WorldWideScience

Sample records for current eu regulations

  1. Biosimilar regulation in the EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurki, Pekka; Ekman, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    In the EU, the EMA has been working with biosimilars since 1998. This experience is crystallized in the extensive set of guidelines, which range from basic principles to details of clinical trials. While the guidance may appear complicated, it has enabled the development of biosimilars, of which 21 have managed to get marketing authorization. Currently marketed biosimilars in the EU have a good track record in safety and traceability. No biosimilars have been withdrawn from the market because of safety concerns. The most controversial issues with biosimilars are immunogenicity and extrapolation of therapeutic indications. The available data for these topics do not raise concerns among EU regulators. Interchangeability and substitution are regulated by individual EU member states.

  2. Creating Coherence in EU Internet Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    The internet presents regulators with an amorphous web of technical and legal issues with no simple solution. Andrej Savin, Associate Professor at Copenhagen Business School, says that the EU needs to develop a fluidity of process in order to tackle the big issues and cultivate the right legal...

  3. Regulating Corporate Governance in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Laura

    In the context of the financial and economic crisis, corporate governance and regulatory supervision failures are at the centre of public debates. Who controls the modern corporation, and why, has become one of the defining social power relations in contemporary capitalism. Regulation Corporate...... Governance in the EU fills a gap in the extensive literature on corporate governance and highlights the political nature of EU corporate governance regulation. Laura Horn advances a critical political economy perspective focusing in particular on political struggles and processes of the neoliberal...... transformation of company law and corporate governance regulation. Her findings about the marketization of corporate control are at the core to a better understanding of the broader context of capitalist restructuring in the European Union....

  4. Functional foods: regulation and innovations in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moors, E.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide consumers are becoming more interested in the relation between food and health. In order to harmonize regulation on foods throughout the EU, the Regulation EC1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims came into force, as a first specific set of EU legal rules dealing with nutrition and

  5. New GMO regulations for old: Determining a new future for EU crop biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, John; Ammann, Klaus

    2017-01-02

    In this review, current EU GMO regulations are subjected to a point-by point analysis to determine their suitability for agriculture in modern Europe. Our analysis concerns present GMO regulations as well as suggestions for possible new regulations for genome editing and New Breeding Techniques (for which no regulations presently exist). Firstly, the present GMO regulations stem from the early days of recombinant DNA and are not adapted to current scientific understanding on this subject. Scientific understanding of GMOs has changed and these regulations are now, not only unfit for their original purpose, but, the purpose itself is now no longer scientifically valid. Indeed, they defy scientific, economic, and even common, sense. A major EU regulatory preconception is that GM crops are basically different from their parent crops. Thus, the EU regulations are "process based" regulations that discriminate against GMOs simply because they are GMOs. However current scientific evidence shows a blending of classical crops and their GMO counterparts with no clear demarcation line between them. Canada has a "product based" approach and determines the safety of each new crop variety independently of the process used to obtain it. We advise that the EC re-writes it outdated regulations and moves toward such a product based approach.  Secondly, over the last few years new genomic editing techniques (sometimes called New Breeding Techniques) have evolved. These techniques are basically mutagenesis techniques that can generate genomic diversity and have vast potential for crop improvement. They are not GMO based techniques (any more than mutagenesis is a GMO technique), since in many cases no new DNA is introduced. Thus they cannot simply be lumped together with GMOs (as many anti-GMO NGOs would prefer). The EU currently has no regulations to cover these new techniques. In this review, we make suggestions as to how these new gene edited crops may be regulated. The EU is at a

  6. IMPACT OF THE EU TIMBER REGULATION ON RUSSIAN COMPANIES EXPORTING WOOD AND WOOD-BASED PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    NESHATAEVA ELENA V.; KARJALAINEN TIMO

    2015-01-01

    The problem of illegal logging forced EU, which is one of the major consumers of wood in the world, to develop legislation aimed at termination of supplies of illegally harvested wood and wood-based products into EU. EU Timber Regulation №995 is applicable for any company placing wood or wood-based products on the EU market. Russia ranks first in illegally harvested timber export into EU markets, therefore EU Timber Regulation should influence substantially on Russian companies. Possible infl...

  7. Commercializing genetically modified crops under EU regulations: objectives and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybould, Alan; Poppy, Guy M

    2012-01-01

    Agriculture faces serious problems in feeding 9 billion people by 2050: production must be increased and ecosystem services maintained under conditions for growing crops that are predicted to worsen in many parts of the world. A proposed solution is sustainable intensification of agriculture, whereby yields are increased on land that is currently cultivated, so sparing land to deliver other ecosystem services. Genetically modified (GM) crops are already contributing to sustainable intensification through higher yields and lower environmental impacts, and have potential to deliver further significant improvements. Despite their widespread successful use elsewhere, the European Union (EU) has been slow to introduce GM crops: decisions on applications to import GM commodities are lengthy, and decision-making on applications to cultivate GM crops has virtually ceased. Delayed import approvals result in economic losses, particularly in the EU itself as a result of higher commodity prices. Failure to grant cultivation approvals costs EU farmers opportunities to reduce inputs, and results in loss of agricultural research and development from the EU to countries such as the United States and China. Delayed decision-making in the EU ostensibly results from scientific uncertainty about the effects of using GM crops; however, scientific uncertainty may be a means to justify a political decision to restrict cultivation of GM crops in the EU. The problems associated with delayed decision-making will not improve until there is clarity about the EU's agricultural policy objectives, and whether the use of GM crops will be permitted to contribute to achieving those objectives.

  8. THE 2012 FINANCIAL REGULATION: BUILDING THE CATHEDRAL OF EU LEGITIMACY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Luisa SANCHEZ-BARRUECO

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The quest for enhanced financial accountability is a by-product of the financial crisis that hits Europe since 2008. Attention to sound financial management and its links to overall EU legitimacy has skyrocketed from the vocabulary of clerks and auditors up to top-level strategic documents, including recent Conclusions of the European Council. This trend evidences that the focus on democratic legitimacy in the European Union should shift away from the traditional input-output legitimacy dilemma and towards the so-called throughput or systemic legitimacy. Systemic legitimacy provides the citizen with assurances that the system (she is requested to trust is well-functioning and answerable to the people; however, the definition of its scope proves ellusive among scholars. This paper takes account of the relevant literature and concludes that financial accountability remains at the core of systemic legitimacy. From a legal perspective, financial accountability in the EU is incidentally mentioned in the Treaties, and further ensured by secondary legislation. The EU Financial Regulation, also known as the “EU Financial Bible” stands out from the legal framework governing financial management of the EU budget. Since its adoption in 1977, the EU Financial Regulation has been subject to two major revisions. The first one led to the adoption of Council Regulation 1605/2002 and represented then an attempt to regain citizens’ trust on financial accountability after the serious backlash brought about by the resignation of the Santer Commission in 1999. More recently, the Financial Regulation has been revamped through Regulation 966/2012 of the European Parliament and the Council. Following a qualitative and comparative approach, this paper highlights the main changes that have been introduced in the legal framework on financial management, with a view to assessing their potential contribution to improvement in financial accountability and, by ricochet

  9. The EU health claim regulation in international comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Nutrition and health claims are voluntary claims on food indicating favourable nutritional content or health benefits of the food. Nutrition and health claims on food are increasingly regulated in the world market. This process is accompanied by intensive stakeholder discussions on the possible...... impact on consumer protection and food marketing effectiveness. This article reviews literature on regulations in the major food markets in comparison with the EU regulation. The focus is on identifying characteristics of regulations that are expected to have an impact on consumer protection and food...... marketing. The EU regulation is regarded as focusing relatively strongly on precaution and consumer understanding. The extent to which this hampers food innovations is in dispute. It is suggested that using marketing measures in favour of scientifically approved claims as well as stakeholder cooperation...

  10. The EU health claim regulation in international comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Nutrition and health claims are voluntary claims on food indicating favourable nutritional content or health benefits of the food. Nutrition and health claims on food are increasingly regulated in the world market. This process is accompanied by intensive stakeholder discussions on the possible...... impact on consumer protection and food marketing effectiveness. This article reviews literature on regulations in the major food markets in comparison with the EU regulation. The focus is on identifying characteristics of regulations that are expected to have an impact on consumer protection and food...... marketing. The EU regulation is regarded as focusing relatively strongly on precaution and consumer understanding. The extent to which this hampers food innovations is in dispute. It is suggested that using marketing measures in favour of scientifically approved claims as well as stakeholder cooperation...

  11. Evaluating and regulating the impacts of lobbying in the EU? The case study of green industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2011-01-01

    How should we evaluate and regulate the impacts of lobbying in the European Union (EU)? The current lack of transparency around lobbying activities and the absence of formal regulation mean that a hidden lobbying problem may prevail. The tentative case study of green industries in the EU...... is illustrative. The wind turbine industry, for example, benefits from ambitious environmental target levels for greenhouse gas reductions that will increase the future market for renewable energy. In contrast, for example, no environmental target levels exist that increase the future market shares of organic...

  12. EU Regulations Impede Market Introduction of GM Forest Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custers, René; Bartsch, Detlef; Fladung, Matthias; Nilsson, Ove; Pilate, Gilles; Sweet, Jeremy; Boerjan, Wout

    2016-04-01

    Biotechnology can greatly improve the efficiency of forest tree breeding for the production of biomass, energy, and materials. However, EU regulations impede the market introduction of genetically modified (GM) trees so their socioeconomic and environmental benefits are not realized. European policy makers should concentrate on a science-based regulatory process.

  13. Regulating Corporate Governance in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Laura

    In the context of the financial and economic crisis, corporate governance and regulatory supervision failures are at the centre of public debates. Who controls the modern corporation, and why, has become one of the defining social power relations in contemporary capitalism. Regulation Corporate...

  14. Risk regulation and deliberation in EU administrative governance: GMO regulation and its reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimer, M.

    2015-01-01

    The article analyses the problems of EU risk regulation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) through the lens of deliberative theories of EU law and governance, such as deliberative supranationalism and experimentalist governance. Previous research had suggested that the GMO issue is not conduct

  15. Risk regulation and deliberation in EU administrative governance: GMO regulation and its reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimer, M.

    2015-01-01

    The article analyses the problems of EU risk regulation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) through the lens of deliberative theories of EU law and governance, such as deliberative supranationalism and experimentalist governance. Previous research had suggested that the GMO issue is not

  16. Regulation of nanomedicines in the EU: distilling lessons from the pediatric and the advanced therapy medicinal products approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Nupur

    2010-01-01

    As the market for nanomedicines in the EU is growing, the development of regulatory guidance in this area assumes priority. Currently, the nanomedicine market is poised at a critical stage wherein clear regulatory guidance is imperative in providing for clarity and legal certainty to manufacturers of nanomedicine. The regulation of the pharmaceutical sector in the EU has witnessed several developments and innovations guided by the philosophy of single market and balancing the principle of ensuring high public health protection and safety of medicines. Both the pediatric and the advanced therapies medicinal products (ATMP) regimes offer important regulatory guidance that could be adopted for the regulation of nanomedicines in the EU.

  17. Current uses of nanomaterials in biocidal products and treated articles in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Revilla Besora, Pau; Brinch, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Product Regulation (BPR) lays out a list of requirements that manufacturers of biocidal products have to comply with before they can place their products on the market. It is not entirely clear which commercially available articles in the EU have been treated with or incorporate NMs to provide biocidal...... and discuss how they are currently regulated under the BPR. Even though the BPR already entails nanospecific provisions, correct labelling of biocidal products containing NMs is virtually non-existent. By using The Nanodatabase, it was possible to identify 88 biocidal products containing NMs available...

  18. The EU paediatric regulation: effects on paediatric psychopharmacology in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanova-Beninska, Violeta V; Wohlfarth, Tamar; Isaac, Maria; Kalverdijk, Luuk J; van den Berg, Henk; Gispen-de Wied, Christine

    2011-08-01

    Child and adolescent psychiatry is a relatively young field and the recognition, classification, and treatment of disorders in children and adolescents lag behind those in adults. In recent years there is an increasing awareness of the differences between children and adults in psychopathology and pharmacology. Related to this new paediatric regulations have been introduced. This article reviews the regulatory and legislative measures that were adopted in the EU in 2007 and the subsequent impact of these measures on the field of paediatric psychopharmacology. The consequences of the paediatric regulation in the EU are reflected in several domains: regulatory, research aimed at drug development and clinical practices. In the regulatory domain, the consequences include: new paediatric indications, inclusion of special (class) warnings, specification of dose regimens, and information on safety specific to children and adolescents, and development of new medicinal formulations. The paediatric regulation leads to timely development of paediatric friendly formulations and better quality of the clinical evidence. In clinical practices, an increased awareness of the uniqueness of paediatric pharmacology is emerging among medical professionals, and subsequent improvement of medical care (i.e. correct doses, appropriate formulation, monitoring for expected adverse events). In addition, clinical guidelines will have to be revised more frequently in order to integrate the recently acquired knowledge. The new regulations stimulate transparency and discussions between academia, pharmaceutical industry, and regulators. The purpose is to optimize clinical research and obtain evidence for paediatric psychopharmacology, thereby providing adequate support for treatment.

  19. Why (and how) to regulate power exchanges in the EU market integration context?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeus, Leonardo, E-mail: leonardo.meeus@eui.e [Florence School of Regulation, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, European University Institute, Via Boccaccio 151, Florence (Italy); Electrical Engineering Department (ESAT-ELECTA), KULeuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, Heverlee (Belgium)

    2011-03-15

    The European Union (EU) market integration is leading to increasingly monopolistic electricity market infrastructures, which has opened a debate on the regulation of these so-called power exchanges. In this paper, we start by stating that there are two types of power exchanges in Europe, i.e. 'merchant' and 'cost-of-service regulated' power exchanges. We then discuss how regulation can be used to better align their incentives with the main power exchange tasks. We conclude that adopting the cost-of-service regulated model for all power exchanges in Europe could be counterproductive in the current context, but that regulation can help ensure that the benefits of the EU market integration materialize. Promising regulatory actions include tempering the reinforced market power of power exchanges, and quality-of-service regulation for the ongoing cooperation among power exchanges to organize trade across borders. - Research highlights: {yields} Market integration is leading to increasingly monopolistic electricity market infrastructures. {yields} Regulation can help tempering the market power of these so-called power exchanges in Europe. {yields} Cost-of-service regulation for all power exchanges could however be counterproductive. {yields} More promising is to subject cooperation among power exchanges to quality of service regulation.

  20. EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter; Borchorst, Anette

    2002-01-01

    Der er et komplekst forhold mellem EU og den danske velfærdsstat. Den sociale dimension i det europæiske samarbejde er splittet mellem et pres mod harmonisering og pres for at fastholde national suverænitet. Negativ integration har været den foretrukne interventionsform. Drivkræfterne har især...

  1. EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Rostgaard

    2008-01-01

    politiske sigte er, at det tværnationale samarbejde skal øge den politiske og kulturelle samhørighed landene imellem. I det dansk-tyske grænseområde har EU gennem mange år forsøgt at medvirke til øge samarbejdet over grænsen. Der er ydet økonomisk og politisk støtte til forskellige projekter, der kan styrke...

  2. Regulations in the EU on Mycotoxins in Foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The importance of food safety as an integral component of food security was recognized by many governments already before the1992 International Conference on Nutrition and the1996 World Food Summit. Recently the EU enacted regulation on food safety (178/2002). The quality and safety of food may be threatened by a host of factors, including natural toxins. Of the large spectrum of natural toxins, mycotoxins are among the most widely studied and raise considerable concern, because of their ubiquity and potential deleterious effects on human and animal health. Mycotoxins are produced by certain fungi, which, under favorable temperature and humidity conditions, invade a wide range of agricultural crops in the field, and during post- harvest stages of production. In 1994 the EU started the harmonization process on standardization of certain mycotoxins in foods after its Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) expressed an opinion on several mycotoxins: aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin and deoxynivalenol[1].%作为整个食品安全的重要组成部分,食品安全的重要性早在1992年国年营养会议和1996年世界食品峰会就已经被许多国家的政府认识到了.最近欧盟(EU)颁布了食品安全的法律(178/2002).食品的质量和安全受许多因素的威胁,包括天然毒素.在广阔的天然毒素范围内,真菌毒素是研究得最广泛的,并且引起了高度的关注,因为它们普遍存在并且对人体和动物健康存在着潜在危害.真菌毒素由某些真菌类产生,它在有利的温度和湿度条件下,入侵农田里的大范围农作物,并入侵收获季节后的生产产品.1994年欧盟(EU)在他们的食品科学委员会对几种真菌毒素:黄曲酶毒素,棕曲霉毒素,棒曲霉素和脱氧雪镰刀菌烯醇发表观点后起动了调整食品中某些真菌毒素标准化的进程.

  3. EU Regulation 1143/2014 and the Bern Convention : Allied forces in the war on invasive alien species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trouwborst, Arie

    2015-01-01

    This article identifies and analyzes current and potential synergies between the new EU Regulation 1143/2014 on the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of invasive alien species on the one hand, and the Bern Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitat

  4. Eu animal welfare legislation: current position and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Horgan.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available SummaryAnimal welfare is being accorded an increasingly important role in today’s civil society. Within the EU this has been enshrined within the specific “Protocol on Protection and Welfare of Animals” of theEC Treaty, obliging Member States and the EU Institutions to pay full regard to the welfare of animals when formulating and implementing Community policies. There is a growing body of EU legislation on thisissue, founded on clear scientific principles, taking account of public concerns, stakeholder input and possible socioeconomicimplications. Recent Common Agricultural Policy (CAP reforms also testify to animal welfare’s growing stature in policy-making, with the introduction of the principle of cross-compliance regardingeligibility for direct payments and additional financial incentives for producers to achieve higher welfare standards. Animal welfare isbeing increasingly perceived as an integral element of overall food quality, having important implications for animal health andfood safety. On a worldwide level the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health has developed global animal welfare guidelinesagreed by its 167 member countries. Consumers demand higher standards of animal protection and it is incumbent upon policy-makers and legislators to respond accordingly.

  5. Current situation and future potential of further integration between UK and EU

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The article analyses potential consequences of Brexit as well as the current costs and benefits of UK’s membership in the EU, furthermore focusing on alternative agreements that may result between the members.

  6. Background of REACH in EU regulations on evaluation of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foth, H; Hayes, Aw

    2008-06-01

    Industrial chemicals are needed for chemical synthesis or technical purposes. These beneficial effects are counterbalanced by the potential health risks for all who come into contact with them. The new chemical legislation of the EU, Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals (REACH) will force the responsibility of manufacturers and importers of chemical substances to gather the right information needed to decide on the right circumstances of use and control of chemical substances and products. In order to understand the roots of REACH, experiences gained with regard to existing chemicals legislation, particularly in Germany, will be reviewed. Since Council Directive 67/548/EEC all chemicals placed on the market need a set of standard information and provisions for safe transportation. This directive and its amendments (Council Directive(s) 79/831/EEC and 92/32/EEC) have established for new substances a sound information data basis for classification of dangerous properties. Under Council Regulation 793/93/EEC, regulations and administrative provisions have established the requirement to assess the risk to man and the environment of existing substances. So far, only 119 substances have been evaluated under the forces of this regulation. This separation has led to a substantial imbalance between existing substances and new substances with respect to available data needed to recognize hazards for health. The register of produced and imported chemical substances under REACH should eliminate some of this separation and will also be the key for selection of substances of very high concern by the authorization process to restrict the use and distribution accordingly.

  7. Evaluation of EU Risk assessments Existing Chemicals (EC Regulation 793/93)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodar CWM; Berthault F; Bruijn JHM de; Leeuwen CJ van; Pronk MEJ; Vermeire TG; CSR

    2002-01-01

    An evaluation was performed on the first group (41) of completed risk assessments for chemicals of the EU priority lists (Existing Chemicals; EC Regulation 793/93). The evaluation focussed on the conclusions of the risk assessments. The EU risk assessment process detected a high number of substance

  8. RECENT CHANGES IN THE EU RENEWABLE ENERGY MARKET REGULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Danylova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies recent trends of the world energy supply. Factors affecting changes in the state policy of the European energy strategy are identified. The role of renewable energy sources in solving energy problems is revealed. The mechanism of the EU renewable market development is illustrated. The main changes in the dynamics and structure of energy consumption are identified. The major participants in the modern European renewable energy market are demonstrated. A set of measures to build a new energy policy in EU is formed.

  9. Current uses of nanomaterials in biocidal products and treated articles in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Revilla Besora, Pau; Brinch, Anna;

    2016-01-01

    Product Regulation (BPR) lays out a list of requirements that manufacturers of biocidal products have to comply with before they can place their products on the market. It is not entirely clear which commercially available articles in the EU have been treated with or incorporate NMs to provide biocidal...

  10. Effects of the Current Economic Crisis on the Fiscal Variables in EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Viorel BRAŞOVEANU

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Our paper aims to capture the effects of the current economic and financial crisis on fiscal variables, the 27 EU Member States, based on macroeconomic developments until 2010 and projected for 2011. Starting from the economic recession, from the increase of unemployment and the relative stability of prices in the EU overall (macroeconomic developments that characterize the current crisis, we analyze the effects of those developments on the public revenues and expenditures, on the conventional deficit and public debt, which are macroeconomic variables that comprise the pentagon of economic macro stabilization.

  11. Towards EU Cybersecurity Law: Regulating a New Policy Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Ramses A.; Tsagourias, Nicholas; Buchan, Russell

    2015-01-01

    EU cybersecurity forms a prime example of an area in which both internal and external (global as well as bilateral) policies are connected and in which the different legal competences of the Union need to be combined. Over the past decade the European Union started to take its first careful steps in

  12. Is current EU food safety law geared up for fighting food fraud?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Malicious intent appears to be a blind spot in European Union (EU) food safety law. The current system of law has been created in reaction to food safety incidents. As a consequence it has been designed to deal with accidental problems not with intentionally deceitful actions of people. The horse

  13. The Regulation Of Electronic Money Institutions In The SADC Region: Some Lessons From The EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmaphuti David Tuba

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the different approaches adopted for the regulation of payment systems in a variety of legislative instruments by the European Union (EU. It looks in particular at how the institutions that issue new electronic money products are regulated and supervised by the relevant authorities in the EU, in comparison with existing institutions such as banks. It analyses some of the lessons that may be learned by the South African Development Corporation (SADC from the regulatory approaches for electronic money institutions adopted by the EU. The article asks if the approach adopted by the EU may be useful for the future regulation of electronic money institutions in the SADC. The proliferation of electronic devices that arrived with the invention of the Internet has sparked some regulatory challenges. This development has become global and involves both developed and developing countries, including regions such as the SADC. It is asked if these technological developments should be addressed by means of a concrete regulatory framework while they continue to develop, instead of the regulators waiting to observe and acquaint themselves with the relevant regulatory challenges that underpin the innovations. The EU has attempted to address the anticipated regulatory challenges that came about with the development of electronic money and to align its regulatory approach with other payment systems. This article discusses the regulatory approaches adopted in the EU and provides an overview that the SADC may use in order to adopt an effective regulatory framework for electronic money and the institutions that issue these methods of payment. It analyses both the achievements and the challenges that the EU faced (and continues to face in developing the regulation of e-money, and recommends some possible approaches derived from the lessons learned.

  14. Will it be a better world? The proposed EU Data Protection Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter Erik

    2012-01-01

    to transational data processing but cannot achieve the goal of full harmonization within the EU. •A regulation has several negative conseqwuensces for datta protection at the national level. It is furthermore assumed that the proposed Regulation will improve the position of datat subjects but it is disappointing...... that key issues with respect to social networks have not been addressed....

  15. How can regulation promote efficienct nutrient use in the EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the INEMAD project is to look at management strategies to improve the utilisation of nutrients in agriculture in Europe. This paper looks closer at the nutrient policies in selected EU countries in order to find policies, which has shown to improve nutrient efficiency. High livestock...... intensity is found in the Flemish region in Belgium, many parts of The Netherlands and parts of France (Britany). The challenges are to combine the interest in high livestock production without having to high environmental impacts. The high livestock intensity has led to higher transport and/or processing...

  16. From macro- to microplastics - Analysis of EU regulation along the life cycle of plastic bags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard, Ida M; Syberg, Kristian; Rist, Sinja

    2017-01-01

    exposure and hazards of macro- and microplastics. In this paper, we map European regulation taking outset in the life cycle perspective of plastic carrier bags: from plastic bag production to when it enters the environment. Relevant regulatory frameworks, directives and authorities along the life cycle...... are identified and their role in regulation of plastics is discussed. Most important regulations were identified as: the EU chemical Regulation, the Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive including the amending Directive regarding regulation of the consumption of lightweight plastic carrier bags, the Waste...... requirements as hazardous waste involving stricter requirements to labelling, recordkeeping, monitoring and control over the whole lifecycle. Finally, we recommend that more ambitious recycle and recovery targets are set across the EU. Regulation of the consumption of lightweight plastic carrier bags should...

  17. The Effects of the Current Global Economic and Financial Crisis on the EU Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina DORNEAN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the main effects of the current global financial and economic crisis on the European Union budget and the measures that were taken in order to support the EU member states with the purpose of limiting and counteracting its effects. The focus will be on the budgetary expenditure and on the new Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance. For this purpose, we developed a regression model using the Least Square method with three significant variables: a dependent variable – EU budgetary expenditure and two independent variables – budgetary deficit and unemployment rate of member states. According to our analysis, the crisis determined the increase of the EU budgetary expenditure, which was due especially to the increase of the budgetary deficit and rising unemployment in the EU member states. Our findings suggested that the budgetary deficit and the unemployment rate had a highly significant influence on community expenditure growth during the crisis, while the GDP growth and the public debt did not have any significance for the community expenditure growth.

  18. The Politics of Systematization in EU Product Safety Regulation: Market, State, Collectivity, and Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purnhagen, K.

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the increasing role of the legal method of systematisation in European Union (EU) law. It argues that the legal method of systematisation that has been developed in a welfare-state context is increasingly used as a regulative tool to functionally integrate the market. The book use

  19. Regulating food law : risk analysis and the precautionary principle as general principles of EU food law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szajkowska, A.

    2012-01-01

    Animal cloning, nanotechnology, and genetic modifications are all examples of recent controversies around food regulation where scientific evidence occupies a central position. This book provides a fresh perspective on EU scientific food safety governance by offering a legal insight into risk

  20. Contract Governance in the EU : Conceptualising the Relationship between Investor Protection Regulation and Private Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherednychenko, Olha O.

    2015-01-01

    The instrumental use of private law, in particular contract law, by the EU raises a complex issue concerning the relationship between contract‐related regulation and traditional private law and underlines the need for conceptualising the interplay between the two from the contract governance

  1. Agricultural Extension Services and Market Regulation: Learning from a Comparison of Six EU Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Catherine; Cerf, Marianne; Labarthe, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    If farmers are to meet the new challenges facing agriculture (environment, rural development, etc.), appropriate knowledge has to be produced. But observations in six EU countries (France, Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Spain and the UK) show that unexpected problems arise when technical support for agriculture is linked to market regulation,…

  2. Regulating food law : risk analysis and the precautionary principle as general principles of EU food law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szajkowska, A.

    2012-01-01

    Animal cloning, nanotechnology, and genetic modifications are all examples of recent controversies around food regulation where scientific evidence occupies a central position. This book provides a fresh perspective on EU scientific food safety governance by offering a legal insight into risk analys

  3. Risk assessment of GM trees in the EU: current regulatory framework and guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilera J

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of genetically modified organisms - their release into the environment, import, and utilisation as food/feed or food/feed ingredients - is regulated in the European Union (EU. For placing onto the market, current legislations require a comprehensive and science-based risk assessment. This risk assessment (RA is performed by applicants and then evaluated by national authorities in close cooperation with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA. The EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO has published a comprehensive set of guidance documents for applicants and risk assessors for the RA of GM plants (GMP, their products for food and/or feed use, and their cultivation. In those documents, the strategy and the criteria to conduct the assessment are explained, as well as the scientific data to be provided by the applicant. The assessment starts with the molecular characterisation of the GMP. If the GMP or products derived from it are to be consumed, the evaluation of its composition, potential toxicity and/or allergenicity, and nutritional value constitute further cornerstones of the process. The environmental risk assessment (ERA considers biotic and abiotic interactions and the impacts of the management of the GM plant when it is intended for cultivation. In the case of GM trees special emphasis would be placed on assessing their characteristic features such as their longevity, ability to disperse and their ecological significance in a range of environments. The outcome of the assessment is reflected in a published opinion from the EFSA GMO panel that indicates whether the GMP and its products raise any safety issues. This scientific opinion constitutes one of the elements taken into account by the different European regulatory authorities prior to a decision regarding authorisation to commercialise the product.

  4. Report on current status of petroleum substituting energy development in the EU in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (sekiyu daitai energy kaihatsu no genjo (EU))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The EU is one of the most advanced places of petroleum substituting energy development. The EU is highly aware of environmental issues. For the COP3 held at Kyoto in December 1997, The EU gave more severe regulation of CO2 emission than the other advanced countries. The EU takes efforts in the development and introduction of energy effective for global environmental protection. In addition, research and development of geothermal, biomass and wave force energy are actively promoted in this place. Energy situations in this place are significant for predicting and analyzing the future trends of energy development and consumption in the other countries. Firstly, this report looks back toward energy demand held in check to a head at the beginning of the 1990`s. Secondly, supply of energy and cover of energy trend are described for recent years from the point of view. Thirdly, competitiveness of energy in EU countries are discussed from a position of energy density. Fourthly, circumstances about environmental issues are considered. Fifthly, the world market of energy is also considered. Finally, development of new energy and a trend of introduction with a sample of Sweden are introduced. 13 refs., 15 figs., 28 tabs.

  5. The impact of the EU general data protection regulation on scientific research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassang, Gauthier

    2017-01-01

    The use of personal data is critical to ensure quality and reliability in scientific research. The new Regulation [European Union (EU)] 2016/679 of 27 April 2016 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data [general data protection regulation (GDPR)], repealing Directive 95/46/EC, strengthens and harmonises the rules for protecting individuals' privacy rights and freedoms within and, under certain conditions, outside the EU territory. This new and historic legal milestone both prolongs and updates the EU acquis of the previous Data Protection Directive 95/46/EC. The GDPR fixes both general rules applying to any kind of personal data processing and specific rules applying to the processing of special categories of personal data such as health data taking place in the context of scientific research, this including clinical and translational research areas. This article aims to provide an overview of the new rules to consider where scientific projects include the processing of personal health data, genetic data or biometric data and other kinds of sensitive information whose use is strictly regulated by the GDPR in order to give the main key facts to researchers to adapt their practices and ensure compliance to the EU law to be enforced in May 2018.

  6. Communicating EU-regulated matters in the blogosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerdal-Hjermind, Annette

    The aim of this paper is to explore the role of blogging as a communication strategy for communicating regulations by looking at a specific case of a Danish government agency, the Patent and Trademark Office (DKPTO) , and its blogging activities towards external publics and with the purpose...

  7. Communicating EU-regulated matters in the blogosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerdal-Hjermind, Annette

    The aim of this paper is to explore the role of blogging as a communication strategy for communicating regulations by looking at a specific case of a Danish government agency, the Patent and Trademark Office (DKPTO) , and its blogging activities towards external publics and with the purpose...

  8. Regulation of international roaming data services within the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Tadayoni, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Europe has been the first region to intervene on the market for international roaming services. The first regulation was introduced in 2007 and has since then been revised several times. The latest revision took place in the summer 2012. This paper discusses the new legislation in view of recent...

  9. Exploring the Nutrition and Health Claims Regulation (EC) No. 1924/2006: What is the impact on innovation in the EU food sector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedkar, Sukhada; Bröring, Stefanie; Ciliberti, Stefano

    2017-02-01

    Literature suggests that despite its positive aim of promoting innovation, the Nutrition and Health Claims Regulation (EC) No. 1924/2006 (NHCR) may bring along several compliance challenges, which might affect innovation in the EU food sector. This study investigates the challenges faced by companies to comply with the NHCR (specifically Article 13.1) and their impact on innovation. To this end, we conducted an online survey with 105 companies involved in the EU food sector. Results indicate that companies perceive wording of claims, missing transparency and limited financial resources as major challenges to comply with the NHCR (Article 13.1). Companies reported not to have increased their R&D expenditure or innovation activities after the NHCR (Article 13.1) was implemented. Thus, this study highlights specific compliance challenges related to the NHCR (Article 13.1) and indicates that currently, the regulation does not seem to have fostered innovation in the EU food sector.

  10. Better regulation in the European Union : lost in translation or full steam ahead ? : the transposition of EU transport directives across member states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaeding, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Better regulation in the European Union cannot be achieved without serious attention to transposition of EU law into national legislation. As a matter of fact, EU member states breach EU law – perpetuately. Why do member states miss deadlines when transposing EU internal market directives? What

  11. Better regulation in the European Union : lost in translation or full steam ahead ? : the transposition of EU transport directives across member states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaeding, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Better regulation in the European Union cannot be achieved without serious attention to transposition of EU law into national legislation. As a matter of fact, EU member states breach EU law – perpetuately. Why do member states miss deadlines when transposing EU internal market directives? What fact

  12. Towards a Holistic Approach in EU Biomass Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giljam, Renske

    2016-01-01

    The energy transition requires a legal system that promotes the most sustainable forms of energy. This requires a holistic approach that accounts for all effects of energy production throughout the energy chain. This article analyses the presence of holistic elements in the current legal framework o

  13. Towards a Holistic Approach in EU Biomass Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giljam, Renske

    The energy transition requires a legal system that promotes the most sustainable forms of energy. This requires a holistic approach that accounts for all effects of energy production throughout the energy chain. This article analyses the presence of holistic elements in the current legal framework

  14. EU ecodesign regulation. More as only a light bulb ban; EU-Oekodesign-Richtlinie. Mehr als ein Gluehbirnenverbot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Corinna [Oeko-Institut e.V., Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Within a broader public, the EU Ecodesign Directive (Directive 2009/125/EC) was known and notoriously as a 'light bulb ban'. This resulted in strong emotions. But it has shown an impact in many other areas - usually unnoticed and often for the financial and practical benefits of the consumers. Now, the EU Commission wants to go one step further.

  15. Bringing biofuels on the market. Options to increase EU biofuels volumes beyond the current blending limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampman, B.; Van Grinsven, A.; Croezen, H. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Verbeek, R.; Van Mensch, P.; Patuleia, A. [TNO, Delft, (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    This handbook on biofuels provides a comprehensive overview of different types of biofuels, and the technical options that exist to market the biofuels volumes expected to be consumed in the EU Member States in 2020. The study concludes that by fully utilizing the current blending limits of biodiesel (FAME) in diesel (B7) and bioethanol in petrol (E10) up to 7.9% share of biofuels in the EU transport sector can be technically reached by 2020. Increasing use of advanced biofuels, particularly blending of fungible fuels into diesel (eg. HVO and BTL) and the use of higher ethanol blends in compatible vehicles (e.g. E20), can play an important role. Also, the increased use of biomethane (in particular bio-CNG) and higher blends of biodiesel (FAME) can contribute. However, it is essential for both governments and industry to decide within 1 or 2 years on the way ahead and take necessary actions covering both, the fuels and the vehicles, to ensure their effective and timely implementation. Even though a range of technical options exist, many of these require considerable time and effort to implement and reach their potential. Large scale implementation of the options beyond current blending limits requires new, targeted policy measures, in many cases complemented by new fuel and vehicle standards, adaptation of engines and fuel distribution, etc. Marketing policies for these vehicles, fuels and blends are also likely to become much more important than in the current situation. Each Member State may develop its own strategy tailored to its market and policy objectives, but the EU should play a crucial facilitating role in these developments.

  16. EU Criminal Law and the Regulation of Information and Communication Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Summers

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The opportunities afforded by the global information space give rise to the potential for the commission of new crimes –crimes such as hacking or denial of service attacks– and for existing crimes, such as speech offences or fraud, to be committed in new ways and with potentially larger consequences. One of the biggest challenges for the regulation of information and communications technology is that the global information space does not respect national boundaries. In order to be successful, any regulatory approach will call for some degree of cooperation between countries. This poses an obvious problem for those seeking to develop a regulatory structure. This challenge is particularly relevant in the criminal law context, as the criminal law has traditionally been considered to be the product and responsibility of national law. This article considers the EU’s regulatory approach in this area. The aim here is not to offer a critique of the EU’s regulatory structure in the context of cybercrime, but rather to use the situation in the EU to illustrate various issues arising in the context of the criminal law regulation of information and communications technology. This article examines some of the issues which have arisen in the context of the regulation of cyber activity at the EU level as a result of this tension between national sovereignty and broader overarching EU regulation and assesses the relevance of these issues in the context of criminal law regulation more broadly. Consideration of the processes of criminalisation and harmonisation provides the basis for an analysis of the manner in which the EU seeks to justify its involvement in criminal law in this field.

  17. Montreal exclusivity versus EU law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđev Dušanka J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current air law is a showcase of multilevel regulation. The rights and obligations of airlines and their passengers are governed both by the Montreal Convention and by EU Regulation 261/2004. The EU placed itself in a difficult position by adopting Regulation 261/2004 shortly after it had signed the Montreal Convention. Both instruments provide for different standards for liability. The issue is whether or not the rules in the Convention is exclusive.

  18. Power Europe: EU and the illegal, unreported and unregulated tuna fisheries regulation in the West and Central Pacific Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, A.M.M.; Bush, S.R.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing activities are widely considered a main cause of unsustainable fisheries across the globe. The EU has taken a leading role in the fight against IUU fishing, using both its market and normative power to advance its EU IUU Regulation (no. 1005/2008) an

  19. Power Europe: EU and the illegal, unreported and unregulated tuna fisheries regulation in the West and Central Pacific Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, A.M.M.; Bush, S.R.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing activities are widely considered a main cause of unsustainable fisheries across the globe. The EU has taken a leading role in the fight against IUU fishing, using both its market and normative power to advance its EU IUU Regulation (no. 1005/2008)

  20. EU Sanitary Regulation on Livestock Disposal: Implications for the Diet of Wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Laura; Bárcena, Felipe

    2015-10-01

    Sanitary and environmental regulations may have indirect effects on the wildlife and ecosystem services beyond their regulatory scope. To illustrate such effects, this paper examines how EU sanitary measures, in conjunction with additional regulations and socio-economic changes, have caused wolf diet to shift in Galicia, northwestern Spain. Prior to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis in Europe in 2000, livestock carcasses used to be left on the field and were eaten by scavengers and carnivores. As a result of the BSE crisis, sanitary regulations regarding the disposal of livestock carcasses were introduced. These regulations affected the populations of avian scavengers. We hypothesize that wolf ecology has also been affected by the aforementioned regulations. We analysed wolf diet for the period 2003-2006 and compared the results with those of a previously published study (1974-1978). We found a shift in wolf feeding habits following the implementation of these EU regulations. A decrease in carrion consumption was registered, and wolves increased their feeding on the rising population of wild ungulates, especially on roe deer, and on wild pony. Future regulations should assess their potential indirect effects in the early stages of drafting to allow for the design of proper mitigation measures.

  1. EU Regulation of Nanobiocides: Challenges in Implementing the Biocidal Product Regulation (BPR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Anna; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Hartmann, Nanna B.;

    2016-01-01

    The Biocidal Products Regulation (BPR) contains several provisions for nanomaterials (NMs) and is the first regulation in the European Union to require specific testing and risk assessment for the NM form of a biocidal substance as a part of the information requirements. Ecotoxicological data...... are one of the pillars of the information requirements in the BPR, but there are currently no standard test guidelines for the ecotoxicity testing of NMs. The overall objective of this work was to investigate the implications of the introduction of nano-specific testing requirements in the BPR......’s nanospecific test guidelines into consideration. This makes it difficult for companies as well as regulators to fulfill the BPR information requirements for nanomaterials. In order to enable a nanospecific risk assessment, best practices need to be developed regarding stock suspension preparation...

  2. Integrating resource efficiency and EU State aid. An evaluation of resource efficiency considerations in the current EU State aid framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennink, D.; Faber, J.; Smit, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Goba, V. [SIA Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian Environment ELLE, Tallinn (Estonia); Miller, K.; Williams, E. [AEA Technology plc, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    This study, for the European Commission, analyses the issues that need to be addressed in the revision of the EU State aid framework to ensure that they do not hinder environmental, resource efficiency and sustainable development goals. In some cases, State aid can be considered an environmentally harmful subsidy (EHS). The study analyses (1) the extent to which the Environmental Aid Guidelines (EAG) need to be changed to take into account recent European environmental policy developments; (2) existing and potential resource efficiency considerations in a) the Regional Aid Guidelines; b) the Research, Development and Innovation (RDI) Guidelines and c) the Agriculture and Forestry Guidelines; assesses cases and schemes using these guidelines to identify whether resource efficiency considerations are taken into account. The study also considers the social, environmental and economic impacts of these cases and schemes. It develops recommendations for the review of the EAG and a number of horizontal guidelines. One of the conclusions of the analysis is that the way in which multiple objectives and impacts are balanced, when deciding to approve state aid, is unclear. Also, EU member states are not required to provide information on certain types of (estimated) impacts. To guarantee that multiple objectives and impacts are sufficiently balanced, it is recommended that the State aid framework prescribes that applicants identify social, economic and environmental objectives and impacts and describe how these are taken into account in the procedure of balancing multiple (conflicting) objectives. Objectives and impacts should be quantified as much as possible, for example by making use of the method of external cost calculation laid down in 'the Handbook on estimation of external costs in the transport Sector'. The results of the study are used by the European Commission as an input for evaluating and improving the EU State aid framework.

  3. Labelling of electronic cigarettes: regulations and current practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonocore, Federico; Marques Gomes, Ana C N; Nabhani-Gebara, Shereen; Barton, Stephen J; Calabrese, Gianpiero

    2017-01-01

    Background Over the past decade e-cigarettes have established themselves in the global market. E-cigarettes triggered much interest in relation to their content and efficacy as smoking cessation tools, but less attention has been paid to users and environmental safety warnings and guidance. Several regulations have been introduced to promote their safe handling and disposal. From May 2016, liquids and cartridges will be regulated by European Community Directives (ECDs) 2001/83/EC and 93/42/EEC, or 2014/40/EU if marketed as tobacco-related products. Currently, manufacturers and distributors must abide by the Chemical (Hazard Information and Packaging for Supply) Regulations 2009 (CHIP) or Classification, Labelling and Packaging Regulations (CLP), the latter replacing CHIP in June 2015. Objective In this work, the compliance of marketed e-liquids and e-cigarettes with current European Union and UK legislations is assessed. Results E-liquids and e-cigarettes (21 and 9 brands, respectively) were evaluated. Evidence of non-compliance was found in relation to the CHIP/CLP toxic (13%) and environmental (37%) pictograms, tactile warning (23%), nominal amount of solution (30%), supplier contact telephone number and address (40%). None of the evaluated e-cigarettes displayed information on the correct disposal/recycling of batteries in line with the ECD 2006/66/EC. Conclusions More stringent enforcement of regulations is needed to ensure not only the user's safety and awareness, but also the safeguarding of the environment. PMID:26790924

  4. Migration of antimony from PET containers into regulated EU food simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martínez, María; Pérez-Corona, Teresa; Cámara, Carmen; Madrid, Yolanda

    2013-11-15

    Antimony migration from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers into aqueous (distilled water, 3% acetic acid, 10% and 20% ethanol) and fatty food simulants (vegetable oil), as well as into vinegar, was studied. Test conditions were according to the recent European Regulation 10/2011 (EU, 2011). Sb migration was assayed by ICP-MS and HG-AFS. The results showed that Sb migration values ranged from 0.5 to 1.2μg Sb/l, which are far below the maximum permissible migration value for Sb, 40μg Sb/kg, (EU, Regulation 10/2011). Parameters as temperature and bottle re-use influence were studied. To assess toxicity, antimony speciation was performed by HPLC-ICP-MS and HG-AFS. While Sb(V) was the only species detected in aqueous simulants, an additional species (Sb-acetate complex) was measured in wine vinegar. Unlike most of the studies reported in the literature, migration tests were based on the application of the EU directive, which enables comparison and harmonisation of results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dynamics of EU Transport Safety Regulation in the European Policy Process: Differences and Similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleur Fragola

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The European Community (EC and subsequently, the European Union (EU, have been central to an impressive development of regulation at the European level. In this ‘regulatory age’ (Majone 1994, product safety has become one of the first issues to be dealt with, in order to overcome barriers to trade, and should be regarded as a first step to be taken in order to integrate European markets. Transport industries have experienced distinct levels, forms and timing of EU safety regulation. While the automotive industry has undergone a standardisation process since the 1970s, such questions were only addressed in the context of railways in the 2000s. Thus, it is interesting to question and analyse the various interplays of actors and/or events which have characterised the European policy process in each transport sector. In addition, a trans-sectoral comparison will help in explaining such differences and their impact on the validity of traditional EU decision-making theories, such as that developed by Héritier in 1996.

  6. Development and regulation of biosimilars: current status and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiftsoglou, Asterios S; Ruiz, Sol; Schneider, Christian K

    2013-06-01

    Biologic medicinal products developed via rDNA technology as recombinant protein-based medicines that have been in clinical use since the early 1980s as original biopharmaceuticals have greatly contributed to the therapy of severe metabolic and degenerative diseases. The recent expiration of the data protection or patents for most of them created opportunities for the development of copy versions of original biopharmaceuticals with similar biologic activity (termed biosimilars). Production of these new products is expected to meet worldwide demand, promote market competition, maintain the incentives for innovation, and sustain the healthcare systems. The licencing of these products, however, relies on the experience gained with the original biopharmaceuticals. Critical issues related to this class of medicinal products include their terminology (to avoid confusion with generics and non-innovator copy versions that have not been tested according to the biosimilar guidelines), manufacturing, and regulation. The European Union (EU) has been the first to establish a regulatory framework for marketing authorization application (MAA) and has named these products biosimilars, a term also recently adopted by the US FDA. Unlike the conventional, more common small molecular weight human medicines and chemical generics, protein-based medicines exhibit higher molecular weight, complexity in structure and function that can be affected by changes in the manufacturing process. Therefore, biosimilars represent a relatively heterogeneous class of medicinal products that make their regulation quite challenging. According to the current understanding in the EU, a biosimilar is a copy version of an already authorized biopharmaceutical (or reference product) with similar biologic activity, physicochemical characteristics, efficacy, and safety, based on a full comparability exercise at quality, preclinical and clinical level to ensure similar efficacy and safety. Guidance has been

  7. The Financial System of the New EU Member States: Experiences and Current Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela ROMAN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current financial crisis has had a severe impact on the European financial systems, reinforcing the ongoing discussion about the scale, scope, performance, safety and soundness of the financial system and its institutions. In this context, the purpose of this research is to highlight, using an empirical approach and a quantitative analysis, the vulnerabilities accumulated by the financial systems from the new EU member states (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania during the period before the current global economic crisis broke out and to emphasize the extremely serious consequences of the current crisis on their financial systems, the interaction between the financial sector and the real economy, the measures taken by the authorities in order to avoid the collapse of financial systems, as well as the new challenges aroused for the authorities in the current context. Finally, we argue then that building a safer financialsystem with better crisis management and a compelling solution forburden‐sharing should be the current priority.

  8. The Influence of the Chicago School on the Commission's Guidelines, Notices and Block Exemption Regulations in EU Competition Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartalevich, Dzmitry

    2016-01-01

    Antitrust rules are fundamentally informed and shaped by economic theories. Given the significance of EU competition policy for the European integration process, it is essential to disentangle the economic theories underlying EU competition law. There is abundant theoretical and empirical...... literature examining the influence of ordoliberalism on EC/EU competition policy. However, in recent years, ordoliberal principles appear to have been replaced by neoliberalism and efficiency-enhancing rationale in EU competition policy. This article puts forward the idea of clarifying whether the European...... Commission incorporates Chicago School theory into EU competition law provisions. The analysis is carried out on the basis of the European Commission's guidelines, notices and block exemption regulations. The analysis reveals that the Commission does, to a considerable extent, follow the Chicago School...

  9. EU Regulation of Nanobiocides: Challenges in Implementing the Biocidal Product Regulation (BPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Brinch

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Biocidal Products Regulation (BPR contains several provisions for nanomaterials (NMs and is the first regulation in the European Union to require specific testing and risk assessment for the NM form of a biocidal substance as a part of the information requirements. Ecotoxicological data are one of the pillars of the information requirements in the BPR, but there are currently no standard test guidelines for the ecotoxicity testing of NMs. The overall objective of this work was to investigate the implications of the introduction of nano-specific testing requirements in the BPR and to explore how these might be fulfilled in the case of copper oxide nanoparticles. While there is information and data available in the open literature that could be used to fulfill the BPR information requirements, most of the studies do not take the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s nanospecific test guidelines into consideration. This makes it difficult for companies as well as regulators to fulfill the BPR information requirements for nanomaterials. In order to enable a nanospecific risk assessment, best practices need to be developed regarding stock suspension preparation and characterization, exposure suspensions preparation, and for conducting ecotoxicological test.

  10. EU Regulation of Nanobiocides: Challenges in Implementing the Biocidal Product Regulation (BPR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinch, Anna; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Hartmann, Nanna B; Baun, Anders

    2016-02-16

    The Biocidal Products Regulation (BPR) contains several provisions for nanomaterials (NMs) and is the first regulation in the European Union to require specific testing and risk assessment for the NM form of a biocidal substance as a part of the information requirements. Ecotoxicological data are one of the pillars of the information requirements in the BPR, but there are currently no standard test guidelines for the ecotoxicity testing of NMs. The overall objective of this work was to investigate the implications of the introduction of nano-specific testing requirements in the BPR and to explore how these might be fulfilled in the case of copper oxide nanoparticles. While there is information and data available in the open literature that could be used to fulfill the BPR information requirements, most of the studies do not take the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's nanospecific test guidelines into consideration. This makes it difficult for companies as well as regulators to fulfill the BPR information requirements for nanomaterials. In order to enable a nanospecific risk assessment, best practices need to be developed regarding stock suspension preparation and characterization, exposure suspensions preparation, and for conducting ecotoxicological test.

