WorldWideScience

Sample records for current epidemiologic studies

  1. Current state of epidemiological studies in Belarus about Chernobyl sufferers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsko, V.P. [Institute of Radiobiology, Academy Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

    1998-03-01

    The present paper is an analysis of the results of epidemiological studies in Belarus about the after-effects of the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station (ChAPS), based on published data at scientific institutes, organs and institutions of Ministry of Health. In the last years the affected population showed thereby more significant - as compared with republican indices - growth of incidence in the majority of diseases (first of all: digestion, urogenital, nervous, endocrine systems, diseases of ear, throat, nose both among adults and among children). Aggravation of health state continues in the participants of liquidation of the ChAPS accident consequences and the evacuees from the alienation zone which have obtained considerable radiation load to organism (rise of incidence of diseases of endocrine, cardiovascular, nervous system etc.). Considerable growth of thyroid cancer incidence is registered in Belarus children and adolescents, especially in the Gomel and Brest regions. This is conditioned by dose commitments on thyroid gland due to iodine radionuclides in first period after the accident, incorrect iodine prophylaxy, and goitre endemic. The rise of hereditary pathology is registered too. An expressed increase of oncological diseases is observed therewith mainly in the Gomel region, especially in the districts with high level of radiocontamination and, consequently, significant radiation load. First of all, this relates to the growth of incidence of cancer of lungs, mammary gland, bladder. The analysis of epidemiological studies performed in Belarus after the ChAPS catastrophe and comparison of them with data obtained in the pre-Chernobyl period testify to the aggravation of health state of Belarus population. The specialists unambiguously recognize the direct influence of radioactive pollution in the environment on rise of thyroid pathologies, hereditary and congenial diseases, and cancers of different localizations. There is no unique opinion

  2. Prospective Multicentre Study on the Epidemiology and Current Therapeutic Management of Severe Bronchiolitis in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose C. Flores-González

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the epidemiology and therapeutic management of patients with severe acute bronchiolitis (AB admitted to paediatric intensive care units (PICUs in Spain. Design. Descriptive, prospective, multicentre study. Setting. Sixteen Spanish PICUs. Patients. Patients with severe AB who required admission to any of the participating PICUs over 1 year. Interventions. Both epidemiological variables and medical treatment received were recorded. Results. A total of 262 patients were recruited; 143 were male (54.6%, with median age of 1 month (0–23. Median stay in the PICU was 7 days (1–46. Sixty patients (23% received no nebuliser treatment, while the rest received a combination of inhalation therapies. One-quarter of patients (24.8% received corticosteroids and 56.5% antibiotic therapy. High-flow oxygen therapy was used in 14.3% and noninvasive ventilation (NIV was used in 75.6%. Endotracheal intubation was required in 24.4% of patients. Younger age, antibiotic therapy, and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV were risk factors that significantly increased the stay in the PICU. Conclusions. Spanish PICUs continue to routinely use nebulised bronchodilator treatment and corticosteroid therapy. Despite NIV being widely used in this condition, intubation was required in one-quarter of cases. Younger age, antibiotic therapy, and IMV were associated with a longer stay in the PICU.

  3. Evaluation of epidemiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breckow, J.

    1995-01-01

    The publication is intended for readers with a professional background in radiation protection who are not experts in the field of epidemiology. The potentials and the limits of epidemiology are shown and concepts and terminology of radioepidemilogic studies as well as epidemiology in general are explained, in order to provide the necessary basis for understanding or performing evaluations of epidemiologic studies. (orig./VHE) [de

  4. Current status of the scientific study of the personality disorders: an overview of epidemiological, longitudinal, experimental psychopathology, and neurobehavioral perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzenweger, Mark F

    2010-08-01

    Research on the nature and development of personality disorders has grown immensely over the past thirty years. A selective summary overview is given of the current status of the scientific study of the personality disorders from several perspectives, including the epidemiological, longitudinal, experimental psychopathology, and neurobehavioral perspectives. From this research, we now know that approximately 10 percent of the general population suffer from a diagnosable personality disorder. Moreover, contrary to nearly a century of theory and clinical pedagogy, modern longitudinal studies clearly suggest that personality disorders decrease in severity over time. The mechanisms by which this change occurs are not understood at present, though it is not likely that change in underlying normal personality systems drives the change in personality disorder. The methods of the experimental psychopathology laboratory, including neuroimaging approaches, are being brought to bear on the nature of personality disorders in efforts to relate neurobiological and neurocognitive functions to personality disorder symptomatology. A model that links personality disorder feature development to underlying, interacting brain-based neurobehavioral systems is reviewed in brief. Current issues and findings illustrative of these developments are given using borderline personality disorder as an exemplar. Finally, areas of intersection between psychoanalytic treatment approaches and the growing science of personality disorder are highlighted.

  5. Current epidemiology of hypertension in Port Harcourt metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current epidemiology of hypertension in Port Harcourt metropolis, Rivers State ... the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital formed the cohort for this study. ... is high and only a small fraction of hypertensives are aware of their condition.

  6. Epidemiological studies on syncope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin Huth

    2013-01-01

    of the patients play an essential role. In epidemiology these factors have major impact on the outcome of the patients. Until recently, even the definition of syncope differed from one study to another which has made literature reviews difficult. Traditionally the data on epidemiology of syncope has been taken...... from smaller studies from different clinical settings with wide differences in patient morbidity. Through the extensive Danish registries we examined the characteristics and prognosis of the patients hospitalized due to syncope in a nationwide study. The aims of the present thesis were to investigate......, prevalence and cardiovascular factors associated with the risk of syncope, 4) the prognosis in healthy individuals discharged after syncope, and 5) the prognosis of patients after syncope and evaluation of the CHADS2 score as a tool for short- and long-term risk prediction. The first studies of the present...

  7. Indoor radon epidemiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, E; Tomasek, L; Mueller, T [National Radiation Protection Institute, Prague (Czech Republic); Placek, V [Inst. for Expertises and Emergencies, Pribram-Kamenna (Czech Republic); Matzner, J; Heribanova, A [State Office for Nuclear Safety, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    The study is a long-term prospective cohort study of lung cancer and possibility other causes of death. The study population includes inhabitants of the area, who had resided there for at three years and at least one of these between 1.1.1960 and 21.12.1989. A total of 11865 inhabitants satisfied these criteria. The cumulative exposure of each respondent is being assessed on the basis of measurements in dwellings, time spent there and estimation of previous exposure levels by a model accounting for constructional changes in buildings. One year lasting measurements of radon daughter products by integral dosimeters (Kodak film LR 115) were performed in practically all dwellings of the specified area. Radon measurements in houses in term of equilibrium concentration are compared with the results of a pilot study in Petrovice in 1990-91 which gave the stimulus for the epidemiological study. The distribution of death causes and ratio of observed (O) to expected (E) cases among collected death cases in the cohort, generally, somewhat lower ratios than one reflect the non-industrial character of the region, with the exception of lung cancer in man. The differences in the O/E ratios for lung cancer among the separate communities indicate that even in the situation of generally lower mortality, the dependence of lung cancer mortality on radon.

  8. Factors that influence current tuberculosis epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Juan-Pablo; Moreno, Antonio; Fina, Laia; del Baño, Lucía; Orcau, Angels; de Olalla, Patricia García; Caylà, Joan A

    2013-06-01

    According to WHO estimates, in 2010 there were 8.8 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) and 1.5 million deaths. TB has been classically associated with poverty, overcrowding and malnutrition. Low income countries and deprived areas, within big cities in developed countries, present the highest TB incidences and TB mortality rates. These are the settings where immigration, important social inequalities, HIV infection and drug or alcohol abuse may coexist, all factors strongly associated with TB. In spite of the political, economical, research and community efforts, TB remains a major global health problem worldwide. Moreover, in this new century, new challenges such as multidrug-resistance extension, migration to big cities and the new treatments with anti-tumour necrosis alpha factor for inflammatory diseases have emerged and threaten the decreasing trend in the global number of TB cases in the last years. We must also be aware about the impact that smoking and diabetes pandemics may be having on the incidence of TB. The existence of a good TB Prevention and Control Program is essential to fight against TB. The coordination among clinicians, microbiologists, epidemiologists and others, and the link between surveillance, control and research should always be a priority for a TB Program. Each city and country should define their needs according to the epidemiological situation. Local TB control programs will have to adapt to any new challenge that arises in order to respond to the needs of their population.

  9. The current epidemiology of SIDS in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mehanni, M

    2000-12-01

    This paper examines some epidemiological factors associated with SIDS to give a general profile of SIDS cases occurring in Ireland between the years 1993 to 1997. There has been a dramatic decrease in the incidence of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) in the Republic of Ireland in the last decade from an average rate of 2.2\\/1000 live-births in the 1980s to 0.8\\/1000 live-births in the years 1993-1997, a decrease of 100 deaths a year. The fall in the SIDS rate has been seen in many countries and is felt to be associated with Reduce The Risks (RTR) of SIDS campaigns and the avoidance of the prone sleeping position. The use of the prone sleep position averaged at 6% of children being put prone in the years 1993-1997 but the prone position has progressively decreased from 13% of children being put prone in 1994 to only 2% in 1997. The profile of the Irish SIDS cases is similar to that of SIDS cases in other countries following similar RTR campaigns with a male predominance, the characteristic clustering of deaths in the first six months of life and the majority of cases (75%) occuring in the night sleep period. The loss of the seasonal variation of the time of death is also shown and factors such as lower socio-economic status, unemployment and medical card eligibility were seen in higher proportions in SIDS families than in the general population. A high percentage of SIDS mothers smoked (73%). Higher smoking rates were seen among younger and single mothers and smoking rates were inversely related to educational level and socioeconomic grouping. An urgent question that needs to be addressed is how socioeconomic disadvantage increases the SIDS risk and what factors influence socioeconomically disadvantaged families to adopt life style and parenting practices such as smoking that influence their children\\'s health.

  10. The current epidemiology of SIDS in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehanni, M; Cullen, A; Kiberd, B; McDonnell, M; O'Regan, M; Matthews, T

    2000-12-01

    This paper examines some epidemiological factors associated with SIDS to give a general profile of SIDS cases occurring in Ireland between the years 1993 to 1997. There has been a dramatic decrease in the incidence of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) in the Republic of Ireland in the last decade from an average rate of 2.2/1000 live-births in the 1980s to 0.8/1000 live-births in the years 1993-1997, a decrease of 100 deaths a year. The fall in the SIDS rate has been seen in many countries and is felt to be associated with Reduce The Risks (RTR) of SIDS campaigns and the avoidance of the prone sleeping position. The use of the prone sleep position averaged at 6% of children being put prone in the years 1993-1997 but the prone position has progressively decreased from 13% of children being put prone in 1994 to only 2% in 1997. The profile of the Irish SIDS cases is similar to that of SIDS cases in other countries following similar RTR campaigns with a male predominance, the characteristic clustering of deaths in the first six months of life and the majority of cases (75%) occuring in the night sleep period. The loss of the seasonal variation of the time of death is also shown and factors such as lower socio-economic status, unemployment and medical card eligibility were seen in higher proportions in SIDS families than in the general population. A high percentage of SIDS mothers smoked (73%). Higher smoking rates were seen among younger and single mothers and smoking rates were inversely related to educational level and socioeconomic grouping. An urgent question that needs to be addressed is how socioeconomic disadvantage increases the SIDS risk and what factors influence socioeconomically disadvantaged families to adopt life style and parenting practices such as smoking that influence their children's health.

  11. Current status of health among workers in Japan: Results from the Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    KUWAHARA, Keisuke; UEHARA, Akihiko; YAMAMOTO, Makoto; NAKAGAWA, Tohru; HONDA, Toru; YAMAMOTO, Shuichiro; OKAZAKI, Hiroko; SASAKI, Naoko; OGASAWARA, Takayuki; HORI, Ai; NISHIURA, Chihiro; MIYAMOTO, Toshiaki; KOCHI, Takeshi; EGUCHI, Masafumi; TOMITA, Kentaro; IMAI, Teppei; NISHIHARA, Akiko; NAGAHAMA, Satsue; MURAKAMI, Taizo; SHIMIZU, Makiko; KABE, Isamu; MIZOUE, Tetsuya; KUNUGITA, Naoki; SONE, Tomofumi; DOHI, Seitaro

    2016-01-01

    Data are limited on the sex-specific prevalence of diseases and their risk factors in middle-aged and older workers in Japan. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the age- and sex-specific prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome (defined using joint statement criteria), obesity, underweight, abdominal obesity, and smoking among approximately 70,000 to 90,000 Japanese workers (predominantly men) aged 20–69 years in 2014. We also investigated the prevalence of low cardiorespiratory fitness in 2012 and no leisure-time exercise in 2014. In both sexes, the prevalence of lifestyle-related risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, obesity, and abdominal obesity, was increased with aging. In contrast, the prevalence of underweight was decreased with aging. Smoking prevalence exceeded 30% in men regardless of age, whereas the prevalence was around 10% in women of all age groups. Prevalence of no leisure-time exercise exceeded 50% among middle-aged and older workers in both sexes. Among workers aged 50–64 years, less than half of men had low fitness, whereas more than half of women had low fitness. Given the high prevalence of lifestyle-related risk factors among middle-aged and older workers, effective strategies to prevent cardiovascular disease in this age group are needed in Japan. PMID:27430963

  12. Current food classifications in epidemiological studies do not enable solid nutritional recommendations for preventing diet-related chronic diseases: the impact of food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, Anthony; Rock, Edmond; Bassama, Joseph; Bohuon, Philippe; Prabhasankar, Pichan; Monteiro, Carlos; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Achir, Nawel

    2015-11-01

    To date, observational studies in nutrition have categorized foods into groups such as dairy, cereals, fruits, and vegetables. However, the strength of the association between food groups and chronic diseases is far from convincing. In most international expert surveys, risks are most commonly scored as probable, limited, or insufficient rather than convincing. In this position paper, we hypothesize that current food classifications based on botanical or animal origins can be improved to yield solid recommendations. We propose using a food classification that employs food processes to rank foods in epidemiological studies. Indeed, food health potential results from both nutrient density and food structure (i.e., the matrix effect), both of which can potentially be positively or negatively modified by processing. For example, cereal-based foods may be more or less refined, fractionated, and recombined with added salt, sugars, and fats, yielding a panoply of products with very different nutritional values. The same is true for other food groups. Finally, we propose that from a nutritional perspective, food processing will be an important issue to consider in the coming years, particularly in terms of strengthening the links between food and health and for proposing improved nutritional recommendations or actions. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Current Food Classifications in Epidemiological Studies Do Not Enable Solid Nutritional Recommendations for Preventing Diet-Related Chronic Diseases: The Impact of Food Processing12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, Anthony; Rock, Edmond; Bassama, Joseph; Bohuon, Philippe; Prabhasankar, Pichan; Monteiro, Carlos; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Achir, Nawel

    2015-01-01

    To date, observational studies in nutrition have categorized foods into groups such as dairy, cereals, fruits, and vegetables. However, the strength of the association between food groups and chronic diseases is far from convincing. In most international expert surveys, risks are most commonly scored as probable, limited, or insufficient rather than convincing. In this position paper, we hypothesize that current food classifications based on botanical or animal origins can be improved to yield solid recommendations. We propose using a food classification that employs food processes to rank foods in epidemiological studies. Indeed, food health potential results from both nutrient density and food structure (i.e., the matrix effect), both of which can potentially be positively or negatively modified by processing. For example, cereal-based foods may be more or less refined, fractionated, and recombined with added salt, sugars, and fats, yielding a panoply of products with very different nutritional values. The same is true for other food groups. Finally, we propose that from a nutritional perspective, food processing will be an important issue to consider in the coming years, particularly in terms of strengthening the links between food and health and for proposing improved nutritional recommendations or actions. PMID:26567188

  14. Current Zika virus epidemiology and recent epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioos, S; Mallet, H-P; Leparc Goffart, I; Gauthier, V; Cardoso, T; Herida, M

    2014-07-01

    The Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus (Aedes), similar to other arboviruses, first identified in Uganda in 1947. Few human cases were reported until 2007, when a Zika outbreak occurred in Yap, Micronesia, even though ZIKV activity had been reported in Africa and in Asia through virological surveillance and entomological studies. French Polynesia has recorded a large outbreak since October 2013. A great number of cases and some with neurological and autoimmune complications have been reported in a context of concurrent circulation of dengue viruses. The clinical presentation is a "dengue-like syndrome". Until the epidemic in French Polynesia, no severe ZIKV disease had been described so far. The diagnosis is confirmed by viral genome detection by genomic amplification (RT- PCR) and viral isolation. These two large outbreaks occurred in a previously unaffected area in less than a decade. They should raise awareness as to the potential for ZIKV to spread especially since this emergent disease is not well known and that some questions remain on potential reservoirs and transmission modes as well as on clinical presentations and complications. ZIKV has the potential to spread to new areas where the Aedes mosquito vector is present and could be a risk for Southern Europe. Strategies for the prevention and control of ZIKV disease should include the use of insect repellent and mosquito vector eradication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Low dose epidemiologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    In this chapter the BEIR committee has reviewed low-dose irradiation studies since the BEIR III report. They have considered the carcinogenic effectiveness of low-LET in populations exposed to radiation from a number of different sources: diagnostic radiography; fallout from nuclear weapons testing; nuclear installations; radiation in the workplace and high levels of natural background radiation

  16. Epidemiological studies at RERF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yukiko

    1990-01-01

    The study of the Japanese survivors of the A-bombs embraces 120,000 people and extends from 1950 to 1985; 35 years of experience with a population exposed to a range of doses from fractions of a rad up to several hundred rads. This is far and away the most important source of data that are available. The risk estimates derived from this data by the UNSCEAR Commitee, for high dose rate exposure, range between 4x10 -2 /Sv for projection forward in time by the additive model and 11x10 -2 /Sv for the multiplicative projection model. The multiplicative model is favoured today by most people, but it may overestimate the contribution of the younger groups. For an adult population only, the risk estimates will be a little lower because the younger people, who are the most sensitive, would not be included. The differences in sexes seems noticeably smaller than that cited a decade ago in the BEIR III Committee of 1980 and the UNSCEAR Committee of 1977. Age dependence is better known and more pronounced than before and estimates for the younger exposed persons are the most uncertain, as one would expect. The authors' appraisal did not find any serious departure from a constant relative risk model for tumors other than leukemia. However, there did seem to be a slight decrement with time in the case of lung tumors but it was not significant. This item is important because the BEIR V Committee, which has not reported as of this time, has included a decrement term in its approach to projection modeling. The dose response for leukemia fits a linear quadratic best, while for the solid tumors other than leukemia as a group, linear is the best fit. For individual tumors there is somewhat greater flexibility in the dose response, and in some cases linear quadratic fits almost as well als linear. (orig./HP)

  17. Epidemiological studies in mucus hypersecretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    Respiratory mucus in epidemiology has mainly been studied using standardized questionnaires including questions on cough and phlegm. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) much controversy exists regarding the importance of mucus hypersecretion. From being the key element in the 'British...... hypothesis' it was reduced to being an innocent disorder in the 1980s but is now again recognized as a potential risk factor for an accelerated loss of lung function. Whereas early studies in mainly occupational cohorts showed no effect of chronic mucus hypersecretion on decline in lung function......, such an effect has been shown in subsequent studies on general population samples. Chronic mucus hypersecretion also increases risk of hospital admission which may be due to an increased risk of lower respiratory tract infection. In severe COPD this may explain the increased mortality associated...

  18. Current practice of epidemiology in Africa: highlights of the 3rd conference of the African epidemiological association and 1st conference of the Cameroon society of epidemiology, Yaoundé, Cameroon, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkwescheu, Armand Seraphin; Fokam, Joseph; Tchendjou, Patrice; Nji, Akindeh; Ngouakam, Hermann; Andre, Bita Fouda; Joelle, Sobngwi; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Akinroye, Kingsley; Mbacham, Wilfred; Colizzi, Vittorio; Leke, Rose; Victora, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    As the study of disease occurrence and health indicators in human populations, Epidemiology is a dynamic field that evolves with time and geographical context. In order to update African health workers on current epidemiological practices and to draw awareness of early career epidemiologists on concepts and opportunities in the field, the 3(rd) African Epidemiology Association and the 1st Cameroon Society of Epidemiology Conference was organized in June 2-6, 2014 at the Yaoundé Mont Febe Hotel, in Cameroon. Under the theme«Practice of Epidemiology in Africa: Stakes, Challenges and Perspectives», the conference attracted close to five hundred guest and participants from all continents. The two main programs were the pre-conference course for capacity building of African Early Career epidemiologists, and the conference itself, providing a forum for scientific exchanges on recent epidemiological concepts, encouraging the use of epidemiological methods in studying large disease burden and neglected tropical diseases; and highlighting existing opportunities.

  19. Spontaneous fungal peritonitis: Epidemiology, current evidence and future prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Marco; Leone, Sebastiano

    2016-09-14

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a complication of ascitic patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD); spontaneous fungal peritonitis (SFP) is a complication of ESLD less known and described. ESLD is associated to immunodepression and the resulting increased susceptibility to infections. Recent perspectives of the management of the critically ill patient with ESLD do not specify the rate of isolation of fungi in critically ill patients, not even the antifungals used for the prophylaxis, neither optimal treatment. We reviewed, in order to focus the epidemiology, characteristics, and, considering the high mortality rate of SFP, the use of optimal empirical antifungal therapy the current literature.

  20. Epidemiological study around La Hague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The North Cotentin is in France, the area where have been led until now, the biggest number of epidemiology studies on the effects of ionizing radiations on man, in order to assess the leukemia incidences and other cancer pathologies around nuclear facilities. The North Cotentin concentrates four nuclear installations.The objective of this file is to take stock of the situation in this field. In 1995 and 1998 have been published two sections of an epidemiology study about the incidence of leukemia in North Cotentin (J.F. Viel study for the period 1978-1992, Spira study for 1993-1997). The study of the Professor Spira does not bring to the fore a significant excess of leukemia for the period 1978-1997. The report of the professor Spira advocates several complementary epidemiology studies to precise or complete the data and lighten the causes of leukemia in North Cotentin. The studies of J.F.Viel shows that it does not exist a significant excess of cases in the studied area (25 cases for 22.8 expected cases, so a non significant difference) but notices an aggregate at the limit to be significant in the Beaumont-Hague canton (4 cases for 1.4 expected cases). J.F.Viel puts forward a relationship between the risk increase (of leukemia incidence) and some individual characteristics linked to the way of life of the studied persons: the North Cotentin beaches frequenting by the mothers or the children at least one time by month, the consumption of fish or shellfish having a local origin at least one time by week. This study suggests that it is the radioactivity, on the beaches on in fishes and shellfish that would be at the origin of the additional noticed leukemia. The authorities asked at the beginning of 1997, a scientific commission directed by the Professor Souleau to propose a new epidemiology study on the leukemia risk around La Hague. The report concludes that the leukemia incidence in the North Cotentin is in accordance with the expected incidence (25 observed

  1. Epidemiologic studies based on the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, G.

    1996-01-01

    There are great opportunities in the post-Chernobyl experience for significant epidemiologic research, perhaps even more in the area of disaster research than in the area of the human health effects of ionizing radiation. But the potential opportunity for learning the effects of radioiodine on the thyroid is very great and has aroused widespread national and international investigative interest. The opportunities for significant epidemiologic research are, however, severely limited currently by the worsening economic situation in Belarus and Ukraine, where the greatest exposure occurred, and by the lack of personnel trained in appropriate methods of study, the lack of modern equipment, the lack of supplies, the poor communication facilities, and the difficulties of accurate dose estimation. the disadvantages may or may not outweigh the obvious advantages of large numbers, the extensive direct thyroidal measurements made shortly after the accident in 1986, the magnitude of the releases of radioiodine, and the retention of the former Soviet system of universal medical care. Both the European Commission (EC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have been working actively to strengthen the infrastructure of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine. New scientific knowledge has yet to emerge from the extensive epidemiologic work but information of considerable public health significance has begun to accumulate. The bulk of the thyroid cancer has been shown to be valid by international pathology review; both EC and WHO representatives have declared the increase in thyroid cancer among children to have been caused in large part by Chernobyl. No increase in leukemia has been seen in the general population. The WHO pilot studies have shown no evidence of an increase in psychologic or neurologic complications among those exposed in utero. Ongoing epidemiologic work can be described by review of the inventory that the WHO has begun to maintain and publish. 20 refs., 7 tabs

  2. 孤独症谱系障碍流行病学研究现状%Current study on epidemiology of autism spectrum disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪华; 杜琳; 单玲; 冯俊燕; 贾飞勇

    2014-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with onset before the age of 3 years old, and is a subtype of pervasive developmental disorder. It has been classified as autism spectrum disorder in DSM-Ⅴ. Before 1980, autism was considered as a rare disease, in recent years, the epidemiological studies show that the incidence of autism tends to rise. In 2014, from the site of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of America, the overall prevalence of ASD among the ADDM sites was 14.7 per 1 000 children, which is equivalent to 68 cases of children that have one case for children with autism, we reviewed the study of epidemiology of ASD and analyzed the differences of gender, race, intelligence and regions of them, so as to provide a theoretical basis for its early detection and intervention.%儿童孤独症是一类起病于3岁以前的神经系统发育障碍,属于广泛性发育障碍的一个亚型。精神障碍诊断与统计手册第五版(DSM-Ⅴ)已将其归类为孤独症谱系障碍(ASD)。1980年以前,孤独症被认为是一种罕见性疾病,而近些年有关孤独症及ASD的流行病学研究表明,其发病率日趋上升,2014年美国疾病控制与预防中心对11个州8岁儿童的监测数据发现,ASD患病率高达14.7/1000,即相当于68例儿童中即有1例为ASD患儿,本文综述了目前ASD流行病学研究现状,并分析患儿性别、种族、智力、地域间的差异,为ASD的早期发现与早期干预提供理论依据。

  3. Internal dosimetry for epidemiologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groer, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    In traditional epidemiologic analyses, a single valued summary index, the standardized mortality ratio (SMR), is quite popular. The SMR is simply the ratio of the number of deaths observed in the study population to the number of deaths expected if the study population were subject to the age-specific rates of a standard population. SMRs for all causes or specific causes can be calculated. For such a simple analysis an exposed cohort is often characterized by an average organ or whole body dose or dose interval, and the necessary dose estimation effort is relatively minor. Modern statistical methods focus on the estimation of the cause-specific mortality rate λ for study populations exposed to ionizing radiations or toxic chemicals. The dependence of λ on factors other than demographic characteristics, such as race and sex, is usually described through a parametric model. Such factors, often called covariates or covariables, are incorporated in the mathematical expression for the hazard rate. The external gamma dose or the internal lung dose from inhaled uranium are good examples for covariates. This type of analysis permits the use of individual doses and gives a detailed and quantitative description of the mortality rate as a function of the covariables, but at the cost of a major dosimetric effort. The generation of the necessary dose information and also the calculational efforts become especially taxing for time-dependent covariates such as an internal, cumulative organ dose. 4 refs

  4. Snowboard traumatology: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigozzi, F; Santori, N; Di Salvo, V; Parisi, A; Di-Luigi, L

    1997-06-01

    In the past 10 years, snowboarding has become a popular winter sport among young people, and the number of accidents has increased proportionately. The incidence of traumas from snowboarding is shown to be 4 to 6 for every 1000 medical examinations, which is similar to that of downhill skiing. However, other important statistical differences exist between the two sports. This study of 106 snowboarding-related injury cases analyzes the epidemiology of these injuries in Italy. Results found that 45.1% of injuries are located in the upper limbs and that significant advantages are obtained with the introduction of guards to protect the upper limbs during descent. Serious ligament injuries to the knee are more rare in snowboarding than in downhill skiing. In both sports, injuries are more common with rigid boots, which lead to a higher incidence of injury to the upper limbs. Finally, a high percentage of injury to beginners was found in this study. Training courses for those who are considering taking up the sport of snowboarding could significantly lower their risk of trauma.

  5. Epidemiological studies of Fukushima residents exposed to ionising radiation from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant prefecture—a preliminary review of current plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori

    2012-01-01

    It is now more than six months since the beginning of the accident on 11 March 2011 at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan. The Japanese government and local health authorities have started to collect the information necessary to estimate radiation doses received by those living in the area around the plant, drafted plans for the health care of residents, and started to implement some of them. This paper reviews and discusses the studies necessary for risk evaluation of cancer and non-cancer diseases, including those already planned, mainly from the view point of evaluating health risk using epidemiological approaches. In the long run, it is important to establish a cohort with a control group. Even if the cumulative doses are estimated to be so low that it is difficult to evaluate the risk of cancer and non-cancer diseases, it is necessary to conduct such a study to reassure residents. The health care programme of the Fukushima Prefecture government, including health check-ups of residents, will help to assess indirect effects of radiation exposure, including psychological problems. The success of any studies of radiation epidemiology depends on the collection of accurate information on radiation doses received by the study subjects. However, some of the dosimetry surveys were not conducted in a timely manner. (It should be recognised, though, that such a problem might have been inevitable, considering the chaotic condition after the nuclear accident.) Accurate estimation of the radiation dose received by each resident is not only important for scientific risk evaluation but also to inform each resident about his or her potential risk. Otherwise, residents will bear an undue psychological burden from uncertainties regarding their radiation exposure and its health consequences. One of other important tasks in Fukushima is the improvement of the quality of the regional cancer registry in this prefecture. It is also important to start thyroid cancer

  6. Retrospective study of epidemiological, clinicopathological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retrospective study of epidemiological, clinicopathological and biological profils of 62 colorectal cancers cases in Jijel provence (Algeria) ... Our results were often compatible with the available literature and may provide reliable and relevant data on this disease. Key words: Colorectal cancer; Epidemiology; Therapy; ...

  7. Issues in epidemiological studies of radiofrequency workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocking, B.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews some of the issues in a proposed epidemiological study of radiofrequency workers. First a few other epidemiological studies are discussed to illustrate some of the common problems such as inadequate definition of effects and/or exposure. Then technical problems in determining dosage and responses as well as study design are reviewed, and finally the administrative aspects of ethics, industrial relations and costs are considered

  8. Epidemiological Study of Heart Failure in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF is a complex clinical syndrome that results from any structural or functional impairment of ventricular filling or ejection of blood. HF is one of the most important and severe end stages of many cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiological studies of HF have focused mainly on the prevalence, incidence, mortality, fatality, and distribution and temporal trends of these indicators among different populations. This review highlights important epidemiological studies of HF in China.

  9. [Current treatment and epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, A; Bouchand, F; Le Monnier, A

    2015-09-01

    During the past 10years, Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) have become a major public health challenge. Their epidemiology has changed with a rise in the number of cases and an increase in severe episodes. Recurrence and failure of conventional treatments have become more common. Furthermore, a spread of CDI has been observed in the general population-involving subjects without the usual risk factors (unexposed to antibiotic treatment, young people, pregnant women, etc.). All these change are partially due to the emergence of the hypervirulent and hyperepidemic clone NAP1/B1/027. New therapeutic strategies (antimicrobial treatment, immunoglobulins, toxin chelation, fecal microbiota transplantation) are now available and conventional treatments (metronidazole and vancomycin) have been reevaluated with new recommendations. Recent studies show a better efficacy of vancomycin compared to metronidazole for severe episodes. Fidaxomicin is a novel antibiotic drug with interesting features, including an efficacy not inferior to vancomycin and a lower risk of recurrence. Finally, for multi-recurrent forms, fecal microbiota transplantation seems to be the best option. We present the available data in this review. Copyright © 2015 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Perceptions of molecular epidemiology studies of HIV among stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Schairer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advances in viral sequence analysis make it possible to track the spread of infectious pathogens, such as HIV, within a population. When used to study HIV, these analyses (i.e., molecular epidemiology potentially allow inference of the identity of individual research subjects. Current privacy standards are likely insufficient for this type of public health research. To address this challenge, it will be important to understand how stakeholders feel about the benefits and risks of such research. Design and Methods: To better understand perceived benefits and risks of these research methods, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with HIV-infected individuals, individuals at high-risk for contracting HIV, and professionals in HIV care and prevention. To gather additional perspectives, attendees to a public lecture on molecular epidemiology were asked to complete an informal questionnaire. Results: Among those interviewed and polled, there was near unanimous support for using molecular epidemiology to study HIV. Questionnaires showed strong agreement about benefits of molecular epidemiology, but diverse attitudes regarding risks. Interviewees acknowledged several risks, including privacy breaches and provocation of anti-gay sentiment. The interviews also demonstrated a possibility that misunderstandings about molecular epidemiology may affect how risks and benefits are evaluated. Conclusions: While nearly all study participants agree that the benefits of HIV molecular epidemiology outweigh the risks, concerns about privacy must be addressed to ensure continued trust in research institutions and willingness to participate in research.

  11. Methodological exploratory study applied to occupational epidemiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Janete C.G. Gaburo; Vasques, MOnica Heloisa B.; Fontinele, Ricardo S.; Sordi, Gian Maria A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: janetegc@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    The utilization of epidemiologic methods and techniques has been object of practical experimentation and theoretical-methodological reflection in health planning and programming process. Occupational Epidemiology is the study of the causes and prevention of diseases and injuries from exposition and risks in the work environment. In this context, there is no intention to deplete such a complex theme but to deal with basic concepts of Occupational Epidemiology, presenting the main characteristics of the analysis methods used in epidemiology, as investigate the possible determinants of exposition (chemical, physical and biological agents). For this study, the social-demographic profile of the IPEN-CNEN/SP work force was used. The knowledge of this reference population composition is based on sex, age, educational level, marital status and different occupations, aiming to know the relation between the health aggravating factors and these variables. The methodology used refers to a non-experimental research based on a theoretical methodological practice. The work performed has an exploratory character, aiming a later survey of indicators in the health area in order to analyze possible correlations related to epidemiologic issues. (author)

  12. Methodological exploratory study applied to occupational epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Janete C.G. Gaburo; Vasques, MOnica Heloisa B.; Fontinele, Ricardo S.; Sordi, Gian Maria A.

    2007-01-01

    The utilization of epidemiologic methods and techniques has been object of practical experimentation and theoretical-methodological reflection in health planning and programming process. Occupational Epidemiology is the study of the causes and prevention of diseases and injuries from exposition and risks in the work environment. In this context, there is no intention to deplete such a complex theme but to deal with basic concepts of Occupational Epidemiology, presenting the main characteristics of the analysis methods used in epidemiology, as investigate the possible determinants of exposition (chemical, physical and biological agents). For this study, the social-demographic profile of the IPEN-CNEN/SP work force was used. The knowledge of this reference population composition is based on sex, age, educational level, marital status and different occupations, aiming to know the relation between the health aggravating factors and these variables. The methodology used refers to a non-experimental research based on a theoretical methodological practice. The work performed has an exploratory character, aiming a later survey of indicators in the health area in order to analyze possible correlations related to epidemiologic issues. (author)

  13. Current Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Success Home > Explore Research > Current Research Studies Current Research Studies Email Print + Share The Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation ... conducted online. Learn more about IBD Partners. Clinical Research Alliance The Clinical Research Alliance is a network ...

  14. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF CARCINOMA OESOPHAGUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Oesophageal malignancies are not an uncommon disease entity in this part of India. It is observed in both the sexes. Patients present with progressive dysphagia for solids. The duration of symptoms varies from 6 months to 2 years. Among the various aetiological factors, smoking, alcohol intake, spicy hot food intake, industrial pollution and achalasia cardia are a few worth mentioning. AIM OF THE STUDY To evaluate the differences in the predisposing factors causing squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of oesophagus in this part of India. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study is conducted in the Department of Surgery at Government Medical College Hospital, Kozhikode; Kerala. One hundred patients attending the Department with history of Dysphagia were included after thorough history taking, clinical and endoscopic examination and found to have malignant growths in the oesophagus which was confirmed by biopsy and histopathological examination. Various aetiological factors were elicited and analysed in both the histological varieties of malignancy of oesophagus. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS Significant number of patients with history of paan chewing presented with histological picture of squamous cell carcinoma as compared to patients who had adenocarcinoma. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was more commonly associated with adenocarcinoma. Out of 37 patients with adenocarcinoma, 31 patients had history of gastroesophageal reflux disease (83.8%. 6 patients had no history of gastroesophageal reflux disease (16.2% within histology. Consumption of hot drinks, tea and coffee more than 10 per day has been analysed. 52 were consuming, 48 were not consuming, P value 0.179 non-significant. CONCLUSIONS Squamous cell carcinoma is more prevalent as compared to adenocarcinoma in present study. The main factor that has emerged is lifestyle, dietary habit, smoking and alcohol, and environmental factor. Consumption of alcohol and smoking is known risk factors in

  15. Epidemiological characterization of oral cancer. Study Protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Fernández

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is a disease of high impact globally. It ranks as the sixth more frequent one among all types of cancer. In spite of being a widely known pathology and easy access to the diagnosis, the lack of epidemiological data reported in the last 10 years in Chile called attention to. At the global level, the World Health Organization (WHO has developed a project called “GLOBOCAN” in order to collect epidemiological data of the global cancer, between its data, highlights the high incidence and high rate of mortality in the male sex, parameter that shows tendency to replicate in both America and Chile. In consequence to these data, a narrative review of the literature concerning the epidemiological profile of the different forms of oral cancer in the past 15 years was done. The diagnosis of oral cancer crosses transversely the Dental Science, forcing us to establish triads of work between oral and maxillofacial surgeons, pathologists and dentists of the various specialties, so as to allow a timely research, appropriate biopsies and histopathological studies finishes with the purpose of, on the one hand, obtain timely and accurate diagnostics, in addition, maintaining the epidemiological indicators.

  16. Learning from epidemiological, clinical, and immunological studies on Mycobacterium africanum for improving current understanding of host–pathogen interactions, and for the development and evaluation of diagnostics, host-directed therapies, and vaccines for tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimuddin Zumla

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium africanum comprises two phylogenetic lineages within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC. M. africanum was first described and isolated in 1968 from the sputum of a Senegalese patient with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB and it has been identified increasingly as an important cause of human TB, particularly prevalent in West Africa. The restricted geographical distribution of M. africanum, in contrast to the widespread global distribution of other species of MTBC, requires explanation. Available data indicate that M. africanum may also have important differences in transmission, pathogenesis, and host–pathogen interactions, which could affect the evaluation of new TB intervention tools (diagnostics and vaccines–those currently in use and those under development. The unequal geographical distribution and spread of MTBC species means that individual research findings from one country or region cannot be generalized across the continent. Thus, generalizing data from previous and ongoing research studies on MTBC may be inaccurate and inappropriate. A major rethink is required regarding the design and structure of future clinical trials of new interventions. The West, Central, East, and Southern African EDCTP Networks of Excellence provide opportunities to take forward these pan-Africa studies. More investments into molecular, epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic, and immunological studies across the African continent are required to enable further understanding of host–M. africanum interactions, leading to the development of more specific diagnostics, biomarkers, host-directed therapies, and vaccines for TB.

  17. Chromium VI and stomach cancer: a meta-analysis of the current epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, Roberta; Beaumont, James J; Petersen, Scott J; Alexeeff, George V; Steinmaus, Craig

    2015-02-01

    Chromium VI (hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI)) is an established cause of lung cancer, but its association with gastrointestinal cancer is less clear. The goal of this study was to examine whether the current human epidemiological research on occupationally inhaled Cr(VI) supports the hypothesis that Cr(VI) is associated with human stomach cancer. Following a thorough literature search and review of individual studies, we used meta-analysis to summarise the current epidemiological literature on inhaled Cr(VI) and stomach cancer, explore major sources of heterogeneity, and assess other elements of causal inference. We identified 56 cohort and case-control studies and 74 individual relative risk (RR) estimates on stomach cancer and Cr(VI) exposure or work in an occupation associated with high Cr(VI) exposure including chromium production, chrome plating, leather work and work with Portland cement. The summary RR for all studies combined was 1.27 (95% CI 1.18 to 1.38). In analyses limited to only those studies identifying increased risks of lung cancer, the summary RR for stomach cancer was higher (RR=1.41, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.69). Overall, these results suggest that Cr(VI) is a stomach carcinogen in humans, which is consistent with the tumour results reported in rodent studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Methodologic assessment of radiation epidemiology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of the late effects of ionizing radiation have utilized the entire spectrum of situations in which man has been exposed. These studies have provided insights into the dependence of human effects upon not only dose to target tissues but also other dimensions of exposure, host characteristics, and time following exposure. Over the past three decades studies have progressed from the mere identification of effects to their measurement. Because investigators of human effects have no control over the exposure situation, validity must be sought in the consistency of findings among independent studies and with accepted biologic principles. Because exposure may be confounded with factors that are hidden from view, bias may enter into any study of human exposure. Avoidance of bias and attainment of sufficient power to detect relationships that are real are methodologic challenges. Many methodologic issues, e.g., those associated with the definition and measurement of specific end-points, or with the selection of appropriate controls, permeate epidemiologic work in all fields. Others, especially those concerned with the measurement of exposure, the patterning of events in time after exposure, and the prediction of events beyond the scope of existing observations give radiation epidemiology its distinctive character

  19. The Current Status of the Disease Caused by Enterovirus 71 Infections: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Molecular Epidemiology, and Vaccine Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ping-Chin; Chen, Shou-Chien; Chen, Kow-Tong

    2016-09-09

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections have a major public health impact in the Asia-Pacific region. We reviewed the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and molecular epidemiology of EV71 infection as well as EV71 vaccine development. Previous studies were found using the search terms "enterovirus 71" and "epidemiology" or "pathogenesis" or "molecular epidemiology" or "vaccine" in Medline and PubMed. Articles that were not published in the English language, manuscripts without an abstract, and opinion articles were excluded from the review. The reported epidemiology of cases caused by EV71 infection varied from country to country; seasonal variations in incidence were observed. Most cases of EV71 infection that resulted in hospitalization for complications occurred in children less than five years old. The brainstem was the most likely major target of EV71 infection. The emergence of the EV71 epidemic in the Asia-Pacific region has been associated with the circulation of different genetic lineages (genotypes B3, B4, C1, C2, and C4) that appear to be undergoing rapid evolutionary changes. The relationship between the gene structure of the EV71 virus and the factors that ensure its survival, circulation, and evasion of immunity is still unknown. EV71 infection has emerged as an important global public health problem. Vaccine development, including the development of inactivated whole-virus live attenuated, subviral particles, and DNA vaccines, has been progressing.

  20. Epidemiological studies of some populations exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, J.L.

    1985-08-01

    During 1984 September 19 and 20, a meeting was held at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, Pinawa, Manitoba to discuss current epidemiological studies of populations exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. Twelve representatives from three countries attended the meeting and eleven papers were extensively discussed. The majority of these papers described studies of populations occupationally exposed to radiation. The report contains summaries of the papers presented and of the discussions that took place

  1. Cocoa Polyphenols: Evidence from Epidemiological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Chisa

    2018-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests potential preventive effects of chocolate/cocoa on the risk of cardio vascular disease (CVD). However, cocoa products also contain high levels of sugar and fat, which increase CVD risk factors. Even, the identity of the substance in chocolate/cocoa that has a favorable effect on CVD and CVD risk factors remains unclear, growing evidence from experimental studies suggests that cocoa polyphenols might be a major contributor to cardiovascular-protective effects. However, epidemiological studies, which are necessary to evaluate an association between the risk of CVD and cocoa polyphenol, remain sparse. We will discuss recent evidence regarding the association between cocoa polyphenol consumption and the risks of CVD and its risk factors by reviewing recent epidemiological studies. We shall also provide some guidance for patient counseling and will discuss the public health implications for recommending cocoa polyphenol consumption to prevent CVD. Epidemiological studies evaluating the association between cocoa polyphenol itself and the risk of CVD are sparse. However, evidence from limited epidemiological studies suggests that cocoa polyphenol consumption may lower the risk of CVD. Given the potential adverse effects of the consumption of cocoa products with high fat and sugar and the fact that the most appropriate dose of cocoa polyphenol for cardio-protective effects has not yet been established, health care providers should remain cautious about recommending cocoa/cocoa polyphenol consumption to their patients to reduce the risk of CVD, taking the characteristics of individual patients into careful consideration. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. [Bad habits and dysgnathia: epidemiological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordasco, G; Lo Giudice, G; Dolci, E; Romeo, U; Lafronte, G

    1989-01-01

    The authors refer about an epidemiological survey in 651 children in the school-age. The aim of study is to investigate about the frequency of the bad habits and the pathogenetic relations between these and the development of the dento-maxillo-facial deformities. They point out an incidence of these bad habits in the 35,48% with a predominance of mouth breathers (45,45%). After they discuss the necessity of an early detection of anomalous neuromuscular attitudes.

  3. [Diphtheria in the military forces: lessons and current status of prophylaxis, prospects of epidemiological control process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, A B; Ogarkov, P I

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the epidemiological situation of diphtheria in the world and in Russia and experience of mass vaccination of military personnel and civil population with diphtheria toxoid for the last 50 years. Early diagnosis of diphtheria in military personnel has a prognostic value. Authors described the peculiarities of epidemiological process of diphtheria in military personnel in 80-90 years of 20th century and organizational aspects of mass vaccination with diphtheria toxoid. Authors analyzed current problems of epidemiology and prophylaxis of diphtheria in military personnel and civil population and possible developments. According to long-term prognosis authors mentioned the increase of morbidity and came to conclusion that it is necessary enhance the epidemiological surveillance. Authors presented prospect ways of improvement of vaccination and rational approaches to immunization of military personnel under positive long-term epidemiological situation.

  4. Statistical significance of epidemiological data. Seminar: Evaluation of epidemiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, K.H.

    1993-01-01

    In stochastic damages, the numbers of events, e.g. the persons who are affected by or have died of cancer, and thus the relative frequencies (incidence or mortality) are binomially distributed random variables. Their statistical fluctuations can be characterized by confidence intervals. For epidemiologic questions, especially for the analysis of stochastic damages in the low dose range, the following issues are interesting: - Is a sample (a group of persons) with a definite observed damage frequency part of the whole population? - Is an observed frequency difference between two groups of persons random or statistically significant? - Is an observed increase or decrease of the frequencies with increasing dose random or statistically significant and how large is the regression coefficient (= risk coefficient) in this case? These problems can be solved by sttistical tests. So-called distribution-free tests and tests which are not bound to the supposition of normal distribution are of particular interest, such as: - χ 2 -independence test (test in contingency tables); - Fisher-Yates-test; - trend test according to Cochran; - rank correlation test given by Spearman. These tests are explained in terms of selected epidemiologic data, e.g. of leukaemia clusters, of the cancer mortality of the Japanese A-bomb survivors especially in the low dose range as well as on the sample of the cancer mortality in the high background area in Yangjiang (China). (orig.) [de

  5. ADHD in the Arab World: A Review of Epidemiologic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Lynn G.; Fayyad, John A.; Eapen, Valsamma; Cassir,Youmna; Salamoun, Mariana M.; Tabet, Caroline C.; Mneimneh, Zeina N.; Karam, Elie G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Epidemiological studies on psychiatric disorders are quite rare in the Arab World. This article reviews epidemiological studies on ADHD in all the Arab countries. Method: All epidemiological studies on ADHD conducted from 1966 through th present were reviewed. Samples were drawn from the general community, primary care clinical…

  6. Recommendations for epidemiological studies on COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, P S; Rönmark, E; Eagan, T

    2011-01-01

    of the disease and definitions of the risk factors. Few community studies have examined phenotypes of COPD and included other ways of characterising the disease beyond that of spirometry. The objective of the present Task Force report is to present recommendations for the performance of general population...... for planning and performing an epidemiological study on COPD. The main message of the paper is that thorough planning is worth half the study. It is crucial to stick to standardised methods and good quality control during sampling. We recommend collecting biological markers, depending on the specific...

  7. Epidemiological studies of employees of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, P.; Beral, V.; Booth, M.; Inskip, H.; Carpenter, L.

    1987-01-01

    The Epidemiological Monitoring Unit at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine is carrying out several epidemiological studies of employees of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) in which mortality is being investigated in relation to radiation exposure. This paper summarises the results obtained so far and describes briefly studies currently in progress. (author)

  8. The household contact study design for genetic epidemiological studies of infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eStein

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most genetic epidemiological study designs fall into one of two categories: family-based and population-based (case-control. However, recent advances in statistical genetics call for study designs that combine these two approaches. We describe the household contact study design as we have applied it in our several years of study of the epidemiology of tuberculosis. Though we highlight its applicability for genetic epidemiological studies of infectious diseases, there are many facets of this design that are appealing for modern genetic studies, including the simultaneous enrollment of related and unrelated individuals, closely and distantly related individuals, collection of extensive epidemiologic and phenotypic data, and evaluation of effects of shared environment and gene by environment interaction. These study design characteristics are particularly appealing for current sequencing studies.

  9. Current status and perspectives of Clonorchis sinensis and clonorchiasis: epidemiology, pathogenesis, omics, prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ze-Li; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xin-Bing

    2016-07-06

    Clonorchiasis, caused by Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis), is an important food-borne parasitic disease and one of the most common zoonoses. Currently, it is estimated that more than 200 million people are at risk of C. sinensis infection, and over 15 million are infected worldwide. C. sinensis infection is closely related to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), fibrosis and other human hepatobiliary diseases; thus, clonorchiasis is a serious public health problem in endemic areas. This article reviews the current knowledge regarding the epidemiology, disease burden and treatment of clonorchiasis as well as summarizes the techniques for detecting C. sinensis infection in humans and intermediate hosts and vaccine development against clonorchiasis. Newer data regarding the pathogenesis of clonorchiasis and the genome, transcriptome and secretome of C. sinensis are collected, thus providing perspectives for future studies. These advances in research will aid the development of innovative strategies for the prevention and control of clonorchiasis.

  10. Review of epidemiologic studies at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, G.L.; Wilkinson, G.S.; Acquavella, J.F.; Reyes, M.; McInroy, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies at Los Alamos are directed toward understanding potential health risks associated with activities pertaining to national energy and defense needs. Currently this research focuses on evaluating the effects of plutonium exposure in man. The major programs consist of (1) epidemiologic studies of the incidence of disease and mortality among plutonium and other workers at six Department of Energy (DOE) contractor facilities (Los Alamos, Rocky Flats, Mound, Savannah River, Hanford, and Oak Ridge), and (2) measurement of plutonium and other radionuclides in human tissues. Currently, investigations of mortality for Pantex workers and the surrounding general population are also being conducted for DOE in support of an Environment Impact Statement. This paper places emphasis on the activities of the national epidemiologic study of plutonium workers. The purpose of the plutonium workers study is to: (1) investigate whether adverse health effects are associated with exposures to plutonium, (2) explore whether adverse health effects are associated with exposure to transuranic elements, other radioisotopes, and hazardous substances that are found in nuclear facilities making routine use of plutonium, and (3) to describe in detail the nature of such health effects should they be discovered

  11. Satellite remote sensing in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorek-Hamer, Meytar; Just, Allan C; Kloog, Itai

    2016-04-01

    Particulate matter air pollution is a ubiquitous exposure linked with multiple adverse health outcomes for children and across the life course. The recent development of satellite-based remote-sensing models for air pollution enables the quantification of these risks and addresses many limitations of previous air pollution research strategies. We review the recent literature on the applications of satellite remote sensing in air quality research, with a focus on their use in epidemiological studies. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is a focus of this review and a significant number of studies show that ground-level particulate matter can be estimated from columnar AOD. Satellite measurements have been found to be an important source of data for particulate matter model-based exposure estimates, and recently have been used in health studies to increase the spatial breadth and temporal resolution of these estimates. It is suggested that satellite-based models improve our understanding of the spatial characteristics of air quality. Although the adoption of satellite-based measures of air quality in health studies is in its infancy, it is rapidly growing. Nevertheless, further investigation is still needed in order to have a better understanding of the AOD contribution to these prediction models in order to use them with higher accuracy in epidemiological studies.

  12. Epidemiological studies on radiation workers in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo Yong Choi; Hai Won Chung

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objectives: The aim of this study is to analyze the occupational exposure for external radiation and to evaluate radiation effects on Korean radiation workers. Methods: The National Dose Registry contains radiation exposure records for all monitored radiation workers since its creation in 1983. We are carrying out epidemiological survey for radiation workers. The items of information included personal identification, employment and dose data. The frequencies of various types of chromosome aberrations in radiation workers were compared with controls. The data were analyzed according to year, sex, age, duration of occupation, exposure dose, etc. using SPSS statistical package(version 15.0). The goodness-of-fit test for Poisson assumption and dispersion test for detecting heterogeneity for Poisson distribution were done with chromosomal aberrations among study subjects. Results: The total number of workers registered from 1983 to 2005 was 61,610. The number of workers steadily increased and the accumulated dose somewhat increased. The collective annual dose of radiation workers was 345.823 man Sv and the mean annual dose was 1.34mSv. The frequencies of chromosome aberrations in 102 workers were compared with those in 42 controls. The frequencies of all types of chromosome aberrations in the exposed subjects were higher than those in the control group. Poisson regression analysis showed that there was significant association of chromosome aberrations with radiation dose, duration of work, age and alcohol intake. We started to survey radiation workers in order to evaluate radiation effects, collected epidemiological data for 9,157 workers at present and analyzed their lifetime radiation exposure doses. Follow-up is carrying out using the Korean Mortality Data, Cancer Registry and individual investigation. Among study patients, 11 of 38 deaths were identified with cancer. Conclusions: The data on occupational doses shows that

  13. Epidemiology in Latin America and the Caribbean: current situation and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Sandhi M; Miranda, Jaime J; Figueroa, J Peter; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Munoz, Sergio; Kuri-Morales, P Pablo; Silva, Jarbas B

    2012-04-01

    This article analyses the epidemiological research developments in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). It integrates the series commissioned by the International Epidemiological Association to all WHO Regions to identify global opportunities to promote the development of epidemiology. Health situations of the regions were analysed based on published data on selected mortality, morbidity and risk factors. Epidemiological publication output by country was estimated by Medline bibliometrics. Internet and literature searches and data provided by key informants were used to describe perspectives on epidemiological training, research and funding. Despite important advances in recent decades, LAC remains the world's most unequal region. In 2010, 10% of the LAC's people still lived in conditions of multidimensional poverty, with huge variation among countries. The region has experienced fast and complex epidemiological changes in past decades, combining increasing rates of non-communicable diseases and injuries, and keeping uncontrolled many existing endemic and emerging diseases. Overall, epidemiological publications per year increased from 160 articles between 1961 and 1970 to 2492 between 2001 and 2010. The increase in papers per million inhabitants in the past three decades varied from 57% in Panama to 1339% in Paraguay. Universities are the main epidemiological training providers. There are at least 34 universities and other institutions in the region that offer postgraduate programmes at the master's and doctoral levels in epidemiology or public health. Most LAC countries rely largely on external funding and donors to initiate and sustain long-term research efforts. Despite the limited resources, the critical mass of LAC researchers has produced significant scientific contributions. FUTURE NEEDS: The health research panorama of the region shows enormous regional discrepancies, but great prospects. Improving research and human resources capacity in the region will

  14. General statistical data structure for epidemiologic studies of DOE workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frome, E.L.; Hudson, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies to evaluate the occupational risks associated with employment in the nuclear industry are currently being conducted by the Department of Energy. Data that have potential value in evaluating any long-term health effects of occupational exposure to low levels of radiation are obtained for each individual at a given facility. We propose a general data structure for statistical analysis that is used to define transformations from the data management system into the data analysis system. Statistical methods of interest in epidemiologic studies include contingency table analysis and survival analysis procedures that can be used to evaluate potential associations between occupational radiation exposure and mortality. The purposes of this paper are to discuss (1) the adequacy of this data structure for single- and multiple-facility analysis and (2) the statistical computing problems encountered in dealing with large populations over extended periods of time

  15. Doses for post-Chernobyl epidemiological studies: are they reliable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Chumak, Vadim; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Bouville, André

    2016-09-01

    On 26 April 2016, thirty years will have elapsed since the occurrence of the Chernobyl accident, which has so far been the most severe in the history of the nuclear reactor industry. Numerous epidemiological studies were conducted to evaluate the possible health consequences of the accident. Since the credibility of the association between the radiation exposure and health outcome is highly dependent on the adequacy of the dosimetric quantities used in these studies, this paper makes an effort to overview the methods used to estimate individual doses and the associated uncertainties in the main analytical epidemiological studies (i.e. cohort or case-control) related to the Chernobyl accident. Based on the thorough analysis and comparison with other radiation studies, the authors conclude that individual doses for the Chernobyl analytical epidemiological studies have been calculated with a relatively high degree of reliability and well-characterized uncertainties, and that they compare favorably with many other non-Chernobyl studies. The major strengths of the Chernobyl studies are: (1) they are grounded on a large number of measurements, either performed on humans or made in the environment; and (2) extensive effort has been invested to evaluate the uncertainties associated with the dose estimates. Nevertheless, gaps in the methodology are identified and suggestions for the possible improvement of the current dose estimates are made.

  16. Recommendations for epidemiological studies on COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, P S; Rönmark, E; Eagan, T

    2011-01-01

    of the disease and definitions of the risk factors. Few community studies have examined phenotypes of COPD and included other ways of characterising the disease beyond that of spirometry. The objective of the present Task Force report is to present recommendations for the performance of general population...... for planning and performing an epidemiological study on COPD. The main message of the paper is that thorough planning is worth half the study. It is crucial to stick to standardised methods and good quality control during sampling. We recommend collecting biological markers, depending on the specific......The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been extensively studied, especially in Western Europe and North America. Few of these data are directly comparable because of differences between the surveys regarding composition of study populations, diagnostic criteria...

  17. Childhood brain tumors: epidemiology, current management and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Ian F; Jakacki, Regina I

    2011-07-26

    Brain tumors are the most common solid tumors in children. With the increasingly widespread availability of MRI, the incidence of childhood brain tumors seemed to rise in the 1980s, but has subsequently remained relatively stable. However, management of brain tumors in children has evolved substantially during this time, reflecting refinements in classification of tumors, delineation of risk groups within histological subsets of tumors, and incorporation of molecular techniques to further define tumor subgroups. Although considerable progress has been made in the outcomes of certain tumors, prognosis in other childhood brain tumor types is poor. Among the tumor groups with more-favorable outcomes, attention has been focused on reducing long-term morbidity without sacrificing survival rates. Studies for high-risk groups have examined the use of intensive therapy or novel, molecularly targeted approaches to improve disease control rates. In addition to reviewing the literature and providing an overview of the complexities in diagnosing childhood brain tumors, we will discuss advances in the treatment and categorization of several tumor types in which progress has been most apparent, as well as those in which improvements have been lacking. The latest insights from molecular correlative studies that hold potential for future refinements in therapy will also be discussed.

  18. A review of epidemiologic studies of childhood leukemia in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    This overview of Canadian studies of the epidemiology of childhood leukemia included a historical review of early studies, a summary of recent work done in Ontario, and a description of other Canadian research. The paper is published as an extended summary only. In Ontario, a study was being done to determine whether the occurrence of childhood leukemia was associated with the exposure of fathers to ionizing radiation. A major theme of current Canadian research is the effect of other environmental agents, such as electromagnetic fields

  19. The Current Status of the Disease Caused by Enterovirus 71 Infections: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Molecular Epidemiology, and Vaccine Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ping-Chin; Chen, Shou-Chien; Chen, Kow-Tong

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections have a major public health impact in the Asia-Pacific region. We reviewed the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and molecular epidemiology of EV71 infection as well as EV71 vaccine development. Previous studies were found using the search terms “enterovirus 71” and “epidemiology” or “pathogenesis” or “molecular epidemiology” or “vaccine” in Medline and PubMed. Articles that were not published in the English language, manuscripts without an abstract, and opinion articles were excluded from the review. The reported epidemiology of cases caused by EV71 infection varied from country to country; seasonal variations in incidence were observed. Most cases of EV71 infection that resulted in hospitalization for complications occurred in children less than five years old. The brainstem was the most likely major target of EV71 infection. The emergence of the EV71 epidemic in the Asia-Pacific region has been associated with the circulation of different genetic lineages (genotypes B3, B4, C1, C2, and C4) that appear to be undergoing rapid evolutionary changes. The relationship between the gene structure of the EV71 virus and the factors that ensure its survival, circulation, and evasion of immunity is still unknown. EV71 infection has emerged as an important global public health problem. Vaccine development, including the development of inactivated whole-virus live attenuated, subviral particles, and DNA vaccines, has been progressing. PMID:27618078

  20. [Sexually transmitted infections in Germany : The current epidemiological situation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Viviane; Dudareva-Vizule, Sandra; Buder, Susanne; An der Heiden, Matthias; Jansen, Klaus

    2017-09-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can impair sexual health. Surveillance and study data were used to provide an overview over STIs in Germany. We estimated 3900 new HIV diagnoses in 2015. Of newly diagnosed infections, 57% were attributed to men who have sex with men (MSM). It was further estimated that there were 3200 new HIV infections and 84,700 people living with HIV in 2015. A total of 6834 syphilis infections were recorded in 2015, which corresponds to an increase of 149% since 2009. The incidence in men was 16-times higher than in women. Of syphilis infections, 85% could be attributed to MSM. Antimicrobial resistance of gonococci against the broad-spectrum antibiotic cefixime decreased between 2014 and 2016 after a change of therapy guidelines and remained stable on a low level regarding the antibiotic ceftriaxone. After an increase of resistance against the antibiotic azithromycin to 11.3% in 2015, we observed a decreasing trend in 2016. Between 2013 and 2015, 2,355,336 chlamydia tests were reported through the chlamydia sentinel network. Of these, 92.5% of samples were from women. Uptake for screening for women human papilloma virus (HPV) of 38.1% was observed. A total of 30.5% of 15-year-old women were vaccinated against HPV in 2014. Data suggest that STIs represent a high burden of disease. Knowledge of STI prevention should be improved by targeted education campaigns. Extending existing offers for counselling and testing through cooperation between different health sectors would improve early diagnosis and treatment of STIs.

