental methods can be used to generate waves with various shear conditions. Taking advantage of the simplicity of the experimental protocol and versatility of the numerical code, comparisons between experimental and numerical data are discussed and compared with linear theory for validation of the methods. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The DGA (Direction Générale de l'Armement, France) is acknowledged for its financial support through the ANR grant N° ANR-13-ASTR-0007.

  16. Investigation of awareness rate and current situation in hormone replacement therapy in medical care personnel in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao Hong-fang; Tao Min-fang; Sun Xun-yan; Jiang Li-zhen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To survey the cognition and requirement of perimenopause health care in Shanghai women,and provide updated situation about hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for further improving the quality of perimenopause health care.Methods: A large survey among 480 medical care personnel at age of 40-60 years in 12 hospitals in Shanghai was launched.The designed questionnaires included the awareness rate,basic knowledge of HRT and request for the information of HRT etc.The data were analyzed.Results: Among the respondents,35.81% (169/472) believed that it is necessary to start HRT in perimenopause women; 16.10 % (76/472) knew about H RT at some extent; 43.22 % (204/472) requested for the training of HRT; and 14.19%(67/472)would like to recommend patients using the hormone to treat perimenopause syndrome.In addition,52.41% (76/145)of the medical care personnel who refused to use HRT were worried about the side effects.Conclusion: In Shanghai,the awareness rate of HRT among medical care personnel was relatively low.Only a few medical care personnel prefer to use HRT in perimenopause patients.The main reasons for that were lack of understanding in the treatment of HRT and concerned side effects.

  17. Current situation of Radiotherapy procedures and technology; Situacion actual de los procedimientos y la tecnologia en Radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Leton, P.; Lopez Fernandez, A.

    2004-07-01

    The fight against cancer is currently being battled on three fronts: radiotherapy, surgery and chemotherapy. In today's world, radiotherapy offers some advantageous characteristics to treat certain kinds of cancer, since enormous strides in technological development have been taken to increasingly adjust the precision and distribution of the dosage to the volume of the tumour. (Author) 8 refs.

  18. Mental Health Care in Nepal : Current Situation and Challenges for Development of a District Mental Health Care Plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luitel, N.P., Jordans, M.J.D., Adhikari, Al, Upadhaya, N.P., Hanlon, C., Lund, C. & Komproe, I.H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Globally mental health problems are a serious public health concern. Currently four out of five people with severe mental illness in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC) receive no effective treatment. There is an urgent need to address this enormous treatment gap. Changing the focus of

  19. Mental health care in Nepal : current situation and challenges for development of a district mental health care plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luitel, Nagendra P; Jordans, Mark Jd; Adhikari, Anup; Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Hanlon, Charlotte; Lund, Crick; Komproe, Ivan H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/142349321

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Globally mental health problems are a serious public health concern. Currently four out of five people with severe mental illness in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC) receive no effective treatment. There is an urgent need to address this enormous treatment gap. Changing the focus

  20. The Current Situation and the Utilization Technique of Rare Earth in China%我国稀土废料回收利用技术与现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚卫星; 李艳荣

    2013-01-01

    论述了我国稀土资源的回收利用现状,从磁性材料、发光材料及催化剂等可回收的稀土废料方面,说明我国回收稀土废料的利用技术仍处于攻坚阶段。如何回收稀土废料中有用的稀土元素,有待进一步研究。%This paper describes the current situation of recycling the rare earth in China. It proves that the utilization technique of rare earth in China is still in the crucial stage based on the recycling situation of rare earth from magnetic materials, luminescence materials and catalyst, etc,. It needs to be further studied on how to recycle the valuable rare earth elements from the rare earth waste.

  1. Correlates of experimentation with smoking and current cigarette consumption among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Gimenes Bonilha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze social characteristics and stress as correlates of cigarette smoking in adolescence. The main intent was to identify elements that distinguish adolescents who had experimented with smoking and did not progress to regular smoking from those who became current smokers. METHODS: Students at 10 high schools in the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, completed a questionnaire based on an instrument employed in a similar large-scale study. The students were classified as never-smokers or experimenters. The experimenters were subcategorized as having become current smokers or nonprogressors. Analyses were performed using adjusted logistic models. RESULTS: A total of 2,014 students (mean age, 16.2 ± 1.1 years; females, 53% completed the questionnaire. We categorized 1,283 students (63.7% as never-smokers, 244 (12.1% as current smokers, and 487 (24.2% as nonprogressors. We found that experimentation with smoking was associated with being held back a grade in school (OR = 1.80, alcohol intake (low/occasional, OR = 8.92; high/regular, OR = 2.64, illicit drug use (OR = 9.32, having a sibling or cousin who smokes (OR = 1.39, having a friend who smokes (OR = 2.08, and high levels of stress (in females only, OR = 1.32. Factors associated with an increased risk of transitioning from experimenter to current smoker were alcohol intake (low/occasional, OR = 3.28; high/regular, OR = 2.16, illicit drug use (OR = 3.61, and having a friend who smokes (OR = 7.20. CONCLUSIONS: Current smoking was associated with a profile of socioeconomic correlates different from that associated with experimentation only. Our data (showing that current smoking was associated with having a friend who smokes, alcohol intake, and illicit drug use suggest the need for comprehensive approaches to discourage substance use during adolescence.

  2. Current Situation and Tendencies of Debris Flow Initiation Mechanism%泥石流起动机理研究现状及趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺拿; 陈宁生; 曾超

    2013-01-01

    The current research situation of debris flow initiation mechanism ( experimental study and theory research) is summarized. On the basis of induction and summarization on the previous achievements, shortcomings of the previous researches are analyzed and the future research directions of debris flow initiation mechanism are proposed. Founded on soil mechanics, hydraulics and porous flow mechanics, etc. , the study in the future should reveal the dynamic process of debris flow from static to dynamic, from single factor to multi-factor, from qualitative research to quantitative research, and finally combining with the damage process and water condition to establish the initiation model of debris flow. Research on debris flow initiation mechanism can provide scientific basis for debris flow prediction, and promote the development of debris flow discipline at the same time.%概述了国内外泥石流起动机理研究(实验研究及理论研究)的现状,在归纳总结前人研究成果的同时,分析其研究的不足,同时提出泥石流起动机理未来的研究方向.未来的研究应该以土力学及水力学、渗流力学等学科为基础,揭示泥石流土体的动态变化过程,从静态向动态、从单因素向多因素、从定性向定量方向转化,并结合土体的动态破坏过程及需水条件构建泥石流起动的模型.泥石流起动机理的研究不仅可以为泥石流的预测预报提供科学依据,同时又可以推动泥石流学科的发展.

  3. MR-PET的现状、挑战和前景%Current Situation, Challenges and Prospects of MR-PET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 陈自谦; 倪萍

    2013-01-01

    Development of device of multimodality imaging is a milestone of medical imaging. After the huge success of SPECT-CT and PET-CT, more and more studies have been carried out on MR-PET. Combining multi-parameter anatomic and functional imaging of MRI with molecular imaging of PET is substantial to the scientific and clinical researches of nervous system, cardiovascular system and tumor, etc. In this paper, we reviews the research situation and challenge of MR-PET in 3 aspects including small animal MR-PET imaging, brain MR-PET imaging and whole body MR-PET imaging. Furthermore, superiority and prospect of MR-PET in biomedicine are also discussed.%多模态成像设备的发展是影像学发展的里程碑,继SPECT-CT和PET-CT后,人们开始致力于MR-PET的研究.MRI的多参数解剖成像、功能成像与PET的分子成像结合,对促进神经、心血管、肿瘤等方面的研究及临床诊断具有重要意义.本文将从小动物、脑部及全身MR-PET成像3个方面对MR-PET的研究现状及其面临的挑战进行综述,并探讨MR-PET在生物医学中的优越性及发展前景.

  4. Experimental observations of stray current effects on steel fibres embedded in mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solgaard, A.O.S.; Carsana, M.; Geiker, M.R.;

    2013-01-01

    It is known that stray direct current can cause corrosive damage over time to bar reinforced concrete, but knowledge on the consequences to steel fibre reinforced concrete is limited. This paper presents analyses and corresponding results from an experimental program (parametric study) investigat...

  5. Experimental Results on Current-Driven Turbulence in Plasmas - a Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekluiver, H.; Perepelkin, N. F.; Hirose, A.

    1991-01-01

    The experimental consequences of plasma turbulence driven by a current parallel to a magnetic field and concurrent anomalous plasma heating are reviewed, with an attempt to deduce universalities in key parameters such as the anomalous electrical conductivities observed in diverse devices. It has

  6. Current Situation and Prospect of Solar Battery%太阳能电池发展现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维清; 程亮

    2011-01-01

    介绍了太阳能电池的发展历程。分析了太阳能电池产业的现状,并对太阳能电池产业的发展进行了展望。%In this paper, the author introduced development history of solar battery. Then, the author analyzed the current sit- uation, and looked into future of development of solar battery industry.

  7. Foreign Languages in Vienna Primary Schools – in Mainstream Education and in Current Experimental Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate Seebauer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Starting with a short retrospective and an overview of the incorporation of foreign language learning into the Austrian curriculum for primary schools the paper in hand describes the current situation of foreign language teaching in primary schools as well as various current models of foreign language education in primary schools in Vienna (school year 1 to 4. In terms of objectives these models exceed the requirements of the curriculum of the formal education system or regard themselves as quantitative and qualitative enrichment. They follow different didactic approaches and/or site-specific characteristics and needs. The formulation of basic skills is to be understood as an attempt to find a common basis of output indicators and to facilitate the transition to secondary education. Although English is the most commonly chosen resp. offered language the paper also refers to school experiments that focus on Romance or Slavic languages or on languages of Austra’s neighbouring countries.

  8. SUSY effects in $R_b$: revisited under current experimental constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In this note we revisit the effects of natural SUSY in $R_b$ under current experimental constraints including the LHC Higgs data, the $B$-physics measurements, the dark matter relic density and direct detection limits, as well as the precision electroweak data. We first perform a scan to figure out the currently allowed parameter space of natural SUSY and then display the SUSY effects in $R_b$. We find that although the SUSY parameter space has been severely restrained by current experimental data, natural SUSY can still alter $R_b$ with a magnitude sizable enough to be observed at future $Z$-factories (ILC, CEPC, FCC-ee, Super $Z$-factory) which produce $10^9-10^{12}$ $Z$-bosons.

  9. First experimental results with the Current Limit Avoidance System at the JET tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Tommasi, G. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Galeani, S. [Dipartimento di Informatica, Sistemi e Produzione, Università di Roma, Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Jachmich, S. [Association EURATOM-Belgian State, Koninklijke Militaire School - Ecole Royale Militaire, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Joffrin, E. [IRFM-CEA, Centre de Cadarache, 13108 Saint-paul-lez-Durance (France); Lennholm, M. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); European Commission, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Lomas, P.J. [Euratom-CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Neto, A.C. [Associazione EURATOM-IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, IST, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Maviglia, F. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); McCullen, P. [Euratom-CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Pironti, A. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Rimini, F.G. [Euratom-CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Sips, A.C.C. [European Commission, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Varano, G.; Vitelli, R. [Dipartimento di Informatica, Sistemi e Produzione, Università di Roma, Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Zaccarian, L. [CNRS, LAAS, 7 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Universitè de Toulouse, LAAS, F-31400 Toulouse (France)

    2013-06-15

    The Current Limit Avoidance System (CLA) has been recently deployed at the JET tokamak to avoid current saturations in the poloidal field (PF) coils when the eXtreme Shape Controller is used to control the plasma shape. In order to cope with the current saturation limits, the CLA exploits the redundancy of the PF coils system to automatically obtain almost the same plasma shape using a different combination of currents in the PF coils. In the presence of disturbances it tries to avoid the current saturations by relaxing the constraints on the plasma shape control. The CLA system has been successfully implemented on the JET tokamak and fully commissioned in 2011. This paper presents the first experimental results achieved in 2011–2012 during the restart and the ITER-like wall campaigns at JET.

  10. Efficiency of Electrical Stunning by Electronarcosis: Current Situation and Perspective of Improvement in a Medium-Size Processing Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RL Barbosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of electrical stunning by electronarcosis in a medium-size poultry processing plant located in southern Brazil. The current measurement of this type of stunning is presented, and then improvements to this method are proposed. Data were collected for 90 days. A quality indicator was proposed: the Stunning Severity Index (SSI, which includes elements of Statistical Process Control (SPC using a p-chart (proportion chart and measures. This index comprises the variables "wing-flapping," "arched head," and "rhythmic breathing." Using the proposed index, 5% of the birds, on average, presented inefficient stunning symptoms.

  11. Industrial property as competitiveness factor, current situation and prospects; Propiedad industrial como factor de competitividad situacion actual y perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casado Cervino, A.

    2011-07-01

    Throughout this paper, we analyze what is the status of IP in national and international levels and the number and origin of IP applications. This analysis allows to state that our country needs a change in the current economic model in which IP rights must be central. Moreover, this is the purpose of PI Plan 2010-2012: Plan for the Promotion of Industrial Property in Spain, an initiative of the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade approved by the Council of Ministers on March 9, 2010- designed to strengthen the IP in the Spanish economy. (Author) 35 refs.

  12. 软木复合材料研究现状与发展趋势%Current Research Situation and Development Trend of Cork-based Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋孝周; 傅峰; 雷亚芳

    2011-01-01

    The definition and classification of cork-based composite are introduced briefly.Current research situations of cork-based composite were discussed in detail.The development trend of cork-based composite was analyzed and discussed.%简要介绍了软木复合材料的定义和分类,详细论述了软木复合材料的研究现状,对软木复合材料的发展趋势进行了分析和讨论,并提出了几点看法.

  13. Analysis on the Current Situation of Farmers' Credit Demand in Gansu Province%甘肃省农户信贷需求现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何亚玲

    2009-01-01

    The current situation of farmers' credit demand in rural areas of Gansu Province was studied by the method of interview and investigation. And some related policy proposals were put forward according to the economic development of rural areas in Gansu Province.%通过访谈、调查的形式对甘肃省农村地区农户信贷需求现状进行了考察,并针对甘肃农村经济发展的形势,提出了相关政策建议.

  14. 保康县核桃产业现状分析及发展对策%Current Situation and Development Countermeasures of Walnut Industry in Baokang County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英杰; 何宗念; 赵翠荣

    2013-01-01

    通过调查,分析了保康核桃(Juglans regia L.)种植区域的发展现状,找出了制约核桃产业发展的主要因素,提出了相应的对策,旨在为保康核桃产业规划提供参考.%In order to provide a reference for walnut industry plan in Baokang,the current situation of walnut industry in Baokang county of Hubei was analyzed,and the corresponding countermeasures were proposed for reference.

  15. Current situation and development countermeasure of China International Standard Dance%中国国际标准舞现状及发展对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜静歌

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the international standard dance after entering our country ’s two main devel-opment direction ,Analyzes the current situation and existing problems of China international ballroom ,And put for-ward the development countermeasures of China’s international standard dance .%阐述了国际标准舞进入我国后的两种主要发展方向,分析了当前中国国际标准舞的现状和存在的问题,并提出了发展中国国际标准舞的对策。

  16. The Current Situation of the Lighting for Residential Buildings in Taiwan%台湾地区住宅照明现况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鼎金

    2001-01-01

    本文对台北市、台中市、高雄市等都会城市住宅照明现况进行了调查,从而提出了今后住宅照明的发展方向。%The author has made an investigation on the current situation of the lighting for residential buildings in the cities such as Taibei, Taizhong and Gaoxiong of Taiwan. As a result of it, in this paper he has put forward a furture development trend of the lighting for residential buildings.

  17. CONSUMO DE CALCIO: EVOLUCIÓN Y SITUACIÓN ACTUAL The evolution and current situation of calcium consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Barrera P

    2012-03-01

    usually determined its consumption in different groups of the population, inadequate intake being found in most of them, covering less than 50% of the recommended intake, regardless of economic development. Nutritional situation surveys (Encuestas de la Situación Nutricional in Colombia (2005, 2010 have reported a deficit in dairy product consumption, especially in low socioeconomic strata and people living in Colombia's Pacific, Amazonian and Orinoquia regions. The Institute of Medicine (IOM has recently established the recommended daily calcium intake for covering the population's physiological needs; this measure is needed bearing in mind that the scientific evidence has revealed a strong association between low intake and reduced bone mineral density with increased osteoporosis and associated fractures. The IOM has also established maximum tolerable levels (UL for avoiding excess- and supplement useassociated problems. Dietary guidelines in all countries are aimed at promoting healthy eating habits; disclosing/ disseminating such instrument is thus the responsibility of all health professionals, especially nutritionists. Research must be strengthened and strategies developed involving different sectors to improve the population's calcium intake and bone health.

  18. Current Situation and Prospects of Mine Auxiliary Transportation%矿井辅助运输现状及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永

    2013-01-01

    equipment quality is not very stable. In particular, the reliability should be enhanced. Under the contemporary situation, except for a few number of mines, many coal mines can't achieve direct transport from the ground to the horizontal plane, and the transportation always includes many stages. The underground materials must be transferred many times. So the transport efficiency is particularly low, likely to cause accidents. Not only that, it needs more staff and more resources, especially in the transport process, some of the key equipments is very easy to go wrong, and the maintenance costs are also relatively high.

  19. Current situation of health care in India and corporation in emerging economies--what is the way forward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendra, Kumar; Amit, Sengupta; Kumar, Agarwal Vishnu

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examine the management and operational problems faced by different categories of health care delivery platforms such as corporate hospitals, medium level private hospitals and public hospitals in Mumbai. Some suggestions are made and we believe many of the short falls or limitations that exist in the current set up can be removed and a way forward can be made in alleviating the suffering of vast majority of humankind living in our mega cities. Three major issues emerged as far as a public health system is concerned--that is shifting of trained health manpower from the public system to private or corporate hospitals, severe strain on the public health system's infrastructure and support services compounded by lack of accountability as far as management and governance are concerned.

  20. 通信网的现状及发展趋势%CURRENT SITUATION AND DEVELOPMENT TREND OF COMMUNICATION NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕永军; 尹传平; 林孝康

    2001-01-01

    The current status of the computer network, cable TV network andpublic switched telephone network is analyzed. The integration of the three kinds of networks has become an inevitable trend along with the development of the computer network. Several solutions to that network integration are discussed. Some suggestions are also given about using ATM core network to construct the next generation electric power communication network as a better solution and implementing the IP service by multiple protocol label switching (MPLS) technique.%分析了计算机网、有线电视网、电话网的现状,指出三网融合是通信网发展的必然趋势;分析了三网融合的几种方案;对于电力通信网提出了建设ATM核心骨干网,以MPLS实现IP业务的建议。

  1. Current Situation of Information Demand of Farmers in Taihang Mountain Area: A Case Study of Pingshan County in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lipeng; GUO; Haiyan; CAI

    2014-01-01

    Since the reform and opening-up,economy of mountain areas in China has realized considerable development.However,due to such factors as terrain,traffic,and individual differences,compared with plain and coastal areas,mountain areas still lag far behind.In recent years,informationization construction of China develops rapidly,but it nearly stagnates in mountain rural areas.Information has become an essential factor restricting economic development of rural areas.Based on the survey of current information demand of farmers carried out in Pingshan County in Hebei Province in 2010,this study came up with relevant recommendations,in order to speed up development of rural economic in mountain areas,narrow the regional gap,improve living condition of farmers in mountain areas,and increase income level of farmers in mountain areas.

  2. A qualitative study of the current situation of elderly care in Iran: what can we do for the future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salime Goharinezhad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the successful improvement of global health systems and social security in societies, the world is now advancing toward aging. All countries have to face the phenomenon of population aging sooner or later depending on their degree of development; however, elderly care is predicted to soon become a major concern for developing countries such as Iran. Objectives: This study was conducted to identify the challenges of elderly care in Iran and to help policymakers develop roadmaps for the future through providing a clearer image of the current state of affairs in this area of healthcare. Design: This study has adopted a framework approach to qualitative data analysis. For this purpose, 37 semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2015 with a number of key informants in elderly care who were familiar with the process at macro-, meso-, and micro-levels. Maximum variation purposive sampling was performed to select the study samples. A conceptual framework was designed using a review of the literature, and key issues were then identified for data analysis. Results: The elderly care process yielded five major challenges, including policymaking, access, technical infrastructure, integrity and coordination, and health-based care services. Discussion: According to the stakeholders of elderly care in Iran, the current care system is not well-suited for meeting the needs of the elderly, as the elderly tend to receive the services they need sporadically and in a non-coherent manner. Given the rapid growth of the elderly population in the coming decades, it is the authorities’ job to concentrate on the challenges faced by the health system and to use foresight methods for the comprehensive and systematical management of the issue.

  3. A qualitative study of the current situation of elderly care in Iran: what can we do for the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goharinezhad, Salime; Maleki, Mohammadreza; Baradaran, Hamid Reza; Ravaghi, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background With the successful improvement of global health systems and social security in societies, the world is now advancing toward aging. All countries have to face the phenomenon of population aging sooner or later depending on their degree of development; however, elderly care is predicted to soon become a major concern for developing countries such as Iran. Objectives This study was conducted to identify the challenges of elderly care in Iran and to help policymakers develop roadmaps for the future through providing a clearer image of the current state of affairs in this area of healthcare. Design This study has adopted a framework approach to qualitative data analysis. For this purpose, 37 semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2015 with a number of key informants in elderly care who were familiar with the process at macro-, meso-, and micro-levels. Maximum variation purposive sampling was performed to select the study samples. A conceptual framework was designed using a review of the literature, and key issues were then identified for data analysis. Results The elderly care process yielded five major challenges, including policymaking, access, technical infrastructure, integrity and coordination, and health-based care services. Discussion According to the stakeholders of elderly care in Iran, the current care system is not well-suited for meeting the needs of the elderly, as the elderly tend to receive the services they need sporadically and in a non-coherent manner. Given the rapid growth of the elderly population in the coming decades, it is the authorities’ job to concentrate on the challenges faced by the health system and to use foresight methods for the comprehensive and systematical management of the issue. PMID:27876456

  4. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS ON DIFFUSION CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH CONCENTRATION JETS IN ENVIRONMENTAL CURRENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕; 王道增; 樊靖郁

    2002-01-01

    By means of flow visualization and quantitative measurement, the diffusionpattern and concentration distribution characteristics of high concentration jets verticallydischarged into shallow moving waterbody were experimentally investigated in waterchannel. The interactions between the high concentration jets and environmental flowconditions were analysed, and the formulae of impinging point coordinate and transversespread angle are gained from data analysis. Experimental results indicate that the jets showcomplicated flow patterns and diffusion characteristics in near region, which are differentfrom common submerged jets, and spread downstream in the manner of density currents.

  5. Experimental Study on the Influence of AC Stray Current on the Cathodic Protection of Buried Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingmiao Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The size of the damaged area of the coating and its position on the pipeline impacted the cathodic protection potential, and there was a damaged area of the greatest impact value. When damaged area was 300 mm2, the IR drop was the largest, and this situation could easily lead to inadequate protection; when the parallel spacing between pipeline and interference source was unchanged, the measured value curves of cathodic protection potential presented “U” shaped trend with the increasing stray current interference intensity. Under certain parallel spacing between pipeline and interference source, high alternating stray current intensity would cause serious negative offsets, so that the overprotection of the pipeline occurred, and make the coating crack; there was a parallel threshold length. When less than the threshold, the pipe-ground potential increases rapidly with the parallel length increasing. In order to judge whether a pipeline was interference by AC stray current and the risk of stray current corrosion, we should make a comprehensive analysis of the cathodic protection energizing potential, the switch-off potential, AC pipe-soil potential, IR drops, and so on.

  6. Opening up mental health service delivery to cultural diversity: current situation, development and examples from three northern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäärnhielm, Sofie; Jávo, Cecilie; Mösko, Mike-Oliver

    2013-01-01

    There are inequalities in health among migrants and local populations in Europe. Due to migration, Germany, Norway and Sweden have become ethnic culturally diverse nations. There are barriers to mental health care access for refugees, migrants and minorities, and problems with quality of culturally sensitive care in the three countries. This is despite tax-funded health care systems based on equity in service provision. There is a need to develop culturally sensitive mental health services that respond to the increasing diversity of the populations. In this chapter, we will take a closer look at cultural diversity in the countries in question, discuss challenges and give examples of current work to open up mental health services to cultural diversity. The German example will focus on the movement of Interkulturelle Öffnung (cross-cultural opening of the health care system) and work on creating national guidelines and quality standards. From Norway, the work of the National Centre for Mental Health for the indigenous Sámi population will be presented. The Swedish example will focus on the work carried out by the Transcultural Centre. The latter is a competence centre supporting development of culturally sensitive care as an integrated part of the regional health and mental health care system in Stockholm. Finally, the relevance of mental health care for a culturally diverse population, as a part of the larger social project of building tolerant multicultural societies, will be discussed.

  7. Current situation of sexual and reproductive health of men deprived of liberty in the Institutional Care Center of San Jose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorita Rivas Fonseca

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the current status of the issue of sexual and reproductive health ofthe prisoners Institutional Care Center (CAI of San Jose. It is a descriptive study. Through a strategic samplingdetermined the participation of 102 men. The information was obtained by applying a self-administeredquestionnaire with closed and open questions. As a result relevant to your socio-demographic profile, it appearsthat deprived of their liberty is a very heterogeneous group. As regards sexual and reproductive health, the firstconcept they relate to the prevention of disease and the second reproductive aspects, this shows limitations inknowledge on the topics, something that affects the daily life activities and self-care. It is concluded that researchby nurses Gyneco-obstetric in the deprived of liberty is almost null not only in the country but in the world,especially if it comes with the male population. In the case of CAI Prison, health care is not enough for thenumber of inmates who inhabit (overpopulation of almost 50%, this implies a deterioration in health and physicalcondition of these people, as well as sexual and reproductive health

  8. Fires in refugee and displaced persons settlements: The current situation and opportunities to improve fire prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazerooni, Yasaman; Gyedu, Adam; Burnham, Gilbert; Nwomeh, Benedict; Charles, Anthony; Mishra, Brijesh; Kuah, Solomon S; Kushner, Adam L; Stewart, Barclay T

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to describe the burden of fires in displaced persons settlements and identify interventions/innovations that might address gaps in current humanitarian guidelines. We performed a systematic review of: (i) academic and non-academic literature databases; and (ii) guidelines from leading humanitarian agencies/initiatives regarding fire prevention/control. Of the 1521 records retrieved, 131 reports described settlement fires in 31 hosting countries since 1990. These incidents resulted in 487 deaths, 790 burn injuries, displacement of 382,486 individuals and destruction of 50,509 shelters. There was a 25-fold increase in the rate of settlement fires from 1990 to 2015 (0.002-0.051 per 100,000 refugees, respectively). Only 4 of the 15 leading humanitarian agencies provided recommendations about fire prevention/control strategies. Potentially useful interventions/innovations included safer stoves (e.g. solar cookers) and fire retardant shelter materials. The large and increasing number of fires in displaced persons settlements highlights the need to redress gaps in humanitarian fire prevention/control guidelines. The way forward includes: (i) developing consensus among aid agencies regarding fire prevention/control strategies; (ii) evaluating the impact of interventions/innovations on the burden of fires; and (iii) engaging agencies in a broader discussion about protecting camp residents from armed groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  9. 移动医疗的现状与发展%The Current Situation and Development of m-health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷悦楚楚; 戴作雷; 刘云; 张昕

    2016-01-01

    As the coming of mobile informational age,mobile information service has been received more and more attention. Under this background, mobile medical began to draw people’s attention. M-health can provide efficient and convenient medical information and services anytime and anywhere through mobile communication technology. The development of m-health has greatly increased the working efficiency of medical staff and improved medical service level.This article introduecs the origin and rising reasons of m-health, and summarizes the development direction and current situaton both at home and abroad.%随着移动信息时代的来临,移动信息服务也逐渐得到了人们的重视。在这一背景下,移动医疗开始进入人们的视线。利用移动通信技术,移动医疗能够提供随时随地、高效便捷的医疗资讯和服务。移动医疗的发展提高了医务人员的工作效率,改善了医疗服务水平。本文介绍了移动医疗的起源及兴起原因,并对国内外现状和发展方向进行了整理。

  10. ANSYS Workbench的应用现状及分析%Current Situation and Analysis of ANSYS Workbench

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻永巽

    2014-01-01

    ANSYS Workbench,a collaborative simulation platform launched by ANSYSTM,not only retains the core technology of classic ANSYS (ANSYS Classic),but also shows compatibility with the mainstream of CAD software. For example,it integrates with the powerful 3D modeling capacities supplied by UG, Pro/E and Fieldworks software. What is more, it takes the advantage of ISIGHT, LMS and other CAE software in simulation,optimization,and analysis. Modeling experience could be immediately shared within the enterprises, enabled by the powerful data management and its interactive functions. This paper mainly focuses on the current application of ANSYS Workbench.%ANSYS Workbench作为ANSYS公司推出的多物理协同仿真环境平台,具有与经典ANSYS (ANSYS Classic)核心产品完全统一的核心技术,而且结合了主流CAD软件,如UG、Pro/E、Fieldworks强大的三维建模功能和ISIGHT、LMS等CAE软件在仿真、优化、分析方面的优势,其强大的数据管理、交互功能可以使知识和经验在工作组间与企业内实现共享。主要探讨AN-SYS Workbench的应用现状及分析。

  11. Experimental Investigation of a Direct Methanol Fuel Cell with Hilbert Fractal Current Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yi Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hilbert curve is a continuous type of fractal space-filling curve. This fractal curve visits every point in a square grid with a size of 2×2, 4×4, or any other power of two. This paper presents Hilbert fractal curve application to direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC current collectors. The current collectors are carved following first, second, and third order Hilbert fractal curves. These curves give the current collectors different free open ratios and opening perimeters. We conducted an experimental investigation into DMFC performance as a function of the free open ratio and opening perimeter on the bipolar plates. Nyquist plots of the bipolar plates are made and compared using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS experiments to understand the phenomena in depth. The results obtained in this paper could be a good reference for future current collector design.