  11. The EU Clinical Trials Regulation: key priorities, purposes and aims and the implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flear, Mark L

    2016-03-01

    The replacement of the European Union (EU) Clinical Trials Directive by the new Clinical Trials Regulation (CTR), which entered into force on 16 June 2014 but will not apply before 28 May 2016, provides an opportunity to review the legal and political context within which this important aspect of research law and policy sits and to reflect on the implications for public health. My aim in this article is to relate the context to the key purposes and aims of EU law and policy on clinical trials in order to explain and clarify its orientation. On that basis, I argue that the CTR and the changes it introduces to the law on clinical trials are part of the EU's continued focus on market optimisation. It is this focus that orients and directs the wider pharmaceutical development pipeline, but that undermines the achievement of key public health objectives. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. From macro- to microplastics - Analysis of EU regulation along the life cycle of plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensgaard, Ida M; Syberg, Kristian; Rist, Sinja; Hartmann, Nanna B; Boldrin, Alessio; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2017-05-01

    Plastic pollution and its environmental effects has received global attention the recent years. However, limited attention has so far been directed towards how plastics are regulated in a life cycle perspective and how regulatory gaps can be addressed in order to limit and prevent environmental exposure and hazards of macro- and microplastics. In this paper, we map European regulation taking outset in the life cycle perspective of plastic carrier bags: from plastic bag production to when it enters the environment. Relevant regulatory frameworks, directives and authorities along the life cycle are identified and their role in regulation of plastics is discussed. Most important regulations were identified as: the EU chemical Regulation, the Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive including the amending Directive regarding regulation of the consumption of lightweight plastic carrier bags, the Waste Framework Directive and the Directive on the Landfill of Waste. The main gaps identified relate to lack of clear definitions of categories of polymers, unambitious recycling rates and lack of consideration of macro- and microplastics in key pieces of legislation. We recommend that polymers are categorized according to whether they are polymers with the same monomer constituents (homopolymers) or with different monomer constituents (copolymers) and that polymers are no longer exempt from registration and evaluation under REACH. Plastics should furthermore have the same high level of monitoring and reporting requirements as hazardous waste involving stricter requirements to labelling, recordkeeping, monitoring and control over the whole lifecycle. Finally, we recommend that more ambitious recycle and recovery targets are set across the EU. Regulation of the consumption of lightweight plastic carrier bags should also apply to heavyweight plastic carrier bags. Last, the Marine and Water Framework Directives should specifically address plastic waste affecting water quality

  13. Current EU-27 technical potential of organic waste streams for biogas and energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Helge; Fischer, Peter; Schumacher, Britt; Adler, Philipp

    2013-11-01

    Anaerobic digestion of organic waste generated by households, businesses, agriculture, and industry is an important approach as method of waste treatment - especially with regard to its potential as an alternative energy source and its cost-effectiveness. Separate collection of biowaste from households or vegetal waste from public green spaces is already established in some EU-27 countries. The material recovery in composting plants is common for biowaste and vegetal waste. Brewery waste fractions generated by beer production are often used for animal feeding after a suitable preparation. Waste streams from paper industry generated by pulp and paper production such as black liquor or paper sludge are often highly contaminated with toxic substances. Recovery of chemicals and the use in thermal processes like incineration, pyrolysis, and gasification are typical utilization paths. The current utilization of organic waste from households and institutions (without agricultural waste) was investigated for EU-27 countries with Germany as an in-depth example. Besides of biowaste little is known about the suitability of waste streams from brewery and paper industry for anaerobic digestion. Therefore, an evaluation of the most important biogas process parameters for different substrates was carried out, in order to calculate the biogas utilization potential of these waste quantities. Furthermore, a calculation of biogas energy potentials was carried out for defined waste fractions which are most suitable for anaerobic digestion. Up to 1% of the primary energy demand can be covered by the calculated total biogas energy potential. By using a "best-practice-scenario" for separately collected biowaste, the coverage of primary energy demand may be increased above 2% for several countries. By using sector-specific waste streams, for example the German paper industry could cover up to 4.7% and the German brewery industry up to 71.2% of its total energy demand.

  14. The Current Evolution of Slavic Languages in Central and Eastern Europe in the Context of the EU Multilingualism Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Paweł Sosnowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Current Evolution of Slavic Languages in Central and Eastern Europe in the Context of the EU Multilingualism Policy The respect for and protection of cultural and linguistic diversity have long been guaranteed in various international and European legislative acts. More recently, the European Union has also developed laws aimed at the preservation and promotion of multilingualism. Linguistic diversity has long been seen as an obstacle to the effective functioning of EU institutions. Recently, however, it has been considered as a valuable “heritage” of the EU. In our article, we will present a brief overview of policies promoting multilingualism in Europe, and more specifically, in the EU. Subsequently, we will compare this framework to the changes occurring presently in modern Slavic languages of Central and Eastern Europe. The tendency of these languages towards increased analitism transforms these predominantly synthetic languages into more analytical ones. These conclusions have led us to the following question: What is the current state of modern Slavic languages and how far may their evolution be addressed by policies promoting multilingualism? Our analysis consists of two parts: first, we scrutinised various European legislative acts promoting multilingualism; second, we analysed modern Slavic languages by means of the parallel corpora of chosen languages from the Common Language Resources and Technology Infrastructure project (including UNESCO and EU legislation, etc..

  15. State of the art of cattle dehorning in the EU Member States. A quantitative survey of the current practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozzi, G.; Gottardo, F.; Brscic, M.; Contiero, B.; Irrgang, N.; Knierim, U.; Pentelescu, O.; Windig, J.J.; Mirabito, L.; Kling Eveillard, F.; Dockes, A.C.; Veissier, I.; Velarde, A.; Fuentes, C.; Dalmau, A.; Winckler, C.

    2015-01-01

    A survey was carried out to describe the extent and current practice of cattle disbudding/dehorning in the EU Member States. Disbudding was defined as removal of horns in calves of up to 2 months of age, whereas dehorning was defined as removal of horns in older animals. Specific questionnaires were

  16. Privacy in Digital Age: Dead or Alive?! Regarding the New EU Data Protection Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ebrahim Dorraji

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – To review and critically discuss the current state of privacy in the context of constant technological changes and to emphasize the pace of technological advancements and developments reached over the time when the last EU data protection laws came into effect. These facts inevitably affect the perception of privacy and raise the question of whether privacy is dead or takes the last breath in the digital age? This paper is an attempt to address this question.Design/Methodology/Approach – Based on the comparison and systematic analysis of scientific literature, the authors discuss problematic issues related to privacy and data protection in the technology era – where these issues are too complicated to be clearly regulated by laws and rules since “laws move as a function of years and technology moves as a function of months” (Ron Rivest. Therefore, this analytical approach towards the issue may help to facilitate reaching the best-fit decision in this area.Findings – The authors emphasize the change of perception of privacy, which originated and grew on the idea of “an integral part of our humanity”, the “heart of our liberty” and “the beginning of all freedoms” (Solove, 2008, leading to the recently raised idea that privacy is severely hanging with threat. The authors are of the opinion that legislation and regulation may be one of the best and effective techniques for protecting privacy in the twenty-first century, but it is not currently adequate (Wacks, 2012. One of the solutions lies in technology design.Research limitations/implications – The aspects of privacy and data protection in the European Union have been widely discussed recently because of their broad applicability. Therefore, it is hardly possible to review and cover all the important aspects of the issue. This article focuses on the roles of technology and legislation in securing privacy. The authors examine and provide their own views based on

  17. ANDREEA NICOLĂESCU, The Work-Life Balance in Current EU Labour Market Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA LEOVARIDIS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A work-life balance is one of the factors that increases an employee's individual satisfaction, leading to higher economic performance, an aspect that is found in most EU strategic documents dealing with the labour market. Focusing on gender differences, the article carries out a comparative analysis of the situation in EU Member States, on several dimensions: working time, flexible work arrangements, providing opportunities for assuming different domestic responsibilities etc.

  18. What is the role of ethics committees after Regulation (EU) 536/2014?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Carlo

    2016-03-01

    EU Regulation 536/2014 stipulates that when assessing applications for authorisation to conduct clinical trials, Member States should formulate a 'single decision'. This raises the problem of identifying: (1) the facility designated to express this 'single decision' and (2) the role of ethics committees in the decision-making process. The article addresses the consequences of the requirement that for each Member State the assessment of an application for approval to conduct a trial must take the form of a 'single decision' by the Member State concerned. Three possible approaches to the procedures for expressing that 'single decision' and to the role of ethics committees in the decision-making process are described, one of which is indicated as the preferred option.

  19. Precise plant breeding using new genome editing techniques: opportunities, safety and regulation in the EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Frank; Schiemann, Joachim

    2014-06-01

    Several new plant breeding techniques (NPBTs) have been developed during the last decade, and make it possible to precisely perform genome modifications in plants. The major problem, other than technical aspects, is the vagueness of regulation concerning these new techniques. Since the definition of eight NPBTs by a European expert group in 2007, there has been an ongoing debate on whether the resulting plants and their products are covered by GMO legislation. Obviously, cover by GMO legislation would severely hamper the use of NPBT, because genetically modified plants must pass a costly and time-consuming GMO approval procedure in the EU. In this review, we compare some of the NPBTs defined by the EU expert group with classical breeding techniques and conventional transgenic plants. The list of NPBTs may be shortened (or extended) during the international discussion process initiated by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. From the scientific point of view, it may be argued that plants developed by NPBTs are often indistinguishable from classically bred plants and are not expected to possess higher risks for health and the environment. In light of the debate on the future regulation of NPBTs and the accumulated evidence on the biosafety of genetically modified plants that have been commercialized and risk-assessed worldwide, it may be suggested that plants modified by crop genetic improvement technologies, including genetic modification, NPBTs or other future techniques, should be evaluated according to the new trait and the resulting end product rather than the technique used to create the new plant variety.

  20. Current perspectives on shoot branching regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunquan YUAN,Lin XI,Yaping KOU,Yu ZHAO,Liangjun ZHAO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shoot branching is regulated by the complex interactions among hormones, development, and environmental factors. Recent studies into the regulatory mecha-nisms of shoot branching have focused on strigolactones, which is a new area of investigation in shoot branching regulation. Elucidation of the function of the D53 gene has allowed exploration of detailed mechanisms of action of strigolactones in regulating shoot branching. In addition, the recent discovery that sucrose is key for axillary bud release has challenged the established auxin theory, in which auxin is the principal agent in the control of apical dominance. These developments increase our understan-ding of branching control and indicate that regulation of shoot branching involves a complex network. Here, we first summarize advances in the systematic regulatory network of plant shoot branching based on current information. Then we describe recent developments in the synthesis and signal transduction of strigolactones. Based on these considerations, we further summarize the plant shoot branching regulatory network, including long distance systemic signals and local gene activity mediated by strigolactones following perception of external envi-ronmental signals, such as shading, in order to provide a comprehensive overview of plant shoot branching.

  1. Regulation (EU No 536/2014 on clinical trials on medicinal products for human use: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Petrini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For the 28 member states of the European Union, Regulation (EU No 536/2014 on clinical trials on medicinal products for human use, which repeals Directive 2001/20/EC, represents a substantial innovation in the procedures for authorising clinical trials and for handling all the subsequent stages. It introduces a single authorisation that will be valid for all EU member states, as well as a single portal through which all data concerning all clinical trials performed throughout the EU will pass. The present article offers an overview of the general aspects of the new procedures. It does not address the specific issues involved, each of which merits separate examination.

  2. Regulating food law : risk analysis and the precautionary principle as general principles of EU food law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szajkowska, A.

    2012-01-01

    In food law scientific evidence occupies a central position. This study offers a legal insight into risk analysis and the precautionary principle, positioned in the EU as general principles applicable to all food safety measures, both national and EU. It develops a new method of looking at these

  3. Review of the current application of EU Structural Funds to renewable energy schemes in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This report gives details of a study commissioned to examine the support for UK renewable energy projects received from the EU Structural Funds. The rationale for supporting renewable energy is explored, and the types of activities on which eligible renewable energy projects focus are described. The need for all projects to provide matching funding is discussed along with the range of different types of projects that have been supported, and the different justifications for that support.

  4. Nanotherapeutics in the EU: an overview on current state and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafner A

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Anita Hafner,1,* Jasmina Lovrić,1,* Gorana Perina Lakoš,2 Ivan Pepić1,3 1Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Zagreb, Croatia; 2Medicines Authorisation Division, Agency for Medicinal Products and Medical Devices, Zagreb, Croatia; 3Centre for Applied Pharmacy, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Zagreb, Croatia *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The application of nanotechnology in areas of drug delivery and therapy (ie, nanotherapeutics is envisioned to have a great impact on public health. The ability of nanotherapeutics to provide targeted drug delivery, improve drug solubility, extend drug half-life, improve a drug’s therapeutic index, and reduce a drug’s immunogenicity has resulted in the potential to revolutionize the treatment of many diseases. In this paper, we review the liposome-, nanocrystal-, virosome-, polymer therapeutic-, nanoemulsion-, and nanoparticle-based approaches to nanotherapeutics, which represent the most successful and commercialized categories within the field of nanomedicine. We discuss the regulatory pathway and initiatives endeavoring to ensure the safe and timely clinical translation of emerging nanotherapeutics and realization of health care benefits. Emerging trends are expected to confirm that this nano-concept can exert a macro-impact on patient benefits, treatment options, and the EU economy. Keywords: nanotechnology, drug delivery, EU approval procedures, EU marketed products

  5. The proposed EU-regulation on clinical trials on medicinal products: an unethical proposal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heringa, Jilles; Dute, Joseph

    2013-09-01

    The Commission has proposed a regulation 'on clinical trials on medicinal products for human use' to introduce one regulatory framework for clinical trials in the European Union. This regulation should replace the current clinical trials directive (2001/20/EC). In this article we describe and critically review the main provisions of the proposed regulation. We assess the consequences for a sound authorisation procedure of clinical trials and the level of protection for human subjects. We note that the proposed regulation is inconsistent with applicable international legal documents, such as the Biomedicine Convention and the Declaration of Helsinki. We conclude that the proposed regulation does not ensure a "high level of human health protection"--required by its legal basis in the TFEU--because it may force Member States concerned to accept a reporting Member States' approval of--in their estimation--an unethical clinical trial.

  6. Corporate Governance in Crisis? The Politics of EU Corporate Governance Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Laura

    2012-01-01

    a legislative programme centred on company law harmonisation towards a regulatory approach based on minimum requirements and mutual recognition, increasingly geared at adjusting the governance of corporations to the demands of liberalised capital markets. The second section then reflects on the current...... developments in corporate governance regulation in the context of financial and economic crisis....

  7. The Interaction between FSC Certification and the Implementation of the EU Timber Regulation in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Gavrilut

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This explorative study aims to shed light on the ways in which Forest Stewardship Council (FSC certification interacts with the implementation of the EU Timber Regulation (EUTR in Romania. To this end, the EUTR implementation process is examined, and the relationship between this implementation and FSC certification is explored. There is a particular focus on the extent to which certification has helped companies to comply with EUTR requirements. The study uses the analytical framework of Transnational Business Governance Interactions (TBGI and a mixed research approach. It is found that FSC certification has to a large extent helped companies to prepare for and align with the EUTR’s requirements, in particular concerning risk assessment and risk mitigation procedures needed for a due diligence system (DDS, and in the context of a “policy vacuum” period related to EUTR implementation. Moreover, recent changes in the FSC standard make it theoretically in line with EUTR requirements. However, difficulties remain in relation to the lack of information, costs and bureaucracy associated with both EUTR implementation and FSC certification. Notably, in the absence of a monitoring organization, the establishment of a viable DDS is still problematic as many companies remain unprepared for developing their own systems. Finally, the EUTR and its risk management requirements may have partly fueled the increase in uptake of chain of custody (CoC certification in Romania. However, due to the risk of CoC certificates including illegally sourced timber, this recent uptake in certification does not necessarily indicate improved sustainable forest management (SFM or full compliance with EUTR.

  8. EU Budgetary Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2013-01-01

    and change in the EU in light of the two models of policy dynamics currently existing in the literature: the incrementalist model and the punctuated equilibrium model. The analysis of long series of original data extracted from the EU budget shows that EU policies do not evolve following an incrementalist...... pattern, but by a punctuated equilibrium dynamic....

  9. Evaluation of EU Risk assessments Existing Chemicals (EC Regulation 793/93)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodar CWM; Berthault F; de Bruijn JHM; van Leeuwen CJ; Pronk MEJ; Vermeire TG; CSR

    2002-01-01

    Vanaf 1993 is de EG-Verordening 793/93 van kracht die zich richt op de risico's van 'bestaande stoffen'. Sindsdien worden er voor deze stoffen EU-risicobeoordelingen gemaakt. Het RIVM heeft een evaluatie-onderzoek gedaan naar de 'overall' uitkomsten van het werk tot nu toe

  10. The Regulation of Retail Investment Services in the EU: Towards the Improvement of Investor Rights?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherednychenko, O.O.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the fact that a substantial body of European Community (EC) law already exists to protect retail investors, the markets in retail investment services and products in the EU remain fragmented. Moreover, the recent financial crisis has undermined investor confidence in financial markets more g

  11. The Regulation of Retail Investment Services in the EU: Towards the Improvement of Investor Rights?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherednychenko, O.O.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the fact that a substantial body of European Community (EC) law already exists to protect retail investors, the markets in retail investment services and products in the EU remain fragmented. Moreover, the recent financial crisis has undermined investor confidence in financial markets more

  12. Mutual Trust and the Dublin Regulation: Protection of Fundamental Rights in the EU and the Burden of Proof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien Brouwer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, two landmark judgments dealing with the application of mutual trust within the framework of the Dublin Regulation were published by respectively the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR and the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU. The Dublin Regulation or Regulation 343/2003 allocates the responsibility of Member States for the assessment of individual asylum applications within the EU. One of the key conclusions in both judgments is that with regard to the absolute protection of the non-refoulement of asylum seekers, a 'non-rebuttable trust' between EU Member States is not allowed. This contribution analyzes both judgments, assessing when or in which specific circumstances national authorities (including courts are obliged to consider 'trust' to be rebutted. This contribution explores which criteria can be derived from the aforementioned judgments with regard to 'rebuttal of trust' in the framework of the Dublin system and what this means for the national procedures in practice.

  13. Waste collection in rural communities: challenges under EU regulations. A Case study of Neamt County, Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai, Florin-Constantin

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The paper aims to examine the changes in the rural waste management sector at regional scale since the Romania adhesion to the EU in 2007. Traditional waste management based on the mixed waste collection and waste disposal often on improper sites prevailed in municipal waste management options of transitional economies across the globe. The lack of formal waste collection services in rural areas has encouraged the open dumping or backyard burning. The paper analyses th...

  14. Energy-conserving development regulations: current practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    Almost every aspect of land development has an effect on energy use, from minute architectural details to broad considerations of urban density. Energy-efficiency depends in part on how development is planned and carried out. Conventional development regulations, such as zoning ordinances and subdivision regulations, can be adapted in many ways to promote energy conservation at the community level. This report is about energy-efficient site and neighborhood design. It examines recent experiences of local governments that have adopted new development regulations or amended existing ones to promote energy conservation, more efficient generation and distribution, or a switch to alternative, renewable sources. Although much has been written in recent years about saving energy through community design, actual experience in applying these new ideas is still limited. To date, most communities have focused their efforts on studying the problem, documenting consumption patterns, and writing reports and plans. Only a handful have amended their land-use controls for the express purpose of saving energy. This study identifies 13 of these pioneering communities, after undertaking a survey of over 1400 local, regional, and state planning agencies. It takes a look at their experiences, to learn what has been done, how well it has worked, and what problems have been encountered.

  15. [Legal aspects of the REACH regulation. The control system of the REACH regulation--new approaches in the EU chemical legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pache, Eckhard

    2008-12-01

    The REACH regulation from 2006 shall overcome the deficiencies of the previously existing inconsistent legal system of chemicals and build an efficient and innovative regulation for industrial chemicals in the EU. For this purpose, the REACH regulation is not inventing a completely new legislation for chemical substances, but refers to the existing rules, regulates and structures them in a new manner and complements them. With REACH a consistent control system for chemicals in Europe has been created, which basically is managed and coordinated by the newly established European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). In the first phases of the REACH system, information about chemicals is generated and afterwards evaluated. Then this information is used in a process of authorization and restriction, to ensure adequate proliferation and safe exposure to chemical substances. Numerous duties to furnish information complement the readjustment's procedural steps, particularly with regard to the supply chain and down to the consumer. It is mainly affected by the abrogation of the determination between new and existing substances, the principle of substitution and is based on the idea that industry itself is best suited to ensure that the substances it manufactures and places on the market in the EU do not adversely affect human health or the environment.

  16. PECULIARITIES OF LEGAL REGULATION OF THE CHILDREN MAINTENANCE UNDER THE EU LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmyla Lypets

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose is to make comprehensive analysis of the paternal obligation to maintain the children and its role in science and practice of the international private law, making proposals on improvement of the effective legislation of Ukraine in the children maintenance field based on the experience of the EU countries. Methods: are philosophic and world-viewed, general and special scientific methods and approaches that secure objective analysis of the subject. Results: It is more effective to implement collection of the children alimony at the administrative level (like in Great Britain and Latvia, so we propose to create in Ukraine specialized institution empowered to calculate the alimony, search for the debtors, to collect the alimony and apply the appropriate influence on the debtors. Based on the positive experience of some developed countries of the EU we propose to determine in the Family Code of Ukraine the differentiation of the alimony amount to be collected as the fixed cash amount, as follows: from birth to 6 years old (preschool age, from 6 to 12 years old, 12 to 18 years old (by reaching majority. We propose to include the point on consideration of the debtor’s income from lease of real property to the List of Types of Incomes Used during Granting the Alimony Amount. Discussion: This article is devoted to peculiarities of the paternal maintenance in the EU countries that is not typical for Ukraine. The author analyzed special features of work of the Guarantee Fund of Costs for Children Maintenance in Latvia, researched a mechanism of the state maintenance system in Great Britain and Germany. The author also considered the legislation of the Member States of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD which have a system of state agencies on the child maintenance that use strict mathematical formulas to calculate the alimony, etc.

  17. Prohibited anabolic substances, dangerous to human consumers, in accordance of E.U. regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia A. Hanganu,

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Substances with anabolic effects are used to enhance feed conversion, growth rate or muscle tissue deposition in stock farming for several decades. The majority of these compounds have biochemical effects similar to sex steroids (androgens, estrogens, gestagens. However, in the E.U., the use of hormones for growth – promotion or fattening is prohibited. Monitoring of residues of hormonal growth-promotion in meat or milk, is essential for implementing such bans and to protect public health against the harmful effects of these substances, which incidentally is found in products of animal origin.

  18. The use of Depletion Methods to assess Mediterranean cephalopod stocks under the current EU Data Collection Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KELLER

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fuelled by the raising importance of cephalopod fisheries in Europe, there have been demands from scientists and stakeholders for their assessment and management. However, little has been done to improve the data collection in order to analyse cephalopod populations under the EU Data Collection Framework (DCF. While the DCF allows member states to design flexible national sampling programmes, it establishes the minimum data requirements (MDR each state is obliged to fulfil. In this study, it was investigated whether such MDR currently set by the DCF allow the application of depletion models (DMs to assess European cephalopod stocks. Squid and cuttlefish fisheries from the western Mediterranean were used as a case study. This exercise sheds doubt on the suitability of the MDR to properly assess and manage cephalopod stocks by means of DMs. Owing to the high plasticity of life-history traits in cephalopod populations, biological parameters should be estimated during the actual depletion period of the fished stocks, in contrast with the triennial sampling established by the DCF. In order to accurately track the depletion event, the rapid growth rates of cephalopods implies that their populations should be monitored at shorter time scales (ideally weekly or biweekly instead of quarterly as required by the DCF. These measures would not demand additional resources of the ongoing DCF, but a redistribution of sampling efforts during the depletion period. Such changes in the sampling scheme could be designed and undertaken by the member states or directly integrated as requirements.

  19. A comprehensive analysis of the current and future role of biofuels for transport in the European Union (EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Raboni1

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of biofuels is strongly supported all over the world as a renewable energy source for reducing dependence on the unstable oil market. Bioethanol, the main biofuel produced in the world, is widely used to power vehicles in both the USA and Brazil, but concerns exist in both places regarding its sustainability. In Brazil, it is produced from a by-product of the sugar cane industry, while in the USA it is manufactured from food crops. The production of biogas and biodiesel is growing rapidly, but neither has outpaced the production of bioethanol. The European Union (EU is greatly interested in this issue, and in 2011 adopted an extensive strategy to reduce carbon dioxide emissions related to transport by 60% by the year 2050. In order to achieve this result, the current European transportation system must be transformed. This ambitious goal will require the implementation of complex measures including the reduction of fossil fuels in favor of renewable fuels. This program has various options regarding the development of biofuels (e. g., biogas, bioethanol and biodiesel and their related technologies, which are still on trial (mainly regarding the bioethanol production, and must also analyze their sustainability from a social and economic standpoint. The paper discusses the use of biofuels for transport in the European setting, and shows that their sustainability may result in relevant negative social effects due mainly to the use of land for energy crops (e.g., change of food price and world food shortage.

  20. The use of Depletion Methods to assess Mediterranean cephalopod stocks under the current EU Data Collection Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KELLER

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fuelled by the raising importance of cephalopod fisheries in Europe, there have been demands from scientists and stakeholders for their assessment and management. However, little has been done to improve the data collection in order to analyse cephalopod populations under the EU Data Collection Framework (DCF. While the DCF allows member states to design flexible national sampling programmes, it establishes the minimum data requirements (MDR each state is obliged to fulfil. In this study, it was investigated whether such MDR currently set by the DCF allow the application of depletion models (DMs to assess European cephalopod stocks. Squid and cuttlefish fisheries from the western Mediterranean were used as a case study. This exercise sheds doubt on the suitability of the MDR to properly assess and manage cephalopod stocks by means of DMs. Owing to the high plasticity of life-history traits in cephalopod populations, biological parameters should be estimated during the actual depletion period of the fished stocks, in contrast with the triennial sampling established by the DCF. In order to accurately track the depletion event, the rapid growth rates of cephalopods implies that their populations should be monitored at shorter time scales (ideally weekly or biweekly instead of quarterly as required by the DCF. These measures would not demand additional resources of the ongoing DCF, but a redistribution of sampling efforts during the depletion period. Such changes in the sampling scheme could be designed and undertaken by the member states or directly integrated as requirements.

  1. Conceptualising Multilevel Regulation in the EU: A Legal Translation of Multilevel Governance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chowdhury, Nupur; Wessel, Ramses A.

    2012-01-01

    How should we conceive of regulation in the European context? This paper attempts to answer this by developing multilevel regulation as a theoretical concept. The basic aim of the paper is to explore the difference and convergence between regulation and governance and develop multilevel governance

  2. Conceptualising Multilevel Regulation in the EU: A Legal Translation of Multilevel Governance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chowdhury, N.; Wessel, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    How should we conceive of regulation in the European context? This paper attempts to answer this by developing multilevel regulation as a theoretical concept. The basic aim of the paper is to explore the difference and convergence between regulation and governance and develop multilevel governance a

  3. Review of the current state of UAV regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stöcker, Elvira Claudia; Bennett, Rohan; Nex, Francesco; Gerke, Markus; Zevenbergen, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    UAVs-unmanned aerial vehicles-facilitate data acquisition at temporal and spatial scales that still remain unachievable for traditional remote sensing platforms. However, current legal frameworks that regulate UAVs present significant barriers to research and development. To highlight the

  4. Audit Risk Assessment in the Light of Current European Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Ciprian-Costel Munteanu

    2015-01-01

    Recent European reforms on audit regulations have been motivated by efforts to increase audit quality, functioning and performance. We believe the adoption of Directive 2014/56 and Regulation 537/2014 strengthened the role of independent audit and risk committees, which will positively contribute towards audit quality. This paper aims to critically assess the status quo of audit risk assessment in current European standards and regulations, by conducting a theoretical analysis of ...

  5. ‘’Mapping Self- and Co-regulation Approaches in the EU Context’’ : Explorative Study for the European Commission, DG Connect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senden, L.A.J.; Kica, E.; Klinger, K.; Hiemstra, M.I.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents a first mapping or inventory of the different approaches to self- and co- regulation (SCR) that can be found within the EU context, in a number of Member States (MS) and international organizations. The report consists of four sections. Whereas the first section provides an intr

  6. Industrial Pollution Regulation in the EU and in Macedonia, Serbia And Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Chavleski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Industrial pollution control has substantial impact in the protection of the environment. In the European Union, there’s vast legislation in this field consisting mainly of the Directive on industrial emissions of 2010 aimed at consolidating the so far existing legislation in this field. The new Directive on industrial emissions aims to establish an integrated prevention and control of the pollution arising from industrial activities and it lays down rules designed to prevent or, where that is not practicable, to reduce emissions into air, water and land and to prevent the generation of waste, in order to achieve a high level of protection of the environment taken as a whole. Macedonia, Serbia and Croatia have made significant progress in this field in the recent years as part of their obligations under the Stabilization and Association Process. The purpose of this particular article is to evaluate the degree of alignment and implementation of the environmental legislation in this particular area with the legislation of EU as well its practical application, and to identify the existing deficiencies and necessary steps for action

  7. EU Udbudsretten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sune Troels; Jakobsen, Peter Stig; Kalsmose-Hjelmborg, Simon Evers

    I bogen, som er en 2. udgave, analyseres EU udbudsdirektiv for offentlige myndigheder og EU's forsyningsvirksomhedsdirektiv. I analyserne inddrages EU-domstolens domme, afgørelser fra Kalgenævnet for Udbud, domme fra danske domstole samt litteratur på dansk og engelsk.......I bogen, som er en 2. udgave, analyseres EU udbudsdirektiv for offentlige myndigheder og EU's forsyningsvirksomhedsdirektiv. I analyserne inddrages EU-domstolens domme, afgørelser fra Kalgenævnet for Udbud, domme fra danske domstole samt litteratur på dansk og engelsk....

  8. From Macro- to Microplastics - Analysis of EU Regulation along the Life Cycle of Plastic Bags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard, Ida; Hartmann, Nanna; Rist, Sinja

    2017-01-01

    Plastic pollution in the oceans and its effects on the environment and aquatic life has received global attention the recent years. Despite an increasing concern, little attention has been directed towards the regulation of plastics over its full life cycle (LC). Here we map European regulation......-based recommendations to policy-makers on regulatory gaps, which should be addressed in order to limit and prevent environmental exposure and hazards of macro- and microplastics accumulating in oceans....

  9. The Customs Regulation of Export-Import Operations in the Context of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area between Ukraine and the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmin Oleh Ye.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the problems of reforming the customs regulation of export-import operations in the context of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area between Ukraine and the EU. Both the goods and the territorial structures of Ukraine’s export-import activities with the EU Member States were analyzed. Trends in the cooperation of the foreign economic actors in the Lviv region with the EU counterparts were explored. The key activities carried out in Ukraine in the sphere of customs regulation in the context of implementation of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area between Ukraine and the EU have been outlined and characterized, in particular: administration of tariff quotas, issuance of certificates by the customs authorities for the transport of EUR 1 goods, granting of the status of authorized exporter to economic entities, launching of an automated system of customs services «One-stop window», transition to electronic declaration, etc. The results, problematic issues and benefits of implementing the above activities in the sphere of customs regulation of the export-import activities of enterprises have been characterized.

  10. EU risk regulation and its Global Standards: the case of Pharmaceuticals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirtz, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    The European Union in its risk regulation activities is increasingly relying on standards set by international entities. Using the example of standards for pharmaceutical products set by the International Conference for Harmonisation (ICH), this paper points out problems of transparency, participati

  11. An assessment of the EU-Chinese bilateral relationship under the current economic and geostrategic context. Romania's position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Monica Oehler-Şincai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available China stands out as a rising economic power. Its leap in international hierarchies is remarkable both in terms of GDP, international trade and investment flows and qualitative indicators. Based on these developments, China is increasingly assertive, both regionally and internationally. At the global level, China's assertiveness is revealed by the largest project ever launched by a single country: One Belt, One Road (OBOR. It represents "a strategic priority" of the Chinese leaders, motivated by economic and geopolitical factors, internal and external determinants. This initiative includes cooperation with over 70 countries and international organizations from Asia to Europe and Africa. At the same time, it involves growing coordination among the countries in terms of policies, increasing financial integration, promoting trade and investment, fostering connectivity through infrastructure projects, and encouraging the movement of people and cultural exchanges. This initiative, as well as the platform for cooperation with 16 countries in Central and Eastern Europe (16+1 have opened on the one hand new ways of enhancing the bilateral EU-China, but on the other hand an unjustified competition between EU countries for financial resources Chinese, although the EU-China strategic partnership, OBOR and 16+1 can benefit all countries involved, given their competitive advantages. Romania, as a member country of the EU and participant at the platform 16+1 should take into account both such new opportunities and the need for an active cooperation with all countries.

  12. Enhanced current and voltage regulators for stand-alone applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, de Bosio; Pastorelli, Michele; Antonio DeSouza Ribeiro, Luiz

    2016-01-01

    State feedback decoupling permits to achieve a better dynamic response for Voltage Source in stand-alone applications. The design of current and voltage regulators is performed in the discrete-time domain since it provides better accuracy and allows direct pole placement. As the attainable...... bandwidth of the current loop is mainly limited by computational and PWM delays, a lead compensator structure is proposed to overcome this limitation. The design of the voltage regulator is based on the Nyquist criterion, verifying to guarantee a high sensitivity peak. Discrete-time domain implementation...

  13. The EU health claims regulation: impact on the marine lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohler Carole

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available European Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 applies to all types of pre-packed foods for the final consumer, including food intended to supply hospitals, canteens and similar mass caterers, bearing nutrition and health claims. Commercial communications (labelling, presentation or advertising of foods, trade names and other brand names which may be construed as nutrition or health claims are covered by the Regulation. Since the date it was brought into force (1st July 2007, all nutrition and health claims for food products must be authorised prior to the marketing of the products, either by means of a nominative evaluation procedure or a generic evaluation. In light of the provisions of the new Regulation and the transitional measures in effect, what is the future of lipid ‘health communication’ and more particularly of marine lipid communication? For certain lipids of marine origin (e.g., EPA, DHA, etc. play an unquestionable nutritional – not to say health – role in the human diet, a fact which is widely accepted by the scientific community.

  14. The EU adventures of 'Herculex' : Report on the EU authorization of the genetically modified maize 1507

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimer, M.; Pisani, G.

    2014-01-01

    The EU authorization process of the insect-resistant maize 1507, branded by its developer company Pioneer-DuPont as ‘Herculex’, is perhaps the most interesting and emblematic example of the current regulatory crisis of GMO regulation in Europe.1 The case is particularly controversial, because it

  15. Pediatric psychopharmacological research in the post EU regulation 1901/2006 era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmäl, Christine; Becker, Katja; Berg, Ruth; Brünger, Michael; Lehmkuhl, Gerd; Oehler, Klaus-Ulrich; Ruppert, Thorsten; Staudter, Claus; Trott, Götz-Erik; Dittmann, Ralf W

    2014-11-01

    Although the use of psychotropic medications in child and adolescent psychiatry in Germany is on the increase, most compounds are in fact prescribed "off-label" because of a lack of regulatory approval in these age groups. In 2007, the European Parliament introduced Regulation 1901/2006 concerning medicinal products in pediatric populations, with a subsequent amendment in the form of Regulation 1902/2006. The main aim of this legislation was to encourage research and clinical trials in children and adolescents, and thus promote the availability of medications with marketing authorization for these age groups. Furthermore, initiatives such as the European 7th Framework Program of the European Union now offer substantial funding for pediatric pharmacological research. At a recent Congress of the German Society for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy (DGKJP), experts from the field and the pharmaceutical industry held a symposium with lay representatives in order to discuss attitudes toward, and experience with, pediatric psychopharmacology research in Germany since 2007. Several areas of concern were identified. The present paper derives from that symposium and provides an overview of these opinions, which remain crucial to the field. A wider discussion of how to facilitate psychopharmacological research in Germany in order to optimize the treatment and welfare of children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders is now warranted.

  16. A summarized discussion of current good manufacturing practice regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Loyd V

    2013-01-01

    In light of recent events and discussions of compounding pharmacy, it is important to discuss and understand the purpose of good manufacturing practices. This article provides a summary of the current Good Manufacturing Practice Regulations which were established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

  17. Review of the current state of UAV regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stöcker, Elvira Claudia; Bennett, Rohan; Nex, Francesco; Gerke, Markus; Zevenbergen, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    UAVs-unmanned aerial vehicles-facilitate data acquisition at temporal and spatial scales that still remain unachievable for traditional remote sensing platforms. However, current legal frameworks that regulate UAVs present significant barriers to research and development. To highlight the importance

  18. Limits of the current EU regulatory framework on GMOs: risk of not authorized GM event-traces in imports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roïz Julie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Since their first commercialization in the 1990’s, the number of genetically modified organisms (GMOs cultivated around the world has steadily increased. This development has been accompanied by the development of regulatory and policy environments which vary from one country to another. Today, the European food and feed sectors are faced with the increasing risk of finding traces of not authorized GMOs in imports. Under the EU zero tolerance for unapproved GMOs, this situation may lead to trade disruptions with important cost implications. A regulatory environment which minimizes the risk of such disruption is therefore indispensable. To address this issue, the EU has adopted the “technical solution” but this remains insufficient to provide the necessary legal certainty which is needed to operate in such context. More comprehensive approaches are considered globally through low level presence policies.

  19. Screening of preservatives by HPLC-PDA-ESI/MS: A focus on both allowed and recently forbidden compounds in the new EU cosmetics regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecce, Raffaele; Regazzoni, Luca; Mustazza, Carlo; Incarnato, Giampaolo; Porrà, Rita; Panusa, Alessia

    2016-06-05

    Commission regulation (EU) No 358/2014 amending the new regulation (EC) No 1223/2009 on cosmetics has prohibited the use of isopropyl-, isobutyl-, phenyl-, benzyl- and pentylparaben. Furthermore, Commission regulation (EU) No 1004/2014 has lowered the maximum permitted concentration of butyl- and propylparaben in cosmetics and it has also banned them in leave-on products designed for application on the nappy area of children under three years of age. A HPLC-PDA-ESI/MS method has been developed herein for the detection of seventeen preservatives, both the most utilised and the recently forbidden by the new EU regulations. The separation of these compounds, including benzoic acid and its derivatives in a 1.10 - 3.04 log Pow range, has been performed with a gradient elution on a Symmetry(®) C18 column (250×4.6mm i.d., particle size 5μm) with water and acetonitrile (0.1% formic acid) as mobile phase. Quantification has been carried out by HPLC-PDA. The method has been validated and successfully applied to the analysis of a large number of cosmetics with different functions like rinse-off and leave-on, or composition like skin, hair, face and oral products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. REQUIREMENTS ECO-DESIGN VACUUMS BY COMMISSION REGULATION (EU NO 666/2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Kurczewski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For several years, the executive acts related to the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council 2009/125/EC of 21 October 2009 establishing a framework for the setting of ecodesign requirements for energy-related products are systematically adopted as a part of European Union legislation. Especially the Regulation 666/2013 concerning the eco-design requirements for vacuum cleaners introduced in July 2013 is strongly discussed. This article presents the background to the Directive 2009/125/EC and explains the concept that underlies the formulation of ecodesign requirements for different powered energy products, with special focus on the role of environmental life cycle assessment (LCA.

  1. Codex EU energy law. The most relevant directives, regulations and decisions on electricity, gas and oil, renewables, energy efficiency, energy taxation, energy infrastructures, energy labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deketelaere, Kurt (ed.) [Leuven Univ. (Belgium). Chair of Energy and Environmental Law

    2012-07-01

    This Codex EU Energy Law brings together the most important, presently applicable, legislation on energy, as adopted by the EU. The legislation has been booming in recent years, after decades of very limited European activity in the field, with the exception of coal and nuclear. Several drivers explain this increase: the liberalisation of the European gas and electricity markets, the awareness to improve the security of energy supply, the necessity to be more energy-efficient, and the protection of the environment. All this has been translated in several, recent (i.e. 2009/2010) legislative energy packages: the liberalisation package, the climate and energy package, and the energy efficiency package. As a consequence, a serious amount of new regulations, directives and decisions on gas, electricity, renewables, biofuels, regulators, appliances, buildings, etc. must be implemented and/or applied by the Member States. Practitioners and academics will find this codex to be a good working tool. (orig.)

  2. The Problems of the Non-Tariff Regulation of Foreign Trade Activities in the Conditions of Free Trade Zone between Ukraine and the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Рanaseyko Irina M.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at generalizing the results of establishing the free trade zone between Ukraine and the EU in 2016, and developing measures to improve the system of non-tariff regulation of foreign trade activities. The substance, objectives, and tools of the non-tariff regulation of foreign trade activity, as used in the EU and in Ukraine, were considered. The major attention was paid to the tariff quotas for Ukraine in the terms of the free-trade zone with the European Union. The tariff quotas for different goods were analyzed from the view of their adequacy and uniformity of use. Reasons for partial use or non-use of the tariff quotas were identified. Issues of effectiveness of implementation of the restrictive function of tariff quotas, as well as their influence on Ukrainian exporters, were considered. A comparative characterization of the tariff quotas, which were applied within the terms of the free trade zone for Ukraine and for the EU, was carried out. The article specifies the necessity for compliance by Ukraine with technical reglaments, environmental regulations, sanitary and phyto-sanitary measures, marketing standards. The major obstacles to the Ukrainian products’ entering the European markets were identified.

  3. District heating and cogeneration in the EU-28: Current situation, potential and proposed energy strategy for its generalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Rosales-Asensio

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Yearly, EU-28 conventional thermal generating plants reject a greater amount of energy than what ultimately is utilised by residential and commercial loads for heating and hot water. If this waste heat were to be used through district heating networks, given a previous energy valorisation, there would be a noticeable decrease in imported fossil fuels for heating. As a consequence, benefits in the form of an energy efficiency increase, an energy security improvement, and a minimisation of emitted greenhouse gases would occur. Given that it is not expected for heat demand to decrease significantly in the medium term, district heating networks show the greatest potential for the development of cogeneration. However, to make this happen, some barriers that are far from being technological but are mostly institutional and financial need to be removed. The purpose of this review is to provide information on the potential of using waste heat from conventional thermal power plants (subsequently converted into cogeneration plants in district heating networks located in the EU-28. For this, a preliminary assessment is conducted in order to show an estimate of the cost of adopting an energy strategy in which district heating networks are a major player of the energy mix. From this assessment, it is possible to see that even though the energy strategy proposed in this paper, which is based on a dramatic increase in the joint use of district heating networks and cogeneration, is capital-intensive and would require an annual investment of roughly 300 billion euros, its adoption would result in a reduction of yearly fuel expenses in the order of 100 billion euros and a shortening of about 15% of the total final energy consumption, which makes it of paramount interest as an enabler of the legal basis of the “Secure, Clean and Efficient Energy” future enacted by the EU-28 Horizon 2020.

  4. Intellectual property law and competition law in China - Analysis of the current framework and comparison with the EU approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeung Nga Man

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Yeung Nga Man looks at the question of protection of intellectual property rights in the Chinese legal system with comparative reference to policy and practice in the European Union. What is the best way to stimulate competition but yet also protect innovation? Part I of the essay examines the present IPRs protection in China. In Part II, contrary to the myth that competition and IP law conflict with one another, the author argues that both foster innovation and development, and enhance consumer welfare. Part III discusses the competition law regime in China with a specific focus on AML and evaluation of the enforcement of the regime. Part IV outlines the European Union approach, which China might consider adopting. Part V discusses the Block Exemptions approach from the E.U. on horizontal agreements.

  5. Audit Risk Assessment in the Light of Current European Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian-Costel Munteanu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent European reforms on audit regulations have been motivated by efforts to increase audit quality, functioning and performance. We believe the adoption of Directive 2014/56 and Regulation 537/2014 strengthened the role of independent audit and risk committees, which will positively contribute towards audit quality. This paper aims to critically assess the status quo of audit risk assessment in current European standards and regulations, by conducting a theoretical analysis of different aspects of audit risk. Our main objective is to stress the importance of detecting inherent and control risk, which lead to material misstatement at the assertion level. They need to be assessed so as to determine the nature, timing and extent of further audit procedures necessary to obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence. These pieces of evidence enable the auditor to express an opinion on the financial statements at an acceptably low level of audit risk. Therefore, we point to the fact that researchers as well as practitioners and policymakers have to be careful when using audit tools and assessing risk levels, as their conclusions continuously shape the regulations.

  6. The harmonization of banking legislation in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkëlqesa Çitaku

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to assess the current legislation of banking in the European Union. The process of unification in Europe is also followed by efforts to harmonize and unify the laws of the member states. In the field of banking industry the precondition for harmonization of laws is the integration of internal market with the free movement of capital. The regulation and supervision of banks in EU still remains fragmented. European member states still have diverse regulations concerning the role of the state. The European Commission has the important function of proposing EU legislation on financial services including banks and ensuring that EU law is properly applied throughout the EU. Banks are considered as a key industry enabling all the economic activities via depositing, crediting and arranging of payments. A number of secondary legislation has been adopted by the EU institutions to harmonize the national banking law of Member States. The principles and objectives set by the European Commission Treaty depend on four EU freedoms with the aim of effective and open market including banks. Therefore it was a continuous process of harmonization of national banking regulation via secondary law since the 70’s.

  7. The new EU regulation on in vitro diagnostics: potential issues at the interface of medicines and companion diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzmann, Harald; Meyer, Ralf; Broich, Karl

    2016-12-01

    The new European regulation for in vitro diagnostics (IVD) divides the certification of IVD including companion diagnostics (CDx) by notified bodies (NB) from the market authorization of medicines. With the new regulation, CDx will require conformity assessment which is expected to include clinical evidence by NB. This is a significant change from the current situation: until now most IVD have been certified based on their manufacturers' assessment. For one medicine assessed by the EMA, certification of several different CDx by different NB is possible. As the benefit-risk balance of the medicine may depend on the performance (e.g., sensitivity and specificity) of its CDx, a close cooperation of EMA and NB will be necessary. The availability of detailed information on CDx used in the pivotal clinical trials for the medicine's authorization will become crucial for the assessment of alternative or competing CDx.

  8. EU-PIL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph; Hertz, Ketilbjørn

    Now in a Second Edition comprising the Brussels I Regulation “recast”, as well as other key EU legislation and case law, this book brings together principles of juridical jurisdiction, choice of law, recognition of judgments and commercial arbitration. It shows the interrelationship of the rules...

  9. EU-PIL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph; Hertz, Ketilbjørn

    Now in a Second Edition comprising the Brussels I Regulation “recast”, as well as other key EU legislation and case law, this book brings together principles of juridical jurisdiction, choice of law, recognition of judgments and commercial arbitration. It shows the interrelationship of the rules...

  10. Mangfoldighed som ny EU-politik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    Analyse. EU er stadig i krise. EU er endnu ikke kommet med i det globale opsving efter finanskrisen, og Sydeuropas strukturproblemer er uløste, men maskeret af statsstøtte via ECB. Vælgerne gav EU-politikerne en alvorlig advarsel ved valget til Europa-Parlamentet. Efter en bølge af ny regulering er...

  11. Direct-to-consumer Genetic Testing: Changes in the EU Regulatory Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slokenberga, Santa

    2015-12-01

    Rapid advances in genomics and technology have rendered genetic testing services easily accessible to consumers over the Internet in the form of direct-to-consumer genetic testing. In the EU, the IVD Directive has been animadverted for its inability to tackle the challenges direct-to-consumer genetic testing has posed. Currently, the EU legislation is in a transition state. It is thus, timely to assess, to what extent the proposed IVD Regulation is intended to address the performance requirements and utility of direct-to-consumer genetic tests, which are made available to consumers within the EU over the Internet, and discuss the developments vis-à-vis the IVD Directive. To compare with the IVD Directive, the IVD Regulation presents a major shift in how direct-to-consumer genetic testing is treated in the E U. It remains unclear, whether and how the EU requirements can be applied beyond the EU market.

  12. Legal regulation of the production and trade of medical devices and medical equipment in the EU and US: experience for Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkov, Vitalii; Kotvitska, Alla; Harkusha, Andrii

    2017-01-01

    The need for effective legal regulation of production and sale of medical products in Ukraine due to its social effect is obvious and requires a high level of clarity. The experience of more advanced countries in this area, given the way chosen by Ukraine to harmonize our laws with EU legislation, is certainly could be a useful source of information. The urgency of issues need further intensification of national legal reforms. Some key points on concept of legal regulation of abovementioned sphere is a base of this study. Legislation of Ukraine, European Union, United States of America, Guidelines, developed by European Commission & Food and Drug Administration's (FDA), recommendations represented by international voluntary group and scientific works. This article is based on dialectical, comparative, analytic, synthetic and comprehensive research methods. This study provide a possibility to state that main difference of regulatory systems in EU and US is that the legal framework of the EU is more flexible. This flexibility is grounded on main principle that only basic quality requirements for medical devices is defined by legislative acts however more detailed requirements are defined in standards, technical regulations, specifications, which are discretionary in nature. Contractors are free to choose any technical solution that provides compliance with the essential requirements, they can choose among different conformity assessment procedures and between accredited conformity assessment bodies to which they want to apply. The contractors themselves is interested to pass the conformity assessment procedure and have the right to put a conformity mark on their medical device because it will give them a real competitive advantage. In contrast, US State regulatory system provides strict control over business entities and law act establishes the quality requirements of medical products. The only body that can authorize the introduction of medical products and perform

  13. The draft EC sewage sludge regulation and its consequences for sewage sludge management; EU-Klaerschlamm-Richtlinie (Entwurf) und deren Auswirkungen auf die Praxis der Klaerschlammentsorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmelz, K.G.; Wolf, R. [Emschergenossenschaft und Lippeverband, Essen (Germany); Esch, B. [Abwassertechnische Vereinigung e.V. (ATV), Hennef (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The new EC regulation favours the utilization of sewage sludge as an agricultural fertilizer. There will be two categories of sludge, i.e. hygienized and conventionally treated sludge, and apart from fields also other agricultural lands will be listed as land where dumping of sewage is permissible. Maximum permissible heavy metal concentrations will be set at 25% of the present values, and limiting values will be defined also for organic pollutants (LAS, DEHP; NPE, PAH) although the latter are not yet scientifically proved to be hazardous. In view of the intention of the new EC regulation, i.e. promoting the use of sewage sludge as an agricultural fertilizer, the authors make some critical comments, especially on the more rigid limiting values, the introduction of new limiting values without scientific validation, the favouring of hygienization processes, and the frequency of control analyses. [German] Die EU-Kommission hat im April des letzten Jahres den 3. Arbeitsentwurf zur Novellierung der europaeischen Klaerschlammrichtlinie vorgelegt. Das Ziel der Richtlinie ist eindeutig die Foerderung der landwirtschaftlichen Klaerschlammverwertung. Nach den Vorstellungen der EU-Kommission soll es zukuenftig zwei Klassen von Klaerschlaemmen geben, die sich in der Behandlung (Klasse 1: Mit Hygienisierung, Klasse 2: Konventionelle Behandlung) und den zugelassenen Ausbringungsflaechen bzw. den Einschraenkungen der Ausbringung unterscheiden. Als Ausbringungsflaechen werden neben Ackerland auch Weideland, Futter-, Obst-, Gemuese- und Weinanbauflaechen, Baumschulen, Rekultivierungsflaechen und oeffentliche Gruenflaechen wie Parks etc. zugelassen. Neben der stufenweisen Absenkung der Schwermetallgehalte auf bis zu 25% der Werte der zur Zeit in Deutschland gueltigen Klaerschlammverordnung (AbfKlaerV) sollen Konzentrationsgrenzwerte fuer zusaetzliche organische Schadstoffe (LAS, DEHP, NPE, PAH) aufgenommen werden. Ein wissenschaftlich fundierter Nachweis der Schaedlichkeit dieser

  14. Exporting EU Liberalism Eastwards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn M. Tesser

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available There is much more to liberalism in the post communist context than has been acknowledged. A sizeable effort has indeed emerged to transplant a relatively coherent liberal ideology to the region, one exported not merely through the conditionality of international financial institutions, but also through the conditionality and socialization of organizations like the NATO, OSCE, EU, and the Council of Europe. ‘EU liberalism’ includes the ‘standard’ liberal emphasis on individual rights, the rule of law, constitutional democracy, freedom, and market economics as well as support for minority rights, and a seemingly schizophrenic emphasis on economic integration that involves, first bringing down borders for the free movement of people, goods, capital, and services between member states, and second, market regulation to diminish the social downsides of capitalism. This paper outlines EU liberalism’s emergence and its application to Central and East European countries.