  1. Epidemiological studies in high background radiation areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori

    2012-01-01

    Below the doses of 100-200 mSv of radiation exposure, no acute health effect is observed, and the late health effects such as cancer are yet unclear. The problems making the risk evaluation of low dose radiation exposure difficult are the fact that the magnitude of expected health effects are small even if the risk is assumed to increase in proportion to radiation doses. As a result, studies need to be large particular when dealing with rare disease such as cancer. In addition, the expected health effects are so small that they can easily be masked by lifestyles and environmental factors including smoking. This paper will discuss cancer risk possibly associated with low-dose and low-dose rate radiation exposure, describing epidemiological studies on the residents in the high-background radiation areas. (author)

  2. NASA Remote Sensing Data for Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Nancy G.; Vicente, G. A.

    2002-01-01

    In response to the need for improved observations of environmental factors to better understand the links between human health and the environment, NASA has established a new program to significantly improve the utilization of NASA's diverse array of data, information, and observations of the Earth for health applications. This initiative, lead by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has the following goals: (1) To encourage interdisciplinary research on the relationships between environmental parameters (e.g., rainfall, vegetation) and health, (2) Develop practical early warning systems, (3) Create a unique system for the exchange of Earth science and health data, (4) Provide an investigator field support system for customers and partners, (5) Facilitate a system for observation, identification, and surveillance of parameters relevant to environment and health issues. The NASA Environment and Health Program is conducting several interdisciplinary projects to examine applications of remote sensing data and information to a variety of health issues, including studies on malaria, Rift Valley Fever, St. Louis Encephalitis, Dengue Fever, Ebola, African Dust and health, meningitis, asthma, and filariasis. In addition, the NASA program is creating a user-friendly data system to help provide the public health community with easy and timely access to space-based environmental data for epidemiological studies. This NASA data system is being designed to bring land, atmosphere, water and ocean satellite data/products to users not familiar with satellite data/products, but who are knowledgeable in the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) environment. This paper discusses the most recent results of the interdisciplinary environment-health research projects and provides an analysis of the usefulness of the satellite data to epidemiological studies. In addition, there will be a summary of presently-available NASA Earth science data and a description of how it may be obtained.

  3. Contribution of occupational epidemiologic studies to radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, S.

    1982-01-01

    Early evidence of health effects of occupational radiation exposure have made important contributions to the establishment of exposure standards, including those for internal emitters. Standards derived in this matter for radium body burdens and for air concentrations of radon and its daughters were especially influential. The body burden limits for plutonium and other bone-seeking radionuclides were based upon the radium standard. The exposure controls instituted as a consequence of those early limits have reduced the exposure of worker populations to the extent that the current, more sophisticated epidemiologic studies will probably not influence the revision of existing standards. The justification for conducting such studies is discussed. (author)

  4. Current Epidemiological Assessment of Bancroftian Filariasis in Tanga Region, Northeastern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Happyness J. Mshana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tanzania started a countrywide lymphatic filariasis elimination programme in 2000 adopting the mass drug administration (MDA strategy. The drug used for the programme was the combination of ivermectin and albendazole. However, there is limited information on the current epidemiological trend of the infections, where MDA implementation is ongoing. The present study aimed at assessing the current status of Bancroftian filariasis infection rate and morbidity where MDA has been distributed and administered for over eight rounds. Methodology. The study was a cross-sectional descriptive study involving 272 individuals (>18 years from endemic communities in Tanga region where MDA has been implemented. Clinical, sociodemographic, and circulating filarial antigen (CFA test was undertaken using immune chromatographic card test according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Results. A total of 472 individuals were screened: 307/472 (65.1% were males while 165/472 (34.9% were females. The overall prevalence of CFA was 5.51%, that of hydrocoele was 73.2%, and that of lymphoedema was 16.0%. The prevalence of hydrocoele combined with lymphoedema was 5.5%. Conclusion. Our findings demonstrate a considerable reduction in filarial infection. However, there is clear evidence of ongoing transmission despite the 8 rounds of MDA. It is unlikely that the annual MDA would interrupt filarial transmission; therefore, additional strategies are needed to accelerate lymphatic filariasis control and elimination.

  5. Epidemiologic study of uterine cancer, Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishimaru, Toranosuke

    1965-12-10

    As a cause of death in females, cancer of the uterus is one of the important cancers in Japan. In 1962 it was responsible for 15.5% of all the deaths due to cancer in women and ranked next to the proportion attributed to cancer of the stomach. The JNIH-ABCC Life Span Study of A-bomb survivors also shows that cancer of the stomach and uterus were the major causes of cancer deaths in the female population. The present study, which was carried out in 1963, was begun in the hope of elucidating some of the relationships of the factors other than radiation possibly associated with the incidence of cancer of the uterus in the Life Span Study (ST 100) sample in Horoshima. Environmental factors considered to play a role in the development of uterine cancer were studied by interview with a close relative of the subject. The data did not clearly support the findings reported elsewhere that residential history, occupational history, history of marital status, smoking and alcohol drinking habits, and socioeconomic factors were associated with the incidence of cancer of the uterus. A brief analysis was also conducted for the accuracy of death certificates. The results suggest that an epidemiologic study should be conducted on morbidity data derived from pathologic findings and a revised plan is desirable to elucidate the factors associated with the incidence of cancer of the uterus using the various recent experimental findings as references. 124 references, 15 tables.

  6. Measuring child exposure to violence and mental health reactions in epidemiological studies: challenges and current issues Criança, violência e saúde: desafios e questões atuais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Seixas Duarte

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines challenges and current issues involved in measuring exposure to different types of violence which are associated mental health problems in children and adolescents. Standardized measures suitable for epidemiological studies, selected based on their relevance in the current literature, are briefly described and commented. The assessment of child's exposure to violence may focus on a specific event (e.g., kidnapping, a specific context (e.g., war or even of a certain type of exposure (e.g., intrafamilial physical violence. The assessment of child mental health after exposure to violence has traditionally focused on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD - most frequently measured through non-diagnostic scales. However, other mental health reactions may be present and screening as well as diagnostic instruments which may be used to assess these reactions are also described. Two issues of emerging importance - the assessment of impairment and of traumatic grief in children - are also presented. Availability of culturally appropriate instruments is a crucial step towards proper identification of child mental health problems after exposure to violence.Este artigo examina os desafios e perspectivas atuais envolvidos na mensuração da exposição a diferentes tipos de violência e problemas de saúde mental em crianças e adolescentes. Instrumentos padronizados apropriados para estudos epidemiológicos, selecionados com base em sua relevância na literatura, são brevemente descritos e comentados. A avaliação de exposição à violência em crianças pode dizer respeito a um evento específico (como sequestro ou um contexto específico (como guerra ou mesmo um determinado tipo de exposição (como violência física intrafamiliar. A avaliação da saúde mental infantil após a exposição à violência tradicionalmente concentrou-se na avaliação do transtorno de estresse pós-traumático (TEPT - freqüentemente avaliado atrav

  7. Huntington's disease: current epidemiology and pharmacological management in UK primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackley, Catherine; Hoppitt, Thomas J; Calvert, Melanie; Gill, Paramjit; Eaton, Benjamin; Yao, Guiqing; Pall, Hardev

    2011-01-01

    Recent debate suggests Huntington's disease (HD) may be more prevalent than previously reported. In addition, relatively little is known about current disease management. This study aims to provide epidemiological data and describe the pharmacological management of HD in the United Kingdom. A primary care research database was accessed to identify incident and prevalent HD cases between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2008. Patients with Read codes denoting a definite diagnosis or possible diagnosis, and undiagnosed patients with a positive family history were identified. A subset of patients with a definite diagnosis and prescribed medication indicating symptom onset was also identified. Epidemiological data were estimated. Pharmacological prescriptions to HD patients from 2004 to 2008 were identified, and prescription frequencies were grouped according to the British National Formulary categories. HD incidence estimates ranged from 0.44 to 0.78 per 100,000 person-years, and HD prevalence ranged from 5.96 to 6.54 per 100,000 of the population. Forty-four percent of pharmacological prescriptions targeted the central nervous system. Nearly half of the HD patients were prescribed antidepressants, and over 40% were prescribed analgesics. Although prevalence estimates fell short of figures suggested in recent debate, it is feasible that the true prevalence may be much higher than previously reported. Pharmacological management appears to rely heavily on central nervous system drugs and nutrition support. Many of these drugs are prescribed to HD patients for reasons other than the medication's primary use. Further work is required to evaluate the impact of alternative management strategies, such as therapist intervention, counselling, and organisation support, on the patients' quality of life. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Epidemiologic studies of pilots and aircrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boice, J D; Blettner, M; Auvinen, A

    2000-11-01

    During flight, pilots and cabin crew are exposed to increased levels of cosmic radiation which consists primarily of neutrons and gamma rays. Neutron dosimetry is not straightforward, but typical annual effective doses are estimated to range between two and five mSv. Higher dose rates are experienced at the highest altitudes and in the polar regions. Mean doses have been increasing over time as longer flights at higher altitudes have become more frequent. Because there are so few populations exposed to neutrons, studies of airline personnel are of particular interest. However, because the cumulative radiation exposure is so low, statistical power is a major concern. Further, finding an appropriate comparison group is problematic due to selection into these occupations and a number of biases are possible. For example, increased rates of breast cancer among flight attendants have been attributed to reproductive factors such as nulliparity and increased rates of melanoma among pilots have been attributed to excessive sun exposure during leisure time activities. Epidemiologic studies conducted over the last 20 y provide little consistent evidence linking cancer with radiation exposures from air travel.

  9. INVASIVE CANDIDA INFECTIONS IN PATIENTS WITH HAEMATOLOGICAL MALIGNANCIES AND HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS: CURRENT EPIDEMIOLOGY AND THERAPEUTIC OPTIONS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Girmenia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, the global epidemiological impact of invasive candidiasis (IC in patients with hematologic malignancies (HM and in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT recipients has decreased and the incidence of invasive aspergillosis  exceeded that of Candida infections. The use of prevention strategies, first of all antifungal prophylaxis with triazoles,  contributed to the reduction of IC in these populations as demonstrated by several  epidemiological studies. However, relatively little is known about the current epidemiological patterns of IC in HM and HSCT populations, because recent epidemiological data almost exclusively derive from retrospective experiences and few prospective data are available. Several prospective, controlled studies in the prophylaxis of invasive fungal diseases have been conducted in both the HM and HSCT setting. On the contrary, most of the prospective controlled trials that demonstrated the efficacy of the antifungal drugs echinocandins and voriconazole in the treatment of candidemia and invasive candidiasis mainly involved  patients with underlying conditions other than HM or  HSCT.  For these reasons, international guidelines provided specific indications for the prophylaxis strategies in HM and HSCT patients, whereas the  recommendations on therapy of documented Candida infections are based on the results observed in the general population and should be considered with caution.

  10. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-01-01

    The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain, for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy

  11. Annual effective dose due to residential radon progeny in Sweden: Evaluations based on current risk projections models and on risk estimates from a nation-wide Swedish epidemiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, M [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Lagarde, F [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Inst. of Environmental Medicine; Falk, R; Swedjemark, G A [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    Effective dose per unit radon progeny exposure to Swedish population in 1992 is estimated by the risk projection model based on the Swedish epidemiological study of radon and lung cancer. The resulting values range from 1.29 - 3.00 mSv/WLM and 2.58 - 5.99 mSv/WLM, respectively. Assuming a radon concentration of 100 Bq/m{sup 3}, an equilibrium factor of 0.4 and an occupancy factor of 0.6 in Swedish houses, the annual effective dose for the Swedish population is estimated to be 0.43 - 1.98 mSv/year, which should be compared to the value of 1.9 mSv/year, according to the UNSCEAR 1993 report. 27 refs, tabs, figs.

  12. Annual effective dose due to residential radon progeny in Sweden: Evaluations based on current risk projections models and on risk estimates from a nation-wide Swedish epidemiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, M.; Lagarde, F.

    1996-12-01

    Effective dose per unit radon progeny exposure to Swedish population in 1992 is estimated by the risk projection model based on the Swedish epidemiological study of radon and lung cancer. The resulting values range from 1.29 - 3.00 mSv/WLM and 2.58 - 5.99 mSv/WLM, respectively. Assuming a radon concentration of 100 Bq/m 3 , an equilibrium factor of 0.4 and an occupancy factor of 0.6 in Swedish houses, the annual effective dose for the Swedish population is estimated to be 0.43 - 1.98 mSv/year, which should be compared to the value of 1.9 mSv/year, according to the UNSCEAR 1993 report. 27 refs, tabs, figs

  13. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF DRUG INTOXICATION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cheraghali M. Taymori

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Unintentional drug intoxication is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality in young children. In order to study the epidemiological pattern of childhood drug poisoning in Golestan province, all cases diagnosed with poisoning from 1997 to 2002 in the only pediatric hospital in province were recruited. During this period 563 cases of poisoned children were hospitalized in Taleqani hospital, of these 305 cases were due to drug poisoning. Opium was responsible for more than half of the poisoning cases, and 91% of deaths, among drug intoxicated children. Metoclopramide, benzodiazepines, tricyclic antidepressants and anticonvulsants were among the other frequent causes of poisoning. Neurological symptoms were the most prominent symptoms of poisoning and more than 80% of cases showed some neurological symptoms. Mortality rate among the cases was 3.6% and of total of 11 deaths, 10 were poisoned with opium. About 61% of cases were hospitalized between 24-48 hrs. Most of the poisoning cases in young children were unintentional and in many cases, their parents played a critical role in their intoxication. This role specially is crucial in infants and children under one year of age. Parents in Golestan province use opium widely for symptomatic treatment of routine illnesses in their young children and overdose of opium may cause severe intoxication and even death of the child.

  14. Epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, D.

    2009-01-01

    Because of the concern of people, a study of mortality has previously been conducted in two Pennsylvania counties located near manufacturing and reprocessing plants of nuclear materials over the period 1950-1995. No excessive mortality has been identified in the population exposed counties in comparison to control counties. The current study is the continuation of the previous study of mortality over a period of eight additional years (up to 2004) and the addition of a study of cancer incidence over the period 1990-2004 and mortality for causes out of cancer from 1996 to 2004. Method: The population of each county of the study was compared to the population of three control counties selected according to socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, the same way as in the previous study. The demographic, mortality and incidence data for the different counties have been earned at the state of Pennsylvania. Results: over the period 1996-2004, mortality from cancer (10 457 deaths) in the two counties studied was comparable to that of six control counties (relative risk .97 [95% CI .94 -. 99]) and previous results. Similarly, the incidence of cancer was similar in the counties studied (39350 cases of cancer) and the control counties (relative risk .99 [95% CI .97-1.00]). The number of deaths unrelated to cancer was 36 565, very close to the expected number (relative risk .99 [95% CI 1.01-1.01]). Conclusion: Overall, no increase in cancer or non-cancer disease could be attributed to living in counties that had manufacturing and reprocessing plants of nuclear materials. (N.C.)

  15. Epidemiological studies on glyphosate - No new findings for the European risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of epidemiological studies on the health effects of glyphosate is currently being discussed in the media. In this context, BfR evaluated a so-called expert opinion on epidemiological studies prepared by non-government organisations and concludes that no new findings are being reported for the joint European assessment of the active substance glyphosate. The accusations brought forth in the so-called expert opinion of scientific deception by the assessment authorities are c...

  16. Clinico epidemiological study of pitted keratolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naik Chandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pitted keratolysis is a common dermatological condition. However, very few studies are available on the clinical characteristics and epidemiological features of this disorder from India and abroad. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients from rural area of Kolar at Sri R.L.J.H. and S.N.R. Hospital, presenting with clinically distinctive lesions of pitted keratolysis were included in the study. Cases were interviewed with particular emphasis on triggering factors and findings were recorded. Investigations like Gram′s stain, culture studies, Wood′s ultraviolet light examination, histopathology etc, was done in selected cases to ascertain the clinical diagnosis. Results: Age of the patients varied from 20 to 40 years in 52% with male preponderance in 82% of cases. Duration of the disease varied from 15 days to five years, most of the patients were bare-footed farmers (62% of cases. Hyperhidrosis and pruritus were most frequently observed symptoms in 70% and 60% of patients. Most of the patients presented with the characteristic pits which varied from 1 to 50 in number in 56 % of cases, located predominantly on the pressure bearing areas in 92% of cases and depth of the pits varied from 1 to 2 mm in 60% of cases. Associated skin conditions recorded in present study were fissuring of soles in 38%, psoriasis 10%, dermatophyte infections in 6%, planter warts 6% and Corynebacterial triad and corn in 2% of patients each. Discussion: Affection of bare-footed individuals, male preponderance, presence of hyperhidrosis and occurrence of lesions over pressure bearing areas of soles, observed in the present study were consistent with earlier studies on the subject. However, pruritus as commonest presenting symptom reported by 60% patients in the present study, has not been documented in the previous studies. Conclusion: Pitted keratolysis is fairly common in bare footed male farmers of rural India. The condition is predominantly seen over the

  17. Current data on extremities chronic osteomyelitis in southwest China: epidemiology, microbiology and therapeutic consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Yu, Shengpeng; Sun, Dong; Fu, Jingshu; Wang, Shulin; Huang, Ke; Xie, Zhao

    2017-11-24

    The current study was designed to explore the epidemiology of extremities chronic osteomyelitis, its prognosis and the complications of the treatment methods being used in southwest China. The data from osteomyelitis patients treated at the Department of Orthopaedics, Southwest Hospital, China between May 2011 and September 2016 were collected and analysed. The study comprised 503 admitted patients, of which 416 males and 87 were females, with an average age of 40.15 ± 5.64 years. Approximately 356 cases were followed for more than 18 months; the average bone union time was 6.24 ± 0.76 months in 94.1% (335) patients, and infections were almost controlled in 93.8% patients. The rate of infection control with the induced membrane technique was higher than with the I-stage free bone graft. Iliac infection was the main complication of the induced membrane technique, and impaired joint activity was the main complication of I-stage free bone grafts. In southwest China, the incidence of haematogenous osteomyelitis, caused mainly by Staphylococcus aureus, remains very high. The speed of bone defect repair and the rate of infection control with the induced membrane technique were superior to those of I-stage free bone grafts. Internal fixation should be given priority because it offers reduced complications with no increase in the recurrence of infection.

  18. Epidemiological studies on cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://www.cioms.ch/publications/layout_guide2002.p df. 4. Uzun S, Durdu M, Çulha G, Allahverdiyev AM,. Memişoğlu HR. Clinical features, epidemiology, and efficacy and safety of intralesional antimony treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis: recent experience in Turkey. J. Parasitol 2004; 90: 853-859. 5. Uzun S, Uslular C, ...

  19. A Genetic Epidemiological Study of Behavioral Traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Amin (Najaf)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractHuman behavioural genetics aims to unravel the genetic and environmental contributions to variations in human behaviour. Behaviour is a complex trait, involving multiple genes that are affected by a variety of other factors. Genetic epidemiological research of behaviour goes back to

  20. Myasthenia Gravis: a population-based epidemiological study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rutledge, S

    2016-02-01

    Myasthenia Gravis (MG) is a disorder affecting components of the neuromuscular junction. Epidemiological studies show rising incidence and prevalence rates. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and prevalence of MG in the Republic of Ireland. Data sources included patient lists from consultant neurologists and ophthalmologists, a neuroimmunology laboratory, general practitioners and the Myasthenia Gravis Association. A total of 1,715 cases were identified, of which 706 definite, probable or possible autoimmune and congenital MG cases were included. The overall prevalence rate from the data obtained is 15.38\\/100,000. The study demonstrated a female preponderance (female:male of 1.3: 1) and some geographical variation within Ireland. The average incidence rate for the years 2000 to 2009 was 11.3 per year; the rate for the current decade is 18 per year. The increasing number of diagnoses may be due to improved access to diagnostic investigations and increasing awareness of the clinical manifestations.

  1. Occupational cancer risk in pilots and flight attendants: current epidemiological knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blettner, M.; Zeeb, H.; Grosche, B.

    1998-01-01

    Occupational studies of aircrew in civil or military aviation did not receive much attention until the beginning of this decade. Since 1990, a number of epidemiological studies has been published on the cancer risk among flight personnel. Their results are equivocal: elevated cancer risks have been observed in some studies, but not in others. The exposure situation for pilots and flight attendants is unique with respect to several factors and particularly in that cosmic rays contribute substantially to their cumulative radiation dose. The average annual doses received are relatively low, however, and commonly range between 3 and 6 mSv. Results of epidemiological studies are presented as well as information on planned studies. (orig.)

  2. Particulate matter and heart disease: Evidence from epidemiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Annette

    2005-01-01

    The association between particulate matter and heart disease was noted in the mid-nineties of last century when the epidemiological evidence for an association between air pollution and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular disease accumulated and first hypotheses regarding the pathomechanism were formulated. Nowadays, epidemiological studies have demonstrated coherent associations between daily changes in concentrations of ambient particles and cardiovascular disease mortality, hospital admission, disease exacerbation in patients with cardiovascular disease and early physiological responses in healthy individuals consistent with a risk factor profile deterioration. In addition, evidence was found that annual average PM 2.5 exposures are associated with increased risks for mortality caused by ischemic heart disease and dysrhythmia. Thereby, evidence is suggesting not only a short-term exacerbation of cardiovascular disease by ambient particle concentrations but also a potential role of particles in defining patients' vulnerability to acute coronary events. While this concept is consistent with the current understanding of the factors defining patients' vulnerability, the mechanisms and the time-scales on which the particle-induced vulnerability might operate are unknown

  3. Current issues in ALS epidemiology: Variation of ALS occurrence between populations and physical activity as a risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, J; Logroscino, G; Couratier, P; Marin, B

    2017-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rare neurodegenerative disease with a fatal outcome. This review aims to report key epidemiological features of ALS in relation to the hypothesis of variation between populations, to summarize environmental hypothesis and to highlight current issues that deserve much considerations. Epidemiological ALS studies have shown a variation of incidence, mortality and prevalence between geographical areas and different populations. These data could support the notion that genetic factors, especially populations' ancestries, along with environmental and lifestyle factors, play a significant role in the occurrence of the disease. To date, there is no strong evidence to confirm an association between a particular environmental factor and ALS. Physical activity (PA) has been extensively evaluated. Recent studies support with the best evidence level that PA in general population is not a risk factor for ALS. However, further research is needed to clarify the association of PA in some occupations and some athletic activities. Epidemiological research based on multicenter international collaboration is essential to provide new data on ALS especially in some regions of the world that are to date poorly represented in the ALS literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Current Epidemiology of Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanois, Ronald E; Mistry, Jaydev B; Gwam, Chukwuweike U; Mohamed, Nequesha S; Choksi, Ujval S; Mont, Michael A

    2017-09-01

    Revision surgery for failed total knee arthroplasty (TKA) continues to pose a substantial burden for the United States healthcare system. The predominant etiology of TKA failure has changed over time and may vary between studies. This report aims to update the current literature on this topic by using a large national database. Specifically, we analyzed: (1) etiologies for revision TKA; (2) frequencies of revision TKA procedures; (3) various demographics including payer type and region; and (4) the length of stay (LOS) and total charges based on type of revision TKA procedure. The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database was used to identify all revision TKA procedures performed between 2009 and 2013. Clinical, economic, and demographic data were collected and analyzed for 337,597 procedures. Patients were stratified according to etiology of failure, age, sex, race, US census region, and primary payor class. The mean LOS and total charges were also calculated. Infection was the most common etiology for revision TKA (20.4%), closely followed by mechanical loosening (20.3%). The most common revision TKA procedure performed was all component revision (31.3%). Medicare was the primary payor for the greatest proportion of revisions (57.7%). The South census region performed the most revision TKAs (33.2%). The overall mean LOS was 4.5 days, with arthrotomy for removal of prosthesis without replacement procedures accounting for the longest stays (7.8 days). The mean total charge for revision TKAs was $75,028.07. Without appropriate measures in place, the burden of revision TKAs may become overwhelming and pose a strain on providers and institutions. Continued insight into the etiology and epidemiology of revision TKAs may be the principle step towards improving outcomes and mitigating the need for future revisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. TUBERCULOSIS IN TROPICAL AFRICA. AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROELSGAARD, E; IVERSEN, E; BLOCHER, C

    1964-01-01

    Up to the end of the nineteenth century the tubercle bacillus apparently had little opportunity of disseminating among the rather isolated tribes of tropical Africa. With the creation of large centres of trade and industry in the wake of European colonization, tuberculosis seems to have spread rapidly over the continent and is today found everywhere.In a number of tuberculosis prevalence surveys conducted by WHO during 1955-60, randomly selected population groups were tuberculin tested, X-rayed and had sputa examined by direct microscopy. The three methods of examination were applied independently of one another.Data collected during the surveys have been analysed with a view to discovering common epidemiological features of tuberculosis in tropical Africa, assessing the reliability of the diagnostic methods employed and discussing their usefulness in future tuberculosis control programmes.

  6. Foot-and-mouth disease in pigs: current epidemiological situation and control methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Emilio A

    2012-03-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the paradigm of a transboundary animal disease. Beyond any doubt, it is the most serious challenge for livestock's health. Official Veterinary Services from free countries invest considerable amount of money to prevent its introduction, whereas those from endemic countries invest most of their resources in the control of the disease. A very important volume of scientific production is developed every year in different aspects of FMD, and for that reason, the current knowledge makes the diagnosis of the disease easier to a great extent. However, FMD is still endemic in about two-thirds of the countries, and periodically re-emergent in several countries. This paper is a review of recent publications, focusing mainly on control measures and current world epidemiological situation, emphasizing primarily pigs. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Epidemiological studies of radiation workers in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Satoshi; Semba, Tsuyoshi; Ishida, Kenji; Takagi, Syunji; Igari, Takafumi

    2017-01-01

    Regarding workers at nuclear facilities, this paper described INWORKS epidemiological research published in 2015, cooperative cohort epidemiological research of IARC 15 countries 10 years before that (15-country study), and the flow of radiation epidemiological research in the period from 15-country study to INWORKS. INWORKS is a retrospective cohort study to investigate the correlation between mortality due to solid cancer, blood cancer, and cardiovascular diseases in workers in three countries of France / the U.K. / the U.S. and low dose exposure through long-term photon external exposure. It obtained the data showing the statistical significance of increased cancer death rate. However, from the subjects of the analysis, no significant evaluation was made on neutron exposure and internal exposure. Statistically significant cancer mortality was confirmed in 15-country study at low dose, low dose rate, and prolonged exposure, but significant cancer mortality rate could not be confirmed excluding Canadian data, which had problems in dose evaluation. In the epidemiological studies of cancer mortality rates of radiation workers in nuclear power industries performed in France / the U.K. / the U.S. in the period ranging from 15-country study to INWORKS, significant difference was not recognized between cancer death rate and excessive relative risk (ERR) compared with LSS epidemiological research studies that handled acute exposure. Several tasks are still remaining. (A.O.)

  8. Epidemiological studies of radiation workers: preliminary communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schofield, G.B.

    1982-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels Limited has embarked on a study of the mortality data among those of its workforce who were employed prior to 1 January 1976. The study covers a total population of about 41000 current and ex-employees, but is initially concerned with a radiation worker cohort of 7500 at the Sellafield establishment where the highest radiation doses are received. Tracing of the health status of ex-employees has been undertaken using the services provided by the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (OPCS) and the Department of Health and Social Security (DHSS) and it is expected that ultimately the level of trace will be better than 97%. Mortality data not specifically related to radiation workers are included and relate to male deaths among serving staff and pensioners during the years 1962-1978. Those observed deaths (O) are compared on an age standardized basis with those expected (E) from the general population, the ratio O/E being about 1 for all cancers and less than 1 for non-cancer deaths. This pattern is consistent with the well known 'healthy worker' effect seen in industry. (author)

  9. Measurement of Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure in Epidemiological Studies (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swerdlow, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    The measurement of radiofrequency (RF) exposure is important to the quality of epidemiological studies of the possible association of RF exposure with disease. The extent and type of exposure measurement in past epidemiological studies of RF, and the features of measurement that would be desirable for better studies in the future are summarised. Measurement characteristics that are discussed include quantification of radiation frequency and of intensity and timing of exposures, measurement (or good estimation) of exposures for individuals rather than only for groups, quality of measurement, and measurement of RF exposures experienced outside the study setting. Integration of exposure measurement into the design of epidemiological studies is needed for better assessments of possible RF effects. (author)

  10. Consistency of external dosimetry in epidemiologic studies of nuclear workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    Efforts are underway to pool data from epidemiologic studies of nuclear workers to obtain more precise estimates of radiation risk than would be possible from any single study. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is coordinating combined analyses of data from studies in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. In the U.S., the Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) to provide investigators an opportunity to analyze data from several DOE laboratories. IARC investigators, in collaboration with those conducting the individual studies, have developed a dosimetry protocol for the international combined analyses. (author)

  11. Consistency of external dosimetry in epidemiologic studies of nuclear workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1992-05-01

    Efforts are underway to pool data from epidemiologic studies of nuclear workers to obtain more precise estimates of radiation risk than would be possible from any single study. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is coordinating combined analyses of data from studies in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. In the US, the Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) to provide investigators an opportunity to analyze data from several DOE laboratories. IARC investigators, in collaboration with those conducting the individual studies, have developed a dosimetry protocol for the international combined analyses

  12. Open extensor tendon injuries: an epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patillo, Dominic; Rayan, Ghazi M

    2012-01-01

    To report the epidemiology, mechanism, anatomical location, distribution, and severity of open extensor tendon injuries in the digits, hand, and forearm as well as the frequency of associated injuries to surrounding bone and soft tissue. Retrospective chart review was conducted for patients who had operative repair of open digital extensor tendon injuries in all zones within an 11-year period. Data was grouped according to patient characteristics, zone of injury, mechanism of injury, and presence of associated injury. Statistical analysis was used to determine the presence of relevant associations. Eighty-six patients with 125 severed tendons and 105 injured digits were available for chart reviews. Patients were predominantly males (83%) with a mean age of 34.2 years and the dominant extremity was most often injured (60%). The thumb was the most commonly injured (25.7%), followed by middle finger (24.8), whereas small finger was least affected (10.5%). Sharp laceration was the most common mechanism of injury (60%), and most of these occurred at or proximal to the metacarpophalangeal joints. Most saw injuries occurred distal to the metacarpophalangeal joint. Zone V was the most commonly affected in the fingers (27%) while zone VT was the most commonly affected in the thumb (69%). Associated injuries to bone and soft tissue occurred in 46.7% of all injuries with saw and crush/avulsions being predictive of fractures and damage to the underlying joint capsule. The extensor mechanism is anatomically complex, and open injuries to the dorsum of the hand, wrist, and forearm, especially of crushing nature and those inflicted by saws, must be thoroughly evaluated. Associated injuries should be ruled out in order to customize surgical treatment and optimize outcome.

  13. A review of methods used for studying the molecular epidemiology of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeh, Friederike; Nathues, Heiko; Frey, Joachim; Muellner, Petra; Fellström, Claes

    2017-08-01

    Brachyspira (B.) spp. are intestinal spirochaetes isolated from pigs, other mammals, birds and humans. In pigs, seven Brachyspira spp. have been described, i.e. B. hyodysenteriae, B. pilosicoli, B. intermedia, B. murdochii, B. innocens, B. suanatina and B. hampsonii. Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is especially relevant in pigs as it causes swine dysentery and hence considerable economic losses to the pig industry. Furthermore, reduced susceptibility of B. hyodysenteriae to antimicrobials is of increasing concern. The epidemiology of B. hyodysenteriae infections is only partially understood, but different methods for detection, identification and typing have supported recent improvements in knowledge and understanding. In the last years, molecular methods have been increasingly used. Molecular epidemiology links molecular biology with epidemiology, offering unique opportunities to advance the study of diseases. This review is based on papers published in the field of epidemiology and molecular epidemiology of B. hyodysenteriae in pigs. Electronic databases were screened for potentially relevant papers using title and abstract and finally, Barcellos et al. papers were systemically selected and assessed. The review summarises briefly the current knowledge on B. hyodysenteriae epidemiology and elaborates on molecular typing techniques available. Results of the studies are compared and gaps in the knowledge are addressed. Finally, potential areas for future research are proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Epidemiological Study of Greek University Students' Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounenou, Kalliope; Koutra, Aikaterini; Katsiadrami, Aristea; Diacogiannis, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, 805 Greek students participated by filling in self-report questionnaires studying depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale), general health status (General Health Questionnaire), general psychopathology (Symptom Checklist-90-R), and personal demographic features. Some of the more prevalent findings…

  15. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-05-01

    The current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of radiation in man is considered. The discussion is restricted to dose-incidence data in humans, particularly to certain of those epidemiological studies of human populations that are used most frequently for risk estimation for low-dose radiation carcinogenesis in man. Emphasis is placed solely on those surveys concerned with nuclear explosions and medical exposures

  16. Invited commentary: recruiting for epidemiologic studies using social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsworth, Jenifer E

    2015-05-15

    Social media-based recruitment for epidemiologic studies has the potential to expand the demographic and geographic reach of investigators and identify potential participants more cost-effectively than traditional approaches. In fact, social media are particularly appealing for their ability to engage traditionally "hard-to-reach" populations, including young adults and low-income populations. Despite their great promise as a tool for epidemiologists, social media-based recruitment approaches do not currently compare favorably with gold-standard probability-based sampling approaches. Sparse data on the demographic characteristics of social media users, patterns of social media use, and appropriate sampling frames limit our ability to implement probability-based sampling strategies. In a well-conducted study, Harris et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2015;181(10):737-746) examined the cost-effectiveness of social media-based recruitment (advertisements and promotion) in the Contraceptive Use, Pregnancy Intention, and Decisions (CUPID) Study, a cohort study of 3,799 young adult Australian women, and the approximate representativeness of the CUPID cohort. Implications for social media-based recruitment strategies for cohort assembly, data accuracy, implementation, and human subjects concerns are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Chapter 8. Tea and Cancer Prevention: Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Sun, Canlan; Butler, Lesley M.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental studies have consistently shown the inhibitory activities of tea extracts on tumorigenesis in multiple model systems. Epidemiologic studies, however, have produced inconclusive results in humans. A comprehensive review was conducted to assess the current knowledge on tea consumption and risk of cancers in humans. In general, consumption of black tea was not associated with lower risk of cancer. High intake of green tea was consistently associated with reduced risk of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers after sufficient control for confounders. Limited data support a protective effect of green tea on lung and hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake on prostate cancer risk, phase II clinical trials have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate pre-malignant lesions. Green tea may exert beneficial effects against mammary carcinogenesis in premenopausal women and recurrence of breast cancer. There is no sufficient evidence that supports a protective role of tea intake on the development of cancers of the colorectum, pancreas, urinary tract, glioma, lymphoma, and leukemia. Future prospective observational studies with biomarkers of exposure and phase III clinical trials are required to provide definitive evidence for the hypothesized beneficial effect of tea consumption on cancer formation in humans. PMID:21419224

  18. Ionizing radiation biomarkers for potential use in epidemiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernot, Eileen; Cardis, Elisabeth; Hall, Janet; Baatout, Sarah; El Saghire, Houssein; Mohammed Abderrafi Benotmane; Roel Quintens; Blanchardon, Eric; Bouffler, Simon; Gomolka, Maria; Guertler, Anne; Kreuzer, Michaela; Harms-Ringdahl, Mats; Jeggo, Penny; Laurier, Dominique; Lindholm, Carita; Mkacher, Radhia; Sabatier, Laure; Tapio, Soile; De Vathaire, Florent

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a known human carcinogen that can induce a variety of biological effects depending on the physical nature, duration, doses and dose-rates of exposure. However, the magnitude of health risks at low doses and dose-rates (below 100 mSv and/or 0.1 mSv min -1 ) remains controversial due to a lack of direct human evidence. It is anticipated that significant insights will emerge from the integration of epidemiological and biological research, made possible by molecular epidemiology studies incorporating biomarkers and bioassays. A number of these have been used to investigate exposure, effects and susceptibility to ionizing radiation, albeit often at higher doses and dose rates, with each reflecting time-limited cellular or physiological alterations. This review summarises the multidisciplinary work undertaken in the framework of the European project DoReMi (Low Dose Research towards Multidisciplinary Integration) to identify the most appropriate biomarkers for use in population studies. In addition to logistical and ethical considerations for conducting large-scale epidemiological studies, we discuss the relevance of their use for assessing the effects of low dose ionizing radiation exposure at the cellular and physiological level. We also propose a temporal classification of biomarkers that may be relevant for molecular epidemiology studies which need to take into account the time elapsed since exposure. Finally, the integration of biology with epidemiology requires careful planning and enhanced discussions between the epidemiology, biology and dosimetry communities in order to determine the most important questions to be addressed in light of pragmatic considerations including the appropriate population to be investigated (occupationally, environmentally or medically exposed), and study design. The consideration of the logistics of biological sample collection, processing and storing and the choice of biomarker or bioassay, as well as awareness of

  19. Epidemiological studies on syncope--a register based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin Huth

    2013-01-01

    of the patients play an essential role. In epidemiology these factors have major impact on the outcome of the patients. Until recently, even the definition of syncope, differed from one study to another which has made literature reviews difficult. Traditionally the data on epidemiology of syncope has been taken......: 1) the use, validity and accuracy of the ICD-10 diagnosis of syncope R55.9 in the National Patient Registry for the use of this diagnosis in the epidemiology of syncope, 2) diagnostics used and etiology of a random selection of patients who had a discharge diagnosis of R55.9, 3) the incidence...... thesis demonstrated that the ICD-10 discharge diagnosis could reliably identify a cohort of patients admitted for syncope and that the discharge code carried a high number of unexplained cases despite use of numerous tests. The last studies showed that syncope is a common cause for hospital contact...

  20. Current status and future prospects of epidemiology and public health training and research in the WHO African region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachega, Jean B; Uthman, Olalekan A; Ho, Yuh-Shan; Lo, Melanie; Anude, Chuka; Kayembe, Patrick; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Gomo, Exnevia; Sow, Papa Salif; Obike, Ude; Kusiaku, Theophile; Mills, Edward J; Mayosi, Bongani M; IJsselmuiden, Carel

    2012-01-01

    Background To date little has been published about epidemiology and public health capacity (training, research, funding, human resources) in WHO/AFRO to help guide future planning by various stakeholders. Methods A bibliometric analysis was performed to identify published epidemiological research. Information about epidemiology and public health training, current research and challenges was collected from key informants using a standardized questionnaire. Results From 1991 to 2010, epidemiology and public health research output in the WHO/AFRO region increased from 172 to 1086 peer-reviewed articles per annum [annual percentage change (APC) = 10.1%, P for trend Africa increased during the same period. However, an overwhelming majority of respondents (>90%) reported that this increase is only rarely linked to regional post-graduate training programmes in epidemiology. South Africa leads in publications (1978/8835, 22.4%), followed by Kenya (851/8835, 9.6%), Nigeria (758/8835, 8.6%), Tanzania (549/8835, 6.2%) and Uganda (428/8835, 4.8%) (P Africa). Independent predictors of relevant research productivity were ‘in-country numbers of epidemiology or public health programmes’ [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 3.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.90–6.11; P = 0.03] and ‘number of HIV/AIDS patients’ (IRR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.02–1.66; P < 0.001). Conclusions Since 1991, there has been increasing epidemiological research productivity in WHO/AFRO that is associated with the number of epidemiology programmes and burden of HIV/AIDS cases. More capacity building and training initiatives in epidemiology are required to promote research and address the public health challenges facing the continent. PMID:23283719

  1. Experimental study of neoclassical currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarnstorff, M.C.; Prager, S.C.

    1985-05-01

    A detailed experimental study is presented of the bootstrap and Pfirsch-Schlueter currents that are predicted by neoclassical transport theory. In a toroidal octupole, on magnetic surfaces within the separatrix, the observed parallel plasma currents are in excellent quantitative agreement with neoclassical theory with regard to the spatial structure (along a magnetic surface), collisionality dependence and toroidal magnetic field dependence. On magnetic surfaces outside the separatrix, the ion portion of the parallel current is in agreement with neoclassical theory but the electron parallel current is observed to obtain a unidirectional component which deviates from and exceeds the theoretical prediction

  2. International epidemiological studies on HIV, HCV and STI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Helm, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis comprises international epidemiological studies on HIV, Hepatitis C (HCV) and sexually transmitted infections (STI) and the evaluation of STI diagnostic tests with the ultimate goal to decrease spread and disease burden of these infections. The main conclusions are: 1. Without the use of

  3. Profile of an epidemiological study of urinary schistosomiasis in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    schistosomiasis in relation to epidemiological factors among children in Buruku ... [5]. Praziquantel has been adopted as the drug of choice for control strategy by the .... are low literacy, presence of infested water bodies .... rate of 38.2% found in the 8-12 years in this study ... maturity and abundance of the snail vectors.

  4. Profile of an epidemiological study of urinary schistosomiasis in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This study was conducted in an attempt to establish the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in relation to epidemiological factors among children in Buruku and Katsina-Ala local government areas, Benue, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Urine filtration technique using polycarbonate membrane filters was employed ...

  5. Air Pollution Exposure Modeling for Epidemiology Studies and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution epidemiology studies of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) often use outdoor concentrations as exposure surrogates. These surrogates can induce exposure error since they do not account for (1) time spent indoors with ambient PM2.5 levels attenuated from outdoor...

  6. An epidemiological study of physical activity patterns and weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical activity during pregnancy has been investigated for its potential benefits which includes weight control. Physical activity patterns of pregnant women in Tshwane, South Africa, were investigated using the EPIC–Norfolk Physical Activity Questionnaire (EPAQ-2) in an epidemiological cross-sectional study. Differences ...

  7. Myasthenia gravis on the Dutch antilles : an epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtsema, H; Mourik, J; Rico, RE; Falconi, [No Value; Kuks, JBM; Oosterhuis, HJGH

    2000-01-01

    We carried out an epidemiological study on thr prevalence and annual incidence of myasthenia gravis on tropical islands Curacao and Aruba in the period 1980 1995. Twenty-one patients (seven men and 14 women) were identified. The point prevalence increased from 29 per million in 1980 to about 70 per

  8. Epidemiological studies on the relation between diet and COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabak, C.

    2000-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. In the early 1990's several dietary factors were suggested to protect against COPD, based on proposed biological mechanisms and a small number of epidemiological studies.

  9. The selection and use of control groups in epidemiologic studies of radiation and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, G.R.; Friedenreich, C.M.; Howe, P.D.

    1990-09-01

    Current risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer are based on epidemiologic studies of humans exposed to high doses of radiation. A critical feature of such studies is the selection of an appropriate control group. This report presents a detailed examination of the principles underlying the selection and use of control groups in such epidemiologic studies. It is concluded that the cohort study is the preferred design, because of the rarity of exposure to high levels of radiation in the general population and because the cohort design is less susceptible to bias. This report also assesses potential bias in current risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer due to inappropriate choice and use of control groups. Detailed summaries are presented for those epidemiologic studies on which the BEIR IV risk estimates are based. It is concluded that confounding is by far the major potential concern. Bias is probably negligible in risk estimates for breast cancer. For lung cancer, risk estimates may be underestimated by about 30 percent for males and 10 percent for females due to confounding of smoking and radiation exposure. For leukemia and cancers of the thyroid and bone, the absence of established non-radiation risk factors with a high prevalence in the population under study suggests that there is unlikely to be any substantial confounding radiation risk estimates. Finally, lifetime excess mortality risks have been estimated for several of the cancers of interest following exposure to radiation based on Canadian age-, sex- and cause-specific mortality rates. It is concluded that errors in measurement exposure, uncertainty in extrapolating the results of high dose studies to low doses and low dose rates, and sampling variation in the epidemiologic studies contribute far more to uncertainty in current risk estimates than do any biases in the epidemiologic studies introduced by inappropriate selection and use of control groups. (161 refs., 19 tabs.)

  10. Epidemiological Studies to Support the Development of Next Generation Influenza Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Joshua G; Gordon, Aubree

    2018-03-26

    The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases recently published a strategic plan for the development of a universal influenza vaccine. This plan focuses on improving understanding of influenza infection, the development of influenza immunity, and rational design of new vaccines. Epidemiological studies such as prospective, longitudinal cohort studies are essential to the completion of these objectives. In this review, we discuss the contributions of epidemiological studies to our current knowledge of vaccines and correlates of immunity, and how they can contribute to the development and evaluation of the next generation of influenza vaccines. These studies have been critical in monitoring the effectiveness of current influenza vaccines, identifying issues such as low vaccine effectiveness, reduced effectiveness among those who receive repeated vaccination, and issues related to egg adaptation during the manufacturing process. Epidemiological studies have also identified population-level correlates of protection that can inform the design and development of next generation influenza vaccines. Going forward, there is an enduring need for epidemiological studies to continue advancing knowledge of correlates of protection and the development of immunity, to evaluate and monitor the effectiveness of next generation influenza vaccines, and to inform recommendations for their use.

  11. IDGenerator: unique identifier generator for epidemiologic or clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Olden

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Creating study identifiers and assigning them to study participants is an important feature in epidemiologic studies, ensuring the consistency and privacy of the study data. The numbering system for identifiers needs to be random within certain number constraints, to carry extensions coding for organizational information, or to contain multiple layers of numbers per participant to diversify data access. Available software can generate globally-unique identifiers, but identifier-creating tools meeting the special needs of epidemiological studies are lacking. We have thus set out to develop a software program to generate IDs for epidemiological or clinical studies. Results Our software IDGenerator creates unique identifiers that not only carry a random identifier for a study participant, but also support the creation of structured IDs, where organizational information is coded into the ID directly. This may include study center (for multicenter-studies, study track (for studies with diversified study programs, or study visit (baseline, follow-up, regularly repeated visits. Our software can be used to add a check digit to the ID to minimize data entry errors. It facilitates the generation of IDs in batches and the creation of layered IDs (personal data ID, study data ID, temporary ID, external data ID to ensure a high standard of data privacy. The software is supported by a user-friendly graphic interface that enables the generation of IDs in both standard text and barcode 128B format. Conclusion Our software IDGenerator can create identifiers meeting the specific needs for epidemiologic or clinical studies to facilitate study organization and data privacy. IDGenerator is freeware under the GNU General Public License version 3; a Windows port and the source code can be downloaded at the Open Science Framework website: https://osf.io/urs2g/ .

  12. Smile line and occlusion: An epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Harati

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Within the limitations of such studies, it might be concluded that there is a significant and important relation between some occlusal parameters and smile design, which must be considered.

  13. Smile line and occlusion: An epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harati, Mahsa; Mostofi, Shahbaz Naser; Jalalian, Ezzatollah; Rezvani, Gholamreza

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to discuss some new concepts of the desirable characteristics of smile tooth display. Due to the increasing application of cosmetic dental treatments, there is an increasing need for better understanding of the esthetic principles. In the present descriptive study, with 212 participants, included were patients with no history of orthodontic treatment, loss or prosthetic replacement of anterior teeth, extracted teeth, lips with asymmetry or a history of trauma. Chi-square test was used to determine possible significances in the relation of smile line to Angle occlusion class, overbite and overjet and arch form. A P level of smile design and overbite, overjet and gender but no statistically significant association was found between the smile design and crossbite, molar Angle classification and arch form. Within the limitations of such studies, it might be concluded that there is a significant and important relation between some occlusal parameters and smile design, which must be considered.

  14. Epidemiological study of mortality in Palomares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinilla, P.M.; Campos, P.M.; Tudanca, F.S.

    1987-01-01

    Since the 17th January 1966, the inhabitants of Palomares have been exposed to radiation doses of plutonium-239 caused by the nuclear accident which happened on that date when 2 U.S.A. force planes collided. General and infant mortality rates, birth rates average age at death and tumor studies are reviewed for Palomares and the central village of Guazamara. (author)

  15. Advances in Epidemiological Studies of Herpes Zoster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Xiaoming

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma genitalium (Mg commonly causes nongonococcal urethritis and cervicitis. Mg is a fastidious bacterium that poses difficulty in time-consuming isolation and culture. Lack of specificity for serological tests also hampers clinical research of Mg. With development of molecular biology, polymerase chain reaction tests, which exhibit high sensitivities and specificities, became primary tools for foundational and clinical studies of Mg.

  16. Advances in Epidemiological Studies of Herpes Zoster

    OpenAIRE

    Gu Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium (Mg) commonly causes nongonococcal urethritis and cervicitis. Mg is a fastidious bacterium that poses difficulty in time-consuming isolation and culture. Lack of specificity for serological tests also hampers clinical research of Mg. With development of molecular biology, polymerase chain reaction tests, which exhibit high sensitivities and specificities, became primary tools for foundational and clinical studies of Mg.

  17. Coffee and cardiovascular risk; an epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.A. Bak (Annette)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis comprises several studies on the effect of coffee and caffeine on cardiovascular risk in general, and the effect on serum lipids, blood pressure and selected hemostatic variables in particular. The association between coffee use and cardiovascular morbidity and

  18. Genetic Epidemiological Studies of Multiple Sclerose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A. Hoppenbrouwers (Ilse)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of this thesis was to find new risk alleles for MS. This may finally result in a better understanding of the pathogenesis of MS. Knowledge of MS disease pathways can direct strategies for prevention, diagnosis and therapy. In our study, we included MS patients from a

  19. Epidemiological studies of the incidence of pathogenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... animals from the rural zone and two (2)(7.1%) were positive for ... The trend of infection by Campylobacter as exemplified in this study was pig, ... pattern of infectious diseases. ... lethally damaged by exposure to low temperatures hence ..... identification to species level, and fingerprinting of Campylobacter.

  20. Epidemiological studies of radiation risks (NRPB Association)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muirhead, C.R.; Kellerer, A.M.; Chmelevsky, D.

    1993-01-01

    Objectives of project are: to analyse data on populations exposed to high doses of radiation, such as the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and groups of uranium miners; to examine data on populations exposed at low doses and methods for analysing such data; to perform preparatory work for the compilation of 'probability of causation' tables that are specific to EC countries and that also cover radon daughter exposures; to study the incidence and mortality from thyroid cancer in a cohort with medical exposures to 131 I; to study cancer incidence and mortality among Swedish patients given radiotherapy for skin haemangioma in childhood; and to examine the incidence of second tumours among Italian patients given radiotherapy for cancer of the head, neck, breast, endometrium, uterine cervix or thyroid. Results of the six contributions for the reporting period are presented. (R.P.) 4 refs

  1. Epidemiologic Studies of Isoflavones & Mammographic Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Verheus, Martijn; Tice, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Isoflavones, phytoestrogens in soy beans with estrogen-like properties, have been examined for their cancer protective effects. Mammographic density is a strong predictor of breast cancer. This review summarizes studies that have examined the association between isoflavones and breast density. Observational investigations in Hawaii and Singapore suggest slightly lower breast density among women of Asian descent with regular soy intake, but two larger studies from Japan and Singapore did not observe a protective effect. The findings from seven randomized trials with primarily Caucasian women indicate that soy or isoflavones do not modify mammographic density. Soy foods and isoflavone supplements within a nutritional range do not appear to modify breast cancer risk as assessed by mammographic density. PMID:22253990

  2. Epidemiologic Studies of Isoflavones & Mammographic Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A. Tice

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones, phytoestrogens in soy beans with estrogen-like properties, have been examined for their cancer protective effects. Mammographic density is a strong predictor of breast cancer. This review summarizes studies that have examined the association between isoflavones and breast density. Observational investigations in Hawaii and Singapore suggest slightly lower breast density among women of Asian descent with regular soy intake, but two larger studies from Japan and Singapore did not observe a protective effect. The findings from seven randomized trials with primarily Caucasian women indicate that soy or isoflavones do not modify mammographic density. Soy foods and isoflavone supplements within a nutritional range do not appear to modify breast cancer risk as assessed by mammographic density.

  3. Microcephaly and Zika virus: a clinical and epidemiological analysis of the current outbreak in Brazil,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Lahorgue Nunes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: This study aimed to critically review the literature available regarding the Zika virus outbreak in Brazil and its possible association with microcephaly cases. Sources: Experts from Instituto do Cérebro do Rio Grande do Sul performed a critical (nonsystematic literature review regarding different aspects of the Zika virus outbreak in Brazil, such as transmission, epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, and its possible association with the increase of microcephaly reports. The PubMed search using the key word “Zika virus” in February 2016 yielded 151 articles. The manuscripts were reviewed, as well as all publications/guidelines from the Brazilian Ministry of Health, World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC – United States. Summary of findings: Epidemiological data suggest a temporal association between the increased number of microcephaly notifications in Brazil and outbreak of Zika virus, primarily in the Brazil's Northeast. It has been previously documented that many different viruses might cause congenital acquired microcephaly. Still there is no consensus on the best curve to measure cephalic circumference, specifically in preterm neonates. Conflicting opinions regarding the diagnosis of microcephaly (below 2 or 3 standard deviations that should be used for the notifications were also found in the literature. Conclusion: The development of diagnostic techniques that confirm a cause–effect association and studies regarding the physiopathology of the central nervous system impairment should be prioritized. It is also necessary to strictly define the criteria for the diagnosis of microcephaly to identify cases that should undergo an etiological investigation.

  4. Microcephaly and Zika virus: a clinical and epidemiological analysis of the current outbreak in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Magda Lahorgue; Carlini, Celia Regina; Marinowic, Daniel; Neto, Felipe Kalil; Fiori, Humberto Holmer; Scotta, Marcelo Comerlato; Zanella, Pedro Luis Ávila; Soder, Ricardo Bernardi; da Costa, Jaderson Costa

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to critically review the literature available regarding the Zika virus outbreak in Brazil and its possible association with microcephaly cases. Experts from Instituto do Cérebro do Rio Grande do Sul performed a critical (nonsystematic) literature review regarding different aspects of the Zika virus outbreak in Brazil, such as transmission, epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, and its possible association with the increase of microcephaly reports. The PubMed search using the key word "Zika virus" in February 2016 yielded 151 articles. The manuscripts were reviewed, as well as all publications/guidelines from the Brazilian Ministry of Health, World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC - United States). Epidemiological data suggest a temporal association between the increased number of microcephaly notifications in Brazil and outbreak of Zika virus, primarily in the Brazil's Northeast. It has been previously documented that many different viruses might cause congenital acquired microcephaly. Still there is no consensus on the best curve to measure cephalic circumference, specifically in preterm neonates. Conflicting opinions regarding the diagnosis of microcephaly (below 2 or 3 standard deviations) that should be used for the notifications were also found in the literature. The development of diagnostic techniques that confirm a cause-effect association and studies regarding the physiopathology of the central nervous system impairment should be prioritized. It is also necessary to strictly define the criteria for the diagnosis of microcephaly to identify cases that should undergo an etiological investigation. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Tinnitus: an epidemiologic study in Iranian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalessi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of population, 4% to 30%, suffers from tinnitus that is defined as perception of sound without apparent acoustic stimulus. We conducted the present study to determine the prevalence of tinnitus in Iranian population; Tehran province. This cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2009 to December 2009, recruiting 3207 individuals (age range, 7-98 who were residing in Tehran province, Iran. Participants were asked to fill two questionnaires; the validated Persian version of Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ and another one that was specifically designed for this study. Prevalence of tinnitus and its association factors were evaluated. 3207 participants enrolled into our study comprising 1429 (44.7% male and 1765 (55.3% female with mean age of 55.01±17.85. Of total of 3207 participants, 146 (4.6% had tinnitus consisting of 80 male (54.8% and 66 (45.2% female participants. It showed a rising trend with increasing age that was especially significant after the sixth decade of life (P=0.001. The analysis showed mean TQ global score of 35.96±25.52 that was significantly different between male and female participants (P=0.051 and had no significant correlation with increasing age (Spearman's r=0.1, P=0.10. The tinnitus intensity was moderate to very severe in 95 (56.1% of the participants. Its severity level was not significantly different between men and women (P=0.09. Tinnitus intensity had no significant association with increasing age (Spearman's r=0.1, P=0.31. Patients with higher TQ global score had higher tinnitus intensities (P=0.001. The annoyance level was significantly different between men and women (P=0.04 and its impact on the participants daily routine functions were significantly higher in men (P=0.003. Given the results of the study, demonstrating that prevalence of tinnitus in Iranian population (Tehran province was lower than the other countries and had a direct correlation with increasing age only after the sixth

  6. Epidemiological study on varicose veins in Budapest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, I; Tornoci, L; Bihari, P

    2012-03-01

    To analyse the prevalence and risk factors of varicose veins and chronic venous disease in Budapest. Data were collected using a questionnaire, as well as by performing physical and Doppler ultrasound examination of 566 adult inhabitants of Budapest and some neighbouring villages. The prevalence of lower-extremity varicose veins was 57.1% in the study population. Verified risk factors include advancing age, pregnancy, jobs requiring a lot of standing, blue-collar work and excess body weight. Neither female gender nor the use of oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy was identified as a contributing factor. Hungarian prevalence data and risk factors seem to be similar to other European countries.

  7. Referral bias in ALS epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logroscino, Giancarlo; Marin, Benoit; Piccininni, Marco; Arcuti, Simona; Chiò, Adriano; Hardiman, Orla; Rooney, James; Zoccolella, Stefano; Couratier, Philippe; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Beghi, Ettore

    2018-01-01

    Despite concerns about the representativeness of patients from ALS tertiary centers as compared to the ALS general population, the extent of referral bias in clinical studies remains largely unknown. Using data from EURALS consortium we aimed to assess nature, extent and impact of referral bias. Four European ALS population-based registries located in Ireland, Piedmont, Puglia, Italy, and Limousin, France, covering 50 million person-years, participated. Demographic and clinic characteristics of ALS patients diagnosed in tertiary referral centers were contrasted with the whole ALS populations enrolled in registries in the same geographical areas. Patients referred to ALS centers were younger (with difference ranging from 1.1 years to 2.4 years), less likely to present a bulbar onset, with a higher proportion of familial antecedents and a longer survival (ranging from 11% to 15%) when compared to the entire ALS population in the same geographic area. A trend for referral bias is present in cohorts drawn from ALS referral centers. The magnitude of the possible referral bias in a particular tertiary center can be estimated through a comparison with ALS patients drawn from registry in the same geographic area. Studies based on clinical cohorts should be cautiously interpreted. The presence of a registry in the same area may improve the complete ascertainment in the referral center.

  8. Epidemiological studies on gastric cancer in Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Keisuke; Kawamoto, Kenji; Shimokawa, Isao; Matsuo, Takeshi; Ikeda, Takayoshi

    1984-01-01

    One thousand-four hundred and twenty-four cases of gastric cancer registered at the Nagasaki Tumor Registry between 1973 and 1977 were studied. The incidence of gastric cancer tended to be higher in persons exposed to the atomic bomb within 2.0 km from the hypocenter, especially in young persons, than in non-exposed individuals, but the difference was not statistically significant. Compared with the nonexposed, the corrected relative risk of gastric cancer in persons exposed within 2.0 km from the hypocenter was 1.28 in males and 1.11 in females. In terms of histologic type or location, the incidence of gastric cancer showed no statistically significant difference between the exposed and nonexposed persons. (author)

  9. INJURIES IN QUIDDITCH: A DESCRIPTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Rachel; Cooper, Ashley; Edmond, Evan; Faulkner, Alastair; Reidy, Michael J; Davies, Peter S E

    2017-10-01

    Quidditch is a fast growing, physically intense, mixed-gender full-contact sport. Originally adapted from Harry Potter novels, quidditch was first played in 2005 in the USA but is now played worldwide. It is essential to elucidate patterns of injury for the safety and growth of the sport of quidditch. It also provides a unique opportunity to study injury patterns in mixed-gender full-contact sport, an area of increasing importance with the developing culture of transition from single-gender to mixed-gender sports. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the types of injuries sustained while playing quidditch in terms of their incidence, anatomical distribution and severity, and gender distribution. An anonymous self-reporting questionnaire was distributed to all active quidditch players in the UK. Data collection included player demographics, type of injury, mechanism of injury, player position, experience and treatment required, relating to the previous 12 months. A total of 348 participants of 684 eligible athletes responded to the questionnaire representing a 50.87% response rate. There were 315 injuries reported by 180 athletes in total, with an overall incidence of 4.06 injuries per 1,000 hours. A statistically significantly different rate of concussion was observed with female athletes sustaining more concussion than males (p=0.006). The overall rate of concussion was 0.651/1000hrs in males and 1.163/1000hrs in females (0.877/1000 hours overall). This study provides the first quantitative description of injury rates in quidditch. The overall injury rates are no higher than those reported in other recreational contact sports. Female athletes were found to have a higher rate of concussion, which needs further investigation. These findings are relevant to players concerned about safety in quidditch and to governing bodies regarding governance of the sport. 3b.