  12. Experimental Research of Harmonic Spectrum of Currents at Traction Drive with PMSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Novak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the significant results of the experimental research of current harmonic spectrum of traction drive with permanent magnet synchronous motor. The experiments were done on a special workplace with a real traction drive for wheel vehicles. Current harmonic spectrum was analyzed by a specialized device on the base of central measuring station. The knowledge of current marked subharmonic components of stator winding is the most significant finding of experiments. The frequencies of these components are given by multiples of frequency of mechanical speeds. The subharmonic components also pass to input DC current of drive. This fact is important in particular from the point of view of legislative requirements to electromagnetic compatibility of drive with railway interlocking devices.

  13. Transplante Hepático: História, Panorama Atual, Perspectivas / Liver Transplantation: History, Current Situation, Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bruno de Rezende

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available O transplante hepático revolucionou a expectativa de vida dos pacientes com doença hepática em estágio avançado, tornando-se muitas vezes a única modalidade terapêutica efetiva para uma variedade de doenças hepáticas crônicas ou agudas irreversíveis.1-4 Deve-se a C. S. Welch as primeiras tentativas de transplante hepático experimental em cães, em 1955.5 Embora a técnica de transplante hepático em humanos tenha sido descrita inicialmente em 1960,6,7 o primeiro transplante de fígado no homem foi realizado em 1963 na Universidade do Colorado em Denver (EUA por Thomas Starzl8 em um paciente de três anos de idade com atresia de vias biliares e que foi a óbito no transoperatório por sangramento. O primeiro transplante hepático realizado em humanos com sucesso foi alcançado por esta mesma equipe em 1967 em uma criança de um ano e meio com carcinoma hepatocelular.1 Desde então a técnica operatória tem sido constantemente modificada e aprimorada, sendo necessárias quase duas décadas para que o transplante hepático se consolidasse como uma alternativa terapêutica cientificamente comprovada. O Brasil entra precocemente na era dos transplantes de fígado. Em 1965, o grupo de metabologia cirúrgica da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo produz as primeiras pesquisas experimentais sobre transplante de fígado em cães. No dia 5 de agosto de 1968, foi realizado com sucesso técnico o primeiro transplante de fígado da América Latina no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (HCFMUSP, em um doente com 52 anos de idade, portador de cirrose hepática e carcinoma hepatocelular.

  14. Evaluating the osseointegration of nanostructured titanium implants in animal models: Current experimental methods and perspectives (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babuska, Vaclav; Moztarzadeh, Omid; Kubikova, Tereza; Moztarzadeh, Amin; Hrusak, Daniel; Tonar, Zbynek

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this paper is to review the experimental methods currently being used to evaluate the osseointegration of nanostructured titanium implants using animal models. The material modifications are linked to the biocompatibility of various types of oral implants, such as laser-treated, acid-etched, plasma-coated, and sand-blasted surface modifications. The types of implants are reviewed according to their implantation site (endoosseous, subperiosteal, and transosseous implants). The animal species and target bones used in experimental implantology are carefully compared in terms of the ratio of compact to spongy bone. The surgical technique in animal experiments is briefly described, and all phases of the histological evaluation of osseointegration are described in detail, including harvesting tissue samples, processing undemineralized ground sections, and qualitative and quantitative histological assessment of the bone-implant interface. The results of histological staining methods used in implantology are illustrated and compared. A standardized and reproducible technique for stereological quantification of bone-implant contact is proposed and demonstrated. In conclusion, histological evaluation of the experimental osseointegration of dental implants requires careful selection of the experimental animals, bones, and implantation sites. It is also advisable to use larger animal models and older animals with a slower growth rate rather than small or growing experimental animals. Bones with a similar ratio of compact to spongy bone, such as the human maxilla and mandible, are preferred. A number of practical recommendations for the experimental procedures, harvesting of samples, tissue processing, and quantitative histological evaluations are provided.

  15. Discussion on Current Situation of China's Environmental Legal System Construction%论我国的环境法制建设现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨露

    2012-01-01

    介绍了我国经济发展所导致的环境问题及环境保护、环境立法的重要性,并论述了我国现行环境法律体系中存在的亟待解决的问题以及环境执法中存在的不到位现象,指出现行环境法的改善迫在眉睫。%The environmental problems caused by the development of our national economy, the importance of environmental protection and environmental legislation were introduced. At the same time, the present China's current environmental legal system existing problems to be solved and the present environmental law implementation situation to be unable to reach the designated position were discussed. So the improvement of the current environmental law was imminent.

  16. Future trials of endovascular mechanical recanalisation therapy in acute ischemic stroke patients: a position paper endorsed by ESMINT and ESNR. Pt. 1. Current situation and major research questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiehler, Jens [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); Soederman, Michael [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Turjman, Francis [Hopital Neurologique, Centre de Neurosciences Cognitives, Department of Neuroradiology, Lyon (France); White, Philip M. [Western General Hospital, University of Edinburgh, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Bakke, Soeren Jacob [Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Department of Neuroradiology, Oslo (Norway); Mangiafico, Salvatore [University Hospital Careggi, Interventional Neuroradiology Unit, Florence (Italy); Kummer, Ruediger von [University of Dresden, Department of Neuroradiology, Dresden (Germany); Muto, Mario [University of Naples, Department of Neuroradiology, Naples (Italy); Cognard, Christophe [Hopital Purpan, Service de Neuroradiologie, Toulouse (France); Gralla, Jan [Inselspital Bern, Department of Neuroradiology, Bern (Switzerland)

    2012-12-15

    A new era of stroke treatment may have begun with mechanical thrombectomy (MT) by fully deployed closed-cell self-expanding stents (stent-triever). Multiple case series and the first randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have now been published. More studies are under way involving large numbers of patients, which in turn has resulted in less strict ''pragmatic'' study protocols. Problems with current trials include a lack of standardisation in the conduct of the recanalisation procedure, the definition of primary endpoints such as the grade of arterial recanalisation and tissue reperfusion, and the post-surgical care provided. In Part 1 of this two part series, we outline the current situation and the major research questions. (orig.)

  17. Pesticide regulation, utilization, and retailers' selling practices in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies: current situation and needed changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Pereira, Lexley M; Boysielal, Kim; Siung-Chang, Avril

    2007-08-01

    To explore pesticide regulation in Trinidad and Tobago, and to ascertain pesticide utilization and retailers' selling practices on Trinidad, which is the larger of twin islands that constitute the republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Between February and June 2005, agrochemical retailers in Trinidad were surveyed about the most frequently sold pesticides and their knowledge and practices of pesticide sale. The Poisons and Toxic Chemicals Control Board of the Ministry of Health informed on legislature. Of 107 actively trading licensed pesticide outlets, 97 participated (91% response rate) in the survey. Currently only 2.9% (21) of 720 registered products from four chemical classes are frequently utilized. Paraquat, methomyl, and alpha-cypermethrin (respective trade names are Gramoxone, Lannate, and Fastac) from World Health Organization (WHO) Hazard Classes I and II, and glyphosate isopropylamine (Swiper, Class U) are the most frequently purchased pesticides. Pet shops constitute 39.2% (38) of retail shops selling pesticides. No regulations guide pesticide sale to agriculturists, and children may purchase them. Inadequate human and technical resources render legislative controls ineffective and disciplinary action against offenders is weak. Extensive governmental resources are employed in legislative procedures and product approval for the very low, 2.9% utilization rate, negatively impacting on monitoring pesticide sales. The Poisons Information Centre (PIC) does not liaise with the Poisons and Toxic Chemicals Control Board or provide educational interventions for the community. As a result of this survey, it was possible to develop the first database to include the chemical, brand, and colloquial names of pesticides used in Trinidad and Tobago; WHO classification of approved pesticides; manufacturers; packaging; and antidotes and their availability for use by the Board and health professionals in Trinidad. Urgent critical evaluation of legislation regarding pesticide

  18. Current Situation of Cancer Immunotherapy%肿瘤免疫治疗的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旻钰; 单风平

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of malignant tumor is elevating recently and it has been the main threatening factors to hu-man health. Cancer immunotherapy is a newly developing scenario,but it has guided the break through of carcinoma therapy. The scenario adopts complex immune regulation of target-oriented mechanisms to attack tumor cells and pre-vent it from relapse. Therefore,many research institutions make the cancer immunotherapy as their main study direc-tion conduct investigation in deep going way. Recently many studies have put forward a series of components possess-ing novel immunologic role and found a combination of application of the therapy scenario could optimize the effects of carcinoma therapy. The current studies on cancer immunotherapy were summarized in this paper.%恶性肿瘤的发病率近年持续走高并已成为威胁人类健康的主要因素。肿瘤免疫治疗是肿瘤治疗领域的新兴方案,引领了肿瘤治疗的重大突破。该方案通过复杂的免疫调节机制靶向攻击肿瘤细胞并防止肿瘤复发,因此众多研究机构以肿瘤免疫治疗为主要研究方向进行深入探讨。近年来多项研究提出了一系列具有肿瘤免疫作用的新型免疫组分且发现治疗方案的联合应用可优化肿瘤治疗效果。本文将就肿瘤免疫治疗的研究现状做一综述。

  19. 对高校体育课太极拳教学的现状解析%On the Current Situation of College Physical Education Tai chi Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽娜

    2014-01-01

    目前高校体育课太极拳教学的现状并不乐观,大多数高校太极拳教学都是注重形式,按太极拳套路进行教学,很少有高校体育课太极拳教学时注意对太极拳的基本功以及精髓的传授,达不到太极拳教学的目标与效果。本文从高校体育课太极拳教学的现状入手,分析太极拳教学中存在的问题,并根据问题探究高校体育课太极拳教学的改进方法与对策。%The current situation and the Teaching of College Physical Education is not optimistic, large number of colleges and universities are focusing on teaching tai chi form, according to Taijiquan teaching, there is little attention to the College Physical Taijiquan teaching basic skills as well as the essence of time teach, and the effect of the target is less than Taijiquan teaching. From the current situation of physical education teaching tai chi, analyzes the problems in teaching tai chi and ex-plore improved method based on issues and countermeasures of college PE tai chi teaching.

  20. Experimental manifestation of the breakpoint region in the current-voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irie, A.; Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Oya, G.

    2008-10-01

    The experimental evidence of the breakpoint on the current-voltage characteristics (IVCs) of the stacks of intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) is presented. The influence of the capacitive coupling on the IVCs of Bi2Sr2CaCu2Oy IJJs has been investigated. At 4.2K, clear breakpoint region is observed on the branches in the IVCs. It is found that due to the coupling between junctions, the hysteresis observed on the IVC is small compared to that expected from the McCumber parameter. Measurements agree well with the results predicted by the capacitively coupled Josephson junction model including the diffusion current.

  1. Situação atual e perspectivas do etanol The current situation and prospects for ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaias C. Macedo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos trinta anos, a produção de etanol da cana-de-açúcar no Brasil avançou para 17 milhões de metros cúbicos, com perspectivas de atingir 35,7 milhões de metros cúbicos em 2012-2013. Esse crescimento ocorreu com grande aporte de tecnologia, por meio de geração, importação, adaptação e transferência interna. Uma análise das diferentes fases desse desenvolvimento é apresentada, com a evolução dos parâmetros tecnológicos e a grande competitividade atingida. A visão atual é que o setor poderá continuar a evoluir com melhorias contínuas ainda de modo importante, mas grandes "saltos" tecnológicos são possíveis mediante o desenvolvimento de tecnologias para o melhor uso da biomassa residual da cana (cerca de dois terços da biomassa total. Os estudos em curso indicam que a contribuição da cana para o suprimento de energia poderá ser muito superior (e diversificada que a atual, e poderá ocorrer em paralelo com o desenvolvimento de biorrefinarias, levando a produtos de maior valor agregado.In the last 30 years, the production of ethanol from sugar cane in Brazil reached 17 million cubic meters and it is expected to achieve 35.7 million cubic meters by 2012-2013. This growth has taken place due to great technological support by means of production, imports, adaptations and internal transferences. An analysis of the different phases of this development, with the evolution of its technological parameters and the great competition of the sector, is presented in the article. Nowadays, foresights state that the sector may keep evolving with continuous improvements, but sudden technological boosts are also possible through the development of technologies directed towards a better use of the residual biomass of sugar cane (which represents about two thirds of the total biomass. Studies in progress indicate that the sugar cane contribution to energy supply may be superior and more diversified than the current one. They

  2. Nitrogen dioxide - current knowledge on the pollution situation and health effects; Stickstoffdioxid - Kenntnisstand zur Belastungssituation und zu gesundheitlichen Wirkungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muecke, H.G. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene

    1999-07-01

    Since the 1990s atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) pollution has mainly been determined by the volume of road traffic, especially in the urban centres of Germany. NO{sub 2} can be regarded as an important air pollutant inasmuch as it affects the health of a large part of the population. In places exposed to road traffic NO{sub 2} concentrations can easily reach and even exceed mean annual values of 100 {mu}g/m-3 and short-time peaks of 200 {mu}g/m-3. The main NO{sub 2} sources of indoor air pollution are open fireplaces (e.g. gas stoves, gas-fired heating systems and water heaters) and tobacco smoking. NO{sub 2} measurements in German kitchens yielded mean concentrations of up to 50 {mu}g/m-3 and peak concentrations of almost 200 {mu}g/m-3. Indoor NO{sub 2} concentrations in rooms without internal NO{sub 2} sources are determined by local atmospheric concentrations and have been found to lie between 20 and 30 {mu}g/m-3 on average. The WHO's revised NO{sub 2} guide values of 1998 are 40 {mu}g/m-3 in the annual average and 200 {mu}g/m-3 as hourly mean level. Being an oxidative and slightly water-soluble the tear gas NO{sub 2} mainly affects the periphery of the lungs. Its chief health effects are changes in pulmonary function and an increase in bronchial reactivity. Exposure studies on current pollution levels have shown that indoor sources contribute up to 5 {mu}g/m-3 on average and airing habits are an important influencing factor. [German] Seit den 90er Jahren bestimmt ueberwiegend der Kfz-Verkehr die Belastung der Aussenluft durch Stickstoffdioxid (NO{sub 2}), vor allem in den staedtischen Ballungsraeumen Deutschlands. NO{sub 2} kann als eine wichtige Luftschadstoffkomponente fuer die Gesundheit eines Grossteils der Bevoelkerung angesehen werden. An Kfz-exponierten Messstellen koennen die NO{sub 2}-Konzentrationen durchaus 100 {mu}g/m{sup 3} im Jahresmittel und 200 {mu}g/m{sup 3} als kurzzeitige Spitzenwerte erreichen oder ueberschreiten. Offene

  3. High performance predictive current control of a three phase VSI: An experimental assessment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vikas Kumar; Prerna Gaur; A P Mittal

    2014-12-01

    Delay has a significant role to play in the implementation of the predictive current control scheme as large amount of calculations are involved. Compensating delay in the predictive current controller design can lead to an improved load current total harmonic distortion (THD) and also an increased switching frequency. Minimization of switching frequency while maintaining the lower value of load current THD requires multiple objective optimization which is achieved by optimizing a single objective function, constructed using weighting factors as a linear combination of individual objective function. The effect of weighting factor on the switching frequency minimization and the current tracking error with delay compensation for the two level voltage source inverter (VSI) are investigated in this paper. The outcomes of the predictive current control using an optimized weighting factor which is calculated using branch and bound algorithm with the delay compensation are compared with the PWM based current control scheme. The experimental tests are conducted on a 2.2 kW VSI to verify the simulation observations.

  4. 民办高校教学现状以及改进措施%Current Situation and Improving Solutions of Teaching Modes and Methods in Private Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德锦; 田娇; 熊海涵; 汪旭

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the learning situation of private universities students. Regarding academic performance and ex-pediency of learning professional courses, this paper makes a deep analysis through sampling and survey, and comes to a con-clusion that we should improve teaching methods and experi-mental training courses and attach importance to basic profes-sional teaching.%本文介绍了民办高校学生学习情况,针对学生学习表现和在学习专业课程时的避难就易情况,通过抽样和问卷调查的方式进行了深入分析,得出了改进教学方法,提高实验实训课程和重视专业基础教学的结论。

  5. Computational and experimental studies of laser cutting of the current collectors for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongkyoung; Patwa, Rahul; Herfurth, Hans; Mazumder, Jyotirmoy

    2012-07-01

    Sizing electrodes is an important step during Lithium-ion battery manufacturing processes since poor cut edge affects battery performance significantly and sometime leads to fire hazard. Mechanical cutting could result in a poor cut quality with defects. The cutting quality can be improved by using a laser, due to its high energy concentration, fast processing time, small heat-affected zone, and high precision. The cutting quality is highly influenced by operating parameters such as laser power and scanning speed. Thus, we studied a numerical simulation to provide a guideline for achieving clear edge quality. In order to simulate electrodes laser cutting for Lithium-Ion batteries, understanding the behavior of current collectors is crucial. This study focuses on current collectors, such as pure copper and aluminium. Numerical studies utilized a 3D self-consistent mathematical model for laser-material interaction. Observations of penetration time, depth, and threshold during laser cutting processes of current collectors are described. The model is validated experimentally by cutting current collectors and single side-coated electrodes with a single mode fiber laser. The copper laser cutting is laser intensity and interaction time dependent process. The aluminium laser cutting depends more on laser intensity than the interaction time. Numerical and experimental results show good agreement.

  6. Principle and experimental investigation of current-driven negative-inductance superconducting quantum interference device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Liu, Jianshe; Zhang, Yingshan; Cai, Han; Li, Gang; Liu, Qichun; Han, Siyuan; Chen, Wei

    2017-03-01

    A negative-inductance superconducting quantum interference device (nSQUID) is an adiabatic superconducting logic device with high energy efficiency, and therefore a promising building block for large-scale low-power superconducting computing. However, the principle of the nSQUID is not that straightforward and an nSQUID driven by voltage is vulnerable to common mode noise. We investigate a single nSQUID driven by current instead of voltage, and clarify the principle of the adiabatic transition of the current-driven nSQUID between different states. The basic logic operations of the current-driven nSQUID with proper parameters are simulated by WRspice. The corresponding circuit is fabricated with a 100 A cm‑2 Nb-based lift-off process, and the experimental results at low temperature confirm the basic logic operations as a gated buffer.

  7. Experimental study of the velocity of density currents in convergent and divergent channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hasan Torabi POUDEH; Samad EMAMGHOLIZADEH; Manoocher Fathi-MOGHADAM

    2014-01-01

    The head velocity of the density current in the convergent and divergent channel is a key parameter for evaluating the extent to which suspended material travels, and for determining the type and distribution of sediment in the water body. This study experimentally evaluated the effects of the reach degree of convergence and divergence on the head velocity of the density current. Experiments were conducted in the flume with 6.0 m long, 0.72 m width and 0.6 m height. The head velocity was measured at three convergent degrees (-8o;-12o;-26o), at three divergent degrees (8o; 12o; 26o) and two slopes (0.009, 0.016) for various discharges. The measured head velocity of the density current is compared with the head velocity of the density current in the constant cross section channel. Based on non-dimensional and statistical analysis, relations as linear multiple regression are offered for predicting head velocity of the density current in the convergent, divergent and constant cross section channel. Also the results of this research show that for the same slope and discharge, the head velocity of the density current in the convergent and divergent channel are greater and less than the head velocity of the constant cross section, respectively.

  8. 护理人员工作倦怠状况及其影响因素%Current situation of nursing staff's job burnout and its influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常宗霞

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To learn about the current situation of nursing staffs job burnout and analyze its influencing factors. Methods: The nurses selected respectively from grade I, II and III hospital in Liaocheng municipality by using stratified cluster random sampling method were taken as investigation object and the Job Burnout Questionnaire was used to conduct a survey on the current situation of job burnout and analyze its influencing factors. Results: The hospital nurses were facing more occupational pressure, especially the pressure of interpersonal relationship and development in career. The job burnout like emotional exhaustion and low sense of achievement was relatively serious;the nurses personality was significantly correlated with job burnout in the nurses of Liaocheng municipal hospital. Conclusion: The current situation of job burnout of hospital nurses is serious, therefore we should pay more attention to it.%目的:了解护理工作人员的倦怠现状,分析其相关影响因素.方法:采用整群分层随机抽样方法选取聊城市1、2、3级医院护士作为调查对象,通过发放工作倦怠调查问卷的形式调查其工作倦怠状况,分析其影响因素.结果:医院护士所面临的职业压力较多,尤其是来自人际关系和职业发展方面的压力,同时表现出一定程度的工作倦怠,其中情感衰竭和低成就感较为严重;聊城市级医院护士的人格特征与工作倦怠之间存在相关性.结论:医院护士的工作倦怠程度较重,应引起我们的高度重视.

  9. 国内外军事物流现状与发展研究%Current Situation and Development of Military Logistics at Home and Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄大鹏; 李良春

    2014-01-01

    我军军事物流起步晚,现有军事物流与国外发达国家相比,在各环节都有明显差距。目的:为寻找我军军事物流短板,制定发展对策;方法:本文结合我国地形、周边战争局势等因素,对我国军事物流现状进行了分析,并深入研究了美俄两国先进的军事物流模式;结果:针对国外发展经验提出了我国军事物流发展思路;结论:该研究为发展我国军事物流技术提供了有价值的参考。%For military logistics starting lately in China, there were obvious gaps between existing military logistics in China and developed countries in all aspects. According to the factors of terrain and war situation in surroundings, current situation of Chinese military logistics was analyzed. Meanwhile, military logistics patterns in U.S. and Russia were researched. At last, the developing strategies were proposed based on developed experiences abroad, which may improve the support to our military logistics technologies development.

  10. Situational Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hoover, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    Situational analysis (also known as situational logic) was popularized by Karl Popper as an appropriate method for the interpretation of history and as a basis for a scientific social science. It seeks an objective posit ive explanation of behavior through imputing a dominant goal or motive to individuals and then identifying the action that would be objectively appropriate to the situation as the action actually taken. Popper regarded situational analysis as a generalization to all of social...

  11. 智能家居的发展现状与发展趋势%The Current Situation and Development Trend of Smart Home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘岩; 赵旭敏; 蒋佳伟

    2016-01-01

    介绍了智能家居的发展历程和发展现状,阐述了智能家居的十大系统组成部分,重点介绍了智能家居的关键技术,包括布线技术、家庭网关和网络以及智能家电。最后分析了智能家居目前所存在的问题和未来的发展趋势。%This paper introduces the development history and current situation of smart home, and expounds the ten system component of smart home. It mainly introduces the key technology of smart home, including wiring technol-ogy, family gateway, family networks, and intelligent household appliances. Finally, this paper analyzes the existing problems and development trend of smart home.

  12. 物流标准化发展现状研究综述%The Research Review of the Current Situation of the Development of Logistics Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳飞; 武赟; 戴铭卿

    2015-01-01

    The thesis reviews current situation of the development of logistics standardization systematically. It summarizes the general research contents from the four aspects: logistics standardization and management system, establishment of the standardization of logistics, implementation of the standardization of logistics and performance evaluation of the standardization.Moreover, the authors put forward with their own view.%本文系统回顾了有关物流标准化发展现状.分别从物流标准化和管理体制、物流标准化的建立、物流标准化的贯彻实施以及物流标准化的绩效评价四个方面进行综述,提出本文观点.

  13. Analysis of Current Situation and Path Optimization of Administration Cost in China%我国行政成本现状分析及优化路径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金融

    2011-01-01

    One of the important ways for current administrative system reform is to control and optimize administration cost.This paper adopts relevant theories of public administration and financial expenditure,analyzes the situation of administration costs expansi%控制和优化行政成本是我国当前行政体制改革的重要内容和途径之一。本文运用公共管理和财政支出的相关理论,对我国行政成本扩张、结构和收益等现状进行分析,对行政成本发展趋势做出判断,并提出控制和优化行政成本的路径选择。

  14. Current situation and reflection of domestic intravenous pharmacy admixture models%国内静脉药物调配模式现状与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏英华; 毛燕君; 朱建英

    2012-01-01

    This article summarized the current situation of three intravenous pharmacy admixture models,including ward intravenous drag distribution model, Pharmacy Intravenous Admixture Services (PIVAS) and decentralized distribution model. It analyzed the advantages and disadvantages,and on the basis,reflection and suggestions of pharmacy admixture methods were put forward.%文章分别归纳了国内病区药物自配模式、静脉药物集中调配模式和分散药物调配模式的发展现状及其优缺点,在此基础上,对国内静脉药物调配模式的发展进行思考并提出建议.

  15. Analysis on current situation and advantages and disadvantages of online pharmacies%网上药店现状及优缺点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    With the popularity of the internet and online shopping ,online pharmacies are getting more and more attentioned. Due to the late start of online pharmacies in China , the development of online pharmacies is relatively backward,so it not only have potential but also exists the the phenomenon of some good and some bad,the article analyzes the current situation of online pharmacies and the main advantages and disadvantages.%随着互联网和网络购物的普及,网上药店越来越受到关注。由于我国网上药店起步较晚,发展相对滞后,因此在具备有大潜力的同时也存在着良莠不齐的现象,文章分析了国内网上药店的主要优势和弊端。

  16. Current Situation and Discussion of Chinese Football Professionalism Reform%中国足球职业化改革的现状分析与探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云广

    2012-01-01

    The main problems in Chinese football professionalism reform current situation was studied by the methods of documentary. The reform direction was pointed out at the same time, in order to provide some validity advices for healthy and rapid development of the Chinese football professionalism reform.%运用文献资料法对现行中国当前足球职业化改革现状中存在的主要问题进行分析,并指出相应的改革方向,为我国足球职业化改革、快速发展提供一些有效性的建议。

  17. Current Situation and Research of Intelligent Luminaire and Standard%智能灯具及其标准的现状和研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施晓红; 庄晓波; 虞再道; 陈超中

    2016-01-01

    Intelligence is the development trend of lighting system and luminaire .From the point of the definition of lighting system and based on the characteristics of intelligent lighting luminaire , this article discussed current situation of intelligent lighting system standards , and presented the basic ideas of developing intelligent standards of luminaire .%智能化是照明系统及其灯具的发展趋势. 本文以照明系统的相关定义为切入点, 在给出智能照明灯具构成特点的基础上, 讨论了智能照明系统标准现状, 表述了开发智能灯具标准的基本思路.

  18. 浅谈我国食品级石蜡的生产工艺及现状%Manufacturing technology and current situation of food-grade paraffin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关星

    2012-01-01

    The classification and use of food-grade paraffin was introduced. The manufacturing technology and current situation of food-grade paraffin in home was analyzed and advice were given by investigation to Daqing Refining and Chemical Co. And Fushun Petrochemical Co.%本文介绍了食品级石蜡的分类及用途,通过对大庆炼化公司、抚顺石化公司石油二厂等炼化公司石蜡生产现状的调研,分析我国食品级石蜡生产工艺现状,提出了相关的建议.

  19. Current Situation and Suggestions for Development of Recycling Agriculture in Lingwu Municipality%灵武市循环农业发展现状及建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张仲军; 杨金贵; 俞宏彪

    2015-01-01

    The combination of agriculture with animal husbandry as well as planting with livestock raising is a kind of recy-cling agriculture. Based on an investigation on the current situation of the combination of agriculture with animal husbandry as well as planting with livestock raising in Lingwu Municipality, an exploration is made on the development of recycling a-griculture, organic agriculture and the new ways for supporting animal husbandry with agriculture and promoting agriculture with animal husbandry.%农牧种养结合是循环农业的一种形式,通过对灵武市农牧种养结合现状调研,探索发展循环农业、有机农业、以"农养牧,以牧促农"的新路子.

  20. 我国主题宴会设计现状与创新研究%The Current Situation and Innovation Methods of Theme Banquet Design in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘澜江

    2012-01-01

    主题宴会设计的有效程度在很大程度上决定着主题宴会的成败.本文就我国主题宴会设计现状与创新方法进行分析与研究,对于酒店主题宴会开发具有理论与实践的指导意义.%In a large part, the effectiveness of theme banquet design determines whether your theme banquet is successful or not. This article will analyze and study the current situation and innovation methods of theme banquet design in China, and it has both theory instruction and practice inspiration for development of restaurant theme banquet design.

  1. CURRENT SITUATION AND COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF CHINESE DERMATOGLYPHICS%中国人肤纹学研究现状与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐国昌

    2011-01-01

    肤纹主要包括掌纹、指纹、足纹。肤纹信息可反映个人、族群特征,与体质、智力及疾病也有一定关联。本文对中华民族肤纹学研究现状、肤纹与体质及疾病的关系、肤纹学标准及统计学方法、采集及识别技术进行概述。%Dermatoglyph consists of palm print, fingerprint and footprint. Information of dermatoglyph can be useful as tools for tracing individual or group' s characteristics, even have correlation with body constitution, intelligence and disease. This article overviewed current situation of the Chinese nation, relationship of dermatoglyph with body constitution and sickness, standard and statistics method, as well as collection and identification of dermatoglyph.

  2. 国内工业锅炉节能发展现状%Current Development Situation of Industrial Boiler Energy Saving in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠欣鑫; 孙振波; 邢璐

    2015-01-01

    目前国内工业锅炉与国外发达国家相比,热效率偏低。本文从能耗、数量、标准等方面系统阐述了国内工业锅炉的发展现状,描述了目前主要采用的节能技术,指出了影响锅炉热效率的主要因素,并给出了相关对策。%Compared with the industrial boiler of developed countries, the thermal efficiency of that in China is low. This paper expounds the current development situation of industrial boilers in China from aspects of energy consumption, quantity, standard, describes the main energy saving technology at present, points out the main factors influencing the boiler thermal efficiency and puts forawrd the relevant countermeasures.