  15. EU FP7 project 'CAMbrella' to build European research network for complementary and alternative medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidenhammer, Wolfgang; Lewith, George; Falkenberg, Torkel

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The status of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) within the EU needs clarification. The definition and terminology of CAM is heterogeneous. The therapies, legal status, regulations and approaches used vary from country to country but there is widespread use by EU citizens. A...... review open access publications and a final conference, with emphasis on current and future EU policies, addressing different target audiences....... network involving centres of research excellence for collaborative projects, to develop consensus-based terminology to describe CAM interventions, to create a knowledge base that facilitates the understanding of patient demand for CAM and its prevalence, to review the current legal status and policies...

  16. EU Enlargement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Pytlikova, Mariola

    countries chose a transition period in relation to the "new" EU members. We employ a differences-in-differences estimator in our analysis. The results show that the estimated effect of the opening of Swedish labour market in 2004 on migration is insignificantly different from zero. Further, we......We look at migration flows from 8 Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) to 5 Nordic countries over the years 1985 - 2005 and we can exploit a natural experiment that arose from the fact that while Sweden opened its labour market from the day one of the 2004 EU enlargement, the other Nordic...

  17. Overlever EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Uffe

    2015-01-01

    Det bliver stadig tydeligere at EU i kraft af den styrkede nationalisme i øst, vest og nord og kombineret med de nye regionale krav om national selvstændighed vil bevæge sig i retning af et mellemstatsligt samarbejde, støttet af en retsorden beskyttet af en domstol, bliver stadig tydeligere. Det ...... mindre sikkert, om den nationale egoisme vil ende med at opløse samarbejdet. EU vil sandsynligvis overleve, men det bliver snarere ligesom det Tysk-Romerske Rige, hvis institutioner overlevede helt til 1804....

  18. Overlever EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Uffe

    2015-01-01

    Det bliver stadig tydeligere at EU i kraft af den styrkede nationalisme i øst, vest og nord og kombineret med de nye regionale krav om national selvstændighed vil bevæge sig i retning af et mellemstatsligt samarbejde, støttet af en retsorden beskyttet af en domstol, bliver stadig tydeligere. Det ...... mindre sikkert, om den nationale egoisme vil ende med at opløse samarbejdet. EU vil sandsynligvis overleve, men det bliver snarere ligesom det Tysk-Romerske Rige, hvis institutioner overlevede helt til 1804....

  19. [National system of protection against electromagnetic fields 0 Hz-300 GHz in the light of current legal regulations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniołczyk, Halina

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) occurs when man is exposed to the effect of electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields and contact currents different from those resulting from physiological processes in the organism or other natural phenomena. In Poland, the system of protection against EMF has been functioning for over 35 years. In 2001, when the Minister of Labor and Social Policy issued the regulation introducing the maximum admissible intensities (MAI) for electromagnetic fields and radiation within the range of 0 Hz-300 GHz, the system was directed mainly towards evaluation of exposure to EMF occurring in the occupational environment. The system is linked via MAI values with human protection in the natural environment. In this paper, the background, principles and the range of the national system of protection against EMF and its monitoring are presented. The project of implementation of EU directives, following Poland's accession to the European Union is also discussed.

  20. The problems of labor safety and health protection in construction – EU experiences and standards and legal regulations in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Gavanski

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Within the activities of the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work in 2004 a special attention was paid to the field of constructions with an accent on a one-week action “Building in Safety”. The research covered all stages of the construction process from planning to exploitation of a structure. Since in our country the new Low on safety and health at work is about to pass the procedure in the Parliament, and according to the tendency of harmonization of regulations and codes with EU countries, it is considered that it is necessary to carry out a comparative analysis of knowledge in this area in European countries and future legal measures and technical regulations in Serbia consequently. The aim of this paper is contribution to viewing the variety of problems and a unique approach to their solution in the direction of further improvement of sustainable development and humanization of working environment.

  1. Too early, too fast? The regulation of the eBook market in France and its possible effects on EU libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Respingue-Perrin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Until now, legislative interventions on ebooks and libraries have been applied to massive digitization. France went further, with global regulations of the ebooks' market. Beyond the French “cultural exception”, the ebook price-fixing law of May 26th, 2011 and the decrease from the ebook VAT rate decided in 2012 will have deep effects on this sector and, perhaps, could prevent the strains between publishers and libraries seen in the USA.Above all, legal rules have an impediment: what is an ebook?The French Parliament laid the foundations for the debate. Now, the answers are depending on the EU authorities, who have to define a clear policy.The ongoing discussions could have a major consequence: is the ebook, becoming a juridical object, subjected to the “digital renting and lending right”, in line with the 2006 Council directive? This may be the first step towards a regulation of the European libraries market.

  2. Comparison of resonant current regulators for DFIG during grid voltage distortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-peng SONG; Heng NIAN

    2013-01-01

    We investigate two different kinds of resonant current regulators for a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) under distorted grid voltage conditions:proportional integral resonant (PIR) regulator with traditional resonant part and vector propor-tional integral (VPI) regulator with VPI resonant part. Based on the mathematical model of DFIG under distorted grid voltage, the transfer function and frequency response characteristics of the two current regulators are analyzed and compared. The superiority of the VPI current regulator over the PIR regulator is pointed out, and the influence of discretization methods on the performance of the resonant current regulator is studied. All the results are validated by MATLAB simulation and experiments.

  3. Redox regulation in malaria: current concepts and pharmacotherapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, M; Alam, A; Bandyopadhyay, U

    2012-01-01

    Malaria imposes a serious threat to human and becomes more prevalent due to the emergence of drug resistant parasite. Understanding of the underlying mechanism of drug resistance and identification of novel drug targets are key effective processes for the management of malaria. Malaria parasite is highly susceptible to oxidative stress but lives in a pro-oxidant rich environment containing oxygen and iron, which produce a large amount of reactive oxygen species. Management of oxidative stress in malaria parasite is tightly regulated through active redox and antioxidant defense systems. The elevation of oxidative stress as a result of inhibition of any component of this defense system leads to redox imbalance and ultimately parasite death. Therefore, redox system plays an indispensable role for the survival of parasite within the host. Identification of key molecules, which disrupt parasite redox balance by altering key redox reactions and promote oxidative stress in parasites, would be an effective approach to develop novel antimalarial drugs. During the last few decades, contributions by researchers around the globe provide even better understanding of redox biology of malaria parasite. Here, in this review, we are highlighting the knowledge gathered so far regarding the essential redox-active processes and their components in malaria parasite to overcome elevated oxidative insults. We have also given maximum efforts to enlist currently used redox-active antimalarials, their mode of action and pharmacotherapeutic implications.

  4. Factors affecting the regulation of pacing: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauger AR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Alexis R Mauger Endurance Research Group, School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Kent, Chatham, UK Abstract: During prolonged dynamic and rhythmic exercise, muscular pain and discomfort arises as a result of an increased concentration of deleterious metabolites. Sensed by peripheral nociceptors and transmitted via afferent feedback to the brain, this provides important information regarding the physiological state of the muscle. These sensations ultimately contribute to what is termed "exercise-induced pain". Despite being well recognized by athletes and coaches, and suggested to be integral to exercise performance, this construct has largely escaped attention in experimental work. This perspective article highlights the current understanding of pacing in endurance performance, and the causes of exercise-induced pain. A new perspective is described, which proposes how exercise-induced pain may be a contributing factor in helping individuals to regulate their work rate during exercise and thus provides an important construct in pacing. Keywords: pain, exercise-induced pain, discomfort, exercise performance, self-paced

  5. Japanese regulation of biosimilar products: past experience and current challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arato, Teruyo

    2016-07-01

    Seven biosimilar products have been approved in Japan since the March 2009 publication of the 'Guideline for quality, safety and efficacy assurance of biosimilar products' by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW). Four years previously, the 'Guideline on similar biological medicinal products' was issued in the European Union (EU), and 13 products as of February 2016 have been approved as biosimilar. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first biosimilar product in the US in March 2015 and final Guidance was issued at the end of April 2015. Over the past decade, the challenges regarding the development of biosimilar products have been discussed extensively. In this article, the data packages of biosimilar products in Japan are compared with those overseas in order to clarify the concepts used by the Japanese regulatory authority, i.e., the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA). The challenges in the development of biosimilar products in Japan are also addressed.

  6. Axial and transverse stress-strain characterization of the EU dipole high current density Nb{sub 3}Sn strand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijhuis, A; Ilyin, Y; Abbas, W [Faculty of Science and Technology, Low Temperature Division, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)], E-mail: a.nijhuis@tnw.utwente.nl

    2008-06-15

    We have measured the critical current (I{sub c}) of a high current density Nb{sub 3}Sn strand subjected to spatial periodic bending, periodic contact stress and uniaxial strain. The strand is destined for the cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC) of the European dipole (EDIPO) 12.5 T superconducting magnet test facility. The spatial periodic bending was applied on the strand, using the bending wavelengths from 5 to 10 mm with a peak bending strain of 1.5%, a periodic contact stress with a periodicity of 4.7 mm and a stress level exceeding 250 MPa. For the uniaxial strain characterization, the voltage-current characteristics were measured with an applied axial strain from -0.9% to +0.3%, with a magnetic field from 6 to 14 T, temperature from 4.2 to 10 K and currents up to almost 900 A. In addition the axial stiffness was determined by a tensile axial stress-strain test. The characterization of the strand is essential for understanding the behaviour of the strand under mainly axial thermal stress variation during cool down and transverse electromagnetic forces during charging, which is essential for the design of the CICC for the dipole magnet. The strand appears to be fully reversible in the compressive regime during the axial strain testing, while in the tensile regime, the behaviour is already irreversibly degraded when reaching the maximum in the critical current versus strain characteristic. The degradation is accentuated by an immediate decrease of the n value by a factor of 2. The parameters for the improved deviatoric strain description are derived from the I{sub c} data, giving the accuracy of the scaling with a standard deviation of 4 A, which is by far within the expected deviation for the large scale strand production of such a high J{sub c} strand. The I{sub c} versus the applied bending strain follows the low resistivity limit, indicative of full interfilament current transfer, while a strong decrease is observed at a peak bending strain of {approx}0

  7. EU Food Health Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    and rational dietary choices on the basis of the food information provided on food labels or generally available in society. In recent years, the EU legislative has shown increased commitment to further empower consumers in pace with the advancement of modern manufacturing and advertising techniques......This thesis shows that the distinction between food safety and non-safety issues in Regulation (EC) No 178/2002, the General Food Law (GFL), results in a grey area of regulation. This grey area comprises foods that do not pose a food safety risk in a legal sense, but that could pose a threat...... to human health because of other factors, such as their nutritional composition. The growing prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases are examples of contemporary health challenges that are difficult to fit into the rather narrow concept of food safety risks in the GFL. The conclusion is that EU...

  8. EU Food Health Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    the assumption that consumers are capable of protecting their own health and well-being, provided they have access to a minimum amount of food information. The EU Treaty does not provide an explicit legal basis for establishing food health legislation, but there appears to be ample room for the adoption......This thesis shows that the distinction between food safety and non-safety issues in Regulation (EC) No 178/2002, the General Food Law (GFL), results in a grey area of regulation. This grey area comprises foods that do not pose a food safety risk in a legal sense, but that could pose a threat...... to human health because of other factors, such as their nutritional composition. The growing prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases are examples of contemporary health challenges that are difficult to fit into the rather narrow concept of food safety risks in the GFL. The conclusion is that EU...

  9. EU Competition Policy Since 1990

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartalevich, Dzmitry

    2013-01-01

    reforms, carry out a comparative analysis between EU and U.S. competition policies, detect convergence or divergence, and account for the degree of convergence and for the relevant mechanisms triggering convergence. The main focus is on the analysis of anticartel enforcement policy, antimonopoly policy......In spite of the evidence of strong influence on the incorporation of policy provisions from the U.S. antitrust into the recent competition policy reforms in the European Union (EU), few considerable attempts have been made to analyze the influence of U.S. antitrust on EU competition policy...... in anticartel enforcement policies, antimonopoly regulation, and the regulation of mergers and acquisitions. The purpose of this article is to fill the gap by attempting to link EU competition policy with U.S. antitrust, provide a critical overview of the most important elements of European competition policy...

  10. Explosion protection: New EU regulations. EU recommendation 94/9 for devices and protective systems with regard to their appropriate use in areas under threat from explosions; Explosionsschutz: Neue Regelungen der EG. Richtlinie 94/9/EG fuer Geraete und Schutzsysteme zur bestimmungsgemaessen Verwendung in explosionsgefaehrdeten Bereichen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiesewetter, J. [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung GmbH, Essen (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Gas- und Wettermessgeraete; Dill, W.G. [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Dortmund (Germany). Fachstelle fuer Sicherheit Elektrischer Betriebsmittel - Bergbau-Versuchsstrecke

    1996-05-01

    The new EU recommendation 94/9 represents a comprehensive approach for the regulation of explosion protection within the European Union. For the first time, areas under threat from mine damp or explosions are dealt with in one recommendation; moreover, not only flammable gases but also flammable dusts are taken into account. In addition to the known demands on the explosion protection of electrical devices, demands are specified regarding explosion protection of non-electrical devices, the functional security of safety and control devices as well as automatic control devices, and protective systems. The article compares the current rules and regulations with the future ones and points out that a transition period is allowed, enabling those concerned to carry out the necessary modifications without pressure of time. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die neue Richtlinie 94/9/EG stellt einen umfassenden Ansatz zur Regelung des Explosionsschutzes innerhalb der europaeischen Union dar. Erstmals werden schlagwetter- und explosionsgefaehrdete Bereiche in einer Richtlinie behandelt; dabei werden nunmehr neben brennbaren Gasen auch brennbare Staeube beruecksichtigt. Zusaetzlich zu den bekannten Anforderungen an den Explosionsschutz elektrischer Geraete werden auch Anforderungen an den Explosionsschutz nicht-elektrischer Geraete, die Funktionssicherheit von Sicherheits-, Kontroll- und Regelvorrichtungen sowie Schutzsysteme gestellt. Der Beitrag vergleicht die bisherigen mit den zukuenftigen Regelungen und verweist auf die Uebergangsfrist der Richtlinie 94/9/EG, die den Beteiligten erlaubt, die notwendigen Umstellungen ohne Zeitdruck vorzunehmen. (orig.)

  11. Statement on a conceptual framework for the risk assessment of certain food additives re-evaluated under Commission Regulation (EU No 257/2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to food (ANS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS provides a scientific statement presenting a conceptual framework for the risk assessment of certain food additives re-evaluated under Commission Regulation (EU No 257/2010. This framework will be used in the evaluation made by the Panel, but the expert judgement of the scientific background, on a case-by-case basis, remains essential to reach a final conclusion. The outcome of the re-evaluation of food additives taking into account all available information is presented in the document, as well as the exposure assessment scenarios to be carried out by the Panel considering the use levels set in the legislation and the availability of adequate usage or analytical data.

  12. The PIP training programme: building of ACP experts capacities in crop protection and food safety to support local companies to comply with EU regulations on pesticides residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffers, B C; Schubert, A; Schiffers, C; Fontaine, S; Gumusboga, N; Werner, B; Webb, M; Lugros, H; Stinglhamber, G

    2006-01-01

    Regulatory requirements, and in particular phytosanitary quality standards change rapidly. As ACP producers/exporters race to become more competitive, to keep their market share and to satisfay their customers' commercial demands (e.g. EUREP-GAP certification), the need for competent staff who are aware of the company's quality objectives and trained to follow instructions is crucial. Mastering sanitary quality is only possible if matched with a programme to build the skills of companies' human resources. The Pesticide Initiative Programme (PIP), mindful of the importance of making operators autonomous and of training them to monitor EU food safety regulations and technology on their own, has successfully developed a training programme while building a quality network of local/ACP service providers. By building the capacities of ACP experts and then securing their services as trainers, PIP also guarantees companies' access to expertise and the sustainability of their efforts to comply with new EU regulations. The training strategy developed by PIP rests on two pilars: instructor training and collective training. Instructor training consists in reinforcing the technical knowledge of local experts (agronomists, hygienists, etc.) by providing them with active teaching methods. Once the ACP experts have gained enough technical knowledge of the key areas of crop protection--mainly pesticides management--and food safety, and have demonstrated their capacity to train the technical staff of local companies, the PIP has carried out a collective training programme in 2004, 2005 and 2006. To date, more than 130 consultants covering about 15 ACP countries have received instructor training, and more than 700 people have participated in collective and in-company training sessions.

  13. The effect of environmental regulation on firms' competitive performance: the case of the building & construction sector in some EU regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Francesco; Iraldo, Fabio; Frey, Marco

    2011-09-01

    There is a considerable debate on the effects of environmental regulation on competitive performance. Based on survey data, this paper analyzes the two main research questions, derived from literature, on the links between environmental regulation and competitiveness, by focusing on firms operating in the building and construction sector, i.e.: 1) whether environmental policy stringency affects the competitive performance of firms in the building and construction sector 2) and how a specific form of environmental regulation (direct regulation, economic instruments and soft instruments) affects this performance? By applying a regression analysis, we find that a more stringent environmental regulation, measured by inspection frequency, provides a positive impulse for increasing investments in advanced technological equipment and innovative products and on business performance. Moreover, a well-designed "direct regulation" appears to be the most effective policy instrument for prompting the positive impact of environmental policies on innovation and intangible performance while economic instruments do negatively affect business performance.

  14. How Should Risk-Based Regulation Reflect Current Public Opinion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Christopher John

    2016-08-01

    Risk-based regulation of novel agricultural products with public choice manifest via traceability and labelling is a more effective approach than the use of regulatory processes to reflect public concerns, which may not always be supported by evidence.

  15. The Regulation of Health Requirements for Police and Current Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramazan Akçan; Mahmut Şerif Yıldırım; Aykut Lale; Abdurrahman İsak; Mehmet Cavlak; Aysun Balseven Odabaşı; Ali Rıza Tümer

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Forensic medicine specialists might prepare reports about health conditions of candidates for Police Organization or assessment of organization's staff based on The Regulation of Health Requirements for Police...

  16. EU import restrictions on genetically modified feeds: impacts on Spanish, EU and global livestock sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippidis, G.

    2010-07-01

    Over the last decade, much controversy has surrounded the usage of genetically modified organism (GMO) technology in commercial agriculture. More specifically, it is feared that GMOs may introduce new allergens into the food chain or contribute to antibiotic resistance. At the current time, the European Union (EU) adopts a zero tolerance policy toward non-approved GMO imports, whilst the approval process has not kept pace with the proliferation of new GMO varieties. In the EU livestock sectors, this apparent mis-match threatens to interrupt supplies of high protein feed inputs (e.g., soy meal) from countries with more relaxed regulations regarding GMOs. Employing a well known multi-region computable general equilibrium framework, this study quantitatively assesses the impact of a hypothetical EU import ban on unapproved GMO varieties of soybean and maize imports on livestock, meat and dairy sectors. The model code is heavily modified to improve the characterisation of the agricultural sectors and land usage, whilst a realistic baseline is employed to update the global database to 2008, the year the hypothetical ban is implemented. In the worst case scenario, there are significant competitive losses in EU livestock, meat and dairy sectors. In Spain, the negative impacts are particularly pronounced given the importance of pig production in agriculture. In contrast, all non-EU regions trade balances improve, with notable trade gains in the USA and Brazil. To conclude, the EU must urgently find a long term strategy for GMOs if it is to reconcile political expediency with pragmatic economic concerns. (Author) 21 refs.

  17. Implicazioni della regolazione dei mercati dei derivati sulle materie prime negli USA e nell’Unione Europea ((Implications of regulating commodity derivatives markets in the USA and EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayati Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The argument for effective financial regulation to curb financial activity and associated volatility in primary commodity markets is now more compelling than ever, in the context of the renewed increase in food prices. However, as in much other financial regulation, the devil is in the detail. This paper considers recent patterns in global food markets and discusses some of the implications of recent moves to regulate financial activity in commodity futures markets in the US and the EU. Specific regulatory issues are considered and alternative strategies are considered.   L'argomento per un efficace regolamentazione finanziaria per frenare l'attività finanziaria e la volatilità associata nei mercati delle materie primarie è ora più avvincente che mai, nel contesto del nuovo aumento dei prezzi alimentari. Tuttavia, come in gran parte degli altri regolamenti finanziari, il diavolo si nasconde nei dettagli. Questo lavoro considera i recenti modelli nei mercati alimentari mondiali e discute come alcune delle implicazioni di mosse recenti regolano l'attività finanziaria nei futuri mercati di materie prime negli Stati Uniti e l'Unione europea. Specifici problemi di regolamentazione e strategie alternative sono considerati.  JEL Codes: F02, F14, G18, N50Keywords: Finance, Commodities, Food

  18. The Behavioural Law and Economics of the Precautionary Principle in the EU and Its Impact on Internal Market Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purnhagen, K.

    2014-01-01

    The precautionary principle contributes to “the social” of internal market regulation as it counterbalances the loss aversion and availability bias of regulators who may too hastily endorse measures based to further the fundamental freedoms instead of fundamental rights and environmental protection.

  19. Red/Blue-Shift Dual-Directional Regulation in Blue-Emitting Ca0.8Ba1.2SiO4:Eu2+ Phosphor on Incorporation of Eu2+/Mg2+ Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lihua; Zou, Xiao; Wang, Tao; Zheng, Qiaoji; Jiang, Na; Xu, Chenggang; Liu, Yongfu; Lin, Dunmin

    2017-03-01

    Blue-emitting phosphors with composition (Ca0.8Ba1.2)1- x Mg x SiO4: yEu2+ ( x = 0 to 0.11, y = 0.01 to 0.08) have been synthesized via a high-temperature solid-state reaction route and the effects of Mg2+ and Eu2+ codoping on their morphology, crystal structure, and luminescence properties were investigated. For (Ca0.8Ba1.2)1- x Mg x SiO4:0.04Eu2+, the color changed from light-blue to deep-blue region with increasing Mg2+ content from x = 0 to x = 0.11. For (Ca0.8Ba1.2)0.93Mg0.07SiO4: yEu2+, the emission band showed the opposite shift with increasing y from 1% to 8%. Interestingly, increasing Mg2+ addition led to significant reduction in the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) from 100 nm to 70 nm. Compared with Mg-free samples, the emission intensity of the Mg-containing material with x = 0.07 was enhanced by ˜100%. The optimum doping levels of Mg2+ and Eu2+ were 0.07 and 0.02 for (Ca0.8 Ba1.2)1- x Mg x SiO4:0.04Eu2+ and (Ca0.8Ba1.2)0.93Mg0.07SiO4: yEu2+, respectively. These results indicate that such materials could be good candidate blue-emitting phosphors for use in solid-state lighting and displays.

  20. Employee board-level representation in the EU: a contested subject

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.H. van het Kaar

    2009-01-01

    This article serves as the introduction to this special ECL issue on Employee Board Representation. Van het Kaar presents a helicopter view of all current regulations in the EU Member States. In his view the current credit crisis urges both investors and employees to improve checks and balances with

  1. Additive Technology for EU Ecolabel Formulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric Nehls; Tassilo Habereder; Edward Ng

    2009-01-01

    Currently, Bio -lubricants are still regarded as niche products. Within the global lubricant market, however, the ar-ea of environmentally acceptable fluids represents one of the fast growing markets with an estimated annual growth of more than 6% per year. This growth is supported by various market drivers such as legal regulations, public subsidies and the im-plementation of national or international labeling schemes.With the implementation of the European Ecolabel for lubricants in 2005, a common standard specifying ecological and performance requirements for Bio - lubricants was defined. Applying for the EU Ecolabel requires a comprehensive assess-ment, not only of the final formulation, but also of the additives used. Additives are required to meet specifications for oxi-dation and thermal stability, as well as to impart metal protection (of both steel and yellow metals), thus improving corro-sion protection and wear performance of the formulation. Therefore, it is challenging in terms of formulation technology to develop the right formulation that meets the technical specifications as well as the stringent requirements of the EU - Ecola-bel.The paper describes how, by using ester base fluids and additives currently available in the market, lubricants can be developed to meet the technical and eco - toxicological requirements of the EU - Ecolabel, approaching the performance lev-els of lubricants formulated with traditional base fluids.

  2. Methods, systems and apparatus for synchronous current regulation of a five-phase machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel; Perisic, Milun

    2012-10-09

    Methods, systems and apparatus are provided for controlling operation of and regulating current provided to a five-phase machine when one or more phases has experienced a fault or has failed. In one implementation, the disclosed embodiments can be used to synchronously regulate current in a vector controlled motor drive system that includes a five-phase AC machine, a five-phase inverter module coupled to the five-phase AC machine, and a synchronous current regulator.

  3. The EU's Convergence Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Notermans Ton

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available As economic stagnation continues to mark the EU in the fifth year of the euro zone crisis, political support for integration is waning. The European Parliament elections of 2014 returned a hitherto unparalleled number of Eurosceptic MEPs, with EU-critical parties becoming the largest ones in several Member States. Much of this Euroscepticism is driven by economic polarisation between core and peripheral countries. While an increasing number of voters in the northwestern creditor countries resent having to foot the bill for what they consider economic mismanagement in the periphery, voters in peripheral countries increasingly rebel against what they deem to be an economically catastrophic Diktat from Germany and its allies. Continued political support for European integration will hinge on successful income convergence in the EU but the current dilemma is that such policies might not be politically feasible. Periods of rapid convergence would seem to suggest that success depends on two main policy strategies. First, a monetary policy that promotes credit for productive purposes, leaves inflation control to other instruments, and employs selective credit rationing to prevent asset booms. Second, a vertical industrial policy prioritising selected industrial sectors. The first policy conflicts with the present framework of euro zone monetary policy, but that framework was only installed in the first place because many peripheral countries were desperately in search of an external constraint on domestic distributional conflict. Industrial policies, in turn, require a sufficient degree of state autonomy from business elites in order to be effective, but it is highly questionable whether most states in the EU possess such autonomy. Though there are, as yet hesitant, signs of a reorientation of both monetary and cohesion policy in the EU, the question of the institutional and political preconditions for their successful implementation has been largely

  4. CO{sub 2} emissions from new cars and vehicle weight in Europe. How the EU regulation could have been avoided and how to reach it?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuenot, Francois [INRETS, French National Institute for Transport and Safety Research, Le Descartes 2, 93166 Noisy le Grand Cedex (France)

    2009-10-15

    A segment- and fuel-disaggregated analysis of the production data of the new European vehicle market during the last decade helps to understand the sharp increase in average weight, and to introduce an indicator linking CO{sub 2} emissions to a vehicle's unit of weight. Using this indicator, simulations are made to calculate the average CO{sub 2} emissions if the average weight had stayed constant from 1995 to 2005. If the weight had remained constant, the 2008 target of 1998s voluntary agreement (VA) would have been met, and the recently approved regulation would probably have been unnecessary. Then, CO{sub 2} emissions are projected to 2015 using different vehicle characteristics and market penetration. Five scenarios have been introduced to study the different opportunities that could arise by 2015, including a backcasting scenario showing what is needed to reach the goal set by the recently approved EU climate package regulations. The analysis concludes that powertrain technologies alone are unlikely to bring the sufficient break in trends to reach set targets. Acting on average weight, through unitary vehicle weight or segment shifting, of new vehicles is key in reducing the average CO{sub 2} emissions in the short and medium term. (author)

  5. CO{sub 2} emissions from new cars and vehicle weight in Europe; How the EU regulation could have been avoided and how to reach it?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuenot, Francois [INRETS (French National Institute for Transport and Safety Research), Le Descartes 2, 93166 Noisy le Grand Cedex (France)], E-mail: cuenot@inrets.fr

    2009-10-15

    A segment- and fuel-disaggregated analysis of the production data of the new European vehicle market during the last decade helps to understand the sharp increase in average weight, and to introduce an indicator linking CO{sub 2} emissions to a vehicle's unit of weight. Using this indicator, simulations are made to calculate the average CO{sub 2} emissions if the average weight had stayed constant from 1995 to 2005. If the weight had remained constant, the 2008 target of 1998s voluntary agreement (VA) would have been met, and the recently approved regulation would probably have been unnecessary. Then, CO{sub 2} emissions are projected to 2015 using different vehicle characteristics and market penetration. Five scenarios have been introduced to study the different opportunities that could arise by 2015, including a backcasting scenario showing what is needed to reach the goal set by the recently approved EU climate package regulations. The analysis concludes that powertrain technologies alone are unlikely to bring the sufficient break in trends to reach set targets. Acting on average weight, through unitary vehicle weight or segment shifting, of new vehicles is key in reducing the average CO{sub 2} emissions in the short and medium term.

  6. India-EU relations in health services: prospects and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Rupa

    2011-02-10

    India and the EU are currently negotiating a Trade and Investment Agreement which also covers services. This paper examines the opportunities for and constraints to India-EU relations in health services in the context of this agreement, focusing on the EU as a market for India's health services exports and collaboration. The paper provides an overview of key features of health services in the EU and India and their bearing on bilateral relations in this sector. Twenty six semi-structured, in-person, and telephonic interviews were conducted in 2007-2008 in four Indian cities. The respondents included management and practitioners in a variety of healthcare establishments, health sector representatives in Indian industry associations, health sector officials in the Indian government, and official representatives of selected EU countries and the European Commission based in New Delhi. Secondary sources were used to supplement and corroborate these findings. The interviews revealed that India-EU relations in health services are currently very limited. However, several opportunity segments exist, namely: (i) Telemedicine; (ii) Clinical trials and research in India for EU-based pharmaceutical companies; (iii) Medical transcriptions and back office support; (iv) Medical value travel; and (v) Collaborative ventures in medical education, research, training, staff deployment, and product development. However, various factors constrain India's exports to the EU. These include data protection regulations; recognition requirements; insurance portability restrictions; discriminatory conditions; and cultural, social, and perception-related barriers. The interviews also revealed several constraints in the Indian health care sector, including disparity in domestic standards and training, absence of clear guidelines and procedures, and inadequate infrastructure. The paper concludes that although there are several promising areas for India-EU relations in health services, it will be

  7. India-EU relations in health services: prospects and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanda Rupa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background India and the EU are currently negotiating a Trade and Investment Agreement which also covers services. This paper examines the opportunities for and constraints to India-EU relations in health services in the context of this agreement, focusing on the EU as a market for India's health services exports and collaboration. The paper provides an overview of key features of health services in the EU and India and their bearing on bilateral relations in this sector. Methods Twenty six semi-structured, in-person, and telephonic interviews were conducted in 2007-2008 in four Indian cities. The respondents included management and practitioners in a variety of healthcare establishments, health sector representatives in Indian industry associations, health sector officials in the Indian government, and official representatives of selected EU countries and the European Commission based in New Delhi. Secondary sources were used to supplement and corroborate these findings. Results The interviews revealed that India-EU relations in health services are currently very limited. However, several opportunity segments exist, namely: (i Telemedicine; (ii Clinical trials and research in India for EU-based pharmaceutical companies; (iii Medical transcriptions and back office support; (iv Medical value travel; and (v Collaborative ventures in medical education, research, training, staff deployment, and product development. However, various factors constrain India's exports to the EU. These include data protection regulations; recognition requirements; insurance portability restrictions; discriminatory conditions; and cultural, social, and perception-related barriers. The interviews also revealed several constraints in the Indian health care sector, including disparity in domestic standards and training, absence of clear guidelines and procedures, and inadequate infrastructure. Conclusions The paper concludes that although there are several

  8. Safety assessment of a novel active ingredient, acetyl aspartic acid, according to the EU Cosmetics Regulation and the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, P; Moran, G

    2015-10-01

    Acetyl aspartic acid (A-A-A) was proposed as a new novel active ingredient for use in cosmetics. The safety of A-A-A was assessed by following an in-house-developed 'New Ingredient Testing Strategy', which was designed in accordance with the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) notes of guidance and the requirements of Annex I of the EU Cosmetics Regulation. The aim of the project was to determine whether A-A-A was safe for use in cosmetics and to determine a maximum permitted safe level in the formulations. A literature review was conducted, consulting over 40 different information sources. This highlighted a number of gaps which required testing data. A-A-A was tested for phototoxicity according to OECD test guideline 432, skin irritation according to OECD test guideline 439 and eye irritation according to OECD test guideline 437. Dermal absorption of A-A-A was measured according to OECD test guideline 428 and was used to calculate the margin of safety (MoS). Finally, A-A-A was tested in a human repeat insult patch test (HRIPT) and a 14-day in-use tolerance study. A-A-A was non-phototoxic and was non-irritating to skin and eyes in in vitro testing. Dermal absorption was calculated to be 5%. The MoS for A-A-A was 351, at a level of 5%, for all cosmetic product types, indicating no systemic safety toxicity concern. A-A-A at 5% under occlusive patch on a panel of 50 adult volunteers induced no skin irritation or allergic reaction in the HRIPT study. Finally, repeated application of A-A-A to the periocular area, twice per day for 14 days, in 21 female volunteers, demonstrated that 1% A-A-A was well tolerated following dermatological and ophthalmological assessment in a cosmetic formulation. A-A-A was assessed as safe by the cosmetic safety assessor for use in cosmetics at a level of 5% in all cosmetic product types, in line with the requirements of the EU Cosmetics Regulation and in accordance with the SCCS notes of guidance. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic

  9. GABAB receptor phosphorylation regulates KCTD12-induced K+ current desensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelfinger, L; Turecek, R; Ivankova, K

    2014-01-01

    released from the G-protein. Receptor-activated K+ currents desensitize in the sustained presence of agonist to avoid excessive effects on neuronal activity. Desensitization of K+ currents integrates distinct mechanistic underpinnings. GABAB receptor activity reduces protein kinase-A activity, which...... reduces phosphorylation of serine-892 in GABAB2 and promotes receptor degradation. This form of desensitization operates on the time scale of several minutes to hours. A faster form of desensitization is induced by the auxiliary subunit KCTD12, which interferes with channel activation by binding to the G......-protein βγ subunits. Here we show that the two mechanisms of desensitization influence each other. Serine-892 phosphorylation in heterologous cells rearranges KCTD12 at the receptor and slows KCTD12-induced desensitization. Likewise, protein kinase-A activation in hippocampal neurons slows fast...

  10. Brushless DC motor Drive during Speed regulation with Current Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhikshalu Manchala

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Brushless DC Motor (BLDC is one of the best electrical drives that have increasing popularity, due to their high efficiency, reliability, good dynamic response and very low maintenance. Due to the increasing demand for compact & reliable motors and the evolution of low cost power semiconductor switches and permanent magnet (PM materials, brushless DC motors become popular in every application from home appliances to aerospace industry. The conventional techniques for controlling the stator phase current in a brushless DC drive are practically effective in low speed and cannot reduce the commutation torque ripple in high speed range. This paper presents the PI controller for speed control of BLDC motor. The output of the PI controllers is summed and is given as the input to the current controller. The BLDC motor is fed from the inverter where the rotor position and current controller is the input. The complete model of the proposed drive system is developed and simulated using MATLAB/Simulink software. The operation principle of using component is analysed and the simulation results are presented in this to verify the theoretical analysis.

  11. HARMONIZATION OF CROATIAN LEGAL REGULATIONS WITH EU DIRECTIVES CONCERNING PETROLEUM INDUSTRY WASTE DISPOSAL INTO SUITABLE GEOLOGICAL FORMATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Brkić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Exploration and production of mineral resources, especially hydrocarbons, are from ecological point of view, one of the most sensitive activities. Concerning global ecological standards, which have also been enforced into petroleum industry, exploration and production of mineral energy sources have to be based on compliance with introduced environmental and human health protection requirements. Since it is expected that Croatia will join European Union in the near future, it is necessary to develop institutional and legislative frameworks for enabling and regulating the harmonization of mineral resources exploration and production waste disposal with European Union directives and regulations. Petroleum industry waste disposal by injection into suitable geological formations is one of environmentally acceptable methods for petroleum industry waste management (the paper is published in Croatian.

  12. Effect of Hf addition on critical current density of (Y,Eu)Ba2Cu3.6O7-δ thin films prepared by trifluoroacetate metal organic deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M. Y.; Liu, Z. Y.; Fang, Q.; Guo, Y. Q.; Lu, Y. M.; Bai, C. Y.; Cai, C. B.

    2016-12-01

    The critical current density (Jc) performance of YBCO coated conductors (CCs) under magnetic field has become a considerable limitation for its commercial application in recent years. It is well known that the proper amount of element doping into the CCs is a convenient method to increase flux pinning and then to enhance the Jc. In the present work, we firstly introduce the co-doping of Eu and Hf and study the effect on the performance of YBa2Cu3.6O7-δ thin films. Three types of high temperature superconducting thin films, i.e., YBa2Cu3.6O7-δ, (Y,Eu)Ba2Cu3.6O7-δ and Hf doped (Y,Eu)Ba2Cu3.6O7-δ were prepared on the oxide buffered metallic substrates by using trifluoroacetate metal organic deposition (TFA-MOD). The component and structure of the as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Superconducting properties were measured with a SQUID magnetometer. It was revealed that the (Y,Eu)Ba2Cu3.6O7-δ thin films exhibit better out-plane and in-plane texture compared with the pure YBa2Cu3.6O7-δ thin film. The Jc of (Y,Eu)Ba2Cu3.6O7-δ thin film was improved compared with pure YBCO thin film. In case of Hf doping, however, the biaxial texture became worse while the in-field Jc performance was enhanced, implying the increase of flux pinning with proper Hf addition.

  13. Current regulations and state investment in the wind power projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Simeunović

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is the objective of this paper to present the path which the wind farm projects have undergone in Croatia from their introduction and expansion since the year 2007 up to the today's date when their development is temporarily stayed. The paper first describes the political and legal framework for renewable energy sources in Croatia, and specifically for wind power plants, as well as the current status of investment in building of wind farms in Croatia. The paper further analyses why the Croatian system of promotion of eligible producers has proven to attract investment, albeit unsustainable for a longer period of time, and which regulatory measures have later contributed to the suspension of wind farm investment in 2014. Legal and factual consequences of such suspension are discussed at the end of the paper, as well as some potential new business models for further exploitation of wind energy in Croatia.

  14. Research on Technical Draft Regulation of EU Maritime Transport Carbon Tax%欧盟海运碳税技术基础法规草案解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳玲; 王海; 高晶

    2014-01-01

    Besides the airline carbon tax, the European parliament and the Council levy the carbon tax plan on maritime transport. As the fundamental technical document of carbon transaction and maritime carbon tax, the EU Maritime Transport MRV Regulation Draft (No 525/2013) will come into force in July 1st ,2015 and effect ship-owners and shipbuilding companies by stipulating the monitoring scheme, reporting and verification of carbon emissions from maritime transport.It is a sign that carbon barrier gradually becomes a new technical barrier to trade(TBT).%2013年继航空碳税之后,欧盟计划对海运征收碳税。作为碳交易和海运碳税征收的基础性技术文件《欧盟海运MRV法规草案》已经发布,预计2015年7月1日生效。该法规草案对碳排放的监测方案、报告和核查都作了规定,影响到船东、造船企业等多方面。本法规草案的出台,预示着碳壁垒作为新的技术性贸易措施(TBT)正式从幕后走向前台。

  15. EU ECONOMIC GOVERNANCE REFORM: ARE WE AT A TURNING POINT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Daianu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The sovereign debt crisis is creating enormous anguish in the European Monetary Union (EMU. Not surprisingly, emergency measures continue to be used at a time when a sort of economic recovery seems to be underway. Against this background the European Council summit of last October considered a Task Force report with a telling name: "Strengthening economic governance in the EU". This document is to be examined in conjunction with the governance reform proposals issued by the European Commission at the end of September and related documents. For the depth of this financial crisis and the "Great Recession" have forced EU governments and EU institutions to take a hard look at the governance structure of the Union. But it would be wrong to say that this demarche is an attempt to explore a terra incognita. From the very beginning of the European Monetary Union (EMU there was some discomfort with its institutional underpinnings and there were misgivings regarding its optimality as a currency area. This explains why a train of thought underlines a political rationale, too, for the creation of the EMU. Likewise, criticism regarding the way regulation and supervision have been established in the Union is not of recent vintage. And insufficiencies of the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP, with almost all member states flouting its rules at various points in time, have been repeatedly pointed out. This said, however, the flaws of financial intermediation have been less tackled by policy-makers and central bankers for reasons which, partially, are to be found in a paradigm which has dominated economic thinking in recent decades. This paper focuses on roots of the huge strain in the EU (EMU and main policy issues ensuing from the current crisis. It also looks at the stake NMSs have in a reformed EU economic governance structure. The challenges for EU economic governance reform are to be seen from a broad perspective: the crisis of the financial intermediation

  16. Transportforskning i EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    1996-01-01

    Artiklen giver en gennemgang af aktuelle EU transportforskningsemner samt nogle synspunkter og erfaringer baseret på deltagelse i EU forskningsprojekter.......Artiklen giver en gennemgang af aktuelle EU transportforskningsemner samt nogle synspunkter og erfaringer baseret på deltagelse i EU forskningsprojekter....

  17. EU COMPETITION LAW AND THE TELECOMS SINGLE MARKET: NETWORK NEUTRALITY IN THE AFTERMATH OF THE TSM REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemí ANGULO GARZARO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, a sharp increase in the Internet traffic has been experienced. Technology, once again, has proven to be able to develop faster than regulation. In this endlessly evolving scenario, operators in the technology markets, as well as end-users, often find themselves under-protected. Therefore, it comes as a major concern the need to regulate those technological markets and, more specifically, the use –or abuse– of Internet. All Internet traffic should be treated equally and that is, precisely, what network neutrality aims at. Consequently, network operators may not take advantage of their position in the market to affect competition in related markets. All in all, network neutrality is crucial to achieve the highest degree of competition. In the absence of network neutrality, the Internet would find itself unable to qualify as a market merely driven by innovation, and it would unfailingly turn into one ruled by deal making. Competition law claims that the higher the neutrality is – i.e., the more equal the treatment is, the better it is for the consumer. If network operating companies create an exploitative business model, they might be able to block competitors’ websites and services; in other words, it may facilitate adoption of anticompetitive practices – namely, the abuse of their dominant position. Transcending all the arguments raised against network neutrality –such as the prevention of an overuse of bandwidth–, we will demonstrate that it must be deemed essential from a Competition law perspective. In addition, we will argue, the imperative necessity of leaving the market under the tough scrutiny of competition authorities, which are best placed to assess the anticompetitive character of the practices brought about by market operators.

  18. EU COMPETITION LAW AND THE TELECOMS SINGLE MARKET: NETWORK NEUTRALITY IN THE AFTERMATH OF THE TSM REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemí ANGULO GARZARO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, a sharp increase in the Internet traffic has been experienced. Technology, once again, has proven to be able to develop faster than regulation. In this endlessly evolving scenario, operators in the technology markets, as well as end-users, often find themselves under-protected. Therefore, it comes as a major concern the need to regulate those technological markets and, more specifically, the use –or abuse– of Internet. All Internet traffic should be treated equally and that is, precisely, what network neutrality aims at. Consequently, network operators may not take advantage of their position in the market to affect competition in related markets. All in all, network neutrality is crucial to achieve the highest degree of competition. In the absence of network neutrality, the Internet would find itself unable to qualify as a market merely driven by innovation, and it would unfailingly turn into one ruled by deal making. Competition law claims that the higher the neutrality is – i.e., the more equal the treatment is, the better it is for the consumer. If network operating companies create an exploitative business model, they might be able to block competitors’ websites and services; in other words, it may facilitate adoption of anticompetitive practices – namely, the abuse of their dominant position. Transcending all the arguments raised against network neutrality –such as the prevention of an overuse of bandwidth–, we will demonstrate that it must be deemed essential from a Competition law perspective. In addition, we will argue, the imperative necessity of leaving the market under the tough scrutiny of competition authorities, which are best placed to assess the anticompetitive character of the practices brought about by market operators.

  19. 论欧盟食品安全管制中的预防原则%On the Precautionary Principle in EU Food Safety Regulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈熹

    2012-01-01

    食品安全问题在我国已经成为一个重要且亟待解决的问题。食品科技的进步,在缓解了人类社会食品匮乏问题的同时,也给人类健康带来许多未知的、隐蔽的和长期的风险,例如转基因食品、各种添加剂等。面对这些问题,发端于环境法领域的预防原则(the precautionary principle)开始被运用于食品安全领域,欧盟在此方面实施最为彻底。预防原则将食品安全认定为国家公共利益的重要组成部分,当可能有不确定的风险产生时,国家有绝对的义务采取必要措施。欧盟的实践表明,预防原则的确立有助于恢复公众对于食品安全的信心。欧盟对于食品安全所主张的风险预防,以及基于此一原则所建立的相关食品安全制度,值得我国政府在未来食品安全立法中参考。%Food safety issues in our country has become an important and urgent problem. When the progresses in food science and tech-nology solved the food shortage problems, it also bring to human health the unknown, hidden and long-term risk, such as genetically modified foods, a variety of additives issues. For dealing with these problems, the precautionary principle has been applied and gradually is taken serious- ly; the European Union (EU) is the model in this regard to the implementation. The precautionary principle take food safety as an important part of the national public interest, when there may be uncertainty of risk, the state has the absolute obligation to take the necessary measures. EU practice shows that the precautionary principle established to help restore public confidence in food safety. This principle and rules based on it which used by EU on food safety risk prevention is worth our government in reference to future legislation on food safety regulation.

  20. What does Brexit mean for nursing and our EU staff?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Hannah; Kendall-Raynor, Petra; Longhurst, Chris

    2016-06-29

    Currently there is free movement of labour and mutual recognition of nurse training and qualifications between EU member states. This means UK hospitals can actively recruit nurses from across the EU to cover staff shortfalls. So what now?

  1. THE VARIOUS POSSIBLE EU TAXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca-Andreea Mihalache

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the various possible EU taxes are compared with regard to each of the criteria: budgetary, equity and efficiency criteria. In principle, this problem of revenue insufficiency can be overcome by combining several resources, including contributions from the Member States, to make up for the needs of the EU budget Setting an equalisation mechanism to replace or complement the current GNI contribution could thus be a useful complement to tax autonomy in the context of a reform of the current own resource system.

  2. Handbook of quality management according to the regulation DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025 for the national EU reference laboratory or air quality at the Federal Office for Environmental Protection. State of the art: September 2009; Qualitaetsmanagement-Handbuch nach DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025 fuer das Nationale EU-Referenzlabor fuer Luftqualitaet im Umweltbundesamt. Stand September 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medem, Anneliese (comp.)

    2010-01-15

    The past quality management manual of the national EU reference laboratory for air quality completely was revised. The new quality management manual under consideration contains a determination of the following aspects: Organisation of construction processing, fundamental regulations of the management system concerning to quality, statements to the quality politics, paramount goals. The presented quality management system is regarded to all elements of the regulation DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005 with consideration of the special requirements of the national European Union reference laboratory for air quality in the Federal Office for Environment Protection (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany).

  3. Effect of Hf addition on critical current density of (Y,Eu)Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3.6}O{sub 7-δ} thin films prepared by trifluoroacetate metal organic deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M.Y., E-mail: limengyaorz@163.com [Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Physics Department, 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Liu, Z.Y. [Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Physics Department, 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Shanghai Creative Superconductor Technologies Co. Ltd., Shanghai 201401 (China); Fang, Q. [Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Physics Department, 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Guo, Y.Q.; Lu, Y.M.; Bai, C.Y. [Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Physics Department, 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Shanghai Creative Superconductor Technologies Co. Ltd., Shanghai 201401 (China); Cai, C.B., E-mail: cbcai@t.shu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Physics Department, 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Shanghai Creative Superconductor Technologies Co. Ltd., Shanghai 201401 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • This work firstly introduce the Eu and Hf co-doping effect on the performance of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3.6}O{sub 7-δ} thin films, prepared on oxide buffered metallic substrates by trifluoroacetate metal organic deposition (TFA-MOD). • (Y, Eu)Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3.6}O{sub 7-δ} film showed a very different surface morphology, smooth and regular, compared to YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3.6}O{sub 7-δ} thin film, which has never been reported before. • The J{sub c} value under self-field of (Y, Eu)Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3.6}O{sub 7-δ} thin film was obviously improved compared to YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3.6}O{sub 7-δ} thin film. • (Y, Eu)Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3.6}O{sub 7-δ} thin film with Hf addition exhibited enhancement of J{sub c} value under magnetic fields. - Abstract: The critical current density (J{sub c}) performance of YBCO coated conductors (CCs) under magnetic field has become a considerable limitation for its commercial application in recent years. It is well known that the proper amount of element doping into the CCs is a convenient method to increase flux pinning and then to enhance the J{sub c}. In the present work, we firstly introduce the co-doping of Eu and Hf and study the effect on the performance of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3.6}O{sub 7-δ} thin films. Three types of high temperature superconducting thin films, i.e., YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3.6}O{sub 7-δ}, (Y,Eu)Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3.6}O{sub 7-δ} and Hf doped (Y,Eu)Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3.6}O{sub 7-δ} were prepared on the oxide buffered metallic substrates by using trifluoroacetate metal organic deposition (TFA-MOD). The component and structure of the as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Superconducting properties were measured with a SQUID magnetometer. It was revealed that the (Y,Eu)Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3.6}O{sub 7-δ} thin films exhibit better out-plane and in-plane texture compared with the pure YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3.6}O{sub 7-δ} thin

  4. JAPAN RISKS MISSING EU DEADLINE ON ACCOUNTSJ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Japanese companies face being shut out of European Union capital markets owing to difficulties in harmonizing Japan's accounting standards with EU rules in time to meet a Brussels deadline,the Japanese regulator has warned.

  5. Effects of nanoscale defects on critical current density of (Y{sub 1-x}Eu{sub x})Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-d}elta thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goswami, R., E-mail: ramasis.goswami@nrl.navy.mi [US Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Haugan, T.J.; Barnes, P.N. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); Spanos, G.; Holtz, R.L. [US Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2010-03-01

    In pulsed laser deposition of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-d}elta films, defect introduction into the films tends to anisotropically improve the pinning along the H||c direction due to the columnar growth mode of the process. In Eu-substituted samples, however, even though an increase in critical current density (J{sub c}) in the H||c direction was observed for low fields (H = 0.2 T), the improvement was more notable for the H||ab-plane at both low and higher fields. Herein we present detailed TEM microstructural studies to understand these new trends in J{sub c}(H), which are markedly different than flux pinning increases achieved with other methods, for example, with nanoparticle additions. Threading dislocations, observed in the Eu-substituted samples along the c-axis, account for J{sub c} enhancement with H||c at low field. The enhanced ab-planar pinning in the Eu-substituted samples is attributed to the extensive bending of the left brace0 0 1right brace lattice planes throughout the film, and the crystal lattice defects with excess Cu-O planes, that were effective in increasing the J{sub c} for H||ab at both low and high fields.

  6. Separated and unaccompanied children in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca O’Donnell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of EU law, policy and practical measures address the situation of separated and unaccompanied children who arrive in the EU. However, in the current sensitive political climate, there is a risk of attention and resources being diverted from building on progress.