  10. Epidemiology of leishmaniasis in Ecuador: current status of knowledge - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Calvopina

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Although leishmaniasis is regarded as a significant health problem in Ecuador by the Ministry of Health, and the incidence has increased over the last years, an official map on the geographic distribution of disease and sand fly vectors or a control strategy do not exist yet. This article reviews the current situation based on published information to improve our knowledge and understand the epidemiological situation of leishmaniasis in Ecuador in order to help future research and to develop a national control strategy. The disease is endemic in most provinces throughout Pacific coastal region, Amazonian lowlands, and some inter-Andean valleys with a total 21,805 cases reported during 1990-2003. Whereas cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is found throughout Ecuador, mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL appears to be restricted to the Amazon region; one, parasitologically unconfirmed case of visceral form was reported in 1949. Most human infections are caused by Leishmania (Viannia spp., which is distributed in the subtropical and tropical lowlands; infections due to L. (Leishmania spp. are found in the Andean highlands and in the Pacific lowlands as well. The proven vectors are Lutzomyia trapidoi and Lu. ayacuchensis. Canis familiaris, Sciurus vulgaris, Potos flavus, and Tamandua tetradactyla have been found infected with Leishmania spp. It is estimated that around 3000-4500 people may be infected every year, and that 3.1 to 4.5 millions people are estimated to be at risk of contracting leishmaniasis.

  11. MIH: epidemiologic clinic study in paediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condò, R; Perugia, C; Maturo, P; Docimo, R

    2012-04-01

    The Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) is a qualitative and quantitative defect of the enamel structure of the first permanent molars, which may vary from 1 to 4 with involvement of maxillary and jaw permanent incisors. AIM.: Aim of this study is that to evaluate, among 1500 paediatric patients chosen at random aged between 0 and 14 years, afferent by the Paediatric Dentistry of the Azienda Ospedialiera Policlinico Tor Vergata of Rome from 1996 to 2011, the incidents and the prevalence of the MIH distribution, and furthermore to ascertain the possible relationship with the data described in the literature. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION.: From the sample of 1500 paediatric patients, the number of those affections from MIH has turned out to be pairs to 110 (7.3%) aged between 4 and 15 years, and an average age equal to 9.7. The incidence of the hypoplastic defects is greater in the elements of the permanents series in which the functional class mainly interested is that of the first molars, with a percentage of 39.8%. Regarding the elements of the deciduous series affections from hypoplasia, they turn out to be in all in number of 20 represented in 80% of the cases from the seconds molars while in the remaining 20% of the cases the items involved are the central incisors. About the percentage of elements involved in the MIH: the molars, involved with a frequency of 56%, turn out to be more hit regarding incisors (44%). As reported in the literature, it can be asserted that the MIH can hit in equal measure both the male sex that feminine one. CONCLUSIONS.: MIH represents a condition quite frequent in the paediatric population. In managing this anomaly takes an essential role in the early diagnosis and in the differential one. The study done underlined the importance of a correct application of the therapeutic protocol which, starting from a careful diagnosis and articulating themselves in the execution of preventive treatments and in severe cases restorative and

  12. Enuresis: Epidemiological study in Moroccan children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourquia, A.; Chihabeddine, K.

    2002-01-01

    Enuresis is a common symptom that leads to significant psychosocialsequalae. In this study we analyzed three surveys in three different urbanand suburban regions in Morocco in order to evaluate the epidemiologicalcharacteristics and profiles of the young patients who had enuresis and theattitudes of their parents towards this problem. There were 1520 children andadolescents in this analysis whose age ranged between 5 and 15 years. Theywere attending various outpatient surgical and medical clinics when theirparents were asked to answer a pre-prepared questionnaire. The prevalence ofenuresis was 35% with preponderance of males (54%). The cause could not bedefined (primary) in 91.5% of the patients with enuresis. There were familialfactors associated with enuresis that included history of enuresis in theparents or siblings in 56% of the cases and coercion attitude of the parentsin 23%. Enuresis was associated with impediment of learning in 23%andchastisement of children in 85.4% of the cases. Twenty-three percent ofpatients also had chronic disorders. The parents were concerned mostly whenthe children approached puberty or when enuresis was secondary to anotherproblem. Spontaneous improvement was the rule by adolescence, hence only 8.7%sought medical advice for enuresis. Treatment was conventional in 67% of thecases and confined to restriction of fluids and food items in 73% of thetreated patients. We conclude that enuresis is apparently higher in Moroccanchildren compared to reports in other countries. However, enuresis was notconsidered a major medical problem of concern to parents who rarely soughtmedical advice for it. (author)

  13. [Bibliometric analysis of scientific articles on epidemiological study of burns in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, W F; Shen, Z A; Zhao, D X; Li, D W; Shang, Y R

    2017-04-20

    Objective: To analyze the current status of epidemiological study of burns in China, and to explore the related strategies. Methods: Retrospective or cross-sectional scientific articles in Chinese or English on epidemiological study of burns in China published from January 2005 to December 2015 were systemically retrieved from 4 databases. The databases include PubMed, Embase, China Biology Medicine disc, and Chinese Journals Full - text Database . From the results retrieved, data with regard to publication year, journal distribution, number of institutions participated in the study, affiliation of the first author and its location, and admission time span and age of patients in all the scientific articles were collected. Furthermore, the definition of age range and the grouping method of age of pediatric patients in English articles on epidemiological study of pediatric burns of China were recorded. Data were processed with descriptive statistical analysis. Results: A total of 256 scientific articles conforming to the study criteria were retrieved, among which 214 (83.59%) articles were in Chinese, and 42 (16.41%) articles were in English; 242 (94.53%) articles were retrospective studies, and 14 (5.47%) articles were cross-sectional studies. During the 11 years, the number of the relevant articles was fluctuant on the whole. The scientific articles were published in 130 journals, with 42 English articles in source journals for SCIENCE CITATION INDEX EXPANDED - JOURNAL LIST, accounting for 16.41%, and 116 Chinese articles in Source Journal for Chinese Scientific and Technical Papers, accounting for 45.31%. Totally 215 (83.98%) articles were single-center studies, and 29 (11.33%) articles were multicenter studies which were conducted by three or more centers. The number of affiliations of the first author of articles was 161 in total. The top 10 institutions regarding the article publishing number published 58 articles, accounting for 22.66%. Scientific articles on

  14. Epidemiologic studies of cancer in populations near nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shleien, B.; Ruttenber, A.J.; Sage, M.

    1991-01-01

    The authors reviewed over 40 epidemiologic studies around nuclear power stations, fuel reprocessing plants, and weapons production facilities and testing sites in the United Kingdom, the United States, France, and Canada. They examined these studies for their potential to support a cause and effect relationship between cancer risk and radiation exposure. The extent to which an epidemiologic study supports a causal relation between radiation exposure and increased cancer risk can be evaluated using a set of criteria that have become known as Hill's postulates. In their review, epidemiologic studies yielded results that were biologically plausible and were supported by experimental data, but in almost all of the studies the methodologies were not adequate for evaluating causality. In the majority of cases, the methodologies did not permit examination of dose-response associations, making it impossible to support or refute causal relations. They suggest that investigators consider these issues when designing studies and employ dose reconstruction methodology to estimate radiation doses for specific individuals and population groups.86 references

  15. Epidemiologia dos transtornos alimentares: estado atual e desenvolvimentos futuros Epidemiology of eating disorders: current status and future developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillipa J Hay

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram: fornecer uma avaliação do progresso da epidemiologia na área de transtornos alimentares, desde estudos sobre incidência e prevalência até os estudos comunitários prospectivos, bem como estudos caso-controle; sintetizar o atual estado da incidência e prevalência dos transtornos alimentares; discutir os estudos epidemiológicos analíticos sobre os transtornos alimentares, enfocando estudos comunitários sobre fatores de risco e nosologia; e apontar as áreas de estudos futuros, especialmente sobre a carga social e econômica e o grau de "conhecimento sobre saúde mental" da população em geral a respeito das pessoas com transtornos alimentares. Apesar dos problemas para identificar e recrutar um número suficiente de pessoas com anorexia nervosa e os métodos variáveis de recrutamento de casos, os estudos sobre incidência e prevalência dos transtornos alimentares atingiram um consenso e em geral não corroboram uma incidência ascendente atual, exceto, possivelmente, por um pequeno aumento na anorexia nervosa em mulheres jovens. A aplicação de métodos epidemiológicos analíticos permitiu uma compreensão melhor dos fatores ambientais e genéticos, em comparação com os sociais e econômicos, quanto ao risco de desenvolvimento de transtornos alimentares, bem como ajudaram no refinamento da nosologia desses transtornos. Futuramente, a epidemiologia analítica terá potencial para responder a questões-chave sobre a natureza e os determinantes dos transtornos alimentares e para ajudar a decidir como auxiliar os que mais necessitem.The present paper aims were: to provide an overview of development of epidemiology in the area of eating disorders, from studies of incidence and prevalence, through to community based prospective as well as case controlled studies; to summarise the current status of incidence and prevalence of eating disorders; to discuss analytic epidemiological studies of eating

  16. Study of Grants, new Mexico, uranium miners: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, J.M.; Morgan, M.V.; Buechley, R.W.; Key, C.R.; Valdivia, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Uranium Epidemiology Study at the University of New Mexico was initiated in 1977 with the objective of assessing health effects of uranium mining in the Grants, New Mexico, area. The planned approach was a cohort study of mortality that would capitalize on the availability of health records at the Grants Clinic. The first year's work confirmed the study's feasibility (Buechley, 1979). Subsequent efforts have focused on the health and exposure data base and comprehensive follow-up. A retrospective cohort study of early miners is in progress; a prospective cohort study of miners who began working under the current federal standard is planned. This report will summarize the current status of the Uranium Epidemiology Study

  17. High-current railgap studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, R.; Gordon, L.; Hofer, W.; Wilson, M.

    1983-06-03

    Characteristics of a 40-kV, 750-kA, multichannel rail gap are presented. The gap is a three electrode, field-distortion-triggered design, with a total switch inductance of less than 10 nH. At maximum ratings, the gap typically switches 10 C per shot, at 700 kA, with a jitter of less than 2 ns. Image-converter streak photographs were used to study channel evolution and current division. Transient gas-pressure measurements were made to investigate the arc generated shocks and to detect single channel failure. Channel current sharing and simultaneity are described and their effects on the switch inductance and lifetime are discussed. Lifetime tests of the rail gap were performed. Degradation in the channel current-sharing and erosion measurements are discussed.

  18. High-current railgap studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, R.; Gordon, L.; Hofer, W.; Wilson, M.

    1983-06-01

    Characteristics of a 40-kV, 750-kA, multichannel rail gap are presented. The gap is a three electrode, field distortion triggered design, with a total switch inductance of less than 10 nH. At maximum ratings, the gap typically switches 10 C per shot, at 700 kA, with a jitter of less than 2 ns. Channel evolution and current division were studied on image converter streak photographs. Transient gas pressure measurements were made to investigate the arc generated shocks and to detect single channel failure. Channel current sharing and simultaneity are described and their effects on the switch inductance in the channel current sharing and erosion measurements are discussed.

  19. Assessing the first wave of epidemiological studies of nanomaterial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing; Tsai, Candace S. J.; Pelclova, Daniela; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Schulte, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    The results of early animal studies of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and air pollution epidemiology suggest that it is important to assess the health of ENM workers. Initial epidemiological studies of workers’ exposure to ENMs (<100 nm) are reviewed and characterized for their study designs, findings, and limitations. Of the 15 studies, 11 were cross-sectional, 4 were longitudinal (1 was both cross-sectional and longitudinal in design), and 1 was a descriptive pilot study. Generally, the studies used biologic markers as the dependent variables. All 11 cross-sectional studies showed a positive relationship between various biomarkers and ENM exposures. Three of the four longitudinal studies showed a negative relationship; the fourth showed positive findings after a 1-year follow-up. Each study considered exposure to ENMs as the independent variable. Exposure was assessed by mass concentration in 10 studies and by particle count in six studies. Six of them assessed both mass and particle concentrations. Some of the studies had limited exposure data because of inadequate exposure assessment. Generally, exposure levels were not very high in comparison to those in human inhalation chamber studies, but there were some exceptions. Most studies involved a small sample size, from 2 to 258 exposed workers. These studies represent the first wave of epidemiological studies of ENM workers. They are limited by small numbers of participants, inconsistent (and in some cases inadequate) exposure assessments, generally low exposures, and short intervals between exposure and effect. Still, these studies are a foundation for future work; they provide insight into where ENM workers are experiencing potentially adverse effects that might be related to ENM exposures

  20. Assessing the first wave of epidemiological studies of nanomaterial workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing, E-mail: shliou@nhri.org.tw [National Health Research Institutes, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (China); Tsai, Candace S. J. [Colorado State University, Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Science (United States); Pelclova, Daniela [Charles University in Prague, Department of Occupational Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine (Czech Republic); Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Schulte, Paul A. [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (United States)

    2015-10-15

    The results of early animal studies of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and air pollution epidemiology suggest that it is important to assess the health of ENM workers. Initial epidemiological studies of workers’ exposure to ENMs (<100 nm) are reviewed and characterized for their study designs, findings, and limitations. Of the 15 studies, 11 were cross-sectional, 4 were longitudinal (1 was both cross-sectional and longitudinal in design), and 1 was a descriptive pilot study. Generally, the studies used biologic markers as the dependent variables. All 11 cross-sectional studies showed a positive relationship between various biomarkers and ENM exposures. Three of the four longitudinal studies showed a negative relationship; the fourth showed positive findings after a 1-year follow-up. Each study considered exposure to ENMs as the independent variable. Exposure was assessed by mass concentration in 10 studies and by particle count in six studies. Six of them assessed both mass and particle concentrations. Some of the studies had limited exposure data because of inadequate exposure assessment. Generally, exposure levels were not very high in comparison to those in human inhalation chamber studies, but there were some exceptions. Most studies involved a small sample size, from 2 to 258 exposed workers. These studies represent the first wave of epidemiological studies of ENM workers. They are limited by small numbers of participants, inconsistent (and in some cases inadequate) exposure assessments, generally low exposures, and short intervals between exposure and effect. Still, these studies are a foundation for future work; they provide insight into where ENM workers are experiencing potentially adverse effects that might be related to ENM exposures.

  1. Epidemiological studies of groups with occupational exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The exposure of man to radiation and the resulting risk of carcinogenesis continues to be of concern to the public. In this context, there is often a tendency to carry out epidemiological studies concerning the induction of cancer in radiation workers and members of the public which are not supported by a statistically valid data base or whose results are misinterpreted or misused. To assist national authorities in evaluating radiological risks, the Nuclear Energy Agency has sponsored a critical review of the methodologies for, and the limitations of, these epidemiological studies, and of the precautions to be adopted in interpreting their results. Prepared by a consultant, Dr. Joan M. Davies, the review focuses on the problems encountered when carrying out epidemiological studies on groups of workers occupationally exposed to radiations, and using their results for radiological protection purposes. It is published under the responsibility of the Secretary General of the OECD, and does not necessarily reflect the views of Member Governments. The primary objective is to provide background material to be used by national authorities that have responsibilities in the field of radiological protection as well as by other persons interested in this subject

  2. Multicollinearity in Regression Analyses Conducted in Epidemiologic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatcheva, Kristina P; Lee, MinJae; McCormick, Joseph B; Rahbar, Mohammad H

    2016-04-01

    The adverse impact of ignoring multicollinearity on findings and data interpretation in regression analysis is very well documented in the statistical literature. The failure to identify and report multicollinearity could result in misleading interpretations of the results. A review of epidemiological literature in PubMed from January 2004 to December 2013, illustrated the need for a greater attention to identifying and minimizing the effect of multicollinearity in analysis of data from epidemiologic studies. We used simulated datasets and real life data from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort to demonstrate the adverse effects of multicollinearity in the regression analysis and encourage researchers to consider the diagnostic for multicollinearity as one of the steps in regression analysis.

  3. The Epidemiology of Delirium: Challenges and Opportunities for Population Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel H.J.; Kreisel, Stefan H.; Muniz Terrera, Graciela; Hall, Andrew J.; Morandi, Alessandro; Boustani, Malaz; Neufeld, Karin J.; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; MacLullich, Alasdair M.J.; Brayne, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Delirium is a serious and common acute neuropsychiatric syndrome that is associated with short- and long-term adverse health outcomes. However, relatively little delirium research has been conducted in unselected populations. Epidemiologic research in such populations has the potential to resolve several questions of clinical significance in delirium. Part 1 of this article explores the importance of population selection, case-ascertainment, attrition, and confounding. Part 2 examines a specific question in delirium epidemiology: What is the relationship between delirium and trajectories of cognitive decline? This section assesses previous work through two systematic reviews and proposes a design for investigating delirium in the context of longitudinal cohort studies. Such a design requires robust links between community and hospital settings. Practical considerations for case-ascertainment in the hospital, as well as the necessary quality control of these programs, are outlined. We argue that attention to these factors is important if delirium research is to benefit fully from a population perspective. PMID:23907068

  4. Current concepts in age-related hearing loss: Epidemiology and mechanistic pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Lin, Frank R.; Someya, Shinichi; Kashio, Akinori; Sakamoto, Takashi; Kondo, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (AHL), also known as presbycusis, is a universal feature of mammalian aging and is characterized by a decline of auditory function, such as increased hearing thresholds and poor frequency resolution. The primary pathology of AHL includes the hair cells, stria vascularis, and afferent spiral ganglion neurons as well as the central auditory pathways. A growing body of evidence in animal studies has suggested that cumulative effect of oxidative stress could induce damage to macromolecules such as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and that the resulting accumulation of mtDNA mutations/deletions and decline of mitochondrial function play an important role in inducing apoptosis of the cochlear cells, thereby the development of AHL. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated four categories of risk factors of AHL in humans: cochlear aging, environment such as noise exposure, genetic predisposition, and health co-morbidities such as cigarette smoking and atherosclerosis. Genetic investigation has identified several putative associating genes, including those related to antioxidant defense and atherosclerosis. Exposure to noise is known to induce excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cochlea, and cumulative oxidative stress can be enhanced by relatively hypoxic situations resulting from the impaired homeostasis of cochlear blood supply due to atherosclerosis, which could be accelerated by genetic and co-morbidity factors. Antioxidant defense system may also be influenced by genetic backgrounds. These may explain the large variations of the onset and extent of AHL among elderly subjects. PMID:23422312

  5. Microbiological Aetiology, Epidemiology, and Clinical Profile of Prosthetic Joint Infections: Are Current Antibiotic Prophylaxis Guidelines Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Allen C.; Buising, Kirsty L.; Choong, Peter F. M.

    2012-01-01

    Prosthetic joint infections remain a major complication of arthroplasty. At present, local and international guidelines recommend cefazolin as a surgical antibiotic prophylaxis at the time of arthroplasty. This retrospective cohort study conducted across 10 hospitals over a 3-year period (January 2006 to December 2008) investigated the epidemiology and microbiological etiology of prosthetic joint infections. There were 163 cases of prosthetic joint infection identified. From a review of the microbiological culture results, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated in 45% of infections. In addition, polymicrobial infections, particularly those involving Gram-negative bacilli and enterococcal species, were common (36%). The majority (88%) of patients received cefazolin as an antibiotic prophylaxis at the time of arthroplasty. In 63% of patients in this cohort, the microorganisms subsequently obtained were not susceptible to the antibiotic prophylaxis administered. The results of this study highlight the importance of ongoing reviews of the local ecology of prosthetic joint infection, demonstrating that the spectrum of pathogens involved is broad. The results should inform empirical antibiotic therapy. This report also provokes discussion about infection control strategies, including changing surgical antibiotic prophylaxis to a combination of glycopeptide and cefazolin, to reduce the incidence of infections due to methicillin-resistant staphylococci. PMID:22314530

  6. Influence of radiation exposure on our society and epidemiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko

    1997-01-01

    A brief epidemiological review of risk assessment of radiation was discussed with respect to two periods; before and after the establishment of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Selected topics were the studies of atomic bomb survivors and people living in the contaminated areas due to Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. An ethical view to ensure that potential social benefits of epidemiology are maximized was emphasized as well as a scientific view. On the other hand it should be recognized that there are the limitations of epidemiological studies on the basis of the observations on man in which the animal-experimental setting generally cannot be controlled over. Informing people about the professional confidence and caution of radiation exposure is needed to resolve social concern associated with low dose, low dose rate of radiation. Also there are guidelines for the investigation of clusters of adverse health events. In the future an appropriate strategy for decontamination might be expected to unusual radiation exposure as a consequence of a nuclear power plant accident. Justification for the implementations can be determined only through the assessment of the effects both on the environment and health of humans after the accident. (author)

  7. Molecular and epidemiological study of enterovirus D68 in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan-Pin; Lin, Tsuey-Li; Lin, Ting-Han; Wu, Ho-Sheng

    2017-08-01

    As an immunofluorescence assay for enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is not available in the enteroviruses surveillance network in Taiwan, EV-D68 may be the actual pathogen of untypeable enterovirus-suspected isolates. The untypeable isolates collected from 2007 through 2014 were identified by nucleic acid amplification-based methods and sequencing of the VP1 region to analyze the phylogeny and epidemiology of EV-D68 in Taiwan. Twenty-nine EV-D68 isolates were sequenced, including 15 Cluster 3 and 14 Cluster 1 viruses. Approximately 41% of the patients were children under 5 years of age and their infections peaked in August. The ratio of male to female patients was 1.5 and 3.67 for Cluster 3 and Cluster 1, respectively. Fever and respiratory symptoms were commonly reported in EV-D68-infected patients. The results of phylogenetic analyses showed that EV-D68 isolates between 2007 and 2014 belonged to different clusters and existed for years, indicating that endemic circulation of EV-D68 existed in Taiwan. This study showed that EV-D68 has been endemic in Taiwan for some years despite a small number of positive cases. The continuous monitoring and efforts towards the improvement of diagnostic techniques are required to complete the surveillance system. This study provided the genetic and epidemiological information which could contribute to understanding the etiology and epidemiology of EV-D68. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Air pollution and health in Sri Lanka: a review of epidemiologic studies

    OpenAIRE

    Sathiakumar Nalini; Wickremasinghe Ananda R; Nandasena Yatagama

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Air pollution is increasingly documented as a threat to public health in most developing countries. Evaluation of current air quality levels, regulatory standards and scientific literature on outdoor and indoor air pollution, and health effects are important to identify the burden, develop and implement interventions and to fill knowledge gaps in Sri Lanka. Methods PUBMED and Medline databases, local journals and conference proceedings were searched for epidemiologic studi...

  9. Identification of a current hot spot of HIV type 1 transmission in Mongolia by molecular epidemiological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davaalkham, Jagdagsuren; Unenchimeg, Puntsag; Baigalmaa, Chultem; Erdenetuya, Gombo; Nyamkhuu, Dulmaa; Shiino, Teiichiro; Tsuchiya, Kiyoto; Hayashida, Tsunefusa; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Oka, Shinichi

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the current molecular epidemiological status of HIV-1 in Mongolia, a country with very low incidence of HIV-1 though with rapid expansion in recent years. HIV-1 pol (1065 nt) and env (447 nt) genes were sequenced to construct phylogenetic trees. The evolutionary rates, molecular clock phylogenies, and other evolutionary parameters were estimated from heterochronous genomic sequences of HIV-1 subtype B by the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method. We obtained 41 sera from 56 reported HIV-1-positive cases as of May 2009. The main route of infection was men who have sex with men (MSM). Dominant subtypes were subtype B in 32 cases (78%) followed by subtype CRF02_AG (9.8%). The phylogenetic analysis of the pol gene identified two clusters in subtype B sequences. Cluster 1 consisted of 21 cases including MSM and other routes of infection, and cluster 2 consisted of eight MSM cases. The tree analyses demonstrated very short branch lengths in cluster 1, suggesting a surprisingly active expansion of HIV-1 transmission during a short period with the same ancestor virus. Evolutionary analysis indicated that the outbreak started around the early 2000s. This study identified a current hot spot of HIV-1 transmission and potential seed of the epidemic in Mongolia. Comprehensive preventive measures targeting this group are urgently needed.

  10. Epidemiological studies of thyroid cancer in the CIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beebe, G W [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Despite the great international interest in Chernobyl and the need for quantitative risk information on the carcinogenic effectiveness of the radio iodines, there has been relatively little epidemiological research on thyroid cancer following the Chernobyl accident. The reasons for this are many, diverse, and difficult to eliminate, although some progress is being made. Among them are the natural priority of public health concerns, a weak infrastructure for conducting studies in chronic disease epidemiology, and the difficulty of assigning thyroid dose estimates to individuals for study. In spite of the difficulties a number of significant studies have been begun or are planned, and several valuable reports have appeared. From the descriptive studies it is now known that the latent period for thyroid cancer in children exposed to radio iodines is not 5 to 10, but probably three years, that the magnitude of the increase in thyroid cancer among children is beyond anything previously experienced or expected, and that there is a strong correlation between thyroid cancer and environmental radiocesium contamination levels in the Gomel region of Belarus, and between thyroid cancer and average regional levels of I{sup 131} dose to the thyroid in Ukraine. However, even today, there is very little hard scientific information on the relation of thyroid cancer in children and their exposure to the radio iodines in the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. This is information that only well-designed scientific epidemiological studies, based on firm dose estimates, could be expected to provide. With that purpose in mind, the US has planned with Belarus and Ukraine long-term cohort studies of many thousands of subjects with thyroid activity measurements.

  11. Epidemiological studies of thyroid cancer in the CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    Despite the great international interest in Chernobyl and the need for quantitative risk information on the carcinogenic effectiveness of the radio iodines, there has been relatively little epidemiological research on thyroid cancer following the Chernobyl accident. The reasons for this are many, diverse, and difficult to eliminate, although some progress is being made. Among them are the natural priority of public health concerns, a weak infrastructure for conducting studies in chronic disease epidemiology, and the difficulty of assigning thyroid dose estimates to individuals for study. In spite of the difficulties a number of significant studies have been begun or are planned, and several valuable reports have appeared. From the descriptive studies it is now known that the latent period for thyroid cancer in children exposed to radio iodines is not 5 to 10, but probably three years, that the magnitude of the increase in thyroid cancer among children is beyond anything previously experienced or expected, and that there is a strong correlation between thyroid cancer and environmental radiocesium contamination levels in the Gomel region of Belarus, and between thyroid cancer and average regional levels of I 131 dose to the thyroid in Ukraine. However, even today, there is very little hard scientific information on the relation of thyroid cancer in children and their exposure to the radio iodines in the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. This is information that only well-designed scientific epidemiological studies, based on firm dose estimates, could be expected to provide. With that purpose in mind, the US has planned with Belarus and Ukraine long-term cohort studies of many thousands of subjects with thyroid activity measurements

  12. Population-Based Study of the Epidemiology of Herpes Zoster in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, You Jeong; Lee, Chang Nam; Lim, Chi-Yeon; Jeon, Woo Seok; Park, Young Min

    2014-01-01

    General epidemiological data regarding herpes zoster (HZ) are necessary for treatment and prevention of this disease. In addition, epidemiological data can play an important role in evaluating the efficacy and impact of vaccination. Though several epidemiological studies of HZ in Korea have been conducted, they usually depend on hospital-based data and may not be representative of HZ characteristics all over Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and other epidemiologi...

  13. Using whole genome sequencing to study American foulbrood epidemiology in honeybees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim Ågren

    Full Text Available American foulbrood (AFB, caused by Paenibacillus larvae, is a devastating disease in honeybees. In most countries, the disease is controlled through compulsory burning of symptomatic colonies causing major economic losses in apiculture. The pathogen is endemic to honeybees world-wide and is readily transmitted via the movement of hive equipment or bees. Molecular epidemiology of AFB currently largely relies on placing isolates in one of four ERIC-genotypes. However, a more powerful alternative is multi-locus sequence typing (MLST using whole-genome sequencing (WGS, which allows for high-resolution studies of disease outbreaks. To evaluate WGS as a tool for AFB-epidemiology, we applied core genome MLST (cgMLST on isolates from a recent outbreak of AFB in Sweden. The high resolution of the cgMLST allowed different bacterial clones involved in the disease outbreak to be identified and to trace the source of infection. The source was found to be a beekeeper who had sold bees to two other beekeepers, proving the epidemiological link between them. No such conclusion could have been made using conventional MLST or ERIC-typing. This is the first time that WGS has been used to study the epidemiology of AFB. The results show that the technique is very powerful for high-resolution tracing of AFB-outbreaks.

  14. TG13 current terminology, etiology, and epidemiology of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimura, Yasutoshi; Takada, Tadahiro; Strasberg, Steven M.; Pitt, Henry A.; Gouma, Dirk J.; Garden, O. James; Büchler, Markus W.; Windsor, John A.; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Masahiro; Miura, Fumihiko; Higuchi, Ryota; Gabata, Toshifumi; Hata, Jiro; Gomi, Harumi; Dervenis, Christos; Lau, Wan-Yee; Belli, Giulio; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Hilvano, Serafin C.; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    While referring to the evidence adopted in the Tokyo Guidelines 2007 (TG07) as well as subsequently obtained evidence, further discussion took place on terminology, etiology, and epidemiological data. In particular, new findings have accumulated on the occurrence of symptoms in patients with

  15. Epidemiologic studies of glyphosate and cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mink, Pamela J; Mandel, Jack S; Sceurman, Bonnielin K; Lundin, Jessica I

    2012-08-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency and other regulatory agencies around the world have registered glyphosate as a broad-spectrum herbicide for use on multiple food and non-food use crops. Glyphosate is widely considered by regulatory authorities and scientific bodies to have no carcinogenic potential, based primarily on results of carcinogenicity studies of rats and mice. To examine potential cancer risks in humans, we reviewed the epidemiologic literature to evaluate whether exposure to glyphosate is associated causally with cancer risk in humans. We also reviewed relevant methodological and biomonitoring studies of glyphosate. Seven cohort studies and fourteen case-control studies examined the association between glyphosate and one or more cancer outcomes. Our review found no consistent pattern of positive associations indicating a causal relationship between total cancer (in adults or children) or any site-specific cancer and exposure to glyphosate. Data from biomonitoring studies underscore the importance of exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies, and indicate that studies should incorporate not only duration and frequency of pesticide use, but also type of pesticide formulation. Because generic exposure assessments likely lead to exposure misclassification, it is recommended that exposure algorithms be validated with biomonitoring data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Epidemiologic warnings from studies on alcohol use disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limosin, F

    2014-04-01

    The highest consumption levels of alcohol are found in the developed world, mostly the Northern Hemisphere. After a slight decrease at the beginning of the 1990s, alcohol use in the European Region increased with an average adult per capita consumption amounting to 12.5 litres of pure alcohol per capita for the year 2009. In France, adult consumption was 12.7 litres of pure alcohol per capita for the year 2009, and it is estimated that 1.5 to 2 million of adults are alcohol-dependent (4-5% of the adult population) and 5 million are excessive drinkers. The harmful use of alcohol is one of the world's leading health risks. Alcohol is the direct cause of more than 30 diseases and a causal factor in more than 60 major types of diseases and injuries, resulting in approximately 2.5 million deaths each year. Approximately 4% of all deaths worldwide and 4.5% (7.4% for men and 1.4% for women) of the global burden of disease and injury are attributable to alcohol. In 2004 in the EU, 15.2% of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in men and 3.9% of all DALYs in women were lost due to alcohol. While the impact of alcohol consumption and dependence on mortality and disease is substantial, there are also many psychosocial consequences, including violence, family problems, child neglect and abuse, absenteeism and lost productivity in the workplace. This means that alcohol consumption and dependence have sizable impacts on many people other than the drinker. These effects add up to a staggering number of alcohol-attributable social costs, which can be estimated at € 155.8 billion a year in Europe. Despite all these consequences, many individuals with alcohol use disorders remain untreated although effective treatments exist. From 37 community-based psychiatric epidemiology studies that used standardized diagnostic instruments and included data on the percentage of individuals receiving care for alcohol abuse or dependence, the median rate of untreated cases of these

  17. Epidemiology, etiology and study of clinical findings of headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaffarpoor M

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available In a cross-sectional epidemiological study of headache disorders in neurology clinic of Fatemieh hospital of Semnan (August 22-November 20.1996, information on types of headaches, quality, severity, location, duration, frequency, precipitating factors, age of onset, influence of menstruation and pregnancy, positive familial history, use of oral contraceptive pills and other epidemiological factors including socioeconomic and age/sex composition was collected. The presence of any types of headaches was ascertained by a clinical interview and examination using the operational diagnostic criteria of the International Headaches Society. The prevalence of migraine and tension type headache was also analysed in relation to variables of life style (physical activity and sleep pattern and associated signs and symptoms (nausea, vomiting, photophobia and phonophobia. In this study migraine and tension headache were also compared in variable aspects with each other. 1 Headache was more prevalent in women than men (F/M=3/1. 2 The most common types of headache included: tension type headache (41.4%, migraine (31.2% and unclassified headaches (17.2%. 3 Migraine and T.T.H were more prevalent in early adult life and middle ages. 4 In both migraine and tension type headache the time profiles (duration, frequency, age of onset, quality and location were like that noted in textbook and previous studies. 5 In both migraine and tension type headache the most conspicuous precipitating factor was stress and mental tension and frequent headaches were accompanied with psychiatric problems (e.g depression and or anxiety. 6 Nausea, vomiting, phonophobia and photophobia were the most common associated symptoms in both of them. 7 Positive familial history and aggravation of headache in perimenstual period were more commonly seen in patients with migraine than tension type headache. In conclusion using the operational diagnostic criteria of International Headache Society in

  18. Review of epidemiological studies on hazards of radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.; Stewart, C.G.; Johnson, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    A review, with nearly 100 references, of the biological effects of radon and radon daughters is presented. Calculations of the relative dose from daughter products, as well as of the variation in dose with such things as unattached fraction, particle size, age and breathing rate are discussed. Estimates of annual risk of lung cancer in miners after inhalation of thoron daughters are given, and compared with hazards of employment in various US industries. The implications of these epidemiological studies for future regulations are discussed

  19. Epidemiological study of venous thromboembolism in a big Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Marianne Tang; Kristensen, Søren Risom; Overvad, Kim

    Introduction: Epidemiological data on venous thromboembolism (VT), i.e. pulmonary emboli (PE) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) are sparse. We have examined VT-diagnoses registered in a big Danish Cohort study.  Methods: All first-time VT diagnoses in The Danish National Patient Register were...... were probable cases (1.7%) whereas for 449 (41.6%) the diagnosis could be excluded. The incidence rate was 1 per 1000 personyears. Out of the 632 cases 60% were DVT and 40% PE. 315 VT were considered idiopathic (49.8%), 311 were secondary (49.2%) and 15 were unclassifiable. 122 patients had cancer, 87...

  20. An epidemiologic study of flat foot in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamy B

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Among 880 studied feet of 7-14 years old children 6.9% suffered mild and severe flat foot. 53.8% of the affected children were symptomatic. As 40.1% of the general population experiences symptoms, in a small proportion of affected persons, symptoms are due to flat foot. The prevalence of symptoms rises with increasing severity of the disorder. In this article, reviewing general aspects of flat food, prevalence and other epidemiological aspects of flat foot for the first time in Iran have been presented

  1. Is bioelectrical impedance accurate for use in large epidemiological studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merchant Anwar T

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Percentage of body fat is strongly associated with the risk of several chronic diseases but its accurate measurement is difficult. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA is a relatively simple, quick and non-invasive technique, to measure body composition. It measures body fat accurately in controlled clinical conditions but its performance in the field is inconsistent. In large epidemiologic studies simpler surrogate techniques such as body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio are frequently used instead of BIA to measure body fatness. We reviewed the rationale, theory, and technique of recently developed systems such as foot (or hand-to-foot BIA measurement, and the elements that could influence its results in large epidemiologic studies. BIA results are influenced by factors such as the environment, ethnicity, phase of menstrual cycle, and underlying medical conditions. We concluded that BIA measurements validated for specific ethnic groups, populations and conditions can accurately measure body fat in those populations, but not others and suggest that for large epdiemiological studies with diverse populations BIA may not be the appropriate choice for body composition measurement unless specific calibration equations are developed for different groups participating in the study.

  2. Application of TL dosimetry in epidemiological studies in HBRAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chougaonkar, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    Luminescence as a phenomenon has been extensively used in radiation dosimetry, using thermoluminescence. The nuclear industry all over the world over uses TL dosimetry in radiation protection since they have to ensure that the radiation workers and workers involved in industrial applications of radiation sources are not exposed beyond limits set by international monitoring bodies. They have also to ensure that the nuclear applications do not give rise to elevated radiation levels in the environs. In addition, epidemiologists and radiobiologists world over have been working over the past few decades, to study health effects of chronic radiation exposures in populations living in the elevated natural radiation environment. This paper discusses the importance of dosimetric studies, in the normal as well as high background radiation areas (HBRAs), due to the radiation effects on the humans. The application of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) in population dosimetry with the end point of epidemiological studies is then discussed. The paper outlines the construction of TLDs, methodology of deployment and retrieval and analysis to arrive the dose. To obtain total dose, dosimetric techniques suitable for external gamma radiation, inhalation dose due to radon, thoron and their progenies and radiological analysis of the food items is required. The techniques arriving at the effective dose are outlined. Basics of epidemiological analysis, particularly using case-control methodology and its advantages/ disadvantages are also discussed. Using the previous work by the author, the paper also reviews various analyses that can be carried out the dosimetric data. (author)

  3. Epidemiologic study of Phenylketonuria disease in Lorestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azita Zafar Mohtashami

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background : Phenylketonuria (PKU is a metabolic disease with autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance caused by a deficiency or absence of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase in the liver. Phenylketonuria incidence is 1 in 10,000 births. This study aimed to determine the epidemiological characteristics of phenylketonuria in Lorestan province. Materials and Methods: All 81 phenylketonuria patients known in Lorestan province up to winter 2014 were considered in this descriptive epidemiologic study. Based on the goals and variables of the study, a complete questionnaire was developed to collect data through interviews with parents and the records and they were analyzed by use of SPSS v.16 software with preparing tables and graphs and using chi-square and t-test. Results: Results showed that phenylketonuria prevalence is 4.3 out of 100,000 people in Lorestan province. Twenty of the patients (24.7% were identified through screening and 61 patients (75.3% through other methods. Forty-six of the samples (56.8% were female and 35 cases (43.2% were male. Nearly 75% of PKU patients had a positive history of consanguinity marriage in their parents. The prevalence of the disease was significantly different from other cities. Conclusion: Neonatal screening for phenylketonuria is necessary and should be done within 3-5 days of birth. In families with children suffering from PKU, prenatal diagnosis is necessary for other pregnancies.

  4. The epidemiology of sports-related injuries in older adults: a central European epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerlander, Christian; Braito, Matthias; Kates, Stephen; Jeske, Christian; Roth, Tobias; Blauth, Michael; Dallapozza, Christian

    2012-10-01

    The population is rapidly aging and remaining more active over the age of 65. An increasing number of sports related injuries in individuals 65 and older are thus anticipated. The aim of this study is to analyze the epidemiology of sports injuries in the age group aged 65 and older. Data from the medical records of adults aged 65 years and older who were treated for sports-related injuries at a level one trauma center between December 1994 and February 2008 was collected and statistically analyzed. A total of 2635 patients met our inclusion criteria. There were 1647 men (62.5%) and 988 women (37.5%) with a mean age of 70.9 years. The yearly number of injuries doubled during the study period (1996-2007). The most common mechanism of injury was a simple fall from standing height (69%). Nearly 75% of all injuries occurred during alpine skiing, cycling or mountain climbing. The median Injury Severity Score was 4. Minor injuries and wounds (40%) were recorded most commonly followed by fractures (27%), sprains, ligament injuries (19%) and injuries of muscles and tendons (6%). The most frequent diagnoses were minor injuries to the head and ligament injuries around the knee joint. Injuries to the upper extremities occurred in 33.7%, injuries to the lower extremities in 29.4% and injuries to the head occurred in 20% of the patients. Women sustained substantially more fractures than men. Adults aged 65 and older are remaining active in sports, which results in higher numbers of sports related injuries in this age group. Identification of type, mechanism and distribution of the injuries can help with the recognition of risk factors for injury. This may enable us to develop appropriate preventative measures to reduce the incidence, and morbidity of such injuries.

  5. Molecular Epidemiologic Typing Systems of Bacterial Pathogens: Current Issues and Perpectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Struelens Marc J

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiologic typing of bacterial pathogens can be applied to answer a number of different questions: in case of outbreak, what is the extent and mode of transmission of epidemic clone(s ? In case of long-term surveillance, what is the prevalence over time and the geographic spread of epidemic and endemic clones in the population? A number of molecular typing methods can be used to classify bacteria based on genomic diversity into groups of closely-related isolates (presumed to arise from a common ancestor in the same chain of transmission and divergent, epidemiologically-unrelated isolates (arising from independent sources of infection. Ribotyping, IS-RFLP fingerprinting, macrorestriction analysis of chromosomal DNA and PCR-fingerprinting using arbitrary sequence or repeat element primers are useful methods for outbreak investigations and regional surveillance. Library typing systems based on multilocus sequence-based analysis and strain-specific probe hybridization schemes are in development for the international surveillance of major pathogens like Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Accurate epidemiological interpretation of data obtained with molecular typing systems still requires additional research on the evolution rate of polymorphic loci in bacterial pathogens.

  6. Epidemiology applied to health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The technical program of the mid-year meeting of the Health Physics Society, entitled Epidemiology Applied to Health physics, was developed to meet three objectives: (1) give health physicists a deeper understanding of the basics of epidemiological methods and their use in developing standards, regulations, and criteria and in risk assessment; (2) present current reports on recently completed or on-going epidemiology studies; and (3) encourage greater interaction between the health physics and epidemiology disciplines. Included are studies relating methods in epidemiology to radiation protection standards, risk assessment from exposure to bone-seekers, from occupational exposures in mines, mills and nuclear facilities, and from radioactivity in building materials

  7. Epidemiologic studies of radioactively contaminated environments and cancer clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, J.D. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on epidemiologic studies which address the distribution and determinants of disease in human populations. Investigations of the possible adverse effects of living in radioactively contaminated environments are difficult to conduct, however, because human populations tend to be fairly mobile, cumulative exposures to individuals from environmental conditions are difficult to estimate, and the risks associated with such exposures tend to be small relative to background levels of disease. Such studies can be arbitrarily classified as geographic correlation surveys, analytic studies, and cluster evaluations. Geographic correlation studies (ecological surveys) relate disease in populations to area characteristics. Although exposure to individuals is unknown, these exploratory or hypothesis-generating studies can identify areas to target for further in-depth evaluation. Analytic investigations relate individual exposure information to disease occurrence. Unusual occurrences of disease in time and place (clusters) occasionally point to a common environmental factor; cluster evaluations have been most successful in identifying the source of infectious disease outbreaks

  8. Progress of epidemiological and molecular epidemiological studies on benzene in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guilan; Yin, Songnian

    2006-09-01

    Benzene is an organic solvent that has been used in industry for about 100 years throughout the world. Since 1973, a series of toxicological and molecular epidemiological studies on benzene were conducted by researchers at the Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine (CAPM) (1973-1986) and subsequently by a collaboration between the CAPM and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in the United States that began in 1986, which was joined by investigators from the University of California at Berkeley, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and New York University. The findings demonstrated that the risk of leukemia and lymphoma among benzene-exposed workers was significantly increased, with elevated risks for leukemia present not only at higher exposure but also among workers exposed to under 10 ppm. Therefore, the benzene permissible level was decreased to 1.8 ppm (6 mg/m(3)) and benzene-induced leukemia is treated as an occupational cancer in China. The benzene permissible level is 1.0 in the United States and in several other developed countries and it has been suggested to be decreased to 0.5 ppm (ACGIH). A number of potential biomarkers are related to benzene exposure and poisoning. Some of these are benzene oxide-protein adducts, chromosome aberration of lymphocytes, and GPA mutations in erythrocytes, a decrease in B cell and CD4(-)T cell counts in peripheral blood, and altered expression of CXCL16, ZNF331, JUN, and PF4 in lymphocytes. Variation in multiple benzene metabolizing genes may be associated with risk of benzene hematotoxicity, including CYP2E1, MPO, NQO1, and GSTT1.

  9. DNA methylation analysis from saliva samples for epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishitani, Shota; Parets, Sasha E; Haas, Brian W; Smith, Alicia K

    2018-06-18

    Saliva is a non-invasive, easily accessible tissue, which is regularly collected in large epidemiological studies to examine genetic questions. Recently, it is becoming more common to use saliva to assess DNA methylation. However, DNA extracted from saliva is a mixture of both bacterial and human DNA derived from epithelial and immune cells in the mouth. Thus, there are unique challenges to using salivary DNA in methylation studies that can influence data quality. This study assesses: (1) quantification of human DNA after extraction; (2) delineation of human and bacterial DNA; (3) bisulfite conversion (BSC); (4) quantification of BSC DNA; (5) PCR amplification of BSC DNA from saliva and; (6) quantitation of DNA methylation with a targeted assay. The framework proposed will allow saliva samples to be more widely used in targeted epigenetic studies.

  10. Suicide in Sorocaba-SP: an epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Nobrega Vasques de Freitas

    2013-09-01

    Introduction: suicide is a major worldwide public health issue and appears as one of the ten most frequent causes of death in all ages. Objective: to perform an epidemiological analysis of suicide rates recorded between 2000 and 2009 in the city of Sorocaba-SP and compare them to national epidemiological data. Methods: We performed a descriptive analysis of suicide data in Sorocaba-SP in the period 2000 to 2009 collected by the Surveillance of Violence and Injuries (VIVA and the Municipal Health Secretariat of Sorocaba-SP. Results: a total of 229 suicide cases were recorded between 2000 and 2009. Total suicide rate suffered an increase of 3.8% in 2005, as compared to previous years, and remained constant in subsequent years. The highest average rates were recorded in 2005 and 2007. Men are more likely to commit suicide. The highest rates of suicide were recorded in the age group 35-44 years. Being single was the most common sociodemographic characteristic of suicides during the study period. The most common methods of suicide were hanging and firearms. Conclusion: The rate of suicide in Sorocaba-SP, despite low, is consistent with the national and international growth trends. Members of the younger population are killing themselves with increasing frequency, although the highest rates of suicide are still found among those aged 35 - 44 years

  11. Human risk relationships derived from epidemiology and laboratory studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuddihy, R.G.; Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; McClellan, R.O.

    1983-01-01

    Proven techniques are needed for incorporating the results of laboratory toxicology studies into human risk assessments. Two sample calculations of lung cancer risk factors for inhaled radioactive particles and diesel engine exhaust are given here to illustrate a toxicology information matrix approach. This approach combines the results of epidemiology and laboratory animal studies of the substance or agent of principal concern, along with similar information on other surrogate substances. Beyond the estimates of lung cancer risk factors derived by using this approach, an additional advantage is gained by having estimates of uncertainty that can be obtained by incorporating all available toxicology information into the analysis. This approach is recommended for both risk assessment and in designing follow-on toxicology studies to improve preliminary assessments for new potentially harmful agents entering our environment

  12. A Clinico- Epidemiological Study Of Filarial Related Orthopaedic Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patond K.R

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological study was undertaken to study the incidence and distribution of orthopaedic manifestations of filariasis in an endemic area. A total of 207 cases were clinically examined and investigated. Patients were divided into three groups , viz., Group A: Orthopaedic manifestations with no history of filariasis . Group B: Orthopaedic manifestations with history of filariasis such as microfilaraemia or filarial fevers etc., Group C: Orthopaedic manifestations with chronic manifestations such as elephantiasis, hydrocele etc. To confirm filarial etiology, all the cases were examined for the presence of filarial antibody by indirect ELISA using wuchereda bancrofti microfilarial excretory- secretary antigen (wd Mf ESAg . A total of 61 of 102 patients of Group A, 14 of 21 patients of group B, and 73 of 84 patients of Group C were positive for filarial antibody. This study showed the prevalence of filarial antibody in about 71.4% of various orthopaedic manifestations.

  13. Epidemiological study to childrens cancer in the environment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche, Bernd; Jung, Thomas; Weiss, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    The results of the KiKK-study were presented in December 2007, followed by scientific publications in January 2008. The results caused a long-lasting debate, and the study was evaluated by different groups. Amongst these, the evaluation given by the SSK is of special importance. Now, BfS presents its final evaluation: The findings of the KiKK-study cannot be explained on the basis of current knowledge, but they give cause for further research activities. Scientific disciplines outside radiation biology and radiation epidemiology have to be involved. (orig.)

  14. Pesticide poisoning in Chitwan, Nepal: a descriptive epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Gyenwali

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, there is a growing concern over pesticides use, which has been linked to self-harm and suicide. However, there is paucity of research on the epidemiology of pesticides poisoning in Nepal. This study is aimed at assessing epidemiological features of pesticides poisoning among hospital-admitted cases in selected hospitals of Chitwan District of Nepal. Methods A hospital-based quantitative study was carried out in four major hospitals of Chitwan District. Information on all pesticides poisoning cases between April 1 and December 31, 2015, was recorded by using a Pesticides Exposure Record (PER form. Results A total of 439 acute pesticides poisoning cases from 12 districts including Chitwan and adjoining districts attended the hospitals during the 9-month-long study period. A majority of the poisoned subjects deliberately used pesticides (89.5% for attempted suicide. The total incidence rate was 62.67/100000 population per year. Higher annual incidence rates were found among young adults (111.66/100000 population, women (77.53/100000 population and individuals from Dalit ethnic groups (98.22/100000 population. Pesticides responsible for poisoning were mostly insecticides (58.0% and rodenticides (20.8%. The most used chemicals were organophosphates (37.3% and pyrethroids (36.7%. Of the total cases, 98.6% were hospitalized, with intensive care required for 41.3%. The case fatality rate among admitted cases was 3.8%. Conclusions This study has indicated that young adults, females and socially disadvantaged ethnic groups are at a higher risk of pesticides poisoning. Pesticides are mostly misused intentionally as an easy means for committing suicide. It is recommended that the supply of pesticides be properly regulated to prevent easy accessibility and misuse. A population-based study is warranted to reveal the actual problem of pesticides exposure and intoxication in the community.

  15. Quality control for exposure assessment in epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornkessel, C; Blettner, M; Breckenkamp, J

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of an epidemiological study, dosemeters were used for the assessment of radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure. To check the correct dosemeter's performance in terms of consistency of recorded field values over the entire study period, a quality control strategy...... was developed. In this paper, the concept of quality control and its results is described. From the 20 dosemeters used, 19 were very stable and reproducible, with deviations of a maximum of +/-1 dB compared with their initial state. One device was found to be faulty and its measurement data had to be excluded...... from the analysis. As a result of continuous quality control procedures, the confidence in the measurements obtained during the field work was strengthened significantly....

  16. Optimizing malarial epidemiological studies in areas of low transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amerasinghe, Priyanie H; Alifrangis, Michael; van der Hoek, Wim

    2005-01-01

    risk factor in this area was the location of houses relative to confirmed vector breeding sites. At the peak of the transmission season, the results pointed in the same direction, irrespective of the diagnostic method used. However, the importance of distance from the breeding site......Malaria risk factor studies have traditionally used microscopy readings of blood slides as the measure of malaria infection in humans, although alternatives are available. There is the need for an assessment of how the use of these alternative diagnostic approaches will influence the efficiency...... and significance of epidemiological studies. In an area of Sri Lanka with known risk factors for malaria, two cross-sectional surveys were done at the start and at the peak of transmission season. Microscopy was compared with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The major...

  17. Ultraviolet radiation and the eye: an epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H R

    1989-01-01

    Circumstantial evidence from biochemical, animal, and epidemiologic studies suggests an association between exposure to UV-B radiation (290 nm to 320 nm) and cataract. Such an association had not been proven because it had not been possible to quantify ocular UV-B exposure of individuals or to reliably grade the type and severity of cataract in field studies. We undertook an epidemiologic survey of cataract among 838 watermen who work on the Chesapeake Bay. Their individual ocular UV-B exposure was quantified for each year of life over the age of 16, on the basis of a detailed occupational history combined with laboratory and field measurements of ocular UV-B exposure. Cataracts were graded by both type and severity through clinical and photographic means. SMD changes were ascertained by fundal photography. A general medical history was taken to discover potentially confounding factors. This study showed that people with cortical lens opacities had a 21% higher UV-B exposure at each year of life than people without these opacities. A doubling in lifetime UV-B exposure led to a 60% increase in the risk of cortical cataract, and those with a high annual UV-B exposure increased their risk of cortical cataract over threefold. Corneal changes, namely pterygium and CDK, were also strongly associated with high UV-B exposure. No association was found between nuclear lens opacities or macular degeneration and UV-B exposure. This study also indicated several simple, practical measures, such as wearing spectacles or a hat, that effectively protect the eye from UV-B exposure. Thus it is easily within the power of individuals to protect their eyes from excessive UV-B exposure and reduce their risk of cortical cataract. A program of public education in this area could be a cost-effective means of reducing this important disease. PMID:2562534

  18. At the crossroads of anthropology and epidemiology: current research in cultural psychiatry in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dein, Simon; Bhui, Kamaldeep Singh

    2013-12-01

    Cultural psychiatry research in the UK comprises a broad range of diverse methodologies, academic disciplines, and subject areas. Methodologies range from epidemiological to anthropological/ethnographic to health services research; mixed methods research is becoming increasingly popular, as are public health and health promotional topics. After briefly outlining the history of cultural psychiatry in the UK we will discuss contemporary research. Prominent themes include: the epidemiology of schizophrenia among Africans/Afro-Caribbeans, migration and mental health, racism and mental health, cultural identity, pathways to care, explanatory models of mental illness, cultural competence, and the subjective experiences of healthcare provision among specific ethnic groups such as Bangladeshis and Pakistanis. Another strand of research that is attracting increasing academic attention focuses upon the relationship between religion, spirituality, and mental health, in particular, the phenomenology of religious experience and its mental health ramifications, as well as recent work examining the complex links between theology and psychiatry. The paper ends by appraising the contributions of British cultural psychiatrists to the discipline of cultural psychiatry and suggesting promising areas for future research.

  19. Epidemiological study of multiple sclerosis in La Rioja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bártulos Iglesias, M; Marzo Sola, M E; Estrella Ruiz, L A; Bravo Anguiano, Y

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating disease that causes severe disability in younger patients. Many epidemiology studies have confirmed a variable prevalence. The objective of this study was to analyse the prevalence of this disease in La Rioja (Spain), using such variables as age and sex; type of progression, initial form of the disease, EDSS and number of relapses; disease-modifying treatment and reasons for treatment withdrawal; personal and family history of cancer; and incidence and mortality. Analysis of patients in La Rioja diagnosed with MS (according to Poser criteria or the 2005 McDonald criteria) during a 10-year period (2001-2011). Data were collected from hospital records, multiple sclerosis associations, and personal records kept by neurologists. The MS prevalence rate in La Rioja is 65 patients/100 000 inhabitants with an incidence rate of 3.5 cases/100 000 residents per year. Relapsing-remitting MS is present in 67.6% of the patient total. Mean age of onset is 20-29 years (range, 12 to 70). Most EDSS scores were mostly ≤ 2. Untreated MS cases account for 47.6% of the total and the most commonly used therapy is interferon. We detected 4 haematological tumours and 7 families with multiple members affected by MS. Prevalence and incidence are similar to those found in other regions Spain. The average age at onset age for primary progressive MS is slightly higher than in other papers (40-49 years). In families with multiple patients, MS may be more aggressive. Disability in these patients remains very severe. We require more epidemiology studies with a variety of data gathering methods to support findings for prevalence obtained in different provinces. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. An overview of the epidemiological studies in DRUID

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    Objectives: To describe the various epidemiological studies within the DRUID project (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines). Methods: Several methodological approaches are used both for estimating the prevalence of drug driving and the accident risk for drug impaired drivers......, each with different sensitivity and specificity. Results: The prevalence in the general population is described my means of a literature review. The prevalence of drug driving is estimated by means of road side surveys and a travel survey and the prevalence of drugs in injury accidents is estimated...... by means of hospital surveys of seriously injured and killed drivers. Accident risk estimates for drug impaired drivers are based on linkage of results on drugs in drivers in traffic to drugs in injured drivers, on linkage of medication records to accident data and linkage of analyses of accidents...

  1. RISK CONCEPT AND RISK ASSESSMENT IN EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze CAN

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Basic aim of an epidemiological study is to quantify the association between the exposure and the outcome of interest. To achieve this, the incidence of disease in a group of individuals exposed to the putative risk factors must be compared with the incidence in a group of persons not exposed. This comparison can be summarized by calculating either the ratio of the measures of disease occurrence for the two groups, which indicates the likelihood of developing the disease in the exposed individuals relative to those unexposed, or the difference between the two, which provides information about the absolute effect of the exposure in those exposed compared with those unexposed. Some terms about relative risk were explained and examine with samples in this article. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(5.000: 374-381

  2. Molecular epidemiological study of human rectal cancer induced by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rytomaa, T.; Servomaa, K.; Kiuru, A.; Auvinen, A.; Makkonen, K.; Kosma, V.M.; Hirvikoski, P.

    1997-01-01

    In the present molecular epidemiological study we have examined possible presence of characteristic radiation-associated mutations in the p53 and K-ras genes in secondary rectal cancers in 67 female radiotherapy patients, compared with primary rectal cancers in 67 matched controls Exons 4-8 of the p53 and K-ras gen were amplified from histological sections, and screened for mutations by SSCP and direct sequencing. The results showed that p53 and K-ras gene mutations were very uncommon in apparent radiation-induced tumours compared with matched controls. This may, by itself, be a hallmark of high-dose radiation damage, but it also suggests that genes other than p53 and K-ras are critical in female rectal carcinogenesis associated with radiation exposure. (authors)

  3. Red and processed meat intake and risk of colorectal adenomas: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aune, D.; Chan, D.S.M.; Vieira, A.; Navarro Rosenblatt, D.; Vieira, R.; Greenwood, D.C.; Kampman, E.; Norat, T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Current evidence indicates that red and processed meat intake increases the risk of colorectal cancer; however, the association with colorectal adenomas is unclear. Objective To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies of red and processed meat intake and

  4. Bat Rabies in France: A 24-Year Retrospective Epidemiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France. PMID:24892287

  5. Bat rabies in France: a 24-year retrospective epidemiological study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Picard-Meyer

    Full Text Available Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter. In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France.

  6. Comparative sport injury epidemiological study on a Spanish sample of 25 different sports

    OpenAIRE

    Pujals, Constanza; Rubio, Víctor J.; Márquez, María Oliva; Sánchez, Ivan; Ruiz Barquín, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Reconocimiento-Compartir igual Sport injury is a widely extended morbidity condition. However, epidemiological studies are far from giving a convergent outlook. Moreover, there is a lack of studies comparing relative risks of different groups of sports. The present paper is aimed to carry out a descriptive epidemiological study of sport injuries of athletes from 25 sport modalities in order to identify risk factors as well as to compare epidemiological characteristics according to the ...

  7. [Endocrine disruptors : Evidence from epidemiological studies necessitates a critical review of model systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, M; Gebauer, S; Nüchter, M; Baber, R; Ried, J; von Bergen, M; Kiess, W

    2017-06-01

    Endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDCs) cause adverse health effects through interaction with endocrine systems. They are classified by chemical structure, effects on specific endocrine systems, bioaccumulation, persistence in the environment, or clinically observable effects. For research of the complex mechanisms of action in the human body, only in vitro model systems have so far been available, that have insufficient high-throughput capacity, which makes risk evaluation more difficult. In addition, in industrial nations, living people are often exposed to mixtures of substances, with various effects. The clinical importance of epigenetic changes caused by the action of EDCs during vulnerable phases of development is currently unclear. Epidemiological studies are criticized because reproducibility is not always guaranteed. Nevertheless, they remain the method of choice for the development and analysis of suitable model systems. Positive associations, in spite of sometimes conflicting results, are key in the selection of factors that can then be analysed in model systems in an unbiased way. This article depicts the mainly positive epidemiological findings for EDC-caused effects in the fields of growth and metabolism, neurocognitive development and sexual development and reproduction. As a result, there is a need for closer linkage between epidemiological studies and mechanistic research into model systems, especially focusing on the interaction of different EDCs and the consequences of prenatal and early life exposure.

  8. Cardiovascular risk factors burden in Saudi Arabia: The Africa Middle East Cardiovascular Epidemiological (ACE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Amjad M; Hersi, Ahmad; Mashhoud, Walid; Arafah, Mohammed R; Abreu, Paula C; Al Rowaily, Mohammed Abdullah; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H

    2017-10-01

    Limited data exist on the epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in Saudi Arabia, particularly in relation to the differences between Saudi nationals and expatriates in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this analysis was to describe the current prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among patients attending general practice clinics across Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional epidemiological analysis of the Africa Middle East Cardiovascular Epidemiological (ACE) study, the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, smoking, abdominal obesity) was evaluated in adults attending primary care clinics in Saudi Arabia. Group comparisons were made between patients of Saudi ethnicity (SA nationals) and patients who were not of Saudi ethnicity (expatriates). A total of 550 participants were enrolled from different clinics across Saudi Arabia [aged (mean ± standard deviation) 43 ± 11 years; 71% male]. Nearly half of the study cohort (49.8%) had more than three cardiovascular risk factors. Dyslipidemia was the most prevalent risk factor (68.6%). The prevalence of hypertension (47.5%) and dyslipidemia (75.5%) was higher among expatriates when compared with SA nationals (31.4% vs. 55.1%, p  = 0.0003 vs. p  Saudi Arabia. Improving primary care services to focus on risk factor control may ultimately decrease the incidence of coronary artery disease and improve overall quality of life. The ACE trial is registered under NCT01243138.

  9. The evolving epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, Fergus

    2009-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) include assessments of disease burden and evolving patterns of disease presentation. Although it is hoped that sound epidemiologic studies provide aetiological clues, traditional risk factor-based epidemiology has provided limited insights into either Crohn\\'s disease or ulcerative colitis etiopathogenesis. In this update, we will summarize how the changing epidemiology of IBD associated with modernization can be reconciled with current concepts of disease mechanisms and will discuss studies of clinically significant comorbidity in IBD.