  3. 数学专业英语的现状及教学%A Study of the Current Situation of Professional Mathematical English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许洁; 茹静

    2012-01-01

    With the development of science and technology,mathematical English has become an important course in the university.This paper is aimed to find the problems by studying the current situation about mathematical English teaching in anticipation of getting solutions which can benefit the teaching of mathematical English.%随着科学技术的不断发展,专业英语已经成为大学一门非常重要的课程,本文通过对目前数学专业英语现状的研究,找出其中存在的问题,结合我院学生的实际情况,从几个方面找出解决方案,希望能对数学专业英语的教学起到促进作用。

  4. 远程皮肤病学的现状和展望%The Current Situation and Future Direction of Telemedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔勇; W.P.DanielSu; MarkD.P.Davis; MarkR.Pittelkow; 张学军

    2011-01-01

    远程医学泛指应用远程通讯技术交换医学信息,以达到诊断、咨询、治疗和教学目的.远程放射学、远程病理学和远程皮肤病学是目前应用较为广泛的远程医学领域.文中对远程皮肤病学的发展简史、现状和可能的发展趋势进行综述.%Telemedicine describe the use of telecommunication technologies for exchanging medical information for the purpose of diagnosis, consultation, treatment, and teaching. As visual fields, teleradiology, telepathology and teledermatology are well-suited to take advantage of the possibilities of telemedicine applications. We conducted a systematic review to summarize the development history, current situation and future direction of telemedermatology.

  5. 浅谈我国工程造价管理工作现状%Discuss the Current Situation of Project Cost Management in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    哈俊达

    2014-01-01

    工程造价管理是有效控制和真实反映工程造价、完善建设项目管理、提高投资效益的重要保障。本文从工程造价管理工作的重要意义,目前工作现状、促进其健康发展的途径等方面,谈了自己的有关看法,提出了有益见解。%The project cost management is an important saf-eguard of effective controlling and reflecting the project cost, perfecting the management of construction projects, and impr-oving the investment benefit. In this article, the author talks about his comments from the significance of the project cost management, the current work situation, and the promotion of the healthy development means and so on.

  6. 失眠症的诊断和药物治疗现状%Current situation of insomnia in the diagnosis and drug therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆峥

    2011-01-01

    Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder. Sleep-promoting drugs are a major approach in the treatment of insomnia. In recent years, as a large number of new drugs with non-traditional targets are used in clinic and trial, some new ideas for the treatment of insomnia have been brought. This review describes the current situation of insomnia in the diagnosis and drug therapy.%失眠症是最常见的睡眠障碍.促睡眠药物是失眠症治疗的主要方案.近年来,大量以非传统作用靶点为目标的新型药物进入研究或临床使用,给失眠症的治疗带来了新思路.本文综述失眠症的诊断和药物治疗现状.

  7. Study on the Current Situation and Evolvement on Ad Hoc Network%Ad Hoc网络的研究现状与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李悦; 蔡振

    2012-01-01

    Ad Hoc networks as a way to temporarily speed automatic network of mobile communication technologyhas been moreattention to the experts, the current wireless Ad Hoc network is a focus of study. This article describes the characteristics of Ad Hoc Networks and applications, and the research situation.%Ad Hoc网络做为一种能够临时快速自动组网的移动通信技术越来越得到专家们的重视,目前Ad Hoc网络也是无线网络研究中的一个重点和热点。介绍了Ad Hoc网络的特点和应用以及Ad Hoc网络的研究状况。

  8. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON BED-LOAD SEDIMENT TRANSPORT IN IRREGULAR WAVE-CURRENT COEXISTENT FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to evaluate bed-load sediment transport in an irregular wave-current coexistent field, a series of experiments were completed in laboratory with an irregularly oscillating tray, which was specially designed to simulate the irregular wave-current coexistent field. Experimental results are presented on the initial motion of sediment and the rates of transport over flat horizontal bed. Testing conditions included three interaction angles, 0°, 45°, 90° and six kinds of grain sizes. Four kinds (0.2mm, 0.46mm, 0.85mm and 1.3mm) were used for the tests of initial motion, while the other two kinds (0.38mm and 1.1mm) for the tests of transport rate. Comparisons between experimental results of initial motion and modified Shields curve indicate that the Shields curve is still valid for the case of irregular wave-current coexistent field. Analysis of flow regime shows that initial conditions fall within smooth-turbulent transitional region. The results of transport rate show us that net sediment transport rate can be expressed approximately as the function of the maximum bottom shear stress and mean shear stress. A dimensionless formula is proposed on the basis of mechanism "Waves erode sediments, tides transport sediments".

  9. Numerical simulation and experimental validation of a direct current air corona discharge under atmospheric pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xing-Hua; He Wei; Yang Fan; Wang Hong-Yu; Liao Rui-Jin; Xiao Han-Guang

    2012-01-01

    Air corona discharge is one of the critical problems associated with high-voltage equipment.Investigating the corona mechanism plays a key role in enhancing the electrical insulation performance.An improved self-consistent multi-component two-dimensional plasma hybrid model is presented for the simulation of a direct current atmospheric pressure corona discharge in air.The model is based on plasma hydrodynamic and chemical models,and includes 12 species and 26 reactions.In addition,the photoionization effect is introduced into the model.The simulation on a bar-plate electrode configuration with an inter-electrode gap of 5.0 mm is carried out.The discharge voltage-current characteristics and the current density distribution predicted by the hybrid model agree with the experimental measurements.In addition,the dynamics of volume charged species generation,discharge current waveform,current density distribution at an electrode,charge density,electron temperature,and electric field variations are investigated in detail based on the model.The results indicate that the model can contribute valuable insights into the physics of an air plasma discharge.

  10. CURRENT SITUATION OF POP SINGING TEACHING IN COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES%试论高校通俗歌曲演唱教学的培养现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐频频

    2016-01-01

    为满足社会生活需要,大多高校在原有音乐专业教育基础上设置通俗歌曲演唱专业,该专业设置的目的集中体现在提升学生音乐素养,且向社会输送更多通俗歌曲演唱歌手。然而从现行高校通俗歌曲演唱教学现状看,仍存在学生专业技能过于单一且艺术涵养缺失等问题,制约通俗歌手整体素质的提高。对此,本文将对通俗歌曲的相关概述、高校通俗歌手培养现状以及如何提升大学通俗歌曲演唱教学进行有效的探析。%In order to satisfy social needs, most universities set up pop singing major, which is aimed at improving students'mu-sic accomplishment and providing more pop song singers for society. However, according to current situation of pop singing teaching in colleges and universities, there are some problems such as singleness of professional skills and lack of art conser-vation which restrict the improvement of popular singers' overall quality. Therefore, the paper will analyze relevant summary of pop song, current situation of cultivating pop singers in colleges and universities and how to improve pop singing teaching.

  11. 试论我国当前的反腐败形势∗%On China's current situation of anti-corruption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷西发; 郭永丽; 张芳

    2014-01-01

    腐败及其行为源远流长,是一个尚未找到预防药的世界性顽疾。能否理性地、正确地判断反腐败斗争形势,是我们打赢反腐败这场持久战的关键,也是提升全国人民反腐必胜信念的重要条件。我们要用马克思主义的辩证唯物主义和历史唯物主义的基本原理和方法论,科学的分析和评价我国当前的反腐败形势,既要看到反腐败取得的巨大成绩,又要承认当前反腐败面临巨大的难度,同时更要增强全国人民反腐败斗争必胜的信心。%a long history of corruption and its behavior,is a not yet found world ills of preventive medicine.Can ra-tionally,correctly determine the anti-corruption struggle situation,is our key to win the long war of anti-corruption,but also enhance the important conditions for the National People's anti-corruption of triumphalism.We're on the basic princi-ples and methods of dialectical materialism and historical materialism with the Marx doctrine,scientific analysis and eval-uation of our current anti-corruption situation,not only to see the tremendous achievements made anti-corruption,but al-so acknowledged that the current anti-corruption face great difficulty,to boost the people's confidence in the victory more anti-corruption struggle at the same time.

  12. E-WIN Project 2016: Evaluating the Current Gender Situation in Neurosurgery Across Europe-An Interactive, Multiple-Level Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steklacova, Anna; Bradac, Ondrej; de Lacy, Patricia; Benes, Vladimir

    2017-08-01

    The proportion of women among neurosurgeons appears to be growing worldwide with time. Official data concerning the current situation across Europe have not yet been published. Thus, there are still concerns about gender inequality. The European Women in Neurosurgery Project 2016 was designed to recognize the current situation across Europe. The office holders of the national neurosurgical societies of 39 countries forming the European Association of Neurosurgical Societies were contacted to provide data stating the proportion of women in neurosurgery. Obtained data were supplied with the results of an online survey. The response rate of national office holders was 90%. The number of reported neurosurgeons was 12,985, and overall proportion of women represented was 12%. Two hundred thirty-seven responses to online questionnaire were taken into account. The overall proportion of female respondents was 30%. There was no intergender variability in responses regarding amount of working time per week, exposure to surgeries, or administrative work. Male respondents reported dedicating significantly more time to scientific work and feeling more confident dictating own career direction. Female respondents reported being less often married, having fewer children, a stronger perception of gender significance level, and a higher appreciation of personal qualities. Neurosurgery is a challenging field of medicine. The results of our survey did not imply an overall feeling of gender inequality among European respondents, although women believe that the gender issue to be more important than men do and that they have to sacrifice more of their personal lives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Experimental manifestation of the breakpoint region in the current-voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Irie, A.; Shukrinov, Yu M.; Oya, G.

    2008-01-01

    The experimental evidence of the breakpoint on the current-voltage characteristics (IVCs) of the stacks of intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) is presented. The influence of the capacitive coupling on the IVCs of Bi$_2$Sr$_2$CaCu$_2$O$_y$ IJJs has been investigated. At 4.2 K, clear breakpoint region is observed on the branches in the IVCs. It is found that the hysteresis observed on the IVC is suppressed due to the coupling compared with that expected from the McCumber parameter. Measurement...

  14. Experimental Investigations on PV Powered SVM-DTC Induction Motor without AC Phase Current Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Muthamizhan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a low-cost, phase-current reconstruction algorithm for space vector modulated direct torque controlled induction motor using the information obtained from only one shunt resistor which is in series with low side switches in a conventional three-phase inverter. The aim is to develop a low-cost high - performance induction motor drive. It uses the dc-link voltage and dc current to reconstruct the stator currents needed to estimate the motor flux and the electromagnetic torque. Photovoltaic arrays convert solar power to dc electric power; uses chopper and dc-ac inverter to fed three phase Induction Motor. The chopper used here is current fed full bridge boost dc-dc converter, which is preferred and extensively used in high voltage applications and advantageous over voltage fed converters. The inverter switches are controlled by PWM techniques obtained from SVM-DTC of IM. The experimental investigations are given to prove the ability of the proposed scheme of reproducing the performances of a SVM- DTC IM drive.

  15. Safety and efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation in acute experimental ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruzzotti-Jametti, Luca; Cambiaghi, Marco; Bacigaluppi, Marco; Gallizioli, Mattia; Gaude, Edoardo; Mari, Silvia; Sandrone, Stefano; Cursi, Marco; Teneud, Luis; Comi, Giancarlo; Musco, Giovanna; Martino, Gianvito; Leocani, Letizia

    2013-11-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation is emerging as a promising tool for the treatment of several neurological conditions, including cerebral ischemia. The therapeutic role of this noninvasive treatment is, however, limited to chronic phases of stroke. We thus ought to investigate whether different stimulation protocols could also be beneficial in the acute phase of experimental brain ischemia. The influence of both cathodal and anodal transcranial direct current stimulation in modifying brain metabolism of healthy mice was first tested by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Then, mice undergoing transient proximal middle cerebral artery occlusion were randomized and treated acutely with anodal, cathodal, or sham transcranial direct current stimulation. Brain metabolism, functional outcomes, and ischemic lesion volume, as well as the inflammatory reaction and blood brain barrier functionality, were analyzed. Cathodal stimulation was able, if applied in the acute phase of stroke, to preserve cortical neurons from the ischemic damage, to reduce inflammation, and to promote a better clinical recovery compared with sham and anodal treatments. This finding was attributable to the significant decrease of cortical glutamate, as indicated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Conversely, anodal stimulation induced an increase in the postischemic lesion volume and augmented blood brain barrier derangement. Our data indicate that transcranial direct current stimulation exerts a measurable neuroprotective effect in the acute phase of stroke. However, its timing and polarity should be carefully identified on the base of the pathophysiological context to avoid potential harmful side effects.

  16. Experimental and theoretical investigations on the singularity of the intensity factor of the current in high temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingyi; Huang, Yi; Zhou, Jun; Zhou, Youhe

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents experimental and analytical investigations into the distribution of current around a through-edge crack located in an infinitely long cylindrical high temperature superconductor (HTS) on the basis of the Bean model. Current distributions around the crack in the HTS without deformation are obtained by a simple conformal mapping. It is shown that the current is singular at the tip of the crack. An intensity factor of the current is introduced to characterize the singularity, the order of which is equal to -1. Additionally, an experimental verification according to the trapped field distributions around the crack is carried out, and the experimental results show little difference with the theoretical analysis.

  17. Experimental Determination of DT Yield in High Current DD Dense Plasma Focii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, D. R. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Hagen, E. C. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Meehan, B. T. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Springs, R. K. [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; O' Brien, R. J. [University of Nevada, Las Vegas

    2013-06-18

    Dense Plasma Focii (DPF), which utilize deuterium gas to produce 2.45 MeV neutrons, may in fact also produce DT fusion neutrons at 14.1 MeV due to the triton production in the DD reaction. If beam-target fusion is the primary producer of fusion neutrons in DPFs, it is possible that ejected tritons from the first pinch will interact with the second pinch, and so forth. The 2 MJ DPF at National Security Technologies’ Losee Road Facility is able to, and has produced, over 1E12 DD neutrons per pulse, allowing an accurate measurement of the DT/DD ratio. The DT/DD ratio was experimentally verified by using the (n,2n) reaction in a large piece of praseodymium metal, which has a threshold reaction of 8 MeV, and is widely used as a DT yield measurement system1. The DT/DD ratio was experimentally determined for over 100 shots, and then compared to independent variables such as tube pressure, number of pinches per shot, total current, pinch current and charge voltage.

  18. Experimental demonstration of a new radiation mechanism: emission by an oscillating, accelerated, superluminal polarization current

    CERN Document Server

    Ardavan, A; Ardavan, H; Fopma, J; Halliday, D; Hayes, W

    2004-01-01

    We describe the experimental implementation of a superluminal ({\\it i.e.} faster than light {\\it in vacuo}) polarization current distribution that both oscillates and undergoes centripetal acceleration. Theoretical treatments lead one to expect that the radiation emitted from each volume element of such a polarization current will comprise a \\v{C}erenkov-like envelope with two sheets that meet along a cusp. The emission from the experimental machine is in good agreement with these expectations, the combined effect of the volume elements leading to tightly-defined beams of a well-defined geometry, determined by the source speed and trajectory. In addition, over a restricted range of angles, we detect the presence of cusps in the emitted radiation. These are due to the detection over a short time period (in the laboratory frame) of radiation emitted over a considerably longer period of source time. Consequently, the intensity of the radiation at these angles was observed to decline more slowly with increasing d...

  19. Advancing Implementation of Evidence-Based Public Health in China: An Assessment of the Current Situation and Suggestions for Developing Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianwei; Jiang, Chenghua; Tan, Duxun; Yu, Dehua; Lu, Yuan; Sun, Pengfei; Pan, Ying; Zhang, Hanzhi; Wang, Zhaoxin; Yang, Beilei

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Existing research shows a serious scarcity of EBPH practice in China and other developing regions; as an exploratory study, this study aimed to assess the current EBPH implementation status in Shanghai of China qualitatively. Methods. Using semistructured key informant interviews, we examined the status of and impediments to the lagging EBPH in China. Data were analyzed based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). Results. Chinese public health practitioners knew more about evidence-based medicine but less about EBPH. The situation was worse in community healthcare centers. Participants perceived that evidence sources were limited and the quality of evidence was low. Concerning the inner setting factors, the structural characteristics, networks and communications, implementation climate, and leadership engagement were confronted with many problems. Among the outer setting factors, external government policies and incentives and low patient compliance were the key problems. Additionally, public health practitioners in Shanghai lacked sufficient awareness of EBPH. Furthermore, the current project-based EBPH lacks a systematic implementation system. Conclusions. Existing practical perspectives on EBPH indicate a lag in the advocacy of this new ideology in China. It would be advisable for healthcare institutions to take the initiative to explore feasible and multiple methods of EBPH promotion.

  20. 村级集体资产监管现状及对策分析%Current Situations and Countermeasure of Management Village-level Assets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡荣富

    2011-01-01

    Management of village-level assets was the concerning hot issue and focus by farmers.It also has become the key point and difficult point of the current rural work.This paper analyzed the current situation and problem of the village-level asset management,and then proposed countermeasures and suggestions to further improve effective management of the village-level asset.The countermeasures comprised establishing rules and regulations,standardizing management with system,standardizing procedure of asset disposition,assuring the disposition procedure legal,loyal,and public,standardizing public system and strengthening supervisions,etc.%村级集体资产管理是农民关心的热点与焦点,也是当前农村工作的重点与难点。分析了村级资产管理存在的现状与问题,从建章立制,以制度规范管理;规范资产处置程序,保证处置工作合法、公正、透明;规范公开制度,强化内外监督等方面,提出了进一步加强村级资产有效管理的对策与建议。

  1. An Analysis on the Current Situation of the Chinese Teaching in Nepal%尼泊尔汉语教学现状探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲艳

    2014-01-01

    通过分析尼泊尔特里布文大学中文系、孔子学院、孔子课堂、普通中小学和社会语言培训机构等方面的汉语教学现状,提出尼泊尔现阶段汉语教学所面临的教师、教材和教学法等方面存在的问题,希望促进尼泊尔汉语教学的发展并为关心尼泊尔汉语教学的相关人士提供参考。%This paper analyzes the current situation of the Chinese teaching in different institu-tions such as: the department of Chinese language in Tribhuvan University , Confucius Institute , Confucius Classroom , primary and secondary schools and languages training institute in Nepal and further puts forward the problems of teachers , teaching materials ,and methodology which the current Chinese teaching are facing .The paper aims to stimulate the development of Chinese teaching in Ne-pal and to provide some references for those concerned with the Chinese teaching in Nepal .

  2. Advancing Implementation of Evidence-Based Public Health in China: An Assessment of the Current Situation and Suggestions for Developing Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Existing research shows a serious scarcity of EBPH practice in China and other developing regions; as an exploratory study, this study aimed to assess the current EBPH implementation status in Shanghai of China qualitatively. Methods. Using semistructured key informant interviews, we examined the status of and impediments to the lagging EBPH in China. Data were analyzed based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR. Results. Chinese public health practitioners knew more about evidence-based medicine but less about EBPH. The situation was worse in community healthcare centers. Participants perceived that evidence sources were limited and the quality of evidence was low. Concerning the inner setting factors, the structural characteristics, networks and communications, implementation climate, and leadership engagement were confronted with many problems. Among the outer setting factors, external government policies and incentives and low patient compliance were the key problems. Additionally, public health practitioners in Shanghai lacked sufficient awareness of EBPH. Furthermore, the current project-based EBPH lacks a systematic implementation system. Conclusions. Existing practical perspectives on EBPH indicate a lag in the advocacy of this new ideology in China. It would be advisable for healthcare institutions to take the initiative to explore feasible and multiple methods of EBPH promotion.

  3. Current Situation and Trend of Digital Forensics Research%数字取证研究现状与发展态势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨泽明; 刘宝旭; 许榕生

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the development and situation of digital forensics, and presents the technical challenges of current digital forensics research under the rapid development of cloud computing, mobile internet, big data and IoT, etc.. Furthermore, based on the related investigation of major research institutions, this paper introduces the current research hotspots and trends and gives some proposals about the development of digital forensics research.%本文介绍了数字取证技术的发展历程和现状,结合云计算、移动互联网、大数据、物联网等为代表的新一代信息技术发展,分析了当前数字取证面临的技术挑战,基于国内外主要研究机构的相关调研情况介绍了当前数字取证技术的若干研究热点和发展态势,并给出了数字取证技术方面的研究发展思考。

  4. The Current Management Situation and Countermeasures of Construction Engineering Cost%建设工程造价管理现状与应对策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓彦

    2014-01-01

    在建设工程的整个过程中,建设工程的造价管理具有重要的影响作用。本文首先介绍了建设工程造价管理的当前现状及存在的问题,然后提出了针对当前建设工程造价管理现状的应对策略,为建设工程的造价管理提供了必要的参考依据。%The construction project cost management plays an important role in the whole process of construction project. This article first introduces the current situation and existing problems of construction project cost management, and then put forward the countermeasures in view of the current con-struction project cost management, in order to provide the necessary reference basis for the construction project cost management.

  5. Advancing Implementation of Evidence-Based Public Health in China: An Assessment of the Current Situation and Suggestions for Developing Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianwei; Tan, Duxun; Yu, Dehua; Lu, Yuan; Sun, Pengfei; Pan, Ying; Zhang, Hanzhi; Yang, Beilei

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Existing research shows a serious scarcity of EBPH practice in China and other developing regions; as an exploratory study, this study aimed to assess the current EBPH implementation status in Shanghai of China qualitatively. Methods. Using semistructured key informant interviews, we examined the status of and impediments to the lagging EBPH in China. Data were analyzed based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). Results. Chinese public health practitioners knew more about evidence-based medicine but less about EBPH. The situation was worse in community healthcare centers. Participants perceived that evidence sources were limited and the quality of evidence was low. Concerning the inner setting factors, the structural characteristics, networks and communications, implementation climate, and leadership engagement were confronted with many problems. Among the outer setting factors, external government policies and incentives and low patient compliance were the key problems. Additionally, public health practitioners in Shanghai lacked sufficient awareness of EBPH. Furthermore, the current project-based EBPH lacks a systematic implementation system. Conclusions. Existing practical perspectives on EBPH indicate a lag in the advocacy of this new ideology in China. It would be advisable for healthcare institutions to take the initiative to explore feasible and multiple methods of EBPH promotion. PMID:27597958

  6. The Current Situation and Perfection of Chinese Criminal Procedural Defense%我国程序性辩护的现状和完善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昌盛; 谢珊; 宋佳琦

    2012-01-01

    在对抗式司法理念的指导下,加强犯罪嫌疑人、被告人的诉讼权利,强化其辩护权以及实现控辩双方平等武装成为刑事诉讼立法的焦点。伴随我国刑事诉讼理论研究的不断深入,程序公正在刑事诉讼法中地位的提高.程序性辩护逐渐进入立法者的视野。《刑事诉讼法修正草案》确认了程序性辩护制度,并构建了相应的配套机制.但是依然存在一定的缺陷,应当从构建司法审查制度和优化程序性制裁机制两个方面进一步予以完善。%Under the guidance of the idea of adversavial judicial, the legislation of criminal procedural law tends to reinforce the security of defendant's rights, especially strengthen their defense right to realize the "equality of arms" between the prosecution and the accused. Recently in china,criminal procedure theory has been further improved, and procedure justice enheneed,which contributes to legislator gradually pay more attention to procedure defense. Based on the analysis of the rivised draft of criminal procedure law, in order to make procedural defense be a further development and work effectively in criminal judicial practice, the article sets out the current situations and accounts for the existence of situations. On the basis of these analysis,the author proposed that procedure denfense should be perfected in china by constructing the judicial review system and procedural sanctions machanism.

  7. Certification of forests and wood products in Serbia in the context of new European union legislations: Current situation, problems and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research results of the current situation in the area of certification of forests and wood products in Serbia in the context of new European Union legislation referring to the placement of wood and wood products on this market. The objective of the research was to observe the situation, phases which Serbia implemented in the process of forest and wood products certification until now, as well as the problems and challenges the companies in this process face. Based on research results, future development of the market of certified wood products in Serbia was assessed and the proposal of measures which should be realized in order for Serbia to become a country whose companies will be ready for the moment when provisions and measures of the new EU legislation become effective was given. The selection of the abovementioned objective was conditioned by the fact that from January 1st, 2013 new legislation takes effect, with significantly stricter terms for the placement of wood and wood products from other countries on this market. One of the conditions which will have to be fulfilled by the companies wishing to export their products on this market refers to proving their origin. Since the EU is the most significant market for wood products exported from Serbia, fulfillment of the stated and other terms from the new EU legislation is of great importance to Serbian companies. Until the beginning of September 2010, only 387,000 ha were certified, namely 17.2% of the total area under forests. In the same period, only 33 wood processing companies in Serbia possessed CoC certificates for their products. Such a small number of companies possessing certificates for their wood products compared to competitive neighboring countries can represent a serious limitation in achieving their satisfactory competitiveness on the EU market in the following period.

  8. 国内肿瘤专科护士发展现状%Current Situation of Oncology Nurse Specialist in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成琴琴; 谌永毅

    2014-01-01

    专科护士是护理事业中的高级护理人才,肿瘤专科护士的发展在我国刚刚起步,其发展符合卫生保健事业的需求,也给临床肿瘤科护士在专业上的发展展示了一个全新的领域。本文从肿瘤专科护士的定义、培训对象资格、培训模式、认证与再认证及岗位设置等方面对我国肿瘤专科护士的发展现状进行综述,为确定适合我国国情的肿瘤专科护士发展方向提供参考。%Nurse specialists are senior nursing talents in nursing career. The development of oncology nurse specialists in our country is still at the starting stage. It conforms to the need of health care service,and it shows a brand-new field for the professional development of clinical oncology nurses. This article is a review of the current situation of oncology nurses specialist in China from perspectives of oncology nurses specialist definition,qualifications of training objects,training model,certification and recertification,and post setting. This review aims to provide reference for the development of oncology nurse specialists which meets the situation of our country.

  9. Clinical and experimental studies on polyherbal formulations for diabetes:current status and future prospective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmad Ghorbani

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. There is currently an active search for antidiabetic drugs with greater effectiveness with fewer and less adverse side effects. Although numerous individual herbs have been experimentally or clinically reported to possess antidiabetic effects, considerably less research has been conducted on polyherbal compounds. It is believed that herbal compounds containing multiple plant products have synergistic antidiabetic effects and could enhance the desired actions. Several polyherbal formulations have been studied as therapeutic agents in diabetes management. To describe the current state of research on polyherbal compounds in the treatment of diabetes, an extensive review of literature was undertaken on several major databases. This paper presents what is known about the efifcacy of these polyherbal formulations and compare their antidiabetic effects with those of current oral hypoglycemic drugs as reference. The percent decrease in blood glucose, lipids and other biochemical parameters achieved by each product in diabetic animals and patients is reported. Also, the possible mechanisms responsible for hypoglycemic action of polyherbal formulations are discussed.

  10. Current Development Situation and Countermeasures of Northern Shaanxi Sports Tourism Industry%陕北体育产业发展现状与策略应对

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李峰峰; 李世荣

    2011-01-01

    运用经济学原理与方法,从区域经济学视角,探讨了陕北地区体育产业发展的现状、产业结构、社会经济环境、发展对策等方面问题。研究显示:陕北地区体育产业发展水平处于萌动时期,产业发展单一,体育产业资源开发滞后、居民体育消费意识欠缺;陕北体育产业在带动区域经济中还很薄弱,产业结构不合理,耐用消费品消费成为产业的主导;社会经济环境良好,大众体育消费潜力巨大;产业政策缺乏市场调节机制和激励政策的导向作用。基于该地区的基本现状,提出产业发展的应对策略。%This thesis deals with the current Development situation,industrial structure,social economic environment,development countermeasures of Northern Shaanxi sports tourism development with principles and methods of economics in the perspective of regional economics.Study shows:Northern Shaanxi sports tourism development is in the stir period with the aspects of sole structure,lagging-behind sports tourism resources and sports consumption awareness lacking;Northern Shaanxi sports tourism is weak in leading the regional economy with the aspects of irrational industrial structure and durable consumer goods leading consumption;with favorable socioeconomy environment,popular sports consumption has a great potential;industrial policy lacks market regulation mechanism and supportive policies as a guide.This thesis aims at putting forward to the countermeasures of the industrial development on the basis of the regional current situation.

  11. Situational Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimehaug, Tormod; Helmersberg, Ingunn

    2010-01-01

    Situational Consultation (SC) is presented as a framework for flexible integration of several models and methodologies in consultation practice by choosing an approach adapted to the specific situation. In SC, models and their characteristic role positions are considered interchangeable tools with qualitative differences in strengths and…

  12. Experimental Investigation and Modelling for the Optimisation of Conduction Cooled HTS Hybrid Current Leads for SMES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    It′s important that HTS tapes have lower thermal conductivity and higher transversal resistivity in order to reduce the heat leaks conducted along the tapes and AC losses in the high temperature superconducting system conduction-cooled by GM coolers. This paper presents an experimental investigation into the effects of pure Ag and AgAu alloys sheath materials on the properties of Bi(2223) multifilamentary tapes and the optimisation of conduction-cooled hybrid current leads made from copper and Bi(2223)/Ag or Bi(2223)/AgAu tapes. The thermal conductivity of the tapes were measured by cryogenic steady heat flux method and the resistance was measured by using standard DC four-probe method at low temperature. The results showed that the reduction of thermal conductivity by the addition of Au into the sheath material of Bi(2223) tapes was 650%, 750% and 850% lower than that of pure Ag sheathed Bi(2223) tapes and the increase of resistivity was 4.9, 10 and 19.4 times higher than that of pure Ag for the addition of 2.20%, 5.70% and 10.70%Au(atom ratio) respectively. And the study also attempts to optimise thermodynamically the conduction-cooled hybrid current lead by using a developed model, which took the irreversibility of commercial GM coolers, the contact resistance and thermal conductance into account. Predictions from the model showed that AgAu alloys were suitable candidate materials to replace Ag as sheath material of Bi(2223) tapes applied in HTS current leads. In addition, Bi(2223)/AgAu was a suitable material to be applied as the HTS section of hybrid current leads in conduction-cooled superconducting electric systems.