  7. REACTIVE CURRENT OF AN INDUCTION ELECTRIC DRIVES WITH THYRISTOR VOLTAGE REGULATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.V. Kovalova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A model for a separation of reactive constituent from current of idling of an induction motor at its feed from a thyristor voltage regulator in the dependences on the control angle of thyristors is developed. As a result of modeling, dependence of relative reactive current which is approximated by formula for calculation of effective current of reactive constituent of nonsinusoidal current is obtained.

  8. Self-regulation of the reconnecting current layer in relativistic pair plasma reconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Zenitani, S

    2008-01-01

    We investigate properties of the reconnecting current layer in relativistic pair plasma reconnection. We found that the current layer self-regulates its thickness when the current layer runs out current carriers and so relativistic reconnection retains a fast reconnection rate. Constructing a steady state Sweet-Parker model, we discuss conditions for the current sheet expansion. Based on the energy argument we conclude that the incompressible assumption is invalid in relativistic Sweet-Parker reconnection. The guide field cases are more incompressible than the anti-parallel cases, and we find a more significant current sheet expansion.

  9. Issues Related to EU's Foreign Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The European Union (EU) is widely regarded as an important international actor, and usually referred to as a big power like the U. S. , Russia, China and Japan. So naturally the foreign policy of the EU has caught attention of both officials and scholars over the world. However, the EU is also a combination of sovereign states, its foreign policy is different from others, and perhaps this is often ignored. For instance, unlike a single nation state, the EU's influence and power are different in various policy fields due to its different ways of decision-making and implementation. Also, different from the common currency, the forming of the common foreign policy of the EU doesn't mean the disappearance of respective member state's foreign policy. Only seeing or emphasizing one respect will lead to a misunderstanding of the EU. Moreover, as a unique "supranational and intergovernmental" organization in the world, the EU has too many complex institutions, names and terms. Of course, the situation is not better in the field of foreign policy, and it easily leads to confusion and misunderstanding. It is also necessary to point out that the EU is still in the process of evolvement, and in particular, as one of the major reforms of the EU in recent years, the foreign policy-making mechanism has been in the center of change and adjustment. It is no doubt that this adds to the difficulties of studying and understanding the EU's foreign policy. In a word, the author thinks it is necessary to raise some major issues related to the EU's foreign policy and delve into it in connecting with the EU's current development.

  10. Creating EU law judges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral Diaz-Asensio, Juan Antonio; Jaremba, Urszula; Nowak, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The judicial protection system in the European Union (EU) is premised on the fact that national judges are supposed to act as decentralized EU judges. This role is exercised through tools enshrined in, inter alia, primacy, direct and indirect effect of EU law, and the preliminary ruling procedure....... However, a number of studies show that national judges experience difficulties in exercising EU competences due to their lack of knowledge in the field of EU law. In this contribution we study the differences in the level of self-evaluation of EU law knowledge among judges, which consequently influence...... the way judges approach EU law. For that purpose we question the relevance of several institutional and socio-legal factors, such as organization of the judiciary, generation, the system of legal education and judicial training and practical experience with EU law. Our analysis is based on data collected...

  11. China-EU Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zhongping; Zhang Yimeng

    2007-01-01

    @@ The China-EU relationship attracted global interest in 2006. On the one hand, cooperation between China and the EU was making good progress, but on the other, there were challenges facing both, leading some international policy analysts to conclude that the honeymoon period between China and the EU was over.

  12. Creating EU law judges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral Diaz-Asensio, Juan Antonio; Jaremba, Urszula; Nowak, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The judicial protection system in the European Union (EU) is premised on the fact that national judges are supposed to act as decentralized EU judges. This role is exercised through tools enshrined in, inter alia, primacy, direct and indirect effect of EU law, and the preliminary ruling procedure...

  13. The development of environmental management system in Serbia and Montenegro as part of the EU accession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Dušan S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is one of the top priorities of the EU. The EU regulates this area both within the Union and internationally. Also, the regulations concerning environmental protection in the EU to a certain extent exceed the national level. The EU environmental legislation imposes a number of challenges to membership candidates. Legal heritage of the EU is very extensive, complex and costly, and environmental problems are much more important in the EU membership candidates than in the member states. Therefore, it is of great importance for transitional countries such as Serbia and Montenegro to participate in the EU Stabilization and Association Process as well as in the WTO accession process.

  14. A COMPARISON OF TRUCK DRIVER SAFETY BETWEEN THE EU AND THE USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján KAPUSTA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Road transportation is playing an important role in almost all freight movements and contributes to the economy. It has the highest share in the modal division of transported goods. This situation is not about to change in the coming years. Therefore, it is necessary to change the current situation and modify rules and regulations, which could lead to a decrease in the number of accidents in either the EU or the USA. This paper identifies and compares different safety measures, rules and regulations governing the safety of truck transport in the EU and the USA. The number of accidents is a good safety indicator. Finally, suggestions for improvements in terms of truck drivers’ safety in the EU and the USA are proposed.

  15. Analysis of the proposed EU regulation concerning biocide products and its opportunities for alternative approaches and a toxicology for the 21st century (t4 report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Daniele; Rabbit, Richard R

    2012-01-01

    On June 12, 2009, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a Regulation concerning the placement on the market and use of biocidal products, which, when it enters into force on January 1, 2013, will repeal and replace Directive 98/8/EC. The main reason for the revision of the current Directive was to promote best practices for environmental and human health protection, along with implementation of current developments in safety testing in order to create safer biocides. Moreover, the proposed Regulation aims to take into consideration the newest legislation on chemicals. This article evaluates the proposed Regulation in comparison to Directive 98/8/EC. Although the new proposal requires the sharing of vertebrate animal test data, both for product authorization and for newly developed active substances, it misses - in contrast to REACH - the opportunity to recognize the accelerating development of alternative approaches to animal testing, most recently with new momentum provided by "Toxicity Testing for the 21st Century", and to support the evolution of toxicology towards a new approach to testing. The new methods promise not only to decrease animal pain and suffering, but also to provide faster results and better prediction for human risk assessment compared to traditional methods. Unfortunately, methods mandated for human risk assessment in the proposal are still mainly based on traditional animal study extrapolation. We put forward and discuss possible alternative strategies, such as in vitro testing, integrated testing strategies, toxicokinetics, "omics", systems biology, bioinformatics, and computational modeling, all of which could be more encouraged by the proposal. Current opportunities to improve our tools for biocide risk assessment are discussed, delineating advantages, limitations, and development needs. It is suggested to open the proposed Regulation to alternative approaches that are based on human biology more than on extrapolation from animals

  16. Regulatory aspects of nanotechnology in the agri/feed/food sector in EU and non-EU countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenta, Valeria; Aschberger, Karin; Arena, Maria; Bouwmeester, Hans; Botelho Moniz, Filipa; Brandhoff, Puck; Gottardo, Stefania; Marvin, Hans J P; Mech, Agnieszka; Quiros Pesudo, Laia; Rauscher, Hubert; Schoonjans, Reinhilde; Vettori, Maria Vittoria; Weigel, Stefan; Peters, Ruud J

    2015-10-01

    Nanotechnology has the potential to innovate the agricultural, feed and food sectors (hereinafter referred to as agri/feed/food). Applications that are marketed already include nano-encapsulated agrochemicals or nutrients, antimicrobial nanoparticles and active and intelligent food packaging. Many nano-enabled products are currently under research and development, and may enter the market in the near future. As for any other regulated product, applicants applying for market approval have to demonstrate the safe use of such new products without posing undue safety risks to the consumer and the environment. Several countries all over the world have been active in examining the appropriateness of their regulatory frameworks for dealing with nanotechnologies. As a consequence of this, different approaches have been taken in regulating nano-based products in agri/feed/food. The EU, along with Switzerland, were identified to be the only world region where nano-specific provisions have been incorporated in existing legislation, while in other regions nanomaterials are regulated more implicitly by mainly building on guidance for industry. This paper presents an overview and discusses the state of the art of different regulatory measures for nanomaterials in agri/feed/food, including legislation and guidance for safety assessment in EU and non-EU countries.

  17. DNA barcoding as an identification tool for selected EU-regulated plant pests: an international collaborative test performance study among 14 laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonants, P.J.M.; Vossenberg, van de B.T.L.H.; Westenberg, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the database Q-bank (www.q-bank.eu). This freely accessible database contains data on plant pathogenic quarantine organisms to allow fast and reliable identification. Development of accurate identification tools for plant pests is vital to support European Plant Health Policies.

  18. The Development of EU-Russian Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jian

    2008-01-01

    The EU's strategy for Russia since the end of the cold war has to a large extent failed, and the direct consequences are the currently deadlocked EU-Russia relationship. There are three reasons for this: the EU and Russia's respective strength and status relative to each other have been changing since the beginning of this century; the EU's strategy towards Russia has been more fragmenting in recently years; and the American factor. The EU-Russia relations could continue to be in poor shape in the years to come, and it is very likely sometimes even further worsening. But the two sides would refrain from extreme measures and prevent their relations from sliding into real cold war.

  19. Current control loop design and analysis based on resonant regulators for microgrid applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, de Bosio; Pastorelli, Michelle; de Sousa Ribeiro, Luiz Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Voltage and current control loops play an important role in the performance of microgrids employing power electronics voltage source inverters. Correct design of feedback loops is essential for the proper operation of these systems. This paper analyzes the influence of state feedback cross......-coupling in the design of resonant regulators for inner current loops in power converters operating in standalone microgrids. It is also demonstrated that the effect of state feedback cross-coupling degrades the performance of the control loops by increasing the steady-state error. Different resonant regulators...... structures are analyzed and compared, performing experimental tests to validate the results of the theoretical analysis....

  20. EU Internet Law in the Era of Convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Søren Sandfeld

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of the demarcation and interplay between EU's Internet, Telecoms and Media regulation in light of the growing convergence......An analysis of the demarcation and interplay between EU's Internet, Telecoms and Media regulation in light of the growing convergence...

  1. Voltage and Current Regulators Design of Power Converters in Islanded Microgrids based on State Feedback Decoupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, de Bosio; de Sousa Ribeiro, Luiz Antonio; Freijedo Fernandez, Francisco Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In stand-alone microgrids based on voltage source inverters state feedback coupling between the capacitor voltage and inductor current degrades significantly the dynamics performance of voltage and current regulators. The decoupling of the controlled states is proposed, considering the limitations...... introduced by system delays. Moreover, a proportional resonant voltage controller is designed according to Nyquist criterion taking into account application requirements. Experimental tests performed in compliance with the UPS standards verify the theoretical analysis....

  2. Differential regulation of potassium currents by FGF-1 and FGF-2 in embryonic Xenopus laevis myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan-Patel, R; Spruce, A E

    1998-10-01

    1. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are involved in the regulation of many aspects of muscle development. This study investigated their role in regulating voltage-dependent K+ currents in differentiating Xenopus laevis myocytes. Both FGF-1 and FGF-2 are expressed by developing muscle cells, so their actions were compared. Experiments were performed on cultured myocytes isolated from stage 15 embryos. 2. Long-term exposure of the embryonic myocytes to FGF-1 downregulated inward rectifier K+ current (IK(IR)) density as well as both sustained and inactivating voltage-dependent outward K+ currents (IK,S and IK,I, respectively) and their densities. In contrast, FGF-2 upregulated these currents, although, because of an increase in capacitance caused by FGF-2, current density did not change with this factor. 3. The regulation of IK(IR) by FGF-1 was prevented by the cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin A, but that of IK,S and IK,I was unaffected, indicating that FGF-1 achieves its regulatory effects on electrical development via separate signalling pathways. The receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein in isolation suppressed K+ currents, but this may have occurred through a channel-blocking mechanism. 4. In many cells, IK, S was found to be composed of two components with differing voltage dependencies of activation. The FGFs brought about an alteration in the amount of total IK,S by equal effects on each component. Conversely, herbimycin A increased the proportion of low voltage-activated current without affecting total current amplitude. Therefore, we suggest that a single species of channel whose voltage dependence is shifted by tyrosine phosphorylation generates IK,S. 5. In summary, FGF-1 and FGF-2 exert opposite effects on voltage-dependent K+ currents in embryonic myocytes and, furthermore, FGF-1 achieves its effects on different K+ currents via separate second messenger pathways.

  3. The effect of EU tyre labelling Regulation on China synthetic rubber industry%欧盟轮胎标签法对中国合成橡胶工业的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建勇

    2015-01-01

    EU tyre labelling Regulation was applicable on 1st November 2012. The label provides information on fuel efficiency, wet grip and external rolling noise through clear pictograms. Every new tyre for cars, vans, and heavy trucks within scope of the regulation sold on the EU market must specify fuel efficiency, wet grip and external rolling noise in the label. It's a challenge for China synthetic rubber industry. For China synthetic rubber enterprises, the pressure arises from unsatisfied product performance and high product cost. While, EU tyre labelling Regulation is both a challenge and an opportunity for China synthetic rubber industry. The application of EU tyre labelling Regulation prompts an imperative need for environment-friendly and high performance synthetic rubber. China synthetic rubber enterprises have to reduce the product cost, improve product quality and product competitiveness through technology progress. The transformation and upgrading of China synthetic rubber industry will speed up.%欧盟轮胎标签法于2012年11月1日正式生效.根据该法规,在欧盟销售的轿车胎、轻卡胎、卡车胎及公共汽车轮胎必须加贴标签,标示出轮胎的燃油效率、湿滑路面抓地力和滚动噪声的等级.这对于中国合成橡胶企业无疑是一次重大考验,国内橡胶企业因产品性能和成本等原因压力大增.然而欧盟轮胎标签法在给中国橡胶工业带来挑战的同时,也成为新的发展机遇.轮胎标签法的实施,使开发环保化和高性能化合成橡胶的需求更为迫切,同时也促使国内合成橡胶生产企业必须依靠科技进步不断降低生产成本、提升产品质量、提高产品竞争力,加快中国合成橡胶工业转型升级步伐.

  4. Down-regulation of endogenous KLHL1 decreases voltage-gated calcium current density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perissinotti, Paula P; Ethington, Elizabeth G; Cribbs, Leanne; Koob, Michael D; Martin, Jody; Piedras-Rentería, Erika S

    2014-05-01

    The actin-binding protein Kelch-like 1 (KLHL1) can modulate voltage-gated calcium channels in vitro. KLHL1 interacts with actin and with the pore-forming subunits of Cav2.1 and CaV3.2 calcium channels, resulting in up-regulation of P/Q and T-type current density. Here we tested whether endogenous KLHL1 modulates voltage gated calcium currents in cultured hippocampal neurons by down-regulating the expression of KLHL1 via adenoviral delivery of shRNA targeted against KLHL1 (shKLHL1). Control adenoviruses did not affect any of the neuronal properties measured, yet down-regulation of KLHL1 resulted in HVA current densities ~68% smaller and LVA current densities 44% smaller than uninfected controls, with a concomitant reduction in α(1A) and α(1H) protein levels. Biophysical analysis and western blot experiments suggest Ca(V)3.1 and 3.3 currents are also present in shKLHL1-infected neurons. Synapsin I levels, miniature postsynaptic current frequency, and excitatory and inhibitory synapse number were reduced in KLHL1 knockdown. This study corroborates the physiological role of KLHL1 as a calcium channel modulator and demonstrates a novel, presynaptic role.

  5. Exploring Faraday's Law of Electrolysis Using Zinc-Air Batteries with Current Regulative Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Masahiro; Paku, Miei

    2007-01-01

    Current regulative diodes (CRDs) are applied to develop new educational experiments on Faraday's law by using a zinc-air battery (PR2330) and a resistor to discharge it. The results concluded that the combination of zinc-air batteries and the CRD array is simpler, less expensive, and quantitative and gives accurate data.

  6. A NOVEL CONTROL STRATEGY FOR SINUSIODAL WAVE INVERTER WITH PI REGULATORS AND CAPACITOR CURRENT FEEDBACK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜桂宾; 裴云庆; 王兆安

    2003-01-01

    Objective For the inverters used in UPS, it is important to maintain the pure sinusoidal AC output voltage waveform over all loading conditions and transients. Methods A novel sinusoidal output voltage control strategy is pregented in this paper. The output voltage is controlled by introducing filtering eapacitor current feedback. Two simple PI regulators are used for the current and voltage control loops. Results With the new control strategy, the inverter achieves very low output voltage distortion, good output voltage regulation and strong perturbation rejection, fast dynamic response, and good performance under nonlinear loads. The THD under capacitance rectifying load is better than 0.2%, the output voltage regulation within 0 to full load is less than 0.1%. The resting time under load transient is within 200μs. Conclusion The merits of the new control strategy include rapid response and good steady state stiffness.

  7. EU Security Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Jianjun

    2007-01-01

    The European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) comprises an important part of the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). The aim of ESDP is to strengthen the EU's external ability to act through the development of civilian and military capabilities for international conflict prevention and crisis management. In December 2003, the EU adopted its first European Security Strategy (ESS). Ever since then, the implementation of the ESS has been regarded as one of the biggest challenges for the EU in CFSP/ESDP matters. Although much progress has been made in its independent security and defence-building process, EU still faces serious problems and difficulties in this policy area. This paper tries to examine these recent developments, assess their impacts in regional-global security, and analyze existing problems and future trends. Finally, the author also examines EU-China engagements in recent years and explores possibilities for their future cooperation in the area of international security.

  8. Characterization of Mg2+-regulated TRPM7-like current in human atrial myocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macianskiene Regina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TRPM7 (Transient Receptor Potential of the Melastatin subfamily proteins are highly expressed in the heart, however, electrophysiological studies, demonstrating and characterizing these channels in human cardiomyocytes, are missing. Methods We have used the patch clamp technique to characterize the biophysical properties of TRPM7 channel in human myocytes isolated from right atria small chunks obtained from 116 patients in sinus rhythm during coronary artery and valvular surgery. Under whole-cell voltage-clamp, with Ca2+ and K+ channels blocked, currents were generated by symmetrical voltage ramp commands to potentials between -120 and +80 mV, from a holding potential of -80 mV. Results We demonstrate that activated native current has dual control by intracellular Mg2+ (free-Mg2+ or ATP-bound form, and shows up- or down-regulation by its low or high levels, respectively, displaying outward rectification in physiological extracellular medium. High extracellular Mg2+ and Ca2+ block the outward current, while Gd3+, SpM4+, 2-APB, and carvacrol inhibit both (inward and outward currents. Besides, divalents also permeate the channel, and the efficacy sequence, at 20 mM, was Mg2+>Ni2+>Ca2+>Ba2+>Cd2+ for decreasing outward and Ni2+>Mg2+>Ba2+≥Ca2+>Cd2+ for increasing inward currents. The defined current bears many characteristics of heterologously expressed or native TRPM7 current, and allowed us to propose that current under study is TRPM7-like. However, the time of beginning and time to peak as well steady state magnitude (range from 1.21 to 11.63 pA/pF, ncells/patients = 136/77 of induced TRPM7-like current in atrial myocytes from different patients showed a large variability, while from the same sample of human atria all these parameters were very homogenous. We present new information that TRPM7-like current in human myocytes is less sensitive to Mg2+. In addition, in some myocytes (from 24 out of 77 patients that current

  9. Planned development and coordination of public policies as a starting point in the harmonization of national regulations with the EU aquis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanić Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important aspects of harmonizing Serbian legislation with the EU law, however still neglected in Serbia, is the mutual relationship between the design and coordination of public policies on the one hand, and the harmonization of legislation in the course of negotiations for EU accession, on the other hand. This aspect has been largely neglected because of the misuse of emergency procedure for adopting legislation in order to assure compatibility with the EU law, but also due to underdeveloped regulatory policies, which has been reduced to the guillotine of legislation, instead of developing a cycle of policy and analytical phase that precedes the drafting of legislation. Although the negotiating structure of European integration has been improved, the Negotiation Team and Coordination Body certainly can not replace the role of policy makers in their creation. Since the new Law on Ministries envisaged the creation of the Secretariat for the coordination of public policies, an institutional prerequisite for the implementation of the function of harmonizing public policy proposals has been put forward, but is not yet clear what powers in the policy cycle this institution would have. In any case, this administrative body will certainly complement Serbian coordination structure in the negotiation process.

  10. Power lateral pnp transistor operating with high current density in irradiated voltage regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukić Vladimir Đ.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The operation of power lateral pnp transistors in gamma radiation field was examined by detection of the minimum dropout voltage on heavily loaded low-dropout voltage regulators LM2940CT5, clearly demonstrating their low radiation hardness, with unacceptably low values of output voltage and collector-emitter voltage volatility. In conjunction with previous results on base current and forward emitter current gain of serial transistors, it was possible to determine the positive influence of high load current on a slight improvement of voltage regulator LM2940CT5 radiation hardness. The high-current flow through the wide emitter aluminum contact of the serial transistor above the isolation oxide caused intensive annealing of the positive oxide-trapped charge, leading to decrease of the lateral pnp transistor's current gain, but also a more intensive recovery of the small-signal npn transistors in the control circuit. The high current density in the base area of the lateral pnp transistor immediately below the isolation oxide decreased the concentration of negative interface traps. Consequently, the positive influence of the reduced concentration of the oxide-trapped charge on the negative feedback reaction circuit, together with the favourable effect of reduced interface traps concentration, exceeded negative influence of the annealed oxide-trapped charge on the serial pnp transistor's forward emitter current gain.

  11. Pacemaker neuron and network oscillations depend on a neuromodulator-regulated linear current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunbing Zhao

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Linear leak currents have been implicated in the regulation of neuronal excitability, generation of neuronal and network oscillations, and network state transitions. Yet, few studies have directly tested the dependence of network oscillations on leak currents or explored the role of leak currents on network activity. In the oscillatory pyloric network of decapod crustaceans neuromodulatory inputs are necessary for pacemaker activity. A large subset of neuromodulators is known to activate a single voltage-gated inward current IMI, which has been shown to regulate the rhythmic activity of the network and its pacemaker neurons. Using the dynamic clamp technique, we show that the crucial component of IMI for the generation of oscillatory activity is only a close-to-linear portion of the current-voltage relationship. The nature of this conductance is such that the presence or the absence of neuromodulators effectively regulates the amount of leak current and the input resistance in the pacemaker neurons. When deprived of neuromodulatory inputs, pyloric oscillations are disrupted; yet, a linear reduction of the total conductance in a single neuron within the pacemaker group recovers not only the pacemaker activity in that neuron, but also leads to a recovery of oscillations in the entire pyloric network. The recovered activity produces proper frequency and phasing that is similar to that induced by neuromodulators. These results show that the passive properties of pacemaker neurons can significantly affect their capacity to generate and regulate the oscillatory activity of an entire network, and that this feature is exploited by neuromodulatory inputs.

  12. Stringent regulation of the power and gas market in the EU. Suggestions of the commission for a third guideline package; Verschaerfte Regulierung der Strom- und Gasmaerkte in der EU.. Vorschlaege der Kommission fuer ein 3. Richtlinienpaket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neveling, S. [Bundesnetzagentur, Bonn (Germany). Referat Zugang zu Gasfernleitungsnetzen und Internationaler Gashandel

    2008-02-15

    The competition in the energy market does not start. Therefore, in September, 2007 designs for a third guideline package were submitted for the further liberalisation of the power and gas markets. The quintessential points of this guideline package are stringent rules for ownership unbundling, a stabilization of the national regulation authorities as well as the creation of a European regulation authority, a new European investment planning of power grids and a monitoring of the energy trade. The author of the contribution under consideration gives an overview of the substantial reorganizations including a first evaluation.

  13. Limits of Evidence within EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pocora

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue of admissibility of evidence has been regulated only very scarcely in the EU. Judicial cooperation in criminal matters has been embracing the increasing number of instruments, covering plethora of aspects, however, the field of admissibility of evidence remains almost untouched. Can the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice be called the Common Evidence Area? From the national perspective, the issue of admissibility of evidence is still subject to divergent solutions in the Member States, concerning the common law and continental law systems, i.e. the right of access to a lawyer. Thus, the paper aims to take into account the tendencies of legal rule in matter of admissibility of evidence, the dynamic of evidence movement within EU area.

  14. Sensory deprivation regulates the development of the hyperpolarization-activated current in auditory brainstem neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassfurth, Benjamin; Magnusson, Anna K; Grothe, Benedikt; Koch, Ursula

    2009-10-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are highly expressed in the superior olivary complex, the primary locus for binaural information processing. This hyperpolarization-activated current (I(h)) regulates the excitability of neurons and enhances the temporally precise analysis of the binaural acoustic cues. By using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we examined the properties of I(h) current in neurons of the lateral superior olive (LSO) and the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) before and after hearing onset. Moreover, we tested the hypothesis that I(h) currents are actively regulated by sensory input activity by performing bilateral and unilateral cochlear ablations before hearing onset, resulting in a chronic auditory deprivation. The results show that after hearing onset, I(h) currents are rapidly upregulated in LSO neurons, but change only marginally in neurons of the MNTB. We also found a striking difference in maximal current density, voltage dependence and activation time constant between the LSO and the MNTB in mature-like animals. Following bilateral cochlear ablations before hearing onset, the I(h) currents were scaled up in the LSO and scaled down in the MNTB. Consequently, in the LSO this resulted in a depolarized resting membrane potential and a lower input resistance of these neurons. This type of activity-dependent homeostatic change could thus result in an augmented response to the remaining inputs.

  15. LED Current Balance Using a Variable Voltage Regulator with Low Dropout vDS Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-I Hsieh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A cost-effective light-emitting diode (LED current balance strategy using a variable voltage regulator (VVR with low dropout vDS control is proposed. This can regulate the multiple metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs of the linear current regulators (LCR, maintaining low dropout vDS on the flat vGS-characteristic curves and making all drain currents almost the same. Simple group LCRs respectively loaded with a string LED are employed to implement the theme. The voltage VVdc from a VVR is synthesized by a string LED voltage NvD, source voltage vR, and a specified low dropout vDS = VQ. The VVdc updates instantly, through the control loop of the master LCR, which means that all slave MOSFETs have almost the same biases on their flat vGS-characteristic curves. This leads to all of the string LED currents being equal to each other, producing an almost even luminance. An experimental setup with microchip control is built to verify the estimations. Experimental results show that the luminance of all of the string LEDs are almost equal to one another, with a maximum deviation below 1% during a wide dimming range, while keeping all vDS of the MOSFETs at a low dropout voltage, as expected.

  16. EU and Tourism Development: Bark or Bite?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    In the absence of major programmes to strengthen the quality and competitiveness of European destinations, the role of the EU in tourism development has often been seen as fairly limited. Despite this, spill-overs or side effects from adjoining policy areas with extensive European regulation...... or intervention can be equally important, and the paper examines key aspects of the EU's role in tourism development in order to discuss to what extent the traditional interpretation of a passive actor of little consequence should be modified or even discarded. Drawing upon European and Nordic documentary sources...... as well as existing specialist literature, the text first examines the development of an EU policy statement on tourism, and then two areas of EU policy - competition policy and regional development - are analysed with a view to establishing side-effects in European and Nordic destinations...

  17. Avoidance of animal experiments in the new EU Chemicals Regulation - opportunities and problems from the point of view of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Ursula G

    2004-01-01

    On 29 October 2003, the European Commission forwarded the "Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), establishing a European Chemicals Agency and amending Directive 1999/45/EC and Regulation (EC) on Persistent Organic Pollutants" to the European Parliament and the Council for adoption under the so-called co-decision procedure. From the point of view of animal welfare it is to be welcomed that it is envisaged better to protect humans and the environment from unknown risks through chemical substances. However, in order to ensure that this goal can be met, extensive amendments to the proposed draft are requested: Instead of continuing to perform animal tests, relevant and reliable non-animal testing strategies should be implemented. Before considering testing, all existing data must be made available, shared and evaluated. This request should be enforced in the new Regulation through an adequate mandatory system. Data requirements must be tailored to the specific substance, to ensure that only such information is collected that is necessary for its safe handling by workers and consumers. Missing data should be determined with non-animal test methods. Finally, the European Union and its Member States are called to provide adequate funding for alternative method research without delay and to call for tenders on those information-gaps that currently prevent the implementation of an entirely non-animal testing strategy, so that such new methods will be available in time for application under the REACH system.

  18. THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE NEW EU ACCOUNTING DIRECTIVE ON FINANCIAL REPORTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIAN SOCOLIUC

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyse the EU accounting related legislation as a consequence of the introduction of the new European Directive, i.e. Directive 34 of the EC, changing the 4th and the 7th Directive of the EU. These accounting updates will mostly be of the technical and accounting type and will particularly be directed at the financial statements of different sized companies. Therefore, in light of these recent developments, we have herein focused on the current accounting system applied in the EU, which comprises the IAS/IFRS standards and the existing national regulations and is changed by the implementation of the EEC accounting directives.

  19. OELs derivation in Poland and in the former Eastern Bloc with reference to approaches and practices applied in the EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soćko, Renata; Czerczak, Sławomir; Kupczewska-Dobecka, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Based on the literature, current legislation and the European Union (EU) directives, the rules to protect the health of workers in Poland and the countries of the former Eastern Bloc were analyzed. Since 2002, the activities in the field of hygiene standards in the countries of the former Eastern Bloc have been correlated with the EU policy. The functioning of the system of maximum admissible concentrations (MAC) having been implemented in Poland for many years before the accession to the EU, has provided for a relatively quick adjustment of Polish regulations on chemicals to the relevant European law. The Polish list includes 543 substances. In the former Eastern Bloc countries, intensification of work after joining the EU has caused the lists in those countries to contain from 285 substances in Slovakia to 780 in Lithuania. Currently, all substances included in the EU lists (up to and including the 3rd list of occupational exposure limit values of the Directive 2009/161/EC) have been governed by the Polish, Lithuanian, Czech, Latvian and Hungarian law. In Estonia and Slovakia the provisions of the Directive 2006/15/EC establishing the second list of occupational exposure limits have been implemented. Individual national lists contain much more chemicals than the EU list containing currently 122 substances. The legislative process in the EU is slow, and that is why the national law is important and necessary due to the local needs in selected areas. It is necessary to correlate the activities in the field of determining regional occupational exposure limit (OEL) values in the countries of the Eastern Bloc and the EU.

  20. The current status of the debate on socio-economic regulatory assessments: positions and policies in Canada, the USA, the EU and developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falck-Zepeda, J.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Smyth, S.

    2013-01-01

    Article 26.1 of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety has the option of considering socio-economic issues in biosafety regulatory approval processes related to genetically engineered organisms. National laws and regulations in some countries have already defined positions and may have enacted policies

  1. EU Struggles to Integrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Its outlook for success is not optimistic because of several obstacles Germany is holding the European Union (EU) Council presidency during the first half of this year. There are two reasons that make the EU integration under a German presidency eye-catc

  2. EU Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellegrin, Julie; Giorgetti, Maria Letizia; Jensen, Camilla

    Following disregard in the 1980s, industrial policy has recently attracted policy attention at EU level. The objective of this study provided by Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE Committee, is to establish the state of the art of a coordinated and integrated EU industrial policy...

  3. EU's lille sikkerhedsnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    I forrige uge indgik EU-kommissionen og EU-Parlamentet en aftale om en fælles afviklingsmekanisme i bank-unionen (Single Resolution Mechanism; SRM). ... Så på trods af mere kapital, nye bail-in regler og afviklingsfonden tror jeg ikke, at det kan udelukkes, at fremtidige "bankredninger" kan...

  4. Regulation of persistent sodium currents by glycogen synthase kinase 3 encodes daily rhythms of neuronal excitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Jodi R.; Dewoskin, Daniel; McMeekin, Laura J.; Cowell, Rita M.; Forger, Daniel B.; Gamble, Karen L.

    2016-11-01

    How neurons encode intracellular biochemical signalling cascades into electrical signals is not fully understood. Neurons in the central circadian clock in mammals provide a model system to investigate electrical encoding of biochemical timing signals. Here, using experimental and modelling approaches, we show how the activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) contributes to neuronal excitability through regulation of the persistent sodium current (INaP). INaP exhibits a day/night difference in peak magnitude and is regulated by GSK3. Using mathematical modelling, we predict and confirm that GSK3 activation of INaP affects the action potential afterhyperpolarization, which increases the spontaneous firing rate without affecting the resting membrane potential. Together, these results demonstrate a crucial link between the molecular circadian clock and electrical activity, providing examples of kinase regulation of electrical activity and the propagation of intracellular signals in neuronal networks.

  5. On-line monitoring of base current and forward emitter current gain of the voltage regulator's serial pnp transistor in a radiation environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukić Vladimir Đ.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of on-line monitoring of the low-dropout voltage regulator's operation in a radiation environment is developed in this paper. The method had to enable detection of the circuit's degradation during exploitation, without terminating its operation in an ionizing radiation field. Moreover, it had to enable automatic measurement and data collection, as well as the detection of any considerable degradation, well before the monitored voltage regulator's malfunction. The principal parameters of the voltage regulator's operation that were monitored were the serial pnp transistor's base current and the forward emitter current gain. These parameters were procured indirectly, from the data on the voltage regulator's load and quiescent currents. Since the internal consumption current in moderately and heavily loaded devices was used, the quiescent current of a negligibly loaded voltage regulator of the same type served as a reference. Results acquired by on-line monitoring demonstrated marked agreement with the results acquired from examinations of the voltage regulator's maximum output current and minimum dropout voltage in a radiation environment. The results were particularly consistent in tests with heavily loaded devices. Results obtained for moderately loaded voltage regulators and the risks accompanying the application of the presented method, were also analyzed.

  6. SOME CONSIDERATIONS OVER THE INTERNAL CONTROL IN THE CONTEXT OF CURRENT ACCOUNTANCY REGULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenghel Dorin Radu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Through the hereby study we set ourselves on an analysis over the internal control and the ways of implementation of it. The final purpose of our research is represented by the characteristics of the internal control system in the context of current accountancy regulations. The accomplishment of such goal has forced us to research the current literature in the area and also the legal regulations over internal control. Of course, the accomplishment of such a research was possible only after a pertinent analysis over the opinions expressed in specialty literature regarding this area. Our research wants to be with a theoretical and applicative character. It is based on analysing the internal control system, the methodology of internal control and the steps of internal control. We express our belief that the implementation of the internal control in a very exact manner comes as an aid to the company management and lead to the accomplishment of managerial objectives and policies. In what it regards the result of our research there can be drawn the following conclusions: from the legal regulations (OMFP nr. 3055/2009, there is no clear conclusion over the procedures and policies of implementation of internal control applicable to an economical entity; also there are not presented in a detailed way the types (forms of internal control, being presented in the legal regulations only a classification of them after the time in which they are exercised (before, during or after the finishing of the operations; also in the legal regulations there is developed a certain way of internal control, represented by the financial and accounting internal control, as if the other forms of internal control do not exist; in what regards the components of internal control, these are presented in another way, but similar to already known models of internal control (Coso and Coco; also in the legal regulations there are presented the general objectives of internal control

  7. Albania’s challenge for access and competitiveness in EU Market: When good will requires more than legal regulation. An inside of Albania’s efforts to increase the presence of its domestic product in EU markets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Spaho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Through the presentation of two case studies this paper aims to engage the theoretical debate on the persistence of public space in the contemporary city, and focuses the attention on the way people practice these spaces and on the policies which are regulating their uses. Starting from the description of different ways in which some urban spaces in Rome (Italy are used by two different communities of people, one mainly composed by immigrants and the other by young city users, and the diverse ways in which their different practices are seen and tolerated, the aim of this paper is to reflect on public spaces. Observing how city users practice public spaces, and analysing the way in which these practices are considered, are particularly exciting perspectives that can offer an interesting vision of the spatial and social reality of the city and of hegemonic relations which govern it.

  8. EU's lille sikkerhedsnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    I forrige uge indgik EU-kommissionen og EU-Parlamentet en aftale om en fælles afviklingsmekanisme i bank-unionen (Single Resolution Mechanism; SRM). ... Så på trods af mere kapital, nye bail-in regler og afviklingsfonden tror jeg ikke, at det kan udelukkes, at fremtidige "bankredninger" kan nødve...... nødvendigøre statslige midler. Hertil er fonden trods alt for begrænset. ... Proceduren er, at ECB indstiller til SRM's bestyrelse, at en bank skal afvikles, hvorefter EU-kommissionen og nationale tilsynsmyndigheder involveres....

  9. Essentials of EU law

    CERN Document Server

    Reinisch, August

    2012-01-01

    This book explores the history and institutions of the EU, examines the interplay of its main bodies in its legislative process and illustrates the role played by the EU Courts and the importance of fundamental rights. The student is also introduced to the key principles of the internal market, in particular the free movement of goods and the free movement of workers. In addition a number of other EU policies, such as the Common Agricultural Policy, Environmental Protection and Social Policy are outlined, while a more detailed inquiry is made into European competition law.

  10. Governing EU employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... Drawing an analytical distinction between cooperation, coordination and collaboration, the article analyses the formulation and implementation of EU employment policies. It concludes that while the formulation of policy objectives and the discussion of national policy approaches do involve elements...

  11. Why and how the EU should act on armed drones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bruno Oliveira; Backhaus, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    This article systematizes the reasons that demand EU action on the issue of armed drones. It argues that a clear positioning of Brussels is required due to consistency with former practices in similar events and fundamental vectors of EU foreign and security policy, as well as legal and strategic...... position itself in the international debate on the regulation of armed drones....

  12. Better understanding of the EU regulatory frameworks for cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten; Mech, Agnieszka

    2014-05-01

    This letter to the editor corrects some misunderstandings regarding the EU regulations covering cosmetic products stated in a recent publication by A. Sobek et al. "In the shadow of the cosmetics directive - Inconsistencies in EU environmental hazard classification requirements for UV-filters" published in Science of the Total Environment 461-462 (2013) 706-711.

  13. Lobbyism and CO2 Trade in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2002-01-01

    Has the EU Directive Proposal on CO2 trade been influenced by lobbyism and can it be improved? After hypothesizing how the EU may be vulnerable to lobbyism and why industrial groups have a strong incentive to lobby for favourable environmental regulation, we turn to empirical evidence concerning ...

  14. ACCOUNTING CONVERGENCES AND DIVERGENCES IN THE CONTEXT OF HARMONIZATION AND THE COMPLIANCE OF NATIONAL REGULATIONS WITH DIRECTIVE 2013/34/EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateș Dorel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The accounting field difficulties, generated by the social or cultural climate, often lead to distortions in economic behaviour which involve the loss of economic and financial opportunities or lead to ineffective activities. The increasingly globalisation of economies, the financial requirements statement users and the globalization of capital markets have introduced new forms of financial reporting; thus the contemporary evolution of accounting is marked by the following phenomena: standardization, harmonization, compliance and convergence. Based on the need for modernization and improvement of the European Directives, Directive 2013/34/EU focuses on at least four important aspects: the faithful representation of the information presented in the financial statements, financial reporting cost reduction, fighting against tax evasion and avoiding money laundering. In the present paper, we aim to highlight the elements which will undergo significant change as well as their impact on the entities in our country through the implementation of this directive.

  15. Regulation of persistent Na current by interactions between beta subunits of voltage-gated Na channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Teresa K; Grieco-Calub, Tina M; Chen, Chunling; Rusconi, Raffaella; Slat, Emily A; Isom, Lori L; Raman, Indira M

    2009-02-18

    The beta subunits of voltage-gated Na channels (Scnxb) regulate the gating of pore-forming alpha subunits, as well as their trafficking and localization. In heterologous expression systems, beta1, beta2, and beta3 subunits influence inactivation and persistent current in different ways. To test how the beta4 protein regulates Na channel gating, we transfected beta4 into HEK (human embryonic kidney) cells stably expressing Na(V)1.1. Unlike a free peptide with a sequence from the beta4 cytoplasmic domain, the full-length beta4 protein did not block open channels. Instead, beta4 expression favored open states by shifting activation curves negative, decreasing the slope of the inactivation curve, and increasing the percentage of noninactivating current. Consequently, persistent current tripled in amplitude. Expression of beta1 or chimeric subunits including the beta1 extracellular domain, however, favored inactivation. Coexpressing Na(V)1.1 and beta4 with beta1 produced tiny persistent currents, indicating that beta1 overcomes the effects of beta4 in heterotrimeric channels. In contrast, beta1(C121W), which contains an extracellular epilepsy-associated mutation, did not counteract the destabilization of inactivation by beta4 and also required unusually large depolarizations for channel opening. In cultured hippocampal neurons transfected with beta4, persistent current was slightly but significantly increased. Moreover, in beta4-expressing neurons from Scn1b and Scn1b/Scn2b null mice, entry into inactivated states was slowed. These data suggest that beta1 and beta4 have antagonistic roles, the former favoring inactivation, and the latter favoring activation. Because increased Na channel availability may facilitate action potential firing, these results suggest a mechanism for seizure susceptibility of both mice and humans with disrupted beta1 subunits.

  16. pH-regulated ionic current rectification in conical nanopores functionalized with polyelectrolyte brushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhenping; Ai, Ye; Qian, Shizhi

    2014-02-14

    Mimicking biological ion channels capable of pH-regulated ionic transport, synthetic nanopores functionalized with pH-tunable polyelectrolyte (PE) brushes have been considered as versatile tools for active transport control of ions, fluids, and bioparticles on the nanoscale. The ionic current rectification (ICR) phenomenon through a conical nanopore functionalized with PE brushes whose charge highly depends upon the local solution properties (i.e., pH and background salt concentration) is studied theoretically for the first time. The results show that the rectification magnitude, as well as the preferential rectification direction, is sensitive to the pH stimulus. The bulk concentration of the background salt can also significantly influence the charge of the PE brushes and accordingly affect the ICR phenomenon. The obtained results provide an insightful understanding of the pH-regulated ICR and guidelines for designing nanopores functionalized with PE brushes for pH-tunable applications.

  17. Current practices and reform proposals for the regulation of advanced medicinal products in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Sowmya; Bubela, Tania

    2015-01-01

    We describe the Canadian regulatory framework for evaluating advanced medicinal products based on current policies, guidance documents and regulations and analyze proposed reforms. Our analysis is based on a documentary review supplemented by discussions with Health Canada officials. We present an overview of the Canadian regulatory framework for cell and gene therapy, medical devices and manufacturing facilities. We use the approval of Prochymal™ to highlight Canada's conditional marketing approval system. Finally, we discuss proposed changes to the regulatory framework in response to identified gaps, stakeholder consultations and international harmonization initiatives. Based on our analyses, we suggest that Canadian regulators have taken a reasonable approach in applying their regulatory framework without compromising on product safety.

  18. Current Insights to Regulation and Role of Telomerase in Human Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Mert Burak; Li, Yinghui; Tergaonkar, Vinay

    2017-01-01

    The telomerase ribonucleoprotein complex has a pivotal role in regulating the proliferation and senescence of normal somatic cells as well as cancer cells. This complex is comprised mainly of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), telomerase RNA component (TERC) and other associated proteins that function to elongate telomeres localized at the end of the chromosomes. While reactivation of telomerase is a major hallmark of most cancers, together with the synergistic activation of other oncogenic signals, deficiency in telomerase and telomeric proteins might lead to aging and senescence-associated disorders. Therefore, it is critically important to understand the canonical as well as non-canonical functions of telomerase through TERT to develop a therapeutic strategy against telomerase-related diseases. In this review, we shed light on the regulation and function of telomerase, and current therapeutic strategies against telomerase in cancer and age-related diseases. PMID:28264499

  19. TOURISM IN THE EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasimir Levkov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the contemporary state of travel and tourism in the EU. The basic components of the system of the European tourism statistics are characterized. Tourism sector is analyzed on two levels – national and regional.

  20. The EU and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    ” (Shambaugh 2004, 243). He pointed, firstly, at the strong growth in trade relations; the EU also became the largest foreign supplier of technology and equipment, in the form of direct investment, but also through a number of joint technology projects. The EU-China Framework Program became the world’s largest...... common research project. As to political cooperation, numerous meetings have been institutionalised, among them, at the top level an annual EU-China Summit. The contacts have resulted in a number of agreements, for instance on group tourism. According to estimates 100,000 Chinese Students went...... is impressive.” To be sure, there were also points of frictions such as the European arms embargo (introduced after the Tianmen massacre in 1989), but Shambaugh saw it as highly likely that the relationship between EU and China would continue to grow and develop. “Over time it will become a new axis in world...

  1. EU Smart City Governance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carmela Gargiulo; Valentina Pinto; Floriana Zucaro

    2013-01-01

    .... The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City...

  2. EU-retten 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig; Nielsen, Poul Runge

    Udover en introduktion til EU-retten, herunder dens institutioner og retskilderne, indeholder bogen en grundig analyse af EF-traktatens regler om fri bevægelighed for varer, personer, tjenesteydelser og kapital....

  3. How online sales and promotion of snus contravenes current European Union legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Silvy; Gilmore, Anna B

    2013-07-01

    The European Union (EU) Tobacco Products Directive that bans sales of snus (a form of oral tobacco) in EU countries other than Sweden is currently under review. Major tobacco companies favour the ban being overturned. This study aims to explore compliance with the current ban on snus sales and examines the conduct of online snus vendors, including their compliance with two other EU Directives on excise and tobacco advertising and Swedish legislation banning sales of snus outside Sweden. To determine who is currently distributing snus via the internet in the EU, searches were carried out in Google, followed by searches in the WHOIS and Amadeus databases. Five online test purchases of snus were made in each of 10 EU Member States using a standardised protocol. Feedback from the test purchases and further analysis of the websites accessed for test purchases were used to critically examine snus retailers' conduct. The majority of online vendors operate from Sweden and target non-Swedish EU citizens. Test purchases were successfully made in all 10 EU Member States; of 43 orders placed, only two failed. Age verification relied only on self-report. The majority of sales applied Swedish taxes, contrary to EU requirements. Copious sales promotion activities, many price based, are incorporated in these websites contravening the EU regulation, and three test purchases were delivered with gifts. Snus is currently being sold on the single market via the internet in contravention of Swedish legislation and three EU Directives. The apparent willingness of the tobacco industry to contravene EU and Swedish legislation and profit from unlawful sales raises questions about their status as stakeholders in consultations on future policy developments. The findings highlight how national and regional tobacco control legislation can be undermined in an increasingly globalised world.

  4. Lobbyisme i EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    Lobbyisme i EU giver en generel teoretisk tilgang til lobbyisme og bruger EU som eksempel. Den europæiske drøm er at blive verdens stærkeste økonomi, men alligevel findes udbredt markedsbeskyttelse og statsstøtte. Det nye bidrag i denne bog er en tværfaglig tilgang, der fremhæver lobbyisme og ins...

  5. EU Power Balance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Intense clashes of interests and collusion of ideas sprang up incessantly among nations over upward sovereignty transfer, interests distribution and maintenance of parity among partners in the course of economic integration. Disparities in size, territory, national strength and development level conceivably often led to tensions and even crises over power distribution. So EU history can be described as one of crises or crisis settlement through reaching a new equilibrium, a significant process for sustained EU stability.

  6. EU Labour Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    The focus in this book is upon EU labour law and its interaction with national and international labour law. The book provides an analysis of the framework and sources of European labour law. It covers a number of substantive topics, notably collective labour law, individual employment contracts......, discrimination on grounds of sex and on other grounds, free movement of persons, restructuring of enterprises, working environment and enforcement of rights derived from EU labour law....

  7. Carbohydrate Metabolism in Archaea: Current Insights into Unusual Enzymes and Pathways and Their Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Dominik; Rauch, Bernadette

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The metabolism of Archaea, the third domain of life, resembles in its complexity those of Bacteria and lower Eukarya. However, this metabolic complexity in Archaea is accompanied by the absence of many “classical” pathways, particularly in central carbohydrate metabolism. Instead, Archaea are characterized by the presence of unique, modified variants of classical pathways such as the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway and the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway. The pentose phosphate pathway is only partly present (if at all), and pentose degradation also significantly differs from that known for bacterial model organisms. These modifications are accompanied by the invention of “new,” unusual enzymes which cause fundamental consequences for the underlying regulatory principles, and classical allosteric regulation sites well established in Bacteria and Eukarya are lost. The aim of this review is to present the current understanding of central carbohydrate metabolic pathways and their regulation in Archaea. In order to give an overview of their complexity, pathway modifications are discussed with respect to unusual archaeal biocatalysts, their structural and mechanistic characteristics, and their regulatory properties in comparison to their classic counterparts from Bacteria and Eukarya. Furthermore, an overview focusing on hexose metabolic, i.e., glycolytic as well as gluconeogenic, pathways identified in archaeal model organisms is given. Their energy gain is discussed, and new insights into different levels of regulation that have been observed so far, including the transcript and protein levels (e.g., gene regulation, known transcription regulators, and posttranslational modification via reversible protein phosphorylation), are presented. PMID:24600042

  8. Tax policy at the outskirts of EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterø Jensen, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2003-01-01

    on consumption, labour income and capital income, and compare these to similarmeasures for EU countries. In addition, we outline how Greenland's economic policy in other areasinterferes with tax policy. Especially fishery regulation, management of government-owned companies,and housing policy have major...... implications for the tax system.Key words: international benchmarking, effective tax rates, GreenlandJEL: H20, H25...

  9. Sino-EU Security Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Liping

    2010-01-01

    @@ There are two levels of security relations between China and the EU.The first level is that of China and the EU as a whole.The second level is that between China and member states of the EU respectively.Because the Common Foreign and Security Policy of the EU is still in an initial phase,defense relations between China and the EU have mainly been at the second level.

  10. Converging micro-nano-bio technologies towards integrated in-vitro testing systems: Current activities and future challenges under the EU-Information & communication technologies program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymberis, A

    2010-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research towards integrated systems and their applications based on emerging convergence of information & communication technologies, micro-nano and bio technologies is expected to have a direct impact in healthcare, ageing population and well being. Micro-Nano-Bio Systems (MNBS) research and development activities under the European Union's R&D Programs, Information & Communication Technologies priority address miniaturised, smart and integrated systems for in-vitro testing (e.g. lab-on-chips) and systems interacting with the human (e.g. autonomous implants, endoscopic capsules and robotics for minimally invasive surgery). Projects addressing in-vitro testing focus on research, development and testing of technology building blocs (e.g. sample preparation technique, ultra sensitive detection technique, chemistry process for molecular recognition and microfluidics) and their integration into smart and miniaturised systems e.g. DNA & protein arrays, biochips, Lab on Chip and Lab on Card. Current challenges and developed solutions as well as open issues to fully meet technological and socioeconomic needs are presented in this paper as background introductory information to the mini-symposium on "MNBS in-vitro testing". Relevant examples of R&D within the group will be presented in the mini-symposium.