  10. A clinico-epidemiological study of herpes zoster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, S K; Radhakrishnan, S

    2016-04-01

    Herpes zoster is a common viral infection of skin caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus infection from the spinal ganglia. The clinico-epidemiological patterns of this disease in an Indian setting required to be studied. A cross sectional study was conducted on all consecutive cases of herpes zoster reporting to the Dermatology Outpatient Department at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Bangalore during a period of one year from 01 Jun 2013 to 31 May 2014. Detailed history, examination, HIV screening and Tzanck smear were carried out in all cases. 84 cases of herpes zoster were seen with a mean age of 30 years. Majority (39%) of cases were seen in the 21-30 year age group. Thoracic segments were involved in 65.4%, cervical in 11.9%, cranial in 11.5%, lumbar in 8.3% and sacral segments in 3.5%. 63% of cases had zoster associated pain. One case had motor involvement.3.57% of the patients were HIV positive. This study shows a lower age incidence of herpes zoster HIV positivity and zoster associated pain as compared to other studies. The pattern of segmental involvement in herpes zoster seen in this study was similar to other studies.

  11. An Epidemiological Study of Psychiatric Disorders in Hamadan Province , 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Mohammadi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The burden of psychiatric disorders in the developed countries has been identified by the screening questionnaires and standard clinical interviews at a high level, but the epidemiological studies of psychiatric disorders in our country are brief and their numbers are few. Planning for providing essential mental health services to the people requires us to be knowledgeable about the present status of psychiatric disorders in the society. The objective of this research was to carry out the epidemiological study of the psychiatric disorders in the individuals 18 years and above in urban and rural areas of Hamadan province. 664 individuals selected through randomized clustered and systematic sampling methods among the existing families of Hamadan province and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS questionnaires completed by the clinical psychologist. The diagnosis of the disorders was based on DSM-IV classification criteria.The results of the study showed that the overall prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province was 11.28% (17.2% in women , 5.8% in men. The anxiety and mood disorders with 5.87 and 2.71% respectively had the highest prevalence in the province. The prevalence of psychotic disorders in this study was 0.60% , neuro- cognitive disorders 1.35% and dissociative disorders 0.75%. In the group of mood disorders, major depression with 2.56% and in the group of anxiety disorders, phobia with 2.56% had the higher prevalence. This study showed that 8.13% of studied individuals suffered from at least one of the psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province among the individuals in the age group of 66 years and above was 13.33%, individuals whose spouses had passed away 18.75%, urban residents of province 9.81%, illiterate individuals 12.80% and housewife individuals 12.31% was more than other individuals in the sample. Being aware of this matter reveals the responsibility of the

  12. An epidemiological study of paediatric pulmonary hypertension in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pektas, Ayhan; Pektas, Bilgehan M; Kula, Serdar

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of paediatric pulmonary hypertension within the entire Turkish population over a period of 5 years using the registry of the National Health Insurance System. All individuals aged pulmonary hypertension and secondary pulmonary hypertension were identified. The overall annual incidence of idiopathic pulmonary hypertension during childhood was 11.7 cases/million, whereas the overall annual incidence of secondary pulmonary hypertension during childhood was 9.5 cases/million. There was a gradual and significant increase in the annual incidence of idiopathic pulmonary hypertension and that of secondary pulmonary hypertension during the 5-year study period (p=0.001 for both). In the years 2012 and 2013, idiopathic pulmonary hypertension was significantly more frequent in children aged pulmonary hypertension, whereas the female to male ratio was 1.1:1 for secondary pulmonary hypertension during childhood. The incidence of paediatric pulmonary hypertension in Turkey is higher than those reported for the Western populations. Moreover, no female dominance could be observed. These discrepancies may be attributed to the differences in the study design, study cohort, timing of the study, and the definitions adopted for pulmonary hypertension classification.

  13. Prevalence of anxiety disorders: a population-based epidemiological study in metropolitan area of Casablanca, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrada Soumia

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Morocco, no epidemiological study has been conducted to show the current prevalence of mental disorders in the general population. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and comorbidity of anxiety disorders in Moroccan subjects. Methods We used cross-sectional study, with a representative sample of Casablanca city. Direct interviews used the Mini International Neurpsychiatric Interview in its validated Moroccan Arabic version Results Among 800 subjects, 25.5% met criteria of at least one current anxiety disorder: Panic Disorder (2%, Agoraphobia (7.6% Social phobia (3.4, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (6.1%, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (3.4%, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (4.3% Conclusion The results are generally similar to those of Western countries. Future studies need to replicate these results and to concentrate on their impact on the quality of life and the cost of such conditions in the community.

  14. Radon and lung cancer: an epidemiological study in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranden, E.; Strand, T.; Magnus, K.; James, A.C.; Green, B.M.R.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives and strategy of an epidemiological study on the effects of exposure to radon in Norwegian dwellings is presented. The study is a cooperation between the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene and the Norwegian Cancer Registry in Norway and the National Radiological Protection Board of the United Kingdom, with funding by the Norwegian Cancer Society. Measurements of radon are being made in 10,000 dwellings representing all Norwegian municipalities. The potential for detecting an effect of radon exposure by such a study in Norway is unique because: (1) Radon concentrations are high and there are large regional variations. (2) Data from the Norwegian Cancer Registry is of high quality: all cancers have been subject to compulsory reporting since 1955. These data can be broken down according to municipality, sex and age. (3) In 1964/1965 a large scale survey of smoking habits was carried out in Norway. These data can also be broken down according to municipality, sex and age, and by types of smoking and smoking rate. It is intended to examine the correlation between lung cancer incidence and geographical variation in radon levels after making allowance for smoking habits. Radon measurements were started in early 1987 and the results of the study are expected to be published in 1989. (author)

  15. Epigenetics and epidemiology: models of study and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veldhoven, Karin; Rahman, Shati; Vineis, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have successfully identified several environmental causes of disease, but often these studies are limited by methodological problems (e.g. lack of sensitivity and specificity in exposure assessment; confounding). Proposed approaches to improve observational studies of environmental associations are Mendelian randomization and the meet-in-the-middle (MITM) approach. The latter uses signals from the growing field of -omics as putative intermediate biomarkers in the pathogenetic process that links exposure with disease. The first part of this approach consists in the association between exposure and disease. The next step consists in the study of the relationship between (biomarkers of) exposure and intermediate -omic biomarkers of early effect; thirdly, the relation between the disease outcome and intermediate -omic biomarkers is assessed. We propose that when an association is found in all three steps it is possible that there is a casual association. One of the associations that have been investigated extensively in the recent years but is not completely understood is that between environmental endocrine disruptors and breast cancer. Here we present an example of how the "meet-in-the-middle" approach can be used to address the role of endocrine disruptors, by reviewing the relevant literature.

  16. Standard procedures for pooling health physics data for epidemiologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, D.J.; Beck, W.L.; Stansbury, P.S.; Tankersley, W.G.; Watson, J.E. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The objectives of the study are: (1) to determine the availability of dosimetry data and supporting documentation at multiple facilities; (2) to develop criteria and methods for optimally retrieving data; (3) to evaluate and document the quality and completeness of data and dosimetry programs; (4) to put dosimetry data (e.g., external, whole body counting, and bioassay data) from various facilities in a single format for epidemiologic analysis; and (5) to document all work for peer review. To achieve these objectives, a ''Dosimetry Records and Radiation Hazards Questionnaire'' was developed to send to the facilities under study. Responses to this questionnaire are used to develop data retrieval criteria and methods, and to retrieve data. Dose data are reformatted into Standard Intermediate Dosimetry Files for editing and characterization. Evaluations of dosimetry programs are performed concurrently. Results of these steps are brought together and analysis files created. Status of this work in the context of the Department of Energy 5-Rem Study is reported. The standard procedures are applicable to single- as well as multiple-facility studies

  17. The impact of medicinal drugs on traffic safety: a systematic review of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orriols, Ludivine; Salmi, Louis-Rachid; Philip, Pierre; Moore, Nicholas; Delorme, Bernard; Castot, Anne; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the quality of epidemiological research into effects of medicinal drugs on traffic safety and the current knowledge in this area. The bibliographic search was done in Medline electronic database using the keywords: ((accident* or crash*) and traffic and drug*) leading to 1141 references. Additional references were retrieved from the Safetylit website and the reference lists of selected studies. Original articles published in English or French, between 1 April 1979 and 31 July 2008, were considered for inclusion. We excluded descriptive studies, studies limited to alcohol or illicit drug involvement and investigations of injuries other than from traffic crashes. Studies based on laboratory tests, driving simulators or on-the-road driving tests were also excluded. Eligible studies had to evaluate the causal relationship between the use of medicinal drugs and the risk of traffic crashes. Study quality was assessed by two independent experts, according to a grid adapted from the strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE) statement. Twenty two studies of variable methodological quality were included. Definition of drug exposure varied across studies and depended on the data sources. Potential confounding due to the interaction between the effects of the medicinal drug and disease-related symptoms was often not controlled. The risk of motor-vehicle crashes related to benzodiazepines has been amply studied and demonstrated. Results for other medicinal drugs remain controversial. There is a need for large studies, investigating the role of individual substances in the risk of road traffic crashes. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. [Whooping cough in Spain. Current epidemiology, prevention and control strategies. Recommendations by the Pertussis Working Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campins, Magda; Moreno-Pérez, David; Gil-de Miguel, Angel; González-Romo, Fernando; Moraga-Llop, Fernando A; Arístegui-Fernández, Javier; Goncé-Mellgren, Anna; Bayas, José M; Salleras-Sanmartí, Lluís

    2013-04-01

    A large increase of pertussis incidence has been observed in recent years in countries with high vaccination coverage. Outbreaks of pertussis are increasingly being reported. The age presentation has a bipolar distribution: infants younger 6months that have not initiated or completed a vaccination schedule, and adolescents and adults, due to the lost of natural or vaccine immunity over time. These epidemiological changes justify the need to adopt new vaccination strategies in order to protect young infants and to reduce pertussis incidence in all age groups. Adolescents and adults immunization must be a priority. In the first group, strategy is easy to implement, and with a very low additional cost (to replace dT vaccine by dTap one). Adult vaccination may be more difficult to implement; dT vaccine decennial booster should be replaced by dTap. The immunization of household contacts of newborn infants (cocooning) is the strategy that has a most important impact on infant pertussis. Recently, pregnant women vaccination (after 20weeks of gestation) has been recommended in some countries as the most effective way to protect the newborn. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. Survey Definitions of Gout for Epidemiologic Studies: Comparison With Crystal Identification as the Gold Standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalbeth, N.; Schumacher, H.R.; Fransen, J.; Neogi, T.; Jansen, T.L; Brown, M.; Louthrenoo, W.; Vazquez-Mellado, J.; Eliseev, M.; McCarthy, G.; Stamp, L.K.; Perez-Ruiz, F.; Sivera, F.; Ea, H.K.; Gerritsen, M.; Scire, C.A.; Cavagna, L.; Lin, C.; Chou, Y.Y.; Tausche, A.K.; Rocha Castelar-Pinheiro, G. da; Janssen, M; Chen, J.H.; Cimmino, M.A.; Uhlig, T.; Taylor, W.J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the best-performing survey definition of gout from items commonly available in epidemiologic studies. METHODS: Survey definitions of gout were identified from 34 epidemiologic studies contributing to the Global Urate Genetics Consortium (GUGC) genome-wide association study.

  20. Poikiloderma of Civatte: a clinical and epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoulis, A C; Stavrianeas, N G; Georgala, S; Bozi, E; Kalogeromitros, D; Koumantaki, E; Katsambas, A D

    2005-07-01

    Although a common dermatosis, idiopathic poikiloderma of the face and neck has not been studied in depth for decades. To reassess the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of poikiloderma of Civatte (PC). Fifty consecutive patients with PC. Evaluation included history taking and physical examination. Epidemiological and clinical parameters were recorded and analysed. The literature from 1923 until today, was reviewed thoroughly. The frequency of PC among dermatologic patients was estimated to be 1.4%. There were 34 females (68%) and 16 males in the present study. The mean age at diagnosis was 47.8 years for females and 61.7 years for males. The majority (88%) had skin phototype II or III. Among females, 26 were at their peri-menopausal stage, including three cases of iatrogenic menopause. Four patients reported that other blood-related family members also had PC. The v and the sides of the neck and the upper chest were most often affected in a symmetric distribution. The face (preauricular and parotid region) was involved in 19 patients (38%). The erythemato-telangiectatic clinical type predominated (58%), followed by the mixed (22%) and the pigmented type (20%). Almost half of the patients (46%) were symptomatic (itching, burning and 'flushing'). The mean duration from onset to diagnosis was 6.2 years according to the patients' report. The course was usually slowly progressive (82%) and irreversible. PC shows characteristic features, supporting the theory that it represents a distinct entity. It is rather common in Greece. Although menopausal women predominated in our cohort, men were not uncommonly affected and were diagnosed at an older age. Based on the predominating clinical feature, PC can be classified into three clinical forms. Symmetry and sparing of the anatomically shaded areas of the neck are highly characteristic for PC. Face involvement was not as common and as severe as it had been considered in the past. Recognition of clinical type is

  1. Epidemiological study of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesinskiene, Sigita; Girdzijauskiene, Sigita; Gintiliene, Grazina; Butkiene, Dovile; Puras, Dainius; Goodman, Robert; Heiervang, Einar

    2018-04-24

    From the public health perspective, epidemiological data of child mental health and psychosocial correlates were necessary and very lacking in Lithuanian society that has been undergoing rapid socio-economic change since the past decades. Together with determining the prevalence rates of disorders and assessing the needs for the services, this study has also shifted attention from the highly selective samples of children attending children and adolescent mental health services towards less severe cases of psychopathology as well as different attitudes of parents and teachers. The aim of the first epidemiological study in Lithuania was to identify the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the community sample of children. Child psychiatric disorders were investigated in a representative sample of 3309 children aged 7-16 years (1162 7-10-year-olds and 2147 11-16-year-olds), using a two-phase design with the Lithuanian version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the first screening phase, and the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) in the second diagnostic phase. The estimated point prevalence of ICD-10 psychiatric disorders was 13.1% for the total sample (14.0% for the child sample and 12.1% for adolescent sample). The most common groups of disorders were Conduct disorders 6.6% (7.1% for child sample and 6.0% for adolescent sample), Anxiety disorders 5.0% (5.9% for child sample and 6.0% for adolescent sample), with Hyperkinesis being less common 2.0% (2.7% for child sample and 1.2% for adolescent sample). Potential risk factors were related to individual characteristics of the child (gender, poor general health, and stressful life experiences), and the family (single parenthood, foster care, unfavourable family climate, disciplining difficulties, worries related to TV or computer use). The overall prevalence of youth psychiatric disorders was relatively high in this representative Lithuanian sample compared to Western European

  2. Epidemiological study on patient exposure to medical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitabatake, Takashi

    1975-01-01

    Several aspects of radiation risk were studied: 1) epidemiology, 2) X-ray mass surveys, 3) factors related to patients dose, 4) clinical judgment and the indications for X-ray examination, 5) abdominal X-rays of women of child bearing age, 6) irradiation of the fetus, and 7) radiotherapy for benign disease. The survey results showed that 1) frequent fluoroscopic examinations may be related to late induction of leukemia, 2) radiation risk in X-ray mass surveys can be reduced by solving some technical problems and general problems of mass screening, 3) patients with high benefit health insurance tend to receive more X-rays than patients with low benefit insurance, 4) of 2000 patients on whom gastrointestinal tract X-ray examinations were requested, no necessity for the examination was recognized in 10% of the cases, 5) only about half of the female patients of child bearing age were checked for menstrual cycle at the time of an X-ray study, 6) radiodiagnostic histories of 1485 pregnant women showed that 22% were X-rayed at any time during the gestation period, with an over age dose of 61 mrad (a dose which would correspond to introduction of 19.5 excess leukemias in children under the age of 10 years), and 7) about 10% of the patients in radiotherapy departments are being treated for benign diseases. (Evans, J.)

  3. Update of epidemiologic studies of plutonium-workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, G.L.; Wilkinson, G.S.; Acquavella, J.F.; Tietjen, G.L.; Brackbill, R.M.; Reyes, M.; Wiggs, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    Retrospective and prospective epidemiologic studies are being conducted as part of a national survey of plutonium workers at four Department of Energy facilities (Los Alamos, NM; Rocky Flats, CO; Mound Laboratory, OH; and Savannah River, SC). A preliminary analysis of mortality was done for all white males who have worked at the Rocky Flats Plant during the period 1952 to 1979. The 452 observed deaths were significantly fewer than the 831 expected for all causes. The 107 deaths due to all malignant neoplasms were also significantly fewer than the 167 expected from these diseases. Expected deaths were derived from age and calendar-specific death rates for US white males. Deaths reported for benign and unspecified neoplasms numbered eight versus an expected two, a significant elevation. These tumors, all intracranial, are the subject of a case-control study to be reported later. Subdividing the cohort on the basis of plutonium exposures and external radiation exposures results in similar overall findings. The benign and unspecified neoplasms, however, were not significantly high in the plutonium-exposed group

  4. The epidemiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a study in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorello, L B; Tzonou, A; Lagiou, P; Samoli, E; Zavitsanos, X; Trichopoulos, D

    1999-08-01

    To assess the epidemiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in a case-control study in greater Athens, Greece. The study comprised 184 patients surgically treated for BPH within one year of its diagnosis (cases) and 246 patients with no symptoms of BPH who were treated in the same hospitals for minor diseases or conditions (controls). All cases and controls were permanent residents of the greater Athens area, Greece. The data were assessed using unconditional logistic regression. After controlling for age and education, cases and controls had similar distributions for height, body mass index, sibship size and birth order in the parental family, marital status, number of offspring and a series of previous medical diagnoses or surgical operations. The sole exception was surgery for haemorrhoids, that appeared to be related to the incidence of BPH, possibly by chance. There was no evidence that vertex baldness, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption or coffee drinking increased the risk for BPH. Men who had spent most of their lives in a rural rather than an urban environment appeared to be at reduced risk for BPH. The lifestyle factors assessed here have no major effect on the aetiology of BPH.

  5. Problem gambling among ethnic minorities: results from an epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle R. Caler

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A few studies have examined gambling behavior and problem gambling among minorities and reported higher rates of both participation and gambling problems among particular minority groups in comparison to Whites who gamble. The present study utilized a representative, epidemiological sample of adults in New Jersey to explore gambling behavior, gambling problem severity, substance use, problem behavior, and mental health issues among minorities. Univariate analyses were conducted, comparing Whites (n = 1341 to respondents who identified as Hispanic (n = 394, Black (n = 261, or Asian/other (n = 177. Overall, the highest proportion of Hispanics were high-risk problem gamblers. Hispanic participants were also significantly more likely than other groups to use and abuse substances and to report mental health problems in the past month, behavioral addictions, and/or suicidal ideation in the past year. Primary predictors of White high risk problem gamblers were being young and male with friends or family who gambled, fair to poor health status, substance use, gambling once a week or more both online and in land-based venues, and engaging in a number of gambling activities. In contrast, gender was not a predictor of minority high risk problem gamblers, who were characterized primarily by having friends or family who gambled, gambling online only, having a behavioral addiction and playing instant scratch-offs and gaming machines. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  6. Epidemiological study of schizophrenia in the Chernobyl exclusion zone personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loganovsky, K.N.; Nyagu, A.I.

    1997-01-01

    Nakane and Ohta (1986) revealed very high (6 %) prevalence rate of schizophrenia in A-bomb survivors. The goal of this study was the epidemiological investigation of schizophrenia in the Chernobyl exclusion zone personnel on the base of 10-years follow up study and analysis of the psychiatric archives (1986-1996). As a result the register of schizophrenia spectrum disorders has been created, including 65 staff members. According to both ICD-9 and ICD-10 criteria there were 48 patients with schizophrenia. It has been revealed a statistically significant increase of the schizophrenia percentage amongst all psychoses in the Chernobyl exclusion zone personnel in comparison with the general Ukrainian population. It has been established that among 48 cases of schizophrenia there were 39 (81.2 %) of schizophrenia onset occurred in the zone. Since 1990 a significant increase (more than 4 times: 5.4 per 10,000 in the zone and 1.1 per 10,000 in Ukraine) in schizophrenia incidence has been taking place among the irradiated population of the exclusion zone in comparison with the general population. Our data testify to possibility of radiation-induced schizophrenia onset, which seem to be like stochastic effects of ionizing radiation. The mechanisms of these effects realization are the subject of further investigations. (author)

  7. Epidemiological study on patient exposure to medical radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitabatake, T [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1975-04-01

    Several aspects of radiation risk were studied: 1) epidemiology, 2) X-ray mass surveys, 3) factors related to patients dose, 4) clinical judgment and the indications for X-ray examination, 5) abdominal X-rays of women of child bearing age, 6) irradiation of the fetus, and 7) radiotherapy for benign disease. The survey results showed that 1) frequent fluoroscopic examinations may be related to late induction of leukemia, 2) radiation risk in X-ray mass surveys can be reduced by solving some technical problems and general problems of mass screening, 3) patients with high benefit health insurance tend to receive more X-rays than patients with low benefit insurance, 4) of 2000 patients on whom gastrointestinal tract X-ray examinations were requested, no necessity for the examination was recognized in 10% of the cases, 5) only about half of the female patients of child bearing age were checked for menstrual cycle at the time of an X-ray study, 6) radiodiagnostic histories of 1485 pregnant women showed that 22% were X-rayed at any time during the gestation period, with an over age dose of 61 mrad (a dose which would correspond to introduction of 19.5 excess leukemias in children under the age of 10 years), and 7) about 10% of the patients in radiotherapy departments are being treated for benign diseases. (Evans, J.).

  8. Chloroquine induced pruritus--questionnaire based epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Adekunle O

    2004-01-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) is a very useful drug with a broad spectrum of uses (as anti malarial, anti amoebiasis and for connective tissue diseases). A major side effect preventing or limiting its utilization in blacks is chloroquine induced pruritus (CP). A descriptive cross sectional questionnaire based epidemiological study of medical and nursing students, medical doctors and other workers with historic CP in a Nigerian tertiary (teaching) hospital was carried out to determine factors and features related to the development of CP. From the study the intensity of CP was not reduced by taking less CQ. About 92% of the subjects had close relations who suffered from CP. 84.5% of responders itched for 1-3 days. The longest duration for CP was 7 days. The sites of itching in descending order were generalized (49.2%) hands (46%), legs and feet (46%), perineum/genitalia (28.5%). Relieving factor/drug was identified in 66.6% of responders. Itching with oral CQ occurred in 100%. Intramuscular injection of CQ caused 49% of itching. 19% had pre-chloroquine itch. 28.5% had CP with other antimalarials notably Amodiaquine (23.8%). 50.7% took other antimalarials when down with malaria. There is a need for the identification of a cheap and readily available antidote for CP to enable CQ remain useful/relevant in Nigeria and in the West African sub-region.

  9. Hepatitis A in Korea from 2011 to 2013: Current Epidemiologic Status and Regional Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Shinje; Han, Jun Hee; Bae, Geun-Ryang; Cho, Enhi; Kim, Bongyoung

    2016-01-01

    The hepatitis A virus (HAV) has been the leading cause of viral hepatitis in Korea since the 2000s. We aimed to describe the current status and regional differences in hepatitis A incidence. We studied the total number of hepatitis A cases reported to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through the National Infectious Diseases Surveillance System between 2011 and 2013. Additionally, National Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service data and national population data from Statistics Korea were used. In total, 7,585 hepatitis A cases were reported; 5,521 (10.9 cases per 100,000 populations), 1,197 (2.3 cases per 100,000 populations), and 867 (1.7 cases per 100,000 populations) in 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively. Fifty-eight patients were infected outside of the country and 7,527 patients represented autochthonous HAV infection cases. Autochthonous HAV infection occurred more frequently among men than women (4,619 cases, 6.1 cases per 100,000 population vs. 2,908 cases, 3.9 cases per 100,000 population). The incidence rate was higher in the 20-29 yr-old group (2,309 cases, 11.6 cases per 100,000 populations) and 30-39 yr-old group (3,306 cases, 13.6 cases per 100,000 populations). The majority of cases were reported from March to June (53.6%, 4,038/7,527). Geographic analyses revealed a consistently high relative risk (RR) of HAV infection in mid-western regions (2011, RR, 1.25, P=0.019; 2012, RR, 2.53, Phepatitis A incidence has been decreasing gradually from 2011 to 2013 and that some regions show the highest prevalence rates of HAV infection in Korea.

  10. Air pollution and health in Sri Lanka: a review of epidemiologic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathiakumar Nalini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Air pollution is increasingly documented as a threat to public health in most developing countries. Evaluation of current air quality levels, regulatory standards and scientific literature on outdoor and indoor air pollution, and health effects are important to identify the burden, develop and implement interventions and to fill knowledge gaps in Sri Lanka. Methods PUBMED and Medline databases, local journals and conference proceedings were searched for epidemiologic studies pertaining to air pollution and health effects in Sri Lanka. All the studies pertaining to air pollution and health effects were considered. Results Sixteen studies investigated the association between exposure to ambient or indoor air pollution (IAP and various health outcomes ranging from respiratory symptoms, low birth weight and lung cancers. Of the sixteen, three used a case control design. Half of the studies collected exposure data only through questionnaires. There were positive associations between air pollution and adverse health effects in all studies. Methodological limitations in most of the studies resulted in poor quantification of risk estimates. Conclusion A limited number of epidemiological studies in Sri Lanka have investigated the health effects of air pollution. Based on findings of studies and reported air quality levels, air pollution may be considered a neglected public health problem in Sri Lanka.

  11. Air pollution and health in Sri Lanka: a review of epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandasena, Yatagama Lokuge S; Wickremasinghe, Ananda R; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2010-06-02

    Air pollution is increasingly documented as a threat to public health in most developing countries. Evaluation of current air quality levels, regulatory standards and scientific literature on outdoor and indoor air pollution, and health effects are important to identify the burden, develop and implement interventions and to fill knowledge gaps in Sri Lanka. PUBMED and Medline databases, local journals and conference proceedings were searched for epidemiologic studies pertaining to air pollution and health effects in Sri Lanka. All the studies pertaining to air pollution and health effects were considered. Sixteen studies investigated the association between exposure to ambient or indoor air pollution (IAP) and various health outcomes ranging from respiratory symptoms, low birth weight and lung cancers. Of the sixteen, three used a case control design. Half of the studies collected exposure data only through questionnaires. There were positive associations between air pollution and adverse health effects in all studies. Methodological limitations in most of the studies resulted in poor quantification of risk estimates. A limited number of epidemiological studies in Sri Lanka have investigated the health effects of air pollution. Based on findings of studies and reported air quality levels, air pollution may be considered a neglected public health problem in Sri Lanka.

  12. Zika virus: Epidemiology, current phobia and preparedness for upcoming mass gatherings, with examples from World Olympics and Pilgrimage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nahla Khamis

    2016-01-01

    To describe Zika Virus (ZIKV) epidemiology, current phobia, and the required preparedness for its prevention during the upcoming Mass Gathering (MG) events. Electronic databases of PubMed, WHO, CDC, Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), Google, and Cochrane library were extensively searched for ZIKV. Articles were reviewed, scrutinized and critically appraised and the most relevant articles were utilized. ZIKV is an emerging Flavivirus which was first isolated from Uganda in 1947. It is transmitted mainly through bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Sexual, perinatal and blood-borne transmissions are implicated. ZIKV is incriminated to cause microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The spiky spread of ZIKV and its epidemic potential are especially problematic in countries which host big MGs with endogenous ZIKV circulation. This put millions of international travelers and local inhabitants at risk of acquiring ZIKV, especially in absence of vaccine until now. Brazil Olympic and Paralympics Games, and Muslims Hajj in Saudi Arabia are important upcoming MGs. Regarding Brazil, swiftly epidemic of ZIKV causes phobia and provokes claims and counter-claims about possible postponing or cancellation of such events. Intensifying ZIKV epidemiological surveillance (sentinel, syndromic, environmental, laboratory and electronic), and conduction of educational programs are required. Controlling Aedes vector (chemically & biologically) is essential. Multidisciplinary cooperation is required to win the war against ZIKV.

  13. Epidemiological studies on postpartum thyroid dysfunction and thyroid cancer in Southeastern Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.P. Kuijpens (Hans)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe studies described in this thesis concentrate OIl epidemiological and pathogenetic aspects of postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD) and related topics, and on epidemiological and treatment aspects of thyroid cancer. The studies were petfonned in the southeastern part of the

  14. Biomarkers in molecular epidemiology study of oral squamous cell carcinoma in the era of precision medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Hao Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer, which occurs in the mouth, lips, and tongue, is a multifactorial disease whose etiology involves environment, genetic, and epigenetic factors. Tobacco use and alcohol consumption are regarded as the primary risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, and betel use, other chemicals, radiation, environmental, and genetics are reported as relevant risk factors for oral carcinogenesis. The human papillomavirus infection is an independent risk factor. Traditional epidemiology studies have revealed that environmental carcinogens are risk factors for OSCC. Molecular epidemiology studies have revealed that the susceptibility to OSCC is influenced by both environmental and genetic risk factors. However, the details and mechanisms of risk factors involved in OSCC are unclear. Advanced methods and techniques used in human genome studies provide great opportunities for researchers to explore and identify (a the details of such risk factors and (b genetic susceptibility involved in OSCC. Human genome epidemiology is a new branch of epidemiology, which leads the epidemiology study from the molecular epidemiology era into the era of genome-wide association study. In the era of precision medicine, molecular epidemiology studies should focus on biomarkers for cancer genomics and their potential utility in clinical practice. Here, we briefly reviewed several molecular epidemiology studies of OSCC, focusing on biomarkers as valuable utility in risk assessment, clinical screening, diagnosis, and prognosis prediction of OSCC in the era of precision medicine.

  15. [Occupational factors influencing lung cancer in women in epidemiological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiatkowska, Beata

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer in men, although the alarming statistics of recent years indicate that this pathology affects also more likely a group of women and in recent years has become the leading cause of cancer deaths among Polish women. This article presents the main issues relating to occupational determinants of lung cancer in women. The results of the analysis show that the number of neoplastic diseases, including the lung cancer, recognized as an occupational disease in Poland is low, particularly among women. A major factor hampering the certification of occupational etiology of lung cancer is a long latency period, no differences in terms of the clinical and morphological characteristics from lung cancer occurring in the general population, and relatively small number of identified occupational carcinogens. Analysis of the available literature on the adverse workplace conditions shows that only a few epidemiological studies focus on the problem of job-related risk among women, and only some of them provide detailed results for lung cancer. Moreover, the abundant literature on the subject concerning the male workers might not be fully relevant because of possible differences in hormonal, genetic and other gender-related biological differences that may significantly modify the risk of cancer in women. These aspects cause that the true contribution of occupational factors to the risk of lung cancer, particularly in women, is underestimated.

  16. Histopathologic reproducibility of thyroid disease in an epidemiologic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ron, E.; Griffel, B.; Liban, E.; Modan, B.

    1986-01-01

    An investigation of the long-term effects of childhood scalp irradiation demonstrated a significantly increased risk of thyroid tumors in the irradiated population. Because of the complexity of thyroid cancer diagnosis, a histopathologic slide review of 59 of the 68 patients (irradiated and nonirradiated) with thyroid disease was undertaken. The review revealed 90% agreement (kappa = +0.85, P less than 0.01) between the original and review diagnosis. Four of 27 cases previously diagnosed as malignant were reclassified as benign, yielding a cancer misdiagnosis rate of 14.8%. All four of the misdiagnosed cancers were of follicular or mixed papillary-follicular type. As a result of the histologic review, the ratio of malignant to benign tumors decreased from 2.55 to 1.75. Since disagreement in diagnosis was similar in the irradiated and nonirradiated groups, the relative risk of radiation-associated neoplasms did not change substantially. The histopathologic review shows that although there were some problems in diagnostic reproducibility, they were not statistically significant and did not alter our previous conclusions regarding radiation exposure. However, a 15% reduction in the number of malignancies might affect epidemiologic studies with an external comparison as well as geographic or temporal comparisons

  17. [Risk factors for Parkinson disease: an epidemiologic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Duarte; Garrett, Carolina

    2010-01-01

    The etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains in a certain part unknown. Both genetic susceptibility and environmental factors are sometimes considered to be putative contributors to its origin. Recent epidemiologic studies have focused on the possible role of environmental risk factors present during adult life or aging, once pure genetic forms of PD are rare. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible environmental and familial risk factors for PD. We performed a hospital based case-control study using 88 PD patients with neurologist confirmed diagnostic, and 176 sex, age, and residence similar controls. Several possible risk factors were evaluated related to life style, past history, family history, occupational history and other exposures to potential neurotoxin agents. Statistical differences, using a 95% confidence interval, were observed in positive family history of PD (p = 0,002), occupation category (p = 0,001), rural living (p = 0,037), living/working near a industry (p = 0,017), exposure to pesticides, herbicides and in-secticides (p coffee consumption (p = 0,036) and tea consumption (p = 0,001). Sex and age adjusted logistic regression showed as potential risk factors, a positive family history of PD (odds ratio [OR] = 9,996; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2,19-45,597), blue collar occupations (OR = 3,967; 95% CI = 1,670-9,426), exposure to pesticides, herbicides and insecticides (OR = 2,619 ; 95% CI = 1,170-5,862). An inverse relationship was found between tea consumption and the risk of PD (OR = 0,356; 95% CI = 0,174-0,727). The results of the study show that both familial and environmental factors may contribute to the development of PD. Like other studies suggest, PD is of unknown, but presumably multifactorial etiology.

  18. The second molecular epidemiological study of HIV infection in Mongolia between 2010 and 2016.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davaalkham Jagdagsuren

    Full Text Available Our previous 2005-2009 molecular epidemiological study in Mongolia identified a hot spot of HIV-1 transmission in men who have sex with men (MSM. To control the infection, we collaborated with NGOs to promote safer sex and HIV testing since mid-2010. In this study, we carried out the second molecular epidemiological survey between 2010 and 2016 to determine the status of HIV-1 infection in Mongolia.The study included 143 new cases of HIV-1 infection. Viral RNA was extracted from stocked plasma samples and sequenced for the pol and the env regions using the Sanger method. Near-full length sequencing using MiSeq was performed in 3 patients who were suspected to be infected with recombinant HIV-1. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using the neighbor-joining method and Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method.MSM was the main transmission route in the previous and current studies. However, heterosexual route showed a significant increase in recent years. Phylogenetic analysis documented three taxa; Mongolian B, Korean B, and CRF51_01B, though the former two were also observed in the previous study. CRF51_01B, which originated from Singapore and Malaysia, was confirmed by near-full length sequencing. Although these strains were mainly detected in MSM, they were also found in increasing numbers of heterosexual males and females. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis estimated transmission of CRF51_01B into Mongolia around early 2000s. An extended Bayesian skyline plot showed a rapid increase in the effective population size of Mongolian B cluster around 2004 and that of CRF51_01B cluster around 2011.HIV-1 infection might expand to the general population in Mongolia. Our study documented a new cluster of HIV-1 transmission, enhancing our understanding of the epidemiological status of HIV-1 in Mongolia.

  19. The second molecular epidemiological study of HIV infection in Mongolia between 2010 and 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagdagsuren, Davaalkham; Hayashida, Tsunefusa; Takano, Misao; Gombo, Erdenetuya; Zayasaikhan, Setsen; Kanayama, Naomi; Tsuchiya, Kiyoto; Oka, Shinichi

    2017-01-01

    Our previous 2005-2009 molecular epidemiological study in Mongolia identified a hot spot of HIV-1 transmission in men who have sex with men (MSM). To control the infection, we collaborated with NGOs to promote safer sex and HIV testing since mid-2010. In this study, we carried out the second molecular epidemiological survey between 2010 and 2016 to determine the status of HIV-1 infection in Mongolia. The study included 143 new cases of HIV-1 infection. Viral RNA was extracted from stocked plasma samples and sequenced for the pol and the env regions using the Sanger method. Near-full length sequencing using MiSeq was performed in 3 patients who were suspected to be infected with recombinant HIV-1. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using the neighbor-joining method and Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method. MSM was the main transmission route in the previous and current studies. However, heterosexual route showed a significant increase in recent years. Phylogenetic analysis documented three taxa; Mongolian B, Korean B, and CRF51_01B, though the former two were also observed in the previous study. CRF51_01B, which originated from Singapore and Malaysia, was confirmed by near-full length sequencing. Although these strains were mainly detected in MSM, they were also found in increasing numbers of heterosexual males and females. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis estimated transmission of CRF51_01B into Mongolia around early 2000s. An extended Bayesian skyline plot showed a rapid increase in the effective population size of Mongolian B cluster around 2004 and that of CRF51_01B cluster around 2011. HIV-1 infection might expand to the general population in Mongolia. Our study documented a new cluster of HIV-1 transmission, enhancing our understanding of the epidemiological status of HIV-1 in Mongolia.

  20. Etiology and epidemiology of Pythium root rot in hydroponic crops: current knowledge and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Clifford Sutton

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The etiology and epidemiology of Pythium root rot in hydroponically-grown crops are reviewed with emphasis on knowledge and concepts considered important for managing the disease in commercial greenhouses. Pythium root rot continually threatens the productivity of numerous kinds of crops in hydroponic systems around the world including cucumber, tomato, sweet pepper, spinach, lettuce, nasturtium, arugula, rose, and chrysanthemum. Principal causal agents include Pythium aphanidermatum, Pythium dissotocum, members of Pythium group F, and Pythium ultimum var. ultimum. Perspectives are given of sources of initial inoculum of Pythium spp. in hydroponic systems, of infection and colonization of roots by the pathogens, symptom development and inoculum production in host roots, and inoculum dispersal in nutrient solutions. Recent findings that a specific elicitor produced by P. aphanidermatum may trigger necrosis (browning of the roots and the transition from biotrophic to necrotrophic infection are considered. Effects on root rot epidemics of host factors (disease susceptibility, phenological growth stage, root exudates and phenolic substances, the root environment (rooting media, concentrations of dissolved oxygen and phenolic substances in the nutrient solution, microbial communities and temperature and human interferences (cropping practices and control measures are reviewed. Recent findings on predisposition of roots to Pythium attack by environmental stress factors are highlighted. The commonly minor impact on epidemics of measures to disinfest nutrient solution as it recirculates outside the crop is contrasted with the impact of treatments that suppress Pythium in the roots and root zone of the crop. New discoveries that infection of roots by P. aphanidermatum markedly slows the increase in leaf area and whole-plant carbon gain without significant effect on the efficiency of photosynthesis per unit area of leaf are noted. The platform of

  1. Epidemiologic study of breast cancer in a-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kenichi; McGregor, D.H.; Kato, Hiroo; Wakabayashi, Toshiro.

    1978-08-01

    A case-control study was made on female breast cancer cases and their matched controls in the Life Span Study sample. The index cases were detected during 1958-69 among the 251 breast cancer cases ascertained originally by McGregor et al. The purpose of this study was to define the epidemiologic risk factors of breast cancer among Japanese women, to test for radiation effects in the presence of other risk factors, and to search for interactions. The survey was conducted by interview at home visits for those residing in the Hiroshima and Nagasaki areas, and by mail survey for others. The interview was carried out by several trained interviewers. Information concerning suspected risk factors of breast cancer, such as familial history, education, age at menarche and menopause, marital history, reproductive history, history of breast feeding, etc., was collected for both index cases and controls. Out of 183 original pairs, analysis was made on 164 pairs with available information for both the index and control, using the method of matched samples described by Mantel and Haenszel. There was enhancement of risk for those exposed to high radiation dose (100 rad or more). Although most major results were similar to those of previous studies, a significant increase of risk was observed among those under one of the following conditions: actual duration of marriage was less than 10 years; number of pregnancies was two or less; and age at delivery of first live born child was 27 or over. These factors had a mutual interrelationship and cases with two or more of these risk factors showed higher risk than those with one. Additive interrelationship was demonstrated between radiation dose and these marital or reproductive risk factors in elevating the relative risk of breast cancer. (author)

  2. Analysis of the world epidemiological situation among vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium infections and the current situation in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaga-Ćwiertnia, Katarzyna; Bulanda, Małgorzata

    2018-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) strains have become an important hospital pathogen due to their rapid spread, high mortality rate associated with infections and limited therapeutic options. Vancomycin resistance is predominantly mediated by VanA or VanB phenotypes, which differ as regards maintaining sensitivity to teicoplanin in the VanB phenotype. The majority of VREfm cases in the United States, Europe, Korea, South America and Africa are currently caused by the VanA phenotype. However, the epidemics in Australia and Singapore are chiefly brought about by the VanB phenotype. The rate of VREfm isolate spread varies greatly. The greatest percentage of VREfm is now recorded in the USA, Ireland and Australia. Supervision of VRE is implemented to varying degrees. Therefore, the epidemiological situation in some countries is difficult to assess due to limited data or lack thereof.

  3. Epidemiological Trends of Spine Trauma: An Australian Level 1 Trauma Centre Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tee, J. W.; Chan, C. H. P.; Fitzgerald, M. C. B.; Liew, S. M.; Rosenfeld, J. V.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of current epidemiology and spine trauma trends assists in public resource allocation, fine-tuning of primary prevention methods, and benchmarking purposes. Data on all patients with traumatic spine injuries admitted to the Alfred Hospital, Melbourne between May 1, 2009, and January 1, 2011, were collected from the Alfred Trauma Registry, Alfred Health medical database, and Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry. Epidemiological trends were analyzed as a general cohort, with...

  4. Descriptive Epidemiology of Somatising Tendency: Findings from the CUPID Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Walker-Bone, Karen; Palmer, Keith T; Felli, Vanda E; Harari, Raul; Barrero, Lope H; Felknor, Sarah A; Gimeno, David; Cattrell, Anna; Bonzini, Matteo; Solidaki, Eleni; Merisalu, Eda; Habib, Rima R; Sadeghian, Farideh; Kadir, M Masood; Warnakulasuriya, Sudath S P; Matsudaira, Ko; Nyantumbu, Busisiwe; Sim, Malcolm R; Harcombe, Helen; Cox, Ken; Sarquis, Leila M M; Marziale, Maria H; Harari, Florencia; Freire, Rocio; Harari, Natalia; Monroy, Magda V; Quintana, Leonardo A; Rojas, Marianela; Harris, E Clare; Serra, Consol; Martinez, J Miguel; Delclos, George; Benavides, Fernando G; Carugno, Michele; Ferrario, Marco M; Pesatori, Angela C; Chatzi, Leda; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Oha, Kristel; Freimann, Tiina; Sadeghian, Ali; Peiris-John, Roshini J; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Wickremasinghe, A Rajitha; Yoshimura, Noriko; Kelsall, Helen L; Hoe, Victor C W; Urquhart, Donna M; Derrett, Sarah; McBride, David; Herbison, Peter; Gray, Andrew; Vega, Eduardo J Salazar

    2016-01-01

    Somatising tendency, defined as a predisposition to worry about common somatic symptoms, is importantly associated with various aspects of health and health-related behaviour, including musculoskeletal pain and associated disability. To explore its epidemiological characteristics, and how it can be specified most efficiently, we analysed data from an international longitudinal study. A baseline questionnaire, which included questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory about seven common symptoms, was completed by 12,072 participants aged 20-59 from 46 occupational groups in 18 countries (response rate 70%). The seven symptoms were all mutually associated (odds ratios for pairwise associations 3.4 to 9.3), and each contributed to a measure of somatising tendency that exhibited an exposure-response relationship both with multi-site pain (prevalence rate ratios up to six), and also with sickness absence for non-musculoskeletal reasons. In most participants, the level of somatising tendency was little changed when reassessed after a mean interval of 14 months (75% having a change of 0 or 1 in their symptom count), although the specific symptoms reported at follow-up often differed from those at baseline. Somatising tendency was more common in women than men, especially at older ages, and varied markedly across the 46 occupational groups studied, with higher rates in South and Central America. It was weakly associated with smoking, but not with level of education. Our study supports the use of questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory as a method for measuring somatising tendency, and suggests that in adults of working age, it is a fairly stable trait.

  5. Trauma in Guilan (North of Iran: An Epidemiologic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehnadimoghadam Anoosh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Injuries, especially traffic accidents are so important causes of death, disability, hospital expenses, economic damages to the society which World Health Organization selected them as the main subjects for investigation and research. We have done an epidemiologic study about trauma in Guilan, a province in north of Iran. This is  a descriptive study carried out on patients with traumatic injuries, admitted in Poursina Teaching Hospital, during September 2005 to July 2006. Data were collected prospectively using a data collection form including demographic information, mechanism of trauma, anatomical site of injuries, according to AIS90 and severity of head trauma according to glasgow coma scale (GCS. Data were processed by SPSS 11.5 and are shown in tables and figures. Overall 3598 patients admitted. Mean age was 31.85 ± 17.76 years with male to female ratio  about 3.5:1. Most of patients were 25-44 years old (33.9%. Traffic accidents were the leading  cause of injuries (73.84% and then fall (15.7%. Motorcycle was the most common mode of transport in our patients (47.07% after that car (24.3%. Occurrence of traffic accidents increased through evening. Forty six percent of patients transported to hospital by people or came themselves (46.42%. Head and neck were the most common injured part of body (82.4 %, however about in 81.66% of patients were mild and then limb and pelvis (34.7%. Finally about 2.8% of them died. A trauma especially traffic accidents are an important public health issue in Guilan, we recommend conducting other studies focusing on risk factors in details, and considering injury prevention in local decision making.

  6. Descriptive Epidemiology of Somatising Tendency: Findings from the CUPID Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Vargas-Prada

    Full Text Available Somatising tendency, defined as a predisposition to worry about common somatic symptoms, is importantly associated with various aspects of health and health-related behaviour, including musculoskeletal pain and associated disability. To explore its epidemiological characteristics, and how it can be specified most efficiently, we analysed data from an international longitudinal study. A baseline questionnaire, which included questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory about seven common symptoms, was completed by 12,072 participants aged 20-59 from 46 occupational groups in 18 countries (response rate 70%. The seven symptoms were all mutually associated (odds ratios for pairwise associations 3.4 to 9.3, and each contributed to a measure of somatising tendency that exhibited an exposure-response relationship both with multi-site pain (prevalence rate ratios up to six, and also with sickness absence for non-musculoskeletal reasons. In most participants, the level of somatising tendency was little changed when reassessed after a mean interval of 14 months (75% having a change of 0 or 1 in their symptom count, although the specific symptoms reported at follow-up often differed from those at baseline. Somatising tendency was more common in women than men, especially at older ages, and varied markedly across the 46 occupational groups studied, with higher rates in South and Central America. It was weakly associated with smoking, but not with level of education. Our study supports the use of questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory as a method for measuring somatising tendency, and suggests that in adults of working age, it is a fairly stable trait.

  7. Epidemiological studies. From experience in Hiroshima and Nagasaki to Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, Toshiteru

    2011-01-01

    Results of epidemiological studies by Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) on A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki over 60 years are described as they are conceivably useful for present health risk assessment, future measures and health problems in Fukushima. The studies conducted in the two Cities on total of about 120,000 people of survivors and unexposed control group have given following findings. Incidence of leukemia is increased several years after A-bomb exposure, and of diseases like thyroidal ones, cataract and solid cancers, at 10-20 years later. Individual dose assessment of these morbid people is established (DS02, Dosimetry published in 2003), which reveals the quantitative relationship between dose and incidence. This relationship is used as a reference to make up an international standard for protection of radiation hazard. Mean of excess relative risk (ERR) on linear non-threshold (LNT) hypothesis of solid cancers is around 0.4/Gy at age of 70 y for people exposed at age 30 y although there is a significant age and sex difference in ERR. As well as survivors, studies are performed on exposed fetuses and second generations from the exposed people, which show the increased incidence of newborn microcephaly from mothers exposed with high dose but overall health abnormality is not seen in offspring from exposed parents. Radiation exposure is mainly instantaneous in the two Cities and is mostly derived from neutron and gamma-ray, which are somehow different from that in Fukushima due to Nuclear Power Plant Accident. The latter involves long term external and internal exposures with alpha-, beta- and gamma-ray hereafter. The difference should be well recognized for risk assessment in Fukushima; exempli gratia (e.g.), at the same dose, instantaneous exposure is mentioned more risky than long term one. (T.T.)

  8. Epidemiology of leprosy in Cumanayagua (2006-2011: retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Fernández Juviel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hansen's disease is currently a health problem in the municipality of Cumanayagua. Objective. To describe the epidemiology of this condition. Methods. Retrospective, descriptive study of leprosy in the Municipality of Cumanayagua, Cuba, from 2006 to 2011. Study universe are all cases occurring during this period and are consistent with the sample. Data were obtained from the Municipal Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology records, as well as from the survey conducted by the National Leprosy Control for each new case. The results were analyzed with SPSS 15.0, and are presented in tables. Results. Incidence was silent during prolonged periods of the study phase with a marked rise in in 2009. Females were affected most by leprosy during the selected study period reaching 54.2% of the total sample. Indeterminate leprosy and tuberculoid leprosy predominated, with respective rates of 37.5% and 29.1%. In 41.6% of leprosy patients, over a year elapsed between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis. 83.3% of patients spontaneously went to the doctor for diagnosis while only 4.2% were diagnosed through contact tracing. Multibacillary leprosy prevailed in 62.5% of cases. Conclusion. In 2009, there was evidence of a significant increase in the incidence of leprosy in the municipality under study reaching a rate of 15.0 per 100,000 inhabitants.

  9. Spinal cord lesions in Bangladesh: an epidemiological study 1994 - 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, M F; Grangeon, C; Reed, K

    1999-12-01

    Spinal Cord Lesions are a major public health problem in Bangladesh. This epidemiological study was undertaken in order to identify the causes of spinal cord lesions and thus to allow prevention and control programs to be developed. The records of 247 patients with spinal cord lesions admitted to The Centre for the Rehabilitation of the Paralysed (CRP), Savar, Dhaka from January 1994 to June 1995 were reviewed retrospectively. Comparisons were made with the reports of studies from other countries, both developing and developed. The most common cause of traumatic lesions was a fall from a height followed by falling when carrying a heavy weight on the head and road traffic accidents. Most of the patients were between 20 - 40 years old and the overall age group ranged from 10 - 70 years. The male:female ratio was 7.5 : 1.0. Among the traumatic spinal cord lesions, 60% were paraplegics and 40% tetraplegics. Among the non-traumatic spinal cord lesions cases 84% were paraplegics and 16% tetraplegics. The leading cause of death resulted from respiratory complications and these deaths occurred in the very early period of admission. From the results it can be deduced that the high incidence of spinal cord lesion as a result from falls from a height, and from falling when carrying a heavy weight on the head, can be explained by the mainly agricultural based economy of Bangladesh. The most common age group (10 - 40 years) of patients reflects the socio-economic conditions of Bangladesh. The male:female ratio (7.5 : 1.0) of patients with a spinal cord lesion is due to the socio-economic status and to the traditional culture of the society.

  10. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF LOW ENERGY FRACTURES IN REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saakyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Until present no data was available inArmeniain respect of incidence of low energy fractures that are typical of osteoporotic locations which consequently did not allow to evaluate the scope of this problem across the country.Purpose of the study – to identify the incidence of low energy fractures in proximal femur, in distal forearm, in proximal humerus and in distal tibia across population ofArmenia aged 50 years and older.Materials and methods. An observing population study was performed in two regions of Armenia during 2011-2013 where the frequency of selected locations in cases of moderate trauma was identified. During 2011-2012 the information was collected based on traumatology service records adding in 2013 other sources including primary level of healthcare due to observed infrequent applications for medical help in cases of trauma. Results. In 2013 the incidence of proximal femur fractures in men was reported as 136 cases per 100 000 of population aged 50 years and older, in women – 201 cases per 100 000. At the same time only 57.7% of patients with proximal femur fractures were admitted to hospital. Distal forearm fractures incidence in men and women was observed correspondingly 56/100 000 and 176/100 000 cases, proximal humerus fractures – 39/100 000 and 86/100 000 cases and distal tibia fractures – 39/100 000 and 86/100 000 cases. The predicted annual number of proximal femur fracture in Armenia amounts to 2067 cases, distal forearm fractures – 1205, proximal humerus fractures – 640.Conclusion. Epidemiological data that was collected for the first time on low energy fractures incidence confirmed the acute osteoporosis issue inArmenia and revealed the problems in organization of medical care for the group of senior patients with injuries.

  11. Epidemiological studies on Brassica vegetables and cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, D.T.H.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Poppel, G. van; Verhagen, H.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the epidemiological data concerning the cancer-preventive effect of brassica vegetables, including cabbage, kale, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower. The protective effect of brassicas against cancer may be due to their relatively high content of

  12. Review of results from epidemiological studies of miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurier, Dominique; Vacquier, Blandine; Leuraud, Klervi; Tirmarche, Margot

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Studies of miners played a major role in the classification of radon gas and its decay products as a certain lung carcinogen for humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in 1987. A comprehensive review of epidemiological results from miners' studies was published in the BEIR VI report in 1999. Since then, many results have been published. The present paper reviews the results related to cancer risks associated to alpha emitters obtained from miners' studies since 1999. More than 40 articles or reports are reviewed. Data from eleven cohorts were considered in the BEIR VI report. Since 1999, six of these cohorts have been enlarged or extended. Additional data, not available at the time of the BEIR VI report, have also been collected, such as additional data about mines exposures (gamma rays, inhalation of uranium ore dust), smoking behaviour, information about morbidity or histology of the cancers. Some revision of dosimetric estimates also occurred. New cohorts have developed in Germany, in the Czech Republic and in China. Also, some collaborative research programs were launched, especially in Europe and are presently supported in the frame of the Alpha-risk project. This involvement of the available data provided the basis for many research works. Most of the studies aimed at a better quantification of the relation between radon exposure and lung cancer risk. Globally, the results confirm the existence of a significant association, compatible with a linear relationship. A decrease of the magnitude of the association is consistently found with time since exposure. A modifying effect of age at exposure is also repeatedly observed. The existence of an inverse exposure-rate effect, suggested by some studies, is not confirmed at low levels of exposure. It was also confirmed that a radon associated lung cancer risk persists after taking into account smoking. Some studies provided results on diseases other than lung cancer. Especially, several

  13. Epidemiological study of recent death risk of Nagasaki A-bomb survivors exposed at close range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Keiichiro; Mine, Mariko; Okumura, Yutaka.

    1992-01-01

    To elucidate the hormetic effect on health of human exposed with very low-dose ionizing radiation, we preliminary investigate the epidemiological study of Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. The major results are as follows; (1) Nagasaki A-bomb survivors exposed with 2-18 cGy are investigated, and the epidemiological data-base of Nagasaki A-bomb survivors are updated by these new data. (2) An applicability of the expanded new data-base to epidemiological analysis is investigated. Based on this investigation, the theme of epidemiological study to elucidate the hormetic effect on human health are discussed. (3) Effects of A-bomb dose on risk of total death cause, cancer death and non-cancer death are analysed by epidemiological method. The relative frequency of non-cancer death cause on male survivors exposed with 50-99 cGy is decreased relative to unexposed controls. (author)

  14. International biological engagement programs facilitate Newcastle disease epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patti J. Miller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Infections of poultry species with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV cause Newcastle disease (ND, one of the most economically significant and devastating diseases for poultry producers worldwide. Biological engagement programs (BEP between the Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory (SEPRL of the United States Department of Agriculture and laboratories from Russia, Pakistan, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Indonesia collectively have produced a better understanding of the genetic diversity and evolution of the viruses responsible for ND, which is crucial for the control of the disease. The data from Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine identified possible migratory routes for birds that may carry both virulent NDV (vNDV and NDV of low virulence into Europe. In addition, related NDV strains were isolated from wild birds in Ukraine and Nigeria, and from birds in continental USA, Alaska, Russia, and Japan, identifying wild birds as a possible mechanism of intercontinental spread of NDV of low virulence. More recently, the detection of new sub-genotypes of vNDV suggests that a new, fifth, panzootic of ND has already originated in Southeast Asia, extended to the Middle East, and is now entering into Eastern Europe. Despite expected challenges when multiple independent laboratories interact, many scientists from the collaborating countries have successfully been trained by SEPRL on molecular diagnostics, best laboratory practices, and critical biosecurity protocols, providing our partners the capacity to further train other employees and to identify locally the viruses that cause this OIE listed disease. These and other collaborations with partners in Mexico, Bulgaria, Israel, and Tanzania have allowed SEPRL scientists to engage in field studies, to elucidate more aspects of ND epidemiology in endemic countries, and to understand the challenges that the scientists and field veterinarians in these countries face on a daily basis. Finally, new viral

  15. International Biological Engagement Programs Facilitate Newcastle Disease Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Patti J.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Williams-Coplin, Dawn; Peterson, Melanie P.; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J.; Swayne, David E.; Suarez, David L.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2015-01-01

    Infections of poultry species with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND), one of the most economically significant and devastating diseases for poultry producers worldwide. Biological engagement programs between the Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory (SEPRL) of the United States Department of Agriculture and laboratories from Russia, Pakistan, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Indonesia collectively have produced a better understanding of the genetic diversity and evolution of the viruses responsible for ND, which is crucial for the control of the disease. The data from Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine identified possible migratory routes for birds that may carry both virulent NDV (vNDV) and NDV of low virulence into Europe. In addition, related NDV strains were isolated from wild birds in Ukraine and Nigeria, and from birds in continental USA, Alaska, Russia, and Japan, identifying wild birds as a possible mechanism of intercontinental spread of NDV of low virulence. More recently, the detection of new sub-genotypes of vNDV suggests that a new, fifth, panzootic of ND has already originated in Southeast Asia, extended to the Middle East, and is now entering into Eastern Europe. Despite expected challenges when multiple independent laboratories interact, many scientists from the collaborating countries have successfully been trained by SEPRL on molecular diagnostics, best laboratory practices, and critical biosecurity protocols, providing our partners the capacity to further train other employes and to identify locally the viruses that cause this OIE listed disease. These and other collaborations with partners in Mexico, Bulgaria, Israel, and Tanzania have allowed SEPRL scientists to engage in field studies, to elucidate more aspects of ND epidemiology in endemic countries, and to understand the challenges that the scientists and field veterinarians in these countries face on a daily basis. Finally, new viral characterization tools

  16. International Biological Engagement Programs Facilitate Newcastle Disease Epidemiological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Patti J; Dimitrov, Kiril M; Williams-Coplin, Dawn; Peterson, Melanie P; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Swayne, David E; Suarez, David L; Afonso, Claudio L

    2015-01-01

    Infections of poultry species with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND), one of the most economically significant and devastating diseases for poultry producers worldwide. Biological engagement programs between the Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory (SEPRL) of the United States Department of Agriculture and laboratories from Russia, Pakistan, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Indonesia collectively have produced a better understanding of the genetic diversity and evolution of the viruses responsible for ND, which is crucial for the control of the disease. The data from Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine identified possible migratory routes for birds that may carry both virulent NDV (vNDV) and NDV of low virulence into Europe. In addition, related NDV strains were isolated from wild birds in Ukraine and Nigeria, and from birds in continental USA, Alaska, Russia, and Japan, identifying wild birds as a possible mechanism of intercontinental spread of NDV of low virulence. More recently, the detection of new sub-genotypes of vNDV suggests that a new, fifth, panzootic of ND has already originated in Southeast Asia, extended to the Middle East, and is now entering into Eastern Europe. Despite expected challenges when multiple independent laboratories interact, many scientists from the collaborating countries have successfully been trained by SEPRL on molecular diagnostics, best laboratory practices, and critical biosecurity protocols, providing our partners the capacity to further train other employes and to identify locally the viruses that cause this OIE listed disease. These and other collaborations with partners in Mexico, Bulgaria, Israel, and Tanzania have allowed SEPRL scientists to engage in field studies, to elucidate more aspects of ND epidemiology in endemic countries, and to understand the challenges that the scientists and field veterinarians in these countries face on a daily basis. Finally, new viral characterization tools

  17. Epidemiological Study of Hepatitis A Infection in Eastern Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsankova, Gabriela St; Todorova, Tatina T; Ermenlieva, Neli M; Popova, Tsvetelina K; Tsankova, Dayana T

    2017-03-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is an acute, self-limited liver disease transmitted usually through the faecal-oral route via person-to-person contact. Bulgaria has intermediate HAV endemicity with higher susceptibility among adults and recurrent outbreaks. As HAV infection is strongly related to human movements and represents a significant risk to travelers and migrants, as well as to local population receiving these groups, we set out to analyze the epidemiological data on hepatitis A in five of the largest tourist border regions of Bulgaria located in its eastern part: Varna, Shumen, Dobrich, Burgas and Yambol. We reviewed retrospectively all reported cases of acute hepatitis A in the eastern regions of Bulgaria over a 7-year period between 2008 and 2014. A total of 2879 newly infected patients were registered during the study period, the number varying widely: from 190 cases in 2014 to 923 in 2012. The average incidence of HAV was higher in the south-eastern regions than in the northeastern regions (55.30%000 vs 15.04%000 respectively, p < 0.0001). The most affected age group in all regions was the 5-9-year olds (p < 0.0001) and males were significantly more susceptible to HAV (p = 0.02). Hepatitis A is still a major public health problem in Bulgaria; there is a significant difference in the incidence of the disease between the regions in the south-east and those in the north-east and between the different age groups and sexes.