  13. Experimental Study on Vortex-Induced Vibrations of Submarine Pipeline near Seabed Boundary in Ocean Currents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Unlike most previous studies on vortex-induced vibrations of a cylinder far from a boundary, this paper focuses on the influences of close proximity of a submarine pipeline to a rigid seabed boundary upon the dynamic responses of the pipeline in ocean currents. The effects of gap-to-diameter ratio and those of the stability parameter on the amplitude and frequency responses of a pipeline are investigated experimentally with a novel hydro-elastic facility. A comparison is made between the present experimental results of the amplitude and frequency responses for the pipes with seabed boundary effects and those for wall-free cylinders given by Govardhan and Williamson (2000) and Anand (1985). The comparison shows that the close proximity of a pipeline to seabed has much influence on the vortex-induced vibrations of the pipeline. Both the width of the lock-in ranges in terms of Vr and the dimensionless amplitude ratio Amax/D become larger with the decrease of the gap-to-diameter ratio e/D. Moreover, the vibration of the pipeline becomes easier to occur and its amplitude response becomes more intensive with the decrease of the stability parameter, while the pipeline frequency responses are affected slightly by the stability parameter.

  14. Experimental pain processing in individuals with cognitive impairment: current state of the science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrin, Ruth; Amanzio, Martina; de Tommaso, Marina; Dimova, Violeta; Filipovic, Sasa; Finn, David P; Gimenez-Llort, Lydia; Invitto, Sara; Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Lautenbacher, Stefan; Oosterman, Joukje M; Petrini, Laura; Pick, Chaim G; Pickering, Gisele; Vase, Lene; Kunz, Miriam

    2015-08-01

    Cognitive impairment (CI) can develop during the course of ageing and is a feature of many neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Many individuals with CI have substantial, sustained, and complex health care needs, which frequently include pain. However, individuals with CI can have difficulty communicating the features of their pain to others, which in turn presents a significant challenge for effective diagnosis and treatment of their pain. Herein, we review the literature on responsivity of individuals with CI to experimental pain stimuli. We discuss pain responding across a large number of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders in which CI is typically present. Overall, the existing data suggest that pain processing is altered in most individuals with CI compared with cognitively intact matched controls. The precise nature of these alterations varies with the type of CI (or associated clinical condition) and may also depend on the type of pain stimulation used and the type of pain responses assessed. Nevertheless, it is clear that regardless of the etiology of CI, patients do feel noxious stimuli, with more evidence for hypersensitivity than hyposensitivity to these stimuli compared with cognitively unimpaired individuals. Our current understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning these alterations is limited but may be enhanced through the use of animal models of CI, which also exhibit alterations in nociceptive responding. Further research using additional behavioural indices of pain is warranted. Increased understanding of altered experimental pain processing in CI will facilitate the development of improved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for pain in individuals with CI.

  15. Current situation and development trend of zirconium and zirconium alloys%核级锆及锆合金研究状况及发展前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峰; 王快社; 马林生; 张兵; 孔亮; 林兆霞

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear properties of zirconium and zirconium alloys are briefly described. The preparation methods of sponge zirconium are indicated. The current situation of zirconium alloys process technology in smelting, plastic working and welding is introduced. The corrosion resisting property and hydrogen absorption property of zirconium alloys are described in detail. It is pointed that the study of hydrogen absorption and corrosion mechanism is a long-term and concerned problem. The development trend of zirconium and zirconium alloys is narrated.%简要介绍锆及锆合金的核性能,海绵锆的制备方法,并与所述制备方法进行比较;从熔炼、塑性加工和焊接等方面综述锆合金加工技术的现状.详细描述锆合金的耐腐蚀性能和吸氢性能,指出吸氢问题和腐蚀机理的研究是一个长期关注的问题;同时对锆及锆合金的发展趋势进行了展望.

  16. Analysis of the Current Situation of Orienteering in Yunnan Province%云南省定向运动发展现状浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐绍文

    2013-01-01

    Using the method of literature, Investigation and interview, Analyzes the current development of directional movement in recent years in Yunnan province .The analysis shows that the lack of guidance policy of Yunnan province orienteering, Coaches level is low, Lack of equipment and unified teaching materials in primary and secondary schools, the penetration rate is low, The athletes talent shortage. Put forward six suggestions according to the present situation of Yunnan province Orienteering development problem.%运用文献资料法、调查访谈法,分析了云南省近几年定向运动的发展现状。分析得出云南省定向运动的指导政策缺失,教练员水平偏低、缺乏设备和统一的教材、中小学定向运动普及率低、运动员人才匮乏。根据云南省定向运动开展的现状的问题提出四点建议。

  17. Current Situation and Its Countermeasure Study for Water Resources in Hengshui City%衡水水资源现状及对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安国庆

    2013-01-01

    在对衡水市水资源开发利用现状进行分析的基础上,总结衡水水资源的特点,分析开发利用过程中存在的问题,提出必须建立以“节流为先,治污为本,多渠道开源”的新战略;并提出从宏观和微观方面两方面优化配置水资源,改善衡水生态环境,达到水资源可持续开发利用的目的。%Based on analysis of current utilization situation of water resources in Hengshui, this article has concluded the characteristics of water resources of the city, analyzed the problems occurred during its development and utilization, and put forward a new strategy "to take reducing-water-consumptionaspriority,totakepollution-treatmentasbasicprinciple,totapnew sourcesofsupplyinmulti-channel".Thepaperputsfor-ward the optimal allocation of water resources from macroscopic view and microscopic view to improve eco-environment of Hengshui, and a-chieves the purpose of sustainable development and utilization of water resources.

  18. Currently Situation, Some Cases and Implications of the Legislation on Access and Benefit-sharing to Biologi cal Genetic Resource in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yi-ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Australia is one of the most abundant in biodiversity country of the global which located in Oceanian and became a signatory coun try of the Convention on Biodiversity, International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resource for Food and Agriculture, Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. This country stipulated the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act(EPBC, 1999 and Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Regulations, 2002. Queensland and the North Territory passed the Bio-discovery Act in 2004 and Biological Resource Act in 2006 separately. This paper firstly focus on current situation, characteristic of the legislation on ac cess and benefit-sharing to biological resource in the commonwealth and local place in Australia and then collected and analyzed the typical case of access and benefit-sharing in this country that could bring some experience to China in this field. The conclusion of this paper is that China should stipulated the specific legislation on access and benefit-sharing to biological genetic resource as like the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act(EPBC, 1999 and establish the rule of procedure related to the access and benefit-sharing as like the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Regulations, 2002, Bio-discovery Act in 2004, Queensland and the Biological Resource Act in 2006, the North Territory.

  19. On the Current Situation of Chinese Book Publishing Industrial Structure%我国图书出版产业结构状况研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代周阳

    2013-01-01

    Healthy development of the industry rests with that the Industrial structure is reasonable or not, systematically teasing the history and current situation of our book publishing industrial structure is helpful for us to clarify the problems in our publishing industrial structure, and determine the direction of industrial structure adjustment. At present, some problems, such as the unreasonable regional distribution and product structure, too low industrial concentration, still exist in China's publishing industry structure, finding the way to solve these problems has important significance for promoting rapidly the book publishing industry development.%产业结构的合理与否关系到产业能否健康发展。系统地梳理我国图书出版产业结构的历史与现状,有助于明确我国当前出版产业结构中存在的问题,从而确定产业结构的调整方向。当前,我国图书出版产业结构中还存在区域分布不合理、产品结构失调、产业集中度过低等问题,探讨解决这些问题的突破点对于促进图书出版产业的健康快速发展具有重要意义。

  20. The International Labour Standard and Our National Current Situation%国际劳动标准与我国执行现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈盼盼

    2014-01-01

    The article will discuss about the current situation in five core standards for workers from the perspective of origin and development of the international workers ’ convention , including abolishment of slave labor, freedom of gathering , organizing the trade union , collective bargaining right , abolishment of exploiting young workers , and eliminating of occupation discrimination .The article will also talk about the challenges we are facing up to in the process of implementing the international standard for workers as a developing and labor intensive country and discuss on some countermeasures and advice .%本文从国际劳工公约的由来与发展出发,分别从立法层面与执行层面分析我国在五项核心劳工标准中的现状,其中包括废除强迫劳动、结社自由、组织工会和集体谈判权、消除剥削童工、消除就业歧视。通过对现状的分析,指出作为发展中国家、劳动密集型、以贴牌制造生产为主的中国在执行国际劳工标准上所面临的挑战,以及应对挑战的对策建议。

  1. Investigation on current situation of advanced schistosomiasis in Tongcheng City, Anhui Province%2010年桐城市晚期血吸虫病现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江龙志; 徐辉; 魏强

    2012-01-01

    2010年对桐城市晚期血吸虫病(晚血)分布现状进行调查,共确诊205例晚血,全市推算患病率为0.027%.病例主要分布在传播阻断村(67.32%),50~岁年龄组患者占97.07%,文盲和小学文化程度者占95.61%,92.20%的患者接受过病原学治疗.%This paper describes the investigation on the current situation and characteristics of advanced schistosomiasis in Tongcheng City,Anhui Province. There were 205 cases of advanced schislosomiasis with the estimated prevalence of 0.027% in the city. Most of advance schistosomiasis patients (67.32%) distributed in schistosomiasis transmission interrupted areas,97.07% of them were over 50 years old,95.61% of them were illiteracy and persons with low education level (primary school education),and 92.20% of them received anti-schistosomiasis treatment.

  2. The Current Situation of Healthcare Industry%浅谈医疗健康气体产业的发展现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴福莉

    2016-01-01

    简述了国内外医疗健康气体产业的发展现状。重点针对国外大型工业气体公司在医疗健康产业的发展,从医用气体产品、医用气体供给模式和相关服务三个方面,进行了较为详细的阐述。提出了医疗健康产业在我国及浙江省将迎来发展新契机,并将成为今后我国大型工业气体生产企业扩大业务领域的新重地。%The current situation of healthcare industry in the world is described. Especially the development of healthcare industry in the large-scale industrial gas enterprises in foreign countries is indicated from three aspects of ( medical gas products, supply modes and services) . There will be new opportunities for the development of healthcare industry in Zhe-jiang province and even China. The healthcare industry will become the important field that the large-scale industrial gas enterprises expand the business market in the future.

  3. 中国MOOC发展现状与瓶颈研究%Research on the Current Situation and Bottlenecks of MOOC Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶

    2016-01-01

    本文主要针对我国MOOC发展的现状和瓶颈进行分析研究,重点介绍了MOOC平台建设、SPOC模式应用以及专业技能教育MOOC的发展,从MOOC交流工具、学习成果认证、可持续发展三个方面对MOOC的瓶颈进行研究并提出建议,期望对今后MOOC更好的发展提供帮助。%This paper mainly analyzed and studied the current situation and bottlenecks of MOOC develop⁃ment in our country, focused on the introduction of MOOC platform establishment, SPOC mode application and the development of professional skills education MOOC, and studied MOOC bottlenecks from three aspects of MOOC communication tools, certification of learning outcomes, and sustainable development and put forward suggestions, hoping to provide assistance for the better development of MOOC in the future.

  4. Choral Conducting Studies and Tools Required for the Development of Children´s Choirs. Current Situation in Costa Rica and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernando Chaves-Cordero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative research seeks to understand the current situation of choral conducting studies in Costa Rica and Spain, emphasizing on the tools required to work with children´s choirs. The curriculum of choral conducting careers at the Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica and the Real Conservatorio Superior de Música de Madrid was studied by means of an analysis of documents and an analytic comparison with the SWOT method. The study of plans primarily focused on subjects related to pedagogy and singing as essential foundations in the specific area of children’s choirs. Additionally, an analysis of interviews to choral directors from both countries visualized the experiences of directors in their performance with children´s choirs, what skills were acquired in their undergraduate education, as well their perception of what should change or adjust in the curriculum. Significant shortcomings were perceived in teacher’s training in relation with the subjects of the career. A strengthening with more contents in teaching methodologies and pedagogical resources was suggested.

  5. Research on current development situation of the rural finance of Jilin province%吉林省农村金融发展现状研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑美江

    2012-01-01

    本文以2007年中国银监会实施调整后的农村金融政策为界点,阐述2007年以来吉林省农村地区各类涉农金融机构发展现状,分析各类涉农金融机构当前存在的问题,并对存在的问题提出相应的发展对策,以期通过浅显的研究,对吉林省农村金融业的发展提供一些有益参考。%According to the singularity for rural financial policy which is adjusted by the China banking regulatory commission in 2007, this paper stresses the present situation of rural financial institutions of all kinds of agricultural development in Jilin province since 2007 and analyze the current existing problems of all kinds of agricultural financial institutions, and put forward the corresponding development countermeasure to the existing problem in order to promote some useful references to the development of the rural financial industry in Jilin province.

  6. Analysis and Research on the Current Situation of Ningxia Foreign Talents Introduction Work%宁夏引进国外智力现状分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆海彬; 高蔚丰

    2015-01-01

    自治区党委、政府高度重视人才工作,不断创新、完善人才开发政策和机制,营造出良好的育才、引才、聚才、用才环境。本文从宁夏引智工作现状出发,根据我区实际状况,探析宁夏引智工作在新的历史阶段如何把握机遇,提出对策研究,旨在为政府部门决策提供参考依据。%The Party Committee and Government of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region attach great importance to human resources work. By adopting a series of measures on innovating and improving human resource development policies and mechanisms, the Party Committee and Government aim to create a good environment for talents cultivation, introduction, converging and utilization. This paper based on the current situation of Ningxia development and its talents-introducing work, intends to investigate and analyze the way for Ningxia talents-introducing work to seize opportunities in new historical period and to propose countermeasures for providing a reference for government decision-making.

  7. 产科盆底疾病诊治现状和措施%Diagnosis and treatment current situation and measures of obstetric pelvic floor diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李薇薇

    2016-01-01

    目的:产科盆底疾病主要包括产后盆底功能性障碍和产后盆底损伤性疾病。研究分析产科盆底疾病诊治现状和措施,不断寻找可行的康复盆底疾病措施和新技术手段等,以提升对产科盆底疾病的诊治水平及完善有效治疗的措施。%Pelvic floor diseases mainly include postpartum pelvic floor dysfunction and postpartum pelvic floor injury disease. We research and analyze the diagnosis and treatment current situation and measures of obstetric pelvic floor diseases,continue to search for feasible pelvic floor disorders rehabilitation measures and new technology means to improve the level of diagnosis and treatment of obstetrical pelvic floor disorders and improve the effective treatment measures.

  8. 桥梁资产管理技术研究现状探讨%Discussion on the research current situation of bridge asset management technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐颖

    2015-01-01

    从桥梁信息管理、检测与健康状况评价、桥梁资产管理可视化等方面对国内外桥梁资产管理系统的研究现状进行了概括,归纳了桥梁资产管理的相关概念、配套技术、应用现状,以期为国内桥梁资产管理研究的进一步发展和完善提供参考和借鉴。%This paper summarized the research current situation of bridge asset management system at domestic and foreign from the bridge infor-mation management,detection and health condition evaluation,bridge asset management visualization and other aspects,induced the related con-cept,technical support,application status of bridge asset management,in order to provide reference for further development and improvement of domestic bridge asset management research.

  9. 中国毛皮产业发展历程与现状分析%Analysis of Development History and Current Situation of Fur Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑策; 张旭; 全颖; 凌立莹; 刘彦

    2013-01-01

    Chinese fur industry has a long history ,especially after the founding of New China .The Chinese fur industry has been developing rapidly ,China now has become the world's leading fur raw materials and fur products processing Country ,depending on the stage characteris-tics ,the fur industry can be divided into three times ,the paper elaborated on the development characteristics of different periods ,the policy envi-ronment and other issues ,and analyzes the current situation and problems of China's fur industry are facing .%中国毛皮产业历史悠久,尤其新中国成立以后,产业发展迅速,目前已成为世界上最主要的毛皮原料产地和毛皮产品加工地,根据发展速度、规模、方式的不同,将毛皮产业发展大体分为3个时期,详细阐述了不同时期的发展特点、政策环境等问题,并分析了中国毛皮产业的现状及存在的问题。

  10. 网络信息公正问题的研究现状及展望%A Research on Current Situation and Prospect of Network Information Justice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志强; 戴艳军

    2012-01-01

    As an inter-discipline between network ethics and information ethics, network information ethics draws more and more attention of scholars, and more monographic studies about it have appeared, among which the study of justice in the field of network information ethics is an important aspect. This paper sums up the present situation of network information justice, presents a prospect, and then gives some advice for the current study of applied ethics discipline, which is of great importance to some disciplines such as network ethics and information ethics.%当前,作为网络伦理和信息伦理交叉领域的网络信息伦理得到学者们越来越多的关注,也出现越来越多的专题研究,网络信息公正问题的研究就是其中一个重要方面。本文综述了该研究领域的发展现状并对未来的发展前景做出展望,提出该研究领域研究需要注意的一些问题,对于完善网络伦理学和信息伦理学等都具有重要意义。

  11. Countermeasures and Current Situation of College Students' Sports Nutrition%高校大学生运动营养现状与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李倩

    2012-01-01

    运用问卷调查法、数理统计法和逻辑分析法对部分高校学生的运动营养应用现状进行调查,结果显示,当前大学生在体育锻炼与营养结合方面缺乏科学指导,健康意识淡薄,针对高校学生在运动与营养方面存在的问题,提出相应的解决措施,这对于增强大学生体质健康、促进大学生全面发展具有重要的现实意义。%It gives a research on the current situation of college students' sports nutrition by questionnaire investigation, mathematical statistics and logical analysis. The results show that students are short of scientific guidance in physical exercise and nutrition. To solve the problems of college students' sports nutrition, the paper putforward corresponding settlement measure, which has important and realistic meaning to strengthen the college students' physical health and promote students' overall development.

  12. 城市屋顶菜园发展现状%Current Situation of the Development of Urban Roof Vegetable Garden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭建萍; 徐志平

    2015-01-01

    指出了城市屋顶菜园是屋顶花园发展到一定阶段的产物,城市屋顶菜园作为屋顶花园最具农业生产气息的一种方式,在城市有其发展的必然性。通过描述屋顶菜园的产生,分析了国内屋顶菜园的发展必然性,论述了国内外城市屋顶菜园发展现状及发展前景,以期为城市屋顶菜园的推广和发展提供理论依据。%The urban roof vegetable garden is the product of the development of roof garden at a certain stage .The urban roof vegetable garden ,which is of the most agricultural production style in roof garden ,has the inevitability of its development in the city .Through the description of the generation of urban roof vegetable garden ,the analysis of its inevitability ,the discussion of the current situation and the brief introduction of its prospects ,this article aims to provide theoretical references for the promotion and development of urban roof vegetable garden .

  13. 五莲县山洪灾害现状、成因及对策%Current Situation, Causes and Countermeasures of Flash Flood Disaster in Wulian County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱秀红

    2011-01-01

    According to the analysis of the current situation of flash flood disaster in Wulian county of Shandong province, the author pointed out 5 main factors causing the flash flood disaster, including high rainfall intensity, the special high mountains and steep slopes in mountainous area, imperfection of forecasting and early warning systems, weak defense engineering and human factors. It also put forward some feasible countermeasures, such as general investigation of flash flood losses, designating the disaster zone, determining early warning indicators, constructing monitoring system and making pre -arranged plan and so on.%通过分析山东省五莲县山洪灾害现状,找出引起山洪灾害的5种主要原因,包括降水强度大,山区特有的山高坡陡地形地貌,预测、预报、预警系统不完善,防御工程薄弱,人为因素等,并提出了普查山洪灾害损失、划定灾害区划、确定预警指标、建设监测系统、编制预案等可行对策.

  14. 围绝经期睡眠障碍的研究现状%Current Situation on Sleep Disorders in Menopausal Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何爱先; 方芳

    2013-01-01

    睡眠障碍是女性围绝经期主要的临床症状之一,表现为入睡困难、睡中易醒、早醒等,严重影响患者的身心健康和生活质量。围绝经期睡眠障碍的发生可由激素水平改变,血管舒缩症状,情绪障碍及患者本身的疾病状态等因素引起。笔者结合近年来相关文献报道,对围绝经期睡眠障碍的诱导因素和治疗现状进行了综述。%Sleep disorders are main clinical symptoms in perimenopausal women. The symptoms are difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep, early morning awakening and so on. These sleep problems had made serious im-pacts on the quality of women's life during menopausal periods. Menopausal sleep disorders can be caused by changes of serum estrogen levels, vasomotor symptoms, mood disorders and patient's state of disease. This paper presented an overview of inducing factors and current situation of menopausal disorder treatment.

  15. Reflection on Physician Teaching Management under Current Situation of Clinical Teaching%临床带教现状及医师教学管理的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于萍

    2014-01-01

    基于临床带教教、学、管的现状,提出医师从教一方面应实行带教准入制度化、带教相对独立制,另一方面要重视自身通识教育、加强“发现学习”模式运用、尊重学生学习权,以更好地提高临床带教质量。%Viewing about the current situation of teaching , learning and the management of clinical teach-ing, the author put forward the institutionalized teaching access system and related independent teaching system that ought to be practiced.In order to promote the quality of clinical teaching , the author also calls for doctors who are engaged in education activities should attach the importance of their own general education , strengthen the use of teaching mode of “Discovery learning” and respect the learning right of students .

  16. Educación en medios de comunicación en Alemania: desarrollo y situación actual Media education in Germany: development and current situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Tulodziecki

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza de las diferentes tendencias y del estado actual de la enseñanza de los medios de comunicación en la República Federal de Alemania. La educación en medios de comunicación en Alemania se centra en la actualidad en el debate sobre cómo usar esa gran variedad de medios que tenemos a nuestra disposición, con unos fines verdaderamente educativos y fundamentados metodológicamente. Se observa, en relación a este tema, que hay no sólo diferentes ideas conceptuales, sino también diferentes proyectos de investigación y desarrollo, que se ocupan principalmente de las aplicaciones prácticas y de un acercamiento a los colegios, a los programas de formación del profesorado y a otros contextos educativos. This paper analyses the different trends in the current situation of media education in Germany. The discussion point is how to use the large variety of media we have in order to get really educative aims with a scientific basis. The German media education landscape shows not only a lot of different concepts but also a large number of projects on teacher training, school approaching and practical applications.

  17. 冷链物流发展现状及关键技术分析%Analysis of Current Situation of Cold Chain Logistics and Key Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆大伟

    2011-01-01

    The rapid progress of cold chain logistics can play a very important role in solving some problems in the area of agriculture such as the contradiction of supply and demand, high cost of circulate and serious waste. Firstly, this article analyzes the current situation of cold chain logistics in China; secondly the author put a point in the key technology in cold chain logistics; last it give the trend of the technology of cold chain logistics.%大力发展冷链物流是有效解决当前农产品供需矛盾突出、流通成本高、浪费严重等问题的重要手段。针对冷链物流发展现状进行了理性分析,进而针对冷链物流发展中的关键技术进行了解析,最后提出了冷链物流技术发展的趋势。

  18. Analysis of Current Situation and Countermeasures of Hospital Human Re-source Management%医院人力资源管理现状及对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎芳玲

    2015-01-01

    医院属于重要的医疗服务机构,能够为患者提供各类医疗与护理服务,医院的正常运营需要大量的人力资源,构建完善的人力资源管理体系成为医院的重要任务之一. 医院的医技人员、护理人员、档案管理人员等数量众多,共同组成了医院这个大环境. 本文就医院人力资源管理现状及对策进行了分析与探究.%Hospital is an important medical service organization,can provide all kinds of medical and nursing services,the hospital's normal operation needs a lot of human resources,build a perfect human resource management system to become one of the important tasks of the hospital.The hospital medical staff,nurses,archives management personnel number,composed of the hospital environment. This paper analyzes and explores the current situation and Countermeasures of human resource management in hospitals.

  19. 儿科急诊现状和规范化建设%Current situation and standardization of pediatric emergency system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李璧如; 王莹

    2012-01-01

    分析儿科急诊发展现状及儿科急诊医疗服务体系;阐述儿科急诊配置和人员、急诊医护人员应该掌握的技术、预检分诊系统、急性疾病和创伤儿童的服务流程及急症与危重症疾病诊治流程;提出对儿科急诊建设发展模式的建议和思考.%The current situation of pediatric emergency medicine and the pediatric emergency medical service systems were analyzed.The equipment configuration,personnel allocation and the requirement of professional knowledge and technology in pediatric emergency setting,the triage system,the process of medical services for patients with acute illness or trauma,and the optimizing process of diagnosis and treatment for emergency cases and critical cases were discussed.The nationwide development model of pediatric emergency service systems were reviewed.

  20. 民族传统体育的当代遭遇与传承发展%Current Situation, Inheritance and Development of National Traditional Sports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉文

    2012-01-01

    采用文献资料研究法,以文化学理论为支撑,从文化发展的视角探讨民族传统体育在当今传承与发展上的一些问题,发现民族传统体育正遭遇外来体育冲击、文化休克、缺乏文化认同等严峻问题.根据民族传统体育的特征与当今社会的情况,提出利用或者借助非物质文化遗产保护、学校体育与民族运动会等方式来传承与发展民族传统体育.%Based on culturology, this paper aims to study the current situation,inheritance and development of the national traditional sports from the cultural development perspective by document literature. The research results show that the national tradition sports is now experiencing the impact from foreign countries and cultural shock, lack of cultural identity and other rigorous issues. Based on the features of national tradition sports and social issues at present, this study proposes to use or draw support from intangible cultural heritage protection,school sports,national sports meetings and other ways or platforms to inherit and develop the national traditional sports.

  1. The Current Situation and Strategies of Enterprise Succession in Dongguan Family Business%东莞家族企业继任现状及策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 刘永安

    2014-01-01

    The enterprise succession has become a prominent issue in Dongguang family business .Based on the current sit-uation of enterprise succession , the paper points out three Strategies must be implemented in Dongguang family business .%继任问题是东莞家族企业可持续发展必须面对的挑战。本文在对东莞家族企业继任问题的现状进行分析的基础上,提出了东莞家族企业必须重视家族企业继任问题,制定家族企业接班人计划;根据自身特点,选择符合企业永续发展的继任模式;采取各种方式对继任者进行培育,全面提升继任者素质等策略。

  2. Investigation on Current Situation of Middle School Students’ Morning Exercise in Shantou City%汕头市中学生晨练现状调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王腊姣; 卢刚

    2014-01-01

    This paper made an investigation and study of the current situation about students ’ morning exercise in 11 middle schools in Shantou city by means of questionnaire survey , comparative analysis and mathematical statis-tics, analyzed the secondary students ’ perspective, preference, ways, motivation, place and content, restrictive factors and common misconceptions of morning exercises , discussed the positive and negative factors for the devel-opment of students ’ morning exercises in secondary schools in Shantou , and finally proposed the corresponding countermeasure and suggestion .%本文通过问卷调查法、比较分析法及数理统计法等对汕头市11所学校的中学生晨练现状进行了调查研究,分析了中学生晨练的认知态度、情绪体验、组织形式、动机类型、晨练地点与内容、晨练的制约因素以及晨练中的常见误区,探讨了汕头市中学生晨练活动发展的积极因素和不利因素,并提出相应的有益于中学生晨练活动开展的对策和建议。

  3. 自闭症儿童康复困境分析%Current Situations and Strategies of Autistic Children’s Rehabilitation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐云; 杨健; 季灵芝; 许丹; 王永固

    2014-01-01

    自闭症患病率在全球大幅上升,原因不明,目前没有特效方法治愈。我国自闭症儿童康复领域面临康复政策与法律不健全、人才匮乏、机构建设不规范及管理混乱、康复技术与方法参差不齐等困境,因此,加强顶层设计把自闭症儿童康复纳入国家计划,专门立法、配备专项资金,组织制定行业规范和康复机构及康复人员的认证标准,加强康复人员培训及提供家庭支持等均是推进自闭症儿童康复事业发展的有效措施。%The prevalence rate of autism has increased significantly worldwide. But its causation is still unknown, and there is no specific method to cure. The demand for autism rehabilitation is extremely urgent and the task is very difficult. This paper mainly discussed the current situation of the autistic children’s rehabilitation and the plight of developing. It then put forward strategies for the development of the rehabilitation of autistic children in China.

  4. 天然气计量检定技术现状及进展%Current Situation and Development of the Natural Gas Metrological Verification Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵士海; 刘博韬

    2015-01-01

    With the continual increase of requirement of natural gas and global development of natural gas trade, the accuracy of natural gas flow rate measurement attracts more and more attention from the supply and demand sides. In this paper, the current technology situation and development trend of orifice-plate flowmeter, ultrasonic flowmeter and turbine flowmeter were reviewed. Development of the natural gas metrological verification technology used for measurement tracing at home and abroad was also analyzed.%随着天然气需求量的不断增加和天然气贸易的全球化发展,供求双方越来越重视天然气流量计量的准确性。重点论述了广泛应用于天然气流量计量的孔板流量计、超声流量计、涡轮流量计的技术现状和发展趋势,以及国内外用于流量计量值溯源的天然气计量检定站技术的进展情况。

  5. Current situation of nursing education internationalization in Europe and China%欧洲及我国护理教育国际化发展现况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘霖; 姜安丽

    2014-01-01

    为应对政治、经济、教育的全球化发展,欧洲推行一体化高等教育发展政策。本文综述了在该政策的影响下,欧洲多国及护理组织所开展的护理教育一体化发展策略,并对我国高等护理教育国际化发展现况作一阐述,思考国外高等护理教育国际化发展策略对我国的启示。%In the context of globalization of politics, economy and education, European countries adopted the policies of developing integrated higher education. This article reviewed the strategies of nursing education internationalization in European countries and nursing organizations;and described the current situation of higher nursing education internationalization in China;and then discussed the enlightenment of the strategies of higher nursing education internationalization in foreign countries to the nursing education in China.