  11. An energy-efficient, adiabatic electrode stimulator with inductive energy recycling and feedback current regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfin, Scott K; Sarpeshkar, Rahul

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we present a novel energy-efficient electrode stimulator. Our stimulator uses inductive storage and recycling of energy in a dynamic power supply. This supply drives an electrode in an adiabatic fashion such that energy consumption is minimized. It also utilizes a shunt current-sensor to monitor and regulate the current through the electrode via feedback, thus enabling flexible and safe stimulation. Since there are no explicit current sources or current limiters, wasteful energy dissipation across such elements is naturally avoided. The dynamic power supply allows efficient transfer of energy both to and from the electrode and is based on a DC-DC converter topology that we use in a bidirectional fashion in forward-buck or reverse-boost modes. In an exemplary electrode implementation intended for neural stimulation, we show how the stimulator combines the efficiency of voltage control and the safety and accuracy of current control in a single low-power integrated-circuit built in a standard .35 μm CMOS process. This stimulator achieves a 2x-3x reduction in energy consumption as compared to a conventional current-source-based stimulator operating from a fixed power supply. We perform a theoretical analysis of the energy efficiency that is in accord with experimental measurements. This theoretical analysis reveals that further improvements in energy efficiency may be achievable with better implementations in the future. Our electrode stimulator could be widely useful for neural, cardiac, retinal, cochlear, muscular and other biomedical implants where low power operation is important.

  12. A Small Potassium Current in AgRP/NPY Neurons Regulates Feeding Behavior and Energy Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlin He

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurons that co-express agouti-related peptide (AgRP and neuropeptide Y (NPY are indispensable for normal feeding behavior. Firing activities of AgRP/NPY neurons are dynamically regulated by energy status and coordinate appropriate feeding behavior to meet nutritional demands. However, intrinsic mechanisms that regulate AgRP/NPY neural activities during the fed-to-fasted transition are not fully understood. We found that AgRP/NPY neurons in satiated mice express high levels of the small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel 3 (SK3 and are inhibited by SK3-mediated potassium currents; on the other hand, food deprivation suppresses SK3 expression in AgRP/NPY neurons, and the decreased SK3-mediated currents contribute to fasting-induced activation of these neurons. Genetic mutation of SK3 specifically in AgRP/NPY neurons leads to increased sensitivity to diet-induced obesity, associated with chronic hyperphagia and decreased energy expenditure. Our results identify SK3 as a key intrinsic mediator that coordinates nutritional status with AgRP/NPY neural activities and animals’ feeding behavior and energy metabolism.

  13. Co-regulation in EU personal data protection : The case of technical standards and the privacy by design standardisation ‘mandate’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamara, Irene

    The recently adopted General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), a technology-neutral law, endorses self-regulatory instruments, such as certification and technical standards. Even before the adoption of the General Data Protection Regulation, standardisation activity in the field of privacy

  14. The importance of disclosure in corporate governance self-regulation across Europe: A review of the Winter Report and the EU Action Plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F. Maassen (Gregory); F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans); H.W. Volberda (Henk)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractAlthough self-regulation has proven to be effective for the development of voluntary corporate-governance codes, the results of this study indicate that leading European companies are not yet too concerned about compliance with these codes. While self-regulation appears to be ineffective

  15. Risk Factors of Young Graduates in the Competitive E.U. Labour Market at the End of the Current Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacerova Eliska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern development trends in the labour market have been an increasingly important political and economic issue not only domestically but also on the European level. It proves the fact that in The Europe 2020 strategy, one of the main five points is the aim to increase the employment rate of the population (age: 20–64 from the current 69% to at least 75%. Various risk groups of job candidates emerge among the unemployed. The economic crisis in 2007 made the situation in the labour markets worse. The demand for labour decreased while the number of candidates increased. In recent years, fresh graduates under the age of 25 have been regarded as a high risk group sometimes nicknamed “the lost generation” or Generation Y. This generation is well accustomed to modern technologies which they use for their own benefit and they are willing and able to work from anywhere. On the contrary, those over the age of 35, who are sometimes referred to as Generation X, have different attitudes and requirements for the labour market. Despite the increasing level of education among young people, their unemployment has been worsening since the economic crisis began. The aim of this article was to ascertain how future university graduates (491 final-year students from 5 faculties at Tomas Bata University in Zlín, Czech Republic perceive individual risk factors influencing the success of today’s graduate of Generation Y in the competitive labour market. The target group, future university graduates, evaluated 13 risk areas on a five-point scale. These 13 risk areas were identified based on primary research among 1.059 employers in the Czech Republic, which is a part of a complete two-year research project IGA/FaME/2013/030. This article focuses on only two areas which closely analysed the perception of graduates as drifters, and their demands for high starting salaries. These two risk areas were mentioned by employers as the areas with the highest risk and

  16. Sino-EU Relations in 2009 Will Be Warmer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ In 2009, the Czech Republic officially took over the six-month EU presidency from France. Following Slovenia, the Czech Republic is the second new EU member to hold the EU presidency. The Czech Republic is currently faced with the challenge of coping with the global financial crisis and promoting EU political reform, as well as handling its own internal issues. On January 15, H.E. Mr. Vitezslav GREPL,the ambassador of the Czech Republic in China, held a press conference to address the Sino-EU relationship in 2009. H.E.Mr. Serge Abou, the EU ambassador to China and H.E. Mr. Mikael Lindstrom,the ambassador of Sweden to China also attended this conference.

  17. Large magnetocaloric effect in sintered ferromagnetic EuS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Koichi; Li, Liang; Hirai, Shinji; Nakamura, Eiji; Murayama, Daiki; Ura, Yutaro; Abe, Satoshi

    2016-10-01

    We present magnetocaloric effect measurements of the ferromagnetic semiconductor EuS in the vicinity of its ordering temperature. Single phase EuS powder was synthesized by CS2 gas sulfurization of Eu2O3. A sintered compact with relative density over 95% was prepared by pulsed electric current sintering of the powder. Temperature and magnetic field dependence of the magnetization and specific heat were characteristic of a paramagnetic to ferromagnetic second order phase transition. The entropy change induced by an external magnetic field and the specific heat were both close to those of a single crystal. We obtained an entropy-temperature (S-T) diagram of the EuS sintered compact. Carnot cycle liquefaction of hydrogen using EuS was compared with several other materials, with results indicating that sintered EuS is an excellent magnetic refrigerant for hydrogen liquefaction.

  18. An Assessment of EU 2020 Strategy: Too Far to Reach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Mehmet Selman; Ege, Aylin

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, EU adopted a new growth strategy which includes three growth priorities and five headline targets to be reached by 2020. The aim of this paper is to investigate the current performance of the EU member and candidate states in achieving these growth priorities and the overall strategy target by allocating the headline targets into the…

  19. The water footprint of the EU for different diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanham, D.; Mekonnen, M.M.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the EU28 (EU27 and Croatia) water footprint of consumption (WFcons) for different diets is analysed: the current diet (REF, period 1996–2005), a healthy diet (DGE), a vegetarian (VEG) and combined (COM) diet. By far the largest fraction of the total WFcons (4815 lcd) relates to the co

  20. EU-Korea Conference on Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jehyun

    2011-01-01

    Current research fields in science and technology were presented and discussed at the EKC2009, informing about the interests and directions of the scientists and engineers in EU countries and Korea. The Conference has emerged from the idea of bringing together EU and Korea to get to know each other better, especially in fields of science and technology.

  1. An Assessment of EU 2020 Strategy: Too Far to Reach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Mehmet Selman; Ege, Aylin

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, EU adopted a new growth strategy which includes three growth priorities and five headline targets to be reached by 2020. The aim of this paper is to investigate the current performance of the EU member and candidate states in achieving these growth priorities and the overall strategy target by allocating the headline targets into the…

  2. Explaining (Missing) Regulator Paradigm Shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigger, Angela; Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    of competition regulation is heaving into sight. It sets out to explain this from the vantage point of a critical political economy perspective, which identifies the circumstances under which a crisis can result in a regulatory paradigm shift. Contrasting the current situation with the shift in EC/EU competition...... capitalism; the social power configuration underpinning the neoliberal order remains unaltered; no clear counter-project has surfaced; the European Commission has been (and remains) in a position to oppose radical changes; and finally, there are no signs of a wider paradigm shift in the EU's regulatory...

  3. A fast transient response low dropout regulator with current control methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Zhuo; Guo Yang; Duan Zhikui; Xie Lunguo; Chen Jihua; Yu Jinshan

    2011-01-01

    A transient performance optimized CCL-LDO regulator is proposed.In the CCL-LDO,the control method of the charge pump phase-locked loop is adopted.A current control loop has the feedback signal and reference current to be compared,and then a loop filter generates the gate voltage of the power MOSFET by integrating the error current.The CCL-LDO has the optimized damping coefficient and natural resonant frequency,while its output voltage can be sub-1-V and is not restricted by the reference voltage.With a 1μF decoupling capacitor,the experimental results based on a 0.13 μm CMOS process show that the output voltage is 1.0 V; when the workload changes from 100 μA to 100 mA transiently,the stable dropout is 4.25 mV,the settling time is 8.2 μs and the undershoot is 5.11 mV; when the workload changes from 1 00 mA to 100 μA transiently,the stable dropout is 4.25 mV,the settling time is 23.3 μs and the overshoot is 6.21 mV.The PSRR value is more than -95 dB.Most of the attributes of the CCL-LDO are improved rapidly with a FOM value of 0.0097.

  4. A Smart EU Energy Policy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jong, J. [Clingendael International Energy Programme CIEP, Den Haag (Netherlands); Glachant, J.M. [The Loyola de Palacio Programme, Robert Schuman Center for Advanced Studies, European University Institute, San Domenico di Fiesole (Italy); Hafner, M. [Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei FEEM, Milan (Italy); Grant, R. (ed.) [Wilton Park, Wiston House, Steyning, West Sussex (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    A four-tier project has been organized to discuss the potential for a smart EU Energy Policy. The project consisted of three workshops where academics discussed the various interactions between the three core objectives of EU energy policy with stakeholders from governments, regulators, and industry. Following the three workshops a conference took place to examine the workshop reports and to formulate overall project conclusions and recommendations. The objective of the project was to come out with a set of 'smart' conclusions and recommendations for the 2010 EU energy policy review. The deliberations at the four project meetings greatly informed the views expressed in this document, but those views belong to the authors only and do not necessarily represent those of individual participants at the meetings or of the four supporting organisations.

  5. Further Study on the Affordability of Alcoholic Beverages in the EU: A Focus on Excise Duty Pass-Through, On- and Off-Trade Sales, Price Promotions and Statutory Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Lila; Hunt, Priscillia; Staetsky, Laura; Goshev, Simo; Nolte, Ellen; Pedersen, Janice S; Tiefensee, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Policies related to alcohol pricing, promotion and discounts provide opportunities to address harms associated with alcohol misuse. However, there are important gaps in information and knowledge about the regulations in place across parts of Europe and their impacts on consumer prices and locations of purchase. Using market data, we explored the overall scale and trend of price promotions and discounts in the off-premise (e.g. supermarket) and on-premise (e.g. restaurants, pubs) across five EU Member States. To better understand the factors that may influence sales in the on- vs. off-premises, we performed regression analysis for four EU Member States with relevant data. This found that increases in broadband penetration and population density were associated with relatively higher levels of off-premise alcohol purchases and that increases in income were associated with relatively higher levels of on-premise purchases of alcohol. There was no statistically significant relationship for female higher education. We further used time-series methods, drawing on data for Ireland, Latvia, Slovenia and Finland, to estimate the impact of changes in excise duty on price ("pass-through"). This showed that a €1 increase in excise duty increased beer prices by €0.50-€2.50 in the off-premise, and increased spirits prices by €0.70-€1.40 in the off-premise. These findings suggest that, depending on the price sensitivity of consumers and other strategies employed by suppliers (e.g. advertising), changes in excise duty may be an effective instrument to reduce harmful alcohol consumption.

  6. Financial and trade integration in the EU countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Kučerová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the creation and enlargement of the Eurozone, the importance of monetary integration is increasing and is the subject of a number of theoretical and empirical studies. The adoption of a common currency has to be accompanied by financial market integration. The aim of the paper is to assess the relationship between financial and trade integration in the EU member countries (divided into three subsamples: EU27, EU10, and EU17 over the period 1993–2012 (and two subperiods 1993–2007 and 2008–2012. We use quantity-based measures of financial integration derived from the countries’ international investment positions with a view to the foreign trade and the method of correlation analysis (including the moving correlation method. We conclude that the progress in financial integration was smaller in the EU10 countries compared to the EU16 countries, i.e. the pace of financial integration was higher in the EU16 countries than in the EU10 countries. The process of trade integration in all EU countries was not as fast as the process of financial integration. We also conclude that there is a linear association between financial and trade integration in the pre-crisis period (1993–2007, especially in the EU10 countries (compared to the EU16 countries. However, this relationship was seriously weakened by the financial crisis. Financial and trade integration are interconnected processes and should not be assessed separately. However, world trade (and thus financial integration can be undermined by limiting trade finance as a result of tightening financial regulation and supervision after a decade of loose regulation and supervision (e.g. by the implementation of the Basel III capital framework.

  7. Current regulators for I/SUP 2/L circuits to be operated from low-voltage power supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik; Hansen, Ole

    1980-01-01

    A new bandgap current reference is described which can be used to control the injector current of I/SUP 2/L circuits for supply voltages down to about 1 V. For small currents the total injector current is obtained as a mirror of the reference current. For large injector currents the current control...... is performed by a series regulator which compares the injector current of one I/SUP 2/L gate to the reference current. The described reference current can be adjusted to give a variation with temperature of about 60 ppm/°C over the temperature range -10 to +70°C. However, in some applications a nonzero......, but well controlled temperature coefficient is desired. It is shown how a temperature stable ring oscillator with I/SUP 2/L gates can be constructed by tailoring the temperature dependence of the supply current appropriately....

  8. Design of Current-Controller with PR-regulator for LCL-Filter Based Grid-Connected Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Guohong; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    2010-01-01

    In the application of LCL-filter based converters, the structure and parameters of current-controller is very important for the system stability and output current quality. This paper presents a filter-capacitor current feedback control scheme for grid-connected converter. The controller...... is consisted of a proportional-resonance regulator and a proportional regulator. Unlike the existing control strategy with unit capacitor current feedback, the proposed method applies the proportional regulator to the feedback path, which can decouple these two regulators, and simplify the tuning process....... Controller parameters are tuned with the aid of root-locus of system close-loop transfer function, which can provide better grasp of the influence of individual parameters and make the design process visible and holistic without any simplification and assumption. The validity, reasonability and feasibility...

  9. Former Soviet Regulations for seismic design of NPPs and comparison with current international practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostarev, V.; Schukin, A.; Berkovski, A. [CKTI-Vibroseism Co. Ltd. (Cape Verde)

    1997-03-01

    This paper presents a summary of current earthquake design criteria used in former Soviet Regulations for equipment and piping systems of nuclear power plants in light of those used in United States and Japan. The detailed comparative seismic analysis of PWR (WWER) Primary Coolant Loop System (PCLS) according to Former Soviet (Russian) PNAE Code and ASME BPV Code with some comments regarding to Japan Code JEAG - 4601 was undertaken for better understanding of the differences and coincidences of seismic design criteria and requirements. The selection of these three guides for the study has very simple explanation: according to ASME BVPC, JEAG and PNAE the huge majority of existing NPPs has been designed. (J.P.N.)

  10. Current advances in DNA repair: regulation of enzymes and pathways involved in maintaining genomic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neher, Tracy M; Turchi, John J

    2011-06-15

    Novel discoveries in the DNA repair field have lead to continuous and rapid advancement of our understanding of not only DNA repair but also DNA replication and recombination. Research in the field transcends numerous areas of biology, biochemistry, physiology, and medicine, making significant connections across these broad areas of study. From early studies conducted in bacterial systems to current analyses in eukaryotic systems and human disease, the innovative research into the mechanisms of repair machines and the consequences of ineffective DNA repair has impacted a wide scientific community. This Forum contains a select mix of primary research articles in addition to a number of timely reviews covering a subset of DNA repair pathways where recent advances and novel discoveries are improving our understanding of DNA repair, its regulation, and implications to human disease.

  11. A role of stretch-activated potassium currents in the regulation of uterine smooth muscle contraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iain L O BUXTON; Nathanael HEYMAN; Yi-ying WU; Scott BARNETT; Craig ULRICH

    2011-01-01

    Rates of premature birth are alarming and threaten societies and healthcare systems worldwide. Premature labor results in premature birth in over 50% of cases. Preterm birth accounts for three-quarters of infant morbidity and mortality. Children that survive birth before 34 weeks gestation often face life-long disability. Current treatments for preterm labor are wanting. No treatment has been found to be generally effective and none are systematically evaluated beyond 48 h. New approaches to the treatment of preterm labor are desperately needed. Recent studies from our laboratory suggest that the uterine muscle is a unique compartment with regulation of uterine relaxation unlike that of other smooth muscles. Here we discuss recent evidence that the mechanically activated 2-pore potassium channel, TREK-1, may contribute to contraction-relaxation signaling in uterine smooth muscle and that TREK-1 gene variants associated with human labor and preterm labor may lead to a better understanding of preterm labor and its possible prevention.

  12. The methodologies and instruments of vehicle particulate emission measurement for current and future legislative regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Yoshinori; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Arai, Masataka; Xu, Min

    2015-09-01

    Since the health risks associated with fine particles whose aerodynamic diameters are smaller than 2.5 μm was first proven, regulations restricting particulate matter (PM) mass emissions from internal combustion engines have become increasingly severe. Accordingly, the gravimetric method of PM mass measurement is facing its lower limit of detection as the emissions from vehicles are further reduced. For example, the variation in the adsorption of gaseous components such as hydrocarbons from unburned fuel and lubricant oil and the presence of agglomerated particles, which are not directly generated in engine combustion but re-entrainment particulates from walls of sampling pipes, can cause uncertainty in measurement. The PM mass measurement systems and methodologies have been continuously refined in order to improve measurement accuracy. As an alternative metric, the particle measurement programme (PMP) within the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) developed a solid particle number measurement method in order to improve the sensitivity of particulate emission measurement from vehicles. Consequently, particle number (PN) limits were implemented into the regulations in Europe from 2011. Recently, portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) for in-use vehicle emission measurements are also attracting attention, currently in North America and Europe, and real-time PM mass and PN instruments are under evaluation.

  13. Performing the EU Referendum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This editorial makes use of the EU Referendum to discuss the presence of magic in contemporary societies. It analysis magic in terms of magicians, magical representations, and magical rites – as originally expounded by Malinowski and Mauss – and argues that magic is to be found not only in politi......This editorial makes use of the EU Referendum to discuss the presence of magic in contemporary societies. It analysis magic in terms of magicians, magical representations, and magical rites – as originally expounded by Malinowski and Mauss – and argues that magic is to be found not only...

  14. Reforming the EU Budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    The marginal involvement of the EU in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a lack of attention to the EU budget and its determinants. In this paper I analyse an original dataset containing yearly data on the main macrocategories of expenditure and how they have...... changed over the last three decades (1984-2013). Using time series analysis, I find that the ability to form winning coalitions in the Council, the ideological position of the co-legislators, and some ‘structuring events’ - like the adoption of the Multiannual Financial Framework and the accession...

  15. Changes in direct and indirect taxation in the process of the EU tax system reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletić Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proceeding from the changes in direct and indirect taxation in the process of the EU tax system reform and the fact that new trends bring about vital social changes, the research in this area could add to the understanding of economic development of these countries. In the EU with its decentralized tax policy, changes in direct and indirect taxation are permanently implemented in the process of tax system reform. Harmonization of direct and indirect taxation in the EU is conducted by means of the adopted community law regulations. In the harmonization of direct taxation there is a tendency towards an increase of the level of fiscal coordination and elimination of barriers to the common market. Thus direct taxation reforms are limited to achieving higher level of coordination and preventing evasion and double taxation. The current policy is the result of the principle according to which fiscal competition has positive effects on reducing consumption and on the EU economic development. In the harmonization process the systems of indirect taxation are aligned particularly with excise duty and value added tax. Fiscal strategies in the reform process are mostly aimed at fiscal coordination, modernization, informative cooperation, evasion reduction and elimination of malpractices in fulfilling a VAT payment liability. Within the excise tax system minimal excise rates are determined and an environmentally-friendly policy is pursued. The main priorities of taxation changes within the harmonization process are in respect of evasion reduction and irrational fiscal competition on the EU market. A study of direct and indirect taxation changes in the process of the tax system reform is highly significant both from the aspect of efficient tax-system functioning, which results in achieving EU macroeconomic goals, and from the aspect of single states' interests in the process of transition and accession.

  16. 基于文献计量学的中国-欧盟渔业科技合作现状与趋势分析%Analysis of Current Situation and Trend of Sino-EU Fisheries S & T Cooperation Based on Bibliometrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳迪; 于瑞; 静莹; 马卓君

    2014-01-01

    采用文献计量学方法,在Web of Science数据库中以Fishery、Fisheries、Aquaculture检索2003-2012年间的涉渔SCI文献,再使用数据分析工具Thomson Data Analyzer(TDA)软件,对检索结果的各个关键字段进行分析处理,对欧盟国家渔业科研现状、欧盟国家渔业科研合作现状和中国-欧盟渔业科技合作现状进行了研究。结果表明:中国与西班牙的渔业科研合作最为紧密,欧盟国家之间的合作比欧盟国家与中国合作得更为紧密,中国与欧盟国家的渔业科技合作仍有极大的提升空间;中欧渔业科研正向着多元化、紧密化、频繁化的趋势发展。%Based on bibliometrics, this paper, setting Fishery, Fisheries, and Aquaculture as key words, searched fisheries related literature during 2003-2012 in Web of Science, applied software Thomson Data Analyzer (TDA), and analyzed every key field in the search result. The current situation of fisheries S&T of EU countries, of S&T cooperation among EU countries and of Sino-EU cooperation was studied. The results are : among all the EU countries, Spain is the closest country that China cooperates with. Compared with China-EU fisheries S&T cooperation, there are more internal cooperation among EU countries, so China-EU fisheries S&T cooperation has much room for enhancement.China-EU fisheries S&T is developing into a more diversified, more intimate and more frequent direction.

  17. Leptin regulation of inward membrane currents, electrical activity and LH release in isolated bovine gonadotropes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Mancera, Belisario; Barrientos-Morales, Manuel; Cervantes-Acosta, Patricia; Hernández-Beltrán, Antonio; Rodríguez-Andrade, Araceli; González-Ramírez, Ricardo; Monjaraz, Eduardo; Felix, Ricardo

    2017-09-09

    Leptin, a peptide hormone produced by adipocytes, is recognized as one of the signals involved in the onset of reproductive activity. The leptin receptor has been found in hypothalamic neurons and pituitary gonadotropes, suggesting that the hormone may act at both sites to stimulate the secretion of GnRH and consequently, FSH and LH. In response to a stimulus such as a hypothalamic secretagogue, gonadotropes respond with changes in electrical activity, intracellular Ca(2+) and hormone release. The main aim of this report was to investigate whether leptin promotes a change in the electrical and secretory activities of bovine gonadotropes. After 48 h of treatment with leptin (10 nM) significant changes in the action potential properties were observed in gonadotropes, which included an increase in amplitude, time-to-pike and post-hyperpolarization, as well as a decrease in firing threshold. Likewise, leptin induced a significant (∼1.3-fold) up-regulation of voltage-gated Na(+) channel current density, and a selective increase (∼2.1-fold) in Ca(2+) current density through high voltage-activated channels. Consistent with this, leptin enhanced GnRH-induced secretion of LH measured by ELISA. We suggest that leptin enhances membrane expression of voltage-gated Na(+) and Ca(2+) channels, which results in a modulation of the action potential properties and an increase in hormone release from gonadotropes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reforming the Regulation of Trading Venues in the EU under the Proposed MiFID II – Levelling the Playing Field and Overcoming Fragmentation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Nis Jul; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2012-01-01

    The Directive on Markets in Financial Instruments (MiFID 2004), adopted in 2004, brought about substantial changes in the market. Competition between trading venues has increased and a substantial portion of trade in financial instruments has moved from regulated markets to other trading venues...

  19. Competitors or collaborators: a comparison of commercial diplomacy policies and practices of EU member states.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadman, A.; Ruel, H.J.M.; Ruel, H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Commercial diplomacy within the EU is currently a matter for the individual EU member states (MS). This results in different policies and practices. But to what extent do they really differ? This chapter presents the results of a comparative study on EU MS commercial diplomacy policies and practices

  20. EU NO "Plan B" Beyond Copenhagen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ "The EU wams to speed up the negotiations and will take firm actions to reduce its emissions by 20 percent regardless of what other countries do.Because the EU had no‘plan B'beyond Copenhagen",Sweden's Environment Minister Andreas Carlgren stressed the goal during his visit to Beijing in July.He led the European Union delegation and accompanied by EU Environment Commissioner Stavros Dimas and environment minister from Spain that will hold the EU presidency during the next term,to visit China.This is the first visit made by the EU Troika for bilateral climate negotiations during the Swedish Presidency.The purpose of the visit is to reach an agreement on climate change for the preparation of Copenhagen Conference to be held this December,in which,it is supposed to agree on a successor to the Kyoto Protocol,and to reinforce the message that emerging economies were also expected to reduce emissions by 15-30%from current levels by 2020.Carlgren called his visit was"laying the right foundation for a successful Copenhagen conference".

  1. Succession of States in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martini Mario

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A specter is haunting Europe – the specter of separatism. Scotland, Catalonia, Flanders, South Tyrol – all these regions have separatist movements pursuing independence from their current National State. The breakup of an EU Member State no longer seems impossible. To date, it is unclear what impact this would have on the EU membership of the new entities (with consequences for the character of citizenship, voting rights in the council, number of MEPs etc. that emerge from the old States. The common rules of Public International Law governing the succession of States are insufficient in the case of a succession of States in the EU. Although the Treaties do not provide for such a situation and the past 60 years of European history offer only a few and not really persuasive precedents, the nature of the EU as a joint association of sovereign States (“Staatenverbund” demands a special approach: A separated State will neither be automatically excluded from the EU nor will it automatically become a new Member State. Drawing on the ideas of Articles 49 and 50 TEU this essay develops a procedure for balancing the interests of the EU, its Member States, and the people living in the seceding State, who are likely to be pro-EU. If a Member State breaks up, both the remaining State and the new entity will continue to represent the former Member State in the European institutions. The former Member State will provisionally continue to exist for both the EU and its Member States with respect to European matters. A process of negotiation between the two “new” States themselves and with the other Member States will lead to a new balance within the EU and the adaption of the Treaties – the solution has to be a political one. If the negotiations are successful, the former Member State can finally be dissolved at the EU level. In this case either both new States will become new Members or the remaining State will continue the membership (with

  2. EU5+ Diagnosis System Development for Engine Electronic Control System%发动机电控系统EU5+诊断系统开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于世涛; 赵燕; 王骞; 张磊磊; 李君

    2011-01-01

    针对EU5第2阶段排放法规(EU5+)需求,以发动机电控系统为应用对象,基于OBD系统功能开发流程进行了EU5+诊断系统开发.进行了 EU5+法规需求分析、现有系统架构设计与诊断功能开发、EU5+系统与诊断功能的发布.通过项目车队试验表明,所开发的EU5+诊断系统功能有效,可满足在用车最小诊断率的要求.%To meet the requirements of EU5 stage II emission regulation, the EU5+ diagnosis system is developed for the engine electronic control system based on the OBD system function development flow. EU5+regulation demand analysis is made, the existing system architecture and diagnostic function development is made and EU5+ system and diagnostic function are released. The project fleet test show that the developed EU5+diagnostic systematic function works well, can satisfy the requirement of the minimum on-board diagnosis rate.

  3. EU Food Law Handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The twenty-first century has witnessed a fundamental reform of food law in the European Union, to the point where modern EU food law has now come of age. This book presents the most significant elements of these legal developments with contributions from a highly qualified team of academics and

  4. EU-retten 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig; Nielsen, Poul Runge

    Bogen indeholder en gennemgang af en række generelle problemstillinger vedrørende harmoniseringen indenfor EU samt en nærmere analyse af harmoniseringen på en række udvalgte områder: selskabsret, skatteret, finansielle tjenesteydelser samt den tekniske harmonisering der skal sikre varernes fri be...

  5. EU Food Law Handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The twenty-first century has witnessed a fundamental reform of food law in the European Union, to the point where modern EU food law has now come of age. This book presents the most significant elements of these legal developments with contributions from a highly qualified team of academics and prac

  6. EU Agro Biogas Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amon, T.; Mayr, H.; Eder, M.; Hobbs, P.; Rao Ravella, S.; Roth, U.; Niebaum, A.; Doehler, H.; Weiland, P.; Abdoun, E.; Moser, A.; Lyson, M.; Heiermann, M.; Plöchl, M.; Budde, J.; Schattauer, A.; Suarez, T.; Möller, H.; Ward, A.; Hillen, F.; Sulima, P.; Oniszk-Polplawska, A.; Krampe, P.; Pastorek, Z.; Kara, J.; Mazancova, J.; Dooren, van H.J.C.; Wim, C.; Gioelli, F.; Balsari, P.

    2009-01-01

    EU-AGRO-BIOGAS is a European Biogas initiative to improve the yield of agricultural biogas plants in Europe, to optimise biogas technology and processes and to improve the efficiency in all parts of the production chain from feedstock to biogas utilisation. Leading European research institutions and

  7. EU Agro Biogas Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amon, T.; Mayr, H.; Eder, M.; Hobbs, P.; Rao Ravella, S.; Roth, U.; Niebaum, A.; Doehler, H.; Weiland, P.; Abdoun, E.; Moser, A.; Lyson, M.; Heiermann, M.; Plöchl, M.; Budde, J.; Schattauer, A.; Suarez, T.; Möller, H.; Ward, A.; Hillen, F.; Sulima, P.; Oniszk-Polplawska, A.; Krampe, P.; Pastorek, Z.; Kara, J.; Mazancova, J.; Dooren, van H.J.C.; Wim, C.; Gioelli, F.; Balsari, P.

    2009-01-01

    EU-AGRO-BIOGAS is a European Biogas initiative to improve the yield of agricultural biogas plants in Europe, to optimise biogas technology and processes and to improve the efficiency in all parts of the production chain from feedstock to biogas utilisation. Leading European research institutions and

  8. EU-retten 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig; Nielsen, Poul Runge

    Bogen indeholder en gennemgang af en række generelle problemstillinger vedrørende harmoniseringen indenfor EU samt en nærmere analyse af harmoniseringen på en række udvalgte områder: selskabsret, skatteret, finansielle tjenesteydelser samt den tekniske harmonisering der skal sikre varernes fri be...

  9. Legal-Ease EU Anti-Corruption Measures for European Businesses in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS

    2006-01-01

    Currently, the European Union (EU) has few provisions in place to deal with the risks to EU business, relating to corruption, in developing countries like China. In this respect, the EU lags well behind the United States. According to our recent research, plans to rectify this are in the pipeline. When these plans will emerge, however, is an open question. Existing provisions and policy In 1995, EU ministers adopted the Convention on the

  10. Flexible Power Regulation and Current-limited Control of Grid-connected Inverter under Unbalanced Grid Voltage Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; Liu, Wenzhao; Lu, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    The grid-connected inverters may experience excessive current stress in case of unbalanced grid voltage Fault Ride Through (FRT), which significantly affects the reliability of the power supply system. In order to solve the problem, the inherent mechanisms of the excessive current phenomenon...... with the conventional FRT solutions are discussed. The quantitative analysis of three phase current peak values are conducted and a novel current-limited control strategy is proposed to achieve the flexible active and reactive power regulation and successful FRT in a safe current operation area with the aim...

  11. Limiting emissions trading. The EU proposal on supplementarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woerdman, E.

    2001-06-01

    which they succeeded before but only partly during CoP6). For this reason and because the EU proposal faces opposition from the US and disadvantages other major political actors, such as Russia and China, the EU proposal was not accepted at CoP6 and has only a small change to be accepted in its current form at 'CoP6 plus' in July 2001 in Bonn (Germany). 130 refs.

  12. New Legal Platform for Intellectual Property in the EU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2010-01-01

    @@ With improving the importance on the intellectual property in China,China and EU have made effort together for helping users find and access legal resources on the current legislative framework of intellectual property(IP)protection and enforcement.

  13. Current knowledge on the photoneuroendocrine regulation of reproduction in temperate fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migaud, H; Davie, A; Taylor, J F

    2010-01-01

    Seasonality is an important adaptive trait in temperate fish species as it entrains or regulates most physiological events such as reproductive cycle, growth profile, locomotor activity and key life-stage transitions. Photoperiod is undoubtedly one of the most predictable environmental signals that can be used by most living organisms including fishes in temperate areas. This said, however, understanding of how such a simple signal can dictate the time of gonadal recruitment and spawning, for example, is a complex task. Over the past few decades, many scientists attempted to unravel the roots of photoperiodic signalling in teleosts by investigating the role of melatonin in reproduction, but without great success. In fact, the hormone melatonin is recognized as the biological time-keeping hormone in fishes mainly due to the fact that it reflects the seasonal variation in daylength across the whole animal kingdom rather than the existence of direct evidences of its role in the entrainment of reproduction in fishes. Recently, however, some new studies clearly suggested that melatonin interacts with the reproductive cascade at a number of key steps such as through the dopaminergic system in the brain or the synchronization of the final oocyte maturation in the gonad. Interestingly, in the past few years, additional pathways have become apparent in the search for a fish photoneuroendocrine system including the clock-gene network and kisspeptin signalling and although research on these topics are still in their infancy, it is moving at great pace. This review thus aims to bring together the current knowledge on the photic control of reproduction mainly focusing on seasonal temperate fish species and shape the current working hypotheses supported by recent findings obtained in teleosts or based on knowledge gathered in mammalian and avian species. Four of the main potential regulatory systems (light perception, melatonin, clock genes and kisspeptin) in fish reproduction

  14. The EU Legal Framework on Trafficking in Human Beings: Where to from here – the UK Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria O'Neill

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU’s current provisions on the trafficking in human beings (THB are provided for, inter alia, in Council Framework Decision 2002/629/JHA. The Council of Europe have more recent provisions in this area, which are not yet widely in force. The EU has some major proposals for reform of its legal framework in the Stockholm Programme, to include the appointment of an EU Anti-Trafficking Coordinator. In addition, the focus of EU Justice and Home Affairs is shifting to the external relations of the EU under the Stockholm Programme. A critical examination of the EU legal framework in the area of THB from a law enforcement perspective is therefore timely. THB is a highly contentious and complicated area for regulation, with issues such as the support of the victims of trafficking, the particular needs of under-aged trafficked individuals, and the issues of due process when a witness may not be considered to be reliable during court proceedings, complicating operations and prosecutions. In addition the issue of illegal immigration adds a further layer of complication, with the UK maintaining its opt out from the EU’s illegal immigration provisions. This article will, focus on the illegal trafficking of adults against their will, and the consequences of this crime, in particular, for the UK law enforcement authorities.

  15. Mogelijkheden voor betere coördinatie van socialezekerheidsrechten voor naar de EU gemigreerde en vanuit de EU gemigreerde derdelandonderdanen : Een onderzoek aan de hand van case study Turkije

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caglayankaya, H.

    2016-01-01

    Third-country nationals can use regulation 1231/10 to invoke regulation 883/04, However, the territorial limitation imposed by regulation 1231/10 still limits third-country nationals. The main issue is that regulation 1231/10 is restricted to EU territory. Outside of the EU, any requirement regardin

  16. Regulating Current Rectification and Nanoparticle Transport Through a Salt Gradient in Bipolar Nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Yuan; Yeh, Li-Hsien; Hsu, Jyh-Ping; Tseng, Shiojenn

    2015-09-16

    Tuning of ion and nanoparticle transport is validated through applying a salt gradient in two types of nanopores: the inner wall of a nanopore has bipolar charges and its outer wall neutral (type I), and both the inner and outer walls of a nanopore have bipolar charges (type II). The ion current rectification (ICR) behavior of these nanopores can be regulated by an applied salt gradient: if it is small, the degree of ICR in type II nanopore is more significant than that in type I nanopore; a reversed trend is observed at a sufficiently large salt gradient. If the applied salt gradient and electric field have the same direction, type I nanopore exhibits two significant features that are not observed in type II nanopore: (i) a cation-rich concentration polarization field and an enhanced funneling electric field are present near the cathode side of the nanopore, and (ii) the magnitude of the axial electric field inside the nanopore is reduced. These features imply that applying a salt gradient to type I nanopore is capable of simultaneously enhancing the nanoparticle capture into the nanopore and reducing its translocation velocity inside, so that high sensing performance and resolution can be achieved.

  17. Journal of Contemporary European Research User You are logged in as... jcer_editor My Profile Log Out Subscribe... Sign up for issue alerts Follow JCER on Twitter Font Size Make font size smaller Make font size default Make font size larger Journal Content Search Search Scope Browse By Issue By Author By Title Information For Readers For Authors For Librarians Journal Help Keywords CFSP Communication ESDP EU EU enlargement EU trade policy Energy, EU, External Policy Europe European Commission European Parliament European Union European integration Europeanisation Euroscepticism First Enlargement Germany Liberty Lisbon Treaty Poland Russia Security The UACES Blog Power shift? The EU’s pivot to Asia 100 Books on Europe to be Remembered For a Global European Studies? EU Member State Building in the... Same aims, different approaches?... Open Journal Systems Home About User Home Search Current Archives Announcements UACES Home > Vol 9, No 4 (2013 > De Ville The Promise of Critical Historical Institutionalism for EU Trade Policy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdi de Ville

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to convince the reader of the potential of a critical version of historical institutionalism (HI as a theoretical perspective for EU trade policy analysis. It argues that critical HI sensitises the analyst to important but hitherto often neglected factors including: the influence of the past on EU trade policy; the complex, multiarena and multilevel nature of contemporary trade policy; and issues of distributional conflict. The core concept in critical HI is ‘reactive sequencing’, conceiving of policy evolution as a chain of events produced by reactions and counter-reactions. This paper demonstrates that this is invaluable to understand contemporary EU trade politics. Some examples of EU trade policy decisions and its general strategic evolution since the conclusion of the Uruguay Round are given to show the value of critical HI. Finally, the external dimension of “Europe 2020” as the latest trade policy strategy is analysed from a critical historical institutionalist angle.

  18. 中国与欧美药品包装材料相容性研究规范%Regulations and Technical Guidelines of Drug Packaging Material's Compatibility Study in China, EU and USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学芬; 陈祖坚; 闫超

    2014-01-01

    药品包装是药品的重要组成部分,近年来由于药品包装选择不当,由药品与包装材料相容性引起的问题不断出现。本文综合收载了中国、欧盟以及美国的药品监管机构对药品与包装材料相容性研究的不同法规要求,希望能为药品生产企业及其研发机构进行相容性研究提供了基本的理论依据和试验思路。%Drug packaging material was one of the important drug parts.In recent years , lot of issues which caused by the compatibility between drugs and packaging materials arose were because of wrong selection of packaging materials .The different regulations and technical guidelines in China , USA and EU were reviewed and analyzed , which related to the compatibility study between drug and packaging materials.It hoped to provide pharmaceutical company and research institution the basic theory and technical guidelines.

  19. The economic impact of the upcoming EU emissions trading system on airlines and EU Member States—an empirical estimation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schaefer, Martin; Scheelhaase, Janina; Grimme, Wolfgang; Maertens, Sven

    2010-01-01

    .... As aircraft operators (i.e. airlines) will be required to hold emission allowances for all flights that are subject to the EU-ETS, the economical impacts of the system are currently being discussed...

  20. Socio-legal regulation of family relations: current status and prospects for development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Saenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The crisis of the traditional family becomes important research methods and techniques of social regulation of family relations in contemporary reality. Particular attention is paid to the legal regulation of having the author's opinion the fundamental nature of the general system of social regulation, its value in the preservation of traditional moral family values.

  1. Thoughts on How to Regulate Behaviours: An Overview of the Current Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, Julien

    2013-01-01

    The article intends to present the debate on behaviour modification in the regulation studies literature, at a time of renewed interest among regulators for new ideas and strategies. As the financial crisis has led to the most public critique yet of the rational choice view of individuals that has informed regulation in the last few decades, other…

  2. Economic benefits of the EU Ecodesign Directive. Improving European economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molenbroek, E.; Cuijpers, M.; Blok, K.

    2012-04-15

    The EU Ecodesign Directive aims at reducing the environmental impact of a number of products sold in the EU, with emphasis on their energy consumption. Ecofys investigated economic benefits related to the Directive. A correct implementation of the EU Ecodesign Directive would yield yearly savings of up to 600 TWh of electricity and 600 TWh of heat in 2020. In addition to these environmental benefits, this study identified important economic advantages like: Net savings for European consumers and businesses of 90 billion euro per year (1% of EU's current GDP) in the year 2020; Reinvesting these savings in other sectors of the economy would result in the creation of one million jobs; Dependency on imports of energy would be reduced by 23% and 37% for natural gas and coal, respectively. This means the EU could slash natural gas imports from Russia by more than half and imports of coal from Russia could be stopped altogether.

  3. Sustainable Development in the EU: Redefining and Operationalizing the Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander R.W. van Hees

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although sustainable development plays an important role in EU law, neither EU law nor EU policy clearly explains what the concept means and how it must be put into practice. Policy-makers, NGOs, politicians and businesses do, however, need guidance on sustainable development for the purpose of good policy-making, for effectively holding the EU accountable, and for the design of CSR programmes. To that end, this article will first explain the guidance which EU law and policy already offer on sustainable development. Subsequently, this article will propose (I a more workable definition of sustainable development than the one (the Brundtland definition which is currently used, and (II a framework of application for sustainable development. This framework of application (which will have the form of a sustainability impact assessment provides practical guidance for policy-makers, politicians, NGOs and businesses when dealing with sustainable development in their day-to-day work.

  4. Sustainable Development in the EU: Redefining and Operationalizing the Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander R.W. van Hees

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although sustainable development plays an important role in EU law, neither EU law nor EU policy clearly explains what the concept means and how it must be put into practice. Policy-makers, NGOs, politicians and businesses do, however, need guidance on sustainable development for the purpose of good policy-making, for effectively holding the EU accountable, and for the design of CSR programmes. To that end, this article will first explain the guidance which EU law and policy already offer on sustainable development. Subsequently, this article will propose (I a more workable definition of sustainable development than the one (the Brundtland definition which is currently used, and (II a framework of application for sustainable development. This framework of application (which will have the form of a sustainability impact assessment provides practical guidance for policy-makers, politicians, NGOs and businesses when dealing with sustainable development in their day-to-day work.

  5. EU SINGLE FINANCIAL MARKET – PROSPECTS FOR CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Mikita

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis has revealed the weaknesses of the European financial market, which triggered the European Union (EU work on further integration of this market. The aim of this article is to present the direction of changes concerning the integration of the EU financial market. These changes are mainly related to the issue of supervising the EU financial market, regulating the institutions operating in this market, protecting customers, improving the effectiveness of the market, its transparency and liquidity, as well as improving management in crisis situations.

  6. EU and Tourism Development: Bark or Bite?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    In the absence of major programmes to strengthen the quality and competitiveness of European destinations, the role of the EU in tourism development has often been seen as fairly limited. Despite this, spill-overs or side effects from adjoining policy areas with extensive European regulation or i...... and budget airlines, but also by supporting development of new services and experiences in parts of Europe where tourism has until now been a socio-economic activity of relatively limited importance....

  7. Legal aspects of the EU policy on irregular immigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voinikov Vadim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the issues pertaining to the adoption and development of legislation on irregular migration in the context of uncontrolled growth in the number of immigrants from North Africa and the Middle East to the EU. The article attempts at studying the EU legislation on irregular migration, classifying it, and analysing the prospects of EU migration legislation in the light of an increase in irregular immigration into the EU. The author systematises, classifies the current EU legislation on irregular immigration, and analyses the conditions, in which this legislation was developed. Using the legislation analysis method, the author proposes the following system of EU legislation on irregular immigration: rules preventing assistance to irregular immigration, rules preventing employment of irregular immigrants, rules on the return of irregular migrants and readmission, rules on border control, and rules on collaboration with third countries. The author pays special attention to analysing the current state of irregular immigration to the EU, which was dubbed the ‘greatest migration crisis in Europe’. The conclusion is that the European Union succeeded in the development of pioneering legislation on irregular immigration, which can serve as the basis for reception by other states. However, changes in the political and economic situation in the EU’s southern borderlands made the current legal mechanisms incapable of withstanding new threats. It necessitates a radical reform of the legislation on irregular immigration.

  8. EU COMPARISON OF VAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Zenovia GRIGORE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available VAT is one of the newest tools of the global economy and is widely adopted in most of the countries. For EU Member States is required not only the existence of VAT, but also that its main characteristics to be uniformly implemented. This should facilitate intra-Community transactions, but in practice does not as there are many local variations which can lead to costly errors and penalties. The objective of this paper is to collate data about the main characteristics of VAT in EU Member States and to highlight the key differences between them. This survey shows that there continue to be opportunities and risks for businesses trading cross border, as a result of differences in application of Community legislation on VAT. This led to the necessity of VAT reform. On this basis, the Commission adopted on the end of the last year a Communication on the future of VAT. This sets out the fundamental characteristics that must underlie the new VAT regime, and priority actions needed to create a simpler, more efficient and more robust VAT system in the EU.

  9. EU COMPARISON OF VAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA ZENOVIA GRIGORE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available VAT is one of the newest tools of the global economy and is widely adopted in most of the countries. For EU Member States is required not only the existence of VAT, but also that its main characteristics to be uniformly implemented. This should facilitate intra-Community transactions, but in practice does not as there are many local variations which can lead to costly errors and penalties. The objective of this paper is to collate data about the main characteristics of VAT in EU Member States and to highlight the key differences between them. This survey shows that there continue to be opportunities and risks for businesses trading cross border, as a result of differences in application of Community legislation on VAT. This led to the necessity of VAT reform. On this basis, the Commission adopted on the end of the last year a Communication on the future of VAT. This sets out the fundamental characteristics that must underlie the new VAT regime, and priority actions needed to create a simpler, more efficient and more robust VAT system in the EU.

  10. In the shadow of the Cosmetic Directive--inconsistencies in EU environmental hazard classification requirements for UV-filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobek, A; Bejgarn, S; Rudén, C; Molander, L; Breitholtz, M

    2013-09-01

    UV-filters are chemicals with potentially environmental hazardous properties. In the European Union (EU), UV-filters contained in sunscreen products are currently regulated by the Cosmetic Directive (from July 2013 by the Cosmetic Products Regulation). Environmental hazard classifications according to the regulation on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP) must be determined for UV-filters contained in industrial chemical products, whereas UV-filters contained in sunscreens are exempted from CLP. In this study we determined the potential environmental hazard classifications of UV-filters and sunscreen products if the CLP regulation was to be required for cosmetic products. Two sunscreen products were evaluated in accordance with the aquatic environmental hazard criteria for mixtures. The results highlight that the inconsistencies in the current EU regulation of UV filters hamper the risk management of environmental hazards of UV filters used in cosmetic products. Almost 50% of the investigated UV-filters approved for use in cosmetic products on the European market according to the current Cosmetic Directive were identified to meet the CLP classification as being hazardous to the aquatic environment. Assuming a worst-case scenario, the two examined sunscreens could both be classified as hazardous to the aquatic environment with long-lasting effects according to CLP classification criteria. Hence, if the CLP regulation was applicable to sunscreen products, both brands could potentially be labelled with the environmental hazard pictogram and associated hazard and precautionary statements. Including cosmetic products, and thereby sunscreens, in the CLP regulation would contribute to a more harmonized and transparent regulation of potentially hazardous substances on the EU market.

  11. Solar Energy: Incentives to Promote PV in EU27

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del P. Pablo-Romero

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The growth in the use of renewable energies in the EU has been remarkable. Among these energies is PV. The average annual growth rate for the EU-27 countries in installed PV capacity in the period 2005-2012 was 41.2%. While the installed capacity of PV has reached almost 82 % of National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP targets for the EU-27 countries for 2020, it is still far from being used at its full potential. Over recent years, several measures have been adopted in the EU to enhance and promote PV. This paper undertakes a complete review of the state of PV power in Europe and the measures taken to date to promote it in EU-27. 25 countries have adopted measures to promote PV. The most widespread measure to promote PV use is Feed- in Tariffs. Tariffs are normally adjusted, in a decreasing manner, annually. Nevertheless, currently, seven countries have decided to accelerate this decrease rate in view of cost reduction of the installations and of higher efficiencies. The second instrument used to promote PV in the EU-27 countries is the concession of subsidies. Nevertheless, subsidies have the disadvantage of being closely linked to budgetary resources and therefore to budgetary constraints. In most EU countries, subsidies for renewable energy for PV are being lowered. Twelve EU-27 countries adopted tax measures. Low-interest loans and green certificate systems were only sparingly used.

  12. Focused transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex modulates specific domains of self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pripfl, Jürgen; Lamm, Claus

    2015-02-01

    Recent neuroscience theories suggest that different kinds of self-regulation may share a common psychobiological mechanism. However, empirical evidence for a domain general self-regulation mechanism is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate whether focused anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), facilitating the activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), acts on a domain general self-regulation mechanism and thus modulates both affective and appetitive self-regulation. Twenty smokers participated in this within-subject sham controlled study. Effects of anodal left, anodal right and sham tDCS over the dlPFC on affective picture appraisal and nicotine craving-cue appraisal were assessed. Anodal right tDCS over the dlPFC reduced negative affect in emotion appraisal, but neither modulated regulation of positive emotion appraisal nor of craving appraisal. Anodal left stimulation did not induce any significant effects. The results of our study show that domain specific self-regulation networks are at work in the prefrontal cortex. Focused tDCS modulation of this specific self-regulation network could probably be used during the first phase of nicotine abstinence, during which negative affect might easily result in relapse. These findings have implications for neuroscience models of self-regulation and are of relevance for the development of brain stimulation based treatment methods for neuropsychiatric disorders associated with self-regulation deficits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Chapitre 13. Overview of Current Public Policies

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Current Public Policies, Rules and Legislation – especially European ones – With Regard to Highly Skilled Immigration, Nationality Regimes, Stay Rights, etc.Binod Khadria Introduction: Three Levels of Public Policies Policies and programs adopted by the developed receiving countries – mainly the United States, Canada, Australia, and the European Union (EU) countries – for the admission of foreign workers with a view to facilitating and/or regulating high-skill immigration fall into three broa...

  14. Regulating and Implementing Freedom of Information Regimes in the New Eu Member States: a Comparative Analysis of Romania, Hungary and the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dacian DRAGOS

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the issue of freeaccess to public information in some of the newEuropean Union member states from a comparativeperspective and tries to highlight some of the bestpractices in this field that were incorporated oradapted by these countries. It is noted that veryoften the choice of policy of national governmentswas determined by past experiences and existingmentalities (see, for example, protection of businessdata. A sizable part of the analysis is dedicated toexceptions from the rule of free access to publicdocuments. This aspect is important becausesome of the exclusions leave room for the abuseof public bodies already reluctant to disclose publicdata. Some considerations regarding the ways inwhich appeals against the refusal of access areorganized were also presented as being relevantto the topic discussed. The last section of thepaper focuses on an issue related to free accessto public information—namely, the commercialreuse of public data. A distinction needs to be madebetween the two concepts, because they are usuallygoverned by different regimes and regulations. Theauthors conclude that, although the jurisdictionsexamined have relatively progressive legislationregarding free access to public sector information,most challenges occur in practice with regard toimplementation.  