  18. [Genetic, epidemiologic and clinical study of familial prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valéri, Antoine

    2002-01-01

    Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most frequent cancer among men over 50 and its frequency increases with age. It has become a significant public health problem due to the ageing population. Epidemiologists report familial aggregation in 15 to 25% of cases and inherited susceptibility with autosomal dominant or X-linked model in 5 to 10% of cases. Clinical and biological features of familial CaP remain controversial. To perform: (1) Genetic study of familial Cap (mapping of susceptibility genes), (2) epidemiologic study (prevalence, associated cancers in the genealogy, model of transmission), and clinical study of familial CaP. (I) conducting a nationwide family collection (ProGène study) with 2+ CaP we have performed a genomewide linkage analysis and identified a predisposing locus on 1q42.2-43 named PCaP (Predisposing to Cancer of the Prostate); (II) conducting a systematic genealogic analysis of 691 CaP followed up in 3 University departments of urology (Hospitals of Brest, Paris St Louis and Nancy) we have observed: (1) 14.2% of familial and 3.6% of hereditary CaP, (2) a higher risk of breast cancer in first degree relatives of probands (CaP+) in familial CaP than in sporadic CaP and in early onset CaP (< 55 years) when compared with late onset CaP ([dG]75 years), (3) an autosomal dominant model with brother-brother dependance), (4) the lack of specific clinical or biological feature (except for early onset) in hereditary CaP when compared with sporadic CaP. (1) The mapping of a susceptibility locus will permit the cloning of a predisposing gene on 1q42.2-43, offer the possibility of genetic screening in families at risk and permit genotype/phenotype correlation studies; (2) the transmission model will improve parameteric linkage studies; (3) the lack of distinct specific clinical patterns suggest diagnostic and follow up modalities for familial and hereditary CaP similar to sporadic cancer while encouraging early screening of families at risk, given the earlier

  19. Current Understanding of Lifestyle and Environmental Factors and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: An Epidemiological Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassig, B. A.; Zhang, Y.; Zheng, T.; Lan, Q.; Rothman, N.

    2012-01-01

    The incidence rates of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) have steadily increased over the last several decades in the United States, and the temporal trends in incidence can only be partially explained by the HIV epidemic. In 1992, an international workshop sponsored by the United States National Cancer Institute concluded that there was an “emerging epidemic” of NHL and emphasized the need to investigate the factors responsible for the increasing incidence of this disease. Over the past two decades, numerous epidemiological studies have examined the risk factors for NHL, particularly for putative environmental and lifestyle risk factors, and international consortia have been established in order to investigate rare exposures and NHL subtype-specific associations. While few consistent risk factors for NHL aside from immunosuppression and certain infectious agents have emerged, suggestive associations with several lifestyle and environmental factors have been reported in epidemiologic studies. Further, increasing evidence has suggested that the effects of these and other exposures may be limited to or stronger for particular NHL subtypes. This paper examines the progress that has been made over the last twenty years in elucidating the etiology of NHL, with a primary emphasis on lifestyle factors and environmental exposures.

  20. The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study: study design and data collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mutsert, R.; den Heijer, M.; Rabelink, T.J.; Smit, J.W.A.; Romijn, J.A.; Jukema, J.W.; de Roos, A.; Cobbaert, C.M.; Kloppenburg, M.; Le Cessie, S.; Middeldorp, S.; Rosendaal, F.R.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a well-established risk factor for many chronic diseases. Incomplete insight exists in the causal pathways responsible for obesity-related disorders and consequently, in the identification of obese individuals at risk of these disorders. The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study

  1. Measuring biomarkers in wastewater as a new source of epidemiological information: Current state and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gracia-Lor, Emma; Castiglioni, Sara; Bade, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The information obtained from the chemical analysis of specific human excretion products (biomarkers) in urban wastewater can be used to estimate the exposure or consumption of the population under investigation to a defined substance. A proper biomarker can provide relevant information about...... lifestyle habits, health and wellbeing, but its selection is not an easy task as it should fulfil several specific requirements in order to be successfully employed. This paper aims to summarize the current knowledge related to the most relevant biomarkers used so far. In addition, some potential wastewater...... in the environment and food, (iii) those that have the potential to provide information about public health and illness and (iv) those used to estimate the population size. To facilitate the evaluation of the eligibility of a compound as a biomarker, information, when available, on stability in urine and wastewater...

  2. The Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-Lived Chemicals (BEES-C) Instrument for Assessing Study Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental epidemiology studies can be an effective means to assess impacts on human health from exposure to environmental stressors. Exposure scenarios are often extremely complex and proper assessment is critical for interpreting epidemiological study results. Biomarkers are...

  3. Molecular epidemiology of current classical swine fever virus isolates of wild boar in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leifer, I; Hoffmann, B; Höper, D

    2010-01-01

    to study virus spread and evolutionary history in German wild boar. For the first time, the results of our study clearly argue for the possibility of a long-term persistence of genotype 2.3 CSFV strains in affected regions at an almost undetectable level, even after long-term oral vaccination campaigns...

  4. Epidemiology of small intestinal atresia in Europe: a register-based study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Best, Kate E

    2012-09-01

    The epidemiology of congenital small intestinal atresia (SIA) has not been well studied. This study describes the presence of additional anomalies, pregnancy outcomes, total prevalence and association with maternal age in SIA cases in Europe.

  5. A Review of Study Designs and Statistical Methods for Genomic Epidemiology Studies using Next Generation Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian eWang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Results from numerous linkage and association studies have greatly deepened scientists’ understanding of the genetic basis of many human diseases, yet some important questions remain unanswered. For example, although a large number of disease-associated loci have been identified from genome-wide association studies (GWAS in the past 10 years, it is challenging to interpret these results as most disease-associated markers have no clear functional roles in disease etiology, and all the identified genomic factors only explain a small portion of disease heritability. With the help of next-generation sequencing (NGS, diverse types of genomic and epigenetic variations can be detected with high accuracy. More importantly, instead of using linkage disequilibrium to detect association signals based on a set of pre-set probes, NGS allows researchers to directly study all the variants in each individual, therefore promises opportunities for identifying functional variants and a more comprehensive dissection of disease heritability. Although the current scale of NGS studies is still limited due to the high cost, the success of several recent studies suggests the great potential for applying NGS in genomic epidemiology, especially as the cost of sequencing continues to drop. In this review, we discuss several pioneer applications of NGS, summarize scientific discoveries for rare and complex diseases, and compare various study designs including targeted sequencing and whole-genome sequencing using population-based and family-based cohorts. Finally, we highlight recent advancements in statistical methods proposed for sequencing analysis, including group-based association tests, meta-analysis techniques, and annotation tools for variant prioritization.

  6. Methodological aspects of epidemiological studies on groups of workers and members of the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inskip, H.; Davies, J.

    1987-01-01

    Two reports have been prepared for the Nuclear Energy Agency which discuss epidemiological studies of two types of groups exposed to radiation, namely those exposed in the course of their work and those exposed non-occupationally. In each report the various epidemiological methods used in assessing the relationship between the exposure and subsequent morbidity or mortality have been described. This paper aims to draw on the material in the two reports to provide some guidelines for interpreting and assessing the value of any particular epidemiological study. Many such studies have been discussed in the two reports, and it is not within the scope of this paper to examine specific examples

  7. Epidemiology of Schizophrenia: Review of Findings and Myths

    OpenAIRE

    Messias, Erick; Chen, Chuan-Yu; Eaton, William W.

    2007-01-01

    By describing patterns of disease distribution within populations, identifying risk factors, and finding associations, epidemiological studies have contributed to our current understanding of schizophrenia. Advanced paternal age and the association with auto-immune diseases are some of the newly described epidemiological finding in schizophrenia epidemiology, shaping our current definition of schizophrenia. Though early intervention strategies have gained momentum, primary prevention of schiz...

  8. Multicollinearity in Regression Analyses Conducted in Epidemiologic Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Vatcheva, Kristina P.; Lee, MinJae; McCormick, Joseph B.; Rahbar, Mohammad H.

    2016-01-01

    The adverse impact of ignoring multicollinearity on findings and data interpretation in regression analysis is very well documented in the statistical literature. The failure to identify and report multicollinearity could result in misleading interpretations of the results. A review of epidemiological literature in PubMed from January 2004 to December 2013, illustrated the need for a greater attention to identifying and minimizing the effect of multicollinearity in analysis of data from epide...

  9. Microcephaly and Zika virus: a clinical and epidemiological analysis of the current outbreak in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Lahorgue Nunes

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion: The development of diagnostic techniques that confirm a cause‐effect association and studies regarding the physiopathology of the central nervous system impairment should be prioritized. It is also necessary to strictly define the criteria for the diagnosis of microcephaly to identify cases that should undergo an etiological investigation.

  10. What is desirable and feasible in dose reconstruction for application in epidemiological studies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouville, A.; Beebe, G.W.; Anspaugh, L.

    1996-02-01

    Epidemiological studies of populations are of two general forms, monitoring or formal, and serve several possible purposes. Monitoring studies inform members of potentially affected population groups of the nature and magnitude of the risks that might have been imposed on them. Formal epidemiological studies can increase scientific knowledge about the quantitative risk that attends exposure. Risks of human health due to radiation exposure are most appropriately estimated by means of formal epidemiological studies. Dosimetric data are essential for any epidemiological study, but the detail and accuracy needed depend on the purposes to be served. If the need is for a monitoring study, then general information about doses will suffice. However, a formal study that is expected to contribute to scientific information about quantitative radiation risk requires careful individual dose estimation. This paper is devoted to the discussion of dosimetric data needed for formal epidemiological studies of populations exposed as a result of nuclear power operations. The recommendations made by the National Research Council have largely been followed. The examples used in this paper are relevant to the Chernobyl accident, which caused a large number of people to be exposed at relatively high doses and provided an opportunity for formal epidemiological studies to be initiated. The studies that are singled out are those of thyroid cancer among children who resided in Belarus and in Ukraine at the time of the accident, and those of leukemia among workers involved in the mitigation of the accident and in clean-up operations

  11. An epidemiological study of mental disorders at Pune, Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbir S Deswal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The WHO Global Burden of Disease study estimates that mental and addictive disorders are among the most burdensome in the world, and their burden will increase over the next decades. The mental and behavioral disorders account for about 12% of the global burden of disease. However, these estimates and projections are based largely on literature review rather than cross-national epidemiological surveys. In India, little is known about the extent, severity and unmet need of treatment mental disorders. Thus, there was a need to carry out rigorously implemented general population surveys that estimate the prevalence of mental disorders among urban population at Pune, Maharashtra. The study attempted to address unmet need and to form a basis for formulating the mental health need of the community. Objective: The study was undertaken to estimate the lifetime prevalence and 12 month prevalence of specific mental disorders in urban population, socio-demographic correlates of mental disorders and to assess the service utilization in individuals with mental disorders. Materials and Methods: The study was undertaken among adults aged 18 years and above living in house hold and in geographical area of Pune , Maharashtra. A minimum sample of 3000 completed interviews was planned using representative probabilities to population size (PPS sampling method which ensured equal probability for every eligible member. Data listing was obtained from Census Office from recent census of 2001 data. The face to face interviews were undertaken in homes using fully structured interview schedule of World Mental Health Survey Initiative duly revised Version of WHO- Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0 by trained investigators. Clinical reappraisal was carried out using Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN among ten percent of diagnosed cases selected randomly. Data were entered into DDE (Blaize Software and analyzed using

  12. Spot Sampling and Exposure Surrogate Selection as Sources of Bias in Environmental Epidemiology Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spot measurements of chemical biomarkers are often used as quantitative exposure surrogates in environmental epidemiology studies. These measures can be expressed a number of different ways – for example, urinary biomarkers can be expressed in units of concentration (&micr...

  13. Webinar Presentation: Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Neurodevelopment.

  14. A sera-epidemiological cross-sectional study of hepatitis B virus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    epidemiological community-based cross- sectional study. Setting. All nine provinces of Zimbabwe. Palticipants. From April 1989 to December 1991 serum samples were collected tram 1 461 males and 1 933 females in the age group 10 - 61 ...

  15. Advances in epidemiological study of post-traumatic stress disorders in postwar civilian survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-yu KONG

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a feeling of persecution arising from the exposure to a life-threatening event. PTSD shows three kinds of characteristic symptoms including intrusive, avoidance, and arousal syndromes. Numerous literatures had been published on the study of the PTSD epidemiology. However, research results varied due to different research subjects and evaluation methods used. A big difference exists between the studies on refugees, migrating population, and community population, because these studies are affected by different definitions of war trauma, difference in choice of samples, and application of psychological intervention. Therefore, no exact conclusions have been established on the accurate incidence of PTSD in civilians after having endured war trauma or mental torture. Currently, studies on PSTD are still inadequate. The first reason for this inadequacy is the difference existing between previous study methods. In addition, differences also exist in the statistical results between different research groups; the present study objects are all non-western ethnics or some specific population, thus selective bias existing in samples adopted. Secondly, the majority of the studies had no a control group, thus the results lacking reliability and universality. The third reason is that more attention should be paid to the impact of nationality and cultural background on the study of postwar PTSD. In summary, a large amount of work should be done in the field of PSTD epidemiology in the future. Therefore, it is very important to look for simple tools for screening and measuring PTSD in Chinese population, and investigate the incidence of PTSD after all kinds of traumatic events and its distribution for effectively preventing and treating PTSD.

  16. Significance of epidemiological studies for estimating the genetic radiation hazards of man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, G.

    1982-01-01

    Following a brief presentation of the fundamentals of epidemiological studies, the problems associated with such studies are discussed. Epidemiological investigations on survivors of the atomic bomb explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and also on the population of Kerala, a state in south west India with a high natural radiation load, are then discussed. Consideration was given to the question whether the Down-Syndrom is a valid indicator for proving a causal relationship between radiation dose and genetic effects. (MG) [de

  17. Antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in febrile neutropenic patients with cancer: current epidemiology and clinical impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trecarichi, Enrico M; Tumbarello, Mario

    2014-04-01

    In the recent years, several studies involving cancer patients have demonstrated a clear trend in the epidemiology of bacterial infections showing a shift in the prevalence from Gram-positive to Gram-negative bacteria and the extensive emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains among Gram-negatives isolated from the blood. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the recent trends in epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negatives recovered from neutropenic cancer patients, with particular emphasis on the impact of antimicrobial resistance on the clinical outcome of severe infections caused by such microorganisms. Overall, from 2007 to date, the rate of Gram-negative bacteria recovery ranged from 24.7 to 75.8% (mean 51.3%) in cancer patient cohorts. Escherichia coli represented the most common species (mean frequency of isolation 32.1%) among the Gram-negatives, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (mean frequency of isolation 20.1%). An increasing frequency of Acinetobacter spp. and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was also reported. Increased rates of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative strains have been highlighted among Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermenting Gram-negative rods, despite discontinuation of fluoroquinolone-based antibacterial prophylaxis for neutropenic patients. In addition, antimicrobial resistance and/or the inadequacy of empirical antibiotic treatment have been frequently linked to a worse outcome in cancer patients with bloodstream infections caused by Gram-negative isolates. Sound knowledge of the local distribution of pathogens and their susceptibility patterns and prompt initiation of effective antimicrobial treatment for severe infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria are essential in cancer patients.

  18. Study of longshore current equations for currents in Visakhapatnam beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Rao, T.V.N.

    Longshore currents were measured along the Visakhapatnam Beach, Andhra Pradesh, India at weekly intervals from March 1978 to March 1979. Visual observations on breaker characteristics were also made during this period. Using modified Longuet...

  19. [Physical activity, physical fitness, and overweight in children and adolescents: evidence from epidemiologic studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Castillo, Manuel J

    2013-10-01

    Physical activity and fitness play a significant role in prevention of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Current understanding and evidence from epidemiologic studies provide useful insights to better understand how they relate to each other and how to develop future intervention strategies. This paper summarizes the most relevant information from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on the relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, and overweight in early life. According to current scientific evidence: (i) High levels of physical activity during childhood and adolescence, particularly vigorous physical activity, are associated to lower total and central adiposity at this age and later in life; (ii) the level of physical fitness, especially aerobic fitness, is inversely related to current and future adiposity levels; (iii) overweight children and adolescents with a high fitness level have a healthier cardiovascular profile than their overweight, low fit peers and a similar profile to their normal weight, low fit peers. This suggests that high fitness levels may counteract the negative consequences attributed to body fat. These findings suggest that increasing physical fitness in overweight children and adolescents may have many positive effects on health, including lower body fat levels. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Alcohol in moderation, cardioprotection, and neuroprotection: epidemiological considerations and mechanistic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Michael A; Neafsey, Edward J; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Gray, Mary O; Parks, Dale A; Das, Dipak K; Korthuis, Ronald J

    2009-02-01

    In contrast to many years of important research and clinical attention to the pathological effects of alcohol (ethanol) abuse, the past several decades have seen the publication of a number of peer-reviewed studies indicating the beneficial effects of light-moderate, nonbinge consumption of varied alcoholic beverages, as well as experimental demonstrations that moderate alcohol exposure can initiate typically cytoprotective mechanisms. A considerable body of epidemiology associates moderate alcohol consumption with significantly reduced risks of coronary heart disease and, albeit currently a less robust relationship, cerebrovascular (ischemic) stroke. Experimental studies with experimental rodent models and cultures (cardiac myocytes, endothelial cells) indicate that moderate alcohol exposure can promote anti-inflammatory processes involving adenosine receptors, protein kinase C (PKC), nitric oxide synthase, heat shock proteins, and others which could underlie cardioprotection. Also, brain functional comparisons between older moderate alcohol consumers and nondrinkers have received more recent epidemiological study. In over half of nearly 45 reports since the early 1990s, significantly reduced risks of cognitive loss or dementia in moderate, nonbinge consumers of alcohol (wine, beer, liquor) have been observed, whereas increased risk has been seen only in a few studies. Physiological explanations for the apparent CNS benefits of moderate consumption have invoked alcohol's cardiovascular and/or hematological effects, but there is also experimental evidence that moderate alcohol levels can exert direct "neuroprotective" actions-pertinent are several studies in vivo and rat brain organotypic cultures, in which antecedent or preconditioning exposure to moderate alcohol neuroprotects against ischemia, endotoxin, beta-amyloid, a toxic protein intimately associated with Alzheimer's, or gp120, the neuroinflammatory HIV-1 envelope protein. The alcohol

  1. CEDR: Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have a long history of epidemiologic research programs. The main focus of these programs has been the Health and Mortality Study of the DOE work force. This epidemiologic study began in 1964 with a feasibility study of workers at the Hanford facility. Studies of other populations exposed to radiation have also been supported, including the classic epidemiologic study of radium dial painters and studies of atomic bomb survivors. From a scientific perspective, these epidemiologic research program have been productive, highly credible, and formed the bases for many radiological protection standards. Recently, there has been concern that, although research results were available, the data on which these results were based were not easily obtained by interested investigators outside DOE. Therefore, as part of an effort to integrate and broaden access to its epidemiologic information, the DOE has developed the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) Program. Included in this effort is the development of a computer information system for accessing the collection of CEDR data and its related descriptive information. The epidemiologic data currently available through the CEDAR Program consist of analytic data sets, working data sets, and their associated documentation files. In general, data sets are the result of epidemiologic studies that have been conducted on various groups of workers at different DOE facilities during the past 30 years.

  2. Diagnosing non-cavitated lesions in epidemiological studies: practical and scientific considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Joana Christina; Mestrinho, Heliana Dantas

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been growing interest in diagnosing non-cavitated lesions in epidemiological studies involving large numbers of preschool children, schoolchildren and young adults. In this context, assessment of lesions characteristics indicating whether or not there is ongoing mineral loss is also considered relevant. The reasoning sustained by these studies is that diagnosis of the caries process limited to the cavitated level is no longer in accordance with current state-of-the-art knowledge in cariology. This paper highlights one topic of the lecture entitled "Caries Process: Evolving Evidence and Understanding," presented at the 18th Congress of the Brazilian Association for Oral Health Promotion (Associação Brasileira de Odontologia de Promoção de Saúde - ABOPREV) in April 2013. In the framework of epidemiological studies, the interest in diagnosing active and inactive non-cavitated lesions was elucidated. However, relevant questions associated with the diagnosis of non-cavitated lesions that might raise concerns among researchers and health administrators were not addressed. The present paper aims to bring these questions into discussion. The contribution of this discussion in terms of developing the understanding of caries decline is analyzed by using data from a caries trends study of Brazilian preschool children residing in the Federal District of Brazil as an example. The inclusion of active and inactive non-cavitated lesions in the diagnosis of the caries process allowed us to demonstrate that, in Brazilian 1- to 5-year-old children, caries prevalence decreased significantly from 1996 to 2006, simultaneously with a reduction in the rate of caries progression.

  3. Soccer Injuries in Players Aged 7 to 12 Years: A Descriptive Epidemiological Study Over 2 Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler, Roland; Junge, Astrid; Chomiak, Jiri; Dvorak, Jiri; Faude, Oliver

    2016-02-01

    As part of a risk-management approach, sound epidemiological data are needed to develop prevention programs. A recent review on soccer injuries of players younger than 19 years concluded that prospective data concerning children are lacking. To analyze the incidence and characteristics of soccer injuries in children aged 7 to 12 years. Descriptive epidemiological study. The present survey was a prospective descriptive epidemiological study on soccer injuries over 2 seasons in the Czech Republic and Switzerland. Exposure of players during training and match play (in hours) and injury data were reported by coaches via an Internet-based registration system. Location, type, and severity of injuries were classified according to an established consensus. Injury characteristics are presented as absolute numbers and injury incidence rates (injuries per 1000 hours of soccer exposure). An injury was defined as any physical complaint sustained during a scheduled training session or match play resulting in at least 1 of the following: (1) inability to complete the current match or training session, (2) absence from subsequent training sessions or matches, and (3) injury requiring medical attention. In total, 6038 player-seasons with 395,295 hours of soccer exposure were recorded. The mean (±SD) age of the players was 9.5 ± 2.0 years, and 3.9% of the participants were girls. A total of 417 injuries were reported. Most (76.3%) injuries were located in the lower limbs, with 15.6% located in the upper limbs. Joint and ligament injuries comprised 30.5%, contusions 22.5%, muscle and tendon injuries 18.5%, and fractures and bone injuries 15.4% of all injuries; 23.7% of injuries led to more than 28 days of absence from sport participation. The overall injury incidence was 0.61 (95% CI, 0.53-0.69) injuries per 1000 hours of soccer exposure during training sessions and 4.57 (95% CI, 4.00-5.23) during match play. Injury incidence rates increased with increasing age. The observed injury

  4. Epidemiological Trends of Spine Trauma: An Australian Level 1 Trauma Centre Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, J. W.; Chan, C. H. P.; Fitzgerald, M. C. B.; Liew, S. M.; Rosenfeld, J. V.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of current epidemiology and spine trauma trends assists in public resource allocation, fine-tuning of primary prevention methods, and benchmarking purposes. Data on all patients with traumatic spine injuries admitted to the Alfred Hospital, Melbourne between May 1, 2009, and January 1, 2011, were collected from the Alfred Trauma Registry, Alfred Health medical database, and Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry. Epidemiological trends were analyzed as a general cohort, with comparison cohorts of nonsurvivors versus survivors and elderly versus nonelderly. Linear regression analysis was utilized to demonstrate trends with statistical significance. There were 965 patients with traumatic spine injuries with 2,333 spine trauma levels. The general cohort showed a trimodal age distribution, male-to-female ratio of 2:2, motor vehicle accidents as the primary spine trauma mechanism, 47.7% patients with severe polytrauma as graded using the Injury Severity Score (ISS), 17.3% with traumatic brain injury (TBI), the majority of patients with one spine injury level, 7% neurological deficit rate, 12.8% spine trauma operative rate, and 5.2% mortality rate. Variables with statistical significance trending toward mortality were the elderly, motor vehicle occupants, severe ISS, TBI, C1–2 dissociations, and American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) A, B, and C neurological grades. Variables with statistical significance trending toward the elderly were females; low falls; one spine injury level; type 2 odontoid fractures; subaxial cervical spine distraction injuries; ASIA A, B, and C neurological grades; and patients without neurological deficits. Of the general cohort, 50.3% of spine trauma survivors were discharged home, and 48.1% were discharged to rehabilitation facilities. This study provides baseline spine trauma epidemiological data. The trimodal age distribution of patients with traumatic spine injuries calls for further studies and intervention targeted

  5. Reporting of Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE association studies: An empirical assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwinn Marta

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several thousand human genome epidemiology association studies are published every year investigating the relationship between common genetic variants and diverse phenotypes. Transparent reporting of study methods and results allows readers to better assess the validity of study findings. Here, we document reporting practices of human genome epidemiology studies. Methods Articles were randomly selected from a continuously updated database of human genome epidemiology association studies to be representative of genetic epidemiology literature. The main analysis evaluated 315 articles published in 2001–2003. For a comparative update, we evaluated 28 more recent articles published in 2006, focusing on issues that were poorly reported in 2001–2003. Results During both time periods, most studies comprised relatively small study populations and examined one or more genetic variants within a single gene. Articles were inconsistent in reporting the data needed to assess selection bias and the methods used to minimize misclassification (of the genotype, outcome, and environmental exposure or to identify population stratification. Statistical power, the use of unrelated study participants, and the use of replicate samples were reported more often in articles published during 2006 when compared with the earlier sample. Conclusion We conclude that many items needed to assess error and bias in human genome epidemiology association studies are not consistently reported. Although some improvements were seen over time, reporting guidelines and online supplemental material may help enhance the transparency of this literature.

  6. Sero-epidemiological study of Lyme disease among high-risk population groups in eastern Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zákutná, Ľubica; Dorko, Erik; Mattová, Eva; Rimárová, Kvetoslava

    2015-01-01

    IIntroduction and objective. The aim of the presented cross-sectional sero-epidemiological study was to determine the current presence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi s.l. in the high-risk groups of the Slovak population, and to identify potential risk factors to LB infections. A group of 277 agricultural and forestry workers - persons with frequent stay in the countryside and employees of State Border and Customs Police - from years 2011-2012 in the Eastern Slovakia were examined in order to assess the seroprevalence of anti-Borrelia antibodies. Sera were screened by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The study subjects completed a questionnaires with general demographic, epidemiological and clinical data. The results were evaluated statistically. A 25.3% presence of positive and 8.7% presence of borderline IgG antibodies was detected in all investigated groups. The seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. was significantly higher (P<0.05) among the agricultural and forestry workers when compared to employees of State Border and Customs Police. Higher seropositivity was observed in older subjects over 30 years of age (P=0.004) than those who were younger, and also in males (P=0.045). A significant number of persons with rheumatologic conditions was statistically higher (P=0.020) in the group with seropositivity than in the group with seronegativity. The presented study confirms the higher risk of Borrelia infection in individuals with frequent exposure to ticks in eastern Slovakia. The seropositivity tests confirmed the highest seropositivity in agriculture and forestry workers, middle positivity was confirmed among other sector workers, and lowest positivity in policemen and employees of the Customs and Border Inspection. The outputs also simultaneously filling the gap of missing seroprevalence data among these exposed groups.

  7. Descriptive epidemiology of the Multicenter ACL Revision Study (MARS) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Rick W; Huston, Laura J; Spindler, Kurt P; Dunn, Warren R; Haas, Amanda K; Allen, Christina R; Cooper, Daniel E; DeBerardino, Thomas M; Lantz, Brett Brick A; Mann, Barton J; Stuart, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has worse outcomes than primary reconstructions. Predictors for these worse outcomes are not known. The Multicenter ACL Revision Study (MARS) Group was developed to perform a multisurgeon, multicenter prospective longitudinal study to obtain sufficient subjects to allow multivariable analysis to determine predictors of clinical outcome. To describe the formation of MARS and provide descriptive analysis of patient demographics and clinical features for the initial 460 enrolled patients to date in this prospective cohort. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 2. After training and institutional review board approval, surgeons began enrolling patients undergoing revision ACL reconstruction, recording patient demographics, previous ACL reconstruction methods, intra-articular injuries, and current revision techniques. Enrolled subjects completed a questionnaire consisting of validated patient-based outcome measures. As of April 1, 2009, 87 surgeons have enrolled a total of 460 patients (57% men; median age, 26 years). For 89%, the reconstruction was the first revision. Mode of failure as deemed by the revising surgeon was traumatic (32%), technical (24%), biologic (7%), combination (37%), infection (MARS Group has been able to quickly accumulate the largest revision ACL reconstruction cohort reported to date. Traumatic reinjury is deemed by surgeons to be the most common single mode of failure, but a combination of factors represents the most common mode of failure. Allograft graft choice is more common in the revision setting than autograft. Concomitant knee injury is extremely common in this population.

  8. Learning from older peoples’ reasons for participating in demanding, intensive epidemiological studies: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja M. Baczynska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recruitment rates of older people in epidemiological studies, although relatively higher than in clinical trials, have declined in recent years. This study aimed to explore motivating factors and concerns among older participants in an intensive epidemiological study (Hertfordshire Sarcopenia Study - HSS and identify those that could aid future recruitment to epidemiological studies and clinical trials. Methods Participants of the HSS fasted overnight and travelled several hours each way to the research facility at an English hospital for extensive diet/lifestyle questionnaires and investigations to assess muscle including blood tests and a muscle biopsy. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 13 participants (ten women at the research facility in May–October 2015. The interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, coded and analysed thematically by three researchers. Results We identified personal motives for participation (potential health benefit for self and family; curiosity; comparing own fitness to others; socialising. Altruistic motives (benefit for other people; belief in importance of research were also important. Participants voiced a number of external motives related to the study uniqueness, organisation and safety record; family support; and just ‘being asked’. Anxiety about the biopsy and travel distance were the only concerns and were alleviated by smooth and efficient running of the study. Conclusions Personal and altruistic reasons were important motivators for these older people to participate in demanding, intensive research. They valued belonging to a birth cohort with previous research experience, but personal contact with the research team before and after consent provided reassurance, aided recruitment to HSS and could be readily replicated by other researchers. Any fears or concerns related to certain aspects of a demanding, intensive study should ideally be explored at an early visit

  9. Measuring taste impairment in epidemiologic studies: the Beaver Dam Offspring Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshanks, K J; Schubert, C R; Snyder, D J; Bartoshuk, L M; Huang, G H; Klein, B E K; Klein, R; Nieto, F J; Pankow, J S; Tweed, T S; Krantz, E M; Moy, G S

    2009-07-01

    Taste or gustatory function may play an important role in determining diet and nutritional status and therefore indirectly impact health. Yet there have been few attempts to study the spectrum of taste function and dysfunction in human populations. Epidemiologic studies are needed to understand the impact of taste function and dysfunction on public health, to identify modifiable risk factors, and to develop and test strategies to prevent clinically significant dysfunction. However, measuring taste function in epidemiologic studies is challenging and requires repeatable, efficient methods that can measure change over time. Insights gained from translating laboratory-based methods to a population-based study, the Beaver Dam Offspring Study (BOSS) will be shared. In this study, a generalized labeled magnitude scale (gLMS) method was used to measure taste intensity of filter paper disks saturated with salt, sucrose, citric acid, quinine, or 6-n-propylthiouracil, and a gLMS measure of taste preferences was administered. In addition, a portable, inexpensive camera system to capture digital images of fungiform papillae and a masked grading system to measure the density of fungiform papillae were developed. Adult children of participants in the population-based Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, are eligible for this ongoing study. The parents were residents of Beaver Dam and 43-84 years of age in 1987-1988; offspring ranged in age from 21-84 years in 2005-2008. Methods will be described in detail and preliminary results about the distributions of taste function in the BOSS cohort will be presented.

  10. Epidemiological study of soft-tissue sarcomas in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bhatt, Nikita

    2015-11-21

    Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) account for 1% of adult and 7% of pediatric malignancies. Histopathology and classification of these rare tumors requires further refinements. The aim of this paper is to describe the current incidence and survival of STS from 1994 to 2012 in Ireland and compare these with comparably coded international published reports. This is a retrospective, population study based on the data from the National Cancer Registry of Ireland (NCRI). Incidence and relative survival rates for STS in Ireland were generated. Incidence of STS based on gender, age and anatomical location was examined. Annual mean incidence rate (European Age Standardized) in Ireland between 1994 and 2012 was 4.48 ± 0.15 per 100,000 person-years. The overall relative 5-year survival rate of STS for the period 1994-2011 in Ireland was 56%, which was similar to that reported in the U.K. but lower than in most of Europe and U.S.A. Survival rate fluctuated over the period examined, declining slightly in females but showing an increase in males. STS incidence trends in Ireland were comparable to international reports. Survival trends of STS were significantly different between Ireland and other European countries, requiring further study to understand causation.

  11. Mathematical epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Driessche, Pauline; Wu, Jianhong

    2008-01-01

    Based on lecture notes of two summer schools with a mixed audience from mathematical sciences, epidemiology and public health, this volume offers a comprehensive introduction to basic ideas and techniques in modeling infectious diseases, for the comparison of strategies to plan for an anticipated epidemic or pandemic, and to deal with a disease outbreak in real time. It covers detailed case studies for diseases including pandemic influenza, West Nile virus, and childhood diseases. Models for other diseases including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, fox rabies, and sexually transmitted infections are included as applications. Its chapters are coherent and complementary independent units. In order to accustom students to look at the current literature and to experience different perspectives, no attempt has been made to achieve united writing style or unified notation. Notes on some mathematical background (calculus, matrix algebra, differential equations, and probability) have been prepared and may be downlo...

  12. Epidemiological studies of cognitive impairment and dementia across Eastern and Middle European countries (epidemiology of dementia in Eastern and Middle European Countries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiejna, A; Frydecka, D; Adamowski, T; Bickel, H; Reynish, E; Prince, M; Caracciolo, B; Fratiglioni, L; Georges, J

    2011-02-01

    To determine the availability and the consistency of prevalence findings of epidemiological studies on cognitive impairment and dementia conducted in Eastern and Middle Europe. We adopted a stepwise multimethod study approach consisting of iterative literature searches for epidemiological articles published between 1990 and 2006 and subsequent data analyses of published material, reanalyses of existing accessible epidemiological data sets and expert inquiries in Eastern and Middle European countries. Systematic computer-assisted searches used the keywords: "dementia", "Alzheimer", "cognitive impairment", "incidence", "prevalence", "epidemiology" in combination with the name of the relevant countries or "Europe" in English and Polish language. We supplemented the literature search with a review of the references in the articles that were identified during the initial search. We were able to find few regional and country-specific epidemiological studies of various kinds (population-based, cohort, cross-sectional studies) and conducted on different restricted population groups of patients (from neurological units, out-patients units, residential homes). No studies were identified from most of the countries taken under consideration and the ones we found were characterized by an immense diversity with a considerable degree of clinical and methodological variations. The few studies that there are suggest prevalence rates of dementia in Eastern Europe similar to those in Western Europe. There is strong need for epidemiological studies in Eastern and Middle Europe, as well as for greater coordination and standardization of methods to improve the quality and comparability of epidemiological data to determine the prevalences' rates of dementia in all the EU countries. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Physical and psychological nicotine dependence in Greeks: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritis, Vasileios; Mamai-Homata, Eleni

    2010-01-01

    Smoking is the most widespread addictive behaviour in the world, as it causes physical and psychological dependence on nicotine. The objective of the present study was to discern the prevalence and the relative risks of nicotine dependence of adult people in Athens, Greece, as this country holds first place in cigarette consumption in the European Union. A random sample of 202 current smokers (82 men and 120 women) was drawn from residents aged v 18 years in Athens, the capital of Greece. A questionnaire on the physical (Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence) and psychological (American Psychiatric Association's diagnostic criteria of nicotine abuse) nicotine dependence was used. According to the results of the present study, 12.4% of the sample reported null physical nicotine dependence, and 31.7% had low, 25.7% had moderate and 30.2% had high nicotine dependence. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that younger people (aged 18 to 24 and 25 to 34, odds ratio [OR] = 0.047, P physical dependence. Women tended to be systematically less dependent than men (25% and 37.8% high dependence, respectively). Furthermore, 75.7% of the sample had psychological nicotine dependence. Binary logistic regression analysis and chi-square test revealed that younger people (18- to 24-year-olds, OR = 0.081, P dependence. In addition, women showed a higher percentage of withdrawal symptoms compared with men (80% and 68%, respectively). The results of the present study provided compelling evidence that physical and, in particular, psychological nicotine dependence of adult people in Athens, Greece, was significant, and this calls for a course of action that should be taken by public health policy-makers to reduce smoke consumption.

  14. Epizootic vesicular stomatitis in Colorado, 1982: epidemiologic and entomologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, T E; Webb, P A; Kramer, W L; Smith, G C; Davis, T; Holbrook, F R; Moore, C G; Schiefer, T J; Jones, R H; Janney, G C

    1987-01-01

    An epizootic of vesicular stomatitis (VS) caused by the New Jersey serotype of VS virus affected livestock and humans in 14 western states in 1982-1983. Epidemiological observations were made on at least 10% of the cattle in 4 dairy herds that were located in the vicinity of Grand Junction, Colorado. High rates of neutralizing antibody to the New Jersey serotype were seen in all cattle regardless of whether livestock in the dairy had clinical VS or a decrease in mild production. Antibody titers remained high in these cattle for as long as 2 years after the epizootic. No virus isolations were made from 32 humans with clinical signs compatible with viral disease. Entomological information was obtained during the epizootic from 23 premises in northwestern Colorado. Insect collections yielded 4 isolates from Culicoides spp. midges, 2 from C. variipennis, and 1 each from C. stellifer and C. (Selfia) spp. This is the first report of VS virus isolations from field-collected Culicoides.

  15. [Epidemiologic study of Helicobacter pylori infection in Perú].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Ramos, Alberto; Gilman, Robert H; Watanabe-Yamamoto, José; Rosas-Aguirre, Angel

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of our investigations in the epidemiology of H. pylori infection in Peru during the last two decades. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Lima is decreasing in people of middle and high socioeconomic status and continues stationary in people of low socioeconomic status. This decrease is similar in Peruvian and Japanese population in this city, and is associated to the decrease of the gastrointestinal diseases related to this bacterium: peptic ulcer and stomach adenocarcinoma. The infection is slightly greater in males and is acquired in early ages of life. Via oro-fecal and water contamination are probably the most important transmission ways. In our country, so far, there is no evidence to assure that some races have higher pre-disposition to acquire the infection. There are no differences in the infection by H. pylori among coast, mountain or jungle populations; and people who live in high altitudes have more atrophic chronic gastritis secondary to H. pylori infection than people who live at sea level.

  16. An epidemiological study on patient exposure from dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehara, Masahiro

    1980-01-01

    The gonadal and bone marrow doses received by patients per exposure from dental X-ray examinations are small when compared to those of other medical X-ray procedures. Therefore, the contribution from dental X-ray exposure dose has not been discussed in terms of individual dose, but has always been considered in terms of population dose. However, depending on the peculiarity of the disease involved, some dental patients are considered to be subjected to relatively large doses of diagnostic X-rays. Therefore, from the standpoint of overall radiation protection, it was felt important to estimate the maximum individual dose incurred by diagnostic dental radiography. An epidemiological survey was undertaken at Osaka Dental University Hospital to estimate the maximum radiation exposure doses to various organs by projection. A total of 1301 patients were randomly selected from among persons who had initially visited the Radiology Department and subsequently received many X-ray exposures. The individual exposure dose to each organ was determined by projection based on the type and number of examinations. Results showed that the conditions incurring the maximum exposure dose in individual patients for diagnostic purposes in the dental region was those with ameloblastoma. (author)

  17. Epidemiologic Study of One Million U.S. Radiation Workers and Veterans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boice, John D. [National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2017-12-14

    presentations of the work at scientific meetings. Furthermore, recommendations have been developed for an approach to integrate epidemiologic observations with radiation biology for risk assessment and biological models of radiation effect. The results of this project, as well as ongoing epidemiology studies of US radiation workers and veterans, are providing much-needed insights into complex issues regarding cancer and non-cancer health risks from low dose irradiation, how to apply a "dose and dose rate effectiveness factor" to scale the risks from the A-bomb survivor data to current occupational and environmental circumstances, and how to evaluate risk following intakes of radioactive substances. In addition to application to radiation workers, the results of the studies can provide guidance as society debates the role of nuclear energy and deals with nuclear waste, threats of terrorist attacks with nuclear/radiological devices, the remarkable increase in medical exposures to CT scans and nuclear imaging, and to NASA as radiation protection for astronauts on long-duration mission beyond low-Earth orbit is planned.

  18. Validity of self reported male balding patterns in epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leavy Justine E

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have investigated the association between male pattern baldness and disease such as prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease. Limitations in the lack of standardized instruments to measure male pattern baldness have resulted in researchers measuring balding patterns in a variety of ways. This paper examines the accuracy and reliability of assessment of balding patterns by both trained observers and men themselves, using the Hamilton-Norwood classification system. Methods An observational study was carried out in Western Australia with 105 male volunteers aged between 30 and 70 years. Participants completed a short questionnaire and selected a picture that best represented their balding pattern. Two trained data collectors also independently assessed the participant's balding pattern using the same system and the men's self assessment was compared with the trained observer's assessment. In a substudy, observers assessed the balding pattern in a photo of the man aged 35 years while the man independently rated his balding at that age. Results Observers were very reliable in their assessment of balding pattern (85% exact agreement, κ = 0.83. Compared to trained observers, men were moderately accurate in their self-assessment of their balding status (48–55% exact agreement, κ = 0.39–0.46. For the substudy the exact agreement between the men and the observers was 67% and the agreement within balding groups was 87%. Conclusions We recommend that male balding patterns be assessed by trained personnel using the Hamilton-Norwood classification system. Where the use of trained personnel is not feasible, men's self assessment both currently and retrospectively has been shown to be adequate.

  19. Epidemiology, associated burden, and current clinical practice for the diagnosis and management of Alzheimer's disease in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, William; Ueda, Kaname; Jorgensen, Margaret; Stathis, Shari; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Nakamura, Tomomi

    2018-01-01

    The burden of dementia in Japan is large and growing. With the world's fastest aging population, it is estimated that one in five elderly people will be living with dementia in Japan by 2025. The most common form of dementia is Alzheimer's disease (AD), accounting for around two-thirds of dementia cases. A systematic review was conducted to examine the epidemiology and associated burden of AD in Japan and to identify how AD is diagnosed and managed in Japan. English and Japanese language databases were searched for articles published between January 2000 and November 2015. Relevant Japanese sources, clinical practice guideline registers, and reference lists were also searched. Systematic reviews and cohort and case-control studies were eligible for inclusion, with a total of 60 studies included. The most recent national survey conducted in six regions of Japan reported the mean prevalence of dementia in people aged ≥65 years to be 15.75% (95% CI: 12.4, 22.2%), which is much higher than the previous estimated rate of 10% in 2010. AD was confirmed as the predominant type of dementia, accounting for 65.8% of all cases. Advancing age and low education were the most consistently reported risk factors for AD dementia. Japanese guidelines for the management of dementia were released in 2010 providing specific guidance for AD about clinical signs, image findings, biochemical markers, and treatment approaches. Pharmacotherapies and non-pharmacotherapies to relieve cognitive symptoms were introduced, as were recommendations to achieve better patient care. No studies reporting treatment patterns were identified. Due to population aging and growing awareness of AD in Japan, health care expenditure and associated burden are expected to soar. This review highlights the importance of early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of AD as strategies to minimize the impact of AD on society in Japan.

  20. Comparing toxicologic and epidemiologic studies: methylene chloride--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stayner, L T; Bailer, A J

    1993-12-01

    Exposure to methylene chloride induces lung and liver cancers in mice. The mouse bioassay data have been used as the basis for several cancer risk assessments. The results from epidemiologic studies of workers exposed to methylene chloride have been mixed with respect to demonstrating an increased cancer risk. The results from a negative epidemiologic study of Kodak workers have been used by two groups of investigators to test the predictions from the EPA risk assessment models. These two groups used very different approaches to this problem, which resulted in opposite conclusions regarding the consistency between the animal model predictions and the Kodak study results. The results from the Kodak study are used to test the predictions from OSHA's multistage models of liver and lung cancer risk. Confidence intervals for the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) from the Kodak study are compared with the predicted confidence intervals derived from OSHA's risk assessment models. Adjustments for the "healthy worker effect," differences in length of follow-up, and dosimetry between animals and humans were incorporated into these comparisons. Based on these comparisons, we conclude that the negative results from the Kodak study are not inconsistent with the predictions from OSHA's risk assessment model.

  1. [Pain in Spanish rheumatology outpatient offices: EPIDOR epidemiological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero Ruiz, F; Gabriel Sánchez, R; Carbonell Abello, J; Tornero Molina, J; Sánchez-Magro, I

    2005-04-01

    To establish the prevalence and characteristics of rheumatologic pain in Spanish adult population cared in specialized rheumatology offices. Cross selection study in a population of patients cared in rheumatology offices of public Spanish hospitals. 1,134 patients selected through random sampling based on waiting lists of patients, during a period of 1 week, in rheumatology offices of each participating hospital. MAIN OUTCOMES OF THE STUDY: Reason behind the consultation (a new patient [NP] or a patient for revision [RP]), characteristics of the patient (sex, age, habits [alcohol/tobacco], marital status), location, type, intensity, duration, tolerance and management of pain; treatment (pharmacological or non-pharmacological) carried out; satisfaction with the treatment; and association with fibromyalgia. The prevalence of pain in NP was 98.6% and in RP 95.1%, with a global prevalence of 96%, predominating mainly in adult sedentary women with fibromyalgia. The frequency of acute pain was 20.9% and this of chronic pain 79.1% [corrected] The prevalence of fibromyalgia was 12% (2.2% in men, and 15.5% in women). The most prevalent pattern of current dominant pain was this of the mechanical type. More frequent associated pathologies were: hypertension (21.7%), depression (14.4%), gastrointestinal diseases (13.8%) and anxiety (13.4%). All variables analyzed in the study showed changes according to age, sex, and type of patient (NP or RP). Most used treatment was pharmacological; more than 57.6% of patients were receiving NSAIDs. In NP, medical prescriber of the treatment was first the general practitioner (56.1%) followed by the rheumatologist (14.1%); in PR the first one was the rheumatologist (69.9%) followed by the general practitioner (16.5%). Our results show that the prevalence of the rheumatologic pain is very high, predominating mainly in adult women with fibromyalgia. Pain location, intensity, and type, associated pathology, and treatment vary according to age

  2. The justification of studies in genetic epidemiology - political scaling in China Medical City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    2018-04-01

    Genetic epidemiology examines the role of genetic factors in determining health and disease in families and in populations to help addressing health problems in a responsible manner. This paper uses a case study of genetic epidemiology in Taizhou, China, to explore ways in which anthropology can contribute to the validation of studies in genetic epidemiology. It does so, first, by identifying potential overgeneralizations of data, often due to mismatching scale and, second, by examining it's embedding in political, historical and local contexts. The example of the longitudinal cohort study in Taizhou illustrates dimensions of such 'political scaling'. Political scaling is a notion used here to refer to the effects of scaling biases in relation to the justification of research in terms of relevance, reach and research ethics. The justification of a project on genetic epidemiology involves presenting a maximum of benefits and a minimum of burden for the population. To facilitate the delineation of political scaling, an analytical distinction between donating and benefiting communities was made using the notions of 'scaling of relevance', 'scaling of reach' and 'scaling of ethics'. Political scaling results at least partly from factors external to research. By situating political scaling in the context of historical, political and local discourses, anthropologists can play a complementary role in genetic epidemiology.

  3. Current data on acute haematogenous osteomyelitis in children in Southern Israel: epidemiology, microbiology, clinics and therapeutic consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Eugen; Lifshitz, Karin; Fruchtman, Yariv; Eidelman, Mark; Leibovitz, Eugene

    2016-09-01

    Acute haematogenous osteomyelities (AHO) is the most common form of osteomyelitis, occurring when bone is infected secondary to transient bacteremia. The prevalence, aetiology and outcome of AHO may vary from region to region and period to period. The study objectives were to define the epidemiology, clinical, laboratory and imaging characteristics and treatment consequences of AHO in children in southern Israel. This was a retrospective cohort study, enrolling all children 15,000/mm(3). The most involved bone was tibia (39.6 %), followed by femur (19.8 %), humerus (8.8 %) and pelvis (8.8 %). Positive cultures were reported in 26 (28.6 %) patients. The most common pathogen was methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA, 18 patients, 19.8 %). There was only one case of MRSA. More positive cultures were recorded among children requiring surgery compared to children treated conservatively (P < 0.01). MSSA representation in cases requiring surgical intervention was higher than in cases treated conservatively (P = 0.01). There were nine bone biopsies and 33 bone aspirations (MSSA in 44.4 % and 24.2 %, respectively). The longest hospitalization was observed in patients with humerus-AHO (14.8 ± 12.2 days). There was no difference in the number of days of hospitalization between patients who received previous antibiotics compared with children who did not receive antibiotics before admission. Tibia was the most frequently involved bone, but humeral AHO required more surgical intervention and longer hospitalization. Negative cultures were frequent, MSSA was the most commonly involved pathogen and MRSA was rare. Culture positive AHO was associated with higher requirement for surgical intervention.

  4. Health state of population in vicinity of the Mochovce nuclear power plant. Epidemiologic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celko, M.; Durov, M.; Letkovicova, M.; Holy, R.; Sedliak, D.; Zrubec, M.; Kristufek, P.; Machata, M.; Prikazsky, V.; Rehak, R.; Stehlikova, B.; Vladar, M.

    1999-01-01

    Results of epidemiologic study of health state of population in vicinity of the Mochovce nuclear power plant (Slovak Republic) are presented. This report is reported under the headings: (1) Introduction; (2) Basic information about Mochovce NPP; (3) Assessment of population exposition by environmental factors; (4) Basic conceptions and principles of epidemiologic study; (5) Demography and health state of population; (6) Characterisation of databases and data; (7) Description of demographic and health indicators; (8) Calculation of demographic and health indicators in vicinity of the Mochovce NPP and in control areas; (9) Calculated indicators; (10) Statistical methods and evaluation of calculated indicators; (11) Summary and conclusions; (12) References; Appendixes: Literature review of similar epidemiologic studies; Quantities and units in radiation protection; Definitions of indicators calculation - specification of method

  5. The response rate in postal epidemiological studies in the context of national cultural behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelova, Radostina A.; Naydenov, Kiril; Hägerhed-Engman, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of national cultural differences on the response rate, obtained in questionnaire based epidemiological studies on allergy and asthma, performed in Sweden (DBH) and Bulgaria (ALLHOME). The two studies used one and the same methodology, but the ob...

  6. Design issues in epidemiologic studies of indoor exposure to Rn and risk of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubin, J.H.; Samet, J.M.; Weinberg, C.

    1990-01-01

    Recent data on indoor air quality have indicated that Rn (222Rn) and its decay products are frequently present in domestic environments. Their presence in indoor air raises concerns about an increase in lung cancer risk for the general population. To directly evaluate lung cancer risk from domestic exposure to Rn and its decay products, as well as to evaluate risk assessments derived from studies of Rn-exposed underground miners, several epidemiologic studies of indoor Rn exposure have been initiated or are planned. This paper calculates sample sizes required for a hypothetical case-control study to address several important hypotheses and shows the impact of difficult problems associated with estimating a subject's Rn exposure. We consider the effects of subject mobility, choice of the exposure response trend which is used to characterize an alternative hypothesis, and errors in the estimation of exposure. Imprecise estimation of Rn exposure arises from errors in the measurement device, exposure to Rn decay products from sources outside the home, inability to measure exposures over time in current as well as previous residences, and the unknown relationship between measured concentration and lung dose of alpha energy from the decay of Rn and its progeny. These methodological problems can result in large discrepancies between computed and actual study power. Failure to anticipate these problems in the design of a study can result in inaccurate estimates of power. We conclude that case-control studies of indoor Rn and lung cancer may require substantial numbers of subjects in order to address the many questions of importance that burden current risk assessments with uncertainty. We suggest pooling data from studies with the largest numbers of cases and with the most precise estimates of Rn exposure as the best approach for meeting present research needs

  7. Epidemiology of open tibia fractures in a population-based database: update on current risk factors and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Christian David; Hildebrand, Frank; Kobbe, Philipp; Lefering, Rolf; Sellei, Richard M; Pape, Hans-Christoph

    2018-02-02

    Open tibia fractures usually occur in high-energy mechanisms and are commonly associated with multiple traumas. The purposes of this study were to define the epidemiology of open tibia fractures in severely injured patients and to evaluate risk factors for major complications. A cohort from a nationwide population-based prospective database was analyzed (TraumaRegister DGU ® ). Inclusion criteria were: (1) open or closed tibia fracture, (2) Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥ 16 points, (3) age ≥ 16 years, and (4) survival until primary admission. According to the soft tissue status, patients were divided either in the closed (CTF) or into the open fracture (OTF) group. The OTF group was subdivided according to the Gustilo/Anderson classification. Demographic data, injury mechanisms, injury severity, surgical fracture management, hospital and ICU length of stay and systemic complications (e.g., multiple organ failure (MOF), sepsis, mortality) were collected and analyzed by SPSS (Version 23, IBM Inc., NY, USA). Out of 148.498 registered patients between 1/2002 and 12/2013; a total of 4.940 met the inclusion criteria (mean age 46.2 ± 19.4 years, ISS 30.4 ± 12.6 points). The CTF group included 2000 patients (40.5%), whereas 2940 patients (59.5%) sustained open tibia fractures (I°: 49.3%, II°: 27.5%, III°: 23.2%). High-energy trauma was the leading mechanism in case of open fractures. Despite comparable ISS and NISS values in patients with closed and open tibia fractures, open fractures were significantly associated with higher volume resuscitation (p Open tibia fractures are common in multiple trauma patients and are therefore associated with increased resuscitation requirements, more surgical procedures and increased in-hospital length of stay. However, increased systemic complications are not observed if a soft tissue adapted surgical protocol is applied.

  8. Epidemiologic studies of occupational pesticide exposure and cancer: regulatory risk assessments and biologic plausibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquavella, John; Doe, John; Tomenson, John; Chester, Graham; Cowell, John; Bloemen, Louis

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies frequently show associations between self-reported use of specific pesticides and human cancers. These findings have engendered debate largely on methodologic grounds. However, biologic plausibility is a more fundamental issue that has received only superficial attention. The purpose of this commentary is to review briefly the toxicology and exposure data that are developed as part of the pesticide regulatory process and to discuss the applicability of this data to epidemiologic research. The authors also provide a generic example of how worker pesticide exposures might be estimated and compared to relevant toxicologic dose levels. This example provides guidance for better characterization of exposure and for consideration of biologic plausibility in epidemiologic studies of pesticides.

  9. Occupational reproductive epidemiology: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Eve; Doyle, Pat

    1993-01-01

    The authors review the current state of knowledge about possible adverse effects of hazardous paternal workplace exposures on human reproduction is scant. The methodology for studying possible association between occupational exposures and adverse reproductive events is not well developed. More detailed laboratory and epidemiological research is clearly required, and better collaboration between these two disciplines is needed. Associations suggested in the course of epidemiological research need to be tested in the laboratory, and vice versa. (author)

  10. [The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology [STROBE] statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elm, E. von; Altman, D.G.; Egger, M.

    2008-01-01

    Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) initiative developed...... recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We convened a 2-day workshop in September, 2004, with methodologists...... and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE statement) that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. 18 items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case...

  11. An Epidemiological Study of Accidents in a Construction Industry: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malakouti J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Despite science and technology development and their application in various industries, accidents continue to occur in many workplaces. This study was designed and carried out with the aim of epidemiological survey of accident among workers of a tunneling industry.Methods: This study was conducted on 144 out of a total of 440 employees of a tunneling project who were at risk of occupational accidents. 48 workers with a history of occupational accident over the past two years were selected as case group and 96 workers of the same project were selected as control group. The data were collected through a designed checklist and analyzed using logistic regression, chi-square and independent t tests.Results: A significant association was observed between accident rate and different age groups (p<0.05. There was a significant relationship (p=0.016 in the case of sport activities between case and control groups, and significant relationships were observed between two groups regarding education (p=0.057 and smoking (p=0.06, but there was no significant relationships between accident occurrence with marital status, residence in workplace, job related education, job experience, chronic diseases and obesity.Conclusion: The results of this study clarify the necessity of the use of epidemiological data in preventive and control measures in workplaces. Therefore, Developing programs for determination of physical and mental capacity of workers are essential to employ them in jobs commensurate with their abilities, especially in older workers.

  12. The ENIQ pilot study: current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaitre, P; Eriksen, B; Crutzen, S [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands); Hansch, M [Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany); Whittle, J [AEA Technology, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    1998-11-01

    A pilot study is currently being carried out by ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) in order to explore the issues involved in inspection qualification applied along the general principles of the European methodology. The components selected for the pilot study are austenitic pipe to pipe and pipe to elbows welds typical of those in BWR recirculation loops. A range of defect parameters has been defined. A suitable inspection procedure designed to find the designated defects will be applied to geometrically representative test pieces. The procedure/equipment will be qualified through open trials and technical justification. The personnel qualification will be done in a blind way. Once all features of the inspection system will have been qualified an in-service inspection will be simulated in order to test the feasibility of the qualification approach followed. In this paper the current status of this pilot study is discussed. (orig.)

  13. Biomarkers in Czech workers exposed to 1,3-butadiene: a transitional epidemiologic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albertini, Richard J.; Srám, Radim J.; Vacek, Pamela M.; Lynch, Jeremiah; Nicklas, Janice A.; van Sittert, Nico J.; Boogaard, Peter J.; Henderson, Rogene F.; Swenberg, James A.; Tates, Ad D.; Ward, Jonathan B.; Wright, Michael; Ammenheuser, Marinel M.; Binkova, Blanka; Blackwell, Walter; de Zwart, Franz A.; Krako, Dean; Krone, Jennifer; Megens, Hendricus; Musilová, Petra; Rajská, Gabriela; Ranasinghe, Asoka; Rosenblatt, Judah I.; Rössner, Pavel; Rubes, Jiri; Sullivan, Linda; Upton, Patricia; Zwinderman, Ailko H.

    2003-01-01

    A multiinstitutional, transitional epidemiologic study was conducted with a worker population in the Czech Republic to evaluate the utility of a continuum of non-disease biological responses as biomarkers of exposure to 1,3-butadiene (BD)* in an industrial setting. The study site included two BD

  14. Feasibility of future epidemiological studies on possible health effects of mobile phone base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Georg; Feychting, Maria; Hamnerius, Yngve; Kheifets, Leeka; Kuster, Niels; Ruiz, Ignacio; Schüz, Joachim; Uberbacher, Richard; Wiart, Joe; Röösli, Martin

    2007-04-01

    The increasing deployment of mobile communication base stations led to an increasing demand for epidemiological studies on possible health effects of radio frequency emissions. The methodological challenges of such studies have been critically evaluated by a panel of scientists in the fields of radiofrequency engineering/dosimetry and epidemiology. Strengths and weaknesses of previous studies have been identified. Dosimetric concepts and crucial aspects in exposure assessment were evaluated in terms of epidemiological studies on different types of outcomes. We conclude that in principle base station epidemiological studies are feasible. However, the exposure contributions from all relevant radio frequency sources have to be taken into account. The applied exposure assessment method should be piloted and validated. Short to medium term effects on physiology or health related quality of life are best investigated by cohort studies. For long term effects, groups with a potential for high exposure need to first be identified; for immediate effect, human laboratory studies are the preferred approach. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Multiscale Study of Currents Affected by Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Multiscale Study of Currents Affected by Topography ...the effects of topography on the ocean general and regional circulation with a focus on the wide range of scales of interactions. The small-scale...details of the topography and the waves, eddies, drag, and turbulence it generates (at spatial scales ranging from meters to mesoscale) interact in the

  16. Vitamin C and Heart Health: A Review Based on Findings from Epidemiologic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Moser

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C is a powerful dietary antioxidant that has received considerable attention in the literature related to its possible role in heart health. Although classical vitamin C deficiency, marked by scurvy, is rare in most parts of the world, some research has shown variable heart disease risks depending on plasma vitamin C concentration, even within the normal range. Furthermore, other studies have suggested possible heart-related benefits to vitamin C taken in doses beyond the minimal amounts required to prevent classically defined deficiency. The objective of this review is to systematically review the findings of existing epidemiologic research on vitamin C and its potential role in cardiovascular disease (CVD. It is well established that vitamin C inhibits oxidation of LDL-protein, thereby reducing atherosclerosis, but the cardiovascular outcomes related to this action and other actions of vitamin C are not fully understood. Randomized controlled trials as well as observational cohort studies have investigated this topic with varying results. Vitamin C has been linked in some work to improvements in lipid profiles, arterial stiffness, and endothelial function. However, other studies have failed to confirm these results, and observational cohort studies are varied in their findings on the vitamin’s effect on CVD risk and mortality. Overall, current research suggests that vitamin C deficiency is associated with a higher risk of mortality from CVD and that vitamin C may slightly improve endothelial function and lipid profiles in some groups, especially those with low plasma vitamin C levels. However, the current literature provides little support for the widespread use of vitamin C supplementation to reduce CVD risk or mortality.