  6. 林木采伐头的发展历程及现状研究%Development Process and Current Situation of Forestry Harvester Head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲帅; 刘晋浩

    2016-01-01

    M ulti‐function harvester is the best harvesting machinery ,as the key component of the harvester ,the design of harvester head directly determines the performance of harvesting machinery .This article reviews the development course and current situation of harvester head at home and abroad ,introduces the development technology and characteristics of harvester head in different periods ;finds out the gap in harvester head technique between our country and developed country ;and points out the development trend of harvester head .%多功能联合采伐机是当前性能最好的采伐机械,而作为采伐机的关键部件,采伐头的设计直接决定了采伐机械的性能。综述了国内外采伐头的发展历程与现状,介绍了不同时期的采伐头发展技术、特点及其优缺点;通过国内外发展对比看出我国采伐头技术与国际先进技术之间的差距所在;并指出采伐头的发展趋势。

  7. 我国"讲授法"的研究现状及趋势分析%Current Situation and Tendency Analysis of Lecture Method Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李孝诚; 刘兆丽

    2015-01-01

    利用文献计量法和文本分析法对2001年以来国内关于讲授法的研究文献进行了定量和定性分析. 关于讲授法的理论和实践研究表明,讲授法是一种发展的、有层次的、可行的教学方法,但需要教师有效实施. 同时,讲授法研究也存在学科特征不明显、研究方法思辨多于实证、研究水平参差不齐等不足.%The current situation and developing trend of Lecture method since 2001 are analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by means of the bibliometric method and content analysis method in the paper.The theoretical and practical research shows that lecture method is a progressive, hierarchical and feasible teaching method, but the good results of lecture method need teachers' effective implementation.Meanwhile, there are some problems in lecture method research, such as discipline feature is not obvious, speculative methods are more than empirical methods, and research levels are uneven etc.

  8. The current research situation of the assessment tools of delirium%谵妄评估工具的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖金敏; 王希林

    2012-01-01

    Scales play an important role in clinical research of delirium. In addition to being used for screening diagnosis, scales are also used for assessment of clinical features, treatment effect and prognosis. In this article, we introduced scales used for assessment of delirium and reviewed the current situation of research on such scales, including Confusion Assessment Method, Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale, Delirium Rating Scale, Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98, Cognitive Test for Delirium and the Delirium Motor Subtype Scale.%量表评估对谵妄的临床研究十分重要,除筛查诊断外,还可用于评定谵妄的临床特征、治疗效果及其预后.本文介绍了专门用于评估谵妄的量表,并对评估工具的研究现状进行了回顾.包括意识模糊评定量表、记忆谵妄评定量表、谵妄评定量表、谵妄评定量表-98修订版、谵妄认知功能测查量表、谵妄运动亚型分型量表.

  9. Analysis on Current Situation and Countermeasures of Construction of College English Corner%浅析高校英语角建设的现状及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翔

    2014-01-01

    English Corner enjoyed great popularity at the beginning of its establishment for the reason that it enables students to get rid of the constraint of the traditional English teaching, communicate with foreign teachers, students and Chinese English teachers face to face, practice their spoken English, improve their practical English proficiency and develop cross-cultural communication perspective. Due to the issues such as organization and content, however, English Corner is gradually declining. This paper aims at analyzing the current situation of the construction of college English Corner, and putting forward corresponding constructive countermeasures.%英语角使学生摆脱传统英语教学的束缚,与外籍教师、留学生和中国英语教师面对面交流,锻炼英语口语水平,提高英语实际运用能力,开拓跨文化交际视野,在建立之初广受欢迎。但由于组织及内容等问题,英语角逐渐走向衰落。本文拟分析高校英语角建设所处的现状,并就相应问题提出建设性对策。

  10. 欧美孤儿药的研究与开发现状%Current situation of orphan drug research and development in the Europe and America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田圆圆; 张象麟; 董江萍

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzed the current situation of the orphan drug development in the Europe and A-merica. There are many difficulties in orphan drug research and development; however, current regulations, stimulating measures and other opportunity give the orphan drug impetus to develop, and promote the treatment of the patients with rare diseases. In fact, the perfect policies and reasonable measures of the government can solve the barriers of the orphan drug and ensure availability of new treatment to patients. The successful experience of orphan drug development in Europe and America can contribute to the establishment of the orphan drug management policies in China.%文中对欧美孤儿药开发现状进行了分析.孤儿药研发尽管面临众多困难,但在欧美孤儿药现有制度法规、优惠措施及其他机遇的推动下,取得了较好的成果,促进了对罕见病患者的医疗救治.事实证明,政府完善的政策和采取合理的措施和方法,可解决当前孤儿药研发面临的诸多障碍,保证患者对新治疗方法的可获得性.欧美孤儿药的研发成功经验可为我国孤儿药管理政策和制度的建立提供一定的借鉴.

  11. 海洋可再生能源发电现状与发展趋势%Current Situation and Development of Marine Renewable Energy Power Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵伟国; 刘玉田; 王伟胜

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid growth of fossil energy consumption, pressure of carbon emission reduction becomes higher, and more attention has been paid to marine renewable energy power generation. Offshore wind energy, tidal energy, tidal current energy, wave energy, ocean thermal energy conversion and salinity gradient energy generation are discussed by taxonomic study. The worldwide resource distributions, developmental trajectories and current status are introduced and analyzed respectively. The obstructions hindering their wide scale exploitation and commercialization are also focused on, then some possible solutions, development trends and prospects are put forward. The severe situation of energy shortage, carbon emission and environmental pollution can be effectively alleviated by marine renewable energy power generation technology.%随着化石能源消耗的迅速增长,低碳减排压力不断增加,海洋可再生能源发电日益受到重视。分类介绍海上风能、潮汐能、潮流能、波浪能、海洋温差能和盐度差能等海洋发电方式资源分布、发展历程和现状,分析海洋可再生能源开发所面临的主要问题,提出相关建议,指出发展趋势和前景。正在迅速发展的海洋可再生能源发电技术,不仅能够缓解能源紧张的现状,更可以有效实现低碳减排和环境保护。

  12. Experimental determination of two-dimensional critical current density distribution in YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amemiya, Naoyuki; Shinkai, Yoshichika [Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama (Japan); Iijima, Yasuhiro; Kakimoto, Kazuomi; Takeda, Kaoru [Materials Research Laboratory, Fujikura Ltd., Kiba, Koto, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-08-01

    The critical current density (J{sub c}) distribution in YBCO coated conductors is attracting interest from the viewpoint of its influence on their AC loss characteristics as well as from material science and process engineering. A two-dimensional J{sub c} distribution in a YBCO coated conductor made by the IBAD (ion-beam assisted deposition) and the PLD (pulse-laser deposition) method can be determined by the magnetic-knife method with spatial resolutions of 0.2 mm lateral and 10 mm longitudinal directions, respectively. In an up-to-date 80A-class YBCO coated conductor, the J{sub c} is relatively uniform in the central part and reaches mbox{l_brace}7$x$10{sup 9} A m{sup -2}, {r_brace} while the J{sub c} fluctuates spatially in the central part of a tape fabricated earlier and with less critical current. Near the edges of the tapes, the J{sub c} is higher or lower than in the central part and the experimentally determined J{sub c} distributions are far from uniform. This suggests that a presumption of a uniform J{sub c} for AC loss estimations is not always reasonable and can lead to a large error in the estimated AC losses. (author)

  13. Experimental and numerical assessment of low-frequency current distributions from UMTS and GSM mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Kühn, Sven; Kuster, Niels

    2013-12-07

    The evaluation of the exposure from mobile communication devices requires consideration of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) over a broad frequency range from dc to GHz. Mobile phones in operation have prominent spectral components in the low-frequency (LF) and radio-frequency (RF) ranges. While the exposure to RF fields from mobile phones has been comprehensively assessed in the past, the LF fields have received much less attention. In this study, LF fields from mobile phones are assessed experimentally and numerically for the global system for mobile (GSM) and universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) communication systems and conclusions about the global (LF and RF) EMF exposure from both systems are drawn. From the measurements of the time-domain magnetic fields, it was found that the contribution from the audio signal at a normal speech level, i.e., -16 dBm0, is the same order of magnitude as the fields induced by the current bursts generated from the implementation of the GSM communication system at maximum RF output level. The B-field induced by currents in phones using the UMTS is two orders of magnitude lower than that induced by GSM. Knowing that the RF exposure from the UMTS is also two orders of magnitude lower than from GSM, it is now possible to state that there is an overall reduction of the exposure from this communication system.

  14. Experimental diabetes induced by alloxan and streptozotocin: The current state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radenković, Miroslav; Stojanović, Marko; Prostran, Milica

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder with a high prevalence worldwide. Animal models of diabetes represent an important tool in diabetes investigation that helps us to avoid unnecessary and ethically challenging studies in human subjects, as well as to obtain a comprehensive scientific viewpoint of this disease. Although there are several methods through which diabetes can be induced, chemical methods of alloxan- and streptozotocin-induced diabetes represent the most important and highly preferable experimental models for this pathological condition. Therefore, the aim of this article was to review the current knowledge related to quoted models of diabetes, including to this point available information about mechanism of action, particular time- and dose-dependent protocols, frequent problems, as well as major limitations linked to laboratory application of alloxan and sterptozotocin in inducing diabetes. Given that diabetes is known to be closely associated with serious health consequences it is of fundamental importance that current animal models for induction of diabetes should be continuously upgraded in order to improve overall prevention, diagnosis and treatment of this pathological condition.

  15. Numerical and experimental study of the interaction between two marine current turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Mycek, Paul; Germain, Grégory; Pinon, Grégory; Rivoalen, Elie

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of interaction effects between marine energy converters represents the next step in the research process that should eventually lead to the deployment of such devices. Although some a priori considerations have been suggested recently, very few real condition studies have been carried out concerning this issue. Trials were run on 1/30th scale models of three-bladed marine current turbine prototypes in a flume tank. The present work focuses on the case where a turbine is placed at different locations in the wake of a first one. The interaction effects in terms of performance and wake of the second turbine are examined and compared to the results obtained on the case of one single turbine. Besides, a three-dimensional software, based on a vortex method is currently being developed, and will be used in the near future to model more complex layouts. The experimental study shows that the second turbine is deeply affected by the presence of an upstream device and that a compromise between individu...

  16. Comparison of experimental and theoretical reaction rail currents, rail voltages, and airgap fields for the linear induction motor research vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, D. G.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of reaction rail currents, reaction rail voltages, and airgap magnetic fields in tests of the Linear Induction Motor Research Vehicle (LIMRV) were compared with theoretical calculations from the mesh/matrix theory. It was found that the rail currents and magnetic fields predicted by the theory are within 20 percent of the measured currents and fields at most motor locations in most of the runs, but differ by as much as a factor of two in some cases. The most consistent difference is a higher experimental than theoretical magnetic field near the entrance of the motor and a lower experimental than theoretical magnetic field near the exit. The observed differences between the theoretical and experimental magnetic fields and currents do not account for the differences of as much as 26 percent between the theoretical and experimental thrusts.

  17. 农村初中生作文现状分析及对策%Current Situation Analysis and Countermeasures of Rural Junior High School Essay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李笔锋

    2014-01-01

    How to teach writing courses have become troubled by the majority of junior high school language teacher cur-rently a major problem, and this situation is even more prominent in rural junior high school. New Curriculum requirements:Students should be close to the actual teaching of writing, so that students easy to write, ask students to tell the truth, the truth, the truth, do not tell lies, empty words, and clichés. How can we do it? For many problems in terms of students' writing, com-bined with years of teaching experience, I believe that rural junior high school teaching writing must recognize the new situ-ation and start to mobilize the enthusiasm of the students' writing from the culture interest in writing, focusing on student life and practice reading accumulation, the use of flexible composition assessment methods in order to effectively improve the level of writing.%如何上好写作课已成为当前困扰广大初中语文老师的一大难题,而这种情况在农村初中更是突出。新课标要求:写作教学要贴近学生实际,让学生易于动笔,要求学生说真话、实话、心里话,不说假话、空话、套话。如何才能做到呢?针对学生写作方面存在的诸多问题,结合多年来的教学实践,笔者认为,农村初中作文教学必须认清新形势,从培养写作兴趣入手来调动学生的写作积极性,注重学生的生活实践和阅读积累,运用灵活多样的作文评改方式,才能切实提高作文水平。

  18. Thinking of the Current Macroeconomic Situation%对我国当前宏观经济形势的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁鸿元

    2012-01-01

    Since 2012, China's economic growth is facing greater downward pressure. Correctly understand and grasp the current economic situation, the new changes in the economic development needs to be on the medium-and long-term economic trends analysis. Recent years, the economic situation changes, and macroeconomic policy direction of short-period adjustment reflects the difficult choices of policy between the three important regulatory goals of growth, structure and price. Deeper level, which is essentially that China's economic development has had a phase of rapid expansion of the scale, must move away from the traditional path dependence, taking a new road to industrialization. Now, the long-term problems of the economic transformation is manifested cycle fluctuations in short-term phenomenon, that short-term macroeconomic contradiction between supply and demand changes and the direction of the transformation of the macro-economic control, in fact reflect the stage of China's economic development and the development of way of being, and must undergo significant changes.%2012年以来,我国经济增长面临较大下行压力。正确认识和把握当前经济形势,需要将经济发展的新变化放到中长期经济发展趋势中分析。近年来的经济形势变化以及宏观政策方向的短周期调整反映了政策在增长、结构和物价3个重要调控目标之间的困难选择。从更深层次看,这实质上表明我国经济发展已经度过了规模快速扩张的阶段,必须摆脱传统路径依赖,走新型工业化道路。现在,经济转型的长期性问题正以周期波动的短期性现象表现出来,即短期内宏观经济总供求矛盾的变化和相应的宏观政策调控方向的变换,实际上反映的是我国经济发展阶段和发展方式正在和必须发生重大变化。

  19. Research on the Current Situation of Performance Appraisal of Institutions in Tangshan%唐山市事业单位绩效考核现状研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董秀娟; 张育洁; 宋亚静

    2014-01-01

    Institutions are special public service organizations in China. They are the main carriers of social management and public service function, and an important part of the government's economic and social management. With the increasingly deepening reform of the personnel, institutions began to give priority to personnel appointment system, and then from 2009 to 2009, starting from the compulsory education institutions to implement performance salary. The implementation of a series of reform calls for the establishment of scientific performance appraisal system. Effective performance appraisal can arouse the enthusiasm of staff, improve staff quality, and guarantee institutions goal. But due to weak institution human resources management concept and immature scientific management, most performance appraisal effectiveness is not good. Through investigation of the performance appraisal situation in the institutions of Tangshan this article summarizes the current situation of performance evaluation and the puts forward suggestions for the reform and development direction of institution performance evaluation.%事业单位是我国特殊的公共服务组织,是社会管理和公共服务职能的主要载体,是政府经济和社会管理的重要组成部分。随着其人事改革的日趋深入,事业单位开始以人事聘任制为主,紧接着从2009年到2010年,从义务教育开始的事业单位全面实行绩效工资,一系列改革的实施呼唤着科学的绩效考核体系的建立,有效的绩效考核能够调动职工积极性、提高职工素质、保证事业单位目标的实现。但由于事业单位人力资源管理理念淡薄、科学管理行为不成熟等原因,绩效考核大多效用不高。本文通过对唐山市事业单位绩效考核情况的调查,总结了唐山市事业单位绩效考核的现状,并对事业单位绩效考核的改革和发展方向提出了建议。

  20. Investigation on the Current Situation of Health Information Management Specialty%卫生信息管理专业现状的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代清霞

    2016-01-01

    The requirements for medical management talents of the hospital are increasing continuously, while the development of health information management specialty is lagging behind the development of the hospital, which shows in aspects such as low education level, less enroll students and hard to find a job and so on. The primary causes of this current situation included indifference of the school ideally, the high requirements of the hospitals, the low entry qualification of the medical records work staff and imperfect of job titles of medical records specialty and so on. Aimed at the situation, the medical colleges should attach importance to the development of health information management specialty in policy, establish entry qualification examination, complete development pathways, hold up medical records megagame nationwide and strengthen the construction of teaching staff, so as to promote the development of the medical records management specialty, thus could we promote the development of medical records management of medical institutions.%医院对于病案管理人才的需求呈现不断增加的趋势,而医学院校卫生信息管理专业的发展却滞后于医院的发展。表现为办学层次偏低、招生人数较少、学生就业困难等。探讨形成这种现状的主要原因是办学单位观念上不重视、医院门槛设置过高、病案人员入职资格过低和病案专业职称发展不完善等。针对这种现状高等医学院校应从政策上重视引导卫生信息专业发展、设立行业入职资格考试、完善卫生信息专业职称发展路径、举办全国病案大赛及加强卫生信息管理专业师资建设等措施来促进卫生信息管理专业的发展,从而最终能推动医疗机构病案管理的发展。

  1. 社区护士开展健康教育现状调查%Investigation on the current situation of community nurses to develop health education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周君妹

    2016-01-01

    目的:调查社区护士开展健康教育的现状,分析形成原因,为日后有效开展社区健康教育提供依据。方法:随机选取社区护士150例,通过问卷调查获取社区健康教育情况。结果:95.8%社区护士认为开展社区教育极其重要,94.7%护士到社区以发放宣传资料、利用宣传橱窗的方式开展健康教育,但能主动参与社区健康教育的仅29.8%,主要原因是社区护士本身缺乏健康教育知识、缺乏活动经费、人员不足、社区居民热情度不高等。结论:开展成功的社区健康教育,需要社区护士本身有较好素质和知识技能,也需要社区居民配合和经费。%Objective:To investigate the current situation of community nurses to develop health education,and analyze the formation reasons,and provide evidence for the effective development of community health education.Methods:150 cases of community nurses were randomly selected.The community health education situation was obtained through questionnaire survey. Results:95.8% community nurses thought that developing community education was extremely important.94.7% nurses developed health education by distributing publicity materials and using the way of propaganda window in community,but only 29.8% could actively participate in community health education.The main reason was community nurses lack of the health education knowledge,lack of activity funds,lack of personnel,not high community residents enthusiasm.Conclusion:Developing successful community health education needs than community nurses have a good quality and knowledge skills,also needs the community residents coordination and funds.

  2. Mapping the current situation in life and life satisfaction in specific areas of life Center for psychosocial rehabilitation clients, company MANA, ops Olomouc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Lemrová

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with mapping the quality of life of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. Surveying the quality of life of schizophrenics may be complicated due to the symptomatology - e.g. negative results during the higher levels of anxiety. Apart from health: age, gender, occupation, family, social contacts, finances, opportunities for rehabilitation and psychoeducational programmes are all among the important factors of the individual quality of life. Our research group comprised 16 clients (male n=12, female n=4 of the Psychosocial Rehabilitation Centre, MANA o.p.s. Olomouc. Average age of our respondents was 38.2. Except for 4 male respondents, all the rest were unemployed at the time of the survey, 3 respondents were living alone, others with parents or a partner. Average age of the male respondents at the time of their first hospitalization was 22, of the female respondents 18.5. The Czech version of the Quality of life questionnaire (Dotazník životní spokojenosti - DŽS was the basis of our primary method. In view of the sociodemographic data of our respondents, we have surveyed the level of the individual quality of life in the areas of health, financial situation, oneself and friends, acquaintances and relatives. A supplementary method was based on the SEIQoL (Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life, a questionnaire for monitoring the importance of happiness with individually chosen life themes (QL and an overall level of quality of life (VAS. The goal was to ascertain the level of happiness in the aforementioned areas of life DŽS and the correlation with age, importance and quality of life themes and their correlation with current overall quality of life. The lowest level of happiness (DŽS was measured in the overall level of the current quality of life (VAS in connection to gender (male=60.7%, female=43.8%, but in view of the low number of female respondents (n=4 we consider this result an

  3. Situating Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias

    can participate in the world. We experience a new participatory culture on the go. These developments offer new possibilities for civic engagement in participatory land use planning: to engage people where they are. This dissertation coins the notion of situated engagement, which seeks to ’situate......’ civic engagement activities in those spatial contexts that are at stake in land use planning. This approach enables engagement activities to be better integrated with people’s everyday lived experiences through connecting to the places that are personally meaningful and relevant to them. A ’research...... through design’ approach is applied across four participatory design experiments to explore how to design for situated engagement in land use planning. A notion of a situated engagement infrastructure made up of mobile, stationary, ubiquitous, and remote systems frames the design experiments suggesting...

  4. Situated Transgressiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhr, Sara Louise; Sullivan, Katie Rose; Rich, Craig

    2016-01-01

    and perceives her trans body and gender identity. In particular, our analysis centres on how Claire's lived experience of personal and professional life shift across three different situated contexts, each enabling and constraining opportunities for political transgression. Our findings contribute to existing......This study investigates the lived experience of one transwoman, Claire, a public advocate and a manager with client services responsibilities. We examine Claire's story in order to discuss how situated contexts, such as different roles, locales and interactions, shape the way she experiences...... conversations within queer theory, transgender and organization studies by highlighting how situated contexts mediate the political potential of queer bodies at work. By developing the concept ‘situated transgressiveness’, this article challenges notions of transgender as a stable, ideal disruptive category...

  5. Situated Transgressiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhr, Sara Louise; Sullivan, Katie Rose; Rich, Craig

    2016-01-01

    conversations within queer theory, transgender and organization studies by highlighting how situated contexts mediate the political potential of queer bodies at work. By developing the concept ‘situated transgressiveness’, this article challenges notions of transgender as a stable, ideal disruptive category...... and advances a more contextually sensitive approach to understanding the contingency of transgender lives and politics. Such insights are important in facilitating more nuanced understandings of the situatedness of transgression and transgender bodies within work and professional settings....

  6. Current situation of arsenism prevention and water improvement in Jilin province%吉林省防砷改水现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海涛; 张秀丽; 姜爽; 肖禹; 韩昌; 衣伟; 张立波; 姜海峰; 张晓东

    2013-01-01

    Objective To find out current situation of arsenism prevention and water improvement in Jilin province so as to provide scientific basis for strategic adjustment of endemic arsenism prevention and control.Methods With reference to historical data,we found out current situation of water improvement and water arsenic content in endemic arsenism area and latent area,we carried out survey on management and use of water improvement projects and benefit from the projects.Results Water improvement projects were carried out in 318 villages among 361villages in endemic arsenism areas and latent areas and water improvement rate was 88.09%,314 water improvement projects were used normally and the rate of normal usage was 98.74%,298projects of water improvement were found qualified in water arsenic content with qualification rate of 94.90%.Water arsenic content in 16 projects were found exceeding the standard with the rate of 5.10%.314 water improvement projects of normal use covered 36 287 families,and 32 770 families drank water from the projects,298 projects of qualified water arsenic content covered 35039 families,31 600 families got benefit from that.16 projects of unqualified water arsenic content covered 1 248 families and 1 170 families drank water from the projects.Conclusion Water was not improved in some endemic arsenism latent areas,and some projects were scrapped and water arsenic content exceeded the standard.It means that work of water improvement for endemic arsenism still needs to be strengthened.%目的 摸清吉林省防砷改水现状,为调整地方性砷中毒防治策略提供科学依据.方法 查阅历史资料掌握地方性砷中毒病区及潜在病区(屯)改水情况和改水后水砷含量,深入病区对改水工程使用管理情况和居民受益情况开展现况调查.结果 361个地方性砷中毒病区及潜在病区(屯)共改水318个,改水率为88.09%,正常使用工程314个,正常使用率为98.74

  7. 2013年广西血液净化治疗基础现状调查%Survey on current situation of blood purification in Guangxi,2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾春; 叶琨; 彭小梅; 黄玲; 吴潮清; 唐业莹

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current situation of blood purification in Guangxi.Methods A survey on the current situation of blood purification was conducted in 115 qualified hospitals in 14 cities in Guangxi,concerning the numbers of machines,doctors,nurses and technicians as well as the overall cases of blood purification therapy, hemodialysis cases, hemofiltration cases, hemoperfusion cases, plasma exchange cases,continuous blood purification cases and adverse reactions cases in 2013.Results There were 1 745 blood purification machines, 348 doctors,828 nurses and 110 technicians with the qualification for blood purification therapy in Guangxi.There were 928 155 case times of blood purification therapy,855 154 case times of hemodialysis,36 959 case times of hemofiltration,24 714 case times of hemoperfusion,1 306 case times of plasma exchange,10 022 case times of continuous blood purification and 11 097 case times of adverse reactions in 2013.Conclusion The number of blood purification machines matches the ratio of doctors to nurses in Guangxi.The therapy models are mainly hemodialysis, hemofiltration and hemoperfusion.The strengthened surveillance on the adverse reactions is needed.%目的:了解广西血液净化基础现状。方法对广西14个地市115家具备血液净化准入资质的医院进行血液净化基础现状调查,内容包括机器、医生、护师、技师数量,2013年全年开展血液净化治疗的总例次及血液透析、血液透析滤过、血液灌流、血浆置换、连续性血液净化的例次,不良反应发生例次。结果广西拥有血液净化机器1745台,具备血液净化诊疗资质的医生348名,护士828名,技师110名。2013年开展血液净化治疗的总例次为928155例次,血液透析855154例次、血液透析滤过36959例次、血液灌流24714例次、血浆置换1306例次、连续性血液净化10022例次,不良反应发生11097例次。结论广西血液净化诊疗机器设备

  8. ICP-MS仪器的过去、现在和未来%The Past,Current Situation and Developing Trend of ICP-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金英; 徐书荣

    2011-01-01

    本文从ICP-MS仪器的各个结构组成,介绍了ICP-MS仪器硬件的发展历史和展望,其中重点讨论了ICP-MS进样系统、离子透镜和池技术的发展现状和趋势。越来越多的ICP-MS配置了提升量小、雾化效率高的雾化器,Peltier效应半导体精密控温雾室以及可拆卸式的炬管,而直角偏转的离子透镜也逐渐成为潮流,这些因素提高了ICP-MS在分析高盐样品时的长期稳定性的同时,降低了仪器维护的频率和难度。%Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer hardware history and prospect are introduced based on its framework.Current situation and developing trend of ICP-MS sample introduction system,ion lens and cell technology are the main points to discuss.More and more ICP-MS equip with low uptake,high efficiency nebulizer,Peltier effect temperature precisely controlled chamber and detachable torch,and prevailing right angle defection ion lens,all these factors improve the long term stability for high total dissolved salt samples,and lower the frequency and difficulty of maintenance.

  9. 大学生体育人口现状研究%Research on the Current Situation of College Students' Physical Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李香华

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the current situation of College Students' sports population, the students' physical fitness consciousness and behavior are found to influence the students' physical fitness. Through questionnaire survey, literature data method, mathematical statistics method, 450 college students of Hunan Institute of Science and Technology were investigated and analyzed. The results show that the sports population of Hunan Institute of Science and Technology is 36.7%, slightly higher than the national average level, but there is a big gap with the developed countries, which shows that the students of Hunan Institute of Science and Technology have a good sense of physical fitness, and can take the initiative to participate in the daily life.%为了解大学生体育人口现状,发现影响大学生体育健身意识与行为的制约因素,提高大学生体育健身成效,通过问卷调查法、文献资料法、数理统计法等,对湖南理工学院450名大学生进行了调查与分析.结果显示,湖南理工学院大学生体育人口占36.7%,略高于全国平均水平,但与发达国家有较大差距,说明湖南理工学院大学生具有良好的体育健身意识,能够在日常生活中积极主动地参与到体育健身中去,但体育健身的频率、方式、目的、男女有差异.