  15. Effect of EU electrical stunning conditions on breast meat quality of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirri, F; Petracci, M; Zampiga, M; Meluzzi, A

    2017-04-24

    Electrical stunning is still the main stunning method used worldwide in commercial poultry plants. The stunning procedures in water bath stunners affect both bird welfare and meat quality attributes. The European Union (EU) Council Regulation 1099/2009 on the protection of the animal at the time of killing established the minimum current flow through an individual bird at a specified frequency to assure an effective stun that must last until the bird's death. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the application of different stunning current flows on the prevalence of hemorrhages (classified as 1 = no lesion, 2 = moderate, and 3 = severe lesion) and some quality traits (pHu, color, drip and cooking losses, and shear force) of chicken breast meat. A total of 12 flocks of broiler chickens, each equally divided into light, medium, and heavy sizes, was submitted either to the stunning condition usually adopted before the entry into force of the current EU regulation (90 mA/bird, 400 Hz) (OLD) or to that enforced by it (150 mA/bird, 400 Hz) (NEW). Overall, the prevalence of severe hemorrhages dramatically increased in the NEW group in comparison with the OLD one (55 vs. 27%; P < 0.001) and particularly in heavy-sized birds (72 vs. 25%; P < 0.001). In general, meat quality attributes were not affected by the stunning conditions with the exception of drip loss that resulted lower in NEW than OLD birds (1.01 vs. 1.27; P < 0.001). In conclusion, the adoption of a higher current flow, as suggested by the EU regulation to protect animals at the time of killing, increases the prevalence of breast hemorrhages while maintaining meat quality traits with a possible beneficial effect on water holding capacity of fresh meat. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Chloride current in mammalian cardiac myocytes. Novel mechanism for autonomic regulation of action potential duration and resting membrane potential

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    The properties of the autonomically regulated chloride current (ICl) were studied in isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes. This current was elicited upon exposure to isoproterenol (ISO) and reversed upon concurrent exposure to acetylcholine (ACh). ICl was time independent and exhibited outward rectification. The responses to ISO and ACh could be blocked by propranolol and atropine, respectively, and ICl was also elicited by forskolin, 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, and 3-iso...

  17. Ex-ante evaluation of EU ETS during 2013-2030 : EU-internal abatement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Jing; Crijns-Graus, Wina; Lam, Long; Gilbert, Alyssa

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates CO2 emission reduction within the EU resulting from the Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) up to 2030. This is performed by constructing a baseline scenario without the ETS and assessing the impacts of the ETS, as currently designed. The results indicate that the ETS will start

  18. Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri and Xanthomonas citri pv. aurantifolii for the EU territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Panel conducted a pest risk assessment for Xanthomonas campestris (all strains pathogenic to Citrus for the EU territory and an assessment of the effectiveness of present EU requirements against Xanthomonas strains pathogenic to citrus. The risk assessment was conducted under the scenario of absence of the current specific EU plant health legislation and the assumption that citrus-exporting countries apply measures to reduce yield and quality losses. Risk reduction options were systematically identified and evaluated. The strains of X. campestris pathogenic to citrus have been reclassified as four distinct infraspecific taxa within two species: X. citri and X. alfalfae. Only two pathovars (X. citri pv. citri and X. citri pv. aurantifolii are responsible for the citrus bacterial canker thatpresents a major risk for the citrus industry in the EU. Seven entry pathways have been identified and evaluated. The likelihood of entry was rated unlikely for fruit, very likely for fruit plants for planting, moderately likely for ornamental plants for planting and unlikely for leaves and twigs. The uncertainty of probability of entry was rated as high. The probability of establishment was rated as moderately likely to likely with a medium uncertainty because host plants are widely present in EU areas where environmental conditions are suitable. Once established, spread would be likely with a low uncertainty. The impact of the disease, even if control measures are applied, was rated as moderate to major with a medium uncertainty. The disease would cause yield losses in areas where citrus is the main crop, increase the need for control measures and create environmental problems.The combined EU regulations have been shown to be effective in preventing the introduction of X. citri pv. citri or X. citri pv. aurantifolii in the EU, as no outbreaks of citrus canker in the EU territory have been reported.

  19. Electronic transport through EuO spin-filter tunnel junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Jutong, Nuttachai

    2012-11-12

    Epitaxial spin-filter tunnel junctions based on the ferromagnetic semiconductor europium monoxide (EuO) are investigated by means of density functional theory. In particular, we focus on the spin transport properties of Cu(100)/EuO(100)/Cu(100) junctions. The dependence of the transmission coefficient and the current-voltage curves on the interface spacing and EuO thickness is explained in terms of the EuO density of states and the complex band structure. Furthermore, we also discuss the relation between the spin transport properties and the Cu-EuO interface geometry. The level alignment of the junction is sensitively affected by the interface spacing, since this determines the charge transfer between EuO and the Cu electrodes. Our calculations indicate that EuO epitaxially grown on Cu can act as a perfect spin filter, with a spin polarization of the current close to 100%, and with both the Eu-5d conduction-band and the Eu-4f valence-band states contributing to the coherent transport. For epitaxial EuO on Cu, a symmetry filtering is observed, with the Δ1 states dominating the transmission. This leads to a transport gap larger than the fundamental EuO band gap. Importantly, the high spin polarization of the current is preserved up to large bias voltages.

  20. National Courts and EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    approaches and theories originating from law, political science, sociology and economics. The first section addresses issues relating to judicial dialogue and EU legal mandates, the second looks at the topic of EU law in national courts and the third considers national courts’ roles in protecting fundamental...... rights in the area of freedom, security and justice. The analysis of each is enriched through diverse research methods such as case-law analysis, citation network analysis, interviews, surveys and statistics. With its new legal and empirical assessment covering the newest member states of the EU......, National Courts and EU Law will hold strong appeal for scholars and students in the fields of EU law, social sciences and humanities. It will also be of use to legal practitioners interested in the issue of judicial application of EU law....

  1. Current advances and strategies towards fully automated sample preparation for regulated LC-MS/MS bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Naiyu; Jiang, Hao; Zeng, Jianing

    2014-09-01

    Robotic liquid handlers (RLHs) have been widely used in automated sample preparation for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) bioanalysis. Automated sample preparation for regulated bioanalysis offers significantly higher assay efficiency, better data quality and potential bioanalytical cost-savings. For RLHs that are used for regulated bioanalysis, there are additional requirements, including 21 CFR Part 11 compliance, software validation, system qualification, calibration verification and proper maintenance. This article reviews recent advances in automated sample preparation for regulated bioanalysis in the last 5 years. Specifically, it covers the following aspects: regulated bioanalysis requirements, recent advances in automation hardware and software development, sample extraction workflow simplification, strategies towards fully automated sample extraction, and best practices in automated sample preparation for regulated bioanalysis.

  2. The neuroendocrine regulation of food intake in fish: a review of current knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Volkoff

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fish are the most diversified group of vertebrates and, although progress has been made in the past years, only relatively few fish species have been examined to date, with regards to the endocrine regulation of feeding in fish. In fish, as in mammals, feeding behavior is ultimately regulated by central effectors within feeding centers of the brain, which receive and process information from endocrine signals from both brain and peripheral tissues. Although basic endocrine mechanisms regulating feeding appear to be conserved among vertebrates, major physiological differences between fish and mammals and the diversity of fish, in particular in regard to feeding habits, digestive tract anatomy and physiology, suggest the existence of fish- and species-specific regulating mechanisms. This review provides an overview of hormones known to regulate food intake in fish, emphasizing on major hormones and the main fish groups studied to date.

  3. The Neuroendocrine Regulation of Food Intake in Fish: A Review of Current Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkoff, Helene

    2016-01-01

    Fish are the most diversified group of vertebrates and, although progress has been made in the past years, only relatively few fish species have been examined to date, with regards to the endocrine regulation of feeding in fish. In fish, as in mammals, feeding behavior is ultimately regulated by central effectors within feeding centers of the brain, which receive and process information from endocrine signals from both brain and peripheral tissues. Although basic endocrine mechanisms regulating feeding appear to be conserved among vertebrates, major physiological differences between fish and mammals and the diversity of fish, in particular in regard to feeding habits, digestive tract anatomy and physiology, suggest the existence of fish- and species-specific regulating mechanisms. This review provides an overview of hormones known to regulate food intake in fish, emphasizing on major hormones and the main fish groups studied to date.

  4. The EU fusion programme and roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pero, H., E-mail: Herve.Pero@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, DG-RTD, CDMA 05/146, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Paidassi, S. [European Commission, DG-RTD, CDMA 05/146, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► The EU fusion programme has to evolve from today's research to a strong goal-oriented programme driven by an ambitious roadmap. ► The programme shall focus on ITER and reactor-relevant technologies development. ► A new structure based on joint programming will be developed to implement the programme during Horizon 2020. -- Abstract: To meet ITER and fusion energy challenges, a gradual transition of the EU fusion programme priorities from today's fusion research to a strongly goal-oriented programme with clear milestones is required. This transition and the programme priorities should be driven by an ambitious, yet realistic roadmap to be agreed by EU fusion stakeholders. The programme must primarily focus on: ensuring the success of ITER; and research and development of reactor-relevant technologies. Industry must be involved early in the implementation and international collaboration should be conducted as part of a strategic approach. Joint programming should be a cornerstone of the EU fusion programme in Horizon 2020. Options for the new structure and current actions required to implement the roadmap during Horizon 2020 will be presented.

  5. Regulatory approval pathways for anticancer drugs in Japan, the EU and the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Sumimasa; Ozawa, Keiya

    2016-07-01

    The Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency and the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan and the US Food and Drug Administration are responsible for reviewing applications and approving drugs, medical devices, and regenerative medicines. In the EU, the European Medicines Agency is responsible for the centralized authorization procedure of medicines including oncologic drugs. In this review, we discuss general pathways for the marketing authorization of oncologic drugs and other drugs in Japan, the EU, and the US. There are still unmet medical needs in oncology, whereas scientific innovation and clinical development in oncology are rapid and active, suggesting a reasonable scope for new regulatory schemes for expedited review. Because regulatory schemes are also evolving rapidly, clinicians and academic researchers may have difficulty following the updated regulations in other regions as well as those in their own countries. However, keeping current with new regulations is important for the conduct of translational research and clinical development of new therapeutic products efficiently. This review is intended to help an international audience better understand the essence of the regulatory frameworks for the marketing authorization of oncologic drugs in Japan, the EU, and the US.

  6. Investigating Relationships among Pre-Service Science Teachers' Conceptual Knowledge of Electric Current, Motivational Beliefs and Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaltun, Hüseyin; Ates, Salih

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine relationships among pre-service science teachers' conceptual knowledge of electric current, motivational beliefs, and self-regulation. One hundred and twenty-seven students (female = 107, male = 20) enrolled in the science education program of a public university in Ankara participated the study. A concept…

  7. Investigating Relationships among Pre-Service Science Teachers' Conceptual Knowledge of Electric Current, Motivational Beliefs and Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaltun, Hüseyin; Ates, Salih

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine relationships among pre-service science teachers' conceptual knowledge of electric current, motivational beliefs, and self-regulation. One hundred and twenty-seven students (female = 107, male = 20) enrolled in the science education program of a public university in Ankara participated the study. A concept…

  8. Design and implementation of a bidirectional current-controlled voltage-regulated DC-DC switched-mode converter

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coetzer, A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The design and implementation of a bidirectional current-controlled voltage-regulated DC-DC converter is presented. The converter is required to connect a battery of electrochemical cells (the battery) to an asynchronous motor-drive unit via a...

  9. Regulation of voltage-gated sodium current by endogenous Src family kinases in cochlear spiral ganglion neurons in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shuang; Pflueger, Melissa; Lin, Shuang-Xiu; Groveman, Bradley R; Su, Jiping; Yu, Xian-Min

    2012-04-01

    Voltage-gated sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+)channels have been found to be regulated by Src family kinases(SFKs).However, how these channels are regulated by SFKs in cochlear spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) remains unknown.Here, we report that altering the activity of endogenous SFKs modulated voltage-gated Na+, but not K+, currents recorded in embryonic SGNs in culture. Voltage-gated Na+ current was suppressed by inhibition of endogenous SFKs or just Src and potentiated by the activation of these enzymes. Detailed investigations showed that under basal conditions, SFK inhibitor application did not significantly affect the voltage-dependent activation, but shifted the steady-state inactivation curves of Na+ currents and delayed the recovery of Na+ currents from inactivation. Application of Src specific inhibitor, Src40–58,not only shifted the inactivation curve but also delayed the recovery of Na+ currents and moved the voltage-dependent activation curve towards the left. The pre-inhibition of SFKs occluded all the effects induced by Src40–58 application, except the left shift of the activation curve. The activation of SFKs did not change either steady-state inactivation or recovery of Na+ currents, but caused the left shift of the activation curve.SFK inhibitor application effectively prevented all the effects induced by SFK activation, suggesting that both the voltage-dependent activation and steady-state inactivation of Na+ current are subjects of SFK regulation. The different effects induced by activation versus inhibition of SFKs implied that under basal conditions, endogenously active and inactive SFKs might be differentially involved in the regulation of voltage-gated Na+ channels in SGNs.

  10. 21 CFR 210.2 - Applicability of current good manufacturing practice regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of current good manufacturing... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, PACKING, OR HOLDING OF DRUGS; GENERAL § 210.2 Applicability of current good...

  11. 21 CFR 210.1 - Status of current good manufacturing practice regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Status of current good manufacturing practice... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, PACKING, OR HOLDING OF DRUGS; GENERAL § 210.1 Status of current good manufacturing practice...

  12. EU accession: A policy window opportunity for nursing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Raeve, Paul; Rafferty, Anne-Marie; Bariball, Louise; Young, Ruth; Boiko, Olga

    2017-03-01

    European enlargement has been studied in a wide range of policy areas within and beyond health. Yet the impact of EU enlargement upon one of the largest health professions, nursing, has been largely neglected. This paper aims to explore nurse leadership using a comparative case study method in two former Communist countries, Romania and Croatia. Specifically, it considers the extent to which engagement in the EU accession policy-making process provided a policy window for the leaders to formulate and implement a professional agenda while negotiating EU accession. Findings of qualitative interviews and documentary analysis indicate that the mechanisms used to facilitate the accession process were not successful in achieving compliance with the education standards in the Community Acquis, as highlighted in the criteria on the mutual recognition of professional qualifications set out in Directive 2005/36/EC. EU accession capacity building and accession funds were not deployed efficiently to upgrade Romanian and Croatian nursing education towards meeting EU standards. Conflicting views on accession held by the various nursing stakeholders (nursing regulator, nursing union, governmental chief nurse and the professional association) inhibited the setting of a common policy agenda to achieve compliance with EU standards. The study findings suggest a need to critically review EU accession mechanisms and better align leadership at all governance levels.

  13. EU and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    was limited to aid. The reason is largely Vietnam’s historical experiences from the aid relationship with the Soviet Union, which created dependence and eventually an economic crisis when aid flows dried up in the late 1980s. Instead, there has been substantial tension between the donor community and Vietnam...... towards Vietnam. However, it is likely that the antidumping measures used by the EU are not primarily directed at Vietnam, but rather at China. This means that Vietnam is affected by the re-polarization of the world economy through its proximity to and links with China, but that the relation is perhaps...

  14. The expanding EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    identity in terms of particular cultural traditions. However, in spite of their diversity, the EU-member countries are united by their adherence to the principles of democracy, rule by law and human rights. Countries which do not share this basic consensus would not be accepted as members, nor is it likely...... that economic modernisation leads to a set of predictable cultural changes, among them exactly the spread of democratic ideals. Modernisation is thereby a powerful ally of the European project. Further geographical expansion and an intensification of the cooperation are the most likely scenarios, and so...

  15. Low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States: An overview of current commercial regulations and concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1993-08-01

    Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States is regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) under 10 CFR 61 (1991). This regulation was issued in 1981 after a lengthy and thorough development process that considered the radionuclide concentrations and characteristics associated with commercial low-level radioactive waste streams; alternatives for waste classification; alternative technologies for low-level radioactive waste disposal; and data, modeling, and scenario analyses. The development process also included the publication of both draft and final environmental impact statements. The final regulation describes the general provisions; licenses; performance objectives; technical requirements for land disposal; financial assurances; participation by state governments and Indian tribes; and records, reports, tests, and inspections. This paper provides an overview of, and tutorial on, current commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal regulations in the United States.

  16. Regulations applicable to plant food supplements and related products in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silano, Vittorio; Coppens, Patrick; Larrañaga-Guetaria, Ainhoa; Minghetti, Paola; Roth-Ehrang, René

    2011-12-01

    This paper deals with the current regulatory and legal settings of traditional plant food supplements and herbal medicinal products in the European Union (EU). Marketing of botanicals in foods and food supplements in the EU is subject to several provisions of food law, which cover aspects of safety, production, labelling and product composition, including the use of additives and maximum levels of contaminants and residues. However, due to limited harmonization at the EU level, specific national regulations adopted at a Member State level also apply and mutual recognition is the mechanism through which such products can be marketed in EU countries other than those of origin. Unlike food supplements, marketing of traditional herbal medicinal products is regulated by an ad hoc Directive (i.e. Directive 2004/24/EC) covering in detail all the relevant aspects of these products, including a facilitated registration procedure at national level. However, by distinguishing traditional herbal medicinal products from plant food supplements and establishing selective marketing modalities for these two product categories, the EU has been confronted with implementation difficulties for traditional herbal medicinal products and a lack of homogeneity in the regulatory approaches adopted in different EU Member States. In fact, currently the nature of the commercial botanical products made available to consumers as traditional medicinal products or food supplements, depends largely on the EU Member State under consideration as a consequence of how competent National Authorities and manufacturing companies interpret and apply current regulations rather than on the intrinsic properties of the botanical products and their constituents. When the EU approach is compared with approaches adopted in some non-European countries to regulate these product categories, major differences become evident.

  17. Mortgage market regulation: Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, M.B.; Smith, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite several European Union (EU) initiatives, there is only limited pan-European mortgage market regulation. The EU strategy can be characterised as one of parallel liberalisation and consolidation. This article highlights the key differences in regulation among European mortgage markets.

  18. Selective regulation of current densities underlies spontaneous changes in the activity of cultured neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrigiano, G; LeMasson, G; Marder, E

    1995-05-01

    We study the electrical activity patterns and the expression of conductances in adult stomatogastric ganglion (STG) neurons as a function of time in primary cell culture. When first plated in culture, these neurons had few active properties. After 1 d in culture they produced small action potentials that rapidly inactivated during maintained depolarization. After 2 d in culture they fired large action potentials tonically when depolarized, and their properties resembled very closely the properties of STG neurons pharmacologically isolated in the ganglion. After 3-4 d in culture, however, their electrical properties changed and they fired in bursts when depolarized. We characterized the currents expressed by these neurons in culture. They included two TTX-sensitive sodium currents, a calcium current, a delayed-rectifier-like current, a calcium-dependent potassium current, and two A-type currents. The changes in firing properties with time in culture were accompanied by an increase in inward and decrease in outward current densities. A single-compartment conductance-based model of an STG neuron was constructed by fitting the currents measured in the biological neurons. When the current densities in the model neuron were matched to those measured for the biological neurons in each activity state, the model neuron closely reproduced each state, indicating that the changes in current densities are sufficient to account for the changes in intrinsic properties. These data indicate that STG neurons isolated in culture change their intrinsic electrical properties by selectively adjusting the magnitudes of their ionic conductances.

  19. In the shadow of the Cosmetic Directive — Inconsistencies in EU environmental hazard classification requirements for UV-filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobek, A., E-mail: anna.sobek@itm.su.se; Bejgarn, S.; Rudén, C.; Molander, L.; Breitholtz, M.

    2013-09-01

    UV-filters are chemicals with potentially environmental hazardous properties. In the European Union (EU), UV-filters contained in sunscreen products are currently regulated by the Cosmetic Directive (from July 2013 by the Cosmetic Products Regulation). Environmental hazard classifications according to the regulation on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP) must be determined for UV-filters contained in industrial chemical products, whereas UV-filters contained in sunscreens are exempted from CLP. In this study we determined the potential environmental hazard classifications of UV-filters and sunscreen products if the CLP regulation was to be required for cosmetic products. Two sunscreen products were evaluated in accordance with the aquatic environmental hazard criteria for mixtures. The results highlight that the inconsistencies in the current EU regulation of UV filters hamper the risk management of environmental hazards of UV filters used in cosmetic products. Almost 50% of the investigated UV-filters approved for use in cosmetic products on the European market according to the current Cosmetic Directive were identified to meet the CLP classification as being hazardous to the aquatic environment. Assuming a worst-case scenario, the two examined sunscreens could both be classified as hazardous to the aquatic environment with long-lasting effects according to CLP classification criteria. Hence, if the CLP regulation was applicable to sunscreen products, both brands could potentially be labelled with the environmental hazard pictogram and associated hazard and precautionary statements. Including cosmetic products, and thereby sunscreens, in the CLP regulation would contribute to a more harmonized and transparent regulation of potentially hazardous substances on the EU market. - Highlights: • UV-filters are used in both cosmetic and industrial products/applications • UV-filters in cosmetic products are excluded from CLP • We

  20. Improving Effectiveness of Capabilities in EU Conflict Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    – severely challenging the Union’s current capabilities as an international security provider. The urgency of improving conflict preventive and crisis management measures is particularly pertinent in Africa, where the numbers affected by conflicts across the continent are staggering. This contribution sets...... countries on the other. Empirical data was gathered by a team of researchers as part of the EU Horizon 2020-funded project: ‘Improving Effectiveness of Capabilities in EU Conflict Prevention’....

  1. The EU Deposit Insurance Directive: Does One Size Fit All?

    OpenAIRE

    Huizinga, Harry

    2005-01-01

    The EU deposit insurance directive requires member states to maintain deposit insurance with a minimum insured amount of 20,000 euros. This paper reviews the rationale for international coordination of deposit insurance policies. For international externalities of deposit insurance policies to exist, there has to be international ownership of either bank deposits or bank shares. On both counts, EU banking markets are currently highly integrated. The minimum coverage of 20,000 euros imposes co...

  2. Methods for growth regulation of greenhouse produced ornamental pot- and bedding plants – a current review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergstrand Karl-Johan I.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical plant growth regulators (PGRs are used in the production of ornamental potted and bedding plants. Growth control is needed for maximizing production per unit area, reducing transportation costs and to obtain a desired visual quality. However, the use of PGRs is associated with toxicity risks to humans and the environment. In many countries the availability of PGRs is restricted as few substances are registered for use. A number of alternative methods have been suggested. The methods include genetic methods (breeding and crop cultivation practices such as fertigation, temperature and light management. A lot of research into “alternative” growth regulation was performed during the 1980-1990s, revealing several possible ways of using different climatic factors to optimize plant growth with respect to plant height. In recent years, the interest in climatic growth regulation has been resurrected, not least due to the coming phase-out of the plant growth regulator chlormequat chloride (CCC. Today, authorities in many countries are aiming towards reducing the use of agrochemicals. At the same time, there is a strong demand from consumers for products produced without chemicals. This article provides a broad overview of available methods for non-chemical growth control. It is concluded that a combination of plant breeding and management of temperature, fertigation and light management has the potential of replacing chemical growth regulators in the commercial production of ornamental pot- and bedding plants.

  3. Marketing of research institutes in view of current organizational and legal regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Slotorsz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to describe in a synthetic way some issues related to the marketing activity of R&D organizations in view of legal acts regulating the functioning of the state owned R&D organizations. The authors have analyzed some regulations related to research institutes and their activities, regulations specifying criteria and procedures of granting of a scientific category to a R&D unit as well as principals of financing of the science and regulations related to the operations of certifying units. Basing on this analysis the authors have elaborated a set of marketing goals of the R&D organizations, a list of their stakeholders and of specific marketing tools both accessible in view of the rules and regulations in force and effective from the point of view of parametric evaluation of the R&D organizations. Among the analyzed tools there are the following: issues related to publications, organization of conferences, seminars and popularizing events, organization of education and training courses, internal policies related to intellectual property protection, internal policies related to technology transfer, membership in international organizations and applied quality policies.

  4. Process stabilization by peak current regulation in reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering of hafnium nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, T.; Villamayor, M.; Lundin, D.; Helmersson, U.

    2016-02-01

    A simple and cost effective approach to stabilize the sputtering process in the transition zone during reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) is proposed. The method is based on real-time monitoring and control of the discharge current waveforms. To stabilize the process conditions at a given set point, a feedback control system was implemented that automatically regulates the pulse frequency, and thereby the average sputtering power, to maintain a constant maximum discharge current. In the present study, the variation of the pulse current waveforms over a wide range of reactive gas flows and pulse frequencies during a reactive HiPIMS process of Hf-N in an Ar-N2 atmosphere illustrates that the discharge current waveform is a an excellent indicator of the process conditions. Activating the reactive HiPIMS peak current regulation, stable process conditions were maintained when varying the N2 flow from 2.1 to 3.5 sccm by an automatic adjustment of the pulse frequency from 600 Hz to 1150 Hz and consequently an increase of the average power from 110 to 270 W. Hf-N films deposited using peak current regulation exhibited a stable stoichiometry, a nearly constant power-normalized deposition rate, and a polycrystalline cubic phase Hf-N with (1 1 1)-preferred orientation over the entire reactive gas flow range investigated. The physical reasons for the change in the current pulse waveform for different process conditions are discussed in some detail.

  5. Carbon pricing in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, Corjan; Vollebergh, Herman R.J.; Werf, van der Edwin

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies various options to support allowance prices in the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS), such as adjusting the cap, an auction reserve price, and fixed and variable carbon taxes in addition to the EU ETS. We use a dynamic computable general equilibrium model that explicitly allows

  6. Carbon pricing in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, Corjan; Vollebergh, Herman R.J.; Werf, van der Edwin

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies various options to support allowance prices in the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS), such as adjusting the cap, an auction reserve price, and fixed and variable carbon taxes in addition to the EU ETS. We use a dynamic computable general equilibrium model that explicitly allows

  7. Economic Partnership Agreements of the EU: Impact on Regional Integration in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Marinov, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    The development and dynamics of regional integration in Africa are severely influenced by the transformation of the trade relations between African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries and the EU, imposed by the Cotonou agreement. Economic relations now based on unilateral trade preferences provided by the EU are envisaged to be based on Economic partnership agreements (EPAs) that should regulate trade and cooperation establishing new trade regimes between the EU and ACP regions selected by...

  8. The evolution, current status, and regulation of ostomy products in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, G B

    2001-01-01

    In today's rapidly evolving health care environment in which quality, cost-effectiveness, and outcomes are among the most valued health care products, significant issues must be addressed regarding ostomy products and how persons with stomas use them. The lack of evidence-based data has a direct impact on the pocketbooks of many patients with ostomies in the United States and their quality of life. Regulators, accrediting agencies, and payers look to WOC nurses and other providers to provide a sound scientific base upon which they can develop standards and regulations that will improve the life of Americans with stomas.

  9. The new EU regulations for food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Comodo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The inspirational principles of the norms known as the “Hygiene package”: the framework of new perspectives on food safety. At the beginning of the 1980s, all member states of the World Trade Organisation (WTO subscribed to international agreements regarding strategies for food production and its marketing. These agreements, known as TRIPS (Agreement on Trade- Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, GATS (General Agreement on Trade in Services and TRIMS (Agreement on Trade-Related Investment Measures [1] signalled the beginning of a new, globalized, commercial strategy on food products which has also caused importantrepercussions within the European boundaries, but with some fundamental differences.

  10. Dynamics in National Agri-environmental Policy implementation under Changing EU Policy Priorities: does one size fit all?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Jens Peter; Frederiksen, Pia; Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, Agri-Environmental Policies (AEP) in the EU have developed with relative nationalautonomy and according to the subsidiarity principle. The environmental directives represent an increasein EU-level environmental ambitions and challenge the current implementation of EU AEP b...

  11. A compilation of current regulations, standards and guidelines in remote afterloading brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tortorelli, J.P.; Simion, G.P.; Kozlowski, S.D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Over a dozen government and professional organizations in the United States and Europe have issued regulations and guidance concerning quality management in the practice of remote afterloading brachytherapy. Information from the publications of these organizations was collected and collated for this report. This report provides the brachytherapy licensee access to a broad field of quality management information in a single, topically organized document.

  12. 76 FR 19282 - Direct Investment Surveys: Alignment of Regulations With Current Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... eliminated from the regulations are: a survey of foreign direct investment in the U.S. seafood industry (BE... Foreign Person BE-21, Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in U.S. Business Enterprises Engaged in the... established or acquired entity. The data had been used to measure the amount of new foreign direct......

  13. A small potassium current in AgRP/NPY neurons regulates feeding behavior and enery metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neurons that co-express agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) are indispensable for normal feeding behavior. Firing activities of AgRP/NPY neurons are dynamically regulated by energy status and coordinate appropriate feeding behavior to meet nutritional demands. However, intrinsic m...

  14. Current Developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnt Nielsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The most important amendments to the Brussels I Regulation as adopted during the recast negotiations are presented and discussed. The author focuses on four subjects: first, the application of Brussels I to cases where the defendant is domiciled outside the EU; second, the abolition of exequatur;......; third, the improved efficiency of exclusive choice-of-court agreements; and, fourth, the relationship between litigation and arbitration....

  15. From EuCARD to EuCARD-2

    CERN Multimedia

    Chaudron, M

    2013-01-01

    The one word that best describes the spirit of the EuCARD ’13 event (see here) that took place from 10 to 14 June at CERN is "collaboration". The event brought together more than 180 accelerator specialists from all over the world to celebrate the conclusion of the EuCARD project and to kick off its successor, EuCARD-2.   EuCARD-2 brings a global view to particle accelerator research in order to address challenges for future generations of accelerators. The project officially began on 1 May 2013 and will run for four years. With a total budget of €23.4 million, including an €8 million EU contribution, it will build upon the success of EuCARD and push it into an even more innovative regime. EuCARD-2 aims to significantly enhance multidisciplinary R&D for European accelerators and will actively contribute to the development of a European Research Area in accelerator science. This will be accomplished by promoting complementary expertise, cross-d...

  16. Improving EU biofuels policy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swinbank, Alan; Daugbjerg, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    in the WTO, as there would be a clearer link between policy measures and the objective of reductions in GHG emissions; and the combination of the revised RED and the FQD would lessen the commercial incentive to import biofuels with modest GHG emission savings, and thus reduce the risk of trade tension.......Both the EU's Renewable Energy Directive (RED) and Article 7a of its Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) seek to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transport fuels. The RED mandates a 10% share of renewable energy in transport fuels by 2020, whilst the FQD requires a 6% reduction in GHG emissions...... (from a 2010 base) by the same date. In practice, it will mainly be biofuels that economic operators will use to meet these requirements, but the different approaches can lead to either the RED, or the FQD, acting as the binding constraint. A common set of environmental sustainability criteria apply...

  17. EU Cadzie project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naaim, M.

    2009-04-01

    The CADZIE project received nearly € 700,000 funding under the energy, environment and sustainable development section of the Fifth Framework Programme (FP5). Several scientists from France, Italy, Norway, Austria, Iceland and Switzerland were involved in this initiative, under the co-ordination of the Cemagref institute in Grenoble, France. The initiative was created in response to the extreme avalanche winter of 1999, during which 83 people were killed across Europe. Avalanche protection relies on two key processes: structural measures such as building defence structures to stop and / or contain the avalanche flow and non structural measures such as zoning the exposed areas. The consortium investigated these two areas in order to improve overall protection methods. This EU-funded collaboration has led to the development of more accurate methods for mapping and protection design.

  18. Dissociation of the store-operated calcium current ICRAC and the Mg-nucleotide-regulated metal ion current MagNuM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosura, Meredith C; Monteilh-Zoller, Mahealani K; Scharenberg, Andrew M; Penner, Reinhold; Fleig, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Rat basophilic leukaemia cells (RBL-2H3-M1) were used to study the characteristics of the store-operated Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ current (ICRAC) and the magnesium-nucleotide-regulated metal cation current (MagNuM) (which is conducted by the LTRPC7 channel). Pipette solutions containing 10 mm BAPTA and no added ATP induced both currents in the same cell, but the time to half-maximal activation for MagNuM was about two to three times slower than that of ICRAC. Differential suppression of ICRAC was achieved by buffering free [Ca2+]i to 90 nm and selective inhibition of MagNuM was accomplished by intracellular solutions containing 6 mm Mg.ATP, 1.2 mm free [Mg2+]i or 100 μm GTP-γ-S, allowing investigations on these currents in relative isolation. Removal of extracellular Ca2+ and Mg2+ caused both currents to be carried significantly by monovalent ions. In the absence or presence of free [Mg2+]i, ICRAC carried by monovalent ions inactivated more rapidly and more completely than MagNuM carried by monovalent ions. Since several studies have used divalent-free solutions on either side of the membrane to study selectivity and single-channel behaviour of ICRAC, these experimental conditions would have favoured the contribution of MagNuM to monovalent conductance and call for caution in interpreting results where both ICRAC and MagNuM are activated. PMID:11882677

  19. Voltage-gated K+ currents in mouse articular chondrocytes regulate membrane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert B; Hatano, Noriyuki; Kondo, Colleen; Belke, Darrell D; Brown, Barry S; Kumar, Sanjay; Votta, Bartholomew J; Giles, Wayne R

    2010-01-01

    Membrane currents and resting potential of isolated primary mouse articular chondrocytes maintained in monolayer cell culture for 1-9 days were recorded using patch clamp methods. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that the most abundantly expressed transcript of voltage-gated K(+) channels was for K(V)1.6, and immunological methods confirmed the expression of K(V)1.6 α-subunit proteins. These chondrocytes expressed a large time- and potential-dependent, Ca(2+)-independent 'delayed rectifier' K(+) current. Steady-state activation was well-fit by a Boltzmann function with a threshold near -50 mV, and a half-activation potential of -34.5 mV. The current was 50% blocked by 1.48 mM tetraethylammonium, 0.66 mM 4-aminopyridine and 20.6 nM α-dendrotoxin. The current inactivated very slowly at membrane potentials in the range of the resting potential of the chondrocytes. Resting membrane potential of the chondrocytes at room temperature (19-21°C) and in 5 mM external K(+) was -46.4 ± 1.3 mV (mean ± s.e.m; n = 23), near the 'foot' of the activation curve of this K(+) current. Resting potential was depolarized by an average of 4.2 ± 0.8 mV by 25 mM TEA, which blocked about 95% of the K(+) current. At a membrane potential of -50 mV, the apparent time constant of inactivation (tau(in)) was 37.9 s, and the 'steady-state' current level was 19% of that at a holding potential of -90 mV; at -40 mV, tau(in) was 20.3 s, and 'steady-state' current was 5% of that at -90 mV. These results demonstrate that in these primary cultured, mouse articular chondrocytes steady-state activation of a voltage-gated K(+) current contributes to resting membrane potential. However, this current is also likely to have a significant physiological role in repolarizing the chondrocyte following depolarizing stimuli that might occur in conditions of membrane stretch. For example, activation of TRP('transient receptor potential') non-specific cation channels in these cells during cyclic loading and unloading

  20. Visinin-like neuronal calcium sensor proteins regulate the slow calcium-activated afterhyperpolarizing current in the rat cerebral cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Claudio; Andrade, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    Many neurons in the nervous systems express afterhyperpolarizations that are mediated by a slow calcium-activated potassium current. This current shapes neuronal firing and is inhibited by neuromodulators, suggesting an important role in the regulation of neuronal function. Surprisingly, very little is currently known about the molecular basis for this current or how it is gated by calcium. Recently, the neuronal calcium sensor protein hippocalcin was identified as a calcium sensor for the slow afterhyperpolarizing current in the hippocampus. However, while hippocalcin is very strongly expressed in the hippocampus, this protein shows a relatively restricted distribution in the brain. Furthermore, the genetic deletion of this protein only partly reduces the slow hyperpolarizing current in hippocampus. These considerations question whether hippocalcin can be the sole calcium sensor for the slow afterhyperpolarizing current. Here we use loss of function and overexpression strategies to show that hippocalcin functions as a calcium sensor for the slow afterhyperpolarizing current in the cerebral cortex, an area where hippocalcin is expressed at much lower levels than in hippocampus. In addition we show that neurocalcin δ, but not VILIP-2, can also act as a calcium sensor for the slow afterhyperpolarizing current. Finally we show that hippocalcin and neurocalcin δ both increase the calcium sensitivity of the afterhyperpolarizing current but do not alter its sensitivity to inhibition by carbachol acting through the Gαq-11-PLCβ signaling cascade. These results point to a general role for a subgroup of visinin-like neuronal calcium sensor proteins in the activation of the slow calcium-activated afterhyperpolarizing current. PMID:20980592

  1. Scientific Opinion on the risk of Dickeya dianthicola for the EU territory with identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The EFSA Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Dickeya dianthicola for the EU territory under the scenario of current EU plant health legislation and identified and evaluated risk reduction options. The probability of entry was considered low for carnation cuttings and mother plants because association of D. dianthicola with carnation is rare nowadays. Probability of entry was considered higher for other host plants for planting that are not subject to statutory control. However, this pathogen already occurs in these crops in the EU, and its transfer from them to carnation is unlikely. The probability of establishment is high in the open field but low in protected crops. The probability of spread is moderate in the open field but low in protected crops. Under current phytosanitary measures, but with voluntary certification and sanitation practices in place, consequences for carnation are minimal since no carnation crop losses have been reported in the last 25 years. The risk reduction options with best effectiveness and feasibility are those addressing the sanitary status of the propagation material. However, although the prevalence of D. dianthicola on carnation is low at present, current EU measures appear to have some potential weaknesses, particularly because of lack of details on the testing of mother plants. If the current regulation were to be removed, no major consequences or changes in the potential impact of D. dianthicola are expected provided the current general hygiene practices applied in the European voluntary certification schemes are maintained. If, on the other hand, the current legislation were removed and a voluntary certification scheme was not maintained, contamination of carnation crops by D. dianthicola is expected, with ensuing detrimental effects. Additional risk reduction options to reduce the probability of entry, establishment, spread and impact were identified. Uncertainties on the

  2. A Low Input Current and Wide Conversion Ratio Buck Regulator with 75% Efficiency for High-Voltage Triboelectric Nanogenerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Li-Chuan; Bao, De-Chun; Yu, Wu-Qi; Zhang, Zhao-Hua; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2016-01-01

    It is meaningful to research the Triboelectric Nanogenerators (TENG), which can create electricity anywhere and anytime. There are many researches on the structures and materials of TENG to explain the phenomenon that the maximum voltage is stable and the current is increasing. The output voltage of the TENG is high about 180-400 V, and the output current is small about 39 μA, which the electronic devices directly integration of TENG with Li-ion batteries will result in huge energy loss due to the ultrahigh TENG impedance. A novel interface circuit with the high-voltage buck regulator for TENG is introduced firstly in this paper. The interface circuit can transfer the output signal of the TENG into the signal fit to a lithium ion battery. Through the circuit of the buck regulator, the average output voltage is about 4.0 V and the average output current is about 1.12 mA. Further, the reliability and availability for the lithium ion battery and the circuit are discussed. The interface circuit is simulated using the Cadence software and verified through PCB experiment. The buck regulator can achieve 75% efficiency for the High-Voltage TENG. This will lead to a research hot and industrialization applications.

  3. Regulating coexistence of GM and non-GM crops without jeopardizing economic incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demont, Matty; Devos, Yann

    2008-07-01

    The ongoing debate about the coexistence of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM crops in the European Union (EU) mainly focuses on preventive measures needed to keep the adventitious presence of GM material in non-GM products below established tolerance thresholds, as well as on issues covering questions of liability and the duty to redress the incurred economic harm once adventitious mixing in non-GM products has occurred. By contrast, the interplay between the economic incentives and costs of coexistence has attracted little attention. The current overemphasis on the technical aspects and cost of coexistence over its economic incentives might lead EU policy-makers to adopt too stringent and rigid regulations on coexistence. Therefore, we argue for flexible coexistence regulations that explicitly take into account the economic incentives for coexistence. Our arguments provide a timely and important framework for EU policy-makers, who are currently struggling to implement coherent coexistence regulations in all member states.

  4. Inward Rectifier K+ Currents Are Regulated by CaMKII in Endothelial Cells of Primarily Cultured Bovine Pulmonary Arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Qu

    Full Text Available Endothelium lines the interior surface of vascular walls and regulates vascular tones. The endothelial cells sense and respond to chemical and mechanical stimuli in the circulation, and couple the stimulus signals to vascular smooth muscles, in which inward rectifier K+ currents (Kir play an important role. Here we applied several complementary strategies to determine the Kir subunit in primarily cultured pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs that was regulated by the Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII. In whole-cell voltage clamp, the Kir currents were sensitive to micromolar concentrations of extracellular Ba2+. In excised inside-out patches, an inward rectifier K+ current was observed with single-channel conductance 32.43 ± 0.45 pS and Popen 0.27 ± 0.04, which were consistent with known unitary conductance of Kir 2.1. RT-PCR and western blot results showed that expression of Kir 2.1 was significantly stronger than that of other subtypes in PAECs. Pharmacological analysis of the Kir currents demonstrated that insensitivity to intracellular ATP, pinacidil, glibenclamide, pH, GDP-β-S and choleratoxin suggested that currents weren't determined by KATP, Kir2.3, Kir2.4 and Kir3.x. The currents were strongly suppressed by exposure to CaMKII inhibitor W-7 and KN-62. The expression of Kir2.1 was inhibited by knocking down CaMKII. Consistently, vasodilation was suppressed by Ba2+, W-7 and KN-62 in isolated and perfused pulmonary arterial rings. These results suggest that the PAECs express an inward rectifier K+ current that is carried dominantly by Kir2.1, and this K+ channel appears to be targeted by CaMKII-dependent intracellular signaling systems.

  5. The role of network bridging organisations in compensation payments for agri-environmental services under the EU Common Agricultural Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedeurwaerdere, Tom; Polard, Audrey; Melindi-Ghidi, Paolo

    2015-11-01

    Compensation payments to farmers for the provision of agri-environmental services are a well-established policy scheme under the EU Common Agricultural Policy. However, in spite of the success in most EU countries in the uptake of the programme by farmers, the impact of the scheme on the long term commitment of farmers to change their practices remains poorly documented. To explore this issue, this paper presents the results of structured field interviews and a quantitative survey in the Walloon Region of Belgium. The main finding of this study is that farmers who have periodic contacts with network bridging organisations that foster cooperation and social learning in the agri-environmental landscapes show a higher commitment to change. This effect is observed both for farmers with high and low concern for biodiversity depletion. Support for network bridging organisations is foreseen under the EU Leader programme and the EU regulation 1306/2013, which could open-up interesting opportunities for enhancing the effectiveness of the current payment scheme for agri-environmental services.

  6. EU-Russia Cultural Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sidorova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the link between culture and diplomacy between Russia and the European Union, and shows the importance of cultural relations. It examines the common space of science, education and culture introduced at the 2003 EU-Russia Summit in St. Petersburg and the application of the principles of this concept that were established at the 2005 EU-Russia Summit in Moscow. It then considers EU-Russia collaboration on humanitarian action and the challenges that both parties face in this sphere. It also explains the formation of EU domestic and foreign cultural policy, and the role of European institutions and states in cultural affairs and diplomacy, as well as key elements and mechanisms of contemporary Russian foreign cultural policy. In addition, the article focuses on the European side of post-Soviet EU-Russia cultural relations. This cultural collaboration is defined as a competitive neighbourhood. EU and Russian interests collide: while Europeans try to promote their values, norms and standards within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy, Russia seeks to culturally influence and engage in this region for geostrategic and historical reasons. Finally, the article assesses the prospects for the EU-Russia cultural relations and emphasizes the role of ideology in improving such relations.

  7. Implementation issues on the design of current loops based on resonant regulators for isolated microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, de Bosio; Pastorelli, Michele; Antonio DeSouza Ribeiro, Luiz;

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of state feedback coupling between the capacitor voltage and inductor current in voltage source inverters (VSI) operating in stand-alone microgrids. A decoupling technique is proposed as an effective measure to enhance the dynamics. Further implementation issues ...

  8. Regulation of calcium currents and secretion by magnesium in crustacean peptidergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, J E; Sher, E; Keller, R; Haylett, B; Reichwein, B; Cooke, I M

    1995-12-01

    The effect of varying the external Mg2+ concentration on Ca2+ currents through voltage-operated Ca2+ channels has been examined with the patch-clamp technique in acutely isolated neuronal somata from the X-organ-sinus gland (XOSG) of the crab, Cardisoma carnifex. Neurons from this neurosecretory system were selected for morphology associated with crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) content. In parallel, the effects of Mg2+ concentration on K(+)-evoked secretion of CHH from isolated, intact XOSGs have been assayed by ELISA. At physiological Ca2+ levels the high-voltage-activated Ca2+ currents were attenuated with increasing Mg2+ concentration, with 50% inhibition at approximately 75 mM. Mg2+ block was voltage-dependent, relief from block occurring with increasing depolarization. Thus, in 24 mM Mg2+ inhibition of the Ca2+ current was approximately 55% at -10 mV. Secretion of CHH varied almost linearly with the log of Mg2+ concentration; in 2.4 mM Mg2+ it was double that in 24 mM Mg2+ and almost completely inhibited in 100 mM. Thus, Mg2+ produces a parallel inhibition of Ca2+ currents and CHH secretion and may play a role as a physiological modulator of neuronal activity and secretion in the XOSG of these crabs.

  9. Soft regulations in pharmaceutical policy making : an overview of current approaches and their consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wettermark, B.; Godman, B.; Jacobsson, B.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F.M.

    2009-01-01

    It is a challenge to improve public health within limited resources. Pharmaceutical policy making is a greater challenge due to conflicting interests between key stakeholder groups. This paper reviews current and future strategies to help improve the quality and efficiency of care, with special emph

  10. Shared Solar. Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brockway, Anna M. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Ulrich, Elaine [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report provides a high-level overview of the current U.S. shared solar landscape and the impact that a given shared solar program’s structure has on requiring federal securities oversight, as well as an estimate of market potential for U.S. shared solar deployment.

  11. Shared Solar. Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brockway, Anna M. [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Ulrich, Elaine [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-07

    This report provides a high-level overview of the current U.S. shared solar landscape, the impact that a given shared solar program’s structure has on requiring federal securities oversight, as well as an estimate of market potential for U.S. shared solar deployment.

  12. GABAA receptor β3 subunit expression regulates tonic current in developing striatopallidal medium spiny neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan eJanssen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is a key structure for movement control, but the mechanisms that dictate the output of distinct subpopulations of medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs, striatonigral projecting and dopamine D1 receptor- (D1+ or striatopallidal projecting and dopamine D2 receptor- (D2+ expressing neurons, remains poorly understood. GABA-mediated tonic inhibition largely controls neuronal excitability and action potential firing rates, and we previously suggested with pharmacological analysis that the GABAA receptor β3 subunit plays a large role in the basal tonic current seen in D2+ MSNs from young mice (Ade et al, 2008; Janssen et al, 2009. In this study, we demonstrated the essential role of the β3 GABAA receptor subunit in mediating MSN tonic currents using conditional β3 subunit knock-out (β3f/fDrd2 mice. Cre-lox genetics were used to generate conditional knock-out animals where Cre recombinase was expressed under the D2 receptor (Drd2 promoter. We show that while the wild-type MSN tonic current pattern demonstrates a high degree of variability, tonic current patterns from β3f/fDrd2 mice are narrow, suggesting that the β3 subunit is essential to striatal MSN GABA-mediated tonic current. Our data also suggest that a distinct population of synaptic receptors upregulate due to β3 subunit removal. Further, deletion of this subunit significantly decreases the D2+ MSN excitability. These results offer insight for target mechanisms in Parkinson’s disease, where symptoms arise due to the imbalance in striatal D1+ and D2+ MSN excitability and output.

  13. CURRENT WAGE AND LABOR REGULATION PROBLEMS IN RUSSIAN RESTRAURANTS END HOTELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sh. Kachalova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, considerable disproportions take place in Russia between organizational, regulatory, social and economic relations actually existing in restaurant and hotel business enterprises on one part and provisions of their legal law basic norms and regulations on the other part. Labor organization and normative practice improvement directions are proposed for enterprises of the branch. Economic essence of the “tipping” phenomenon is revealed. Measures aimed at elimination of overcoming wage rise rates in comparison with those of the labor productivity presently existing in the branch.

  14. Not for designers: on the inadequacies of EU design law and how to fix it

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Margoni

    2013-01-01

    Design rights represent an interesting example of how the EU legislature has successfully regulated an otherwise heterogeneous field of law. Yet this type of protection is not for all. The tools created by EU intervention have been drafted paying much more attention to the industry sector rather tha

  15. Management of nitrogen inputs on farm within the EU regulatory framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berge, ten H.F.M.; Dijk, van W.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) use in EU countries is regulated by so-called Action Programmes (APs) set by member states in response to the EU Nitrates Directive (ND). APs apply specifically to 'Nitrate Vulnerable Zones' (NVZs) within countries. More generally, the ND asks countries to define a Code of Good Agricult

  16. Influence of electroosmotic flow on the ionic current rectification in a pH-regulated, conical nanopore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dong-Huei; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Tseng, Shiojenn; Hsu, Jyh-Ping

    2015-09-01

    The ionic current rectification (ICR) is studied theoretically by considering a pH-regulated, conical nanopore. In particular, the effect of electroosmotic flow (EOF), which was often neglected in previous studies, is investigated by solving a set of coupled Poisson, Nernst-Planck, and Navier-Stokes equations. The behaviors of ICR under various conditions are examined by varying solution pH, bulk ionic concentration, and applied electric potential bias. We show that the EOF effect is significant when the bulk ionic concentration is medium high, the pH is far away from the iso-electric point, and the electric potential bias is high. The percentage deviation in the current rectification ratio arising from neglecting the EOF effect can be on the order of 100%. In addition, the behavior of the current rectification ratio at a high pH taking account of EOF is different both qualitatively and quantitatively from that without taking account of EOF.

  17. Jurisdiction Over Cybertorts in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    The article analyses EU jurisdiction rules for civil and commercial tort cases involving the use of the Internet (cybertorts). Since cybertorts have multiplied globally, determination of the appropriate forum in which to recover damages is of paramount importance. Brussels I Regulation (Recast......) contains rules on general jurisdiction, which have largely been unproblematic and rules on special jurisdiction, which have been subject to intense interpretation in the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU). The CJEU case law on special jurisdiction in cybertorts is divided into two groups: cases...