  17. Cigarette smoking, nicotine dependence and anxiety disorders: a systematic review of population-based, epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moylan Steven

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple studies have demonstrated that rates of smoking and nicotine dependence are increased in individuals with anxiety disorders. However, significant variability exists in the epidemiological literature exploring this relationship, including study design (cross-sectional versus prospective, the population assessed (random sample versus clinical population and diagnostic instrument utilized. Methods We undertook a systematic review of population-based observational studies that utilized recognized structured clinical diagnostic criteria (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM or International Classification of Diseases (ICD for anxiety disorder diagnosis to investigate the relationship between cigarette smoking, nicotine dependence and anxiety disorders. Results In total, 47 studies met the predefined inclusion criteria, with 12 studies providing prospective information and 5 studies providing quasiprospective information. The available evidence suggests that some baseline anxiety disorders are a risk factor for initiation of smoking and nicotine dependence, although the evidence is heterogeneous and many studies did not control for the effect of comorbid substance use disorders. The identified evidence however appeared to more consistently support cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence as being a risk factor for development of some anxiety disorders (for example, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, although these findings were not replicated in all studies. A number of inconsistencies in the literature were identified. Conclusions Although many studies have demonstrated increased rates of smoking and nicotine dependence in individuals with anxiety disorders, there is a limited and heterogeneous literature that has prospectively examined this relationship in population studies using validated diagnostic criteria. The most consistent evidence supports smoking and nicotine dependence as

  18. Exposure to uranium and cancer risk: a review of epidemiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirmarche, M.; Baysson, H.; Telle-Lamberton, M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: At the end of 2000, certain diseases including leukemia were reported among soldiers who participated in the Balkan and in the Gulf wars. Depleted uranium used during these conflicts was considered as a possible cause. Its radiotoxicity is close to that of natural uranium. This paper reviews the epidemiological knowledge of uranium, the means of exposure and the associated risk of cancer. Methods: The only available epidemiological data concerns nuclear workers exposed to uranium. A review of the international literature is proposed by distinguishing between uranium miners and other workers of the nuclear industry. French studies are described in details. Results: In ionizing radiation epidemiology, contamination by uranium is often cited as a risk factor, but the dose-effect relationship is rarely studied. Retrospective assessment of individual exposure is generally insufficient. Moreover, it is difficult to distinguish between uranium radiotoxicity, its chemical toxicity and the radiotoxicity of its progeny. A causal relation between lung cancer and radon exposure, a gas derived from the decay of uranium, has been demonstrated in epidemiological studies of miners. Among other nuclear workers exposed to uranium, there is a mortality deficit from all causes (healthy worker effect). No cancer site appears systematically in excess compared to the national population; very few studies describe a dose-response relationship. Conclusion: Only studies with a precise reconstruction of doses and sufficient numbers of workers will allow a better assessment of risks associated with uranium exposure at levels encountered in industry or during conflicts using depleted uranium weapons. (author)

  19. Epidemiological studies of leukaemia in children and young adults around nuclear facilities: a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    An epidemiological study published in late 2007 described an increased risk of leukaemia in children under 5 living within 5 kilometres of German nuclear power plants. A great deal of research has been carried out on this subject since the early 1980's. The aim of this report was to provide a synthesis and critical analysis of results related to the risk of leukaemia in children and young adults aged under 25 living close to nuclear facilities. The report is structured in three sections: - a reminder of the main characteristics of childhood leukaemia and a description of the methods used to conduct epidemiological studies; - the most exhaustive review possible of epidemiological studies published in the international literature describing the frequency of leukaemia close to nuclear facilities in different countries around the world. A critical analysis is made of the published results. Some results from studies not focused on nuclear facilities are also presented. The methodological limitations associated with descriptive studies are explained and discussed; - the last section discusses the possible causes of childhood leukaemia and the main hypotheses explored to explain certain clusters of cases observed locally close to some nuclear sites. Appendices at the end of the document provide additional explanations of the concepts and methods used in epidemiology and statistics, and of the classification of malignant hemopathies. (authors)

  20. Design and descriptive results of the "Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study In preSchoolers": The GENESIS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manios Yannis

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS attempts to evaluate the food and nutrient intakes, as well as growth and development of a representative sample of Greek toddlers and preschool children. In the current work the study design, data collection procedures and some preliminary data of the GENESIS study are presented. Methods From April 2003 to July 2004, 1218 males and 1156 females 1 to 5 years old, stratified by parental educational level (Census 1999, were examined from 105 nurseries in five counties. Approximately 300 demographic, lifestyle, physical activity, dietary, anthropometrical and DNA variables have been recorded from the study population (children and parents. Results Regarding anthropometrical indices, boys were found to be taller than girls at all ages (P Conclusion The prevalence of overweight in the current preschool population is considerably high. Future but more extensive analyses of the GENESIS data will be able to reveal the interactions of the parameters leading to this phenomenon.

  1. Cryptic relatedness in epidemiologic collections accessed for genetic association studies: experiences from the Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE) study and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Jennifer; Goodloe, Robert; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Crawford, Dana C

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic collections have been a major resource for genotype-phenotype studies of complex disease given their large sample size, racial/ethnic diversity, and breadth and depth of phenotypes, traits, and exposures. A major disadvantage of these collections is they often survey households and communities without collecting extensive pedigree data. Failure to account for substantial relatedness can lead to inflated estimates and spurious associations. To examine the extent of cryptic relatedness in an epidemiologic collection, we as the Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE) study accessed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) linked to DNA samples ("Genetic NHANES") from NHANES III and NHANES 1999-2002. NHANES are population-based cross-sectional surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Genome-wide genetic data is not yet available in NHANES, and current data use agreements prohibit the generation of GWAS-level data in NHANES samples due issues in maintaining confidentiality among other ethical concerns. To date, only hundreds of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in a variety of candidate genes are available for analysis in NHANES. We performed identity-by-descent (IBD) estimates in three self-identified subpopulations of Genetic NHANES (non-Hispanic white, non- Hispanic black, and Mexican American) using PLINK software to identify potential familial relationships from presumed unrelated subjects. We then compared the PLINKidentified relationships to those identified by an alternative method implemented in Kinship-based INference for Genome-wide association studies (KING). Overall, both methods identified familial relationships in NHANES III and NHANES 1999-2002 for all three subpopulations, but little concordance was observed between the two methods due in major part to the limited SNP data available in Genetic NHANES

  2. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandenbroucke, Jan P; von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G

    2014-01-01

    Much medical research is observational. The reporting of observational studies is often of insufficient quality. Poor reporting hampers the assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of a study and the generalisability of its results. Taking into account empirical evidence and theoretical...... to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results and discussion sections of articles. Eighteen items are common to cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies and four are specific to each of the three study designs. The STROBE Statement provides guidance to authors about how...

  3. Epidemiological study of road traffic accident cases in Greater Noida: Hospital Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali Roy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road accidents are associated with numerous problems each of which needs to be addressed separately [1]. Accidents, therefore, can be studied in terms of agent, host and environmental factors and epidemiologically classified into time, place and person distribution [2]. Objectives: 1.To assess the prevalence of RTAs coming to hospital and 2.To know the epidemiological factors related to RTAs and associated prevalence in hospital based study. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted at SMSR, Gr Noida, in 2012. The study group consisted of all the RTA victims reporting to casualty in the last one year. The victims of the accidents were interviewed on a pretested semi structured performa. Results: In that one year period total number of reported accident cases was 144. The age groups of the study subjects were between 13-65 years. Out of total study subjects, only 16 were female. Again out of the total accident cases 45% were attended by police and of all injured, 45.8% were driver by occupation (7% without driving license. Among these drivers, 11% were not attentive during driving because of various reasons. Ambulance services had reached in 46.5% cases. Fracture was the most common type (60% of injury among all types of injuries. Among the applicable population only 33% wore helmet or seat belts. Conclusions: Only half of the total accident cases were attended by police and again only half of them received ambulance services. One third injuries were because of not wearing seat belt and helmets.

  4. Epidemiological study of road traffic accident cases in Greater Noida: Hospital Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali Roy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road accidents are associated with numerous problems each of which needs to be addressed separately [1]. Accidents, therefore, can be studied in terms of agent, host and environmental factors and epidemiologically classified into time, place and person distribution [2]. Objectives: 1.To assess the prevalence of RTAs coming to hospital and 2.To know the epidemiological factors related to RTAs and associated prevalence in hospital based study. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted at SMSR, Gr Noida, in 2012. The study group consisted of all the RTA victims reporting to casualty in the last one year. The victims of the accidents were interviewed on a pretested semi structured performa. Results: In that one year period total number of reported accident cases was 144. The age groups of the study subjects were between 13-65 years. Out of total study subjects, only 16 were female. Again out of the total accident cases 45% were attended by police and of all injured, 45.8% were driver by occupation (7% without driving license. Among these drivers, 11% were not attentive during driving because of various reasons. Ambulance services had reached in 46.5% cases. Fracture was the most common type (60% of injury among all types of injuries. Among the applicable population only 33% wore helmet or seat belts. Conclusions: Only half of the total accident cases were attended by police and again only half of them received ambulance services. One third injuries were because of not wearing seat belt and helmets.

  5. Osteoarthritis of the first carpometacarpal joint: a study of radiology and clinical epidemiology:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Holm, Stig; Jacobsen, J

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show an increased prevalence of osteoarthritis of the knee and hand with increased body mass index [BMI]. Osteoarthritis of the hip joint is not related to BMI. The connection between obesity and osteoarthritis cannot exclusively be explained by genetic factors or by the a...

  6. Oral health status of adults in Southern Vietnam - a cross-sectional epidemiological study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen-Chau, T.C.; Witter, D.J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Truong, N.B.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Before strategies or protocols for oral health care can be advised at population level, epidemiological information on tooth decay patterns and its effects on oral function are indispensable. The aim of this study was to investigate influences of socio-demographic variables on the

  7. Developmental origins of adult diseases and neurotoxicity: Epidemiological and experimental studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, D.A.; Grandjean, P.; Groot, D. de; Paule, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    To date, only a small number of commercial chemicals have been tested and documented as developmental neurotoxicants. Moreover, an increasing number of epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies suggest an association between toxicant or drug exposure during the perinatal period and the

  8. Polymerase chain reaction-mediated DNA fingerprinting for epidemiological studies on Campylobacter spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesendorf, B A; Goossens, H; Niesters, H G; Van Belkum, A; Koeken, A; Endtz, H P; Stegeman, H; Quint, W G

    The applicability of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-mediated DNA typing, with primers complementary to dispersed repetitive DNA sequences and arbitrarily chosen DNA motifs, to study the epidemiology of campylobacter infection was evaluated. With a single PCR reaction and simple gel electrophoresis,

  9. Epidemiology of inclusion body myositis in the Netherlands : A nationwide study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badrising, UA; Maat-Schieman, M; van Duinen, SG; Breedveld, F; van Doorn, P; van Engelen, B; van den Hoogen, F; Hoogendijk, J; Howeler, C; de Jager, A; Jennekens, F; Koehler, P; van der Leeuw, H; de Visser, M; Verschuuren, JJ; Wintzen, AR

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiologic data on inclusion body myositis (IBM) are scarce, and possibly biased, because they are derived from larger neuromuscular centers. The present nationwide collaborative cross-sectional study, which culminated on July 1, 1999, resulted in identification of 76 patients with IBM and the

  10. Studies on the epidemiology of spear rot in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lande, van de H.L.

    1993-01-01

    The epidemiology of spear rot, an infectious disease of unknown etiology, was studied over 10 years at three government-owned oil palm plantations in Suriname. As with other and similar diseases, amarelecimento fatal in Brazil and pudrición del cogollo in Latin America, which too show rot

  11. Epidemiological study of traumatic dental injuries in 5- to 6-year‑old Brazilian children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berti, G.O.; Hesse, D.; Bonifácio, C.C.; Raggio, D.P.; Bönecker, M.J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring traumatic dental injury (TDI) in primary teeth through epidemiological cross-sectional surveys provides descriptive information relevant to the development of public policies focused on the prevention of such injuries for the target population. The aim of this study was to assess the

  12. Epidemiological and virological characteristics of influenza B: results of the global influenza B study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caini, S.; Sue Huang, Q.; Ciblak, M.A.; Kusznierz, G.; Owen, R.; Wangchuk, S.; Henriques, C.M.P.; Njouom, R.; Fasce, R.A.; Yu, H.; Feng, L.; Zambon, M.; Clara, A.W.; Kosasih, H.; Puzelli, S.; Kasjo, H.A.; Emukule, G.; Hereaud, J.M.; Ang, L.W.; Venter, M.; Mironenko, A.; Brammer, L.; Mai, L.T.Q.; Schellevis, F.; Plotkin, S.; Paget, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Literature on influenza focuses on influenza A, despite influenza B having a large public health impact. The Global Influenza B Study aims to collect information on global epidemiology and burden of disease of influenza B since 2000. Methods Twenty-six countries in the Southern (n = 5)

  13. Epidemiological characteristics, management and early outcomes of acute coronary syndromes in Greece: The PHAETHON study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Andrikopoulos

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: The PHAETHON study provided valuable insights into the epidemiology, management and outcome of ACS patients in Greece. Management of ACS resembles the management observed in other European countries. However, several issues still to be addressed by public authorities for the timely and proper management of ACS.

  14. An Epidemiological Study of Number Processing and Mental Calculation in Greek Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumoula, Anastasia; Tsironi, Vanda; Stamouli, Victoria; Bardani, Irini; Stavroula, Siapati; Graham, Annik; Kafantaris, Ignatios; Charalambidou, Irini; Dellatolas, Georges; von Aster, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate and standardize an instrument for the diagnosis of developmental dyscalculia (mathematics disorder) in a Greek population and to obtain relevant epidemiological data. We used the "Neuropsychological Test Battery for Number Processing and Calculation in Children" (NUCALC) in a community sample of 240 students…

  15. Epidemiological and virological characteristics of influenza B: results of the Global Influenza B Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caini, S.; Huang, Q.S.; Ciblak, M.A.; Kusznierz, G.; Owen, R.; Wangchuk, S.; Henriques, C.M.P.; Njouom, R.; Fasce, R.A.; Yu, H.J.; Feng, L.Z.; Zambon, M.; Clara, A.W.; Kosasih, H.; Puzelli, S.; Kadjo, H.A.; Emukule, G.; Heraud, J.M.; Ang, L.W.; Venter, M.; Mironenko, A.; Brammer, L.; Mai, L.T.Q.; Schellevis, F.G.; Plotkin, S.; Paget, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Literature on influenza focuses on influenza A, despite influenza B having a large public health impact. The Global Influenza B Study aims to collect information on global epidemiology and burden of disease of influenza B since 2000. Methods: Twenty-six countries in the Southern (n=5)

  16. Epidemiological and virological characteristics of influenza B: results of the Global Influenza B Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caini, S.; Huang, Q.S.; Ciblak, M.A.; Kusznierz, G.; Owen, R.; Wangchuk, S.; Henriques, C.M.; Njouom, R.; Fasce, R.A.; Yu, H.; Feng, L.; Zambon, M.; Clara, A.W.; Kosasih, H.; Puzelli, S.; Kadjo, H.A.; Emukule, G.; Heraud, J.M.; Ang, L.W.; Venter, M.; Mironenko, A.; Brammer, L.; Mai, T.Q. le; Schellevis, F.; Plotkin, S.; Paget, J.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Literature on influenza focuses on influenza A, despite influenza B having a large public health impact. The Global Influenza B Study aims to collect information on global epidemiology and burden of disease of influenza B since 2000. METHODS: Twenty-six countries in the Southern (n =

  17. Validating the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa; Scorza, Pamela; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah; Mushashi, Christina; Kayiteshonga, Yvonne; Binagwaho, Agnes; Stulac, Sara; Beardslee, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) as a screen for depression in Rwandan children and adolescents. Although the CES-DC is widely used for depression screening in high-income countries, its validity in low-income and culturally diverse settings, including sub-Saharan…

  18. Introduction and overview. Perinatal carcinogenesis: growing a node for epidemiology, risk management, and animal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Lucy M.

    2004-01-01

    Perinatal carcinogenesis as a cross-disciplinary concern is the subject of this special issue of Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, which consists of a total of eight reviews or commentaries in the areas of epidemiology, risk assessment, and animal models. Some of the conclusions from these articles, and the Questions and Answers section that follows most of them, are summarized here. There is adequate reason to suspect that perinatal exposures contribute to human cancer risk, both childhood cancers, and those appearing later in life. The latter type of risk may actually be quantitatively the more important, and involve a wide range of types of effects, but has received only limited attention. With regard to childhood cancers, fetal irradiation and diethylstilbestrol exposure are known etiological agents, and it is likely, but not yet certain, there are additional external causes of a portion of these. Some current focal points of interest here include nitroso compounds, DNA topoisomerase inhibitors, viruses, anti-AIDS drugs, and endocrine disruptors. Regulatory agencies must rely heavily on animal data for estimation of human risk due to perinatal exposures to chemicals, and the quantity and quality of these data presently available for this purpose are greatly limiting. Correctly designed conventional animal studies with suspect chemicals are still needed. Furthermore, genetically engineered mouse models for childhood cancers, especially medulloblastoma, have become available, and could be used for screening of candidate causative agents for this cancer type, and for better understanding of gene-environment interactions

  19. Autism Spectrum Disorder Reclassified: A Second Look at the 1980s Utah/UCLA Autism Epidemiologic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Judith S.; Farley, Megan; Coon, Hilary; Pinborough-Zimmerman, Judith; Jenson, William; Rice, Catherine E.; Fombonne, Eric; Pingree, Carmen B.; Ritvo, Edward; Ritvo, Riva-Ariella; McMahon, William M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to re-examine diagnostic data from a state-wide autism prevalence study (n = 489) conducted in the 1980s to investigate the impact of broader diagnostic criteria on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) case status. Sixty-four (59 %) of the 108 originally “Diagnosed Not Autistic” met the current ASD case definition. The average IQ estimate in the newly identified group (IQ = 35.58; SD = 23.01) was significantly lower than in the original group (IQ = 56.19 SD = 21.21; t = 5.75; p autism with intellectual disability. The current analysis puts this historic work into context and highlights differences in ascertainment between epidemiological studies performed decades ago and those of today. PMID:22696195

  20. Periodontal infection and adverse pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review of epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vettore Mario Vianna

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate analytical studies on periodontal disease as a possible risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. A literature search of the MEDLINE, SciELO, and LILACS bibliographic databases and CAPES thesis database was conducted up to December 2005, covering epidemiological studies of periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Of the 964 papers identified, 36 analytical studies met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-six epidemiological studies reported associations between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes. There was a clear heterogeneity between studies concerning measurement of periodontal disease and selection of type of adverse pregnancy outcome. Therefore no meta-analysis was performed. Most studies did not control for confounders, thus raising serious doubts about their conclusions. The methodological limitations of most studies did not allow conclusions concerning the effects of periodontal disease on adverse pregnancy outcomes. Larger and methodologically rigorous analytical studies using reliable outcomes and exposure measures are recommended.

  1. Profile of an epidemiological study of urinary schistosomiasis in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Children who played/bathed and collected fresh water snails had higher risks of infection with urinary schistosomiasis in the area. Conclusion: The study draws attention to the health hazards posed by urinary schistosomiasis among children in in the studied area ... praziquantel delivery in mass treatment effort.[6] In. Nigeria ...

  2. A national study of the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Australia 2005–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castley, Alison; Sawleshwarkar, Shailendra; Varma, Rick; Herring, Belinda; Thapa, Kiran; Dwyer, Dominic; Chibo, Doris; Nguyen, Nam; Hawke, Karen; Ratcliff, Rodney; Garsia, Roger; Kelleher, Anthony; Nolan, David

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Rates of new HIV-1 diagnoses are increasing in Australia, with evidence of an increasing proportion of non-B HIV-1 subtypes reflecting a growing impact of migration and travel. The present study aims to define HIV-1 subtype diversity patterns and investigate possible HIV-1 transmission networks within Australia. Methods The Australian Molecular Epidemiology Network (AMEN) HIV collaborating sites in Western Australia, South Australia, Victoria, Queensland and western Sydney (New South Wales), provided baseline HIV-1 partial pol sequence, age and gender information for 4,873 patients who had genotypes performed during 2005–2012. HIV-1 phylogenetic analyses utilised MEGA V6, with a stringent classification of transmission pairs or clusters (bootstrap ≥98%, genetic distance ≤1.5% from at least one other sequence in the cluster). Results HIV-1 subtype B represented 74.5% of the 4,873 sequences (WA 59%, SA 68.4%, w-Syd 73.8%, Vic 75.6%, Qld 82.1%), with similar proportion of transmission pairs and clusters found in the B and non-B cohorts (23% vs 24.5% of sequences, p = 0.3). Significantly more subtype B clusters were comprised of ≥3 sequences compared with non-B clusters (45.0% vs 24.0%, p = 0.021) and significantly more subtype B pairs and clusters were male-only (88% compared to 53% CRF01_AE and 17% subtype C clusters). Factors associated with being in a cluster of any size included; being sequenced in a more recent time period (p3) was associated with being sequenced in a more recent time period (p = 0.05) and being male (p = 0.008). Conclusion This nationwide HIV-1 study of 4,873 patient sequences highlights the increased diversity of HIV-1 subtypes within the Australian epidemic, as well as differences in transmission networks associated with these HIV-1 subtypes. These findings provide epidemiological insights not readily available using standard surveillance methods and can inform the development of effective public health strategies in the

  3. A national study of the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Australia 2005-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Castley

    Full Text Available Rates of new HIV-1 diagnoses are increasing in Australia, with evidence of an increasing proportion of non-B HIV-1 subtypes reflecting a growing impact of migration and travel. The present study aims to define HIV-1 subtype diversity patterns and investigate possible HIV-1 transmission networks within Australia.The Australian Molecular Epidemiology Network (AMEN HIV collaborating sites in Western Australia, South Australia, Victoria, Queensland and western Sydney (New South Wales, provided baseline HIV-1 partial pol sequence, age and gender information for 4,873 patients who had genotypes performed during 2005-2012. HIV-1 phylogenetic analyses utilised MEGA V6, with a stringent classification of transmission pairs or clusters (bootstrap ≥98%, genetic distance ≤1.5% from at least one other sequence in the cluster.HIV-1 subtype B represented 74.5% of the 4,873 sequences (WA 59%, SA 68.4%, w-Syd 73.8%, Vic 75.6%, Qld 82.1%, with similar proportion of transmission pairs and clusters found in the B and non-B cohorts (23% vs 24.5% of sequences, p = 0.3. Significantly more subtype B clusters were comprised of ≥3 sequences compared with non-B clusters (45.0% vs 24.0%, p = 0.021 and significantly more subtype B pairs and clusters were male-only (88% compared to 53% CRF01_AE and 17% subtype C clusters. Factors associated with being in a cluster of any size included; being sequenced in a more recent time period (p3 was associated with being sequenced in a more recent time period (p = 0.05 and being male (p = 0.008.This nationwide HIV-1 study of 4,873 patient sequences highlights the increased diversity of HIV-1 subtypes within the Australian epidemic, as well as differences in transmission networks associated with these HIV-1 subtypes. These findings provide epidemiological insights not readily available using standard surveillance methods and can inform the development of effective public health strategies in the current paradigm of HIV prevention

  4. A national study of the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Australia 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castley, Alison; Sawleshwarkar, Shailendra; Varma, Rick; Herring, Belinda; Thapa, Kiran; Dwyer, Dominic; Chibo, Doris; Nguyen, Nam; Hawke, Karen; Ratcliff, Rodney; Garsia, Roger; Kelleher, Anthony; Nolan, David

    2017-01-01

    Rates of new HIV-1 diagnoses are increasing in Australia, with evidence of an increasing proportion of non-B HIV-1 subtypes reflecting a growing impact of migration and travel. The present study aims to define HIV-1 subtype diversity patterns and investigate possible HIV-1 transmission networks within Australia. The Australian Molecular Epidemiology Network (AMEN) HIV collaborating sites in Western Australia, South Australia, Victoria, Queensland and western Sydney (New South Wales), provided baseline HIV-1 partial pol sequence, age and gender information for 4,873 patients who had genotypes performed during 2005-2012. HIV-1 phylogenetic analyses utilised MEGA V6, with a stringent classification of transmission pairs or clusters (bootstrap ≥98%, genetic distance ≤1.5% from at least one other sequence in the cluster). HIV-1 subtype B represented 74.5% of the 4,873 sequences (WA 59%, SA 68.4%, w-Syd 73.8%, Vic 75.6%, Qld 82.1%), with similar proportion of transmission pairs and clusters found in the B and non-B cohorts (23% vs 24.5% of sequences, p = 0.3). Significantly more subtype B clusters were comprised of ≥3 sequences compared with non-B clusters (45.0% vs 24.0%, p = 0.021) and significantly more subtype B pairs and clusters were male-only (88% compared to 53% CRF01_AE and 17% subtype C clusters). Factors associated with being in a cluster of any size included; being sequenced in a more recent time period (p3) was associated with being sequenced in a more recent time period (p = 0.05) and being male (p = 0.008). This nationwide HIV-1 study of 4,873 patient sequences highlights the increased diversity of HIV-1 subtypes within the Australian epidemic, as well as differences in transmission networks associated with these HIV-1 subtypes. These findings provide epidemiological insights not readily available using standard surveillance methods and can inform the development of effective public health strategies in the current paradigm of HIV prevention in

  5. Epidemiologic studies of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular disease and ETS exposure from spousal smoking.

    OpenAIRE

    Thun, M; Henley, J; Apicella, L

    1999-01-01

    This article reviews the epidemiologic studies of the association of ischemic heart disease risk and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure from a spouse who smokes. Seventeen studies (nine cohort, eight case-control) comprising more than 485,000 lifelong nonsmokers and 7,345 coronary heart disease (CHD) events were included in a meta-analysis. Together, these studies include 36% more CHD events and 58% more study subjects than were available for review by the U. S. Occupational Safety an...

  6. Study review : The European Nutrient Database (ENDB) for Nutritional Epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charrondiere, U.R.; Vignat, J.; Moller, A.; Ireland, J.; Becker, W.; Church, S.; Farran, A.; Holden, J.; Klemm, C.; Linardou, A.; Mueller, D.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2002-01-01

    Food composition databases (FCDB), as well as standardized calculation procedures are required for international studies on nutrition and disease to calculate nutrient intakes across countries. Comparisons of national FCDBs have shown that major improvements are needed in standardization and

  7. Epidemiological study on Gastrointestinal Helminths of horses in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopia's endemic mammals (Ethiopia Tourism Commission, 2012). Study animals and design .... This is in line with previous report from Ethiopia by Feseha Gebreab (1998) and other countries such as .... Dubai, UAE. 318-324. Ashenafi, H.

  8. Application of the CALUX bioassay for epidemiological study. Analyses of Belgian human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouwe, N. van; Debacker, N.; Sasse, A. [Scientific Institute of Public Health, Brussels (BE)] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    The CALUX bioassay is a promising screening method for the detection of dioxin-like compounds. The observed good sensitivity, low number of false negative results as well as the good correlations with the GC-HRMS TEQ-values in case of feed and food analyses allow this method to climb in the first assessment methods' scale. The low amount of sample needed in addition to those latest advantages suggest that the CALUX bioassay could be a good screening method for epidemiological studies. The Belgian epidemiological study concerning the possible effect of the dioxin incident on the body burden of the Belgian population was an opportunity to test this method in comparison to the gold reference one: the GC-HRMS. The first part of this abstract presents epidemiological parameters (sensibility, specificity,) of the CALUX bioassay using CALUX TEQ-values as estimators of the TEQ-values of the 17 PCDD/Fs. The second part examines epidemiological determinants observed for CALUX and GCHRMS TEQ-values.

  9. Epidemiological studies of suicide in patients with psychiatric illness

    OpenAIRE

    Reutfors, Johan

    2010-01-01

    A link between suicide and psychiatric illness is well recognized. However, knowledge is limited as to what characterizes suicide in different mental disorders. The overall aim of the work described in this thesis was to increase the understanding of suicide in psychiatric illness. Study I: In this population-based case-control study, all suicide cases 18 years and older in Sweden from 1991 to 2003 (14,501 men and 6,174 women) were individually matched to ten controls from t...

  10. An epidemiological study for the reduction of population radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamo, Makoto

    1989-01-01

    The correlation of tube voltage with patient exposure was studied using effective dose as an indicator of dose reduction in intraoral radiography. The results were as follows: l. The salivary gland tissues contributed the most to the effective dose of intraoral radiography. 2. In the 50 to 90 kV range, there was no appreciable correlation between tube voltage and effective dose. 3. Therefore, it was suggested that adjusting the tube voltage for maximum image quality does not effect radiation protection. 4. This study reconfirmed the fact that increases in voltages up to 90 kV reduce skin doses. (author)

  11. Can Machines Learn Respiratory Virus Epidemiology?: A Comparative Study of Likelihood-Free Methods for the Estimation of Epidemiological Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi L. Tessmer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To estimate and predict the transmission dynamics of respiratory viruses, the estimation of the basic reproduction number, R0, is essential. Recently, approximate Bayesian computation methods have been used as likelihood free methods to estimate epidemiological model parameters, particularly R0. In this paper, we explore various machine learning approaches, the multi-layer perceptron, convolutional neural network, and long-short term memory, to learn and estimate the parameters. Further, we compare the accuracy of the estimates and time requirements for machine learning and the approximate Bayesian computation methods on both simulated and real-world epidemiological data from outbreaks of influenza A(H1N1pdm09, mumps, and measles. We find that the machine learning approaches can be verified and tested faster than the approximate Bayesian computation method, but that the approximate Bayesian computation method is more robust across different datasets.

  12. A review of epidemiological studies of asthma in Ghana | Amoah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context/Background: The last few decades have witnessed a rise in the global prevalence of asthma with a number of risk factors being linked to this increase. Although there is insufficient data on the prevalence of asthma in Ghana, a few studies conducted in this country have shed light on the disease aetiology and ...

  13. Epidemiological study of risk factors in pediatric asthma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    Methods: This cross sectional study involved 206 asthmatic children, 5 to 15 years old. They were enrolled from the School ... exercise-induced asthma while 64.6% stated that emotional stress triggered their symptoms. ... Keywords: asthma severity; asthma triggers; children; residence; risk factors; smoking; social status.

  14. Nonbattle Injury Among Deployed Troops: An Epidemiologic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Center, C/0 American Embassy- Peru Unit Number 3800, APO AA 34031-0008. §U. S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 2, Box 3, Unit 8132, FPO AP 96520-8132... overweight and excessive BMI in males and LOD injuries.’^ Furthermore, a study by Bell et al., found that higher injury rates among females at Army

  15. Diet and overweight. Epidemiological studies on intake, environment and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, S.W. van den

    2016-01-01

    Aim and methods This thesis aimed to study the role of a wide range of dietary factors on the development of overweight from a population perspective. First, we estimated the energy gap, i.e. the excess daily energy intake over the daily energy expenditure, responsible for excess weight gain

  16. Epidemiological study on gastrointestinal tract hel- minthosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zone practice a crop - livestock mixed farming and keep combination of live- ... of animals (Goat and sheep), sex of animals (male and female), age of animals .... Mean worm burden of Haemonchus contortus was significantly high in older ..... high and mid land portion of the study site where sheep were forced to graze.

  17. An epidemiological study of gammaglobulin levels in newborn calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbelaar, P.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Keulen, K.A.S. van

    The effect of various factors on serum gammaglobulin concentration in newborn dairy calves was studied in 181 calves on six commercial farms. The refractometer test for monitoring colostrum management was found to be a reliable, rapid and practical method up to 6 days after birth. The three factors,

  18. Suicide in patients with Parkinson's disease. An epidemiological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Wermuth, L; Stenager, Egon

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the risk of suicide for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) in Denmark compared with that in the background population. The study involved 458 patients with a PD diagnosis, 226 men and 232 women. The follow-up period to either death or end of follow......-up on December 31, 1990 was 0 to 17 years, mean 5.7 years. Deaths in the follow-up period amounted to 254, 135 men and 119 women. Two women committed suicide. The number of expected suicides was 1.06 for men and 0.55 for women, a total of 1.62. Neither for men nor for women was the difference between expected...... and observed suicides statistically significant....

  19. Oral pyogenic granuloma: a epidemiologic study of 191 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Santana SANTOS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of pyogenic granuloma and compare the data obtained with those of other reports in the worldliterature. Methods: The study material was surveyed from the records of patients with diagnosis of oral pyogenic granuloma, at the Oral Pathology Laboratory of the School of Dentistry of the University of Pernambuco, in the period from January 1992 to March 2007 (15 years. The following indicators were analyzed: gender, age group, race, anatomic location, diameter of lesions and presence of symptomatology.Results: Among the 5007 records in the laboratory, 3.81% corresponded to lesions diagnosed as oral pyogenic granuloma, in which 19.9% of the patients were in the second decade of life, 40.1% were white, the gingiva was the most affected location (77.9% and lesion of smaller diameter (0.1 to 2 cm were those most observed at the initial diagnosis. Conclusion: The clinical-pathological characteristics of oral pyogenic granuloma in the studied population are similar to those of other studies in the literature

  20. Spillover effects in epidemiology: parameters, study designs and methodological considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin-Chung, Jade; Arnold, Benjamin F; Berger, David; Luby, Stephen P; Miguel, Edward; Colford Jr, John M; Hubbard, Alan E

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Many public health interventions provide benefits that extend beyond their direct recipients and impact people in close physical or social proximity who did not directly receive the intervention themselves. A classic example of this phenomenon is the herd protection provided by many vaccines. If these ‘spillover effects’ (i.e. ‘herd effects’) are present in the same direction as the effects on the intended recipients, studies that only estimate direct effects on recipients will likely underestimate the full public health benefits of the intervention. Causal inference assumptions for spillover parameters have been articulated in the vaccine literature, but many studies measuring spillovers of other types of public health interventions have not drawn upon that literature. In conjunction with a systematic review we conducted of spillovers of public health interventions delivered in low- and middle-income countries, we classified the most widely used spillover parameters reported in the empirical literature into a standard notation. General classes of spillover parameters include: cluster-level spillovers; spillovers conditional on treatment or outcome density, distance or the number of treated social network links; and vaccine efficacy parameters related to spillovers. We draw on high quality empirical examples to illustrate each of these parameters. We describe study designs to estimate spillovers and assumptions required to make causal inferences about spillovers. We aim to advance and encourage methods for spillover estimation and reporting by standardizing spillover parameter nomenclature and articulating the causal inference assumptions required to estimate spillovers. PMID:29106568

  1. Epidemiology of Nocardiosis -A six years study from Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reetika Dawar, Ruchi Girotra, Seema Quadri, Firdaus Imdadi, Leena Mendiratta, Hena Rani, Avdesh Bansal, Raman Sardana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To isolate and speciate Nocardia species from clinical samples and to study their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern to different antimicrobials. Various risk factors associated with nocardiosis were also studied. Methods: 32 clinical specimens with clinical history of pneumonia, abscesses, or disseminated infections were collected over a period of 6 years (2009-2014 from Inpatient and Outpatient departments and processed for Nocardia cultures and sensitivity. Results: Twelve cases of nocardiosis were reported out of 32 clinically suspected cases. The mean age of presentation in our study was 57.9 years. Pneumonia was the most common clinical presentation followed by primary cutaneous disease and one case of disseminated disease. 8/ 10 patients with nocardiosis were immunocompromised with history of organ transplantation, use of immunosuppressive agents or steroids. Based on biochemical reactions 5 of the isolates were identified as N. asteroides, 3 N. brasiliensis, 2 N. farcinica and 1 each were N. transvalensis, & N. nova. All were sensitive to linezolid followed by cotrimoxazole (91.6% Conclusions: With increasing number of immunocompromised patients and an increased incidence of nocardiosis, diagnosis of Nocardia infections should always be kept in mind as it can present with nonspecific symptoms and can mimic confused with other diseases. Linezolid, Cotrimoxazole, imipenem and minocycline were found to be very effective, in vitro, against most Nocardia species. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2016;6(2: 60-64

  2. Using Geographic Information Systems for Exposure Assessment in Environmental Epidemiology Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Nuckols, John R.; Ward, Mary H.; Jarup, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) are being used with increasing frequency in environmental epidemiology studies. Reported applications include locating the study population by geocoding addresses (assigning mapping coordinates), using proximity analysis of contaminant source as a surrogate for exposure, and integrating environmental monitoring data into the analysis of the health outcomes. Although most of these studies have been ecologic in design, some have used GIS in estimating enviro...

  3. Carcinogenic risk for workers exposed to ionizing radiation. A critical review of present epidemiologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirmarche, M.

    1987-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies on workers who have been exposed to ionizing radiation have allowed to demonstrate certain cancer risks associated with elevated, often retrospectively reconstituted exposures. Present studies on still active workers or workers having worked for the last 15 years are indispensable to define the risk associated with low irradiation doses; they must, however, take into account confounding factors that may play a role in the etiology of the cancer studied

  4. A pilot study: research poster presentations as an educational tool for undergraduate epidemiology students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deonandan R

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Raywat Deonandan, James Gomes, Eric Lavigne, Thy Dinh, Robert Blanchard Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada Abstract: Students in a fourth year epidemiology course were surveyed after participating in a formal Science Research Day in which they presented original research, in poster form, to be judged by scientists from the community. Of 276 participating students, 80 (29% responded to the study survey. As a result, 19% of respondents were more likely to pursue a career in science, and 27.5% were more likely to pursue a career in epidemiology. Only one respondent reported being less likely to pursue a science career, while seven were less likely to pursue epidemiology. A majority of respondents felt that the poster experience was on par with, or superior to, a comparable research paper, in terms of both educational appeal and enjoyment. Mandatory, formal poster presentations are an innovative format for teaching advanced health sciences, and may more accurately reflect the realities of a science career than do more traditional educational formats. Keywords: epidemiology, education, undergraduate, research–teaching nexus

  5. Implementation and reporting of causal mediation analysis in 2015: a systematic review in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shao-Hsien; Ulbricht, Christine M; Chrysanthopoulou, Stavroula A; Lapane, Kate L

    2016-07-20

    Causal mediation analysis is often used to understand the impact of variables along the causal pathway of an occurrence relation. How well studies apply and report the elements of causal mediation analysis remains unknown. We systematically reviewed epidemiological studies published in 2015 that employed causal mediation analysis to estimate direct and indirect effects of observed associations between an exposure on an outcome. We identified potential epidemiological studies through conducting a citation search within Web of Science and a keyword search within PubMed. Two reviewers independently screened studies for eligibility. For eligible studies, one reviewer performed data extraction, and a senior epidemiologist confirmed the extracted information. Empirical application and methodological details of the technique were extracted and summarized. Thirteen studies were eligible for data extraction. While the majority of studies reported and identified the effects of measures, most studies lacked sufficient details on the extent to which identifiability assumptions were satisfied. Although most studies addressed issues of unmeasured confounders either from empirical approaches or sensitivity analyses, the majority did not examine the potential bias arising from the measurement error of the mediator. Some studies allowed for exposure-mediator interaction and only a few presented results from models both with and without interactions. Power calculations were scarce. Reporting of causal mediation analysis is varied and suboptimal. Given that the application of causal mediation analysis will likely continue to increase, developing standards of reporting of causal mediation analysis in epidemiological research would be prudent.

  6. Headache and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Daniela A G; Bigal, Marcelo E; Jales, Luciana C F; Camparis, Cinara M; Speciali, José G

    2010-02-01

    A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of migraine, episodic tension-type headaches (ETTH), and chronic daily headaches (CDH), as well as the presence of symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in the adult population. The potential comorbidity of headache syndromes and TMD has been established mostly based on clinic-based studies. A representative sample of 1230 inhabitants (51.5% women) was interviewed by a validated phone survey. TMD symptoms were assessed through 5 questions, as recommended by the American Academy of Orofacial Pain, in an attempt to classify possible TMD. Primary headaches were diagnosed based on the International Classification of Headache Disorders. When at least 1 TMD symptom was reported, any headache happened in 56.5% vs 31.9% (P headache as the reference, the prevalence of at least 1 TMD symptom was increased in ETTH (prevalence ratio = 1.48, 95% confidence interval = 1.20-1.79), migraine (2.10, 1.80-2.47) and CDH (2.41, 1.84-3.17). At least 2 TMD symptoms also happened more frequently in migraine (4.4, 3.0-6.3), CDH (3.4; 1.5-7.6), and ETTH (2.1; 1.3-3.2), relative to individuals with no headaches. Finally, 3 or more TMD symptoms were also more common in migraine (6.2; 3.8-10.2) than in no headaches. Differences were significant for ETTH (2.7 1.5-4.8), and were numerically but not significant for CDH (2.3; 0.66-8.04). Temporomandibular disorder symptoms are more common in migraine, ETTH, and CDH relative to individuals without headache. Magnitude of association is higher for migraine. Future studies should clarify the nature of the relationship.

  7. Viral Warts-A Clinico-Epidemiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmisha Chandrashekar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Although clinical criteria, laboratory diagnosis and treatment are well established, scanty attention has been paid to prevalence and pattern of viral warts in India. HIV is widely prevalent and its influence on the number and morphology of viral warts has not yet been studied in our setup. Hence, this study was undertaken. One hindered and forty four cases of viral warts were studied between September 2000 and June 2002 at the department of Dermatology and STD, JIPMER, Pondicherry. These included 81childeren and 63 adults. In Children, viral warts were most commonly seen in the age group of 10to14 years (41.9%, whereas in adults, the most commonly seen in the age 14to20 years (46.03%. The average age at presentation was 11.5 years. The male to female ratio was 2.2 to 1 in children and 1.8 to 1 in adults. Family history of warts was observed in 27.7% of the cases. In children, multiple site involvement (62.9% was more common than single site involvement. The most commonly involved site was hand in children as also in adults. In adults, single site involvement (66.6%was more common than multiple site involvement. The most common type of wart seen in both children and adults was the common wart. Twenty percent of the cases showed koebnerization. Four cases were found to be seropositive for HIV infection, who were adult with genital warts, but florid manifestations were not seen.

  8. Orbital fractures due to domestic violence: an epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Stuart H.; McRill, Connie M.; Bruno, Christopher R.; Ten Have, Tom; Lehman, Erik

    2000-09-01

    Domestic violence is an important cause of orbital fractures in women. Physicians who treat patients with orbital fractures may not suspect this mechanism of injury. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between domestic violence and orbital fractures. A medical center-based case-control study with matching on age and site of admission was done. Medical center databases were searched using ICD-9 codes to identify all cases of orbital fractures encountered during a three-year period. Medical records of female patients age 13 and older were reviewed along with those of age, gender and site of admission matched controls. A stratified exact test was employed to test the association between domestic violence and orbital fracture. Among 41 adult female cases with orbital fractures treated at our medical center, three (7.3%) reported domestic violence compared to zero among the matched controls (p = 0.037). We believe that domestic violence may be under-reported in both orbital fracture cases and controls. This may result in an underestimate of the orbital fracture versus domestic violence association. Domestic violence is a serious women's health and societal problem. Domestic violence may have a variety of presentations, including illnesses and injuries. Orbital fracture is an identifiable manifestation of domestic violence. Domestic violence is more likely to be detected in adult female hospital patients with orbital fracture than in matched controls with any other diagnosis. Physicians who treat patients with orbital fractures should be familiar with this mechanism of injury.

  9. Prevalence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Ramshir, Iran; an Epidemiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vazirianzadeh B.* PhD,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a prevalent parasitological disease with diverse clinical manifestations in Iran. Therefore, the present retrospective study carried out to describe the demographic features of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ramshir, Iran. Materials & Methods This descriptive study was performed on 136 cutaneous leishmaniasis patients whose data were recorded in the Ramshir health center during 2006-9. Demographic information of patients including age, sex, habitat and sites of lesions, month and years of incidence were recorded. The data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software. Findings Totally 79 patients (58.1% resided in urban areas and the born to 9 years (49.3% was recognized as the most infected age group. Hands (41.2% had the highest rates of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions followed by face (36.0% and foot (22.8%. The maximum number of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions was reported in March. Conclusion As cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ramshir seemed to be an endemic rural type, the appropriate preventing measures regarding to the rural cutaneous leishmaniasis should be considered to decrease incidence of the disease in the region.

  10. Traumatic spinal cord injuries in southeast Turkey: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamehmetoğlu, S S; Nas, K; Karacan, I; Sarac, A J; Koyuncu, H; Ataoğlu, S; Erdoğan, F

    1997-08-01

    In 1994, a retrospective study of new cases of traumatic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) was conducted in all the hospitals in Southeast Turkey: 75 new traumatic SCI were identified. The estimated annual incidence was 16.9 per million population. The male/female ratio was 5.8/1. The mean age was 31.3, being 31.25 for male patients and 31.36 for female patients. 70.7% of all patients were under the age of 40. The major causes of SCI were falls (37.3%) and gunshot wounds (29.3%), followed by car accidents (25.3%), and stab wounds (1.3%). Thirty one patients (41.3%) were tetraplegic and 44 (58.7%) paraplegic. In tetraplegic patients the commonest level was C5, in those with paraplegia L1. The commonest associated injury was head trauma followed by fractures of the extremity(ies). Severe head trauma, being a major cause of death, may have obscured the actual incidence of SCI. Most of gunshot injured SCI patients were young soldiers fighting against the rebels. As there was no available data for the rebels with SCI, the actual incidence of SCI in Southeast (SE) Turkey should be higher than that found in this study.

  11. Epidemiological study of insect bite reactions from Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The physical effects of the arthropod bites on human skin receive less attention, especially in the rural areas where the per capita income is less. Ours is a rural-based hospital, the vicinity having more of plants, trees, and forests; we undertook the study to find out the relation of insect bite dermatitis in a rural area. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in the Dermatology outpatient department of our institute on 100 subjects of insect bite dermatitis who were questioned retrospectively about the sequence of events besides their environmental and living conditions. They were examined thoroughly and the relevant clinical findings were noted, also taking into account the prior treatment taken by them, if any. Results and Conclusions: It was found that insect bite dermatitis has no age or gender preponderance, and the protective factors for the same are use of full sleeve clothes and keeping the doors and windows closed at night. On the contrary, the risk factors are residence in areas of heavy insect infestation, use of perfumes and colognes, warm weather in spring and summer and the lack of protective measures. However, there was no direct association of atopy with increased risk of developing insect bite dermatitis.

  12. The epidemiological modelling of dysthymia: application for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlson, Fiona J; Ferrari, Alize J; Flaxman, Abraham D; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2013-10-01

    In order to capture the differences in burden between the subtypes of depression, the Global Burden of Disease 2010 Study for the first time estimated the burden of dysthymia and major depressive disorder separately from the previously used umbrella term 'unipolar depression'. A global summary of epidemiological parameters are necessary inputs in burden of disease calculations for 21 world regions, males and females and for the year 1990, 2005 and 2010. This paper reports findings from a systematic review of global epidemiological data and the subsequent development of an internally consistent epidemiological model of dysthymia. A systematic search was conducted to identify data sources for the prevalence, incidence, remission and excess-mortality of dysthymia using Medline, PsycINFO and EMBASE electronic databases and grey literature. DisMod-MR, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, was used to check the epidemiological parameters for internal consistency and to predict estimates for world regions with no or few data. The systematic review identified 38 studies meeting inclusion criteria which provided 147 data points for 30 countries in 13 of 21 world regions. Prevalence increases in the early ages, peaking at around 50 years. Females have higher prevalence of dysthymia than males. Global pooled prevalence remained constant across time points at 1.55% (95%CI 1.50-1.60). There was very little regional variation in prevalence estimates. There were eight GBD world regions for which we found no data for which DisMod-MR had to impute estimates. The addition of internally consistent epidemiological estimates by world region, age, sex and year for dysthymia contributed to a more comprehensive estimate of mental health burden in GBD 2010. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Complete hydatiforme mole in Morocco: epidemiological and clinical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufettal, H; Coullin, P; Mahdaoui, S; Noun, M; Hermas, S; Samouh, N

    2011-09-01

    Complete hydatidiform moles (CHM) are a real public health problem, especially in the "southern countries" and Asia, because of their impact on the female reproduction and the risk to progression to either invasive mole or choriocarcinoma. We collected the cases of CHM referred to our department over a period of ten years (2000 to 2009). We will present our results, emphasize the modalities of diagnosis, treatment and evolution, with a review of literature. During this study, we identified 254 cases of CHM, and recorded 57,987 births and 1627 abortions. Their incidence was 0.43% of pregnancies. The mean age of our patients is 25 years old (16 to 55). Relative risk observed was much increased among women under 20 years old (×6.8) and those over 40 years old (×15). Both of nulliparous and primiparous patients represented 52.3% of the cohort. Eighty-five percent of patients belonged to an agricultural environment associated with a low socio-economic status. Uterine bleeding was the most common symptom accounting for 93.7%. Toxic syndrome was present in 18.5% of patients. Physical examination showed a highly increased uterine size in 85% of cases associated with lateral uterine mass in 25% of cases. The diagnosis was suspected using ultrasonography in all cases associated with an elevated level of plasmatic β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (βhCG). All cases were confirmed histologically. Treatment used was endo-uterine aspiration in all cases. Recurrence of CHM was documented in 25 patients or 9.4%. Neoplasic progression was observed for 6.3% of cases. All of them have evolved into remission with chemotherapy. CHM continue to be a public health problem in Morocco, their incidence is among the highest ones. In fact, this studied population corresponds to the lowest socio-economic status and generally described as population at risk. It is subject to drastic weather's conditions causing loss of fresh products. Extreme ages and degree of parity are also risk factors

  14. Los Alamos National Laboratory: A guide to records series supporting epidemiologic studies conducted for the Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to describe each series of records that pertains to the epidemiologic studies conducted by the Epidemiology Section of the Occupational Medicine Group (ESH-2) at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in Los Alamos, New Mexico. The records described in this guide relate to occupational studies performed by the Epidemiology Section, including those pertaining to workers at LANL, Mound Plant, Oak Ridge Reservation, Pantex Plant, Rocky Flats Plant, and Savannah River Site. Also included are descriptions of other health-related records generated or collected by the Epidemiology Section and a small set of records collected by the Industrial Hygiene and Safety Group. This guide is not designed to describe the universe of records generated by LANL which may be used for epidemiologic studies of the LANL work force. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project, HAI`s role in the project, the history of LANL the history and functions of LANL`s Health Division and Epidemiology Section, and the various epidemiologic studies performed by the Epidemiology Section. It provides information on the methodology that HAI used to inventory and describe records housed in the offices of the LANL Epidemiology Section in Technical Area 59 and at the LANL Records Center. Other topics include the methodology used to produce the guide, the arrangement of the detailed record series descriptions, and information concerning access to records repositories.

  15. Epidemiological follow-up study of Japanese Thorotrast cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, T.; Maruyama, T.; Kato, Y.; Takahashi, S.

    1979-01-01

    The authors conducted a follow-up study on 243 Thorotrast-administered war-wounded ex-servicemen in 1975, after a lapse of 30 to 38 years from Thorotrast injections, and found 18 cases of malignant hepatic tumor, 15 cases of other malignant tumors, 2 cases of blood diseases, and 9 cases of liver cirrhosis in 224 cases who had been given Thorotrast intravascularly. The incidence of hepatic and other malignant tumors, blood diseases, and liver cirrhosis was significantly higher than in the controls. The total number of deaths in the Thorotrast-administered cases was also significantly higher than in the controls. In the remaining 19 cases who had been given Thorotrast by a route other than intravascularly, no fatal case related to Thorotrast administration was discovered. In the living cases, however, one sarcoma was observed to have developed at the site of the Thorotrast injection

  16. Balancing geo-privacy and spatial patterns in epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chou Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To balance the protection of geo-privacy and the accuracy of spatial patterns, we developed a geo-spatial tool (GeoMasker intended to mask the residential locations of patients or cases in a geographic information system (GIS. To elucidate the effects of geo-masking parameters, we applied 2010 dengue epidemic data from Taiwan testing the tool’s performance in an empirical situation. The similarity of pre- and post-spatial patterns was measured by D statistics under a 95% confidence interval. In the empirical study, different magnitudes of anonymisation (estimated Kanonymity ≥10 and 100 were achieved and different degrees of agreement on the pre- and post-patterns were evaluated. The application is beneficial for public health workers and researchers when processing data with individuals’ spatial information.

  17. Epidemiological study of health hazards among workers handling engineered nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing; Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Wang, Shu-Li; Li, Lih-Ann; Chiang, Hung-Che; Li, Wan-Fen; Lin, Pin-Pin; Lai, Ching-Huang; Lee, Hui-Ling; Lin, Ming-Hsiu; Hsu, Jin-Huei; Chen, Chiou-Rong; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Liao, Hui-Yi; Chung, Yu-Teh

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish and identify the health effect markers of workers with potential exposure to nanoparticles (20–100 nm) during manufacturing and/or application of nanomaterials. For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 227 workers who handled nanomaterials and 137 workers for comparison who did not from 14 plants in Taiwan. A questionnaire was used to collect data on exposure status, demographics, and potential confounders. The health effect markers were measured in the medical laboratory. Control banding from the Nanotool Risk Level Matrix was used to categorize the exposure risk levels of the workers. The results showed that the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) in risk level 1 (RL1) and risk level 2 (RL2) workers was significantly (p RL1 > RL2). Another antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), was significantly lower only in RL1 workers than in the control workers. The cardiovascular markers, fibrinogen and ICAM (intercellular adhesion molecule), were significantly higher in RL2 workers than in controls and a significant dose–response with an increasing trend was found for these two cardiovascular markers. Another cardiovascular marker, interleukin-6, was significantly increased among RL1 workers, but not among RL2 workers. The accuracy rate for remembering 7-digits and reciting them backwards was significantly lower in RL2 workers (OR = 0.48) than in controls and a significantly reversed gradient was also found for the correct rate of backward memory (OR = 0.90 for RL1, OR = 0.48 for RL2, p < 0.05 in test for trend). Depression of antioxidant enzymes and increased expression of cardiovascular markers were found among workers handling nanomaterials. Antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD and GPX, and cardiovascular markers, such as fibrinogen, ICAM, and interluekin-6, are possible biomarkers for medical surveillance of workers handling engineered nanomaterials.

  18. HIV in females: A clinico-epidemiological study

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    Mahesha Padyana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virusinfected women account for almost half the number of cases of HIV worldwide. Despite reduction in HIV prevalence among the population, the percentage of Indian women contracting the disease seems to have increased. The social implications are also different in females. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted from September 2009 to July 2011 at tertiary care hospitals attached to the Kasturba Medical College Mangalore, on a group of 200 HIV-positive patients. Patients above 18 years of age diagnosed with HIV as per National AIDS Control Organisation guidelines were included in the study. Clinical profile among women and men was compared with respect to clinical presentation, disease detection, CD4 count and response of family and society. Results: Clinical presentation was similar among both men and women. Eighty-one percent men had promiscual sexual exposure, 19% of women had so. Males were identified to be HIV-positive earlier than their spouse (tested later, time lag being 27.6 weeks. After detection of positivity 77% of females felt being less cared for by the in-laws. CD4 count less than 50 was detected in more number of females as compared to men (11% females and 1% males. Death of spouse was seen more often in females (among 35% of women and 11% of men. Conclusion: Most of the females were likely to acquire infection from their spouse. Females tend to seek and get medical attention at the late stage of disease as compared to men. HIV in females has different social implications which includes discrimination within the family.

  19. Studies on simple goitre epidemiology and aetiology in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medani, A M. H. [Atomic Energy Researches Coordination Council, Sudan Academy of Sciences, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2008-03-15

    The objectives of this study were to map the prevalence of goiter in Sudan and to study the etiological factors involved. A further objective was to explore the use of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) level in the assessment of endemic goiter. The survey took place in the period from June to November 2006. The survey covered nine cities including Nyala and Elfasher (Western part), Wau (in the South), Atbara and Dongula (in the north), Dmazine (South East), Port Sudan (Eastern part), Kosti and Khartoum (in the Centre ). Khartoum was divided into three different cities Khartoum, Khartoum North and Omdurman. The study included 6181 male and female schoolchildren at the age 6-12 years old. All the children were clinically examined for the presence of goiter using WHO palpation method. Blood samples were randomly collected from 360 children (30-37) from each selected city irrespective of their thyroid status or gender. Serum samples were analyzed for the concentration of T{sub 4}, T{sub 3}, TSH, and Tg. Casual urine samples were also collected from the same selected subjects. Urine samples were analyzed for iodine and thiocyanate concentrations. Water samples were collected from each school and analyzed for the concentration of Ca, Mg, Cl, F and total Hardness. The results indicated that the overall total goiter rate was 40.62%. The highest goiter rate was found in Kosti town (77.67%) and the lowest in Omdurman Khartoum state (12.22%). The overall median urinary iodine excretion (UIE) was 6.55 {mu}g/dl. Iodine deficiency was detected in 70.28% of the children and there were great variations in the median UIE from region to anther started from as low as 2.70{mu}g/d1 in Kosti town 46.40 {mu}g/d1 in Port Sudan city (at the cost of the Red Sed). The overall median concentration of urinary thiocyanate was 0.37 mg/d1. There were also variations in the median levels of urinary thiocyanate from city to another and slightly exceeded the cut off point (0.0.46 mg/d1) in pupils from Wau

  20. Studies on simple goitre epidemiology and aetiology in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medani, A. M. H.

    2008-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to map the prevalence of goiter in Sudan and to study the etiological factors involved. A further objective was to explore the use of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) level in the assessment of endemic goiter. The survey took place in the period from June to November 2006. The survey covered nine cities including Nyala and Elfasher (Western part), Wau (in the South), Atbara and Dongula (in the north), Dmazine (South East), Port Sudan (Eastern part), Kosti and Khartoum (in the Centre ). Khartoum was divided into three different cities Khartoum, Khartoum North and Omdurman. The study included 6181 male and female schoolchildren at the age 6-12 years old. All the children were clinically examined for the presence of goiter using WHO palpation method. Blood samples were randomly collected from 360 children (30-37) from each selected city irrespective of their thyroid status or gender. Serum samples were analyzed for the concentration of T 4 , T 3 , TSH, and Tg. Casual urine samples were also collected from the same selected subjects. Urine samples were analyzed for iodine and thiocyanate concentrations. Water samples were collected from each school and analyzed for the concentration of Ca, Mg, Cl, F and total Hardness. The results indicated that the overall total goiter rate was 40.62%. The highest goiter rate was found in Kosti town (77.67%) and the lowest in Omdurman Khartoum state (12.22%). The overall median urinary iodine excretion (UIE) was 6.55 μg/dl. Iodine deficiency was detected in 70.28% of the children and there were great variations in the median UIE from region to anther started from as low as 2.70μg/d1 in Kosti town 46.40 μg/d1 in Port Sudan city (at the cost of the Red Sed). The overall median concentration of urinary thiocyanate was 0.37 mg/d1. There were also variations in the median levels of urinary thiocyanate from city to another and slightly exceeded the cut off point (0.0.46 mg/d1) in pupils from Wau and Nyala cities

  1. [Eco-epidemiology: towards epidemiology of complexity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizouarn, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    In order to solve public health problems posed by the epidemiology of risk factors centered on the individual and neglecting the causal processes linking the risk factors with the health outcomes, Mervyn Susser proposed a multilevel epidemiology called eco-epidemiology, addressing the interdependence of individuals and their connection with molecular, individual, societal, environmental levels of organization participating in the causal disease processes. The aim of this epidemiology is to integrate more than a level of organization in design, analysis and interpretation of health problems. After presenting the main criticisms of risk-factor epidemiology focused on the individual, we will try to show how eco-epidemiology and its development could help to understand the need for a broader and integrative epidemiology, in which studies designed to identify risk factors would be balanced by studies designed to answer other questions equally vital to public health. © 2016 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  2. Review of epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, B.S.