  10. Current situation and development of community health management of hypertension%高血压社区健康管理的现状与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金明; 王家骥; 欧伟麟; 欧文森; 吴文林

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a common chronic disease which can lead to cardiac, cerebrovascular and renal damage; it is seriously harmful to human health. Cardiovascular disease caused by hypertension has become the first cause of death of residents in our country, the burden of disease has become more and more serious, how to manage hypertension has become an important public health issue in our country. In this review, the development and current situation of the community health management of hypertension at home and abroad are described and analyzed, the experience and practice worthy of learning are summarized to provide evidence for the prevention and control of hypertension in community.%高血压是常见的慢性疾病,可导致心脏、脑血管和肾脏损害,严重危害人类健康,引起的心血管疾病已经成为我国居民的首位死因,导致的疾病负担越来越重,如何做好高血压的健康管理成为我国重要的公共卫生课题。本文通过阐述和分析国内外高血压社区健康管理的发展与现状,找出值得借鉴的经验和做法,对指导社区高血压的防治研究提供依据。

  11. 初中语文合作学习的研究与现状%Research and Current Situation of Cooperative Learning in Junior Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆际红

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning is "the most important and the most successful education reform in recent decades"in the edu-cation field, as this learning strategy has changed the previous dull atmosphere in teachers' classroom teaching, made contem-porary class more colorful and more scientific and efficient. How-ever, cooperative learning is not widely implemented in junior Chinese teaching at the present stage, and even the styles of its scarce applications in classroom teaching are not standard and the effect of its practice is not significant. This paper explores the development, current situation and significance of cooperative learning, hoping to provide some references for the reform of ju-nior Chinese classroom teaching.%合作学习是教育界“几十年来最重要和最成功的教育改革”,这样的学习策略一改往日教师班级授课的沉闷,使得现代的课堂变得更加丰富精彩,变得更加科学实效。但是,现阶段初中语文合作学习的开展并不普遍,即便是课堂教学中适时应用,但是其应用的方式并不规范,其实践的效果也不显著。本文就合作学习的发展,现状及意义等方面进行探讨,希望能对初中语文课堂教学改革提供参考。

  12. Current situations and thinking of acupuncture and moxibustion in Jordan%针灸在约旦的现状和启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武应臣

    2011-01-01

    介绍针灸在约旦的发展简史、现状、针灸诊所的开办和分布以及针灸术的操作和主治病种.针灸在约旦的发展始于20世纪90年代初,现在开办的大小针灸诊所约有20余家,全部为私人诊所,主要集中在约旦的首都安曼市.针灸从业人员多是在中国学习过针灸技术的本国西医大夫,水平良莠不齐;所治疗的疾病种类以疼痛和神经系统疾病居多.治疗疾病时针灸可单独使用,也可和物理疗法联合使用.%The brief history of acupuncture, its current situation, locations for acupuncture practitioners, the manipulation and indications of acupuncture in Jordan are introduced in this paper. The acupuncture treatment in Jordan started in the early 1990s. Now there are more than 20 private acupuncture clinics in different size, most in the capital city of Amman. Acupuncture practitioners are western doctors who studied acupuncture techniques in China. The indications of acupuncture in Jordan are pain and nervous system diseases. Acupuncture therapy can be applied single or combined with physical therapy.

  13. Analyzing on the Motivation and Factors for Building Long-term Care Insurance System-Based on Current Situation and Data Analysis of Chengdu%CHINA HEALTH INSURANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢俊萍; 胡兆舜

    2016-01-01

    With the accelerating of population aging, besides basic medical insurance, the demands for long-term care are also increasing, especially the needs for reducing the fi nancial and caring burden of families having disabled older people are more urgent. Through analyzing current situation and the data of Chengdu, as well as considering the advanced experience of other countries in long-term care insurance system, we propose that long-term care insurance should be an independent insurance system, which is led and coordinated by government, initiated at low level while mainly protecting target population, and has system elements of fi ne rating and service industry for the elderly care. We hope these suggestions can provide reference for the system design.%随着人口老龄化进程的加快,老年人群在享受基本医疗保险制度的同时,对长期照护的需求进一步加大,特别是失能老人对减轻家庭照护经济和精力负担的诉求尤为迫切。本文通过对成都市现状和数据的分析,在借鉴其他国家经验的基础上,提出我国要建立的长期照护保险制度应是一个独立的险种、应由政府主导协调推进、建制初期应低水平起步并以保障重点人群为主、建立完善的等级评定体系、发展养老服务业等制度建设要素,为制度设计提供参考。

  14. 海南省观赏水族行业的发展前景及对策%Current Situation of Decorative Fishery in Hainan and Development Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张希; 杨宁; 黄海

    2012-01-01

    An important part of recreational fisheries is decorative fishery,which will become a trend in China.Decorative fishery is also an important direction of development in the building process of Hainan international tourism Island.On the base of the deep-going analysis about the current situation of decorative fishery development in Hainan,the main questions of decorative fish cultivation and market were found.At the same time many suggestions were brought up,such as exploiting the biological resources of Hainan Island;Strengthening the efforts of research institutes aquaculture R & D;introducing new varieties of ornamental species;Strengthening market management etc,which will benefit the rational utilization of tropical biological resources and increase a whole competitive advantage of Hainan decorative fishery industry.%观赏水族业是休闲渔业的重要组成部分,海南具有大力发展热带观赏水族行业的潜力。对海南省观赏水族市场进行深入调查,分析和总结海南省观赏水族行业的发展现状和存在的问题,提出发挥海南区位优势、挖掘本地热带生物资源、加强科研力量、引进国外观赏水族新品种、加强产业引导和市场管理等建议,促进热带生物资源的合理利用和观赏水族业结构的多元化,增加海南省观赏水族业的整体竞争优势。

  15. 我国椰子副产物的利用现状及对策%Current Situation and Countermeasures of Utilization of Coconut By -product in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾鹏; 刘立云; 孙程旭; 冯美利

    2011-01-01

    The article investigated and analyzed the current situation of researches and utilization of coconut by -products (coconut pericarp, coconut water, coconut bran, coconut cake, coconut wood and coconut litter crack) in China, and pointed out the existent main problems in the utilization of coconut by -products, including low recognition degree and awareness of resource utilization, inadequate scientific research investment and low technological content of products, behindhand equipments and small scale production , imperfect policy and insufficient service system. The following countermeasures for the utilization of coconut by - products were proposed; government guidance and support, strengthening scientific research and development, integration of technology, establishing and improving the policy for the utilization of agricultural resources.%分析了我国椰子副产物利用的现状和存在问题,主要是椰子果皮、椰子水、椰麸、椰粕、椰子木和椰子枯落裂物的研究和利用现状,指出当前椰子副产物利用方面的主要问题是重视程度不够,资源利用意识低;科研投入不足,产品科技含量低;技术装备落后,生产规模小;政策不健全,服务体系缺乏等问题.并提出了其利用对策,包括:政府引导与支持;加强科研开发力度;技术集成;建立与健全农业资源化利用政策.

  16. 我国稻米产业现状及发展对策%Current Situation,Pressure and Development Countermeasures on Chinese Rice Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙强; 刘心雨; 张三元; 张俊国

    2011-01-01

    It pointed out facing pressure about chinese rice industry from current situation such as the pressure about cost and price,the pressure of foodstuff circulation system,the pressure of exotic products,the pressure of green barriers and the new pressure of national food protection policy.It proposed development countermeasures of rice industry such as support to leading enterprises,advance industrialization of rice,build risk system on production,strengthen safety standard and checkout on rice and analysis on the pest quarantine of foreign seed,pay attention to the diversity to develop rice,reform circulation system of food and so on,all these can provide scientific evidence for the development for rice industry.%针对中国稻米产业的现状,指出中国稻米产业面临的压力:价格与成本的压力;粮食流通体制上的压力;外国以精新产品打入中国市场的压力;绿色壁垒的压力;国家粮食保护政策面临新压力。提出了中国稻米产业今后发展的对策:扶持龙头企业,推进稻米产业化发展;建立生产风险制度;加强稻米安全标准和检验及国外种子病虫害检疫研究;注重开发稻米的多样性;改革粮食流通体制等,为稻米产业发展提供科学参考。

  17. Current situation and developing direction of textile waste comprehensive utilization%我国废旧纺织品综合利用现状及发展方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾明明; 唐世君

    2012-01-01

    通过分析废旧纺织品综合利用现状,总结了纯棉废旧纺织品、废旧民用纺织品、废旧军服等领域综合利用的初步进展,提出了我国目前废旧纺织品综合利用存在的主要问题,明确了废旧纺织品综合利用的发展方向,即废旧纺织品综合利用必须紧紧围绕“合理规划、分类回收、技术保障、市场拓展、政策引导、舆论宣传、全社会广泛参与”的指导方针,通过长期而系统的推进,最终实现行业规范化、专业化、集约化的健康科学发展。%Based on an analysis of the current situation of textile waste comprehensive utilization, the paper summarized the initial utilization progress of cotton waste, civilian waste and military uniforms waste. The major problems in textile waste utilization were pointed out, and the developing direction of textile waste comprehensive utilization was proposed. Comprehensive utilization of textile waste must focus on "rational planning, sorting recovery, technical support, market expansion, policy guidance, media publicity and extensive public participation", so as to realize normalized, specialized, intensified scientific development of the industry.

  18. 多媒体外语教学现状分析%An Analysis of the Current Situation of Multimedia Foreign Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚乐宁

    2012-01-01

    Multimedia teaching is an essential aspect of teaching reform in recent years.In college teaching system,multimedia teaching,through improving teaching methods and media,injects new vitality to college foreign language teaching,but also brings unprecedented challenges,and it is based on new education ideas,and combined modern teaching technology with traditional classroom teaching.Through analyzing the current situation of multimedia foreign language teaching,this paper attempts to find out the best entry point between multimedia teaching and college foreign language teaching,so as to make it an effective teaching method.%多媒体教学是近年来教学改革中必不可少的一个方面。在高校教学体系中,多媒体教学通过改进教学手段、教学方法和媒介,以新的教育理念为基础,以现代化的教学技术为媒介,结合传统课堂教学,为大学外语教学注入新的活力,也带来了前所未有的挑战。本文主要通过分析外语多媒体教学现状,以寻找多媒体教学和大学外语教学的最佳切入点,并使其成为行之有效的教学手段。

  19. Current Situation and Revelation of Educational Informationization in UK' s Basic Education%英国基础教育信息化现状与启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宁; 周鹏琴; 谢敏漪

    2016-01-01

    Since comprehensively launching the educational informationization project in 1998, UK has obtained a lot of achievements in the educational informationization construction in the basic education through a series of measures, such as strategic plans, institution setting, ifnancial assistance, project support and evaluations. Based on the deep research of the strategic plans, policy reports, core organizations and the journal articles, this study fully introduced and analyzed the current situation of the educational informationization in UK' s basic education from the aspects of infrastructure, resource tools, computing course, the integration of ICT in the curriculums, teacher development, evaluation and management, etc. Then, we put forward the main points that deserve us to think and consult.%自1998年英国全面启动教育信息化工作以来,通过战略规划、机构设置、资金支持、项目立项、考核评估等一系列措施在基础教育信息化建设方面取得了不菲的成绩。该文通过对英国政府相关战略规划、政策报告、核心机构、期刊文献的深入研究,以及笔者亲身感受,从基础设施、资源工具、计算机课程设置、ICT与学科融合、教师发展、评价与管理等方面对当前英国基础教育信息化的现状进行了全面的分析与介绍,并提出了值得我们借鉴和思考的相关信息。

  20. [Allergology in the public health service of the Community of Madrid: current situation and opportunities in the XXI century public health system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Ortega, J; Ruiz Hornillos, J; Chivato, T; De la Hoz, B; Elices, A; Iglesias, A; Quirce, S; Vega, F; Rodríguez Mosquera, M

    2014-01-01

    The high prevalence of allergic diseases and the use of more complex diagnostic techniques and therapeutic options require allergists to be highly trained professionals and health-care organizations to be knowledgeable about available structural and human resources. Updated information is lacking in Spain, and current activity indicators do not reflect complexity. The present article analyzes the situation of allergology in Madrid and proposes improvements where necessary. The heads of the allergy departments of public hospitals in Madrid voluntarily completed a purpose-designed survey. Data on care activity (2010) and on teaching and research activity (2009-2010) were provided. A SWOT analysis was performed, and strategic lines and proposals for improvement were designed. One hundred and seventeen allergists (41% with a PhD) worked in 24 hospitals with an allergology department (4.6 physicians/center; ≤3 in 10 hospitals). All the institutions had an outpatient clinic (4,000 first consultations/hospital/year, 36% high-resolution rate; 6200 successive visits/hospital/year) performing complex diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, most of which were not taken into account by activity indicators. Two hospitals had their own hospitalization facilities and 10 were accredited teaching hospitals (2.78 medical residents/year). The survey revealed that, twice yearly, a typical allergology service participated in 4 research projects, 2 clinical trials, 16 publications and 17 communications at scientific meetings, with notable differences between hospitals. Allergists in Madrid are well prepared. The allergology care structure is adequate, although possibly insufficient. Quality and efficiency can be improved with new tools for recording activity and by increasing coordination and taking advantage of new technologies and geographical proximity.

  1. Current Situation and Countermeasures of Tennis Development in Wenshan Prefecture%文山州网球发展的现状与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫巧珍

    2012-01-01

    随着经济社会的发展,人民群众的生活水平逐渐提高,越来越多的人选择了时下盛行的时尚运动项目二网球运动。通过对文山州网球发展现状的调查和研究,针对文山州网球运动发展中存在的场地少、参与者水平参差不均、师资力量缺乏等诸多问题,提出了网球场地设施、活动组织管理等方面的对策,为文山州网球运动的健康发展提供对策和建议。%As one of the fashion sports, tennis has become popular among people with the development of social economy of Wenshan. More and more people choose to participate in the nationwide sports and also willing to pursuit vogue mode of motion. Based on the investigation and research of current situation of tennis development in Wenshan, this paper puts forward some countermeasures and suggestions according to the existing problems such as lack of fields, the inequality of participants' level, and the lack of teachers. Its aim is to improve the tennis COUrt facilities, organization and management of activities, etc, promoting the healthy development of tennis in Wenshan.

  2. Current situation and suggestions for pressure ulcer management in China%我国压疮管理现状与建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪君; 卢㛃; 刘金莲

    2014-01-01

    Pressure ulcer is a common and important complication in clinical nursing. Its mechanism is complicated. Pressure ulcer widely exists in different departments of hospital and would greatly inlfuence patients. This paper summarized and analyzed the current situation of pressure ulcer management in China. The ideas and methods of pressure ulcer management from abroad had been applied in some medical institutions in China, and were modiifed in order to ift themselves. But due to the diversity of our medical institutions, we still need to formulate a uniifed nursing standard to improve the prevention and treatment management of pressure ulcer in our country.%压疮是临床护理工作中常见的重要并发症,其发生机制复杂,广泛存在于各科室,给患者带来较大影响。本文通过对目前我国压疮管理现状的分析发现,国际压疮护理管理理念和方法已经在我国部分医疗机构得到改进和应用,逐步形成适合我国的压疮防治规范。但是,由于我国各地医疗机构水平参差不齐,为提高全国整体压疮预防与治疗管理水平,还须制订统一的全国压疮护理标准。

  3. 母乳喂养益处和现状的研究进展%Progress in research on benefits and current situation of breastfeeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏建强; 戴耀华

    2011-01-01

    母乳喂养具有良好的镇痛作用;对于儿童的语言、心理、行为等也有很大的改善作用;对非酒精性脂肪肝病的发展有保护性作用;同时能够预防高血压,降低血清胆固醇,预防成人肥胖和超重及心血管疾病的发生;能够降低母亲产后多发性硬化症的复发和冠心病的风险;对于社会,母乳喂养能够节约大量的医疗费用.鉴于母乳喂养的种种益处,各国均提出了自己的目标和计划,并采取了行动.但母乳喂养率离预定的目标还有很大的距离,母乳喂养指标尚有很大的改善空间.该文回顾了2006~2010年国内外对母乳喂养益处和现状的大量文献,并对搜索到的文献进行总结.%This article reviews researches published in domestic and abroad in a period from 2006 to 2010 relating benefits and current situation of breasffecding. The results show that: breasffeeding has an analgesic effect for the newborns. And it has positive effect on language, mental and behavior development in middle childhood. Breasffeeding has a protective effect on progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Breasffeeding likely protect the adult from hypertension, obesity and overweight, and can lower serum cholesterol concentration. Also, breasffeeding seems to have beneficial effects on later cardiovascular risk factors. Exclusive breasffeeding can significantly reduce risk of postpartum relapses of multiple sclerosis. Long duration of lactation was associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. Breasffeeding exclusively for 6 months would save medical expenses and prevent a lot of deaths. In view of benefits of breasffeeding, many countries have established their own goals and plans of breasffeeding, and have taken some actions. But reports from WHO and some researchers show that the breasffeeding rates in many countries remain low. Current breasffeeding patterns are still far from the recommended level. We should try our best to

  4. Current situations and countermeasures of oyster industry in Guangxi%广西牡蛎养殖业的现状与发展对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞耀珊; 谢芝勋; 谢丽基; 邓显文; 刘加波; 谢志勤; 范晴

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]This research was conducted in order to better promote the Guangxi oyster aquaculture health and sustainable development from government departments and to provide scientific and technological references for workers in relevant fields. [Method]The current situations and problems of Guangxi oyster aquaculture industry were analyzed to identify the main obstacles of the current Guangxi oyster aquaculture development and to promote suggestions and countermeasures for the healthy and sustainable development of Guangxi oyster aquaculture. [Result]At present, existing problems in Guangxi oyster aquaculture include generally unbalanced germplasm resources quality, time-to-time oyster mortalities occurrence, delayed oyster processing time, short chain in the oyster trading industry, etc. [Suggestion]In order to promote Guangxi oyster breeding efficiency, improve the sustainable development, and increase the economic benefit of oyster aquaculture, proposed countermeasures include excavating the local germplasm resources, establishing specific pathogen free (SPF) oyster seed field, reasonably planning oyster culturing, constructing safe and efficient sustainable health development of the mariculture patterns, farming and processing newly introduced technology studies, extending the oyster industrial chain, etc.%[目的]更好地促进广西牡蛎养殖业的健康可持续发展,为政府管理部门及科技工作者提供参考.[方法]对当前广西牡蛎养殖业现状和问题进行分析,找出阻碍当前广西牡蛎养殖业发展的主要原因,提出促进广西牡蛎养殖业健康可持续发展的对策与建议.[结果]目前广西牡蛎养殖业普遍存在种质资源良莠不齐、牡蛎死亡现象时有发生、牡蛎加工方式落后、牡蛎贸易链短等问题.[建议]通过挖掘本地种质资源优势,建立无特定病原体(SPF)牡蛎原种场;合理规划养殖,构建安全高效的健康可持续发展的海水养殖模式;研究

  5. Current Parental Depression and Offspring Perceived Self-Competence: A Quasi-Experimental Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Quetzal A.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Singh, Amber L.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Spotts, E. L.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2013-01-01

    A genetically-informed, quasi-experimental design was used to examine the genetic and environmental processes underlying associations between current parental depressive symptoms and offspring perceived self-competence. Participants, drawn from a population-based Swedish sample, were 852 twin pairs and their male (52%) and female offspring aged 15.7 ± 2.4 years. Parental depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Offspring perceived self-competence was measured using a modified Harter Perceived Competence Scale. Cousin comparisons and Children of Twins (CoT) designs suggested that associations between maternal depressive symptoms and offspring perceived self-competence were due to shared genetic/environmental liability. The mechanism responsible for father-offspring associations, however, was independent of genetic factors and of extended-family environmental factors, supporting a causal inference. Thus, mothers and fathers may impact offspring perceived self-competence via different mechanisms and unmeasured genetic and environmental selection factors must be considered when studying the intergenerational transmission of cognitive vulnerabilities for depression. PMID:22692226

  6. Comparison of experimental and theoretical gain-current relations in GaInP quantum well lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smowton, P.M.; Chow, W.W.; Blood, P.

    2000-01-10

    The authors compare the results of a microscopic laser theory with gain and recombination currents obtained from experimental spontaneous emission spectra. The calculated absorption spectrum is first matched to that measured on a laser, ensuring that the quasi-Fermi levels for the calculation and the experiment (spontaneous emission and gain) are directly related. This allows one to determine the inhomogeneous broadening in their experimental samples. The only other inputs to the theory are literature values of the bulk material parameter. The authors then estimate the non-radiative recombination current associated with the well and wave-guide core from a comparison of measured and calculated recombination currents.

  7. Situation Songs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolar-Borsky, Agnes; Holck, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    the therapeutic relationship; to enhance experience and development in the fields of emotion, behavior, expression and social skills; to express messages in language and to give structure to the child. The overall aim behind the use of situation songs is to offer essential experiences to the child in order......The aim of this study was to survey the various therapeutic intentions behind the use of one particular improvisation method applied in pediatric music therapy, called the situation song (from the German term “Situationslied”- Plahl & Koch-Temming, 2008, p. 180). According to Plahl & Koch...... author’s clinical experience with situation songs (preunderstandings), a systematic analysis of relevant literature, followed by semi-structured interviews with three music therapists from Denmark, Austria and Germany. A flexible investigation approach was used, following hermeneutic principles...

  8. Situation Songs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolar-Borsky, Agnes; Holck, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    author’s clinical experience with situation songs (preunderstandings), a systematic analysis of relevant literature, followed by semi-structured interviews with three music therapists from Denmark, Austria and Germany. A flexible investigation approach was used, following hermeneutic principles......The aim of this study was to survey the various therapeutic intentions behind the use of one particular improvisation method applied in pediatric music therapy, called the situation song (from the German term “Situationslied”- Plahl & Koch-Temming, 2008, p. 180). According to Plahl & Koch......-Temming the term situation song describes an improvised song, which is sung by the therapist or/and the child and which relates to the actual occurrence and the therapeutic relationship. The presented study focuses on the therapist’s singing only. The study was conducted in stages: An elaboration of the first...

  9. 我国名优茶发展现状与趋势%Current Situation and Tendency on the Development of Chinese Premium Teas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周智修; 段文华; 吴海燕; 司智敏

    2013-01-01

    The current situation and tendency of the development for Chinese premium teas were investigated in analyzing the results of 3948 tea samples in nine “Zhongcha Cup” country wide premium tea competitions during 1994~2011. All the six types of Chinese tea developed well. Among them, green tea was the main tea, Oolong tea and dark tea increased steadily, black, white and yellow teas were in recovery growth. In the four tea growing areas, the Jiangnan (south Yangtze River) tea area developed strongly and has the highest prize awarded ratio. The premium tea in Zhejiang Province is leading its development in China, the quality of Jiangsu premium tea is at the top, Shandong province, a north tea area, has strong marketing and competition consciousness. And Fujian, Sichuan, Hubei, Guizhou, Guangdong, Anhui are also important premium tea producing provinces. The ratio of tea sample made by clonal tea cultivars increased continuously. „Fuding Dabaicha‟, „Baiye 1‟, „Fuding Dahaocha‟, Longjing series clones are main clonal tea cultivars. The quality of premium tea increased steadily. Nevertheless, the tea appearance is becoming similar. Hygian safety (the situation of heavy metal, pesticide residues) was satisfactory, and organic tea developed rather fast. The ratios of machinery processing, producing according to standard, and trade mark increased year by year and reached a higher level.%  通过对1994~2011年连续九届3948只“中茶杯”名优茶评比茶样数据分析,结果表明,我国六大茶类名优茶均呈现发展态势,绿茶是发展的主茶类,乌龙茶、黑茶稳步增长,红茶、白茶和黄茶呈恢复性增长。四大茶区中,江南茶区获奖率最高,发展势头强劲;浙江名优茶产业引领我国名优茶发展,江苏名优茶总体质量位居全国前列,山东显现强烈的市场竞争意识,福建、四川、湖北、贵州、广东和安徽等省也占重要地位。无性系品种茶样

  10. Hygienic characteristics of radiation situation in the water area of The Ladoga Lake during salvaging of the radioactively contaminated experimental vessel “KIT”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1991, a salvage operation of the waterlogged radioactive contaminated vessel in the water area of lake Ladoga was carried out. In 1953-1954, new radiological weapons or new radiological warfare agenst were tested on this vessel. By the beginning of works, the experimental vessel was on the ooze in the half-flooded condition at a depth of 4,5-6 meters. There were approximate 2000 m3 of contaminated water and silt, mixed with oil products inside the vessel. The aims of the study are to perform:1 the hygienic assessment of radiation situation on the place of the vessel berthing before, during and after ship salvaging; 2 the radiation risk assessment for the population of the region. The assessment of the radiological situation on the board and at the place of the vessel berthing was carried out on the base of dosimetric, spectrometric and radiochemistry surveys. The gamma ray exposure rate at a height of 1 m from the superstructures and main deck outer surfaces was on average 0,14 μSv/h andit did not exceeded 0,30 μSv/h. On the place of the vessel berthing, an increasing of concentrations of Sr-90, Cs-137, Pu-239,240 in samples of water, bottom sediments, and algae has been determined. Object posed no radiation hazard to the population of the region. However, some inhabitants, despite the ban, visited the vessel for recreation and fishing. Their potential exposure dose could reach 0,5 mSv/y. Ship salvaging included salvage pontoon launching, ship’s bottom isolation, liquid waste pumping from the vessel to the special tanker, ship raising and dockage, liquid waste remediation, discharge of remediated water in the water area of lake Ladoga, solidification of liquid waste remained in the vessel’s rooms. Liquid waste remediation and strict radiation control of each process prohibited significant hygienic degradation of the radiation situation in the water area of the lake Ladoga. An insignificant increasing of levels

  11. Situating Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, Susan Bobbitt; Horn, Ilana Seidel; Ward, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a situative approach to studying motivation to learn in social contexts. We begin by contrasting this perspective to more prevalent psychological approaches to the study of motivation, describing epistemological and methodological differences that have constrained conversation between theoretical groups. We elaborate on…

  12. Experimental Measurement of Asymmetric Fluctuations of Poloidal Magnetic Field in Damavand Tokomak at Different Plasma Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslehi-Fard, Mahmoud; Alinejad, Naser; Rasouli, Chapar; Sadigzadeh, Asghar

    2012-08-01

    Toroidal and Poloidal magnetic fields have an important effect on the tokomak topology. Damavand Tokomak is a small size tokomak characterized with k = 1.2, B t = 1T, R 0 = 36 cm, maximum plasma current is about 35 KA with a discharge time of 21 ms. In this experimental work, the variation of poloidal magnetic field on the torodial cross section is measured and analyzed. In order to measure the polodial magnetic field, 18 probes were installed on the edge of tokomak plasma with ∆θ = 18°, while a limiter was installed inside the torus. Plasma current, I p, induces a polodial magnetic field, B p, smaller than the torodial magnetic field B t. Magnetic lines B produced as a combination of B t and B p, are localized on the nested toroidal magnetic surfaces. The presence of polodial magnetic field is necessary for particles confinement. Mirnov oscillations are the fluctuations of polodial magnetic field, detected by magnetic probes. Disrupted instability in Tokomak typically starts with mirnov oscillations which appear as fluctuations of polodial magnetic field and is detected by magnetic probes. Minor disruptions inside the plasma can contain principal magnetic islands and their satellites can cause the annihilation of plasma confinement. Production of thin layer of turbulent magnetic field lines cause minor disruption. Magnetic limiter may cause the deformation of symmetric equilibrium configuration and chaotic magnetic islands reveal in plasma occurring in thin region of chaotic field lines close to their separatrix. The width of this chaotic layer in the right side of poloidal profile of Damavand Tokomak is smaller than the width in the left side profile because of Shafranov displacement. Ergodic region in the left side of profile develops a perturbation on the magnetic polodial field lines, B p, that are greater in magnitude than that in the right side, although the values of B p on the left side are smaller than that on the right side of the profile. The Left

  13. Experimental study of a high-current FEM with a broadband microwave system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, G.G.; Bratman, V.L.; Ginzburg, N.S. [Institute of Applied Physics, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    One of the main features of FELs and FEMs is the possibility of fast and wideband tuning of the resonant frequency of active media, which can be provided by changing the particle energy. For a frequency adjustable FEM-oscillator, a broadband microwave system, which is simply combined with an electron-optical FEM system and consists of an oversized waveguide and reflectors based on the microwave beams multiplication effect has been proposed and studied successfully in {open_quotes}cold{close_quotes} measurements. Here, the operating ability of a cavity, that includes some key elements of the broadband microwave system, was tested in the presence of an electron beam. To provide large particle oscillation velocities in a moderate undulator field and the presence of a guide magnetic field, the FEM operating regime of double resonance was chosen. In this regime the cyclotron as well as undulator resonance conditions were satisfied. The FEM-oscillator was investigated experimentally on a high-current accelerator {open_quotes}Sinus-6{close_quotes} that forms an electron beam with particle energy 500keV and pulse duration 25ns. The aperture with a diameter 2.5mm at the center of the anode allows to pass through only the central fraction of the electron beam with a current about 100A and a small spread of longitudinal velocities of the particles. Operating transverse velocity was pumped into the electron beam in the pulse plane undulator of a 2.4cm period. The cavity with a frequency near 45GHz consists of a square waveguide and two reflectors. The broadband up-stream reflector based on the multiplication effect had the power reflectivity coefficient more than 90% in the frequency band 10% for the H{sup 10} wave of the square waveguide with the maximum about 100% at a frequency 45GHz. The down-stream narrow-band Bragg reflector had the power reflection coefficient approximately 80% in the frequency band of 4% near 45GHz for the operating mode.

  14. 网银犯罪活动的现状分析及防范对策%Analyze to current situation of crime and countermeasures of Network Bank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓松

    2011-01-01

    在网络银行业务日渐发展的同时,其安全性问题已经成为制约网银发展的主要因素.自2005年起,关于网络银行的安全问题严重性的报道和争执就有愈演愈烈的趋势.近几年,发生多起倍受关注的网银安全事件发生.多名网银客户发生网上资金被盗事件,涉及20多个省份.本文针对网络银行犯罪活动的现状进行了成因分析,从计算机技术角度提出了若干防范策略.最后,文章提出了制止网银犯罪的其他策略与方法,指出打击网银犯罪将是一个长期和艰巨的任务,有待各方面的力量集中统一起来.%With the network bank business development in the meantime, the growing security problem has already become the main factors restricting network bank development. Since 2005, about the network bank security problems of severity reports and dispute have intensified trend. In recent years, more people pay more attention to the occur of network bank's safety incident. Many network bank client happen online fund stolen events, involving more than 20 provinces. This paper in view of the network bank criminal activities on the current situation of genesis analysis, from computer technology Angle, puts forward some preventive strategy. Finally, this paper puts forward the other strategies and methods to stop network bank crime, and points out that the strike of network bank crime will be a long-term and arduous task, expect to all kinds of power to be centralized and unified.