  18. Could EU herbal monographs contribute to Malta's treatment armamentarium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, B; Attard, E; Serracino-Inglott, A; Borg, J J

    2015-03-15

    Ten years have passed since Directive 2004/24/EC regulating herbal medicinal products across the EU were published. The directive created the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products within the European Medicines Agency whose remit includes the creation and publishing of official EU monographs on herbal medicinal products. These monographs include the official uses of the products and their evidence for efficacy and safety. To this effect, we are interested in analysing the potential impact herbal product EU monographs could have on the therapeutic treatment options available for prescribers in Malta. Therefore our aim was two-fold. First, to rationalise the spread of indications of the herbal substances listed in the community herbal monograph inventory and subsequently determine if these herbal substances could potentially contribute to the treatment options available in our local scenario (Malta). 128 EU monographs were analysed resulting in a total of 230 indications which subsequently codified into 42 unique ATC codes. The Malta Medicines List contains 1456 unique ATC codes. Comparative analysis of the Malta Medicines List revealed that the 21 therapeutic areas had 4 or less pharmaceutically used substances (5th level ATC codes) registered and therefore in our opinion are areas with limited therapeutic choice. The following 4 therapeutic areas, A05 bile and liver therapy, A13 tonics, A15 appetite stimulants and D03 preparations for treatment of wounds and ulcers, could potentially benefit from the registration of herbal medicinal products according to the EU herbal monographs. If such registration is effected the aforementioned areas would no longer be considered limited because more than 4 therapeutic choices would be available to prescribers. This study is the first study across the EU to analyse the potential impact of published EU herbal monographs on therapeutic coverage in an EU member state and confirms the notion that herbal products could potentially

  19. The General Principles of EU Administrative Law - An in-depth analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY: 1. What are General Principles of EU Administrative Procedural Law? — 1.1. Sources of General Principles of EU Administrative Procedural Law. — 1.2. Nature of general principles of EU administrative procedural law. — 2. Why Formulate General Principles of EU Administrative Procedural Law as Recitals of a Regulation? — 2.1. Reasons in favour of recitals as a locus for general principles. — 2.2. Structure and wording of recitals. — 3. Proposed Recitals on General Princip...

  20. Current concepts of IgE regulation and impact of genetic determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potaczek, D P; Kabesch, M

    2012-06-01

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) mediated immune responses seem to be directed against parasites and neoplasms, but are best known for their involvement in allergies. The IgE network is tightly controlled at different levels as outlined in this review. Genetic determinants were suspected to influence IgE regulation and IgE levels considerably for many years. Linkage and candidate gene studies suggested a number of loci and genes to correlate with total serum IgE levels, and recently genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provided the power to identify genetic determinants for total serum IgE levels: 1q23 (FCER1A), 5q31 (RAD50, IL13, IL4), 12q13 (STAT6), 6p21.3 (HLA-DRB1) and 16p12 (IL4R, IL21R). In this review, we analyse the potential role of these GWAS hits in the IgE network and suggest mechanisms of how genes and genetic variants in these loci may influence IgE regulation.

  1. Current view on regulation of voltage-gated sodium channels by calcium and auxiliary proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Geoffrey S; Lee, Seok-Yong

    2016-09-01

    In cardiac and skeletal myocytes, and in most neurons, the opening of voltage-gated Na(+) channels (NaV channels) triggers action potentials, a process that is regulated via the interactions of the channels' intercellular C-termini with auxiliary proteins and/or Ca(2+) . The molecular and structural details for how Ca(2+) and/or auxiliary proteins modulate NaV channel function, however, have eluded a concise mechanistic explanation and details have been shrouded for the last decade behind controversy about whether Ca(2+) acts directly upon the NaV channel or through interacting proteins, such as the Ca(2+) binding protein calmodulin (CaM). Here, we review recent advances in defining the structure of NaV intracellular C-termini and associated proteins such as CaM or fibroblast growth factor homologous factors (FHFs) to reveal new insights into how Ca(2+) affects NaV function, and how altered Ca(2+) -dependent or FHF-mediated regulation of NaV channels is perturbed in various disease states through mutations that disrupt CaM or FHF interaction.

  2. Het belang van EU-klimaatbeleid voor Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honig E; Voogt MH; Harmelink MGM; Ecofys; LAE

    2002-01-01

    This report supplies an overview of current EU climate policy, and analyses its added value to Dutch climate policy. A distiction is made between current policy (already implemented) and future policy (nearly implemented). Future policy is divided in categories 'mature' and 'in the pipeline',

  3. Contribution of presynaptic calcium-activated potassium currents to transmitter release regulation in cultured Xenopus nerve-muscle synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattillo, J M; Yazejian, B; DiGregorio, D A; Vergara, J L; Grinnell, A D; Meriney, S D

    2001-01-01

    Using Xenopus nerve-muscle co-cultures, we have examined the contribution of calcium-activated potassium (K(Ca)) channels to the regulation of transmitter release evoked by single action potentials. The presynaptic varicosities that form on muscle cells in these cultures were studied directly using patch-clamp recording techniques. In these developing synapses, blockade of K(Ca) channels with iberiotoxin or charybdotoxin decreased transmitter release by an average of 35%. This effect would be expected to be caused by changes in the late phases of action potential repolarization. We hypothesize that these changes are due to a reduction in the driving force for calcium that is normally enhanced by the local hyperpolarization at the active zone caused by potassium current through the K(Ca) channels that co-localize with calcium channels. In support of this hypothesis, we have shown that when action potential waveforms were used as voltage-clamp commands to elicit calcium current in varicosities, peak calcium current was reduced only when these waveforms were broadened beginning when action potential repolarization was 20% complete. In contrast to peak calcium current, total calcium influx was consistently increased following action potential broadening. A model, based on previously reported properties of ion channels, faithfully reproduced predicted effects on action potential repolarization and calcium currents. From these data, we suggest that the large-conductance K(Ca) channels expressed at presynaptic varicosities regulate transmitter release magnitude during single action potentials by altering the rate of action potential repolarization, and thus the magnitude of peak calcium current.

  4. Wave Dragon Buoyancy Regulation Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jens; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    Wave Dragon is a wave energy converter, which was deployed offshore at Nissum Bredning in Denmark in 2003. The experience gained from operating Wave Dragon during 2003 and 2004 has shown that the buoyancy regulation system can be improved in a number of ways. This study describes the current situ...... situation, and proposes a number of activities in order to improve the buoyancy regulation system. This work was performed under EU ENERGIE contract no. ENK5-CT-2002-00603, and is a contribution to WP 2.3/2.4 and D40/D41....

  5. β-Secretase BACE1 regulates hippocampal and reconstituted M-currents in a β-subunit-like fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessler, Sabine; Zheng, Fang; Hartmann, Stephanie; Rittger, Andrea; Lehnert, Sandra; Völkel, Meike; Nissen, Matthias; Edelmann, Elke; Saftig, Paul; Schwake, Michael; Huth, Tobias; Alzheimer, Christian

    2015-02-25

    The β-secretase BACE1 is widely known for its pivotal role in the amyloidogenic pathway leading to Alzheimer's disease, but how its action on transmembrane proteins other than the amyloid precursor protein affects the nervous system is only beginning to be understood. We report here that BACE1 regulates neuronal excitability through an unorthodox, nonenzymatic interaction with members of the KCNQ (Kv7) family that give rise to the M-current, a noninactivating potassium current with slow kinetics. In hippocampal neurons from BACE1(-/-) mice, loss of M-current enhanced neuronal excitability. We relate the diminished M-current to the previously reported epileptic phenotype of BACE1-deficient mice. In HEK293T cells, BACE1 amplified reconstituted M-currents, altered their voltage dependence, accelerated activation, and slowed deactivation. Biochemical evidence strongly suggested that BACE1 physically associates with channel proteins in a β-subunit-like fashion. Our results establish BACE1 as a physiologically essential constituent of regular M-current function and elucidate a striking new feature of how BACE1 impacts on neuronal activity in the intact and diseased brain. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/353298-14$15.00/0.

  6. Modulation of inhibitory strength and kinetics facilitates regulation of persistent inward currents and motoneuron excitability following spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Sharmila; Hamm, Thomas M; Crook, Sharon M; Jung, Ranu

    2011-11-01

    Spasticity is commonly observed after chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) and many other central nervous system disorders (e.g., multiple sclerosis, stroke). SCI-induced spasticity has been associated with motoneuron hyperexcitability partly due to enhanced activation of intrinsic persistent inward currents (PICs). Disrupted spinal inhibitory mechanisms also have been implicated. Altered inhibition can result from complex changes in the strength, kinetics, and reversal potential (E(Cl(-))) of γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABA(A)) and glycine receptor currents. Development of optimal therapeutic strategies requires an understanding of the impact of these interacting factors on motoneuron excitability. We employed computational methods to study the effects of conductance, kinetics, and E(Cl(-)) of a dendritic inhibition on PIC activation and motoneuron discharge. A two-compartment motoneuron with enhanced PICs characteristic of SCI and receiving recurrent inhibition from Renshaw cells was utilized in these simulations. This dendritic inhibition regulated PIC onset and offset and exerted its strongest effects at motoneuron recruitment and in the secondary range of the current-frequency relationship during PIC activation. Increasing inhibitory conductance compensated for moderate depolarizing shifts in E(Cl(-)) by limiting PIC activation and self-sustained firing. Furthermore, GABA(A) currents exerted greater control on PIC activation than glycinergic currents, an effect attributable to their slower kinetics. These results suggest that modulation of the strength and kinetics of GABA(A) currents could provide treatment strategies for uncontrollable spasms.

  7. ErbB receptors and PKC regulate PC12 neuronal-like differentiation and sodium current elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, L; Castillo, C; Carballo, J; Rodríguez, Y; Forsyth, P; Medina, R; Martínez, J C; Longart, M

    2013-04-16

    Excitability, neurite outgrowth and their specification are very important features in the establishment of neuronal differentiation. We have studied a conditioned medium (CM) from sciatic nerve which is able to induce a neuronal-like differentiation of PC12 cells. Previously, we have demonstrated that supplementing this CM with a generic inhibitor (k252a), which mainly inhibits tropomyosin-related kinase receptors (Trk receptors) and protein kinase C (PKC), caused neurite elongation, sodium current induction and axon development. In the present work, we are showing that the enhancement of neurite length and induction of sodium currents induced by CM+k252a were prevented by ErbB receptor inhibition. Additionally, we demonstrated that specific inhibition of PKC produced a similar effect to that exerted by k252a in CM-treated cells, specifically by increasing the percentage of differentiated cells with long neurites and inducing sodium currents. Moreover, CM changed the mRNA levels for ErbB2 and ErbB3 increasing them 6- and 36-folds respectively compared to their control. The inclusion of k252a with CM changed the ErbB1, ErbB2 and ErbB3 mRNA proportions increasing those eight-, seven- and fivefolds respectively. From this point, it is clear that appropriate ErbB receptor levels and PKC inhibition are necessary to enhance the effect of the CM in inducing the neuronal-like differentiation of PC12 cells. In summary, we demonstrated the involvement of ErbB receptors in the regulation of neurite elongation and sodium current induction in PC12 cells and propose that these processes could be initiated by ErbB receptors followed by a fine regulation of PKC signaling. These findings might implicate a novel interplay between ErbB receptors and PKC in the regulation of these molecular mechanisms.

  8. EU Smart City Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years European Commission has developed a set of documents for Members States tracing, directly or indirectly, recommendations for the transformation of the European city. The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City. Although the three main documents (Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 of European Community, Digital Agenda for Europe and European Urban Agenda face the issue of the future development of European cities from different points of view, which are respectively cohesion social, ICT and urban dimension, each of them pays particular attention to urban and territorial dimension, identified by the name of Smart City. In other words, the paper aims at drawing the scenario of evolution of Smart Cities that can be delineated through the contextual reading of the three documents. To this end, the paper is divided into three parts: the first part briefly describes the general contents of the three European economic plan tools; the second part illustrates the scenarios for the future of the European city contained in each document; the third part seeks to trace the evolution of the Smart Cities issue developed by the set of the three instruments, in order to provide the framework of European Community for the near future of our cities. 

  9. GENERAL OVERWIEV ON EU ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA GEORGETA PANAIT

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the international economic crisis on new EU member states has proven to be more severe than the first estimates of the economic analysts. The situation is different for each Member State, the nature and the dimension of the challenges faced are not identical, and the pace of reform is not the same. The economic crisis has prompted intense and sustained action by the EU's national governments, the European Central Bank and the Commission. All have been working closely together to support growth and employment, ensure financial stability, and put in place a better governance system for the future. Sustainable development in the future is the common responsibility of all Member States and EU institutions, because our economies are closely interlinked, and the EU economic governance now reconfigured to provide more effective responses at the policy level, to give a good reaction to the present and the future challenges.

  10. Review of current and anticipated regulations on air protection in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jilek, P.; Novotny, V. [Ministry of the Environment of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    Environmental issues, especially the solution of the air pollution problem, have taken on great significance in the Czech Republic (which was a part of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic until the end of 1992) since the 1989 {open_quotes}Velvet{close_quotes} Revolution. The former CSFR Federal Committee for the Environment and both the Republic Ministries started immediately with creating new environmental legislation, which is the main governmental tool for protecting the environment in the newly developing democracy state system with a market oriented economy. The inspiration for that activity was found in legislation of developed countries - member states of the European Union, and in German environmental law in particular. This paper surveys the major laws and regulations that gradually came into force in the Czech Republic since 1990. The provisions of the primary significance are the Act No.309/1991 S.B., dated July 9, 1991, on the protection of the air against pollutants - The Clean Air Act, the Act No.218/1992 S.B., dated April 27, 1992, which changes and supplements the Act No.309 - The Clean Air Act, the Measure of the Federal Committee for the Environment of October 1, 1991 to the Clean Air Act, and its amended wordings of June 23, 1992, 84/1991 S.B., and 84/1992 S.B., the Act No.389/1991 S.B., dated September 10, 1991 on the state administration of air protection and charges for the pollution of air, and several regulations based on the Act No.389/1991 S.B., issued in the period 1992 -1993.

  11. Aspartame: a safety evaluation based on current use levels, regulations, and toxicological and epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, B A; Burdock, G A; Doull, J; Kroes, R M; Marsh, G M; Pariza, M W; Spencer, P S; Waddell, W J; Walker, R; Williams, G M

    2007-01-01

    Aspartame is a methyl ester of a dipeptide used as a synthetic nonnutritive sweetener in over 90 countries worldwide in over 6000 products. The purpose of this investigation was to review the scientific literature on the absorption and metabolism, the current consumption levels worldwide, the toxicology, and recent epidemiological studies on aspartame. Current use levels of aspartame, even by high users in special subgroups, remains well below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Food Safety Authority established acceptable daily intake levels of 50 and 40 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. Consumption of large doses of aspartame in a single bolus dose will have an effect on some biochemical parameters, including plasma amino acid levels and brain neurotransmitter levels. The rise in plasma levels of phenylalanine and aspartic acid following administration of aspartame at doses less than or equal to 50 mg/kg bw do not exceed those observed postprandially. Acute, subacute and chronic toxicity studies with aspartame, and its decomposition products, conducted in mice, rats, hamsters and dogs have consistently found no adverse effect of aspartame with doses up to at least 4000 mg/kg bw/day. Critical review of all carcinogenicity studies conducted on aspartame found no credible evidence that aspartame is carcinogenic. The data from the extensive investigations into the possibility of neurotoxic effects of aspartame, in general, do not support the hypothesis that aspartame in the human diet will affect nervous system function, learning or behavior. Epidemiological studies on aspartame include several case-control studies and one well-conducted prospective epidemiological study with a large cohort, in which the consumption of aspartame was measured. The studies provide no evidence to support an association between aspartame and cancer in any tissue. The weight of existing evidence is that aspartame is safe at current levels of consumption as a nonnutritive

  12. Inner Current Loop Analysis and Design Based on Resonant Regulators for Isolated Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, de Bosio; de Sousa Ribeiro, Luiz Antonio; Soares Lima, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    coupling in the design of proportional resonant controllers for these inner loops in voltage source inverters operating in islanded microgrids. It is also shown that the state feedback coupling has an important effect in the performance of the control loops by increasing the steady-state error......Inner current and voltage loops are fundamental in achieving good performance of microgrids based on power electronics voltage source inverters. The analysis and design of these loops are essential for the adequate operation of these systems. This paper investigates the effect of state feedback....... A comparison between different types of proportional+resonant controllers is done. Experimental results verify the theoretical assumptions done....

  13. STUDY OF HIGH-SPIN STATES IN EU-150 AND EU-151

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JONGMAN, [No Value; BACELAR, JCS; VANPOL, J; NYBERG, J; SLETTEN, G; DIONISIO, JS; VIEU, C; LAGRANGE, JM; PAUTRAT, M; Urban, W

    1995-01-01

    High-spin states in Eu-150,Eu-151 were populated by the Xe-136(F-19, xn)Eu-155-xn reaction. Extensive e gamma-, gamma gamma-measurements led to new level schemes of Eu-150,Eu-151. Most observed excitations are interpreted as quasi-rotational bands built on top of multi-p-h states. Enhanced E1 decays

  14. Exploring the structural requirements for jasmonates and related compounds as novel plant growth regulators: a current computational perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke-Xian; Li, Zu-Guang

    2009-11-01

    Jasmonates and related compounds have been highlighted recently in the field of plant physiology and plant molecular biology due to their significant regulatory roles in the signaling pathway for the diverse aspects of plant development and survival. Though a considerable amount of studies concerning their biological effects in different plants have been widely reported, the molecular details of the signaling mechanism are still poorly understood. This review sheds new light on the structural requirements for the bioactivity/property of jasmonic acid derivatives in current computational perspective, which differs from previous research that mainly focus on their biological evaluation, gene and metabolic regulation and the enzymes in their biosynthesis. The computational results may contribute to further understanding the mechanism of drug-receptor interactions in their signaling pathway and designing novel plant growth regulators as high effective ecological pesticides.

  15. Recent experimental results of effects of perfluoroalkyl substances in laboratory animals - Relation to current regulations and guidance values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienthal, Hellmuth; Dieter, Hermann H; Hölzer, Jürgen; Wilhelm, Michael

    2017-03-02

    The detection of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in surface and drinking water from various countries raised the attention to the presence of these chemicals in environmental probes and led to several regulatory actions to limit exposure in human beings. There was particular concern about perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), due to their former wide-spread use. Recently, several institutions published revisions of former regulatory or recommended maximum concentrations in drinking water and food, which are markedly lower than the former values. The present short overview describes the current regulations for PFAS and compares them with the outcome of several experimental studies in laboratory animals at low-level exposure to PFOA and PFOS. In addition, regulations for short-chain PFAS are presented which, due to lack of toxicological information, are evaluated according to the concepts of Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) or the Health-related Indication Values (HRIV).

  16. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator modulators in cystic fibrosis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt BZ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Béla Z Schmidt,1 Jérémy B Haaf,2 Teresinha Leal,2 Sabrina Noel,2 1Stem Cell Biology and Embryology, Department of Development and Regeneration, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, 2Louvain Center for Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium Abstract: Mutations of the CFTR gene cause cystic fibrosis (CF, the most common recessive monogenic disease worldwide. These mutations alter the synthesis, processing, function, or half-life of CFTR, the main chloride channel expressed in the apical membrane of epithelial cells in the airway, intestine, pancreas, and reproductive tract. Lung disease is the most critical manifestation of CF. It is characterized by airway obstruction, infection, and inflammation that lead to fatal tissue destruction. In spite of great advances in early and multidisciplinary medical care, and in our understanding of the pathophysiology, CF is still considerably reducing the life expectancy of patients. This review highlights the current development in pharmacological modulators of CFTR, which aim at rescuing the expression and/or function of mutated CFTR. While only Kalydeco® and Orkambi® are currently available to patients, many other families of CFTR modulators are undergoing preclinical and clinical investigations. Drug repositioning and personalized medicine are particularly detailed in this review as they represent the most promising strategies for restoring CFTR function in CF. Keywords: high-throughput screening, drug repositioning, personalized medicine, precision medicine, potentiators, correctors

  17. Party financing and referendum campaigns in EU member states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Klingeren; M. Orozco; J. van Spanje; C. de Vreese

    2015-01-01

    This study has been prepared by the Amsterdam School of Communication Research (ASCoR), part of the Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, University of Amsterdam (UvA). It comprises 1) an up-to-date inventory of party finance rules within the EU Member States, 2) an overview of the regulations

  18. Measuring and Explaining regulatory Reform in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    Over the last three decades, EU regulation of the internal market has become highly pervasive, affecting practically all the domains of European citizens’ lives. Many studies have focused on understanding the process and causes of regulatory reform. However, these have typically been small...

  19. New EU legislation for risk assessment of GM food: no scientific justification for mandatory animal feeding trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, Harry A; Kok, Esther J; Davies, Howard V

    2013-09-01

    This commentary focuses on the potential added value of and need for (sub)-chronic testing of whole genetically modified (GM) foods in rodents to assess their safety. Such routine testing should not be required since, due to apparent weaknesses in the approach, it does not add to current risk assessment of GM foods. Moreover, the demand for routine testing using animals is in conflict with the European Union (EU) Commission's efforts to reduce animal experimentation. Regulating agencies in the EU are invited to respect the sound scientific principles applied to the risk assessment of foods derived from GM plants and not to interfere in the risk assessment by introducing extra requirements based on pseudo-scientific or political considerations. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Regulation of zebrafish sleep and arousal states: current and prospective approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy N Chiu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Every day, we shift among various states of sleep and arousal to meet the many demands of our bodies and environment. A central puzzle in neurobiology is how the brain controls these behavioral states, which are essential to an animal’s well-being and survival. Mammalian models have predominated sleep and arousal research, although in the past decade, invertebrate models have made significant contributions to our understanding of the genetic underpinnings of behavioral states. More recently, the zebrafish has emerged as a promising model system for sleep and arousal research. Here we review experimental evidence that the zebrafish, a diurnal vertebrate, exhibits fundamental behavioral and neurochemical characteristics of mammalian sleep and arousal. We also propose how specific advantages of the zebrafish can be harnessed to advance the field. These include tractable genetics to identify and manipulate molecular and cellular regulators of behavioral states, optical transparency to facilitate in vivo observation of neural structure and function, and amenability to high-throughput drug screens to discover novel therapies for neurological disorders.

  1. A study of Eu incorporated ZnO thin films: An application of Al/ZnO:Eu/p-Si heterojunction diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgut, G. [Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Science, Erzurum Technical University, Erzurum, 25240 (Turkey); Duman, S., E-mail: sduman@atauni.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ataturk University, Erzurum, 25240 (Turkey); Sonmez, E. [Department of Physics, Faculty of K.K. Education, Ataturk University, Erzurum, 25240 (Turkey); Ozcelik, F.S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ataturk University, Erzurum, 25240 (Turkey)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Eu incorporated ZnO thin films were grown by sol–gel spin coating. • The influence of Eu contribution on features of ZnO was investigated. • Al/ZnO:Eu/p-Si heterojunction diodes were also fabricated. • The diode parameters were calculated from I–V measurements. - Abstract: In present work, the pure and europium (Eu) incorporated zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited with sol-gel spin coating by using zinc acetate dehydrate and Eu (III) chloride salts. The coated films were examined by means of XRD, AFM and UV/VIS spectrophotometer. The ZnO hexagonal wurtzite nanoparticles with (002) preferential direction were observed for all films. The values of crystallite size, micro-strain and surface roughness continuously increased from 21 nm, 1.10 × 10{sup −3} and 2.43 nm to the values of 35.56 nm, 1.98 × 10{sup −3} and 28.99 nm with Eu doping, respectively. The optical band gap value of the pure ZnO initially increased from 3.296 eV to 3.328 eV with Eu doping up to 2 at.% doping level, then it started to decrease with more Eu content. The electrical features of Al/n-ZnO:Eu/p-Si heterojunction diodes were inquired by current-voltage (I–V) measurements at the room temperature.

  2. China-EU Over Ten Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The 10th China-EU Meeting took place in Beijing on November 28, 2007. This was an important annual meeting held at a critical point in the history of China-EU relations. Since this regularly scheduled meeting was first established in 1998, leaders from both China and the EU have met continuously. Over the past decade, many fundamental changes have taken place between China and the EU, and the China-EU relationship has evolved into full strategic partnership.

  3. EU policies on car emissions and fuel quality. Reducing the climate impact from road transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Anne Raaum; Gulbrandsen, Lars H.

    2012-07-01

    Transport is the second biggest source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the EU, and contributes about one-quarter of the EU's total emissions of CO{sub 2}. Significant reductions in GHG emissions from transport are required if the EU is to achieve its long-term climate goals. This report examines the making and implementation of two of the regulations the EU has put in place to lower emissions from the transport sector: the EU's revised Fuel Quality Directive (Directive 2009/30/EC) and the cars/CO{sub 2} regulation (Regulation (EC) 443/2009). It was found that the relevance of various theories of policymaking in the EU varies with different policy phases. A policy-network understanding of EU policymaking is strengthened when assessing the policy-initiation phase. The Commission played a key role in this phase and drafted legislation in close collaboration with the car and oil refining industries. An intergovernmentalist understanding of EU policy-making is strengthened when assessing the decision-making phase. In this phase, member states defending the interests of their domestic industries had strong influence, but the European Parliament played an important role in this phase too, employing its power in the co-decision procedure. Finally, the implementation process is best understood as a multi-level governance process in which several actors and institutions - notably the Commission, member states, industries, and NGOs - influenced the process. (Author)

  4. EU data protection and smart metering. Legal boundary conditions; EU-Datenschutz und Smart Metering. Rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hladjk, Joerg [Praxisgruppe European Data Protection and Privacy, Hunton and Williams, Bruessel (Belgium)

    2011-07-01

    With the introduction of smart metering, the problem of data protection arises. The independent Article 29 Data Protection Group of the European Commission drew up an expert opinion with the intention of explaining the applicable EU data protection regulations for the smart metering technology in the power supply sector. (orig.)

  5. The participation of the German Länder in the EU decision-making process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Panara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article sketches out the main features of the German system of regional participation in the EU decision-making process with the aim of identifying the key strengths and weaknesses of that system. The author will be examining whether the model currently in place allows for a sufficiently rapid and effective response to the EU decision-making process, and whether there is a sufficiently balanced representation of regional and federal interests at the EU level. The article will also contain a proposal as to how the German model of regional participation in the EU decision-making process could be further improved.

  6. A 3 A sink/source current fast transient response low-dropout Gm driven linear regulator*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu Xiuqin; Li Qingwei; Lai Xinquan; Yuan Bing; LiYanming; Zhao Yongrui

    2011-01-01

    A 3 A sink/source Gm-driven CMOS low-dropout regulator (LDO), specially designed for low input voltage and low cost, is presented by utilizing the structure of a current mirror Gm (transconductance) driving technique, which provides high stability as well as a fast load transient response. The proposed LDO was fabricated by a 0.5μm standard CMOS process, and the die size is as small as 1.0 mm2. The proposed LDO dissipates 220 μA of quiescent current in no-load conditions and is able to deliver up to 3 A of load current. The measured results show that the output voltage can be resumed within 2 μs with a less than l mV overshoot and undershoot in the output current step from -1.8 to 1.8 A with a 0.1μs rising and falling time at three 10μF ceramic capacitors.

  7. CURRENT SHEET REGULATION OF SOLAR NEAR-RELATIVISTIC ELECTRON INJECTION HISTORIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agueda, N.; Sanahuja, B. [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain); Vainio, R. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland); Dalla, S. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire (United Kingdom); Lario, D. [Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University (United States)

    2013-03-10

    We present a sample of three large near-relativistic (>50 keV) electron events observed in 2001 by both the ACE and the Ulysses spacecraft, when Ulysses was at high-northern latitudes (>60 Degree-Sign ) and close to 2 AU. Despite the large latitudinal distance between the two spacecraft, electrons injected near the Sun reached both heliospheric locations. All three events were associated with large solar flares, strong decametric type II radio bursts and accompanied by wide (>212 Degree-Sign ) and fast (>1400 km s{sup -1}) coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We use advanced interplanetary transport simulations and make use of the directional intensities observed in situ by the spacecraft to infer the electron injection profile close to the Sun and the interplanetary transport conditions at both low and high latitudes. For the three selected events, we find similar interplanetary transport conditions at different heliolatitudes for a given event, with values of the mean free path ranging from 0.04 AU to 0.27 AU. We find differences in the injection profiles inferred for each spacecraft. We investigate the role that sector boundaries of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) have on determining the characteristics of the electron injection profiles. Extended injection profiles, associated with coronal shocks, are found if the magnetic footpoints of the spacecraft lay in the same magnetic sector as the associated flare, while intermittent sparse injection episodes appear when the spacecraft footpoints are in the opposite sector or a wrap in the HCS bounded the CME structure.

  8. [Role of calcineurin in down-regulation of left ventricular transmural voltage- dependent K(+) currents in mice with heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chen-Xia; Dong, Fang; Chang, Yan-Chao; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Yan-Fang

    2015-08-25

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of calcineurin in the down-regulation of left ventricular transmural voltage-dependent K(+) currents in heart failure. Transverse aorta was banded by using microsurgical techniques to create mouse heart failure model. Sham-operated (Sham) or aorta banded (Band) mice were randomized to receive calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA) or vehicle. The densities and kinetic properties of voltage-dependent K(+) currents, as well as action potential (AP), of left ventricular subendocardial (Endo) and subepicardial (Epi) myocytes were determined by using whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The results showed that calcineurin activity was significant higher in Endo myocytes than that in Epi ones in all the groups. Compared with Sham group, Band mice showed significantly increased calcineurin activity both in Endo and Epi myocytes. CsA significantly reduced calcineurin activity in Band mice. CsA treatment in Band mice partially reversed the down-regulation of Ito density, completely reversed the down-regulation of IK,slow density both in Endo and Epi myocytes, and Iss density in Endo myocytes. In addition, CsA treatment in Band mice partially antagonized the prolongation of action potential duration (APD), and APD at 50% (APD50) and 90% repolarization (APD90) were significantly reduced. Because of non-parallel shortening of APD in Endo and Epi myocytes, the ratio of Endo/Epi APD90 was reduced from 4.8:1 in Band mice to 2.6:1 in CsA-treated mice, which was close to that in Sham mice. The results suggest that non-parallel activation of calcineurin in Endo and Epi myocytes contributes to the down-regulation of transmural voltage-dependent K(+) currents and the amplification of transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) in left ventricular failure hearts. Inhibition of calcineurin may be a potential new therapeutic strategy to prevent and cure arrhythmias and sudden death in heart failure.

  9. The potential role of Life Cycle Assessment in regulation of chemicals in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Frans Møller; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2003-01-01

    consequence, the European Chemicals Bureau (ECB) has enrolled in the OMNIITOX project with the clear aim of investigating possible applications of LCA in future EU regulation of chemicals. Implementation of REACH will expand and change the activities and services currently delivered by ECB as the focal point......The regulation of chemicals in EU is undergoing substantial changes these years with implementation of the “REACH” system. Simultaneously, the concepts of LCA and Integrated Product Policy (IPP) are becoming increasingly integrated in European standardisation and regulatory activities. As a logical...

  10. XANES at Eu-L3 edge and valence of europium in SrB4O7: Eu and BaB8O13: Eu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG, Hong- Bin(梁宏斌); HU, Tian-Dou(胡天斗); WANG, Shu-Bin(王淑彬); ZENG, Qing-Hua(曾庆华); PEI, Zhi-Wu(裴治武); SU, Qiang(苏锵)

    2000-01-01

    The luminescent materials SrB4O7: Eu and BaB8O13: Eu were synthesized, and the valence states of europium in the materials were measured by means of XANES at Eu-L3 edge. It is found that the Eu3+ and Eu2+ ions are all present in the materials, and more Eu3+ ions can be reduced in SrB4O7:Eu than in BaB8O13:Eu. The excitation and emission spectra of Eu3+in SrB4O7:Eu and BaB8O13:Eu were determined.

  11. EU-Korea Conference on Science and Technology Closer to Humanity-Greenness

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Joung Hwan; Kim, Jung-Sik; EU- Korea Conference on Science and Technology

    2010-01-01

    Current research fields in science and technology were presented and discussed at the EKC2008, informing about the interests and directions of the scientists and engineers in EU countries and Korea. The Conference has emerged from the idea of bringing together EU and Korea to get to know each other better, especially in fields of science and technology.

  12. Competitiveness of the EU egg industry. International comparison base year 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, van P.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this report the impact of reducing or removing import tariffs on the competitiveness of the EU egg sector is studied. The results show that the offer price of whole egg powder in 2013 of some third countries is close to the average EU price. Despite the current import tariffs on whole egg powder,

  13. Amended forensic autopsy legal procedures in Turkey during integration with the European Union (EU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celbis, Osman; Aydin, N Engin; Kok, Ahmet Nezih

    2006-12-01

    European Union (EU) is expanding its territories, and Turkey has been making adaptive changes in many aspects for an integration with EU. In this regard, amendments on forensic autopsy procedures have been effective from June 1, 2005. This article delineates these changes, emphasizing the differences between the previous and the current procedures.

  14. Trends and Prospects in the Development of the Meat Processing Industry of Ukraine in the Conditions of Deepening the Trade Integration with the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasova Kateryna M.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the main trends of development of the market of the European Union in the context of the gradual integration of Ukrainian meat producers in this economic space, estimation of prospects for the domestic producers through the prism of their readiness to export products to this foreign market. The current status of development of the consumer market and features of the State regulation as to producers of meat products in the EU have been analyzed. The status of export activities of the meat processing enterprises in the EU has been researched, taking into account the tariff quotas and their usage in 2014-2015, as well as the current status of implementation of quality management systems as well as production safety in accordance with the national and international standards. Status of registration of the place of origin for the Ukrainian meat products has been analyzed as one of the means for promoting Ukrainian goods to the EU market. The major obstacles against the market entering by Ukrainian meat processing enterprises have been highlighted, taking account of the barriers that were relevant to Poland, Romania and Bulgaria in the process of implementation of the freedom trade zone agreement. Some ways to overcome known obstacles for Ukrainian meat-processing enterprises in the process of deepening the integration in the economic space of the EU have been proposed.

  15. EU Climate Change Exhibition Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On April 25, the CPAFFC, the China-EU Association (CEUA) and the Delegation of the European Commission to China jointly held the opening ceremony for the EU Exhibition on Climate Change in the CPAFFC. He Luli, former vice chairperson of the NPC Standing Committee and honorary president of the CEUA, Jose Manuel Barroso, president of the European Commission, and Li Jianping, vice president of the CPAFFC, attended the opening ceremony and made speeches. Honorary President He Luli highly praised the achievements made by China and the EU in their longtime cooperation of mutual benefits in various fields including environmental protection. She said, for many years China and EU have both committed to the development of all-round strategic partnership and establishment of a multi-level mechanism of political dialogue. She expressed, with increasing enthusiasm the CEUA would continue to actively carry out nongovernmental exchanges between China and the EU, and promote cooperation between the two sides in the fields of economy, society, environmental protection, science and technology, culture, etc.

  16. The concept of family in the EU free movement law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janićijević Dejan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the concepts of spouse, civil partner and partner in European Union (EU law, particularly in regulations referring to the free movement of persons, criticizing the unharmonized approach to defining family in this context. It argues that the narrow interpretation of the term spouse could lead to discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation. Likewise, grounding free movement rights of civil partners on host state recognition of such partnerships could lead to the same result, which is not compatible with the equality principle in the EU law. The position of unmarried or unregistered partners is also considered; in particular, the paper analyses the requirement to duly attest durability of the relationship and its impact on the same-sex partners wishing to immigrate to a Member State. The author holds that it is necessary to reconsider the law in this area and adjust it to the EU's efforts to eliminate discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation.

  17. Ultralow-quiescent-current and wide-load-range low-dropout linear regulator with self-biasing technique for micropower battery management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Toshihiro; Hirose, Tetsuya; Asano, Hiroki; Kuroki, Nobutaka; Numa, Masahiro

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we present a 151 nA quiescent and 6.8 mA maximum-output-current low-dropout (LDO) linear regulator for micropower battery management. The LDO regulator employs self-biasing and multiple-stacked cascode techniques to achieve efficient, accurate, and high-voltage-input-tolerant operation. Measurement results demonstrated that the proposed LDO regulator operates with an ultralow quiescent current of 151 nA. The maximum output currents with a 4.16 V output were 1.0 and 6.8 mA when the input voltages were 4.25 and 5.0 V, respectively.

  18. Role of calcium mobilization in the regulation of spontaneous transient outward currents in porcine coronary artery myocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to further study the characteristics and regulation of spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs) in freshly isolated porcine coronary artery smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). STOCs were recorded using the perforated whole-cell patch-clamp configuration. STOCs were voltage-dependent and superimposed stochastically onto whole-cell Ca2+-activated-K+ (BKCa) currents. Charybdotoxin (ChTX, 200 nmol/L), a selective blocker of BKCa channels, completely inhibited STOCs within 10 min. STOCs activity was greatly suppressed when extracellular Ca2+ concentration decreased from 1.8 mmol/L to 200 nmol/L, further removal of Ca2+ abolished STOCs activity. Ca2+ ionophore A23187 (10 μmol/L) increased STOCs activity significantly. Verapamil (20 μmol/L) and CdCl2 (200 μmol/L), two kinds of organic L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (L-VDCCs) antagonists, had little effect on STOCs. In addition, the ryanodine receptors (RyRs) agonist caffeine (5 mmol/L) significantly activated STOCs. Application of ryanodine (50 μmol/L) to block RyRs abolished STOCs, subsequent washout of ryanodine or application of caffeine failed to reproduce STOCs activity. Inhibition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) by 2APB (40 μmol/L) greatly suppressed the activity of STOCs, application of caffeine (5 mmol/L) in the presence of 2APB caused a burst of outward currents followed by inhibition of STOCs. These results suggest that STOCs in porcine coronary ASMCs are mediated by BKCa channels. Extracellular Ca2+ is essential for STOCs activity, while Ca2+ entry through L-VDCCs has little effect on STOCs. Intracellular Ca2+ release induced by RyRs is responsible for the regulation of STOCs, whereas IP3Rs might also be involved.

  19. How will the EU climate adaptation strategy affect EU agricultural policies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Karali, Eleni; Castellari, Sergio;

    A key objective in the EU Strategy on adaptation to climate change (COM (2013) 216 final) is to ensure mainstreaming, i.e. integration, of adaptation measures into European sectoral policies. The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is one such sectoral policy which is prioritised in the strategy...... to adaptation in agricultural production and analyses to what extent the reformed CAP as currently proposed will provide the tools to deal with the key vulnerabilities and adaptation needs. Specifically, the paper analyses the policy instruments available in the CAPs 1st and 2nd pillars and assesses......, the paper will also analyze the institutional mechanisms available in the adaptation strategy in order to assess their strength with regards to mainstreaming adaptation into agricultural policy. The paper is based on analysis of key EU policy documents and compares the policy instruments...

  20. The potential role of Life Cycle Assessment in regulation of chemicals in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Frans Møller; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2003-01-01

    consequence, the European Chemicals Bureau (ECB) has enrolled in the OMNIITOX project with the clear aim of investigating possible applications of LCA in future EU regulation of chemicals. Implementation of REACH will expand and change the activities and services currently delivered by ECB as the focal point...

  1. State aid in the EU law and national law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divljak Drago

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to emphasized negative implications, state aid in contemporary law is more and more the subject of legal rules of supra-national and international law, and consequently it is more and more frequently the subject of national laws. The systems of state aid are based on the principle of general non-allowedness of state aid, which is relativised with wide exceptions and the form of allowed and conditionally allowed forms of state aid. In the EU law, a complex and differentiated system of legal regime on state aid is created aimed at preventing the Member States to protect or promote their companies at the expense or harm of competition within the EU. Compared to the regulations that refer to subsidies and that are created at the international level, within the WTO, these regulations are much more detailed and they cover a wide spectrum of different forms of state aid. National laws are accepting the EU concept as a novelty, which is valid in particular for countries in the process of the EU integrations. This has been done in our law as well by enacting of the Law on state aid control. This Law regulates general conditions for granting, granting control, and utilization of state assistance, with the essential objective to establish and provide for competitive market conditions and introduction of order in the field that has not been regulated previously. At the same time, this means a successful fulfillment of the obligations related to pre-accession harmonization of this field, which is a necessary pre-condition for accession of our country into this group of countries since the EU standards and requirements have been fully observed with the above-mentioned Law.

  2. EU governance and social services of general interest: When even the UK is concerned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristea Koukiadaki

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The level of autonomy afforded to Member States to define certain services as ‘services of general interest’ and to shelter them from the market so as to promote social objectives has become in recent years a highly sensitive topic among EU and national policy actors and organisations. The increased activity in this area of the European Commission and the general absence of guidance on the conditions necessary to render such services of general interest by the European Court of Justice (ECJ have resulted in uncertainty concerning the interaction of EU law with social services and more generally public services in the EU Member States. By focusing on the EU regulation on social services of general interest, the paper evaluates how the nature and provision of such services in the UK has been susceptible to changes as a result of the Services Directives, EU public procurement and competition law. The implementation of liberalisation plans in the UK well before any EU initiatives in this area meant that such services have been open to market forces well before other Member States. However, this has not led to the absence of concerns regarding the precise impact of EU law in this area. Recent policy initiatives by the Coalition government may expand further the degree of marketisation and increase the scope for interaction between EU and national-level regulation.

  3. Menneskerettigheder og handelspolitik i EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2012-01-01

    interesting to observe that it was interpreted as that we have to think about how we act in this area. Not that we had to rethink everything we do. You describe how Fair Trade concept of FLO (Fair Labor Organization) definition is officially recognized in the EU. Is not it strange that private or NGO...... Standards" from 1998, which basically was adopted by the EU after two years. And then you have a collision. To me this is extremely interesting, because you have to weave these two attitudes. You cannot have free trade alone, you will need to have an aspect of fair trade. And intellectually...... to say. The most interesting was the introduction of the words free and fair trade. I think that if you are truly neoliberal it would be crazy if you let someone put it into a constitutional treaty. But in my own research, which has focused on the promotion of fair trade in the EU, it has been...

  4. Single-channel and whole-cell recordings of mitogen-regulated inward currents in human cloned helper T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuno, M; Goronzy, J; Weyand, C M; Gardner, P

    Cytoplasmic free Ca2+ [( Ca2+]i) appears to be an important signal for DNA synthesis in early stages of lymphocyte activation. In spite of many experimental studies which employ fluorescent Ca2+ indicator dye to demonstrate an early increase of [Ca2+]i in T-lymphocytes after stimulation with lectins, specific antigens, and monoclonal antibodies to T-lymphocyte receptors, the mechanism responsible for the rise of [Ca2+]i is unknown. We have used the extracellular patch clamp technique to investigate this mechanism. Unitary inward currents, mediated by Ca2+ or Ba2+, were recorded in the membrane of T-lymphocytes. The inward current channel was characterized by a conductance of 7 pS and extrapolated reversal potential (Erev) 110 mV positive to resting potential (Vr). While gating kinetic parameters were not affected by membrane potential changes, the probability of channel opening markedly increased upon activation of the T-lymphocyte by the mitogenic lectin, phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). PHA also evoked a cadmium-sensitive, inward Ba2+ current on whole-cell clamp. We suggest that this mitogen-regulated channel introduces Ca2+ into the cytoplasm upon activation and represents a new class of voltage-independent Ca2+ channels.

  5. Control of the light-regulated current in rod photoreceptors by cyclic GMP, calcium, and l-cis-diltiazem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, J H; Kaupp, U B; MacLeish, P R

    1986-02-01

    The effect of calcium ions on the cGMP-activated current of outer segment membrane was examined by the excised-patch technique. Changes in the extracellular calcium concentration had marked effects on the cGMP-activated current, while changes in intracellular calcium concentration were ineffective. Changes in calcium concentration in the absence of cGMP had little, if any, effect on membrane conductance. These results suggest that both intracellular cGMP and extracellular calcium can directly affect the conductance underlying the light response in rod cells. The pharmacological agent l-cis-diltiazem reversibly inhibited the cGMP-activated current when applied to the intracellular side of an excised patch. When superfused over intact rod cells, l-cis-diltiazem reversibly blocked much of the normal light response. The isomer, d-cis-diltiazem, did not significantly affect either patches or intact rod cells. Thus, the light-regulated conductance has binding sites for both calcium and cGMP that may interact during the normal light response in rod cells and a site specific for l-cis-diltiazem that can be used to identify and further study the conductance mechanism.

  6. Energy policy and trend in European Union (EU). Part 2; Europe rengo (EU) no energy seisaku, doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezawa, S. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the recent energy policy in the EU region. In 1992, the EU Commission employed a strategy for realizing a single energy market. In 1994, the Council of Ministers adopted directives for liberating the permission condition of survey, exploration and development of hydrocarbons. The EU Commission employed a three stage approach for liberating the gas and electric power market. The Transit and Pricing Directives in the first stage consists of three directives of electric power transit, gas transit and pricing transparency. In the second stage, Third-Party Access (TPA) system is to be introduced. An analysis in the third stage depends on the results in the second stage. Are also described the CO2 and energy tax, emission of greenhouse gases, and integrated pollution prevention and control. Furthermore, the energy efficiency and the Trans-European Networks are described. Finally, are referred the regulations which control the activities of energy companies, and the national assistance policies in the energy division.

  7. Forty years of improvements in European air quality: the role of EU policy-industry interplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippa, M.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Dentener, F.; Guizzardi, D.; Sindelarova, K.; Muntean, M.; Van Dingenen, R.; Granier, C.

    2015-07-01

    The EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research) v4.3 global anthropogenic emissions inventory of several gaseous (SO2, NOx, CO, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) and NH3) and particulate (PM10, PM2.5, black and organic carbon (BC and OC)) air pollutants for the period 1970-2010 is used to develop retrospective air pollution emission scenarios to quantify the roles and contributions of changes in fuels consumption, technology, end-of-pipe emission reduction measures and their resulting impact on health and crop yields. This database presents changes in activity data, fuels and air pollution abatement technology for the past 4 decades, using international statistics and following guidelines for bottom-up emission inventory at the Tier 1 and Tier 2 levels with region-specific default values. With two further retrospective scenarios we assess (1) the impact of the technology and end-of-pipe (EOP) reduction measures in the European Union (EU) by considering a stagnation of technology with constant emission factors from 1970 and with no further abatement measures and improvement in European emissions standards, but fuel consumption occurring at historical pace, and (2) the impact of increased fuel consumption by considering unchanged energy use with constant fuel consumption since 1970, but technological development and end-of-pipe reductions. Our scenario analysis focuses on the three most important and most regulated sectors (power generation, the manufacturing industry and road transport), which are subject of multi-pollutant EU Air Quality regulations. If technology and European EOP reduction measures had stagnated at 1970 levels, EU air quality in 2010 would have suffered from 129 % higher SO2, 71 % higher NOx and 69 % higher PM2.5 emissions, demonstrating the large role of technology in reducing emissions in 2010. However, if fuel consumption had remained constant starting in 1970, the EU would have benefited from current technology and

  8. Trade effects of the EU-Morocco Association Agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkum, van S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of the 2012 amendment of the Protocol on EU imports of horticultural products from Morocco. Currently, Morocco’s exports of tomato, oranges and clementines outcompete EU’s main producers of these products in months during which Morocco’s supply is on the market.

  9. The restructuring of financial supervision in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Beetsma; S. Eijffinger

    2009-01-01

    The integration of financial markets is a fast growing phenomenon worldwide, but especially in the EU. Along with the positive aspects such as simplifying financial transactions, there are also negative implications attached to it. As was the case with the current economic and financial crisis, a pr

  10. The EU must triple its energy saving policy effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselink, B.; Eichhammer, W.; Harmsen, R.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of EU energy savings policy must triple to achieve the bloc’s 2020 energy savings goal. But such efforts could get a much better foundation if European leaders set a binding energy consumption target, rather than the current indicative savings target. The evidence for such

  11. Overcoming Challenges Facing Advanced Therapies in the EU Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-El-Enein, Mohamed; Elsanhoury, Ahmed; Reinke, Petra

    2016-09-01

    While advanced therapy medicinal products offer great clinical promise, most EU-approved products have not achieved satisfactory commercial performance. Here we highlight a number of issues that prevent current products from obtaining commercial success and pitfalls that developers must overcome in future product development.

  12. The restructuring of financial supervision in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; Eijffinger, S.

    2009-01-01

    The integration of financial markets is a fast growing phenomenon worldwide, but especially in the EU. Along with the positive aspects such as simplifying financial transactions, there are also negative implications attached to it. As was the case with the current economic and financial crisis, a

  13. Weed biocontrol in the EU: from serendipity to strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological control of weeds is a globally-recognized approach to the management of the worst invasive plants in the world. Unfortunately, accidental introduction of agents account for most weed biocontrol in the EU, but do include a number of current or emerging successes. From the redistribution of...

  14. Mechanism for Muscarinic Inhibitory Regulation of the L-type Ca2 + Current in Cardiac Ventricular Myocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋彬; 杨向军; 惠杰; 蒋廷波; 宋建平; 刘志华

    2004-01-01

    @@ Objective The autonomic nervous system plays a key role in regulating cardiac function by modifying heart rate, contractility and impulse. The parasympathetic neurotransmitter acetyl-choline and muscarinic agonist carbachol (Cch) inhibit excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac ventricular myocytes. Muscarinic agonists suppress adenylyl cyclase (AC) acitivity and,by reducing activation of the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA)cascade, inhibit the L-type Ca2+ current (ICa(L) ). They also increase the content of cGMP by stimulating guanylyl cyclase (GC) activity. The role of nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP in muscarinic inhibition has undergone considerable scrutiny. The role of the NO/cGMP pathway in the inhibition of ICa(L) by Cch was examined in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes.

  15. Radiation and Reason Why radiation at modest dose rates is quite harmless and current radiation safety regulations are flawed

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Data on the impact of ionising radiation on life are examined in the light of evolutionary biology. This comparison confirms that fear of nuclear radiation is not justified by science itself; rather it originates in a failure of public trust in nuclear science, a relic of the international politics of the Cold War era. Current ionisation safety regulations appease this fear but without scientific support and they need fundamental reformulation. This should change the reaction to accidents like Fukushima, the cost of nuclear energy and the application of nuclear technology to the supply of food and fresh water. Such a boost to the world economy would require that more citizens study and appreciate the science involved – and then tell others -- not as much fun as the Higgs, perhaps, but no less important! www.radiationandreason.com

  16. Distributed Nonlinear Control with Event-Triggered Communication to Achieve Current-Sharing and Voltage Regulation in DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Renke; Meng, Lexuan; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    A distributed nonlinear controller is presented to achieve both accurate current-sharing and voltage regulation simultaneously in dc microgrids considering different line impedances’ effects among converters. Then, an improved event-triggered principle for the controller is introduced through...... combining the state-dependent tolerance with a nonnegative offset. In order to design the event-triggered principle and guarantee the global stability, a generalized dc microgrid model is proposed and proven to be positive definite, based on which Lyapunov-based approach is applied. Furthermore, considering...... the effects from constant power loads, the damping performance of proposed controller is further improved and compared with the traditional V-I droop controller. The proposed event-triggered-based communication strategy can considerably reduce the communication traffic and significantly relax the requirement...

  17. Implementation in Poland of the EU Legislation on VTMIS and Reporting Formalities for Ships Operating to or from Ports of the EU Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Krolikowski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Article presents the EU legislation on Vessel Traffic Monitoring and Information System (VTMIS and reporting formalities for ships operating to or from ports of the EU Member States, principles of its implementation in Poland and technical investments made in order to build the Polish National Maritime Safety System to ensure safety and security of shipping and economic activities inside the Polish maritime areas and meeting the requirements of these regulations.

  18. Impact of EU Enlargement on the Romanian Meat Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Nistor

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available With over twenty years ago, Romania was a big producer of meat, with breeding pigs steers and lambs farms, throughout the country. At present, the meat industry has declined considerably. For many years, however, Romania from the exporter of meat has become a fresh meat and meat products importer. Meat consumption per capita in Romania is about half the EU average (92 kg. Romanians show a strong preference for pork, although chicken meat consumption is increasing. The current financial crisis will trigger a decline in terms of meat consumption in EU countries including in Romania.