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological studies undertaken in many radiation exposed cohorts have played an important role in the quantification of radiation risk. Follow up of nearly 100,000 A-bomb survivors by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), constitutes the most comprehensive human epidemiological study. The study population covered both sexes, different age groups and dose ranges from a few mSv to 2-3 Sv. Among nearly 90,000 cohorts, as on 1990, 54% are alive. Among these, 35,000 are those exposed as children at the age<20 years. Nearly 20 % of the mortalities (8,040) were due to cancer. It was estimated from the analysis of these data that among the cancers observed in LSS cohorts, 425±45 cases (335 solid cancers+90 leukaemias) were attributable to radiation exposure. Assuming a value of two for DDREF, ICRP 60, 1991 estimated a cancer risk of 5% per Sv for low dose and low dose rate exposure conditions. There have been a number of efforts to study the human populations exposed to low level radiations. Epidemiological studies on nuclear workers from USA, UK and Canada constituting 95,673 workers spanning 2,124,526 person years was reported by Cardis et al. (1995). Total number of deaths were 15,825, of which 3,976 were cancer mortalities. The excess relative risk for all cancers excluding leukaemia is -0.07 per Sv (-0.4- +0.3) and for leukaemia (excluding CLL) is 2.18 (0.1-5.7). Epidemiological studies in high background radiation areas (HBRA) of Yangjiang, China and coastal Kerala showed no detectable increase in the incidence of cancers or of any genetic disorders. Epidemiological studies in human populations exposed to elevated background radiation for several generations did not show any increase in the genetic disorders. Recent information on the background incidence of monogenic disorders in human populations and the recoverability factor of induced genetic changes suggests a risk much lower than the earlier ICRP estimates. Many other epidemiological studies of

  3. An introductory overview of the epidemiological study on the population at the high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Luxin [Ministry of Health, Beijing (China). Lab. of Industrial Hygiene; Sugahara, Tsutomu

    2000-10-01

    The epidemiological study on the residents of the high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, China was started by Chinese scientists in 1972 and continued until 1986. In 1991, Japanese scientists recognized the importance of the work and a joint feasibility study was conducted with revised protocols. The feasibility study matured to a cooperative project involving both Chinese and Japanese scientists in 1992, which currently is still in progress. The project was divide into three phases; the first being from 1992 to 1995, the second from 1995-1998 and the third from 1998 to 2001. The results of the first phase were reported previously in 1996. The present paper is a historical overview of the studies before the cooperation and the first two phases. Remarks are made on the detailed data on dosimetry, cytogenetic studies and cancer epidemiology of a series of the papers in this supplemental issue. Some problems such as paradoxical observations between cytogenetic results and cancer mortality, and the importance of the high background study in risk assessment are discussed. (author)

  4. An introductory overview of the epidemiological study on the population at the high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Luxin; Sugahara, Tsutomu

    2000-01-01

    The epidemiological study on the residents of the high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, China was started by Chinese scientists in 1972 and continued until 1986. In 1991, Japanese scientists recognized the importance of the work and a joint feasibility study was conducted with revised protocols. The feasibility study matured to a cooperative project involving both Chinese and Japanese scientists in 1992, which currently is still in progress. The project was divide into three phases; the first being from 1992 to 1995, the second from 1995-1998 and the third from 1998 to 2001. The results of the first phase were reported previously in 1996. The present paper is a historical overview of the studies before the cooperation and the first two phases. Remarks are made on the detailed data on dosimetry, cytogenetic studies and cancer epidemiology of a series of the papers in this supplemental issue. Some problems such as paradoxical observations between cytogenetic results and cancer mortality, and the importance of the high background study in risk assessment are discussed. (author)

  5. Epidemiology and clinical management of type 2 diabetes mellitus and associated comorbidities in Spain (e-Management study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franch Nadal, Josep; Mata Cases, Manel; Mauricio Puente, Dídac

    2016-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is currently the most frequent chronic metabolic disease. In spain, according to the di@bet.es study, its prevalence is 13.8% in the adult population (although it is undiagnosed in 6%). The main risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus is obesity. The severity of type 2 diabetes mellitus is determined not only by the presence of hyperglycaemia, but also by the coexistence of other risk factors such as hypertension or dyslipidaemia, which are often associated with the disease. Its impact on the presence of chronic diabetic complications varies. While hyperglycaemia mainly influences the presence of microvascular complications, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and smoking play a greater role in macrovascular atherosclerotic disease. One of the most powerful ways to study the epidemiology of the disease is through the use of large databases that analyse the situation in the routine clinical management of huge numbers of patients. Recently, the data provided by the e-Management Project, based on the SIDIAP database, have allowed updating of many data on the health care of diabetic persons in Catalonia. This not only allows determination of the epidemiology of the disease but is also a magnificent starting point for the design of future studies that will provide answers to more questions. However, the use of large databases is not free of certain problems, especially those concerning the reliability of registries. This article analyses some of the data obtained by the e-Management study and other spanish epidemiological studies of equal importance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Mapping to Support Fine Scale Epidemiological Cholera Investigations: A Case Study of Spatial Video in Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Curtis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The cartographic challenge in many developing world environments suffering a high disease burden is a lack of granular environmental covariates suitable for modeling disease outcomes. As a result, epidemiological questions, such as how disease diffuses at intra urban scales are extremely difficult to answer. This paper presents a novel geospatial methodology, spatial video, which can be used to collect and map environmental covariates, while also supporting field epidemiology. An example of epidemic cholera in a coastal town of Haiti is used to illustrate the potential of this new method. Water risks from a 2012 spatial video collection are used to guide a 2014 survey, which concurrently included the collection of water samples, two of which resulted in positive lab results “of interest” (bacteriophage specific for clinical cholera strains to the current cholera situation. By overlaying sample sites on 2012 water risk maps, a further fifteen proposed water sample locations are suggested. These resulted in a third spatial video survey and an additional “of interest” positive water sample. A potential spatial connection between the “of interest” water samples is suggested. The paper concludes with how spatial video can be an integral part of future fine-scale epidemiological investigations for different pathogens.

  7. An epidemiological study of environmental factors associated with canine obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courcier, E A; Thomson, R M; Mellor, D J; Yam, P S

    2010-07-01

    To assess the relationships between socioeconomic and other environmental factors with canine obesity. This was a cross-sectional questionnaire study of dog owners attending five primary veterinary practices in the UK. Owners were asked about dog age, neuter status, feeding habits, dog exercise, household income and owner age. The body condition score of the dogs was also assessed. Factors hypothesised to be associated with obesity were investigated. In total, data from 696 questionnaires were evaluated. Out of those data evaluated, 35.3% of dogs (n=246) were classed as an ideal body shape, 38.9% (n=271) were overweight, 20.4% (n=142) were obese and 5.3% (n=37) were underweight. Identified risk factors associated with obesity included owner age, hours of weekly exercise, frequency of snacks/treats and personal income. Environmental risk factors associated with canine obesity are multifactorial and include personal income, owner age, frequency of snacks/treats and amount of exercise the dog receives. Awareness about health risks associated with obesity in dogs is significantly less in people in lower income brackets. This phenomenon is recognised in human obesity.

  8. An epidemiological study of enuresis in Korean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S D; Sohn, D W; Lee, J Z; Park, N C; Chung, M K

    2000-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence of enuresis in children of elementary school age, to evaluate the impact of enuresis on these children and their parents, and to identify the methods and effectiveness of managing enuresis. Subjects and methods A randomly selected cross-sectional study was conducted in one elementary school in each urban ward (nine schools) in Pusan, Korea. The parents of these 12 570 children aged 7-12 years were asked to complete questionnaires which included items about the presence and frequency of enuresis, its perceived impact and management. Enuresis was defined as an episode of wetting occurring at least once per month. The overall response rate to the questionnaire was 55.8% (girls 28.2%, boys 27.6%). The prevalence of nocturnal, diurnal and combined enuresis was 9.2%, 2.2% and 1.4%, respectively. The overall prevalence of enuresis declined with age from 20.4% at 7 years old to 5.6% at 12 years old; 342 (57.0%) parents and 318 (55. 6%) children were concerned about enuresis. The common self-help strategies were waking the child at night to void (38.1%) and restriction of water intake (25.7%). Of the enuretic children, only 13.7% had consulted a health worker. The prevalence rates for enuresis in Pusan are similar to those reported from European countries. Enuretic children and their parents were moderately concerned about enuresis and the parents primarily used self-management within the family.

  9. Napping: A public health issue. From epidemiological to laboratory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraut, Brice; Andrillon, Thomas; Vecchierini, Marie-Françoise; Leger, Damien

    2017-10-01

    Sleep specialists have proposed measures to counteract the negative short- and long-term consequences of sleep debt, and some have suggested the nap as a potential and powerful "public health tool". Here, we address this countermeasure aspect of napping viewed as an action against sleep deprivation rather than an action associated with poor health. We review the physiological functions that have been associated positively with napping in both public health and clinical settings (sleep-related accidents, work and school, and cardiovascular risk) and in laboratory-based studies with potential public health issues (cognitive performance, stress, immune function and pain sensitivity). We also discuss the circumstances in which napping-depending on several factors, including nap duration, frequency, and age-could be a potential public health tool and a countermeasure for sleep loss in terms of reducing accidents and cardiovascular events and improving sleep-restriction-sensitive working performance. However, the impact of napping and the nature of the sleep stage(s) involved still need to be evaluated, especially from the perspective of coping strategies in populations with chronic sleep debt, such as night and shift workers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Epidemiology of Social Isolation: National Health & Aging Trends Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudjoe, Thomas K M; Roth, David L; Szanton, Sarah L; Wolff, Jennifer L; Boyd, Cynthia M; Thorpe, Roland J

    2018-03-26

    Social isolation among older adults is an important but under-recognized risk for poor health outcomes. Methods are needed to identify subgroups of older adults at risk for social isolation. We constructed a typology of social isolation using data from the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS) and estimated the prevalence and correlates of social isolation among community-dwelling older adults. The typology was formed from four domains: living arrangement, core discussion network size, religious attendance, and social participation. In 2011, 24% of self-responding, community-dwelling older adults (65+ years), approximately 7.7 million people, were characterized as socially isolated, including 1.3 million (4%) who were characterized as severely socially isolated. Multinomial multivariable logistic regression indicated that being unmarried, male, having low education, and low income were all independently associated with social isolation. Black and Hispanic older adults had lower odds of social isolation compared to White older adults, after adjusting for covariates. Social isolation is an important and potentially modifiable risk that affects a significant proportion of the older adult population.

  11. Epidemiological impact of a syphilis vaccine: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champredon, D; Cameron, C E; Smieja, M; Dushoff, J

    2016-11-01

    Despite the availability of inexpensive antimicrobial treatment, syphilis remains prevalent worldwide, affecting millions of individuals. Furthermore, syphilis infection is suspected of increasing both susceptibility to, and tendency to transmit, HIV. Development of a syphilis vaccine would be a potentially promising step towards control, but the value of dedicating resources to vaccine development should be evaluated in the context of the anticipated benefits. Here, we use a detailed mathematical model to explore the potential impact of rolling out a hypothetical syphilis vaccine on morbidity from both syphilis and HIV and compare it to the impact of expanded 'screen and treat' programmes using existing treatments. Our results suggest that an efficacious vaccine has the potential to sharply reduce syphilis prevalence under a wide range of scenarios, while expanded treatment interventions are likely to be substantially less effective. Our modelled interventions in our simulated study populations are expected to have little effect on HIV, and in some scenarios lead to small increases in HIV incidence, suggesting that interventions against syphilis should be accompanied with interventions against other sexually transmitted infections to prevent the possibility that lower morbidity or lower perceived risk from syphilis could lead to increases in other sexually transmitted diseases.

  12. Epidemiology of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: a population based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Brevern, M; Radtke, A; Lezius, F; Feldmann, M; Ziese, T; Lempert, T; Neuhauser, H

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prevalence and incidence, clinical presentation, societal impact and comorbid conditions of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) in the general population. Methods Cross‐sectional, nationally representative neurotological survey of the general adult population in Germany with a two stage sampling design: screening of 4869 participants from the German National Telephone Health Interview Survey 2003 (response rate 52%) for moderate or severe dizziness or vertigo, followed by validated neurotological interviews (n = 1003; response rate 87%). Diagnostic criteria for BPPV were at least five attacks of vestibular vertigo lasting <1 min without concomitant neurological symptoms and invariably provoked by typical changes in head position. In a concurrent validation study (n = 61) conducted in two specialised dizziness clinics, BPPV was detected by our telephone interview with a specificity of 92% and a sensitivity of 88% (positive predictive value 88%, negative predictive value 92%). Results BPPV accounted for 8% of individuals with moderate or severe dizziness/vertigo. The lifetime prevalence of BPPV was 2.4%, the 1 year prevalence was 1.6% and the 1 year incidence was 0.6%. The median duration of an episode was 2 weeks. In 86% of affected individuals, BPPV led to medical consultation, interruption of daily activities or sick leave. In total, only 8% of affected participants received effective treatment. On multivariate analysis, age, migraine, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and stroke were independently associated with BPPV. Conclusion BPPV is a common vestibular disorder leading to significant morbidity, psychosocial impact and medical costs. PMID:17135456

  13. Epidemiological Study on Metal Pollution of Ningbo in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to search for effective control and prevention measures, the status of metal pollution in Ningbo, China was investigated. Methods: Nine of the most common contaminating metals including lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, chromium (Cr, nickel (Ni, zinc (Zn, and mercury (Hg in samples of vegetables, rice, soil, irrigation water, and human hair were detected using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. Three different districts including industrial, suburban and rural areas in Ningbo were studied through a stratified random sample method. Results: (1 Among all of the detected vegetable samples, Cd exceeded the standard limit rates in industrial, suburban and rural areas as high as 43.9%, 27.5% and 5.0%, respectively; indicating the severity of Cd pollution in Ningbo. (2 The pollution index (PI of Cd and Zn in soil (1.069, 1.584, respectively suggests that soil is slightly polluted by Cd and Zn. Among all samples, metal contamination levels in soil were all relatively high. (3 A positive correlation was found between the concentrations of Pb, Cd and Cu in vegetables and soil; Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni in vegetables and irrigation water, as well as, Cu and Ni in rice and irrigation water; and, (4 Higher Pb and Cd concentrations were found in student scalp hair in both industrial and suburban areas compared to rural areas. (5 Hg and Pb that are found in human scalp hair may be more easily absorbed from food than any of the other metals. Conclusions: In general, certain harmful metal pollutions were detected in both industrial and suburban areas of Ningbo in China.

  14. Injuries in elite Korean fencers: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki Jun; Brian Byung, Song

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to assess the risk of injury associated with training activities in a population of elite Korean fencers training for the Olympic games. We analysed the incidence of sports injuries, based on data prospectively collected over an 8-year period (January 2008 to December 2015) at the National Training Center in Seoul, Korea. The population of elite fencing athletes was stratified according to fencing category (sabre, epee and foil), sex, injury location (body region and site) and injury severity (mild or level I injury, requiring treatment for 1-3 days; moderate or level II injury, requiring treatment for 4-7 days; and severe or level III injury, requiring treatment for ≥8 days). A total of 1176 injuries were recorded during the study period, with an average of 3.3 injuries per athlete annually. Of these, over half (52.6%) were mild injuries, with most injuries occurring in the lower extremity (47.2%), followed by injuries to the upper extremity (26.4%), trunk (21.4%), and head and neck area (5.0%). For all weapon categories, there was a significant difference between male and female athletes in terms of injury location and severity (p≤0.005). We hope that our data describing injury location and severity according to weapon category and sex can help one understand the circumstances that lead to injuries in elite Korean fencers and can be used in the development of programmes to reduce the incidence of sports injuries and enhance athletic performance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. An epidemiological study of septic arthritis in Kuala Lumpur Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, M; Nasiruddin, J

    1998-09-01

    Forty-one patients with 42 joint infections were admitted to the hospital between June 1989 and June 1994. An overview on the behaviour of septic arthritis in both children and adults, at presentation and after various types of treatment was done. There were 32 knees, 7 hips, 2 elbows and 1 shoulder. Duration of symptoms, type of organism, type of joint drainage, presence of preexisting joint problems and presence of osteomyelitis are among the important factors with prognostic significance. Seventy three percent of patients with less than 7 days duration of symptoms had satisfactory results. Whereas when the duration of symptoms exceeded 7 days, 75% of the patients had unsatisfactory outcome. All cases with poor outcome had positive cultures. Staphylococcus aureus was responsible for 77% of the culture-positive cases. All Staphylococcus aureus in this study were penicillin-resistant but sensitive to cloxacillin. There were 3 instances where Staphylococcus became resistant to cloxacillin following recurrence of septic arthritis. However, they were still sensitive to third generation cephalosporin. Staphylococcus aureus was capable of producing poor results even when the case was treated early. Other organisms were gram-negative bacilli which infect patients with suppressed immune system, that is, intravenous drug abuser, systemic steroid therapy and diabetes mellitus. Open arthrotomy was the method of drainage used in all hip sepsis. This method was also the most reliable method of joint drainage in other joints compared to aspiration method when frank pus was already present. Most immuno-compromised patients recovered badly from septic arthritis. Associated adjacent osteomyelitis, preexisting chronic arthritis and recent intra-articular fractures were also noted to adversely affect the functional outcome.

  16. Epidemiological Study of Poisoning in Teaching Hospitals in Shiraz in 1387

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aryaie

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Poisoning is One common cause of referred cases , especially in the adolescent and young group to hospital emergency department. This study was designed to determine Epidemiologic of poisoning in teaching hospitals, shiraz in 1387 Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that 266 sample via random sampling with 95% confidence interval and α 0.05 were considered. Results: There were 47% female and 53% male. 67.2 percent of poisoned patient were single and 32.8% were married. This study showed, highest rate of poisoning was between the age of 20-35 years. Most common season of poisoning was in spring. Overall mortality of our study was 1.6 percent. Conclusions: Regional epidemiological information, make rational use of resources in order to prevention and control of poisoning and with using analysis of effective factors will be reduced poisoning by policymakers and planners.

  17. Pesticide Exposure and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes: Review of the Epidemiologic and Animal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Carol J.; McIntosh, Laura J.; Mink, Pamela J.; Jurek, Anne M.; Li, Abby A.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of whether pesticide exposure is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children can best be addressed with a systematic review of both the human and animal peer-reviewed literature. This review analyzed epidemiologic studies testing the hypothesis that exposure to pesticides during pregnancy and/or early childhood is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children. Studies that directly queried pesticide exposure (e.g., via questionnaire or interview) or measured pesticide or metabolite levels in biological specimens from study participants (e.g., blood, urine, etc.) or their immediate environment (e.g., personal air monitoring, home dust samples, etc.) were eligible for inclusion. Consistency, strength of association, and dose response were key elements of the framework utilized for evaluating epidemiologic studies. As a whole, the epidemiologic studies did not strongly implicate any particular pesticide as being causally related to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants and children. A few associations were unique for a health outcome and specific pesticide, and alternative hypotheses could not be ruled out. Our survey of the in vivo peer-reviewed published mammalian literature focused on effects of the specific active ingredient of pesticides on functional neurodevelopmental endpoints (i.e., behavior, neuropharmacology and neuropathology). In most cases, effects were noted at dose levels within the same order of magnitude or higher compared to the point of departure used for chronic risk assessments in the United States. Thus, although the published animal studies may have characterized potential neurodevelopmental outcomes using endpoints not required by guideline studies, the effects were generally observed at or above effect levels measured in repeated-dose toxicology studies submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Suggestions for improved exposure assessment in epidemiology studies and more effective

  18. Important considerations for designing and reporting epidemiologic and clinical studies in dental traumatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Lars; Andreasen, Jens O

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to suggest important considerations for epidemiologic and clinical studies in the field of dental traumatology. The article is based on the authors' experiences from research in this field and editorial board work for the scientific journal Dental Traumatology. Examples are given of issues where development is important. The importance of planning ahead of the study and consulting with experts in other fields is emphasized. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Important considerations for designing and reporting epidemiologic and clinical studies in dental traumatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lars; Andreasen, Jens O

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to suggest important considerations for epidemiologic and clinical studies in the field of dental traumatology. The article is based on the authors' experiences from research in this field and editorial board work for the scientific journal Dental Traumatology....... Examples are given of issues where development is important. The importance of planning ahead of the study and consulting with experts in other fields is emphasized....

  20. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in adults: An epidemiological study in eight cities of India

    OpenAIRE

    Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalakrishnan; Kalra, Sanjay; Sahay, Rakesh Kumar; Bantwal, Ganapathi; John, Mathew; Tewari, Neeraj

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hypothyroidism is believed to be a common health issue in India, as it is worldwide. However, there is a paucity of data on the prevalence of hypothyroidism in adult population of India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, multi-centre, epidemiological study was conducted in eight major cities (Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Goa, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad and Kolkata) of India to study the prevalence of hypothyroidism among adult population. Thyroid abnormalities were diagnos...

  1. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  2. Work, family and social environment in patients with Fibromyalgia in Spain: an epidemiological study: EPIFFAC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Antonio; Gomez, Emili; Coscolla, Rosa; Sunyol, Ruth; Solé, Emília; Rivera, Javier; Altarriba, Emília; Carbonell, Jordi; Castells, Xavier

    2014-11-11

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a condition characterized by widespread pain, estimated to affect 2.4% of the Spanish population. Nowadays, there are no consistent epidemiological studies on the actual impact of the disease on work and family of these patients in a representative manner; therefore, the purpose of the study is to analyze the impact on family, employment and social environment in a representative sample of patients with FM attending Primary Public Care Centers in Spain. We carried out an epidemiological study, with a probability sampling procedure, stratified, relative to the municipality size and the number of health centres, seeking territorial representation. The survey was conducted using a self-administered structured questionnaire. A sample of 325 patients with FM was studied in 35 Primary Health Care Centers (PHCCs). The sample is composed of 96.6% of women, 51.9 (8) years of mean (standard deviation- sd) age. Ninety-three percent of the patients have worked throughout their life. Mean (sd) age onset of symptoms was 37 (11) years and diagnosis of FM was established 6.6 (8) years later. Family Environment: Fifty-nine percent of patients have difficulties with their partner. Forty-four percent of the patients report to be fairly or totally dependent on a family member in household chores. The household income decreased a mean (sd) of 708 (504) Euros/month in 65% of the patients. In 81% of the patients, there was an increase in extra expenses related to the disease with a mean (sd) of 230 (192) Euros/month. Working environment: At the moment of the study, 45% of the patients had work activity (34% were working and 11% were at sick leave), 13% were unemployed seeking job and 42% were not in the labor force. Twenty-three percent of patients had some degree of permanent work disability pension. Social Environment: The degree of satisfaction with health care professionals was low and twenty-six percent of the patients were members of specific patients

  3. The Intersection of HPV Epidemiology, Genomics and Mechanistic Studies of HPV-Mediated Carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabello, Lisa; Clarke, Megan A; Nelson, Chase W; Dean, Michael; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Yeager, Meredith; Cullen, Michael; Boland, Joseph F; Schiffman, Mark; Burk, Robert D

    2018-02-13

    Of the ~60 human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes that infect the cervicovaginal epithelium, only 12-13 "high-risk" types are well-established as causing cervical cancer, with HPV16 accounting for over half of all cases worldwide. While HPV16 is the most important carcinogenic type, variants of HPV16 can differ in their carcinogenicity by 10-fold or more in epidemiologic studies. Strong genotype-phenotype associations embedded in the small 8-kb HPV16 genome motivate molecular studies to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms. Understanding the mechanisms of HPV genomic findings is complicated by the linkage of HPV genome variants. A panel of experts in various disciplines gathered on 21 November 2016 to discuss the interdisciplinary science of HPV oncogenesis. Here, we summarize the discussion of the complexity of the viral-host interaction and highlight important next steps for selected applied basic laboratory studies guided by epidemiological genomic findings.

  4. The Intersection of HPV Epidemiology, Genomics and Mechanistic Studies of HPV-Mediated Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Mirabello

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Of the ~60 human papillomavirus (HPV genotypes that infect the cervicovaginal epithelium, only 12–13 “high-risk” types are well-established as causing cervical cancer, with HPV16 accounting for over half of all cases worldwide. While HPV16 is the most important carcinogenic type, variants of HPV16 can differ in their carcinogenicity by 10-fold or more in epidemiologic studies. Strong genotype-phenotype associations embedded in the small 8-kb HPV16 genome motivate molecular studies to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms. Understanding the mechanisms of HPV genomic findings is complicated by the linkage of HPV genome variants. A panel of experts in various disciplines gathered on 21 November 2016 to discuss the interdisciplinary science of HPV oncogenesis. Here, we summarize the discussion of the complexity of the viral–host interaction and highlight important next steps for selected applied basic laboratory studies guided by epidemiological genomic findings.

  5. Variation in RGS2 is associated with suicidal ideation in an epidemiological study of adults exposed to the 2004 Florida hurricanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstadter, Ananda B; Koenen, Karestan C; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Acierno, Ron; Galea, Sandro; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Gelernter, Joel

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether rs4606, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the translated region at the 3' end of RGS2, was related to suicidal ideation in an epidemiologic sample of adults living in areas affected by the 2004 Florida hurricanes. An epidemiologic sample of residents of Florida was recruited via random digit-dial procedures after the 2004 Florida hurricanes; participants were interviewed about suicidal ideation, hurricane exposure, and social support. Participants who returned buccal DNA samples via mail (n = 607) were included here. Rs4606 in RGS2 was associated with increased symptoms of current suicidal ideation (p < 0.01). Each "C" allele was associated with 5.59 times increased risk of having current ideation. No gene-by-environment interactions were found, perhaps due to low power. RGS2 rs4606 is related to risk of current suicidal ideation in stressor-exposed adults.

  6. Epidemiologic Studies in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: A Review of Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Burak Dursun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood psychiatric disorders are estimated to influence about 9 to 21% of relevant age group and interest in this disorders are increasing all over the world. The growing need to child and adolescent mental health leads the task of establishing proposals and policies in this field to become a priority for governments. The first step of such proposals should be determination of prevalence of child and adolescent mental disorders in that country. However, several major methodological problems make it hard to provide accurate prevalence estimates from epidemiological studies. Most common problems are within the fields of sampling, case definition, case ascertainment and data analyses. Such issues increases the costs of studies and hinder to reach large sample sizes. To minimize these problems, investigators have to be careful on choosing the appropriate methodology and diagnostic tools in their studies. Although there are many interviews and questionnaires for screening and diagnosing in child and adolescent psychiatry, only a few of them are suitable for epidemiological research. In parallel with the improvement in all fields of child and adolescent mental health in our country, some of the major screening and diagnosing tools used in prevalence studies in literature have already been translated and validated in Turkish. Most important of this tools for screening purposes are Child Behavior Checklist and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and for diagnosing purposes are Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version and Development and Well-Being Assessment. The aims of this article are to review the methodological problems of epidemiologic studies in child and adolescent psychiatry and to briefly discuss suitable diagnostic tools for extended sampled epidemiologic studies in our country.

  7. Music-Evoked Emotions—Current Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Hans-Eckhardt

    2017-01-01

    The present study is focused on a review of the current state of investigating music-evoked emotions experimentally, theoretically and with respect to their therapeutic potentials. After a concise historical overview and a schematic of the hearing mechanisms, experimental studies on music listeners and on music performers are discussed, starting with the presentation of characteristic musical stimuli and the basic features of tomographic imaging of emotional activation in the brain, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), which offer high spatial resolution in the millimeter range. The progress in correlating activation imaging in the brain to the psychological understanding of music-evoked emotion is demonstrated and some prospects for future research are outlined. Research in psychoneuroendocrinology and molecular markers is reviewed in the context of music-evoked emotions and the results indicate that the research in this area should be intensified. An assessment of studies involving measuring techniques with high temporal resolution down to the 10 ms range, as, e.g., electroencephalography (EEG), event-related brain potentials (ERP), magnetoencephalography (MEG), skin conductance response (SCR), finger temperature, and goose bump development (piloerection) can yield information on the dynamics and kinetics of emotion. Genetic investigations reviewed suggest the heredity transmission of a predilection for music. Theoretical approaches to musical emotion are directed to a unified model for experimental neurological evidence and aesthetic judgment. Finally, the reports on musical therapy are briefly outlined. The study concludes with an outlook on emerging technologies and future research fields. PMID:29225563

  8. Epidemiologic studies of underground miners: New information from an old source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, J.

    1997-01-01

    Over 100 years have passed since Harting and Hesse first described an unusual pattern of thoracic malignancy in the underground metal miners of Schneeberg. It is now known that these miners had primary cancer of the lung, caused by exposure to radon progeny released into the air of the mines from the ore. The early case series of Harting and Hesse, based on the Schneeberg miners, and of Pirchan and Sikl, based on the Joachamisthal mines, have been followed by epidemiologic studies of more formal design of uranium and other underground miners exposed to radon throughout the world. These studies have confirmed the causal association of radon and its progeny with lung cancer and provided quantification of the risk of lung cancer in relation to exposure to radon progeny. These studies have also provided insights concerning the effect of radon progeny on smokers and on nonsmokers. The findings of the epidemiologic studies have provided a clear imperative for reducing exposures of miners to radon progeny. Consequently, exposures of underground uranium miners to radon progeny have been lowered substantially over the last 50 years in countries reporting exposures of underground miners. The epidemiologic studies have also documented the substantial burden of radon-caused lung cancers among miners of uranium and other ores. While the causal link of radon with lung cancer in underground miners is now established and unquestioned, the risk of radon in indoor air remains a highly controversial issue. During the last few decades, there has been increasing recognition that radon is ubiquitous in indoor environments, in some instances at concentrations as high as measured in underground mines. As a foundation for risk management, the epidemiologic evidence from underground miners has been the primary basis for estimating the risk of indoor radon

  9. Determination of exposure due to mobile phone base stations in an epidemiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neitzke, H. P.; Osterhoff, J.; Peklo, K.; Voigt, H.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate a supposed relationship between exposure by mobile phone base stations and well-being, an epidemiological cross sectional study is carried out within the German Mobile Telecommunication Research Program. In a parallel project, a method for the classification of electromagnetic exposure due to mobile phone base stations has been developed. This is based on the results of measurements of high frequency immissions in the interior of more than 1100 rooms and at outdoor locations, the calculation of the emissions of mobile phone antennas under free space propagation conditions and empirically determined transmission factors for the propagation of electromagnetic waves in different types of residential areas for passage of walls and windows. Standard tests (correlation-test, kappa-test, Bland-Altman-Plot, analysis of sensitivity and specificity) show that the method for computational exposure assessment developed in this project is applicable for a first classification of exposures due to mobile phone base stations in epidemiological studies. (authors)

  10. Photon-Fluence-Weighted let for Radiation Fields Subjected to Epidemiological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Michiya

    2017-08-01

    In order to estimate the uncertainty of the radiation risk associated with the photon energy in epidemiological studies, photon-fluence-weighted LET values were quantified for photon radiation fields with the target organs and irradiation conditions taken into consideration. The photon fluences giving a unit absorbed dose to the target organ were estimated by using photon energy spectra together with the dose conversion coefficients given in ICRP Publication 116 for the target organs of the colon, bone marrow, stomach, lung, skin and breast with three irradiation geometries. As a result, it was demonstrated that the weighted LET values did not show a clear difference among the photon radiation fields subjected to epidemiological studies, regardless of the target organ and the irradiation geometry.

  11. Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children: psychometric testing of the Chinese version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ho Cheung William; Chung, Oi Kwan Joyce; Ho, Ka Yan

    2010-11-01

    This paper is a report of psychometric testing of the Chinese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children. The availability of a valid and reliable instrument that accurately detects depressive symptoms in children is crucial before any psychological intervention can be appropriately planned and evaluated. There is no such an instrument for Chinese children. A test-retest, within-subjects design was used. A total of 313 primary school students between the ages of 8 and 12 years were invited to participate in the study in 2009. Participants were asked to respond to the Chinese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children, short form of the State Anxiety Scale for Children and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. The internal consistency, content validity and construct validity and test-retest reliability of the Chinese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children were assessed. The newly-translated scale demonstrated adequate internal consistency, good content validity and appropriate convergent and discriminant validity. Confirmatory factor analysis added further evidence of the construct validity of the scale. Results suggest that the newly-translated scale can be used as a self-report assessment tool in detecting depressive symptoms of Chinese children aged between 8 and 12 years. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. What is desirable and feasible in dose reconstruction for application in epidemiological studies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouville, A.; Anspaugh, L.; Beebe, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    Formal epidemiologic studies are intended to increase scientific knowledge about the quantitative risk that is associated with radiation exposure. Dosimetric data are needed for such studies. What dosimetric data are desirable? Doses are needed for a large number of people with a large gradation of radiation exposures in order to ensure a sufficient power for the epidemiological study. The characteristics of the desirable doses are, in some respects, different from those calculated for radiation protection purposes. The desirable data are: absorbed doses to the individual organs or tissues of interest, instead of effective doses; absorbed doses delivered over limited time periods, instead of committed doses; doses specific to the individuals that are subjects in the epidemiological studies, instead of average doses over population groups; and very accurate and precise doses. What dosimetric data are feasible? Most of the characteristics of the desirable dosimetric data are usually achievable. However, uncertainties can be fairly large and estimated with a large degree of subjectivity. Also, for practical reasons, it may not be feasible to estimate individual doses for all subjects

  13. The big data potential of epidemiological studies for criminology and forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLisi, Matt

    2018-07-01

    Big data, the analysis of original datasets with large samples ranging from ∼30,000 to one million participants to mine unexplored data, has been under-utilized in criminology. However, there have been recent calls for greater synthesis between epidemiology and criminology and a small number of scholars have utilized epidemiological studies that were designed to measure alcohol and substance use to harvest behavioral and psychiatric measures that relate to the study of crime. These studies have been helpful in producing knowledge about the most serious, violent, and chronic offenders, but applications to more pathological forensic populations is lagging. Unfortunately, big data relating to crime and justice are restricted and limited to criminal justice purposes and not easily available to the research community. Thus, the study of criminal and forensic populations is limited in terms of data volume, velocity, and variety. Additional forays into epidemiology, increased use of available online judicial and correctional data, and unknown new frontiers are needed to bring criminology up to speed in the big data arena. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. [Identification and sampling of people with migration background for epidemiological studies in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, K; Makarova, N; Spallek, J; Zeeb, H; Razum, O

    2013-06-01

    In 2009, 19.6% of the population of Germany either had migrated themselves or were the offspring of people with migration experience. Migrants differ from the autochthonous German population in terms of health status, health awareness and health behaviour. To further investigate the health situation of migrants in Germany, epidemiological studies are needed. Such studies can employ existing databases which provide detailed information on migration status. Otherwise, onomastic or toponomastic procedures can be applied to identify people with migration background. If migrants have to be recruited into an epidemiological study, this can be done register-based (e. g., data from registration offices or telephone lists), based on residential location (random-route or random-walk procedure), via snowball sampling (e. g., through key persons) or via settings (e. g., school entry examination). An oversampling of people with migration background is not sufficient to avoid systematic bias in the sample due to non-participation. Additional measures have to be taken to increase access and raise participation rates. Personal contacting, multilingual instruments, multilingual interviewers and extensive public relations increase access and willingness to participate. Empirical evidence on 'successful' recruitment strategies for studies with migrants is still lacking in epidemiology and health sciences in Germany. The choice of the recruitment strategy as well as the measures to raise accessibility and willingness to participate depend on the available resources, the research question and the specific migrant target group. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Chronic kidney disease of nontraditional etiology in Central America: a provisional epidemiologic case definition for surveillance and epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozier, Matthew; Turcios-Ruiz, Reina Maria; Noonan, Gary; Ordunez, Pedro

    2016-11-01

    SYNOPSIS Over the last two decades, experts have reported a rising number of deaths caused by chronic kidney disease (CKD) along the Pacific coast of Central America, from southern Mexico to Costa Rica. However, this specific disease is not associated with traditional causes of CKD, such as aging, diabetes, or hypertension. Rather, this disease is a chronic interstitial nephritis termed chronic kidney disease of nontraditional etiology (CKDnT). According to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) mortality database, there are elevated rates of deaths related to kidney disease in many of these countries, with the highest rates being reported in El Salvador and Nicaragua. This condition has been identified in certain agricultural communities, predominantly among male farmworkers. Since CKD surveillance systems in Central America are under development or nonexistent, experts and governmental bodies have recommended creating standardized case definitions for surveillance purposes to monitor and characterize this epidemiological situation. A group of experts from Central American ministries of health, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and PAHO held a workshop in Guatemala to discuss CKDnT epidemiologic case definitions. In this paper, we propose that CKD in general be identified by the standard definition internationally accepted and that a suspect case of CKDnT be defined as a person age CKDnT is defined as a suspect case with the same findings confirmed three or more months later.

  16. Alcohol in Moderation, Cardioprotection and Neuroprotection: Epidemiological Considerations and Mechanistic Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Michael A.; Neafsey, Edward J.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Gray, Mary O.; Parks, Dale A.; Das, Dipak K.; Korthuis, Ronald J.

    2008-01-01

    In contrast to many years of important research and clinical attention to the pathological effects of alcohol (ethanol) abuse, the past several decades have seen the publication of a number of peer-reviewed studies indicating beneficial effects of light-moderate, non-binge consumption of varied alcoholic beverages, as well as experimental demonstrations that moderate alcohol exposure can initiate typically cytoprotective mechanisms. A considerable body of epidemiology associates moderate alco...

  17. The epidemiology of multimorbidity in primary care: a retrospective cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Cassell, Anna; Edwards, Duncan Alexander; Harshfield, Amelia; Rhodes, Kirsty; Brimicombe, David; Payne, Rupert; Griffin, Simon James

    2018-01-01

    Background: Multimorbidity places a substantial burden on patients and the healthcare system but few contemporary data are available. Aim: To describe the epidemiology of multimorbidity in adults in England and quantify associations between multimorbidity and health service utilisation. Design: Retrospective cohort study Setting: A random sample of 403,985 adult patients (≥18 years) in England who were registered with a general practice on 1 January 2012 and included in the Clini...

  18. Epidemiological Study and Control Trial of Taeniid Cestode Infection in Farm Dogs in Qinghai Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    GUO, Zhihong; LI, Wei; PENG, Mao; DUO, Hong; SHEN, Xiuying; FU, Yong; IRIE, Takao; GAN, Tiantian; KIRINO, Yumi; NASU, Tetsuo; HORII, Yoichiro; NONAKA, Nariaki

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT An epidemiological study and control trial were conducted to assess taeniid infection in farm dogs in Qinghai Province, China. To improve egg detection by fecal examination, a deworming step with praziquantel was incorporated into the sampling methodology. As a result, a marked increase in the number of egg-positive samples was observed in samples collected at 24 hr after deworming. Then, the fecal examination and barcoding of egg DNA were performed to assess the prevalence of taenii...

  19. Epidemiology of zoonotic hepatitis E: a community-based surveillance study in a rural population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng-Cai; Huang, Shou-Jie; Wu, Ting; Zhang, Xue-Feng; Wang, Zhong-Ze; Ai, Xing; Yan, Qiang; Yang, Chang-Lin; Cai, Jia-Ping; Jiang, Han-Min; Wang, Yi-Jun; Ng, Mun-Hon; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ning-Shao

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis E is caused by two viral genotype groups: human types and zoonotic types. Current understanding of the epidemiology of the zoonotic hepatitis E disease is founded largely on hospital-based studies. The epidemiology of hepatitis E was investigated in a community-based surveillance study conducted over one year in a rural city in eastern China with a registered population of 400,162. The seroprevalence of hepatitis E in the cohort was 38%. The incidence of hepatitis E was 2.8/10,000 person-years. Totally 93.5% of the infections were attributed to genotype 4 and the rest, to genotype 1. Hepatitis E accounted for 28.4% (102/359) of the acute hepatitis cases and 68.9% (102/148) of the acute viral hepatitis cases in this area of China. The disease occurred sporadically with a higher prevalence during the cold season and in men, with the male-to-female ratio of 3∶1. Additionally, the incidence of hepatitis E increased with age. Hepatitis B virus carriers have an increased risk of contracting hepatitis E than the general population (OR = 2.5, 95%CI 1.5-4.2). Pre-existing immunity to hepatitis E lowered the risk (relative risk  = 0.34, 95% CI 0.21-0.55) and reduced the severity of the disease. Hepatitis E in the rural population of China is essentially that of a zoonosis due to the genotype 4 virus, the epidemiology of which is similar to that due to the other zoonotic genotype 3 virus.

  20. Epidemiology of zoonotic hepatitis E: a community-based surveillance study in a rural population in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Cai Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E is caused by two viral genotype groups: human types and zoonotic types. Current understanding of the epidemiology of the zoonotic hepatitis E disease is founded largely on hospital-based studies. METHODS: The epidemiology of hepatitis E was investigated in a community-based surveillance study conducted over one year in a rural city in eastern China with a registered population of 400,162. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of hepatitis E in the cohort was 38%. The incidence of hepatitis E was 2.8/10,000 person-years. Totally 93.5% of the infections were attributed to genotype 4 and the rest, to genotype 1. Hepatitis E accounted for 28.4% (102/359 of the acute hepatitis cases and 68.9% (102/148 of the acute viral hepatitis cases in this area of China. The disease occurred sporadically with a higher prevalence during the cold season and in men, with the male-to-female ratio of 3∶1. Additionally, the incidence of hepatitis E increased with age. Hepatitis B virus carriers have an increased risk of contracting hepatitis E than the general population (OR = 2.5, 95%CI 1.5-4.2. Pre-existing immunity to hepatitis E lowered the risk (relative risk  = 0.34, 95% CI 0.21-0.55 and reduced the severity of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatitis E in the rural population of China is essentially that of a zoonosis due to the genotype 4 virus, the epidemiology of which is similar to that due to the other zoonotic genotype 3 virus.

  1. Validity of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D scale in a sample of Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R Quiñones

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Optimal depression screening necessitates measurement tools that are valid across varied populations and in the presence of comorbidities. Methods: This study assessed the test properties of two versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale against psychiatric diagnoses established by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview among a clinical sample of US Veterans deployed during Operations Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom, and New Dawn. Participants (N = 359 recruited from two Department of Veterans Affairs hospitals completed a clinical interview, structured diagnostic interview, and self-reported measures. Results: Based on diagnostic interview and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition criteria, 29.5% of the sample met diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder and 26.5% met diagnostic criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder. Both Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-20 and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-10 scales performed well and almost identically against the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-major depressive disorder in identifying Veterans with major depressive disorder (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-20 area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve 91%; Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-10 area under the ROC curve 90%. Overall, higher cut points for the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scales performed better in correctly identifying true positives and true negatives for major depressive disorder (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-20 cut point 18+ sensitivity 92% specificity 72%; Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-10 cut point 10+ sensitivity 92% specificity 69%. Conclusions: The specificity of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scales was poor among Veterans with co-occurring post-traumatic stress disorder (13% and 16%. Veterans with post

  2. Epidemiological studies of general population groups exposed to low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.M.; Inskip, H.

    1986-01-01

    The exposure of man to radiation and the resulting risk of carcinogenesis continue to be of concern to the public. In this context, there is often a tendency to carry out epidemiological studies concerning the induction of cancer in radiation workers and members of the public which are not supported by a statistically valid data base or whose result are misinterpreted or misused. To assist national authorities in evaluating radiological risks, the Nuclear Energy Agency has sponsored a critical review of the methodologies for, and the limitations of, these epidemiological studies, and of the precautions to be adopted in interpreting their results. Prepared by two consultants, Dr. Joan M. Davies and Dr. Hazel Inskip, the review focuses on the problems encountered when carrying out epidemiological studies on groups of the general population exposed to radiation, and using their results for radiological protection purposes. The primary objective is to provide background material for national authorities who have responsibilities in the field of radiological protection, as well as to other persons interested in this subject. It is published under the responsibility of the Secretary General of the OECD, and does not necessarily reflect the views of Member Governments

  3. Hospital Morbidity Database for Epidemiological Studies on Churg-Strauss Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanecki, Krzysztof; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Gorynski, Paweł; Tarka, Patryk; Tyszko, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Churg-Strauss syndrome or more accurately eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a small-vessel necrotizing vasculitis with a characteristic late-onset allergic rhinitis and asthma. The use of hospital morbidity database is an important element of the epidemiological analysis of this rare disease. The present study was undertaken to assess the incidence of EGPA and factors related to its epidemiology in Poland; the first analysis of the kind in Poland, enabling a comparison in the European context. This is a retrospective, population-based study using hospital discharge records with EGPA diagnosis, collected for a National Institute of Public Health survey covering the period from 2008 to 2013. The group consisted of 344 patients (206 females and 138 males) with the first-time hospitalization for EGPA. The major findings are that the annual incidence of EGPA in Poland was 1.5 per million (95% confidence intervals: 1.2-1.8), with the point prevalence of 8.8 per million at the end of 2013. A greater incidence of EGPA was observed in the regions with urban predominance. We conclude that discharge records may be a useful element of epidemiological studies on EGPA.

  4. [Clinical-epidemiological study in children with cleft lip palate in a secondary-level hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Bonals, Alicia; Pons-Bonals, Leticia; Hidalgo-Martínez, Sandra Margarita; Sosa-Ferreyra, Carlos Francisco

    One of the most common congenital disorders that affects the facial structures is the cleft lip palate (CLP). The aim of this study was to generate the clinical-epidemiological profile of CLP patients from Hospital de Especialidades del Niño y la Mujer (HENM) Dr. Felipe Nuñez Lara, from the Ministry of Health, Queretaro, Mexico, from 2011 to 2014, who received treatment from the Cleft Lip Palate Clinic in order to provide interdisciplinary treatments for CLP patients based on the information from the pediatric records. Retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study using univariate analysis frequencies for qualitative variables; central statistical and dispersion for quantitative variables and clinical profile. One hundred records were reviewed, from which 15 were discarded for being syndromic cases. Epidemiological, clinical, and socio-demographic variables were studied. The epidemiological profile (variables associated with mother's pregnancy, patient's health at birth, nutritional and psychomotor development; family medical records, addictions, and socioeconomic factors) and clinical profile (disease classification by sex, structure, and side; surgeries classification and order in which they took place) of the treated population were registered. The results showed the need to standardize the data registration on medical records to improve the monitoring and treatment of patients and emphasize actions to maintain low incidence of CLP in Queretaro. Copyright © 2017 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  5. Fibromyalgia and headache: an epidemiological study supporting migraine as part of the fibromyalgia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Dawn A; Bernstein, Cheryl; Rudy, Thomas E

    2005-11-01

    Fibromyalgia is defined by widespread body pain, tenderness to palpation of tender point areas, and constitutional symptoms. The literature reports headache in about half of fibromyalgia patients. The current epidemiological study was designed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of headache in fibromyalgia patients. Treatment-seeking fibromyalgia patients were evaluated with measures for fibromyalgia, chronic headache, quality of life, and psychological distress. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and t-tests were used to identify significant differences, as appropriate. A total of 100 fibromyalgia patients were screened (24 fibromyalgia without headache and 76 fibromyalgia with headache). International Headache Society diagnoses included: migraine alone (n = 15 with aura, n = 17 without aura), tension-type alone (n = 18), combined migraine and tension-type (n = 16), post-traumatic (n = 4), and probable analgesic overuse headache (n = 6). Fibromyalgia tender point scores and counts and most measures of pain severity, sleep disruption, or psychological distress were not significantly different between fibromyalgia patients with and without headache. As expected, the fibromyalgia patients with headache scored higher on the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6) (62.1 +/- 0.9 vs 48.3 +/- 1.6, p 60 in 80% of fibromyalgia plus headache patients, representing severe impact from headache, and 56-58 in 4%, representing substantial impact. In summary, chronic headache was endorsed by 76% of treatment-seeking fibromyalgia patients, with 84% reporting substantial or severe impact from their headaches. Migraine was diagnosed in 63% of fibromyalgia plus headache patients, with probable analgesic overuse headache in only 8%. General measures of pain, pain-related disability, sleep quality, and psychological distress were similar in fibromyalgia patients with and without headache. Therefore, fibromyalgia patients with headache do not appear to represent a significantly

  6. A case–control study of epidemiological factors associated with leptospirosis in South Gujarat region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K T Desai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current study was planned to identify the epidemiological factors associated with leptospirosis in South Gujarat region using neighborhood controls. Methods: A total of 100 cases of leptospirosis occurred in South Gujarat region during the year 2012 were selected using simple random sampling. Three neighbors of the selected cases formed the controls (n = 300. A pretested structured questionnaire was used for data collection and data were analyzed using Epi Info 2007. Results: There was significant association of illiteracy (odds ratio [OR] =1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.14–2.89, working in waterlogged fields during the reference season (OR = 4.6, 95% CI = 1.6–17.9, swimming/bathing in canals, open air defecation practices, storage of cow dung in or surrounding house, residence in the house made up of cow dung walls, households with access of food to rodents, injuries over hands/foot during the endemic season (OR = 3, 95% CI = 1.8–4.8, and history of skin disease during the endemic season (OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 2–8.5, with leptospirosis. Only 10% of individuals had gumboots for protection. A total of 83 (83% cases and 240 (80% controls had taken oral doxycycline chemoprophylaxis (P > 0.05. Cases had taken chemoprophylaxis for a median 4 weeks (range: 1–8 while controls had taken the same for median 8 weeks (range = 1–8 (P < 0.002. Conclusions: Although the commonly established factors appear to be associated with leptospirosis, the role of host factors seems to play a more important role in determining susceptibility to leptospirosis in exposed individuals.

  7. Safety of natural radiation exposure. A meta-analysis of epidemiological studies on natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaki, S.

    2000-01-01

    People have been exposed every time and everywhere to natural radiation and ''intuitively'' know the safety of this radiation exposure. On the other hand the theory of no threshold value on radiological carcinogenesis is known widely, and many people feel danger with even a smallest dose of radiation exposure. The safety of natural radiation exposure can be used for the risk communication with the public. For this communication, the safety of natural radiation exposure should be proved ''scientifically''. Safety is often discussed scientifically as the risks of the mortality from many practices, and the absolute risks of safe practices on the public are 1E-5 to 1E-6. The risks based on the difference of natural radiation exposure on carcinogenesis have been analyzed by epidemiological studies. Much of the epidemiological studies have been focused on the relationship between radiation doses and cancer mortalities, and their results have been described as relative risks or correlation factors. In respect to the safety, however, absolute risks are necessary for the discussion. Cancer mortalities depend not only on radiation exposure, but also on ethnic groups, sexes, ages, social classes, foods, smoking, environmental chemicals, medical radiation, etc. In order to control these confounding factors, the data are collected from restricted groups or/and localities, but any these ecological studies can not perfectly compensate the confounding factors. So positive or negative values of relative risks or the meaningful correlation factors can not be confirmed that their values are derived originally from the difference of their exposure doses. The absolute risks on these epidemiological studies are also affected by many factors containing radiation exposure. The absolute risk or the upper value of the confidence limit obtained from the epidemiological study which is well regulated confounding factors is possible to be a maximum risk on the difference of the exposure doses

  8. Molecular epidemiological study of HIV-1 CRF01_AE transmission in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J H K; Wong, K H; Li, P; Chan, K C; Lee, M P; Lam, H Y; Cheng, V C C; Yuen, K Y; Yam, W C

    2009-08-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the transmission history of the HIV-1 CRF01_AE epidemics in Hong Kong between 1994 and 2007. A total of 465 HIV-1 CRF01_AE pol sequences were derived from an in-house or a commercial HIV-1 genotyping system. Phylogenies of CRF01_AE sequences were analyzed by the Bayesian coalescent method. CRF01_AE patient population included 363 males (78.1%) and 102 females (21.9%), whereas 65% (314 of 465) were local Chinese. Major transmission routes were heterosexual contact (63%), followed by intravenous drug use (IDU) (19%) and men having sex with men (MSM) (17%). From phylogenetic analysis, local CRF01_AE strains were from multiple origins with 3 separate transmission clusters identified. Cluster 1 consisted mainly of Chinese male IDUs and heterosexuals. Clusters 2 and 3 included mainly local Chinese MSM and non-Chinese Asian IDUs, respectively. Chinese reference isolates available from China (Fujian, Guangxi, or Liaoning) were clonally related to our transmission clusters, demonstrating the epidemiological linkage of CRF01_AE infections between Hong Kong and China. The 3 individual local transmission clusters were estimated to have initiated since late 1980s and late 1990s, causing subsequent epidemics in the early 2000s. This is the first comprehensive molecular epidemiological study of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in Hong Kong. It revealed that MSM contact is becoming a major route of local CRF01_AE transmission in Hong Kong. Epidemiological linkage of CRF01_AE between Hong Kong and China observed in this study indicates the importance of regular molecular epidemiological surveillance for the HIV-1 epidemic in our region.

  9. Exercise and limitations in physical activity levels among new dialysis patients in the United States: an epidemiologic study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stack, Austin G

    2008-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies of physical activity among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are lacking. The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of physical activity among new dialysis patients in the United States.

  10. The use of genotoxicity biomarkers in molecular epidemiology: applications in environmental, occupational and dietary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Ladeira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Molecular epidemiology is an approach increasingly used in the establishment of associations between exposure to hazardous substances and development of disease, including the possible modulation by genetic susceptibility factors. Environmental chemicals and contaminants from anthropogenic pollution of air, water and soil, but also originating specifically in occupational contexts, are potential sources of risk of development of disease. Also, diet presents an important role in this process, with some well characterized associations existing between nutrition and some types of cancer. Genotoxicity biomarkers allow the detection of early effects that result from the interaction between the individual and the environment; they are therefore important tools in cancer epidemiology and are extensively used in human biomonitoring studies. This work intends to give an overview of the potential for genotoxic effects assessment, specifically with the cytokinesis blocked micronucleus assay and comet assay in environmental and occupational scenarios, including diet. The plasticity of these techniques allows their inclusion in human biomonitoring studies, adding important information with the ultimate aim of disease prevention, in particular cancer, and so it is important that they be included as genotoxicity assays in molecular epidemiology.

  11. Epidemiological study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southwest of Iran during 2001–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossien Feiz Haddad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the prevalence process and epidemiological characteristics of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL during 2001–2011. Methods: This was a cross-sectional epidemiologic study examining 2 637 patients with CL in Susangerd county during 2001–2011. The data of all patients who referred to the Prevention Unit of Susangerd Health Center were registered in CL epidemiologic data summary forms. The data and parameters included age, gender, occupation, season, residence (urban, rural, and lesion location. Results: Out of 2 637 patients, 1 174 cases (44.5% were females and 1463 patients (55.5% were males. The maximum rate of infection was recorded in under 10-year-old age group (45.32% and its minimum rate was seen among those aged over 60 years (0.87%. Among them, 1 557 patients (59.0% were living in urban and 1 080 (41.0% were in rural areas. The maximum and minimum occupational frequency distributions were seen in students (49.9% and farmers (0.6%, respectively. The study showed that the maximum and minimum frequencies were observed in winter (52.33% and summer (7.62% correspondingly. The most lesion frequencies from lesion location point of view were related to hands (37.5%, faces (30.0%, feet (26.3% and other organs (6.2% and the number of lesions ranged from 1–5 and sized varied from 0.5–5.5 cm Conclusions: Epidemiological parameters such as age, gender, occupation, season, residence (urban, rural and lesion location in endemic regions have had significant effects on the prevalence of CL in Susangerd county and the findings can be effective for assessing disease prevention programs. In addition, CL might become a serious dermatological health problem in the near future due to a great population movement to the neighboring country Iraq with a high incidence to an endemic area.

  12. GALEN skin test study III: Minimum battery of test inhalent allergens needed in epidemiological studies in patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, P.-J.; Burbach, G.; Heinzerling, L. M.; Edenharter, G.; Bachert, C.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Bonini, S.; Bousquet-Rouanet, L.; Demoly, P.; Bresciani, M.; Bruno, A.; Gjomarkaj, M.; Canonica, G. W.; Darsow, U.; Durham, S.; Fokkens, W. J.; Giavi, S.; Gramiccioni, C.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Haahtela, T.; Kowalski, M. L.; Magyar, P.; Muraközi, G.; Orosz, M.; Röhnelt, C.; Stingl, G.; Todo-Bom, A.; von Mutius, E.; Wiesner, A.; Wöhrl, S.; Bousquet, J.; Zuberbier, T.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The number of allergens to be tested in order to identify sensitized patients is important in order to have the most cost-effective approach in epidemiological studies. Objective: To define the minimal number and the type of skin prick test (SPT) allergens required to identify a patient

  13. Profesi Epidemiologi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchari Lapau

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Makalah ini pertama kali menjelaskan perlu adanya profesi kesehatan masyarakat dalam rangka pembangunan kesehatan. Lalu dijelaskan apa profesi itu dan standar keberadaan profesi, atas dasar mana dapat ditetapkan bahwa pelayanan epidemiologi merupakan salah satu profesi. Dalam rangka pembinaan profesi kesehatan masyarakat, IAKMI dan APTKMI telah membentuk Majelis Kolegium Kesehatan Masyarakat Indonesia (MKKMI yang terdiri atas 8 kolegium antara lain Kolegium Epidemiologi, yang telah menyusun Standar Profesi Epidemiologi yang terdiri atas beberapa standar. Masing-masing standar dijelaskan mulai dari kurikulum, standar pelayanan epidmiologi, profil epidemiolog kesehatan, peran epidemiolog kesehatan, fungsi epidemiolog kesehatan, standar kompetensi epidemiologi, dan standar pendidikan profesi epidemiologi.

  14. Chronic kidney disease of nontraditional etiology in Central America: a provisional epidemiologic case definition for surveillance and epidemiologic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lozier

    Full Text Available SYNOPSIS Over the last two decades, experts have reported a rising number of deaths caused by chronic kidney disease (CKD along the Pacific coast of Central America, from southern Mexico to Costa Rica. However, this specific disease is not associated with traditional causes of CKD, such as aging, diabetes, or hypertension. Rather, this disease is a chronic interstitial nephritis termed chronic kidney disease of nontraditional etiology (CKDnT. According to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO mortality database, there are elevated rates of deaths related to kidney disease in many of these countries, with the highest rates being reported in El Salvador and Nicaragua. This condition has been identified in certain agricultural communities, predominantly among male farmworkers. Since CKD surveillance systems in Central America are under development or nonexistent, experts and governmental bodies have recommended creating standardized case definitions for surveillance purposes to monitor and characterize this epidemiological situation. A group of experts from Central American ministries of health, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, and PAHO held a workshop in Guatemala to discuss CKDnT epidemiologic case definitions. In this paper, we propose that CKD in general be identified by the standard definition internationally accepted and that a suspect case of CKDnT be defined as a person age < 60 years with CKD, without type 1 diabetes mellitus, hypertensive diseases, and other well-known causes of CKD. A probable case of CKDnT is defined as a suspect case with the same findings confirmed three or more months later.

  15. Perils and potentials of self-selected entry to epidemiological studies and surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Niels; Louis, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Low front-end cost and rapid accrual make Web-based surveys and enrolment in studies attractive, but participants are often self-selected with little reference to a well-defined study base. Of course, high quality studies must be internally valid (validity of inferences for the sample at hand......), but Web-based enrolment reactivates discussion of external validity (generalization of within-study inferences to a target population or context) in epidemiology and clinical trials. Survey research relies on a representative sample produced by a sampling frame, prespecified sampling process and weighting...

  16. A systematic review of epidemiologic studies assessing condom use and risk of syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Catherine A; Dunne, Eileen F; Warner, Lee

    2009-07-01

    Although systematic reviews of epidemiologic studies have been conducted for condom use and the risk of several sexually transmitted diseases, there have been no such reviews for condom use and syphilis. A systematic literature review of epidemiologic studies published from 1972 to 2008 was conducted to evaluate study methods and measures of association reported for condom use and risk of syphilis. All 12 included studies had significant methodologic limitations. Nine (75%) studies were cross-sectional. Although 11 (92%) studies assessed consistent condom use, no studies assessed correct use or condom use problems, nor did any document exposure to a partner infected with syphilis. Ten studies had insufficient information to distinguish prevalent from incident infections. Two studies that assessed both incident infection and consistent condom use suggested a reduced risk of syphilis with consistent condom use; 1 study was statistically significant. Significant methodologic limitations exist for all reviewed studies of syphilis and condom use. Among the 2 most rigorously designed studies, both suggested a reduced risk of syphilis with consistent condom use. Additional studies incorporating rigorous methods are needed to further assess the effect of condom use on risk of syphilis.

  17. Long-term particulate matter exposure and mortality: a review of European epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boffetta Paolo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies considered the relation between long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM and total mortality, as well as mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Our aim was to provide a comprehensive review of European epidemiological studies on the issue. Methods We searched the Medline database for epidemiological studies on air pollution and health outcomes published between January 2002 and December 2007. We also examined the reference lists of individual papers and reviews. Two independent reviewers classified the studies according to type of air pollutant, duration of exposure and health outcome considered. Among European investigations that examined long-term PM exposure we found 4 cohort studies (considering total and cardiopulmonary mortality, 1 case-control study (considering mortality from myocardial infarction, and 4 ecologic studies (2 studies considering total and cardiopulmonary mortality and 2 studies focused on cardiovascular mortality. Results Measurement indicators of PM exposure used in European studies, including PM10, PM2.5, total suspended particulate and black smoke, were heterogeneous. This notwithstanding, in all analytic studies total mortality was directly associated with long-term exposure to PM. The excesses in mortality were mainly due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes. Three out of 4 ecologic studies found significant direct associations between PM indexes and mortality. Conclusion European studies on long-term exposure to PM indicate a direct association with mortality, particularly from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases.

  18. A Dish-based Semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for assessment of dietary intakes in epidemiologic studies in Iran: Design and development

    OpenAIRE

    Ammar Hassanzadeh Keshteli; Ahmad Esmaillzadeh; Somayeh Rajaie; Gholamreza Askari; Christine Feinle-Bisset; Peyman Adibi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Earlier forms of food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used in Iran have extensive lists of foods, traditional categories and food-based design, mostly with the interviewer-administered approach. The aim of the current paper is to describe the development of a dish-based, machine-readable, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (DFQ). Methods: Within the framework of the Study on the Epidemiology of Psychological, Alimentary Health and Nutrition project, we created a nove...