  15. Current Situation of Modern College Students'Sense of Responsibility%当代大学生责任感现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秀珍; 吉家文

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解当代大学生责任感现状。方法:编制大学生责任感问卷,以海南省4所高校的849名大学生作为研究对象,实施了问卷调查。结果:通过因素分析抽取出5个因素,即国家责任感、社会责任感、家庭责任感、集体责任感、他人责任感。专科院校学生的国家责任感、集体责任感分值显著高于本科院校( t=-3.332,-3.471;P<0.01),而本科院校学生的社会责任感分值则显著高于专科院校(t=2.026,P<0.05)。男生的家庭责任感、集体责任感分值均显著高于女生( t=2.264,3.475;P<0.01)。结论:大学生的责任感由国家、社会、家庭、集体、他人5个方面组成,并有人口学因素影响。%Objective:To understand current situation and basic trend of modern college students 'sense of responsibility .Methods:849 students completed a questionnaire survey at the four colleges and universities in Hainan Province .Results:The five factors:national responsibility , social responsibility , family responsibility ,group responsibility and the responsibility towards other people , were obtained with factor analysis .Through the survey ,it was found that junior college students got significantly lower values on national responsibility and social responsibility (t=-3.332,-3.471;P<0.01),but significantly higher value on social responsibility than undergraduates (t=2.026,P<0.05);male students got significantly higher values on family responsibility and group responsibility than female students (t=2.264,3.475;P<0.05,P<0.01).Conclusion:The responsibility sense of modern college students is affected by five factors:National responsibility ,social responsibility ,family responsibility ,group responsibility and the re-sponsibility towards other people ,and can be influenced by demographic factors .

  16. The Current Innovation Situation on Chinese Foreign Cooperation%我国对外合作创新状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张汴生

    2015-01-01

    根据《中国科技统计年鉴》,选用R&D经费内部支出中来自国外的资金和R&D经费外部支出中对境外机构的支出两大指标,从规模、强度和增幅3个方面对我国对外合作创新的发展状况进行全面、系统地统计分析。研究表明:东部地区在规模和强度上占据较大的优势,相比而言,在R&D经费内部支出中来源国外的资金方面增幅不大,东北地区在规模和强度上大多处于中游水平,但R&D经费内部支出中来源国外的资金增幅较大,中部和西部地区在各方面大多处于中下游水平。%According to China Statistical Yearbook on Science and Technology,the author systematically makes a quantitative analysis on the current situation on cooperation innovation with foreign countries from the absolute quantity,relative amount and the growth rate based two indicators:the foreign funds form the intramural and external expenditure on R&D. The research suggests that the eastern region has more advantages on the absolute and relative quantity,and less anvantages on the growth rate of the foreign funds of intramural expenditure on R&D. The northeast region is in the middle level on the absolute and relative quantity,but has advantage on the growth rate of the foreign funds of intramural expenditure on R&D. The middle and western region are mostly at the middle and lower levels.

  17. 目前医患纠纷现状及原因分析%Current Situation and Cause Analysis of Medical Disputes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁保平

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过对医患纠纷的现状及原因分析,制定医疗纠纷的防范对策,重建和谐医患关系。方法从医方、患方以及医患之外的因素来分析和探究造成医疗纠纷的原因。结果近年来医疗纠纷事件恶性程度呈逐年严重趋势,医疗纠纷事件赔偿金额逐年增加。医院注重经济效益、医生技术水平以及服务态度低下、患方维权方式不当、新闻媒体的负面影响均可导致乃至促进医疗纠纷的发生。结论呼吁全社会关注医患关系状况,对医患关系状况有更加充分而准确的认识,加快医疗卫生立法,健全法律法规,使医疗活动有法可依,创建和谐的医患关系。%Objective Through the analysis of the current situation and the causes of the medical disputes, and to formulate the preventive measures to reconstruct the harmonious relationship between doctors and patients. Methods To analyze the factors from doctors, patients and doctors outside and explore the causes of medical disputes. Results In recent years, the medical disputes in the event of malignant degree of serious trend, the amount of medical malpractice compensation increased year by year. The hospital pays attention to the economic benefits, the doctors' technical level and the low service attitude, the wrong way, the negative influence of the news media can lead to the medical disputes. Conclusion A call for the whole society pays close attention to the relationship between doctors and patients, the relationship between doctors and patients have more full and accurate understanding, speeds up the health legislation, perfect laws and regulations, the medical activities in accordance with the law, create a harmonious relationship between doctors and patients.

  18. 俄罗斯的独联体外交:现状与前景%The CIS diplomacy of Russia:Current situation and Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋志芹

    2015-01-01

    The former Soviet Union of republics founded the Commonwealth of Independent States after the collapse of the Soviet Union consider the purpose of ensuring the traditional contact together and to solve the separation of issues. The group does not have national feature. Even the combination did not develop into a mature area and only as the counseling platform for theformer Soviet Union members.For over 20 years,Russian CIS policy has experienced evolution from “cast it away”to as recovering strategy relying on great power status. On 2011 Putin filed with the former Soviet Union members together to build a “Eurasian union”strategic conception.“Eurasian Economic Union”was officially launched in January 1, 2015. Judging from the current situation of Russia and the CIS countries will still faces several obstacles, integration. The future remains to be seen.%苏联解体后前苏联部分加盟共和国出于维系传统联系、共同解决分家事宜等考虑,成立了独立国家联合体。该组织并不具有国家的功能,甚至并未发展成为一个成熟的区域联合体,仅作为前苏联成员国咨询协调的平台。二十多年来,俄罗斯对独联体政策经历了从“甩包袱”到视为恢复大国地位的战略依托的演变。2011年普京提出与前苏联成员国共同构建“欧亚联盟”的战略构想“,欧亚经济联盟”已经于2015年1月1日正式启动。从目前来看俄罗斯与独联体国家的一体化进程仍将面临多重阻碍,其发展前景仍有待观察。

  19. 呼和浩特市孕妇碘营养现状调查%Investigation on the current situation of iodine nutrition of pregnant women in Hohhot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨缨; 骆学东; 王瑞; 武怡; 张惠

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To understand the current situations of urine iodine level and iodized salt usage of pregnant women, provide a scientific basis for carrying out iodine nutrition intervention among pregnant women. Methods: Five hundred pregnant women who received antenatal care in the hospital from March to May in 2010 for the first time were selected as study objects, national standard arsenic and cerium catalysis spectrophotometry was used to detect urine iodine, the usage of iodized salt was detected by a questionnaire. Results: The incidences of low iodine, appropriate iodine, and high iodine among the pregnant women were 21.6% , 51.2% , and 27. 2% , respectively. No pregnant women with excessive iodine exceeding human discomfort toleranc was found; the incidence of abnormal iodine level among the rural pregnant women with low educational level was significantly higher than that among the urban pregnant women with high educational level; the correct rate of usage of iodized salt among pregnant women was low. Conclusion: Iodine deficiency and excessive intake of iodine existed in the pregnant women in Hohhot, and the incidences were high. Thus, relevant departments should carry out iodine nutrition monitoring and guidance among pregnant women.%目的:了解孕妇尿碘水平、碘盐使用现状,为进行孕妇碘营养干预提供科学依据.方法:以2010年3~5月首次到内蒙古妇幼保健院进行孕期保健的500名呼和浩特市孕妇为调查对象,采用国标砷铈催化分光光度法进行其尿碘测定并对碘盐使用情况进行问卷调查.结果:孕妇低碘率为21.6%,适碘率为51.2%,高碘率为27.2%,未发现超过人体耐受量的高碘者;文化程度低的农村孕妇碘水平异常者较文化程度高的城市孕妇多;孕妇碘盐使用的正确率较低.结论:呼和浩特市孕妇碘缺乏、碘摄入过多均存在,且发生率均较高.因此,相关部门应该及时进行孕妇的碘营养监测和指导工作.

  20. Current situation of complicated common diseases of physical examination groups with different ages%不同年龄段体检人群常见疾病现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析体检人群不同年龄段并发常见疾病现状,并提出护理措施.方法 对2011年1-10月在解放军总医院国际医学中心进行健康体检的500例体检者的体检结果进行统计,列出不同年龄段常见疾病.结果 高血压病、高脂血症、脂肪肝、糖尿病、冠心病、妇科疾病、心理疾病和癌症发病率较高.不同年龄段男性患病率差异有统计学意义(x2 =40.1142,P<0.05);不同年龄段的女性患病率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 成年男性要积极采取健康的生活方式,加大对健康的关注度.%Objective To investigate the current situation of complicated common diseases of physical examination groups with different ages so as to provide nursing interventions.Methods The physical examination results of 500 cases of physical examination groups at International Medical Center,Chinese PLA General Hospital between January and October in 2011 were analyzed,then listed the complicated common diseases of different ages cases.Results The difference of complicated common diseases incidence of male patient among different ages was statistically significant ( x2 =40.1142,P < 0.05 ).While no significant difference was detected in that of female patients (P > 0.05 ).Among physical examination groups,the incidence of hypertension,hypedipidemia,fatty liver,diabetes,coronary heart disease,gynecological disease,mental illness and cancer were high.Conclusions A further warning to adult males,who should actively adopt a healthy lifestyle and increase the concerns degree on health.

  1. 房产基建类企业贷款的现状与风险%Current situation and risks of loans in real estate infrastructure enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙世乾

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the central pitch stable housing consumption, several rounds of financial credit policy improve the market environment, and adjust measures to local conditions around a series of loose policies to promote the demand in the market. Data show that in the first half of 2016, 93 listed real estate and infrastructure companies achieve revenue 468.757 billion yuan, 343.648 billion yuan during the same period increased by 36.41% compared with 2015, a 11.6% drop in net profit margin amount. Industry revenue in the domestic real estate industry and infrastructure improvements, but under the condition of net margins have fallen significantly, bank loan balance is inverse to the two industry city to rise, so the banking industry in response to the rapid growth of capital requirements at the same time also faces a potential systemic risks. The article researches on the current situation and risks of loans in real estate infrastructure enterprises.%近年来,中央定调稳定住房消费,多轮金融信贷政策发力改善市场环境,各地也因地制宜出台了一系列宽松政策,促进需求入市。数据表明,2016年上半年93家上市房地产与基建类企业共实现营收4687.57亿元,相比2015年同期的3436.48亿元增加36.41%,净利润率合计下降11.6%。在国内房地产行业以及基建行业营收有所回暖、但是净利润率则有明显回落的情况下,银行向两行业贷款余额却逆市上升,因此银行业在应对快速增长的资金需求同时也面临着潜在的系统性风险,文章对房产基建类企业贷款的现状与风险进行了研究。

  2. 我国主产地柑橘的农药残留现状研究%Current Situation of Pesticide Residues in Citrus from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张耀海; 焦必宁; 赵其阳; 王成秋; 周志钦

    2011-01-01

    我国柑橘生产使用农药种类多、剂量大,对产品质量安全有一定影响.文中采用气相色谱和高效液相色谱检测技术,对我国6省(市)柑橘产地抽取的198个鲜果样品进行了26种农药残留的检测与评价.10种农药残留检出,包括禁限用农药,其中1个样品有1种农残超标,超标率为0.47%,各省(市)柑橘鲜果样品的农药残留检出率均在48.9%以上,我国柑橘质量安全存在潜在风险.%The wide varieties and massive doses of pesticide residues applied in citrus production has influence on citrus safety quality in China.The current situation of citrus safety was investigated to provide basic reference in the evaluation of potential risks.All samples from six provinces or cities were determined by gas chromatography (GC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to monitor twenty-six pesticides.Ten of twenty six pesticides residues were detected and one exceeded the MRLs.Of all the samples, 0.47% exceeded the MRLs.The detectable rates of samples from six main producing areas were above 48.9%.There is a potential risk in Citrus products in China.In order to ensure the citrus safety in China, we need to strengthen pesticide residue examination, enhance disease-carrying insect monitor and preventing technical guidance, promote non-environmental damage and green citrus production technology.We also need to improve our detecting technology and catch up with international advanced analysis method.

  3. 我国家庭养老观念的现状及变化趋势%The Current Situation and Tendency of Family Support Perception in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪竞垚

    2016-01-01

    利用2014年中国老年社会追踪调查(CLASS)数据作为支持,从老年人对家庭养老模式和具体的家庭养老方式的态度和看法这两个维度,阐释我国家庭养老观念的现状和变化。研究发现:家庭养老模式方面,孝观念和孝行标准在当代社会的文化氛围下有着新的表现形式,今天的老年人更加注重子女对自己日常生活的照料;在具体的家庭养老方式方面,对于“谁来养老”,老年人尤其是城市、低龄老年人的“养儿防老”观念正在逐渐淡化,对于“在哪养老”,从总体上看,无论是老年人还是其家庭成员,大都希望居家养老。%By using the data from Chinese Longitudinal Aging Social Survey (CLASS) which is directed by Renmin University of China, this paper interprets the current situation and tendency of family support perception from 2 dimensions:family support pattern and the action style of family support. The paper has found that filial piety perception is changing in recent days and the old persons are more emphasis on children’s care for them in family support pattern aspect. Furthermore, in the aspect of family support action style, the perspective for“raise children to provide against old age”is diminishing especially for the urban and low age old people. Moreover, both old people and their family members are inclined that the old are expected to be at home when they are old.

  4. Investigation on current situation of Toxoplasma infection in reproductive population%育龄人群弓形虫感染现状调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶彦; 章力; 黄甘颖; 李霞

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate and analyze the current situation of Toxoplasma ( TOX ) infection in reproductive population. Methods Five hundred pregnant women and 500 cases of healthy people without any symptoms of TOX infection were selected and grouped into pregnant group and health group. The general information and the history of exposure to pets of all the included objects, and the adverse pregnancy history of pregnant women in the pregnancy group were investigated and compared. Results There was no significant difference in TOX infection rate between health group and pregnant group (χ2 =1. 578, P >0. 05). The recent TOX infection rate of women who had pet exposure history in both groups was significantly higher than that without pet exposure history (χ2 value was 33. 196 and 20. 436, respectively, both P0.05)。健康组、孕妇组中有宠物接触史者的近期TOX感染率均显著高于无宠物接触史者(χ2值分别为33.196、20.436,均P<0.05)。孕妇组中具有不良妊娠史者的近期TOX感染率显著高于无不良妊娠史者(χ2=17.837,P<0.05)。孕妇组TOX感染知晓率显著高于健康组(χ2=27.127,P<0.05),年龄(<25岁)、非生物医学相关职业、居住地位于农村地区、学历较低(小学及以下)均是知晓TOX感染的危险因素( OR值分别为1.612、3.287、1.455、2.673,均P<0.05)。结论育龄人群的TOX感染知晓情况受多种人口学因素影响,TOX感染与孕妇不良妊娠史的发生具有相关性,宠物接触史可增加TOX感染风险。

  5. 大学生时间洞察力现状调查研究%Investigation and Research on the Current Situation of College Students' Insight into Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云霞

    2016-01-01

    本文以洛阳市3所高校学生为被试,通过《时间洞察力问卷》调查大学生时间洞察力状况。研究表明:大学生对未来时间的理解和体验有明确的认知,总体时间洞察力有待加强;女生未来时间洞察力显著高于男生;男生现在宿命时间洞察力显著高于女生;大二学生现在宿命时间洞察力显著高于大一学生;理工科学生现在宿命时间洞察力显著高于文科学生。结论:大学生存在不佳的时间偏向,总体时间洞察力水平不高,急需采取措施提高时间洞察力水平。%With students from 3 colleges of Luoyang City as the subject,"questionnaire on insight into time"was used to investi-gate the current situation of college students' insight into time. It was found in the research that: college students have a clear knowledge on the understanding and experience of future time, but the general insight into time still needs to be improved; fe-male students' insight into future time is significantly higher than that of male students;male students' insight into present destiny time is significantly higher than that of female students; sopho-mores' insight into present destiny time is significantly higher than that of freshmen; science and engineering students' insight into present destiny time is significantly higher than that of liberal arts students. Conclusion: College students' tendency towards time is poor and the general level of their insight into time is low, so urgent measures should be taken to improve the level of insight into time.

  6. 新疆麻疹流行现状和控制策略%Analysis of current epidemiological situation of measles and strategies for controlling measles in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁玉莲; 戴述齐

    2001-01-01

    Objective To analyze the current epidemiological situation of measles and to put forward strategies for controlling measles in Xinjiang. Methods A descriptive epidemiology was performed to survey incidence of measles in Xinjiang from 1953~1999. Results  The highest incidence rate of 1 155.14 per 100 000 was reported in 1964. Since 1 965, the measles incidence had dramatically decreased with using measles vaccine in Xinjiang, particularly the action of launching EPI program since 1984. The l owest incidence rate of 7.85 per 100 000 was achieved in 1990. From 1990~1 999 cases mostly concentrated on preschool and school children. Seasonal distri b ution of measles was in April and May. Conclusions It is urgent to improve efficacy of measles vaccine, to establish measles epidemiological an d laboratory surveillance system, and to strengthen immunization for measles and controlling of the outbreak.%目的 分析新疆麻疹流行的现状并提出控制策略 。方法 用描述流行病学方法对1953~1999年新疆麻疹发病情况分析。 结果 1964年报告发病率为1 155.14/10万。 自1965年开始使用麻疹疫苗(MV)以来,特别是1984年开展计划免疫活动以后,我区麻疹 的发病率大幅度下降,流行强度明显降低,到1990年发病率已降至历史最低水平7.85/10万 。1990~1999年麻疹主要在学龄前儿童和小学生中发病,冬春高发,其中4、5月份发病数 最多。结论 应建立监测系统,开展麻疹强化免疫活动,控制麻疹爆发。

  7. [Clinical evaluation of new drugs against orphan diseases in oncology - the current situation in Europe and in our country].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stěrba, Jaroslav; Stěrbová, Sylva; Kodytková, Daniela; Valík, Dalibor; Demlová, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Cancer represents one of the main causes of death among diseases across the age spectrum. Tumors in children, however, represent less than 1% of the total number of cancers in the population and in terms of the definition of orphan diseases in Europe are all children's cancers considered as orphan diseases. This is the reason why the research and development of new agents against cancer in childhood stands outside of the main interest. Every year around 30,000 new cases of cancer in children and adolescents are diagnosed in the European Unioun (EU) and approximately 80% of them achieve long-term remission using mainly conventional methods of treatment. However, almost 6,000 children and adolescents die every year of malignant tumors therefore cancer remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Consequently, there is a demand for new and safe drugs for children suffering from cancer which would lead to improved survival and to risk reduction of late adverse effects of cancer treatment. In the past 10 years in the EU, more in the EU-15 than in our country, 20 performed oncology trials in phase I involving adults account for only one trial in pediatric patients. The issue of new drugs clinical testing in rare cancers is very complex, complicated and for current unsatisfactory situation might be responsible various aspects. These aspects contain the legislative field, the problem of determining the correct dose of testing drug as a single agent or in combination therapy, the use of testing drug in advanced disease or already in de novo diagnosed patients, as well as equity (equal) access to new drugs being tested, the goal set for each molecule/drug in clinical trials, the conflict of interest balanced with sufficient professionalism and last but not least, the need for new methodologies and statistical approaches. The aim of this article is to describe the issue complexity of incorporation of new, modern drug for cancer patients with orphan diseases, including

  8. The Analysis and Research on Current Situation and Counter measures of Mobile Laboratory Standards in China%中国移动实验室标准的现状分析与对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈弘; 苏锡辉; 刘阳

    2014-01-01

    Based on lots of field investigations and researches, this article analyzes in details the current situation of mobile laboratory standards in China, summarizes and explains the existing problems in standardization, and puts forward reasonable measures for the development of the industry.

  9. 'I think it will eventually be done away with': Attitudes among healthcare professionals towards the current system of animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignon, Andrée

    2016-08-01

    This article describes a study of attitudes to the current system of animal experimentation (for the production of health interventions) among 52 UK healthcare professionals. These healthcare professionals participated in three separate focus groups (of 18, 17 and 17 participants) and were invited to respond to the question 'what is your opinion about the current system of animal testing?' The study focused specifically on their views of the current system (rather than their views of animal testing in general). The healthcare professionals were critical of the current system, particularly with regard to regulation, secrecy, validity, unnecessary suffering and welfare. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. 无锡市民家庭园艺消费现状研究%Investigation on current situation of consumption on home gardening in Wuxi residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张珍; 包志毅

    2012-01-01

    The random questionnaires to residents about the basic situation of home gardening consumption, consumer psychology, consumption willingness to garden center and other status among seven administrative regions in Wuxi were conducted. The results show that 94.8% of residents have had to buy plants and garden supplies experience; One to two months visiting a flower market accounted for 35.2%; The annual mainly in the 100~500 yuan of spending on plants, gardening materials, maintenance costs accounted for 47.6%; the purpose of residents to buy home gardening products are mainly family and personal use; 40.9% of the people pay more attention to the appearance of home gardening products; most residents are not satisfied from the currently existing conditions of flower market; 74.5% of residents are willing to try to go to shopping at garden center; plants is preferred in garden center for consumers; hoping to know the home gardening products information of garden center by advertising media accounted for 29.4%. Low level of consumption, popular consumption, displeasure with the currently existing conditions of flower market, diversification of consumer demand, efficient communication channels to pay attention, look forward to the new consumer environment such as the garden center has become the basic characteristics of Wuxi residents consumption of home gardening.%在无锡市主要行政区域进行市民家庭园艺消费的基本情况、消费心理、花园中心消费意愿等现状的随机问卷调查。结果表明:有94.8%的市民有购买过植物及花园用品的经历;1~2个月逛1次花市的人占35.2%;而每年花销在植物、园艺资材、养护上主要在100~500元的占47.6%;市民购买家庭园艺产品主要是家庭和个人用;有40.9%的市民更注重家庭园艺产品的外观;绝大多数市民对于城市现有花市的条件不太满意、不太满足;有74.5%的市民愿意尝试去花园中心购物;植物类在花园中心

  11. 城市环境气候图的发展及其应用现状%The Development of Urban Climatic Map and Its Current Application Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任超; 吴恩融; Katzschner Lutz; 冯志雄

    2012-01-01

    procedures of developing UCMap. The current application situation in Germany, Japan and Hong Kong of China are selected to conduct case studies for exploring their advantages and existing problems. The key lessons of each case study are also provided. Furthermore, according the current situation of China, the urgent need to carry out such study is also pointed out to deal with the environmental problems caused by the recent fast urbanization and solve the conflict among social need, economic benefits, landscape and ecological environment. Due to the poor quality of meteorological data and the urgency of application, a simplified method is expected to apply for development of middle-mage cities and new rural construction of China. Also, the future trend of UCMap study is discussed, which should develop a quantitive method of defining and validating climatope, make the feasibility of application into urban planning, and adopt the climate change into consideration.%城市环境气候图最初于20世纪70年代由德国气候研究者开发制作,通过近40年的发展,目前在世界范围内已有20个国家开展了相关研究与应用项目,从而为改善城市气候环境与提高人居生活条件提供决策依据.该文首先对城市环境气候图的发展及其制作方法进行了一个总体性的回顾,然后选取德国、日本和中国香港地区的研究案例用以考察目前该领域研究和应用现状与存在问题,进一步详细探讨了未来发展的方向,最后指出了在我国城市化进程中为应对诸多气候环境问题所迫切需要开展的相关研究问题.

  12. Planning as situated design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    It is common to associate situated activity with concrete, craftlike or manual activity here and now and to reserve theoretical and abstract thinking for activities like theoretical experimentation and systematic planning. Much work has gone into demonstrating that these activities are concrete...

  13. Two current experimental problems in heavy lepton physics: tau decay modes and close mass pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perl, M.L.

    1987-08-01

    This paper investigates tau lepton decay modes and close-mass lepton pairs. The major part of the paper discusses branching functions from experimental and theoretical viewpoints. Finally, the lack of experimental signatures of close-mass lepton pairs are reviewed. 15 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs. (JDH)

  14. Situative Creativity

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Creativity is crucial for the success of any company. IT support has been shown to foster creative processes, but still disregards characteristics that are typical for creative situations, such as the need for social, intuitive and face-to-face interaction. This thesis investigates requirements via interviews and explores and evaluates a novel concept for IT driven creativity support, based on a multi-touch tabletop display and coupled private mobile devices. Obwohl der Einsatz von IT erf...

  15. Behavior of a DC zero-flux current sensor; Magnetic field analysis and comparison with experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campostrini, P.; Sonato, P. (Istituto Gas Ionizzati del CNR, Padova (IT))

    1991-09-01

    In this paper the magnetic section of the finite-element ANSYS code, and in particular its optimization feature has been used to predict the behaviour of a zero-flux current sensor, briefly described, which is intended to be used in a fusion experiment to measure pulsed currents up to 50 kA, over a bandwidth from DC to 10 k Hz. The computed results fit well with those coming from experimental tests performed on a prototype.

  16. 宁强县流动儿童免疫接种现状分析%Current Situation of Immunization for Migrant Children in Ningqiang County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成; 戴宏星

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解陕西省宁强县流动儿童的免疫接种现状,为流动儿童的免疫接种管理提供依据.方法 使用统一的调查表,在县辖26个乡镇调查所有0~7岁流动儿童.结果 共调查203名流动儿童,建证率87.68%,建卡率12.32%,卡介苗(BCG)、百白破(DPT)、脊灰减毒活疫苗(OPV)、麻疹减毒活疫苗(MV)、乙型肝炎病毒疫苗(HepB)--5苗全程接种率62.07%,流脑和乙脑接种率分别为48.61%、45.97%.流动人口主要为邻省和本省外县流入,流动儿童家长文化程度偏低,初中以下占77.83%,主要从事经商等工作,预防接种知识来源少、渠道单一.结论 宁强县流动儿童免疫接种率较低,应采用多种接种形式,加大对流动儿童家长的宣传力度,建立由多部门参与的流动儿童报告管理系统,积极探索切实可行的农村流动儿童免疫接种方法.%Objective To understand current situation of immunization for migrant children in Ningqiang and provides evidence for improving management. Methods Uniform questionnaire were applied to investigate the migrant children aged 0-7 years in 26 villages/ towns. Results A total of 203 respondents were recruited with outcomes as following, certification - issuing rate, 87. 68% ; card - establishing rate, 12. 32% ; full course vaccination rate of 62. 07% for bacillus calmette - guerin (BCG) , pertussis diphtherial tetanus (DPT) , oral poliomyelitis vaccine ( OPV ) , measles live attenuated ( MV ) , and hepatitis B virus ( HepB ) . The immigrants were mainly from the neighboring provinces and the other counties of this province; the children's parents were at low degree education level with a percentage of 77. 83% under junior middle school education, mainly engaged in business. They got little chance of accessing inoculation knowledge. Conclusion Immunization rate are relatively low in Ningqiang calling for multiple ways for inoculation, strengthening publicity as well as a reporting

  17. Current situation of doula delivery service in Shanghai city%上海市导乐陪伴分娩服务现况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丽萍; 朱丽萍; 秦敏; 许厚琴; 纪若思; 董海燕

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To understand the current situation of doula delivery service in Shanghai city, seek experiences for reference , normalize doula service. Methods: Interview combined with questionnaire was used to survey the administrative staff and doulas deeply from the hospitals conducting doula delivery service. Results: In 2009, 24 hospitals carried out doula delivery service in Shanghai city, the rate was 26. 75 %. All the lying - in women in eight hospitals adopted doula delivery, while in the other seven hospitals, the proportion of the lying - in women adopting doula delivery was less than 20%. In 2010, 30 hospitals carried out doula delivery service in Shanghai city, 383 doulas were engaged in doula delivery service, including 352 professional medical workers (91. 9% ) and 31 women having birth experience ( 8. 1 % ) . Twenty - seven hospitals carried out one - to - one doula delivery service. There was significant difference in the service mode, human resource allocation and management, and facilities among different hospitals. Conclusion: Doula delivery provides a humanism intra-partum service model for the lying - in women, and its normalization needs to be raised.%目的:了解上海市导乐陪伴分娩现状,寻找可借鉴的经验,规范导乐服务.方法:采取访谈与问卷相结合的方法,对开展导乐陪伴分娩服务医院的管理人员和导乐人员进行深入访谈.结果:①2009年全市有24家医院开展导乐陪伴分娩服务,产妇总体导乐陪伴率为26.75%,其中8家医院所有的产妇均能享受导乐陪伴分娩服务,而另外7家医院(主要为综合医院)导乐陪伴分娩的比例低于20%.②2010年上海市有30家医院开展导乐陪伴分娩服务,共有383名导乐人员,其中专业医护人员352人,占91.9%;有生育经验妇女31人,占8.1%.③现有27家医院开展“一对一”导乐陪伴分娩服务,各家医院服务模式与内容、导乐人员配置与管理、硬件设施等方面存

  18. 红松分杈现象研究现状及展望%Current Research Situation and Prospect for Multi-stem Phenomenon of Pinus koraiensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈海龙; 张金虎; 王龙

    2015-01-01

    For the purpose of understanding the current situation and future issues in research on branching phenomenon of Pinus Koraiensis, this paper reviewed the research achievements in Korean pine on the cause and prevention measurements of branching , the relationship between branching and stand density , the relationship between cone-setting and branching/crown-control , and the appli-cation of branching in its silviculture .The early research in China was focused on the causes and preventing methods for branching of Korean pine because the branching phenomenon was believed to be harmful to the timber production . Recently , the influence of branching on the growth and cone-setting, the relationship between branching and stand density , the physiological asspects of branch-ing, and top-pruning were taken into consideration in the studies related .Top-pruning and crown-control for seed orchard Korean pine trees were well conducted in South Korea .These results could be used in establishing silvicultural systems of Korean pine seed or-chard , nut production plantation and combined production plantation of timber and nut .Future studies should pay much more attention to systematic and long term research from point of developmental biology , nutritional physiology , reproduction biology , and artificial control technology establishment .%为了解掌握红松分杈现象研究现状,以便充分利用现有成果并为下一步深入研究奠定基础,本文综述红松分杈原因及预防措施、分杈与密度关系、分杈及树体调控与结实关系、红松分杈在其培育中应用等方面的研究成果。我国早期研究是把分杈作为一种影响木材培育的不良现象而进行的,研究集中在分杈原因与预防措施方面,近年来才关注分杈对生长及结实的影响、分杈与林分密度的关系,个别研究深入到分杈的生理机制,并有人工截顶促杈研究;韩国对种子园母树截顶促杈的研究比

  19. The survey on current situation of system evaluation in China%中国系统评价研究的状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏茜; 王维利; 李惠萍

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨中国系统评价研究的相关情况.方法 对1996--2006年中国所有期刊杂志中的系统评价进行检索,并分析结果.结果 中国近十年来共刊登相关文献646篇,其中系统评价291篇,系统综述13篇,Meta分析264篇,荟萃分析78篇.刊载的系统评价文献数量逐年递增,由1999年的1篇激增到2006年的208篇,内容涉及到整个医学生物领域的理论、应用、调查等方面.其中应用类的质量评价为1级,即采用最佳证据(随机对照试验)的文献为343篇,占该类文献的60.39%.护理方面的文献共9篇,占所有文献的1.39%.结论 系统评价发展迅速,中国正处于将循证医学中的系统评价引入实践的阶段,并取得了一定成绩,然而发展中尚存在一些难点、盲点,系统评价(尤其是护理领域)的相关研究数量和质量均有待进一步提高.%Objective To explore the current situation of system evaluation in China. MethodsThe system evaluation in all Chinese periodical and magazines were indexed from 1996 to 2006, and theresults were analyzed. Results There are 646 published pieces about system evaluation in the latest tenyears in China. The published systematic review document increased year by year, sharply from 1 piece in1999 to 208 pieces in 2006, while the contents involve every aspect of medicine biology. 343 pieces of thesedocuments using the best evidence, the randomized controlled trial, account for 60.39% of all. There are 9pieces nursing documents, only occupying 1.39%. Conclusions The system evaluation is developingrapidly in China. We are now on the stage of putting the systematic review of the Evidence-based medicineinto practice. Though, we achieve some success, there are still some difficulties and blind spots in itsdevelopment, and the quantity and quality of correlated investigation in system evaluation, especially innursing field, are waiting for further boost.