  19. Derivation of linearized transfer functions for switching-mode regulations. Phase A: Current step-up and voltage step-up converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, R. C.; Owen, H. A., Jr.; Wilson, T. G.

    1981-01-01

    Small-signal models are derived for the power stage of the voltage step-up (boost) and the current step-up (buck) converters. The modeling covers operation in both the continuous-mmf mode and the discontinuous-mmf mode. The power stage in the regulated current step-up converter on board the Dynamics Explorer Satellite is used as an example to illustrate the procedures in obtaining the small-signal functions characterizing a regulated converter.

  20. The emerging EU quality of care policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Hans; van de Bovenkamp, Hester M.; Vrangbæk, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    involvement in healthcare policy over the last twenty years. Based on interviews and document and literature analysis we show that the scope of EU involvement has widened from public health and access to care, to quality of care. In this paper we concentrate on the latter. Focusing on the recent EU......Despite the fact that Member States and many citizens of the EU like to keep healthcare a foremost national competence and the EU treaties state that Member States remain primarily responsible for the organization and delivery of health care services, the European Union (EU) has expanded its...... and desirability of the EU's involvement is clearly needed, also considering the differences in quality of care policies between and within EU Member States. Both arguments in favour and against further EU involvement are discussed in this paper...

  1. Review of EU Conflict Management in DRC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The report present the backdrop on EU's involvement in the DRC conflict, its history, the nature of the conflict......The report present the backdrop on EU's involvement in the DRC conflict, its history, the nature of the conflict...

  2. The role of EU institutions in implementing its monetary policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia GEORGIEVA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the current article is to illustrate in detail the powers of the EU institutions to implement its monetary policy. The methods used to explore the topic and to draw the conclusions and interpret the findings are based on deduction and induction. On the grounds of the information presented in the article the following conclusions have been drawn: the relations between the EU institutions responsible for implementing its monetary policy (the European Central Bank, the European Parliament, the Council, the European Commission and others are entirely based on fundamental principles laid down for all its institutions; the commitments of the institutions implementing the EU monetary policy are strictly stipulated in its primary legislation and are mostly related to the establishment of the EU Economic and Monetary Union, the framing, planning and implementing of the common monetary policy, the management of the Monetary Union. In the conditions of world financial and economic crisis the EU has attempted to respond adequately to its monetary policy problems, commensurate with the scope and matching the specific nature of this crisis.

  3. The Process Architecture of EU Territorial Cohesion Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Faludi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available When preparing the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP, Member States were supported by the European Commission but denied the EU a competence in the matter. Currently, the Treaty of Lisbon identifies territorial cohesion as a competence shared between the Union and the Member States. This paper is about the process architecture of territorial cohesion policy. In the past, this architecture resembled the Open Method of Coordination (OMC which the White Paper on European Governance praised, but only in areas where there was no EU competence. This reflected zero-sum thinking which may continue even under the Lisbon Treaty. After all, for as long as territorial cohesion was not a competence, voluntary cooperation as practiced in the ESDP process was pursued in this way. However, the practice of EU policies, even in areas where there is an EU competence, often exhibits features of the OMC. Surprisingly effective innovations hold the promise of rendering institutions of decision making comprehensible and democratically accountable. In the EU as a functioning polity decision making is thus at least part deliberative so that actors’ preferences are transformed by the force of the better argument. This brings into focus the socialisation of the deliberators into epistemic communities. Largely an informal process, this is reminiscent of European spatial planning having been characterised as a learning process.

  4. CVD Lu(2)O(3):Eu coatings For Advanced Scintillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Stephen G; Sarin, V K

    2009-03-01

    Currently Lu(2)O(3):Eu(3+) scintillators can only be fabricated via hot-pressing and pixelization, which is commercially not viable, thus restricting their use. Chemical vapor deposition is being developed as an alternative manufacturing process. Columnar coatings of Lu(2)O(3):Eu(3+) have been achieved using the halide-CO(2)-H(2) system, clearly signifying feasibility of the CVD process. Characterization of the coatings using high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis have been used as an aid to optimize process parameters and attain highly oriented and engineered coating structures. These results have clearly demonstrated that this process can be successfully used to tailor sub-micron columnar growth of Lu(2)O(3):Eu(3+), with the potential of ultra high resolution x-ray imaging.

  5. Ukraine Between The EU And The CES In Global Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Radzievska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews functioning and development of the European Union (EU and the Common Economic Space (CES in the global instability and substantiates the equal significance of Ukraine’s integration with these regional associations in today’s environment. This conclusion is based upon the current state of Ukraine’s trade and economic relations with the countries taking part in these integration associations, and the probability of: 1 the EU’s abstaining from admitting new members until the EU structure improves, or admitting new members while changing the mechanism of interaction within the EU and setting more stringent admission criteria, 2 changes in the terms of trade of Ukraine with the CES member states due to its transformation into the Eurasian Economic Community (EEC.

  6. China vs.EU Protectionism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China files a complaint with the WTO for the first timeagainst the EU’s anti-dumping measures Recently,a trade row between the European Union(EU) and China-the world’s first and third biggesteconomies,respectively-hascaused concerns.

  7. EU ENLARGEMENT AT A CROSSROADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Cătălina Paul

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to explore the general theme of the EU enlargement strategy in the new 2012 European context. Until now, the EU’s enlargement strategy has yielded impressive results. It succeeded in transforming ten central and eastern European countries from post-communism confusion into open-market, mature and effective systems of democratic governments, and even on the economic front, they have also made astonishing progress. It is no doubt that people in the new EU countries live better then before. In this context, the EU must continue the enlargement process to help stabilize the Balkan region that lie beyond its expanded eastern border. No one can deny that major issues concerning western Balkan countries’ accession are still on the table, and they even exert a geopolitical influence of sorts. This makes it all the more important to see stability and regional co-operation there are strategically vital. An all-out effort must now be made to complete the enlargement process and ensure there is no strategic vacuum. This article provides the framework of analyses for the EU problems and the challenges for the Balkans governments as for Brussels.

  8. Fundamentals of EU VAT law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doesum, A.; van Kesteren, H.W.M.; van Norden, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Fundamentals of EU VAT Law aims at providing a deep insight into the systematics, the functioning and the principles of the European Value Added Tax (VAT) system. VAT is responsible for generating approximately EUR 903 billion per year in tax revenues across the European Union – revenues that play a

  9. Coping with EU environmental legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner; de Graaf, Kars; Purdy, Ray;

    2015-01-01

    A ‘burden reducing’ agenda has spurred an increased interest in how EU environmental legislation is transposed into national legislation—most prominently reflected in the principle of ‘no gold-plating’. Yet, an important question is to what extent transposition principles and practices may ensure...

  10. Children's rights in EU law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mak, C.; de Graaf, J.H.; Mak, C.; Montanus, P.J.; van Wijk, F.K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of how EU rights of children should be interpreted and applied in the light of international children’s rights principles, in particular dignity. In other words, what normative framework should inform the enforcement of children’s rights in Europe? The analysis of

  11. EU Legitimacy and Social Affiliation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Jan Sture Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of European governance usually put the member states in the foreground, placing the citizens in the background. This article brings explanations of EU legitimacy down to the level of individuals. A method is suggested that combines explanations based on individual interests and a sociolo...

  12. Whither the EU-China Strategic Partnership?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanley; Crossick

    2006-01-01

    EU and Chinese leaders met in Helsinki for their ninth bilateral summit on September 9 against a backdrop of growing tensions on trade issues. Only a few days after the summit, the EU requested the establishment of a WTO panel on Chinese auto parts tariffs. A "strategic partnership" between the EU and China was agreed as a joint aim at the EU-China summit in The Hague in December

  13. Balancing China-EU Economic & Trade Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Accompanied by the maturing of China-EU political relations beginning in the 1990s,China-EU economic and trade relations have developed significantly each year.Now,theEU has become China's largest trading partner, as well as China's largest technology provider and fourth largest investment source for four consecutive years.China-EU cooperation has been expanded to include more than forty sectors.

  14. Environmental Protection and the EU Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Ježová, Zdeňka

    2009-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with a mutual relation between the competitiveness and environmental protection in the European Union. At the beginning, there is mentioned, why environmental protection has become an important priority. The main task of this bachelor thesis is to characterize a mutual interaction between environmental and economic objectives in the EU. There is described the EU environmental policy and its impact on the EU competitiveness. The EU strategy to strengthen its competit...

  15. The persistent sodium current generates pacemaker activities in the central pattern generator for locomotion and regulates the locomotor rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazerart, Sabrina; Vinay, Laurent; Brocard, Frédéric

    2008-08-20

    Rhythm generation in neuronal networks relies on synaptic interactions and pacemaker properties. Little is known about the contribution of the latter mechanisms to the integrated network activity underlying locomotion in mammals. We tested the hypothesis that the persistent sodium current (I(NaP)) is critical in generating locomotion in neonatal rodents using both slice and isolated spinal cord preparations. After removing extracellular calcium, 75% of interneurons in the area of the central pattern generator (CPG) for locomotion exhibited bursting properties and I(NaP) was concomitantly upregulated. Putative CPG interneurons such as commissural and Hb9 interneurons also expressed I(NaP)-dependent (riluzole-sensitive) bursting properties. Most bursting cells exhibited a pacemaker-like behavior (i.e., burst frequency increased with depolarizing currents). Veratridine upregulated I(NaP), induced riluzole-sensitive bursting properties, and slowed down the locomotor rhythm. This study provides evidence that I(NaP) generates pacemaker activities in CPG interneurons and contributes to the regulation of the locomotor activity.

  16. Brexit, the EU and the Middle East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Following the Brexit referendum the UK is leaving the EU and this means that the UK no longer stands together with the EU on the international scene. The British Prime Minister Theresa May has recently invoked the EU Treaty Article 50 initiating the Brexit process and obviously the UK leaders know...

  17. Determining Factors for EU Military Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    European Security Strategy,” http://ue.eu.int/ uedocs/cmsUpload /78367.pdf (accessed November 3, 2012). 45Kajsa Ji Noe Oest , “The EU as a Rectant...natolive/index.htm (accessed October 23, 2012). Oest , Kajsa Ji Noe. “The EU as a Reluctant Conflict Manager: The Case of Lebanon 2006.” Master’s thesis

  18. EU-Russia Relations Regarding Water Resources in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Likhacheva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Central Asia, the water deficit and water-energy problem have been one of among the most acute and conflict-ridden challenges for the sustainable development of the region and for regional security. Key trade and investment partners, including Russia and the European Union, could play a considerable role in influencing this issue, due to the long-lasting status quo, the inability to find a solution through intra-regional dialogue and the region’s rising dependence on foreign trade. Indeed, water-related interactions between Russia and the EU have been developing in a complementary manner. The EU possesses new technologies and its members have access to long-term capital markets, while Russia carries influence through providing security, regulating migration and holding a favourable political position for offering mediation services to the republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. This article examines EU-Russia relations regarding water issues in Central Asia over the medium term. By analyzing cooperative and non-cooperative strategies used by the major stakeholders in the water conflict (the five republics and the third parties of Russia and the EU, it confirms the continuous complementary character of EU and Russian activities in this context. Russia will take responsibility for moderating the principal questions (as with the construction of big dams such as Rogunor Kambarata, as they relate to the provision of security guarantees. The EU will act through providing support for water companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and promoting the European Water Initiative principles and by developing its investment policy. The intersection of interests is possible when if Russia will attracts an independent arbiter, such as an actor available to provide guarantees related to the values of professional objectivism, human rights support and environment protection. These issues inevitably arise with

  19. Accounting Standards and Legal Capital in EU Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loukas Panetsos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the interaction between accounting standards and legal capital in the European Union legal framework. More in particular, it attempts to compare on a parallel basis the distributional and behavioural function of both concepts and to address whether the current legal status quo in the European Union fulfils these functions. First, this paper makes a short reference to the various accounting families which are encountered today, with a strong emphasis on the distinction between Anglo-American and Continental systems. Then, it describes the EU accounting regulation and the introduction of IFRS in domestic legislation. Further, it discusses the concept of legal capital as it has been established in European jurisdictions and it points to the relevance of the Continental accounting standards. It is argued that both are characterized by paternalism, contrasting with Anglo-American standards and American distributional methods, which are outlined by contractariansm. The final argument is that the combination of legal capital rules and Anglo-American standards, like the IFRS, neither achieves the protective role prescribed to the former, nor guarantees the aims of the latter.

  20. Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Phialophora cinerescens (Wollenweber van Beyma for the EU territory, with the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Phialophora cinerescens (Wollenweber van Beyma (the causal agent of Phialophora carnation wilt for the EU territory, identified risk management options and evaluated their effectiveness. The risk assessment was conducted taking into account current EU legislation. The Panel also provided an opinion on the effectiveness of the present EU requirements against this organism, listed in Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Four pathways for entry were identified. Plants for propagation (rooted and unrooted cuttings of host plants were considered as a major pathway. Entry via this pathway was rated as unlikely because of the effective disease prevention techniques for cuttings now in place in places of production. P. cinerescens has been found in most Member States but with few occurrences or restricted distribution. In some Member States the pest was eradicated. Owing to current cultural practices and control measures, establishment in areas in which the pest was not previously present is considered very unlikely. For the same reasons, the probability of infection of crops is strongly reduced and hence the probability of spread to areas where the pest was not previously present is very unlikely. Similarly, the impact on carnation is at the moment minimal and unlikely to increase in the future. Risk reduction options to reduce the probability of entry and spread and mitigate the impact were evaluated; those addressing the phytosanitary status of the propagation material were considered to be the most effective and feasible (e.g., the officially accepted carnation certification system for source planting material, including the current regulations laid down in Council Directive 2000/29/EC. If the current regulation were removed, a certification system could be just as effective as the existing regulation, provided it included practically all the prescriptions of the present regulation.

  1. The Europeanization of German energy and climate policies. New forms of policy-making and EU multi-level-governance; Die Europaeisierung der deutschen Energie- und Klimapolitik. Neue Formen der Politikgestaltung und Steuerung im EU-Mehrebenensystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Severin

    2015-01-23

    The Energy Transition (''Energiewende'') is one of the hot topics of the political debate in Germany for some years. As a consequence of ongoing European integration, EU level politics have gained growing importance. The focus of this study is on the interaction of German and EU energy and climate policies. How have German actors influenced EU policy-making processes and in how far are EU policies relevant for national policy-making in Germany? Three case studies look at processes in the fields of electricity market regulation, renewable energy policy and climate protection between 2007 and 2013.

  2. Institutional Design of Enforcement in the EU: The Case of Financial Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Scholten

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Enforcement of EU law has become increasingly ‘Europeanized’. But how is and can it be organized in the integrated legal order of the EU to promote effective enforcement? In light of the recent institutional and substantive changes in the area of EU financial markets regulation, this article identifies four models (S, M, L, and XL models of enforcement of EU law. It discusses the possibilities and challenges to effective enforcement of each of such models and the major trade-offs which policy-makers face at the EU and national levels when designing enforcement frameworks, namely centralization vs. decentralization (an institutional perspective and harmonization vs. differentiation (substantive and procedural perspectives. It argues that at least a minimum degree of institutional centralization is necessary to promote the uniform enforcement and implementation of EU policies in a Union with 28 legal systems. The more specific details, such as specific institutional shape of centralized bodies (should it be a network, an agency or an EU institution? and of the distribution of functions between the national and EU level are better addressed on a case-by-case basis in light of the political, economic, and social characteristics of the sector at stake.

  3. Institutional Design of Enforcement in the EU: The Case of Financial Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Scholten

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Enforcement of EU law has become increasingly ‘Europeanized’. But how is and can it be organized in the integrated legal order of the EU to promote effective enforcement? In light of the recent institutional and substantive changes in the area of EU financial markets regulation, this article identifies four models (S, M, L, and XL models of enforcement of EU law. It discusses the possibilities and challenges to effective enforcement of each of such models and the major trade-offs which policy-makers face at the EU and national levels when designing enforcement frameworks, namely centralization vs. decentralization (an institutional perspective and harmonization vs. differentiation (substantive and procedural perspectives. It argues that at least a minimum degree of institutional centralization is necessary to promote the uniform enforcement and implementation of EU policies in a Union with 28 legal systems. The more specific details, such as specific institutional shape of centralized bodies (should it be a network, an agency or an EU institution? and of the distribution of functions between the national and EU level are better addressed on a case-by-case basis in light of the political, economic, and social characteristics of the sector at stake.

  4. Pesticide regulation, utilization, and retailers' selling practices in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies: current situation and needed changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Pereira, Lexley M; Boysielal, Kim; Siung-Chang, Avril

    2007-08-01

    To explore pesticide regulation in Trinidad and Tobago, and to ascertain pesticide utilization and retailers' selling practices on Trinidad, which is the larger of twin islands that constitute the republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Between February and June 2005, agrochemical retailers in Trinidad were surveyed about the most frequently sold pesticides and their knowledge and practices of pesticide sale. The Poisons and Toxic Chemicals Control Board of the Ministry of Health informed on legislature. Of 107 actively trading licensed pesticide outlets, 97 participated (91% response rate) in the survey. Currently only 2.9% (21) of 720 registered products from four chemical classes are frequently utilized. Paraquat, methomyl, and alpha-cypermethrin (respective trade names are Gramoxone, Lannate, and Fastac) from World Health Organization (WHO) Hazard Classes I and II, and glyphosate isopropylamine (Swiper, Class U) are the most frequently purchased pesticides. Pet shops constitute 39.2% (38) of retail shops selling pesticides. No regulations guide pesticide sale to agriculturists, and children may purchase them. Inadequate human and technical resources render legislative controls ineffective and disciplinary action against offenders is weak. Extensive governmental resources are employed in legislative procedures and product approval for the very low, 2.9% utilization rate, negatively impacting on monitoring pesticide sales. The Poisons Information Centre (PIC) does not liaise with the Poisons and Toxic Chemicals Control Board or provide educational interventions for the community. As a result of this survey, it was possible to develop the first database to include the chemical, brand, and colloquial names of pesticides used in Trinidad and Tobago; WHO classification of approved pesticides; manufacturers; packaging; and antidotes and their availability for use by the Board and health professionals in Trinidad. Urgent critical evaluation of legislation regarding pesticide

  5. Big Data in medical research and EU data protection law: challenges to the consent or anonymise approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, Menno; Bredenoord, Annelien L; Biesaart, Monique C I H; van Delden, Johannes J M

    2016-07-01

    Medical research is increasingly becoming data-intensive; sensitive data are being re-used, linked and analysed on an unprecedented scale. The current EU data protection law reform has led to an intense debate about its potential effect on this processing of data in medical research. To contribute to this evolving debate, this paper reviews how the dominant 'consent or anonymise approach' is challenged in a data-intensive medical research context, and discusses possible ways forwards within the EU legal framework on data protection. A large part of the debate in literature focuses on the acceptability of adapting consent or anonymisation mechanisms to overcome the challenges within these approaches. We however believe that the search for ways forward within the consent or anonymise paradigm will become increasingly difficult. Therefore, we underline the necessity of an appropriate research exemption from consent for the use of sensitive personal data in medical research to take account of all legitimate interests. The appropriate conditions of such a research exemption are however subject to debate, and we expect that there will be minimal harmonisation of these conditions in the forthcoming EU Data Protection Regulation. Further deliberation is required to determine when a shift away from consent as a legal basis is necessary and proportional in a data-intensive medical research context, and what safeguards should be put in place when such a research exemption from consent is provided.

  6. Structure and Evolution of EU Budget Revenue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Mihaela Florea

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although small size, representing only 1% of EU wealth, its budget is an important tool for achieving the objectives of integration. Basically, in one form or another, every EU citizen benefits from the EU budget at the local, national and European level: food and safer toys, new roads and better quality of security at EU borders. These are just a few examples of areas where the EU budget plays a decisive role. To fulfil its objectives, the European Union has traditional own resources, the VAT - based own resources and the GNI- based resources.

  7. Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Puccinia horiana Hennings for the EU territory, with the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Puccinia horiana Hennings (the causal agent of chrysanthemum white rust for the EU territory, identified risk management options and evaluated their effectiveness. The assessment was conducted taking into account current EU legislation. The Panel also provided an opinion on the effectiveness of the present EU requirements against this organism, listed in Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Two major pathways for entry were identified: plant material of susceptible hosts for propagation purposes and cut flowers of Chrysanthemum × morifolium. The probability of further entry of the pest was considered unlikely, as the existing certification schemes for propagation material should reduce the risk of importing infected cuttings. For cut flowers, pest transfer to susceptible hosts is associated with the potentially incorrect disposal of cut flower waste within the vicinity of places of production, which is considered a rare event. The probability of establishment and further spread were both considered very likely. The current overall impact in the risk assessment area was considered minor, with medium uncertainty, mainly because standard protective actions are taken in most EU production areas. Risk reduction options to reduce the probability of entry and spread and mitigate the impact were analysed. Council Directive 2000/29/EC addresses mainly the sanitary status of the propagation material. The Directive cannot prevent the entry, establishment and spread, or mitigate the impact, of the pathogen. Were the current regulation to be removed, the frequency of introduction would probably increase. This poses a risk because, although the pest is widespread in the risk assessment area, not all Member States are infested and not all pest pathotypes are present. If a statutory certification system, with associated import requirements for propagation material of host plants, were introduced, this

  8. The EU pledge for responsible marketing of food and beverages to children: implementation in food companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, J D; Ronit, K

    2015-08-01

    Increasing political pressure on the food industry's marketing activities stimulated the formation of the collective EU Pledge for responsible marketing of foods and beverages to children. The objective of the study is to evaluate the commitments made by companies in joining the pledge for the purpose of assessing its effectiveness in regulating signatory companies' marketing activities. Data on company commitments in relation to the EU Pledge were collected, analyzed and recalculated in order to enable comparison across companies and with general nutritional recommendations. Data on companies' product portfolio and market orientation were collected from their most recent available annual reports. Data on the companies' product profiles were generated via review of the companies' main websites. Similar data were generated for a reference group of companies outside the EU Pledge. Compared with a reference group of large food and beverage companies, EU Pledge signatory companies have a public image strongly based on products with appeal to children. The EU Pledge sets common standards for regulating signatory companies' marketing behaviour towards children. Further scrutiny of the companies' stated commitments revealed considerable variation in their actual content and in their de facto bindingness on the companies' marketing behavior--for example, in the definition of target audience for advertising or in nutritional characteristics making products eligible for advertising to children. In order for voluntary self-regulation schemes such as the EU Pledge to be a credible alternative to public regulation of marketing behaviour, more transparency and stringency are needed.

  9. Survey of strategies for low-energy buildings in EU countries; Kortlaegning af strategier for lavenergibyggeri i EU lande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-15

    The overall objective of this task is to identify and analyze several European countries' approaches to regulate energy efficiency in new buildings. In addition, the study maps the initiatives established in relation to introduce voluntary low energy mechanisms at national level. As part of this work it has been a major goal to explore how individual countries are preparing the introduction of a ''nearly zero'' energy framework. The introduction of a ''nearly zero'' framework has been invoked via the new revised Building Directive (2010/31/EU) which requires that all new buildings are ''Nearly Zero'' by 31 December 2020, however, new public buildings must meet ''nearly zero'' requirement already by 31. December 2018. Finally, the survey also includes an examination of national and political conditions and current legislation on energy consumption in buildings. The countries in the survey are: Norway, Sweden, Finland, Austria, Germany, Holland, Belgium, Britain, France, Switzerland and to a limited extent Ireland and Poland. The comparative analysis of the countries' efforts is presented in the main part of the report, and the individual country reports are presented in appendices. (LN)

  10. Design and Fabrication of Eu-Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Venkat Sai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available EU-Cycle is a self balancing electric unicycle. A regular unicycle is powered by pedal and is balanced by a rider, whilst the EU-Cycle runs by an electric motor and balance by control system in the roll direction. The simple thing to do by rider is to lean forward for acceleration, to lean backward for braking. EU-Cycle is designed as to be a fast and portable means of transport among crowded area, home and office. Therefore, The EU-Cycle gives tough challenge to the unicycle. EU-Cycle has attracted print media including future stories in radio, television. Thus in addition to successful development of EU-Cycle in urban use, the project has to implement the EU-cycle as an educative device.

  11. The vertical division of competences in EU-law. A treatise on the evolution of the community competence in the energy sector as well as the regulation of public service obligations and universal service in the internal electricity market.; Vertikaalinen toimivallanjako EU-oikeudessa. Tutkimus yhteisoen toimivallan kehittymisestae energia-alalla sekae julkisen palvelun velvoitteiden ja yleispalvelun saeaentelystae saehkoen sisaemarkkinoilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes-Purokoski, A.

    2009-07-01

    policy in the EC Treaty. Notwithstanding this, the Community has been active in this sector since the late 1960's. In most cases the Community's initiative to legislate in the energy sector has been due to wide-ranging developments or events within the Community or worldwide which are not only specific to energy policy, such as the oil crises, the general idea of the internal market, and the development of the Community environmental policy. The scope of application of the Community legislation in the internal market for electricity and gas has become rather extensive, covering currently the opening up of the national markets, the consumers' right to choose their supplier of electricity or gas, the regulation of the national regulatory authorities, and the measures to unbundle the production, transmission, distribution and supply of electricity and gas. There also exists Community legislation on environmental questions in the energy sector, but at this stage, this legislation still leaves a rather wide margin of manoeuvre for the Member States. A new proposal for legislation on green electricity would change this situation by setting legally binding targets for the Member States concerning their share of electricity produced from renewable energy sources. Currently the requirements of Community law are less strict in respect of security of energy supply. Taking into consideration the ambiguity of the notion of public service and the fact that its utilisation varies considerably between the national legislations of the Member States, the usage of such a notion in Community law involves risks of misunderstanding and differing interpretations in different Member States. Essentially the Community legislator has left the Member States wide discretion to define their national public service obligations. However, in Directive 2003/54/EC on the internal market for electricity the Community legislator has somewhat limited this discretion. This solution is well

  12. Learned EEG-based regulation of motor-related brain oscillations during application of transcranial electric currents: feasibility and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surjo R Soekadar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS improves motor learning and can influence emotional processing or attention. However, it remained unclear whether learned electroencephalography (EEG-based brain-machine interface (BMI control during tDCS is feasible and how application of transcranial electric currents during BMI control would interfere with feature-extraction of physiological brain signals. Here we tested this combination and evaluated stimulation-dependent artifacts across different EEG frequencies and stability of motor imagery-based BMI control. Approach: Ten healthy volunteers were invited to two BMI-sessions, each comprising two 60-trial blocks. During the trials, modulation of mu-rhythms (8-15Hz associated with motor imagery recorded over C4 was translated into online cursor movements on a computer screen. During block 2, either sham (session A or anodal tDCS (session B was applied at 1mA with the stimulation electrode placed 1cm anterior of C4. Main results: tDCS was associated with a significant signal power increase in the lower frequencies most evident in the signal spectrum of the EEG channel closest to the stimulation electrode. Stimulation-dependent signal power increase exhibited a decay of 12dB per decade, leaving frequencies above 9Hz unaffected. Analysis of BMI control performance did not indicate a difference between blocks and tDCS conditions. Conclusion: Application of tDCS during learned EEG-based self-regulation of brain oscillations above 9Hz is feasible and safe, and might improve applicability of BMI systems in patient populations.

  13. Inhibitors of arachidonate-regulated calcium channel signaling suppress triggered activity induced by the late sodium current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkowicz, Paul; Umeda, Patrick K; Sharifov, Oleg F; White, C Roger; Huang, Jian; Mahtani, Harry; Urthaler, Ferdinand

    2014-02-05

    Disturbances in myocyte calcium homeostasis are hypothesized to be one cause for cardiac arrhythmia. The full development of this hypothesis requires (i) the identification of all sources of arrhythmogenic calcium and (ii) an understanding of the mechanism(s) through which calcium initiates arrhythmia. To these ends we superfused rat left atria with the late sodium current activator type II Anemonia sulcata toxin (ATXII). This toxin prolonged atrial action potentials, induced early afterdepolarization, and provoked triggered activity. The calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitor KN-93 (N-[2-[[[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-propenyl]methylamino]methyl]phenyl]-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methoxybenzenesulphon-amide) suppressed ATXII triggered activity but its inactive congener KN-92 (2-[N-(4-methoxy benzenesulfonyl)]amino-N-(4-chlorocinnamyl)-N-methylbenzylamine) did not. Neither drug affected normal atrial contractility. Calcium entry via L-type channels or calcium leakage from sarcoplasmic reticulum stores are not critical for this type of ectopy as neither verapamil ((RS)-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-{[2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl]-(methyl)amino}-2-prop-2-ylpentanenitrile) nor ryanodine affected ATXII triggered activity. By contrast, inhibitors of the voltage independent arachidonate-regulated calcium (ARC) channel and the store-operated calcium channel specifically suppressed ATXII triggered activity without normalizing action potentials or affecting atrial contractility. Inhibitors of cytosolic calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 also suppressed triggered activity suggesting that this lipase, which generates free arachidonate, plays a key role in ATXII ectopy. Thus, increased left atrial late sodium current appears to activate atrial Orai-linked ARC and store operated calcium channels, and these voltage-independent channels may be unexpected sources for the arrhythmogenic calcium that underlies triggered activity.

  14. Public Innovation Policy in the Pharmaceutical Industry: the Cases of the EU and USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Mamedyarov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the main purpose of this article was to study the modern tools of the public innovation policy in the global pharmaceutical industry (US and EU cases, which is one of the most knowledge-intensive sectors of the global economy. During the study, it was necessary to achieve the following objectives: to identify main components of the innovation policy in the sector, to consider the role of intellectual property protection, measures of innovation support, regulatory control and other factors, and, also, to identify comparative characteristics of innovation processes within the US and the EU pharmaceutical sector. Methods: this article is based on a qualitative comparative study of the US and EU innovation policy in the pharmaceutical industry. Industryoriented innovation support measures (i.e. levels of private and public financing have been quantitatively analyzed, including the evaluation of the levels of R&D productivity; also, a comparative study of the pharma patent statistics in the leading countries have been performed. This article highlights the problems of intellectual property protection, which remains an important source of financial stability for major pharma companies being the basis for new innovation agenda. Low R&D productivity and high costs of new innovative drugs together emphasize the significance of the analysis of current innovation processes within the pharmaceutical industry, and could open the way for building more effective managerial and business processes. Results: the global pharmaceutical industry today is under thorough control of government regulators and civil society organizations seeking to improve mechanisms of the drugs distribution, in order to make drugs more accessible, safe and clean. This high regulation level impedes innovation within existing pharma business models, and leads to high costs of the newest drugs. The study revealed that successful pharmaceutical innovation today requires

  15. Economic Consequences of GMO Traceability in the EU Food and Feed Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Zapilko; Sandra Feigl; Klaus Menrad; Tobias Hirzinger

    2009-01-01

    The application of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in agriculture and food production has steadily increased in the recent years, while EU consumers` acceptance of using GMOs in the food area is still very low. In order to ensure consumers` and users` freedom of choice, the EU adopted specific regulations whereby food and feed products have to be labelled if containing more than 0,9 % of GMOs. This led to an increasing need of GMO testing for the EU food and feed industry. This study ai...

  16. The EU Nickel Directive revisited--future steps towards better protection against nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Uter, Wolfgang; McFadden, John;

    2011-01-01

    In July 2001, the EU Nickel Directive came into full force to protect European citizens against nickel allergy and dermatitis. Prior to this intervention, Northern European governments had already begun to regulate consumer nickel exposure. According to part 2 of the EU Nickel Directive...... and the Danish nickel regulation, consumer items intended to be in direct and prolonged contact with the skin were not allowed to release more than 0.5 µg nickel/cm2/week. It was considered unlikely that nickel allergy would disappear altogether as a proportion of individuals reacted below the level defined...... by the EU Nickel Directive. Despite this, the EU Nickel Directive part 2 was expected to work as an operational limit that would sufficiently protect European consumers against nickel allergy and dermatitis. This review presents the accumulation of epidemiological studies that evaluated the possible effect...

  17. The EU Nickel Directive revisited--future steps towards better protection against nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Uter, Wolfgang; McFadden, John;

    2011-01-01

    and the Danish nickel regulation, consumer items intended to be in direct and prolonged contact with the skin were not allowed to release more than 0.5 µg nickel/cm2/week. It was considered unlikely that nickel allergy would disappear altogether as a proportion of individuals reacted below the level defined......In July 2001, the EU Nickel Directive came into full force to protect European citizens against nickel allergy and dermatitis. Prior to this intervention, Northern European governments had already begun to regulate consumer nickel exposure. According to part 2 of the EU Nickel Directive...... by the EU Nickel Directive. Despite this, the EU Nickel Directive part 2 was expected to work as an operational limit that would sufficiently protect European consumers against nickel allergy and dermatitis. This review presents the accumulation of epidemiological studies that evaluated the possible effect...

  18. Good Governance in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Livioara GOGA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the EU adhesion, good governance has been analyzed from different perspectives, in the judicial literature being an analytic model or a normative concept. Some authors have wondered if this concept is a fashion, comprising some older ideas and principles, while other authors have asserted that the reasons why different methods of governance appear in the EU are based on “the complexity and the uncertainty of the problems on the agenda, an irreducible, the new approaches on public administration and law, hidden competencies, legitimacy and subsidiarity”. At a normative level, the White Paper of European Governance consecrated five principles on which good governance is based upon: openness, participation, responsibility, efficiency and coherence.

  19. Leveraging EU Soft Power to Shape the Rise of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    on iron and steel fasteners from the EU; Chinese regulations affecting financial services news organizations; and Chinese tariffs on imported...permanent policy of neutrality with the Moscow Memorandum of 1955 while the Irish see their neutrality as symbolic of their independence, first gained...November 2012): 1. 12 Ibid, 37. 13 Fareed Zarkaria, “The China Syndrome,” Time Magazine online, http://www.time.com/time/ magazine /article

  20. EU Law and Multiple Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    In EU law, nationality and gender were the only equality issues on the legal agenda from the outset in 1958 and for about 40 years. Multiple discrimination was not addressed until the 1990's. The intersectionality approach which has been widely discussed outside Europe has mainly been used...... with a view to gendermainstreaming the fight against other kinds of discrimination (on grounds of ethnic origin, age, etc)....

  1. EU Legitimacy and Social Affiliation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Jan Sture Gunnar

    Analyses of European governance usually bring the member states into the fore placing the citizens in the background. By means of economic analysis, this paper brings explanations of EU legitimacy down to the level of individuals. A method will be suggested that combines explanations based......) and the research questions are elucidated by a small number of interviews with Danish engineers concerning their experience of policies and actions with technological knowledge...

  2. The Relationship between EU Legal Order and Albanian Legal Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merisë Rukaj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an analysis of the interaction of Community law with the national law and in particular the ratio between Community - Albanian law. Main purpose of this paper is to clarify the position of the international legal order and in particular that of the Community in the Albanian legal regulated by constitutional provisions. During the analysis of the interaction between the Community and the Albanian law a question arises in case of a conflictual confrontation between the two legal systems, which one will be applied? Such situation always occurs in the cases when a provision of EU law transfers the rights and imposes direct obligations to the citizens of the EU while the content of this provision collides with the rule of national law. To resolve such a situation, the Republic of Albania has held a definite stance: bigotry retains superiority of international versus national law, positioning it in the hierarchy of sources of law immediately after the Constitution of the Republic of Albania. It is clear that the Albanian constitution legislators have been aware of their European perspective and for this fact the EU law and its legal order can survive only if compliance and protection is guaranteed by two cornerstones: direct applicability of Community law and the advantage of Community law over national law. They are two fundamental principles of European law which guarantee the implementation of the uniform and priority of the right of the EU in all Member States.

  3. Energy law in Europe - national, EU and international law and institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roggenkamp, Martha M. [Leiden Univ., International Inst. for Energy Law, Leiden (Netherlands); Roenne, Anita [Copenhagen Univ., Copenhagen (Denmark); Redgwell, Catherine [St. Peter' s Coll., Oxford (United Kingdom); Guayo, Inigo del [Almeria Univ., Almeria (ES)] (eds.)

    2001-07-01

    This work provides a comparative survey, analysis and synthesis of energy law and regulation under EU and international law and in eight key European energy producing jurisdictions (Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, United Kingdom). In addition to separate chapters focusing on the law and institutions of each jurisdiction in turn, there are also major chapters on the impact of international law, environmental law issues, the CEEC and Energy Charter Treaty and EU Energy Law. (Author)

  4. Competitiveness of Romanian Agriculture after EU Accession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela NECULITA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to determine whether after joining European Union, Romanian agriculture became more competitiveness on Unique Market. Romania need significant financial help to solve various structural problems, one of the main problems being the low competitiveness in attracting European funds. Taking all the aspects into consideration, this paper trying to develop an objective analysis of the current state of Romanian agriculture competitiveness, by means of pertinent data and statistics. Competitiveness increase, not only in agriculture, has become a primordial framework of the economic development strategies of most world countries. Agriculture can be an important asset for Romania, in the battle to become more competitive to the European level. Romania should win the market share and increase its exports to the EU market. According to European officials, Romania should find gaps on an already competitive market or to become competitive on new markets.

  5. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: A current-mode voltage regulator with an embedded sub-threshold reference for a passive UHF RFID transponder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhongqi, Liu; Chun, Zhang; Yongming, Li; Zhihua, Wang

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents a current-mode voltage regulator for a passive UHF RFID transponder. The passive tag power is extracted from RF energy through the RF-to-DC rectifier. Due to huge variations of the incoming RF power, the rectifier output voltage should be regulated to achieve a stable power supply. By accurately controlling the current flowing into the load with an embedded sub-threshold reference, the regulated voltage varies in a range of 1-1.3 V from -20 to 80 °C, and a bandwidth of about 100 kHz is achieved for a fast power recovery. The circuit is fabricated in UMC 0.18 μm mixed-mode CMOS technology, and the current consumption is only 1 μA.

  6. Global energy security and the implications for the EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umbach, Frank [Centre for European Security Strategies (CESS), Berlin (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    The following article will analyse the global and geopolitical dimensions of the future international energy security and its implications for Europe and the EU-27. In this context, I will discuss to which extent the EU's newly proclaimed 'Energy Action Plan' of the EU Spring summit of 2007 and its declared common energy (foreign) policy are a sufficient strategy to cope with the new global and geopolitical challenges. The article concludes the following: (1) The interlinkage between globally designed traditional energy security concepts - that rely just on economic factors and 'market-strategies' - and domestic as well as regional political stability demands new thinking with regard to both energy supply security and foreign and security policies. (2) Although after the Russian-Ukrainian gas conflict in January 2006, energy security has forced its way up the European energy and foreign policy agendas, the EU-27 member states have largely failed to forge a coherent European energy security and energy foreign policy strategy after their Spring summit of 2007 because its declared political solidarity has been still lacking. But the 2nd Strategic Energy Review of November 2008 has recommended new initiatives to overcome this lack by promoting concrete infrastructure and other projects for enhancing Europe's supply security and its political solidarity as part of a common energy (foreign) policy. If the EU is able to implement the March 2007 and November 2008 decisions, the EU oil and gas demand will drastically reduce and freeze at current levels. In this case, Putin's energy policies by using Russia's energy resources and pipeline monopolies as a political instrument to enforce its economic and geopolitical interests will be proved as self-defeating in Russia's long-term strategic interests. It will reduce Gazprom's gas exports to a much smaller EU gas market than originally forecasted as the result of a deliberate EU

  7. Governance in EU illicit drugs policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Carel; Galla, Maurice

    2014-09-01

    This commentary represents the authors' views on EU governance in illicit drug policy, a field in which they were active for more than 10 years between them. EU drug policy has a narrow legal basis in the European Treaties and is mostly non-binding. The main policy instruments are 8-year EU Drug Strategies, underpinned by 4-year Action Plans which set out specific objectives at national, EU or international level. The approach that guides EU drug policy is known as the 'balanced approach'. It is remarkably restrained and reflects the reality that very few Member States have either the socio-political culture or the resources to consistently apply the punitive sanctions foreseen by the UN conventions. An important feature of EU governance in the field of drugs is the proactive support that is provided to non-governmental organisations both within the EU as well as in accession, associated or third countries. At a global level, the EU is a major financial aid donor also in this field. This position is not however reflected in corresponding political clout for the EU within the UN system. EU governance on drugs has made it possible for many of its Member States to accommodate the problem rather than to "solve" what by all the evidence from the last 100 years may well be insoluble, at least by means of criminalisation and prohibition. The big question is where EU drug policy is headed in the next few years. The EU has been promoting measures and practices that target real problems. It has done so without indulging too much in unhelpful rhetoric. However, like all successful formulae this one also has a sell-by date. EU governance in the field of drugs cannot afford to stand still. It needs to find a second wind.

  8. The Issue of Data Protection and Data Security in the (Pre-Lisbon EU Third Pillar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria O'Neill

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The key functional operability in the pre-Lisbon PJCCM pillar of the EU is the exchange of intelligence and information amongst the law enforcement bodies of the EU. The twin issues of data protection and data security within what was the EU’s third pillar legal framework therefore come to the fore. With the Lisbon Treaty reform of the EU, and the increased role of the Commission in PJCCM policy areas, and the integration of the PJCCM provisions with what have traditionally been the pillar I activities of Frontex, the opportunity for streamlining the data protection and data security provisions of the law enforcement bodies of the post-Lisbon EU arises. This is recognised by the Commission in their drafting of an amending regulation for Frontex , when they say that they would prefer “to return to the question of personal data in the context of the overall strategy for information exchange to be presented later this year and also taking into account the reflection to be carried out on how to further develop cooperation between agencies in the justice and home affairs field as requested by the Stockholm programme.” The focus of the literature published on this topic, has for the most part, been on the data protection provisions in Pillar I, EC. While the focus of research has recently sifted to the previously Pillar III PJCCM provisions on data protection, a more focused analysis of the interlocking issues of data protection and data security needs to be made in the context of the law enforcement bodies, particularly with regard to those which were based in the pre-Lisbon third pillar. This paper will make a contribution to that debate, arguing that a review of both the data protection and security provision post-Lisbon is required, not only in order to reinforce individual rights, but also inter-agency operability in combating cross-border EU crime. The EC’s provisions on data protection, as enshrined by Directive 95/46/EC, do not apply

  9. MIGRATION EFFECTS OF ROMANIA’S ACCESSION TO THE EU: THE CASE OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Pop

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to assess the main migration effects upon Romania following its accession to the EU, with a special focus on Moldova as Romania’s immediate neighbour and ENP partner state at the EU Eastern border. It relies on key findings drawn from current literature in the field, statistics provided by the Ministry of Interior and Administrative Reform of Romania, and personal interviews of the author with relevant authorities and experts both in Romania and Moldova. The paper surveys the major source areas and countries for irregular migration affecting Romania, the methods and routes used in irregular migration, various aspects of Romania’s visa policy towards Moldova, the main features of the process of regaining Romanian citizenship by Moldovan nationals and the most important characteristics of migration from Moldova to Romania. The paper also introduces a number of recommendations on regulating labour migration, combating irregular migration and organized crime, control procedures at border checkpoints, visa policy, and dissemination of information, whose aim is to help improve the migration policies of Romania, Moldova, and Ukraine as well as their cooperation from a cross-border perspective.

  10. The European Union and nuclear safety; Die EU und die nukleare Sicherheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raetzke, Christian [CONLAR Consulting on Nuclear Law and Regulation, Leipzig (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    In recent years the EU Commission has developed a range of activities in the area of nuclear safety. Currently, the Commission has submitted a draft Directive revising the Nuclear Safety Directive 2009/71 to the Council. It seems that this draft text will undergo substantial changes in the course of Council deliberations and it is not clear yet whether any revision of the Directive will be adopted at all. The article shortly explains the background and the history of EU legislative activities in nuclear safety - a history which has been somewhat less than straightforward and has not yet reached its final chapter. The Commission's endeavours to introduce meaningful legislation have always met resistance from Member States determined to protect their sovereignty in this area. A decisive handicap for the Commission in this struggle certainly is the fact that it does not have a sufficient degree of in-house expertise in nuclear safety. Unless this is changed by upgrading and empowering the Commission to become a 'super-regulatory authority' - which seems to be very unlikely -, the Commission will have to resign itself to contribute to the further development of nuclear safety by closely cooperating with the Member States and their regulators. In any case, this can be a very effective and meaningful role. (orig.)

  11. International law on ship recycling and its interface with EU law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüello Moncayo, Gabriela

    2016-08-15

    The regulation on ship recycling at international and European Union (EU) level has transitioned from the realm of transboundary movement of wastes to a specialized regime, i.e., the Hong Kong International Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships (2009) (Hong Kong Convention). Although this convention is not in force yet, the principal features of it have been incorporated in EU Regulation 1257/2013 on ship recycling. This paper examines the rationale behind developing a ship recycling regime, its disassociation from wastes, and the departure from the main principles of transboundary movement of wastes, such as the proximity principle, reduction of transboundary movement of wastes, and the prior informed consent procedure. While acknowledging some of the positive features of the emerging ship recycling, it is submitted that the Hong Kong Convention and EU Regulation 1257/2013 on ship recycling represent a step back in the regulation of ship recycling.

  12. International Roaming of Mobile Services: The Need for Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This section discusses the need for regulation of international roaming charges. This is done through analysis of the EU experiences by a heavy handed price regulation of roaming services.......This section discusses the need for regulation of international roaming charges. This is done through analysis of the EU experiences by a heavy handed price regulation of roaming services....

  13. Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner in the EU territory, with the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Parasaissetia nigra in the European Union (EU and identified and evaluated the phytosanitary measures listed in Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Entry through the principal pathways is assessed as moderately likely for plants for planting and very unlikely for living parts of plants, such as fruit and cut flowers with foliage, the discrepancy being mainly due to the difference in probability of transfer to a suitable host. Establishment is rated as very likely outdoors in Mediterranean areas and indoors in the whole risk assessment area (where the pest has been present for a long time, and unlikely outdoors in non-Mediterranean areas. Spread within the EU is considered to be moderately likely because the pest can readily be moved with plant material but is limited by climatic conditions. The magnitude of the potential consequences is rated as minor. The Panel evaluated the effectiveness of current EU phytosanitary measures and concluded that the removal of P. nigra from Annex IIAII would not affect its probability of entry, because the importation from Third countries of some host plants regulated for P. nigra (Citrus, Fortunella, Poncirus species and their hybrids is prohibited in Annex III. However, spread could be affected since there would no longer be a requirement to inspect for this pest before issuing a plant passport (Annex V. However, since the regulated Rutaceae species constitute only a very small proportion of the potential host plants of P. nigra,the current phytosanitary measures are mostly ineffective in preventing the further introduction and spread of P. nigra in the EU. The Panel identified surveillance at the production site and treatment of the consignment as the most effective and technically feasible risk reduction options, particularly when in combination.

  14. [Regulation of food supplements in the European Union and its member states. Part 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, A S; Ponomareva, M N; Sukhanov, B P

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses various aspects of the regional (the European Union) and national (European countries) regulation related to food supplements. The use of botanicals and minor bioactive substances in food supplements, and their labelling are studied. The EU principle of mutual recognition is described in the context of current challenges that exist in the regulatory harmonisation between the EU member states. The concept of novel foods and novel ingredients is also presented, and the procedure of their pre-market approval is described in detail. Basic principles of using claims for food supplements are also outlined.

  15. Two cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutations have different effects on both pulmonary phenotype and regulation of outwardly rectified chloride currents.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulmer, S B; Schwiebert, E M; M.M. Morales; Guggino, W B; Cutting, G R

    1995-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF), a disorder of electrolyte transport manifest in the lungs, pancreas, sweat duct, and vas deferens, is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The CFTR protein has been shown to function as a cAMP-activated chloride channel and also regulates a separate protein, the outwardly rectifying chloride channel (ORCC). To determine the consequence of disease-producing mutations upon these functions, mutant CFTR was transiently expressed in Xenopu...

  16. Financial Integration into EU: The Romanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Bozkurt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of integration between stock market of Romania and other stock markets of European Union (EU countries. Correlations between the stock returns represent the level of integration between the stock markets. Empirical analysis are performed with daily stock returns of 24 EU members including Romania for 2002-2012 period using panel data gravity models and correlations are investigated. Findings reveal that the following factors have significant and robust effects on the financial integration process of Romania with other 23 EU members; (i EU membership, (ii bilateral trade, (iii GDP per capita, (iv 2012 sovereign debt crisis and (v East European location. The results emphasize that intensifying economic relations with EU members can contribute the integration of Romanian stock market with other EU members. designed & hoste

  17. EU Trade Governance and Policy: A Critical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Ford

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a critical analysis of EU trade policy. It does so by highlighting the political and economic enclosures within which EU trade policy is embedded and that continue to hamper more holistic and interdisciplinary analyses that are argued to be necessary in order to comprehend the obstacles to and avenues towards a more sustainable and socially just world. The article critically analyses economic and political hegemony by drawing on two strands of critical international thought, namely neo-Gramscian analysis and global political ecology, employing a critical realist approach. The article identifies the perceived twin short-comings of conventional analyses: firstly, the neglect of understandings of power relations and social justice, and secondly the lack of attention to criteria of sustainability. Within critical debates about European governance, including the governance of trade and trade policy, neo-Gramscian perspectives highlight the power relations within EU governance, exposing the mechanisms of hegemony as well as identifying potential counter-hegemonic forces. While this offers important insights, the article argues that a critical perspective cannot be complete without attention to sustainability. Political ecology makes a vital contribution to critical perspectives by highlighting the natural limits within which by necessity all human activity takes place. Using illustrations from trade policy debates, the article argues that current EU trade policy and governance is not best placed to meet the challenges of sustainability and social justice and it points to the need for more holistic systems thinking to challenge orthodoxy.

  18. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories are largely irreconcilable with the contract law of the EU. The paper further addresses the main implications of this mismatch, both for contract theory and for EU contract law. It suggests that in...

  19. Dealing With Legal Loopholes and Uncertainties Within EU Public Procurement Law Regarding Framework Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrecka, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Provision on framework agreements has been introduced into European Union Law (EU) in 2004. Since then framework agreements have gained popularity and importance on the European Union (EU) public tender market. Nevertheless, the use of frameworks poses significant legal challenges necessitating...... the clarification of the governing rules and the introduction of further guidelines. Unfortunately, clarifications were not fully provided in the new Directive 2014/24/EU. This article is a study of legal loopholes and uncertainties that occur during public procurement of framework agreements as a result of current......, a small scale comparative law research and field research based on qualitative research by the means of semi-structured interviews....

  20. LaVo4: Eu Phosphor Films with Enhanced Eu Solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Harold

    2011-08-11

    Eu doped rare-earth orthovanadates are known to be good red phosphor materials. In particular, LaVO{sub 4}:Eu is a promising candidate due to the low Eu-site point symmetry, and thus high dipole transition probability within Judd-Ofelt theory. However, the low solubility limit (< 3 mol %) of Eu in LaVO{sub 4} prevents its efficient use as a phosphor. We present optical evidence of enhanced Eu solubility as high as 10 mol % in LaVO{sub 4}:Eu thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition and postannealing. The photoluminescent intensity exceeded that of YVO{sub 4}:Eu thin films when excited below the host bandgap, indicating stronger direct emission of Eu in LaVO{sub 4}.