  20. Current situation and prospect of octachlorodipropyl ether%八氯二丙醚的研究现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕辉雄; 黄慧娟; 蔡全英; 曾巧云; 张君; 田军建

    2011-01-01

    Octachlorodipropyl ether is a pesticide synergist, and it is used in pesticide sprays, mosquito coils and so on.Octachlorodipropyl ether has long residence time in the environment and is belonged to persistent organic pollutants.Octachlorodipropyl ether may have teratogenic, carcinogenic, mutagenic effect. A lot of surveys and studies on octachlorodipropyl ether at home and abroad were carried out during the past decade. This paper firstly sums up the character and application of octachlorodipropyl ethers. Then we analyze current situation and possible source of octachlorodipropyl ethers. Lastly we probe the research prospect of octachlorodipropyl ethers. The literature shows: (1) Large number of surveys and studies have focused on the occurrence and levels of octachlorodipropyl ether in environment (eg. pesticide, mosquito coils, tea, rice, vegetable, fruit, etc.), but very few study has focused on the environmental behavior of octachlorodipropyl ether and the mechanism of octachlorodipropyl ether on migration, transformation, degradation; the rapid residual detection way of octachlorodipropyl ether in agricultural products.(2) Some studies have been conducted to investigate the toxicity of octachlorodipropyl ethers and its insecticidal activity of animals and insects. However, few literature was about the risk exposure of octachlorodipropyl ether on human.%八氯二丙醚是一种农药增效剂,多用于农药喷雾剂、蚊香等.八氯二丙醚在环境中滞留时间长,属于类持久性有机污染物,可能具有致畸、致癌、致突变作用.近10年来国内外学者对环境中的八氯二丙醚进行了比较多的调查和研究.首先对八氯二丙醚的性质、应用情况进行了阐述,然后分析八氯二丙醚的研究现状及可能来源,最后对未来八氯二丙醚的研究的重点和发展趋势进行了展望.文献分析表明:(1)目前国内外的研究集中报道八氯二丙醚在环境中的含量(如农药、蚊香、茶叶

  1. The Current Situation of Domestic Female Leisure in the Recent Decade%近十年国内女性休闲研究现况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯媛媛; 张朋

    2012-01-01

    本研究采用内容分析法对从2002年起至2011年中国期刊网、博士论文、硕士论文网有关女性休闲主题131篇研究论文进行数量、主题、研究对象、研究方法等运用情形分析。期望有助于休闲相关学者对本领域的现况、特性及发展趋势有完整了解。研究结果显示:十年间论文数量整体呈现快速增长趋势,但高质量核心期刊论文比例少,其中50%核心论文以休闲体育为题发表在体育类核心期刊;论文内容也侧重休闲体育,缺少涵盖休闲体育在内的休闲行为整体研究;研究主题以休闲态度与行为实证研究为主,多采用定量的问卷调查,缺少定性的访谈、观察等研究相结合的综合性研究。建议借鉴其他学科资讯,增加研究主题多样性,从多方法、多角度提升研究水平,还应补充文献资料整合研究及外文资料成果。%In this study, case content analysis is used to analyze 131 research papers on female leisure from China Journal Net, doctoral thesis, master's thesis network between 2011 to 2002. Complete understanding of expectations contribute to the current situation on the field, characteristics and trends of leisure scholars. The study results show that: the number of papers in the decade as a whole showed a rapid growth, but high - quality small proportion of core journals ,50% of the core papers for the casual sports topic in the Sports Core Periodicals ; papers focus on leisure and sports, the lack of covering leisure sports, including leisure behavior of the overall study; research topics mainly empirical study of leisure attitudes and behaviors to use more quantitative survey, the lack of qualitative interviews, observation and study a combination of comprehensive research. Recommendations, to learn from other disciplines information to increase the diversity of research topics, from the multi - method, multi - angle to enhance the level of research

  2. 我国农村中药市场现状及对策%Current Situation and Countermeasures of China’s Rural Drug Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨曦; 莫颖宁; 顾正位

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解我国农村中药市场存在的突出问题并提出解决对策。方法:采用文献研究、内容分析的方法,结合相关法律法规,对2015年有关农村中药市场研究的文献进行归纳与分析。结果:目前农村药品市场规模小,分布广,用药安全存在隐患;药品价格不稳;农村医药整体消费低,法律意识淡薄,普遍存在用药不合理;药品从业人员素质偏低,定点医疗落后或不完善。结论:在建设社会主义新农村进行的同时,不仅要让农村的表面变化,还要推进农村医疗机构药品管理法制化道路,包括加强药品价格管理,营造良好的农村用药环境,加强药品相关知识宣传培训力度,不断提升药品监管水平和质量,建立多形式医疗保障制度,提高农民的健康水平,使我国农村中药市场井然有序发展。%Objective:To investigate outstanding problems of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)market of our country and put forward solutions.Methods:We summarized and analyzed literature on country drug market of this year,with literature research and contents analysis combined with related laws and legislations.Results:We found that current TCM market was characterized by small scale,wide spread,drug use safety hazard,unstable price,lower general consumption level of country drugs,faint legal consciousness,widespread irrational use of drugs,lower quality of medicine practitioners, poor appointed medical situations.Conclusion:With the Construction of Socialistic New Country,we should not only alter the countryside superficially,but also promote rural medical institutions and drug management legalization path,including strengthening drug price management,improving drug attack mode.To strengthen publicity and study of drug use knowledge, we should increase comprehensive quality of medicine practitioners,establish multi-form medical insurance system and improve farmers

  3. A Brief Discussion on How to Implement Situation-Based Experimental Teaching of Basic Accountant%浅谈如何实施基础会计情景实验教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘登峰

    2011-01-01

    本文从开展会计情景实验教学入手.让学生在情景教学中激发学习兴趣和热情.从和谐、轻松的环境中学习会计业务知识方面来加以论述。%With the implementation of accountant situation-based experimental teaching as the breakthrough point,this paper elaborates the teaching method from the following aspects:arousing students' learning interest and enthusiasm in situation-based teaching,learning accountant professional knowledge in harmonious and relaxed environment.

  4. Faculty perceptions of the strengths, weaknesses and future prospects of the current medical undergraduate experimental physiology curriculum in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paralikar, Swapnil; Shah, Chinmay

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several years, an opinion has emerged in India that the current practical curricula in medical schools fail to meet many of the objectives for which they were instituted. Hence, this study has assessed the perception of physiology faculty members regarding the current experimental physiology curriculum in one Indian state, Gujarat. The faculty were of the opinion that many of the topics currently taught in experimental physiology (amphibian nerve-muscle and heart muscle experiments) were outdated and clinically irrelevant: Therefore, the faculty advocated that duration of teaching time devoted to some of these topics should be reduced and topics with clinical relevance should be introduced at the undergraduate level. The faculty also felt that more emphasis should be laid on highlighting the clinical aspect related to each concept taught in experimental physiology . Moreover, a majority of faculty members were in favour of replacing the current practice in Gujarat of teaching experimental physiology only by explanation of graphs obtained from experiments conducted in the previous years, with computer assisted learning in small groups.

  5. Deep situationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matejskova, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    This article seeks to extend scholarship rethinking insiderness in qualitative research through an examination of the shifting terrain of the constitution of insides in an ethnographic research on everyday politics of integration and belonging in eastern Berlin. I reflect here on my experiences...... as a Slovak national with immigration experi- ence, a nominal outsider to both the country of research, Germany, and its immigrant subjects, the post-Soviet Russian-speaking migrants. Focusing on the production of time-spaces of proximity as a deeply situational process, I stress in particular the un...

  6. The Current Situation of Students’ Participatation in Extracurricular Sports Activities of Private Middle School in Henan Province and the Analysis of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhe, Wang

    By using the methods of document literature, questionnaire survey and mathematical statistics, this paper investigates and analyses the cuurent situation of students' participation in extrucurricular sports activities of 36 private middle schools in Henan province which have legal education procedures through the following aspects: the attitude, motivation, times, duration, selection of programs, and influential factors of participating in extracurricular sports activities. Based on the investigation and analysis, this paper points out the existing problems and puts forward suggestions

  7. Biodiesel for Brazilian development: current situation and challenges for a sustainable future; Biodiesel para o desenvolvimento brasileiro: situacao atual e desafios para um futuro sustentavel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartsch, Aleksandra Sliwowska; Antunes, Adelaide Maria de Souza [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    This article aims at analyzing the state of art and trends of biodiesel in Brazil, with resort to the Industry Strategic Map, a tool developed by National Industry Federation (CNI). The situation of biodiesel will be analyzed considering : Bases for Development, Processes and Activities, Market and Results for Country. At the beginning is presented the evolution of biodiesel in Brazil e are explained the construction of the Strategic Map by CNI. (author)

  8. 平坝县湿地现状与保护对策%Current Situation and Conservation Countermeasures of Pingba County Wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖正武; 廖婧琳

    2013-01-01

    Using the second wetland survey data of Pingba County,this paper analyzed the situation of Pingba wet-land,and put forward some countermeasures for protecting the wetland.%  运用平坝县第二次湿地调查资料,对平坝县的湿地现状进行了分析,并针对性地提出了一些保护对策。

  9. Theoretical and Experimental Study of the Primary Current Distribution in Parallel-Plate Electrochemical Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez Aranda, Armando I.; Henquin, Eduardo R.; Torres, Israel Rodriguez; Bisang, Jose M.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described to determine the primary current distribution in parallel-plate electrochemical reactors. The electrolyte is simulated by conductive paper and the electrodes are segmented to measure the current distribution. Experiments are reported with the electrolyte confined to the interelectrode gap, where the current…

  10. Experimental Phenomena of Improved Ohmic Confinement Induced by Modulated Toroidal Current on the HT-7 Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛剑珊; 罗家融; P.Phillips; 赵君煜; 揭银先; 吴振伟; 胡立群; 李建刚

    2002-01-01

    The phenomena of improved ohmic confinement have been observed during the modulation of the toroidal curranton the Hefei superconducting Tokamak-7 (HT-7). In the experiment, the programming ohmic heating field wasmodulated. A toroidal frequency-modulated current induced by modulated loop voltage was added on the plasmaequilibrium current. The ratio of ac amplitude of the plasma current to the main plasma current is about 12-30%.These improved plasma confinement phenomena include the facts that the average electron density and the centralelectron temperature both increase, the Dα radiation from the edge is reduced, the magnetohydrodynamics isobviously suppressed by oscillating plasma current, eand the global energy confinement time increases by 27-45%o.It is found that the faster the modulation is, the more effective the improved ohmic confinement phase.

  11. Experimental study on directional solidification of Al-Si alloys under the influence of electric currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räbiger, D.; Zhang, Y.; Galindo, V.; Franke, S.; Willers, B.; Eckert, S.

    2016-07-01

    The application of electric currents during solidification can cause grain refinement in metallic alloys. However, the knowledge about the mechanisms underlying the decrease in grain size remains fragmentary. This study considers the solidification of Al-Si alloys under the influence of electric currents for the configuration of two parallel electrodes at the free surface. Solidification experiments were performed under the influence of both direct currents (DC) and rectangular electric current pulses (ECP). The interaction between the applied current and its own induced magnetic field causes a Lorentz force which produces an electro-vortex flow. Numerical simulations were conducted to calculate the Lorentz force, the Joule heating and the induced melt flow. The numerical predictions were confirmed by isothermal flow measurements in eutectic GaInSn. The results demonstrate that the grain refining effect observed in our experiments can be ascribed solely to the forced melt flow driven by the Lorentz force.

  12. The effect of government internal auditors moral reasoning and situational pressure on the tendency to commit fraud when auditing: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novita Puspasari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the effect of government internal auditors moral levels and situational pressures on the tendency to commit fraud when conducting audit. Based on the hypothesis, despite the situational pressures, the government internal auditors who have a high moral level will not commit fraud at the time of auditing. Meanwhile, the government internal auditors who have a low moral level will com-mit fraud at the time of auditing when there is situational pressure. To test the hypothesis, a 22 factorial experiment is conducted involving 68 students of STAR-BPKP of Jenderal Soedirman University. The results indicate that the government internal auditors who have a high moral level will not commit fraud in the time of auditing despite some situational pressures. Meanwhile, the government internal auditors who have a low moral level will commit fraud at the time of auditing either there is a situational pressure or not. The implications of this study are to streng-then the supervisory system for the internal auditors at the time of auditing, to provide protection for whistle- blowers who report the presence of fraud committed by auditors, and to be consistent in giving reward to professional auditors and pu-nishment to auditors who are convicted of fraud at the time of auditing.

  13. Experimentally determined mechanical properties of, and models for, the periodontal ligament: critical review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fill, Ted S; Carey, Jason P; Toogood, Roger W; Major, Paul W

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. This review is intended to highlight and discuss discrepancies in the literature of the periodontal ligament's (PDL) mechanical properties and the various experimental approaches used to measure them. Methods. Searches were performed on biomechanical and orthodontic publications (in databases: Compendex, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Scopus). Results. The review revealed that significant variations exist, some on the order of six orders of magnitude, in the PDL's elastic constants and mechanical properties. Possible explanations may be attributable to different experimental approaches and assumptions. Conclusions. The discrepancies highlight the need for further research into PDL properties under various clinical and experimental loading conditions. Better understanding of the PDL's biomechanical behavior under physiologic and traumatic loading conditions might enhance the understanding of the PDL's biologic reaction in health and disease. Providing a greater insight into the response of the PDL would be instrumental to orthodontists and engineers for designing more predictable, and therefore more efficacious, orthodontic appliances.

  14. Experimental evaluation of IGBT junction temperature measurement via peak gate current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Nick; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Iannuzzo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Temperature sensitive electrical parameters allow junction temperature measurements on power semiconductors without modification to module packaging. The peak gate current has recently been proposed for IGBT junction temperature measurement and relies on the temperature dependent resistance of th...

  15. Currents, HF Radio-derived, Monterey Bay, 25 hr, Meridional, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the 25 hour running average of the meridional component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements. THIS IS AN...

  16. Currents, HF Radio-derived, Ano Nuevo, Normal Model, Meridional, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the meridional component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements, with missing values filled in by a normal...

  17. Currents, HF Radio-derived, SF Bay Outlet, 25 hr, Zonal, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the 25 hour running average of the zonal component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements. THIS IS AN...

  18. Currents, HF Radio-derived, SF Bay, 33 hr, Meridional, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the 33 hour running average of the meridional component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements. THIS IS AN...

  19. Currents, HF Radio-derived, Bodega Bay, 25 hr, Zonal, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the 25 hour running average of the zonal component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements. THIS IS AN...

  20. Currents, HF Radio-derived, Ano Nuevo, 25 hr, Meridional, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the 25 hour running average of the meridional component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements. THIS IS AN...

  1. Currents, HF Radio-derived, Ano Nuevo, Normal Model, Zonal, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the zonal component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements, with missing values filled in by a normal model....

  2. Currents, HF Radio-derived, Ano Nuevo, 25 hr, Zonal, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the 25 hour running average of the zonal component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements. THIS IS AN...

  3. Currents, HF Radio-derived, SF Bay Outlet, Normal Model, Zonal, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the zonal component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements, with missing values filled in by a normal model....

  4. Experimental pain processing in individuals with cognitive impairment: current state of the science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Defrin, R; Amanzio, Martina; de Tomasso, M

    2015-01-01

    to cognitively unimpaired individuals. Our current understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning these alterations is limited, but may be enhanced through the use of animal models of CI which also exhibit alterations in nociceptive responding. Further research employing additional behavioural...

  5. Currents, HF Radio-derived, Monterey Bay, Normal Model, Zonal, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the zonal component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements, with missing values filled in by a normal model....

  6. Currents, HF Radio-derived, Monterey Bay, Normal Model, Meridional, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the meridional component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements, with missing values filled in by a normal...

  7. Currents, HF Radio-derived, SF Bay Outlet, 25 hr, Meridional, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the 25 hour running average of the meridional component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements. THIS IS AN...

  8. Currents, HF Radio-derived, Bodega Bay, 25 hr, Meridional, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the 25 hour running average of the meridional component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements. THIS IS AN...

  9. Currents, HF Radio-derived, Monterey Bay, 25 hr, Zonal, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the 25 hour running average of the zonal component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements. THIS IS AN...

  10. Currents, HF Radio-derived, SF Bay Outlet, Normal Model, Meridional, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the meridional component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements, with missing values filled in by a normal...

  11. Single-Case Experimental Designs: A Systematic Review of Published Research and Current Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin D.

    2012-01-01

    This article systematically reviews the research design and methodological characteristics of single-case experimental design (SCED) research published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2010. SCEDs provide researchers with a flexible and viable alternative to group designs with large sample sizes. However, methodological challenges have…

  12. 耕地保护生态补偿现状及政策建议%Current Situation and Policy Suggestion of Ecological Compensation for Cultivated Land Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林; 李海燕

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of exploration of the present situation of cultivated land protection of ecological compensation in China,the necessity to establish the ecological compensation of cultivated land protection was analyzed,and relevant policy suggestions to perfect the ecological compensation for farmland protection in China were finally put forward.%在剖析我国耕地保护生态补偿现状的基础上,分析建立耕地保护生态补偿的必要性,最后提出完善我国耕地保护生态补偿的相关政策建议。

  13. Investigation on the current situation of mental health institutions in Chengdu%成都市精神卫生医疗机构现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任华; 秦小荣; 李慧; 何昌九; 代光智; 贾勇

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解成都市精神卫生医疗机构现状。方法自制调查表,于2013年9月12日-10月30日,通过电子邮件向全市具备精神科执业范围的医疗机构发放调查表,调查基准时间为2013年9月1日,所有数据经 Excel、SPSS18.0进行描述性分析。结果截止2013年9月,成都市拥有不同级别、等级及隶属关系的精神卫生医疗机构27家,分布以中心城区为主,存在5个精神科床位空白区县。精神卫生工作人员2505人。精神科核定床位3133张,实际开放床位5298张,床位密度2.67张/万人,编制床位床均建筑面积53 m2,实际开放床位床均建筑面积31 m2。经费来源,医院业务收入占90.8%,精神科财政补助占2.4%,多集中在地市级机构,平均设备总值为806.69万元,而乡镇级机构的平均设备总值仅为49.50万元。2012年共接收门诊患者450260人次、出院24698人次,精神科医生平均年负担门诊832人次、住院46人次。病床使用率中位数94.6%,平均住院日中位数70天。自2006年,各类重性精神疾病患者住院人次有不同程度的增长,其中以精神分裂症患者为主,2012年较2006年增幅达65%。结论成都市精神卫生机构配置不足,分布不均,投入不足,难以满足逐渐增长的精神卫生服务需求。%Objective To find out the current situation of mental institutions in Chengdu. Methods We gave out the self -made questionnaire to all the medical institutions which have psychiatric practice through the E - mail from September 12 to October 30,2013. Time up to September 1,2013. All data were analyzed by the SPSS 18. 0 and Excel. Results There were in total 27 men-tal healthcare institutions with different levels in Chengdu until September 1,2013. These mental healthcare institutions were mainly located in central urban area. Among them,there were five institutions without psychiatric inpatient beds. There were 2505 mental health

  14. Investigation study on current situation of dust management in coal enterprises%煤炭企业粉尘控制现状调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范红敏; 崔炜; 袁聚祥; 陈银苹; 徐应军; 高雯

    2011-01-01

    To know the current situation of dust administration and control, and questions existed in the dust management in coal enterprises, so as to provide evidences for formulating the plan of prevention for coal workers' pneumonoconiosis. Subjects and Methods Five coal enterprises were selected as field studies by the typical sampling method. Some coal workers, occupational health personnel, dust prevention workers and dust monitor personnel were investigated by face to face questionaire and qualitative interview. Historical data were collected from the files of the five coal enterprises and pneumoconiosis diagnostic data. Database was set up in Epidata3.0, and the data were analyzed by SAS. Results With the time going, the proportion of category Ⅰ pneumoconiosis gradually increased. Subjects were very aware of the dust hazard and the necessity of the measure for dust prevention while they were not very familiar with the country's law for dust control, the right for worker's health, and the supervision for dust. Among 478 Investigated coal workers, only 59. 4% of people knew that firm had distributed propaganda materials. The using percentage of preventive material for the workers who exposed to dust directly was only 72. 6%,and the percentage for those who use preventive material each time was less than 50%. Bad comfort of using prevention material might be the main reasons to refuse the using among workers. 18.8% of employees still did not make pre-service medical examination. The devices for preventing dust were more perfect and went well, but there still had existed phenomenons that some dustproof facilities were not running. Conclusions There remained some questions that Dust hazard and dust prevention knowledge were lack of publicity, occupational health examination work was not integrity, dust control measures were inadequate, and the monitoring for the dust concentration might have some bugs. The corresponding measures have to be taken in the dust

  15. Current Situation Investigation of the Interactive Classroom Teaching (Ⅲ)%互动式课堂教学现状的调查(Ⅲ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚; 王翀; 易龙; 廖晓兰

    2013-01-01

    A form of questionnaire by investigation was carried out to study the current situation of interactive class-room teaching in order to improve the quality of talent fosterage. The results showed that many teachers believed that the interest and intelligence of the students were the most important factors for interactive classroom teaching;second-ly, students'attitude towards study and individual mood may also affect the results of interactive classroom teaching. In respect of requirements for teachers in teacher-student interaction, 27% of students believed that teachers should be rigorous and methodical, 24% thought that teachers should be humorous, wit and concentrative, 13% considered teachers should be erudite, while 36% believed that teachers should not only be rigorous, humour and wit, and eru-dite, but also should have fairly strong capability of synthesis. When investigating the interactive role of teachers and students, 68% of teachers believed both teachers and students need mutual efforts, 16% of teachers thought it laid stress on teachers, 15% of teachers considered students should set store on, and some individual chose others. In ad-dition, when investigating the form of teacher-student interaction, 35% of students believed“the setting scene” work best results in classroom interaction, 28% considered that the effect of “debate competition” interaction will result well, 21% selected the style of “asking student by naming him or her” interaction, only a few students chose “visi-tors'book” as interaction. The results of this investigation provided references for universities and colleges to carry out interactive mode of teaching reformation.%为加强课堂教学改革,提高人才培养质量,采取问卷调查的形式对互动式课堂教学现状进行了研究。结果表明:多数教师认为学生的兴趣和智力是影响师生互动的重要因素,其次学习态度和个人情绪也会影响互动式课堂教学效果;在

  16. 840例医务人员锐器伤现状调查%A Current Situation Survey on Sharp Injury in 840 Medical Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐世兰; 吴西亿; 饶莉; 谭成; 乔甫; 蒲丹; 尹维佳; 舒明蓉

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过调查医务人员锐器伤发生情况,为制定锐器伤防护措施提供科学依据.方法 采用上海复旦大学中山医院设计的锐器伤调查问卷,按工作类别抽取四川大学华西医院各科室相关人群的10%进行调查.问卷内容包括被调查者的基本情况,锐器伤后的报告情况,以及培训参与和过去1年锐器伤涉及的暴露源、操作、场所和器具.结果 共发放调查问卷840份,回收840份,有效回收率100%.840名被调查者中,男性占23%,女性占72%,50.24%发生过锐器伤;工作年限<10年者占锐器伤总数的75%,护士、保洁员、医师锐器伤率处于前3位,手术室为锐器伤发生的第一高危科室;已知血源性暴露源为乙肝69例、梅毒19例、丙肝6例和HIV 3例;62%的被调查者参加过培训,但仅有11.61%被刺伤者报告过锐器伤.结论 该院医务人员锐器伤发生率较高,但报告率较低.手术室为锐器伤发生高危科室,护士、保洁员、医师为锐器伤发生高危人群.应加强重点科室、重点人群锐器伤防护和培训.%Objective To survey the current situation of the sharp injury in medical workers, and to provide scientific evidence for the prevention and protection of sharp injury. Methods Through applying the questionnaire of sharp injuries designed by Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai Fudan University, 10% of the workers in all departments of West China Hospital of Sichuan University were selected as respondents according to their job categories. The main contents of the survey included the general information of respondents, reporting after sharp injuries, training participation, and the exposure sources, operations, premises and equipments related to sharp injuries over the past one year. Results Of 840 questionnaires distributed, 100% were valid. The ratio of male was 23% while the female was 72%. There were 50.20% of all respondents who once got injured, and 75% of the respondents having

  17. FORECAST OF FLIGHT SEVERITY SITUATION WITH AN ENGINE FAILURE ON THE ASCENDING MANEUVERS BASED ON COMPUTATIONAL-EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND EXPERT JUDGMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Tikhonov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to an assessment of danger degree of a flight situation with the engine failure on the ascending maneuvers using natural- model approach and expert evaluation in the absence of the possibility of using a pilotage stand.

  18. Transcranial direct-current stimulation induced in stroke patients with aphasia: a prospective experimental cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Devido Santos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Previous animal and human studies have shown that transcranial direct current stimulation can induce significant and lasting neuroplasticity and may improve language recovery in patients with aphasia. The objective of the study was to describe a cohort of patients with aphasia after stroke who were treated with transcranial direct current stimulation. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study developed in a public university hospital. METHODS: Nineteen patients with chronic aphasia received 10 transcranial direct current stimulation sessions lasting 20 minutes each on consecutive days, using a current of 2 mA. The anode was positioned over the supraorbital area and the cathode over the contralateral motor cortex. The following variables were analyzed before and after the 10 neuromodulation sessions: oral language comprehension, copying, dictation, reading, writing, naming and verbal fluency. RESULTS: There were no adverse effects in the study. We found statistically significant differences from before to after stimulation in relation to simple sentence comprehension (P = 0.034, naming (P = 0.041 and verbal fluency for names of animals (P = 0.038. Improved scores for performing these three tasks were seen after stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that excitability of the primary motor cortex through transcranial direct current stimulation was associated with effects on different aspects of language. This can contribute towards future testing in randomized controlled trials.

  19. Current Situation of the Carbon Fiber and Related Composites Industry%碳纤维及复合材料产业链现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张传雄

    2015-01-01

    By discussing the spinning, pre-oxidation, carbonization, compounding and recycling technologies for making carbon ifber and related composites, the paper discussed the present situation of technological development in the field of carbon fiber and related composites; analyzed the market situation of such products and their application prospects in aerospace, national defense, wind turbine, sport and leisure, transportation vehicles, civil-engineering, etc. It also pointed out some problems existing in China’s carbon ifber industry and gave related solutions.%从碳纤维纺丝、预氧化、碳化、复合成型和回收利用等方面概述碳纤维及复合材料产业链技术现状,分析碳纤维及复合材料市场现状以及在国防航空、交通工具、风力发电、运动休闲、土木建筑等领域的应用前景,指出中国碳纤维产业发展存在的问题及建议。

  20. Analysis on Current Situation of Moral Education in Higher Vocational Education%高等职业教育中德育现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛凤麟

    2012-01-01

    The higher vocational education is an important part of our country's higher education system, and the ideological and moral education towards higher vocational college students has its own rule and features. From three aspects of the ideological and moral features of college students, the cur- rent situation of moral education in higher vocational education and cause analysis, this paper focuses on the basic situation of moral education which will be the fatal line of the existence and development of higher vocational education.%高等职业教育作为我国高等教育的重要组成部分,学生的思想道德教育也有其自身的规律和特点。该文从高职大学生的思想道德特点、高职教育中德育现状及原因分析三个方面剖析了目前高等职业教育中德育的基本情况,提出德育工作是高职教育生存和发展的生命线。