  19. Establishment and operation of a biorepository for molecular epidemiologic studies in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Bernal; Schiffman, Mark; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Jiménez, Silvia; Shea, Katheryn; González, Paula; Porras, Carolina; Fallas, Greivin; Rodríguez, Ana Cecilia

    2010-04-01

    The Proyecto Epidemiológico Guanacaste (PEG) has conducted several large studies related to human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer in Guanacaste, Costa Rica in a long-standing collaboration with the U.S. National Cancer Institute. To improve molecular epidemiology efforts and save costs, we have gradually transferred technology to Costa Rica, culminating in state-of-the-art laboratories and a biorepository to support a phase III clinical trial investigating the efficacy of HPV 16/18 vaccine. Here, we describe the rationale and lessons learned in transferring molecular epidemiologic and biorepository technology to a developing country. At the outset of the PEG in the early 1990s, we shipped all specimens to repositories and laboratories in the United States, which created multiple problems. Since then, by intensive personal interactions between experts from the United States and Costa Rica, we have successfully transferred liquid-based cytology, HPV DNA testing and serology, chlamydia and gonorrhea testing, PCR-safe tissue processing, and viable cryopreservation. To accommodate the vaccine trial, a state-of-the-art repository opened in mid-2004. Approximately 15,000 to 50,000 samples are housed in the repository on any given day, and >500,000 specimens have been shipped, many using a custom-made dry shipper that permits exporting >20,000 specimens at a time. Quality control of shipments received by the NCI biorepository has revealed an error rate of storage of frozen specimens returned from the United States. Using Internet-based specimen tracking software has proven to be efficient even across borders. For long-standing collaborations, it makes sense to transfer the molecular epidemiology expertise toward the source of specimens. The successes of the PEG molecular epidemiology laboratories and biorepository prove that the physical and informatics infrastructures of a modern biorepository can be transferred to a resource-limited and weather

  20. Epidemiological studies in incidence, prevalence, mortality, and comorbidity of the rheumatic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Sherine E; Michaud, Kaleb

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of disease in human populations. Over the past decade there has been considerable progress in our understanding of the fundamental descriptive epidemiology (levels of disease frequency: incidence and prevalence, comorbidity, mortality, trends over time, geographic distributions, and clinical characteristics) of the rheumatic diseases. This progress is reviewed for the following major rheumatic diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (RA), juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, giant cell arteritis, polymyalgia rheumatica, gout, Sjögren's syndrome, and ankylosing spondylitis. These findings demonstrate the dynamic nature of the incidence and prevalence of these conditions – a reflection of the impact of genetic and environmental factors. The past decade has also brought new insights regarding the comorbidity associated with rheumatic diseases. Strong evidence now shows that persons with RA are at a high risk for developing several comorbid disorders, that these conditions may have atypical features and thus may be difficult to diagnose, and that persons with RA experience poorer outcomes after comorbidity compared with the general population. Taken together, these findings underscore the complexity of the rheumatic diseases and highlight the key role of epidemiological research in understanding these intriguing conditions. PMID:19519924

  1. Accounting for response misclassification and covariate measurement error improves power and reduces bias in epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dunlei; Branscum, Adam J; Stamey, James D

    2010-07-01

    To quantify the impact of ignoring misclassification of a response variable and measurement error in a covariate on statistical power, and to develop software for sample size and power analysis that accounts for these flaws in epidemiologic data. A Monte Carlo simulation-based procedure is developed to illustrate the differences in design requirements and inferences between analytic methods that properly account for misclassification and measurement error to those that do not in regression models for cross-sectional and cohort data. We found that failure to account for these flaws in epidemiologic data can lead to a substantial reduction in statistical power, over 25% in some cases. The proposed method substantially reduced bias by up to a ten-fold margin compared to naive estimates obtained by ignoring misclassification and mismeasurement. We recommend as routine practice that researchers account for errors in measurement of both response and covariate data when determining sample size, performing power calculations, or analyzing data from epidemiological studies. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Statistical learning techniques applied to epidemiology: a simulated case-control comparison study with logistic regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Land Walker H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When investigating covariate interactions and group associations with standard regression analyses, the relationship between the response variable and exposure may be difficult to characterize. When the relationship is nonlinear, linear modeling techniques do not capture the nonlinear information content. Statistical learning (SL techniques with kernels are capable of addressing nonlinear problems without making parametric assumptions. However, these techniques do not produce findings relevant for epidemiologic interpretations. A simulated case-control study was used to contrast the information embedding characteristics and separation boundaries produced by a specific SL technique with logistic regression (LR modeling representing a parametric approach. The SL technique was comprised of a kernel mapping in combination with a perceptron neural network. Because the LR model has an important epidemiologic interpretation, the SL method was modified to produce the analogous interpretation and generate odds ratios for comparison. Results The SL approach is capable of generating odds ratios for main effects and risk factor interactions that better capture nonlinear relationships between exposure variables and outcome in comparison with LR. Conclusions The integration of SL methods in epidemiology may improve both the understanding and interpretation of complex exposure/disease relationships.

  3. The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study: study design and data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mutsert, Renée; den Heijer, Martin; Rabelink, Ton Johannes; Smit, Johannes Willem Adriaan; Romijn, Johannes Anthonius; Jukema, Johan Wouter; de Roos, Albert; Cobbaert, Christa Maria; Kloppenburg, Margreet; le Cessie, Saskia; Middeldorp, Saskia; Rosendaal, Frits Richard

    2013-06-01

    Obesity is a well-established risk factor for many chronic diseases. Incomplete insight exists in the causal pathways responsible for obesity-related disorders and consequently, in the identification of obese individuals at risk of these disorders. The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study is designed for extensive phenotyping to investigate pathways that lead to obesity-related diseases. The NEO study is a population-based, prospective cohort study that includes 6,673 individuals aged 45-65 years, with an oversampling of individuals with overweight or obesity. At baseline, data on demography, lifestyle, and medical history have been collected by questionnaires. In addition, samples of 24-h urine, fasting and postprandial blood plasma and serum, and DNA were collected. Participants underwent an extensive physical examination, including anthropometry, electrocardiography, spirometry, and measurement of the carotid artery intima-media thickness by ultrasonography. In random subsamples of participants, magnetic resonance imaging of abdominal fat, pulse wave velocity of the aorta, heart, and brain, magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the liver, indirect calorimetry, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, or accelerometry measurements were performed. The collection of data started in September 2008 and completed at the end of September 2012. Participants are followed for the incidence of obesity-related diseases and mortality. The NEO study investigates pathways that lead to obesity-related diseases. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of disease in obesity may help to identify individuals who are susceptible to the detrimental metabolic, cardiovascular and other consequences of obesity and has implications for the development of prevention and treatment strategies.

  4. An Epidemiologic Study of Pediatric Poisoning; a Six-month Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manouchehrifar, Mohammad; Derakhshandeh, Niloufar; Shojaee, Majid; Sabzghabaei, Anita; Farnaghi, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Intentional and unintentional poisoning are among the most common reasons for referrals to emergency department (ED). Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate epidemiologic features and effective risk factors of intentional and unintentional poisoning in children. This prospective cross-sectional study was carried out in ED of Loghman Hakim Hospital, greatest referral poison center of Iran, Tehran during March to August 2014. Demographic data, medical history, history of psychiatric disease in child, the cause of poisoning, parents' educational level, household monthly income, location of residence, history of addiction or divorce in family, and the poisoning intentionality were gathered. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18 and appropriate statistical tests based on the purpose of study. 414 participants with the mean age of 4.2 ± 3.43 years were included (57.5% male). Children in the 0-4 year(s) age range had the most frequency with 281 (67.9%) cases. 29 (7%) cases were intentional (62% female, 76% in the 10-14 years old group). Methadone with 123 (29.7%) cases was the most frequent toxic agent in general and in unintentional cases. 10-14 years of age (p = 0.001), and the history of psychiatric disease in children (p <0.001), had a direct correlation with probability of intentional poisoning. While, history of addiction in the family showed an indirect correlation with this probability (p = 0.045). Based on the results of this study, most cases of poisoning in the children were unintentional methadone intoxication in boys in the 0-4 age range with a history of a psychiatric disease, and those who had a history of addiction in the family. In addition, the most powerful risk factor for the children's intentional poisoning was their history of psychiatric disease. The history of addiction in the child's family had indirect correlation with intentional intoxications.

  5. An Epidemiologic Study of Pediatric Poisoning; a Six-month Cross-sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Manouchehrifar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intentional and unintentional poisoning are among the most common reasons for referrals to emergency department (ED. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate epidemiologic features and effective risk factors of intentional and unintentional poisoning in children. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was carried out in ED of Loghman Hakim Hospital, greatest referral poison center of Iran, Tehran during March to August 2014. Demographic data, medical history, history of psychiatric disease in child, the cause of poisoning, parents’ educational level, household monthly income, location of residence, history of addiction or divorce in family, and the poisoning intentionality were gathered. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18 and appropriate statistical tests based on the purpose of study. Results: 414 participants with the mean age of 4.2 ± 3.43 years were included (57.5% male. Children in the 0-4 year(s age range had the most frequency with 281 (67.9% cases. 29 (7% cases were intentional (62% female, 76% in the 10-14 years old group. Methadone with 123 (29.7% cases was the most frequent toxic agent in general and in unintentional cases. 10-14 years of age (p = 0.001, and the history of psychiatric disease in children (p <0.001, had a direct correlation with probability of intentional poisoning. While, history of addiction in the family showed an indirect correlation with this probability (p = 0.045. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, most cases of poisoning in the children were unintentional methadone intoxication in boys in the 0-4 age range with a history of a psychiatric disease, and those who had a history of addiction in the family. In addition, the most powerful risk factor for the children’s intentional poisoning was their history of psychiatric disease. The history of addiction in the child’s family had indirect correlation with intentional intoxications.

  6. Systematic review of epidemiological studies on health effects associated with management of solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Management of solid waste (mainly landfills and incineration) releases a number of toxic substances, most in small quantities and at extremely low levels. Because of the wide range of pollutants, the different pathways of exposure, long-term low-level exposure, and the potential for synergism among the pollutants, concerns remain about potential health effects but there are many uncertainties involved in the assessment. Our aim was to systematically review the available epidemiological literature on the health effects in the vicinity of landfills and incinerators and among workers at waste processing plants to derive usable excess risk estimates for health impact assessment. Methods We examined the published, peer-reviewed literature addressing health effects of waste management between 1983 and 2008. For each paper, we examined the study design and assessed potential biases in the effect estimates. We evaluated the overall evidence and graded the associated uncertainties. Results In most cases the overall evidence was inadequate to establish a relationship between a specific waste process and health effects; the evidence from occupational studies was not sufficient to make an overall assessment. For community studies, at least for some processes, there was limited evidence of a causal relationship and a few studies were selected for a quantitative evaluation. In particular, for populations living within two kilometres of landfills there was limited evidence of congenital anomalies and low birth weight with excess risk of 2 percent and 6 percent, respectively. The excess risk tended to be higher when sites dealing with toxic wastes were considered. For populations living within three kilometres of old incinerators, there was limited evidence of an increased risk of cancer, with an estimated excess risk of 3.5 percent. The confidence in the evaluation and in the estimated excess risk tended to be higher for specific cancer forms such as non

  7. Systematic review of epidemiological studies on health effects associated with management of solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazzarino Antonio I

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management of solid waste (mainly landfills and incineration releases a number of toxic substances, most in small quantities and at extremely low levels. Because of the wide range of pollutants, the different pathways of exposure, long-term low-level exposure, and the potential for synergism among the pollutants, concerns remain about potential health effects but there are many uncertainties involved in the assessment. Our aim was to systematically review the available epidemiological literature on the health effects in the vicinity of landfills and incinerators and among workers at waste processing plants to derive usable excess risk estimates for health impact assessment. Methods We examined the published, peer-reviewed literature addressing health effects of waste management between 1983 and 2008. For each paper, we examined the study design and assessed potential biases in the effect estimates. We evaluated the overall evidence and graded the associated uncertainties. Results In most cases the overall evidence was inadequate to establish a relationship between a specific waste process and health effects; the evidence from occupational studies was not sufficient to make an overall assessment. For community studies, at least for some processes, there was limited evidence of a causal relationship and a few studies were selected for a quantitative evaluation. In particular, for populations living within two kilometres of landfills there was limited evidence of congenital anomalies and low birth weight with excess risk of 2 percent and 6 percent, respectively. The excess risk tended to be higher when sites dealing with toxic wastes were considered. For populations living within three kilometres of old incinerators, there was limited evidence of an increased risk of cancer, with an estimated excess risk of 3.5 percent. The confidence in the evaluation and in the estimated excess risk tended to be higher for specific cancer

  8. The Current Canon in British Romantics Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkin, Harriet Kramer

    1991-01-01

    Describes and reports on a survey of 164 U.S. universities to ascertain what is taught as the current canon of British Romantic literature. Asserts that the canon may now include Mary Shelley with the former standard six major male Romantic poets, indicating a significant emergence of a feminist perspective on British Romanticism in the classroom.…

  9. Epidemiologic studies in the areas with a high level of natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurier, D.; Martin, J.M.; Hubert, Ph.

    2000-10-01

    Since 1970, numerous studies have been interested in high level of natural radiations areas (H.L.N.R.A.) or high background radiation areas (H.B.R.A.). An international conference stands every four years, and the last one was at Munich (Germany). The aim of this note is to make a review of epidemiologic studies made with the populations living in H.L.N.R.A. and to present a synthesis of achieved results. The cytogenetic studies are equally mentioned but not detailed. (N.C.)

  10. A Review of Exposure Assessment Methods in Epidemiological Studies on Incinerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Cordioli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Incineration is a common technology for waste disposal, and there is public concern for the health impact deriving from incinerators. Poor exposure assessment has been claimed as one of the main causes of inconsistency in the epidemiological literature. We reviewed 41 studies on incinerators published between 1984 and January 2013 and classified them on the basis of exposure assessment approach. Moreover, we performed a simulation study to explore how the different exposure metrics may influence the exposure levels used in epidemiological studies. 19 studies used linear distance as a measure of exposure to incinerators, 11 studies atmospheric dispersion models, and the remaining 11 studies a qualitative variable such as presence/absence of the source. All reviewed studies utilized residence as a proxy for population exposure, although residence location was evaluated with different precision (e.g., municipality, census block, or exact address. Only one study reconstructed temporal variability in exposure. Our simulation study showed a notable degree of exposure misclassification caused by the use of distance compared to dispersion modelling. We suggest that future studies (i make full use of pollution dispersion models; (ii localize population on a fine-scale; and (iii explicitly account for the presence of potential environmental and socioeconomic confounding.

  11. Exposure to phthalates: reproductive outcome and children health. A review of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Hanke, Wojciech

    2011-06-01

    Phthalates are a family of industrial chemicals that have been used for a variety of purposes. As the potential consequences of human exposure to phthalates have raised concerns in the general population, they have been studied in susceptible subjects such as pregnant women, infants and children. This article aims at evaluating the impact of exposure to phthalates on reproductive outcomes and children health by reviewing most recent published literature. Epidemiological studies focusing on exposure to phthalates and pregnancy outcome, genital development, semen quality, precocious puberty, thyroid function, respiratory symptoms and neurodevelopment in children for the last ten years were identified by a search of the PubMed, Medline, Ebsco, Agricola and Toxnet literature bases. The results from the presented studies suggest that there are strong and rather consistent indications that phthalates increase the risk of allergy and asthma and have an adverse impact on children's neurodevelopment reflected by quality of alertness among girls, decreased (less masculine) composite score in boys and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Results of few studies demonstrate negative associations between phthalate levels commonly experienced by the public and impaired sperm quality (concentration, morphology, motility). Phthalates negatively impact also on gestational age and head circumference; however, the results of the studies were not consistent. In all the reviewed studies, exposure to phthalates adversely affected the level of reproductive hormones (luteinizing hormone, free testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin), anogenital distance and thyroid function. The urinary levels of phthalates were significantly higher in the pubertal gynecomastia group, in serum in girls with premature thelarche and in girls with precocious puberty. Epidemiological studies, in spite of their limitations, suggest that phthalates may affect reproductive outcome and children health

  12. A Comparison of Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants: Application to Epidemiology Studies in Detroit, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehicles are major sources of air pollutant emissions, and individuals living near large roads endure high exposures and health risks associated with traffic-related air pollutants. Air pollution epidemiology, health risk, environmental justice, and transportation planning studi...

  13. Statistical methods for the time-to-event analysis of individual participant data from multiple epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Simon; Kaptoge, Stephen; White, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Meta-analysis of individual participant time-to-event data from multiple prospective epidemiological studies enables detailed investigation of exposure-risk relationships, but involves a number of analytical challenges....

  14. Experimental studies of coaxial plasma gun current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    In this investigation of a coaxial plasma gun, plasma sheath currents and related behavior are examined. Plasma behavior in the gun affects gun characteristics. Plasma gun applications are determined by the plasma behavior. The AFWL PUFF capacitor bank (72 μF, 29 nH, 120 kV) drives the plasma gun using a deuterium fill gas. The gas breakdown site is isolated from the dielectric/vacuum interface in the AFWL system. Two gas values deliver gas in the system. The first delivers gas from the gun breech and the second optional valve delivers gas to the gun muzzle. Currents and voltages are measured by Rogowski coils, B probes and capacitive voltage probes. A O-D slug model is used to predict the current, inductance, gun voltage and plasma sheath velocity. The slug model assumes the sheath transits the gun with all mass in the sheath. In the snowplow mode, the plasma sheath is thin with a sharp current rise and drop. Our system operated in a transition mode between the snowplow and deflagration modes with early snowplow behavior and late deflagration behavior. Neutrons are produced in a plasma pinch at the gun muzzle, indicating snowplow behavior. The slug theory models overall gun behavior to experimental accuracy. Experimental results are compared to four theories for plasma sheath velocities: the Alfven collisionally limited model, the Rosenbluth model, the Fishbine saturated model and a single particle drift model. Experimental velocities vary from 10 5 to 10 6 m/s. Only the single particle drift and the slug model calculations are of the right magnitude (8 x 10 5 m/s). The Fishbine and the Rosenbluth models predict slower velocities (2 x 10 5 m/s). The Alfven model is not applicable to this system

  15. Metabolism and Biomarkers of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Molecular Epidemiology Studies: Lessons Learned from Aromatic Amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Aromatic amines and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are structurally related classes of carcinogens that are formed during the combustion of tobacco or during the high-temperature cooking of meats. Both classes of procarcinogens undergo metabolic activation by N-hydroxylation of the exocyclic amine group, to produce a common proposed intermediate, the arylnitrenium ion, which is the critical metabolite implicated in toxicity and DNA damage. However, the biochemistry and chemical properties of these compounds are distinct and different biomarkers of aromatic amines and HAAs have been developed for human biomonitoring studies. Hemoglobin adducts have been extensively used as biomarkers to monitor occupational and environmental exposures to a number of aromatic amines; however, HAAs do not form hemoglobin adducts at appreciable levels and other biomarkers have been sought. A number of epidemiologic studies that have investigated dietary consumption of well-done meat in relation to various tumor sites reported a positive association between cancer risk and well-done meat consumption, although some studies have shown no associations between well-done meat and cancer risk. A major limiting factor in most epidemiological studies is the uncertainty in quantitative estimates of chronic exposure to HAAs and, thus, the association of HAAs formed in cooked meat and cancer risk has been difficult to establish. There is a critical need to establish long-term biomarkers of HAAs that can be implemented in molecular epidemioIogy studies. In this review article, we highlight and contrast the biochemistry of several prototypical carcinogenic aromatic amines and HAAs to which humans are chronically exposed. The biochemical properties and the impact of polymorphisms of the major xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes on the biological effects of these chemicals are examined. Lastly, the analytical approaches that have been successfully employed to biomonitor aromatic amines and HAAs, and

  16. Epidemiological study of prostate cancer (EPICAP): a population-based case–control study in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menegaux, Florence; Lamy, Pierre-Jean; Rébillard, Xavier; Trétarre, Brigitte; Anger, Antoinette; Randrianasolo, Hasina; Mulot, Claire; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Iborra, François; Bringer, Jean-Pierre; Leizour, Benoit; Thuret, Rodolphe

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in male in most Western countries, including France. Despite a significant morbidity and mortality to a lesser extent, the etiology of prostate cancer remains largely unknown. Indeed, the only well-established risk factors to date are age, ethnicity and a family history of prostate cancer. We present, here, the rationale and design of the EPIdemiological study of Prostate CAncer (EPICAP), a population-based case–control study specifically designed to investigate the role of environmental and genetic factors in prostate cancer. The EPICAP study will particularly focused on the role of circadian disruption, chronic inflammation, hormonal and metabolic factors in the occurrence of prostate cancer. EPICAP is a population-based case–control study conducted in the département of Hérault in France. Eligible cases are all cases of prostate cancers newly diagnosed in 2012-2013 in men less than 75 years old and residing in the département of Hérault at the time of diagnosis. Controls are men of the same age as the cases and living in the département of Hérault, recruited in the general population. The sample will include a total of 1000 incident cases of prostate cancer and 1000 population-based controls over a 3-year period (2012-2014). The cases and controls are face-to-face interviewed using a standardized computed assisted questionnaire. The questions focus primarily on usual socio-demographic characteristics, personal and family medical history, lifestyle, leisure activities, residential and occupational history. Anthropometric measures and biological samples are also collected for cases and controls. The EPICAP study aims to answer key questions in prostate cancer etiology: (1) role of circadian disruption through the study of working hours, chronotype and duration/quality of sleep, (2) role of chronic inflammation and anti-inflammatory drugs, (3) role of hormonal and metabolic factors through a detailed questionnaire

  17. Epidemiologic Studies of Psychosocial Factors Associated With Quality of Life Among Patients With Chronic Diseases in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Masayo

    2012-01-01

    A link between affective disturbances and physical disorders has been suggested since the Greco?Roman era. However, evidence supporting an association between mind and body is limited and mostly comes from North America and Europe. Additional local epidemiologic studies are needed so that more evidence can be collected on effective treatments and health management. Epidemiologic studies of Japanese with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and those on chronic hemodialysis examined the association betwe...

  18. [Epidemiological study of oral health in a young adult Mapuche population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Maza, F J; Cueto, M V

    1989-04-01

    An epidemiological study on oral health was conducted on 200 mapuche natives, aged from 14 to 30 years in order to correlate their oral health level with their oral health habits, scholar level, age and sex. DMFT index and the simplified Oral Hygiene Index were evaluated in the sample of studied patients. It was found a 18.15 DMFT score, higher than the national level in our country, and the simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) was 1.7, showing deficient oral hygiene habits. A direct relationship between a low scholar level and a high caries index and a high OHI-S index was found.

  19. Comprehensive personal RF-EMF exposure map and its potential use in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rubio, Jesus; Najera, Alberto; Arribas, Enrique

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, numerous epidemiological studies, which deal with the potential effects of mobile phone antennas on health, have almost exclusively focused on their distance to mobile phone base stations. Although it is known that this is not the best approach to the problem, this situation occurs due to the numerous difficulties when determining the personal exposure to the radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). However, due to the rise of personal exposimeters, the evolution of spatial statistics, the development of geographical information systems and the use of powerful software, new alternatives are available to deal with these epidemiological studies and thus overcome the aforementioned difficulties. Using these tools, this paper presents a lattice map of personal RF-EMF exposure from exterior mobile phone base stations, covering the entire 110 administrative regions in the city of Albacete (Spain). For this purpose, we used a personal exposimeter, Satimo EME Spy 140 model, performing measurements every 4s The exposimeter was located inside the plastic basket of a bicycle, whose versatility permitted the access to all the zones of the city. Once the exposure map was prepared, its relation with the known antenna locations was studied. The 64 mobile telephone antennas of the city were also georeferenced; the randomness of both variables (exposure and antennas) were studied by means of the Moran's I test. Results showed that the distribution of the antennas follows a grouped pattern (pbased on the mean exposure values to RF-EMF in these sections. The displayed map would permit the execution of more accurate epidemiological studies, since it would be possible to compare the exposure measurements with the incidence data of a disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. How can bio dosimetry measurements be used to improve radiation epidemiologic studies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre; Kleinerman, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Bio dosimetry measurements can be used potentially to improve radiation epidemiologic studies by providing a means to corroborate analytical or model-based dose estimates, to assess bias in models and their dose estimates, and reduce uncertainty in individual or group-average doses. Radiation epidemiologic studies typically rely on accurate estimation of doses to the whole body or to specific organs for numerous individuals in order to derive reliable estimates of risk of cancer or other medical conditions. However, dose estimates whether based on analytical dose reconstruction (i.e., models) or personnel monitoring measurements, e.g., film-badges, are associated with considerable and varying degrees of uncertainty. Uncertainty is a product of many factors; persons were exposed many years or decades earlier and usually only inadequate data or measurements are available. While bio dosimetry has begun to play a more significant role in long-term health risk studies, its use is still limited in that context, primarily due sometimes to inadequate limits of detection, inter-individual variability of the signal measured, and high per-sample cost. Presently, the most suitable bio dosimetry methods for epidemiologic studies are chromosome aberration frequencies from fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of peripheral blood lymphocytes and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements made on tooth enamel, with detection limits of approximately 0.3 to 0.5 Gy, and as low as 0.03 Gy for FISH and EPR, respectively. Presently, both methods are invasive and require obtaining either blood or teeth. Though both FISH and EPR have been used in a variety of large long-term health risk studies including those of a-bomb survivors and various occupational and environmental exposures, only recently has considerable thought been given to how these data can be used in epidemiologic studies in any but rudimentary ways. Key issues to consider are the representativeness of

  1. Epidemiological studies in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: pitfalls in methodologies and data interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Caminati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Data on incidence, prevalence and mortality of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF are sparse and vary across studies. The true incidence and prevalence of the disease are unknown. In general, the overall prevalence and incidence reported in European and Asian countries are lower than those reported in American studies. In recent years, the epidemiological approach to IPF has been difficult for many reasons. First, the diagnostic criteria of the disease have changed over time. Secondly, the coding system used for IPF in administrative databases, the most common data source used to study this aspect of the disease, has been modified in the past few years. Finally, the study design, the methodology and the population selected in each of the studies are very different. All these aspects make comparisons among studies very difficult or impossible. In this review, we list the main issues that might arise when comparing different studies and that should be taken into consideration when describing the state of epidemiological knowledge concerning this pathology.

  2. Coffee consumption and risk of esophageal cancer incidence: A meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Zhou, Bin; Hao, Chuanzheng

    2018-04-01

    In epidemiologic studies, association between coffee consumption and esophageal cancer risk is inconsistent. The aim of tjis study was to evaluate the effect of coffee on esophageal cancer by combining several similar studies. We conducted a meta-analysis for association of coffee intake and esophageal cancer incidence. Eleven studies, including 457,010 participants and 2628 incident cases, were identified. A relative risk (RR, for cohort study) or odds ratio (OR, for case-control study) of heavy coffee drinkers was calculated, compared with light coffee drinkers or non-drinkers. The analysis was also stratified by cancer types (esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and esophageal adenocarcinoma), sex, and geographic region. The summarized OR of having esophageal cancer in heavy coffee drinkers was 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.73-1.12), compared with light coffee drinkers. When stratified by sex, pathologic type of esophageal cancer, and type of epidemiologic study, we did not find any association of coffee consumption and esophageal cancer incidence. However, an inverse association between coffee consumption and incidence of esophageal cancer was found in East Asia participants with OR of 0.64 (95% CI: 0.44-0.83), but not in Euro-America participants (OR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.81-1.29). There is a protective role of coffee consumption against esophageal cancer in East Asians, but not in Euro-Americans.

  3. Epidemiological study of canine parvovirus infection in and around Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalisa Behera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An epidemiological study of canine parvovirus infection in dogs in and around Bhubaneswar, Odisha was conducted between December 2012 to March 2013 and prevalence rate was studied on the basis of age, breed, and sex. Materials and Methods: A total of 71 fecal samples from suspected diarrheic dogs were collected in sterile phosphate buffer saline (10% W/V and examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for detection of canine parvo virus infection, followed by epidemiological study in relation to age, breed, and sex. Results: Of 71 samples analyzed, 29 (40.85% were found to be positive by PCR assay. The infection was higher in Deshi/local breeds (34.48%, followed by German shepherd (17.24%, equal incidences in mixed and Labrador retriever (10.34%, Rottweiler and German spitz showed 6.90% each and finally lower incidences in four breeds (3.45% such as Dalmatians, Nea politan mastiff, Pug and Great Dane. Age-wise prevalence study revealed the infection being more in the age group of 3-6 months (41.37%, followed by equal incidences of 27.59% in 1-3 months and 6-12 months age group, and a low incidence in age groups above 12 months (3.45%. The incidence was predominantly higher in males (86.21% than females (13.79%. Conclusions: The epidemiological analysis revealed that the breed wise prevalence was found to be more in Deshi breeds as compared to others, age groups below 6 months were found to be more prone to parvovirus infection and males were mostly infected.

  4. Prevalence of child sexual abuse: a comparison among 4 Italian epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Castelli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although many epidemiological studies defining child sexual abuse prevalence rates in many countries of the world are now available, Italy presents a lack of data regarding this specific issue. Only recently some attempts to define the epidemiology of this public health problem have been tried. Between 2003 and 2010, the Department of Public Health at University of Milan was in charge of one of the more important study of this kind in Italy, involving almost 3000 students aged 18 attending secondary schools in the City of Milan who filled out an anonymous questionnaire aiming at detecting their previous experiences of sexual victimization during childhood and adolescence. After this first edition, the study was replicated among students attending secondary schools in the city of Varese, in the area of Piedmont and in Basilicata (area of Lauria, using the same investigational model and questionnaire. This paper presents the main data collected through four different epidemiological studies using the same methodology and survey tool. Considering at least one of the five different forms of child sexual abuse surveyed (being exposed to pornography, being touched on private parts, being forced to masturbate an older person, being forced to perform oral sex, or being penetrated, the prevalence rate among our samples ranges between a minimum of 12.5% (Varese and a maximum of 34.1% (Lauria. In Lauria the research reveals a higher prevalence rate of child sexual abuse, especially among the male population, for all typologies of abuse but being touched in their private parts. In all other geographical areas and for all typologies of abuse, there is always a higher prevalence among girls, with the only exception of abuse such as being exposed to pornographic materials.

  5. Validation of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale among Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Eun-Hye; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Yu, Je-Chun; Nam, Ji-Ae

    2018-02-01

    The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) is designed to measure the current level of depressive symptomatology in the general population. However, no review has examined whether the scale is reliable and valid among children and adolescents in Korea. The purpose of this study was to test whether the Korean form of the CES-D is valid in adolescents. Data were obtained from 1,884 adolescents attending grades 1-3 in Korean middle schools. Reliability was evaluated by internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha). Concurrent validity was evaluated by a correlation analysis between the CES-D and other scales. Construct validity was evaluated by exploratory factor and confirmatory factor analyses. The internal consistency coefficient for the entire group was 0.88. The CES-D was positively correlated with scales that measure negative psychological constructs, such as the State Anxiety Inventory for Children, the Korean Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents, and the Reynold Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire, but it was negatively correlated with scales that measure positive psychological constructs, such as the Korean version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale-2. The CES-D was examined by three-dimensional exploratory factor analysis, and the three-factor structure of the scale explained 53.165% of the total variance. The variance explained by factor I was 24.836%, that explained by factor II was 15.988%, and that explained by factor III was 12.341%. The construct validity of the CES-D was tested by confirmatory factor analysis, and we applied the entire group's data using a three-factor hierarchical model. The fit index showed a level similar to those of other countries' adolescent samples. The CES-D has high internal consistency and addresses psychological constructs similar to those addressed by other scales. The CES-D showed a three-factor structure in an exploratory factor analysis. The present

  6. Changing epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Iceland from 2000 to 2008: a challenge to current guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzknecht, B.J.; Hardardottir, H.; Haraldsson, Gustav Helgi

    2010-01-01

    and microbiological data of all MRSA patients from the years 2000 to 2008 were collected prospectively. Isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), sequencing of the repeat region of the Staphylococcus protein A gene (spa typing), staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing...... setting. However, MRSA in Iceland is now shifting into the community, challenging the current Icelandic guidelines, which are tailored to the health care system....

  7. Correlates of Cortisol in Human Hair: Implications for Epidemiologic Studies on Health Effects of Chronic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosu, Adaeze C.; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Shields, Alexandra E.; Williams, David R.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of cortisol concentrations in hair is one of the latest innovations for measuring long-term cortisol exposure. We performed a systematic review of correlates of cortisol in human hair to inform the design, analysis and interpretation of future epidemiologic studies. Relevant publications were identified through electronic searches on PubMed, WorldCat, and Web of Science using keywords, “cortisol” “hair” “confounders” “chronic” “stress” and “correlates.” Thirty-nine studies were included in this review. Notwithstanding scarce data and some inconsistencies, investigators have found hair cortisol concentrations to be associated with stress-related psychiatric symptoms and disorders (e.g., PTSD), medical conditions indicating chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (e.g., Cushing´s syndrome) and other life situations associated with elevated risk of chronic stress (e.g., shiftwork). Results from some studies suggest that physical activity, adiposity, and substance abuse may be correlates of hair cortisol concentrations. In contrast to measures of short-term cortisol release (saliva, blood, and urine), cigarette smoking and use of oral contraceptives appear to not be associated with hair cortisol concentrations. Studies of pregnant women indicate increased hair cortisol concentrations across successive trimesters. The study of hair cortisol presents a unique opportunity to assess chronic alterations in cortisol concentrations in epidemiologic studies. PMID:24184029

  8. Correlates of cortisol in human hair: implications for epidemiologic studies on health effects of chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosu, Adaeze C; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Shields, Alexandra E; Williams, David R; Williams, Michelle A

    2013-12-01

    Assessment of cortisol concentrations in hair is one of the latest innovations for measuring long-term cortisol exposure. We performed a systematic review of correlates of cortisol in human hair to inform the design, analysis, and interpretation of future epidemiologic studies. Relevant publications were identified through electronic searches on PubMed, WorldCat, and Web of Science using keywords, "cortisol," "hair," "confounders," "chronic," "stress," and "correlates." Thirty-nine studies were included in this review. Notwithstanding scarce data and some inconsistencies, investigators have found hair cortisol concentrations to be associated with stress-related psychiatric symptoms and disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder), medical conditions indicating chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (e.g., Cushing's syndrome), and other life situations associated with elevated risk of chronic stress (e.g., shiftwork). Results from some studies suggest that physical activity, adiposity, and substance abuse may be correlates of hair cortisol concentrations. In contrast to measures of short-term cortisol release (saliva, blood, and urine), cigarette smoking and use of oral contraceptives appear not to be associated with hair cortisol concentrations. Studies of pregnant women indicate increased hair cortisol concentrations across successive trimesters. The study of hair cortisol presents a unique opportunity to assess chronic alterations in cortisol concentrations in epidemiologic studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of dietary patterns using factor analysis in an epidemiological study in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirce Maria Lobo Marchioni

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Diet and nutrition are environmental factors in health/disease relationships. From the epidemiological viewpoint, diet represents a complex set of highly correlated exposures. Our objective was to identify patterns of food intake in a group of individuals living in São Paulo, and to develop objective dietary measurements for epidemiological purposes. DESIGN AND LOCAL: Exploratory factor analysis of data in a case-control study in seven teaching hospitals in São Paulo. METHODS: The participants were 517 patients (260 oral cancer cases and 257 controls admitted to the study hospitals between November 1998 and March 2001. The weekly intake frequencies for dairy products, cereals, meat, processed meat, vegetables, pulses, fruits and sweets were assessed by means of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis, based on the intake of the eight food groups, using principal component analysis as an extraction method followed by varimax rotation. RESULTS: Factor analysis identified three patterns that accounted for 55% of the total variability within the sample. The first pattern ("prudent" was characterized by vegetable, fruit and meat intake; the second ("traditional" by cereals (mainly rice and pulses (mainly beans; and the third ("snacks" by dairy products and processed meat. CONCLUSION: This study identified food intake patterns through an a posteriori approach. Such analysis may be useful for nutritional intervention programs and, after computing scores for each individual according to the patterns identified, for establishing a relationship between diet and other epidemiological measurements of interest.

  10. Review of epidemiological and cytogenetic studies on high background radiation area residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Toshiyasu

    2008-01-01

    Emerging scientific knowledge in the field of radiation biology has put into question the generic use of a simple linear extrapolation of radiation effects from high to low dose or dose rate. Though the direct information of biological effects at low dose or low dose rate has been accumulated, it is still immature to mention health effects as the consequence of biological effects. As epidemiological data have been the main sources of direct information on human health effects, studies of the health of population exposed by low dose or low dose rate ionizing radiation will help to improve our understanding. In this meaning, the epidemiological studies of residents in high background radiation areas (HBRA), which are supported by us, will provide important direct information on the biological and health effects of chronic low dose rate ionizing radiation. The epidemiological results in HBRA in China showed there are no significant increases of cancer risks caused by the high background levels of ionizing radiation. From the results which come from cytogeneticl studies, the frequencies of unstable chromosomal aberrations have shown good correlation with cumulative doses in their lifetimes, which indicated it is a sensitive and informative biomarker. On the other hand, the frequencies of stable chromosomal aberrations have shown no significant difference and the frequency was much higher than that of unstable type aberrations. It suggests that mutagenic factors other than radiation contribute more than the elevated level of radiation to the induction of DNA rearrangements which could lead to the increase of cancer risk in HBRA in China. (author)

  11. A systematic critical review of epidemiological studies on public health concerns of municipal solid waste handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, France; Ncube, Esper Jacobeth; Voyi, Kuku

    2017-03-01

    The ultimate aim of this review was to summarise the epidemiological evidence on the association between municipal solid waste management operations and health risks to populations residing near landfills and incinerators, waste workers and recyclers. To accomplish this, the sub-aims of this review article were to (1) examine the health risks posed by municipal solid waste management activities, (2) determine the strengths and gaps of available literature on health risks from municipal waste management operations and (3) suggest possible research needs for future studies. The article reviewed epidemiological literature on public health concerns of municipal solid waste handling published in the period 1995-2014. The PubMed and MEDLINE computerised literature searches were employed to identify the relevant papers using the keywords solid waste, waste management, health risks, recycling, landfills and incinerators. Additionally, all references of potential papers were examined to determine more articles that met the inclusion criteria. A total of 379 papers were identified, but after intensive screening only 72 met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Of these studies, 33 were on adverse health effects in communities living near waste dumpsites or incinerators, 24 on municipal solid waste workers and 15 on informal waste recyclers. Reviewed studies were unable to demonstrate a causal or non-causal relationship due to various limitations. In light of the above findings, our review concludes that overall epidemiological evidence in reviewed articles is inadequate mainly due to methodological limitations and future research needs to develop tools capable of demonstrating causal or non-causal relationships between specific waste management operations and adverse health endpoints.

  12. Analysis of those national analytic epidemiological studies that by obtention the exposure-response functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, E.; Meneses, E.

    2003-01-01

    The Impact Pathway methodology, developed in the frame of Extern E project for estimating of the external costs or externalities of the energy use, has as one of their main steps the health impact evaluation. This evaluation is carried out through exposure-response functions. In previous estimates of the external costs of power generation in Cuba, functions obtained in international studies were used. The main objective of this work was to carry out a summarized critical analysis of those national analytic epidemiological studies that, according the exposed methodology, consider the main aspects specialized with views to the possible preliminary proposal of functions exposure-response (FER) based own in epidemiologic evidences. In agreement with the analysis, the results show that the great majority of the studies are not useful for the FER establishment, at least in their present form. A minority studies exists that contributes limited evidence and their reanalysis could increase their contribution to the propose purpose. Finally the main problems found in the studies are enumerated revision object

  13. Performance of gout definitions for genetic epidemiological studies: analysis of UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadzow, Murray; Merriman, Tony R; Dalbeth, Nicola

    2017-08-09

    Many different combinations of available data have been used to identify gout cases in large genetic studies. The aim of this study was to determine the performance of case definitions of gout using the limited items available in multipurpose cohorts for population-based genetic studies. This research was conducted using the UK Biobank Resource. Data, including genome-wide genotypes, were available for 105,421 European participants aged 40-69 years without kidney disease. Gout definitions and combinations of these definitions were identified from previous epidemiological studies. These definitions were tested for association with 30 urate-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, waist circumference, and ratio of waist circumference to height. Heritability estimates under an additive model were generated using GCTA version 1.26.0 and PLINK version 1.90b3.32 by partitioning the genome. There were 2066 (1.96%) cases defined by self-report of gout, 1652 (1.57%) defined by urate-lowering therapy (ULT) use, 382 (0.36%) defined by hospital diagnosis, 1861 (1.76%) defined by hospital diagnosis or gout-specific medications and 2295 (2.18%) defined by self-report of gout or ULT use. Association with gout at experiment-wide significance (P genetic epidemiological studies of gout.

  14. Herd-level interpretation of test results for epidemiologic studies of animal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jette; Gardner, Ian A.

    2000-01-01

    Correct classification of the true status of herds is an important component of epidemiologic studies and animal disease-control programs. We review theoretical aspects of herd-level testing through consideration of test performance (herd-level sensitivity, specificity and predictive values......), the factors affecting these estimates, and available software for calculations. We present new aspects and considerations concerning the effect of precision and bias in estimation of individual-test performance on herd-test performance and suggest methods (pooled testing, targeted sampling of subpopulations...... with higher prevalence, and use of combinations of tests) to improve herd-level sensitivity when the expected within-herd prevalence is low....

  15. From biological anthropology to applied public health: epidemiological approaches to the study of infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalak, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    This article describes two large, multisite infectious disease programs: the Tuberculosis Epidemiologic Studies Consortium (TBESC) and the Emerging Infections Programs (EIPs). The links between biological anthropology and applied public health are highlighted using these programs as examples. Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the TBESC and EIPs conduct applied public health research to strengthen infectious disease prevention and control efforts in the United States. They involve collaborations among CDC, public health departments, and academic and clinical institutions. Their unique role in national infectious disease work, including their links to anthropology, shared elements, key differences, strengths and challenges, is discussed.

  16. Epidemiology of a thermonuclear bomb-burst over Nashville, Tennessee: a theoretic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    A thermonuclear bomb explosion over any city in the world would have a devastating effect on the population and environment. For those who survive, with or without injuries, life would become primitive with little or no uncontaminated food or water, and with inadequate housing, fuel, and medical care, resulting in a breakdown of family and interpersonal relationships. This theoretic study of the potential outcome of a thermonuclear bomb-burst over Nashville, Tennessee, discusses epidemiologically the wide range of medical and psychologic effects from the direct trauma of blast and fire, widespread epidemics of otherwise controlled disease, long-term chronic illness, genetic damage, and catastrophic environmental havoc

  17. Epidemiologic study of bronchopulmonary mycosis in the province of cordoba, argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana T. Masih

    1987-02-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological study for histoplasmosis coccidioidomycosis and cryptococcosis made in five areas of the province of Córdoba is presented. The data obtained showed a global positivity of 41.1% for histoplasmin 26.7% for coccidioidin and 14.1% for cryptococcin. In some areas, the Rio III basin and Traslasierra, the histoplasmosis infection indexes were much higher, 53,3% and 73.1% respectively. The index of positive skin tests with Cryptococcus antigen in Traslasierra was also very high: 31.9%.

  18. Exposure to modern, widespread environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals and their effect on the reproductive potential of women: an overview of current epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwacka, Anetta; Zamkowska, Dorota; Radwan, Michał; Jurewicz, Joanna

    2017-07-31

    Growing evidence indicates that exposure to widespread, environmental contaminants called endocrine disruptors (EDCs) negatively affects animal and human reproductive health and has been linked to several diseases including infertility. This review aims to evaluate the impact of environmental exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals [phthalates, parabens, triclosan, bisphenol A (BPA), organochlorine (PCBs) and perfluorinated (PFCs) compounds] on the reproductive potential among women, by reviewing most recently published literature. Epidemiological studies focusing on EDCs exposure and reproductive potential among women for the last 16 years were identified by a search of the PUBMED, MEDLINE, EBSCO and TOXNET literature databases. The results of the presented studies show that exposure to EDCs impacts the reproductive potential in women, measured by ovarian reserve and by assisted reproductive technology outcomes. Exposure to environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals decrease: (i) oestradiol levels (BPA); (ii) anti-Müllerian hormone concentrations (PCBs); (iii) antral follicle count (BPA, parabens, phthalates); (iv) oocyte quality (BPA, triclosan, phthalates, PCBs); (v) fertilization rate (PFCs, PCBs); (vi) implantation (BPA, phthalates, PCBs); (vii) embryo quality (triclosan, PCBs, BPA); (viii) rate of clinical pregnancy and live births (parabens, phthalates). The studies were mostly well-designed and used prospective cohorts with the exposure assessment based on the biomarker of exposure. Considering the suggested health effects, more epidemiological data is urgently needed to confirm the presented findings.

  19. Relationship between indoor radon and lung cancer: a study of feasibility of an epidemiological study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, S.; Neuberg, D.; DuMouchel, W.; Kleitman, D.; Chernoff, H.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes a study to assess the feasibility of an epidemiologic investigation of the relationship between residential radon exposure and lung cancer. Field measurements of residential radon levels in the State of Maine are described. Using these radon measurements and BEIR, 1980 risk assessments, it is estimated that at most 10% of lung cancers in Maine can be considered attributable to residential radon exposure. Calculations are made of sample sizes necessary for a case-control study of radon and lung cancer, for several levels of radon and smoking health effects. The effects of misclassification of exposure variables on the probability of detecting a radon health effect are discussed. A comparison is made of three different mathematical models which could be used for sample size estimation. Dollar cost estimates are given for conducting an epidemiologic case-control study of the relationship between residential radon exposure and lung cancer.

  20. Relationship between indoor radon and lung cancer: a study of feasibility of an epidemiological study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, S.; Neuberg, D.; DuMouchel, W.; Kleitman, D.; Chernoff, H.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes a study to assess the feasibility of an epidemiologic investigation of the relationship between residential radon exposure and lung cancer. Field measurements of residential radon levels in the State of Maine are described. Using these radon measurements and BEIR, 1980 risk assessments, it is estimated that at most 10% of lung cancers in Maine can be considered attributable to residential radon exposure. Calculations are made of sample sizes necessary for a case-control study of radon and lung cancer, for several levels of radon and smoking health effects. The effects of misclassification of exposure variables on the probability of detecting a radon health effect are discussed. A comparison is made of three different mathematical models which could be used for sample size estimation. Dollar cost estimates are given for conducting an epidemiologic case-control study of the relationship between residential radon exposure and lung cancer

  1. Preliminary report from the World Health Organisation Chest Radiography in Epidemiological Studies project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahomed, Nasreen [University of the Witwatersrand, Department of Radiology, Johannesburg (South Africa); University of the Witwatersrand, Medical Research Council: Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Johannesburg (South Africa); Fancourt, Nicholas [Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (United States); Murdoch Children' s Research Institute, Melbourne (Australia); De Campo, John; De Campo, Margaret [Murdoch Children' s Research Institute, Melbourne (Australia); Melbourne University, Melbourne (Australia); Akano, Aliu [Department of Radiology National Hospital, Abuja (Nigeria); Medical Research Council, Gambia (South Africa); Cherian, Thomas [World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland); Cohen, Olivia G. [Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (United States); World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland); Greenberg, David [Soroka University Medical Center, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Lacey, Stephen [Murdoch Children' s Research Institute, Melbourne (Australia); Kohli, Neera [King George Medical University, Lucknow (India); Lederman, Henrique M. [Paulista School of Medicine, Hospital Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Madhi, Shabir A. [University of the Witwatersrand, Medical Research Council: Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Johannesburg (South Africa); University of the Witwatersrand, Department of Science and Technology/National Research Foundation: Vaccine Preventable Diseases, Johannesburg (South Africa); Manduku, Veronica [Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), Nairobi (Kenya); McCollum, Eric D. [Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Eudowood Division of Pediatric Respiratory Sciences, Baltimore (United States); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (United States); Park, Kate [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford (United Kingdom); Ribo-Aristizabal, Jose Luis [Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona (Spain); Bar-Zeev, Naor [University of Malawi, Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme, College of Medicine, Blantyre (Malawi); University of Liverpool, Centre for Global Vaccine Research, Liverpool (United Kingdom); O' Brien, Katherine L. [Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (United States); Mulholland, Kim [Murdoch Children' s Research Institute, Melbourne (Australia); London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-15

    Childhood pneumonia is among the leading infectious causes of mortality in children younger than 5 years of age globally. Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the leading infectious cause of childhood bacterial pneumonia. The diagnosis of childhood pneumonia remains a critical epidemiological task for monitoring vaccine and treatment program effectiveness. The chest radiograph remains the most readily available and common imaging modality to assess childhood pneumonia. In 1997, the World Health Organization Radiology Working Group was established to provide a consensus method for the standardized definition for the interpretation of pediatric frontal chest radiographs, for use in bacterial vaccine efficacy trials in children. The definition was not designed for use in individual patient clinical management because of its emphasis on specificity at the expense of sensitivity. These definitions and endpoint conclusions were published in 2001 and an analysis of observer variation for these conclusions using a reference library of chest radiographs was published in 2005. In response to the technical needs identified through subsequent meetings, the World Health Organization Chest Radiography in Epidemiological Studies (CRES) project was initiated and is designed to be a continuation of the World Health Organization Radiology Working Group. The aims of the World Health Organization CRES project are to clarify the definitions used in the World Health Organization defined standardized interpretation of pediatric chest radiographs in bacterial vaccine impact and pneumonia epidemiological studies, reinforce the focus on reproducible chest radiograph readings, provide training and support with World Health Organization defined standardized interpretation of chest radiographs and develop guidelines and tools for investigators and site staff to assist in obtaining high-quality chest radiographs. (orig.)

  2. Preliminary report from the World Health Organisation Chest Radiography in Epidemiological Studies project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, Nasreen; Fancourt, Nicholas; de Campo, John; de Campo, Margaret; Akano, Aliu; Cherian, Thomas; Cohen, Olivia G; Greenberg, David; Lacey, Stephen; Kohli, Neera; Lederman, Henrique M; Madhi, Shabir A; Manduku, Veronica; McCollum, Eric D; Park, Kate; Ribo-Aristizabal, Jose Luis; Bar-Zeev, Naor; O'Brien, Katherine L; Mulholland, Kim

    2017-10-01

    Childhood pneumonia is among the leading infectious causes of mortality in children younger than 5 years of age globally. Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the leading infectious cause of childhood bacterial pneumonia. The diagnosis of childhood pneumonia remains a critical epidemiological task for monitoring vaccine and treatment program effectiveness. The chest radiograph remains the most readily available and common imaging modality to assess childhood pneumonia. In 1997, the World Health Organization Radiology Working Group was established to provide a consensus method for the standardized definition for the interpretation of pediatric frontal chest radiographs, for use in bacterial vaccine efficacy trials in children. The definition was not designed for use in individual patient clinical management because of its emphasis on specificity at the expense of sensitivity. These definitions and endpoint conclusions were published in 2001 and an analysis of observer variation for these conclusions using a reference library of chest radiographs was published in 2005. In response to the technical needs identified through subsequent meetings, the World Health Organization Chest Radiography in Epidemiological Studies (CRES) project was initiated and is designed to be a continuation of the World Health Organization Radiology Working Group. The aims of the World Health Organization CRES project are to clarify the definitions used in the World Health Organization defined standardized interpretation of pediatric chest radiographs in bacterial vaccine impact and pneumonia epidemiological studies, reinforce the focus on reproducible chest radiograph readings, provide training and support with World Health Organization defined standardized interpretation of chest radiographs and develop guidelines and tools for investigators and site staff to assist in obtaining high-quality chest radiographs.

  3. A cross-sectional epidemiological study of domestic animals related to human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Byron J; Pérez-Sánchez, Tania; Fuertes, Héctor; Sheleby-Elías, Jessica; Múzquiz, José Luis; Jirón, William; Duttmann, Christianne; Halaihel, Nabil

    2017-06-01

    Leptospirosis is one of the most extended zoonosis worldwide and humans become infected most commonly through contact with the urine of carrier animals, either directly or via contaminated water or soil. The aim in this study was to analyse the epidemiological behaviour of Leptospira spp., from domestic animals around the sites of human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua, from 2007 through 2013. We report the results of a cross-sectional epidemiological study with a non-probability sampling of blood (n=3050) and urine (n=299) from Domestic Animals (DA) around the sites of human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua. We analysed data obtained through Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), in-vitro culture, real time PCR and sequencing of lfb1 locus. Frequencies of 30.31% (95% CI: 28.66-31.95) and 15.38% (95% CI: 11.12-19.64) were obtained from serological test and from in-vitro culture, respectively. Although similar frequencies from serology test (P≥0.05) were found in DA species, in-vitro culture frequencies were significantly higher from bovine, equine and sheep (P<0.05) in comparison with swine and canine species. Ten serogroups of pathogenic Leptospira spp. were encountered, with the highest presence of Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup 34.65% (95% CI: 29.35-39.94). We identified 7 samples homologous to L. interrogans species Pyrogenes serovar and 3 samples as L. noguchii Louisiana or Panama serovars by analysis of lfb1 sequences. We were able to establish a temporal and spatial correlation from DA and cumulative incidence of human cases. Therefore an effective epidemiological surveillance should be implemented with a specific control program toward DA in order to reduce human leptospirosis incidence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Preliminary report from the World Health Organisation Chest Radiography in Epidemiological Studies project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahomed, Nasreen; Fancourt, Nicholas; De Campo, John; De Campo, Margaret; Akano, Aliu; Cherian, Thomas; Cohen, Olivia G.; Greenberg, David; Lacey, Stephen; Kohli, Neera; Lederman, Henrique M.; Madhi, Shabir A.; Manduku, Veronica; McCollum, Eric D.; Park, Kate; Ribo-Aristizabal, Jose Luis; Bar-Zeev, Naor; O'Brien, Katherine L.; Mulholland, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Childhood pneumonia is among the leading infectious causes of mortality in children younger than 5 years of age globally. Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the leading infectious cause of childhood bacterial pneumonia. The diagnosis of childhood pneumonia remains a critical epidemiological task for monitoring vaccine and treatment program effectiveness. The chest radiograph remains the most readily available and common imaging modality to assess childhood pneumonia. In 1997, the World Health Organization Radiology Working Group was established to provide a consensus method for the standardized definition for the interpretation of pediatric frontal chest radiographs, for use in bacterial vaccine efficacy trials in children. The definition was not designed for use in individual patient clinical management because of its emphasis on specificity at the expense of sensitivity. These definitions and endpoint conclusions were published in 2001 and an analysis of observer variation for these conclusions using a reference library of chest radiographs was published in 2005. In response to the technical needs identified through subsequent meetings, the World Health Organization Chest Radiography in Epidemiological Studies (CRES) project was initiated and is designed to be a continuation of the World Health Organization Radiology Working Group. The aims of the World Health Organization CRES project are to clarify the definitions used in the World Health Organization defined standardized interpretation of pediatric chest radiographs in bacterial vaccine impact and pneumonia epidemiological studies, reinforce the focus on reproducible chest radiograph readings, provide training and support with World Health Organization defined standardized interpretation of chest radiographs and develop guidelines and tools for investigators and site staff to assist in obtaining high-quality chest radiographs. (orig.)

  5. Current epidemiology and accessibility to diet compliance in adult celiac disease Epidemiología actual y accesibilidad al seguimiento de la dieta de la enfermedad celiaca del adulto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Casellas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: the widespread of serologic diagnosis for celiac disease has brought about an epidemiologic shift. Little up-to-date information is available on relevant epidemiologic issues regarding diagnosis, information, and therapy. Objective: to examine forms of presentation, diagnostic difficulties, follow-up, information sources, and treatment-related issues regarding celiac disease. Method: a cross-sectional observational study using a self-completed questionnaire. Results: seventy-three adult patients were included; 15.0% of cases were diagnosed over 60 years of age. Most were non-smokers (91.8%. The rate of first-degree relatives with celiac sprue was 10.9%. The disease had a classic presentation in only 54.7% of cases. A functional gastrointestinal disorder was initially suspected in 42.4% of patients. Diet adherence is adequate, with unintentional lack of compliance in 15.5% of patients. Diet results in absent or improved symptoms in virtually all patients, but most of them consider compliance a challenge. Forty percent had difficulty finding gluten-free food, and 50.8% had problems in labelling recognition. Conclusions: celiac disease presents at any age, has a great variety of manifestations, and responds very well to gluten-free diet. It is crucial that patients be highly motivated and informed, and that they know for certain which foods and manufactured products are to be to used. Therefore, adequate control will result from coordination and cooperation regarding all resources involved, including medical care, and information provided by associations and other sources such as the Web.

  6. A mobile and asynchronous electronic data capture system for epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jens; Fredrich, Daniel; Piegsa, Jens; Habes, Mohamad; van den Berg, Neeltje; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2013-06-01

    A Central Data Management (CDM) system based on electronic data capture (EDC) software and study specific databases is an essential component for assessment and management of large data volumes in epidemiologic studies. Conventional CDM systems using web applications for data capture depend on permanent access to a network. However, in many study settings permanent network access cannot be guaranteed, e.g. when participants/patients are visited in their homes. In such cases a different concept for data capture is needed. The utilized EDC software must be able to ensure data capture as stand-alone instance and to synchronize captured data with the server at a later point in time. This article describes the design of the mobile information capture (MInCa) system an EDC software meeting these requirements. In particular, we focus on client and server design, data synchronization, and data privacy as well as data security measures. The MInCa software has already proven its efficiency in epidemiologic studies revealing strengths and weaknesses concerning both concept and practical application which will be addressed in this article. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Epidemiological and demographic study of acute animal biting in Abdanan County, Ilam Province, Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Kassiri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the incidence, epidemiology and demography of acute animal bites referred to Abdanan health centers in the years 2009 to 2013.Methods: This study was a descriptive analytical research. Questionnaires for each case of acute animal bite was completed. Data about age, gender, kind of animal, residency, site of bite, etc taken from Abdanan health centers were analyzed. Data were analyzed in SPSS by using descriptive statistics.Results: Total number of exposed persons to acute animal bites was reported 67 in 2009 and 69 in 2013. The average incidence rate was 1.2 per 1 000 population. Bites were frequent among the age group of 20-30 years. Most of the cases were self-employment. Around 83.8% of cases were bitten by dogs. Of total 309 studied patients, 73.8% were male. Feet (71.5% and hands (22.7% were the most common body part affected. About 53.1% of cases were in rural population.Conclusions: Dogs seems to play a very important role in the epidemiology of rabies in Abdanan, Iran. No cases of human rabies were observed in our study. This may be because of increasing public awareness and the upgrading of health and treatment centers, all of which in study region provide post-exposure anti-rabies treatment including vaccination, immunoglobulin and wound washing.

  8. Characteristics of psoriasis in Greece: an epidemiological study of a population in a sunny Mediterranean climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigopoulos, Dimitris; Gregoriou, Stamatis; Katrinaki, Aimilia; Korfitis, Chrysovalantis; Larios, Giorgos; Stamou, Christos; Mourellou, Olympia; Petridis, Athanasios; Rallis, Efstathios; Sotiriadis, Dimitris; Katsambas, Andreas D; Antoniou, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with important socioeconomic consequences. Data on psoriasis prevalence in Greece is scarce and circumstantially reported. The aim of this study was the recording of psoriatic patients' demographic data, clinical characteristics of the disease, and exacerbating factors. Seven hundred and eighty four patients were enrolled in 6 centres (4 in Athens and 2 in Thessaloniki) in a multicenter epidemiologic prospective study. The mean age of patients was 43.2 (standard deviation, SD 17.44) years (median 42 years), while the men: women ratio was 1.8:1. Additionally, 35% of patients reported a positive family history of psoriasis. The mean age of patients at the first episode of psoriasis was 31.3 (SD 16.39) years (median 28 years). Psoriasis vulgaris was the most common form of psoriasis in the population participating in this study. Flares of psoriasis occurred 2.6 times per year on average. The patients considered stress as the main cause for psoriasis exacerbation. Most frequent target points of psoriasis included elbows, legs, scalp and knees. The most common symptoms reported were scaling, and itching. On average, patients visited dermatologists 2.4 times per year for issues related to psoriasis. This study provides epidemiological information regarding psoriasis in Greece. Results of this survey could assist in delineation of patient profiles, and improve communication between doctors and patients.

  9. Methodologic frontiers in environmental epidemiology.

    OpenAIRE

    Rothman, K J

    1993-01-01

    Environmental epidemiology comprises the epidemiologic study of those environmental factors that are outside the immediate control of the individual. Exposures of interest to environmental epidemiologists include air pollution, water pollution, occupational exposure to physical and chemical agents, as well as psychosocial elements of environmental concern. The main methodologic problem in environmental epidemiology is exposure assessment, a problem that extends through all of epidemiologic re...

  10. [Indigenous peoples, HIV and public policy in Latin America: an exploration of the current situations of epidemiological prevalence, prevention, care and timely treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Patricia; Muñoz, Rubén; Stival, Matías

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to describe and analyze the situations of epidemiological prevalence, prevention, care and treatment of HIV in indigenous populations of Latin America. In order to do so, 304 published materials - including declarations, public policy and health program protocols, case studies and literature reviews with local, national and regional scopes - were identified, classified and analyzed. The differential social vulnerability to HIV infection and the inequity in health care access among indigenous populations can be attributed to the juxtaposition of factors such as structural violence, gender, racism, and discrimination due health condition (living with HIV) as well as the subordinated position of indigenous peoples in societies stratified not only socially and economically but also ethnically and culturally. The few studies done in the region on epidemiological prevalence, morbidity and mortality that are disaggregated by ethnicity reveal alarming data highlighting the need for further information on the epidemic in this population so as to address its repercussions in terms of prevention, care and timely follow-up.

  11. Indigenous peoples, HIV and public policy in Latin America: an exploration of the current situations of epidemiological prevalence, prevention, care and timely treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ponce

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe and analyze the situations of epidemiological prevalence, prevention, care and treatment of HIV in indigenous populations of Latin America. In order to do so, 304 published materials – including declarations, public policy and health program protocols, case studies and literature reviews with local, national and regional scopes – were identified, classified and analyzed. The differential social vulnerability to HIV infection and the inequity in health care access among indigenous populations can be attributed to the juxtaposition of factors such as structural violence, gender, racism, and discrimination due health condition (living with HIV as well as the subordinated position of indigenous peoples in societies stratified not only socially and economically but also ethnically and culturally. The few studies done in the region on epidemiological prevalence, morbidity and mortality that are disaggregated by ethnicity reveal alarming data highlighting the need for further information on the epidemic in this population so as to address its repercussions in terms of prevention, care and timely follow-up.

  12. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G; Egger, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Initiative developed...... recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We convened a 2-day workshop in September 2004, with methodologists...... and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE Statement) that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. 18 items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case...

  13. STUDY OF EPIDEMIOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF PHYSICAL DISABILITY AMONG STUDENTS OF AN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUE OF KANPUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Singh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the epidemiological correlates of physical disability among students in an educational institute of Kanpur. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Study Setting: Dr. Ambedkar Institute of technology for Handicapped, UP., Kanpur. Study Subjects : Physically disabled diploma students in the age group 15 years and above of Dr. Ambedkar Institute of Technology for Handicapped UP, Kanpur were taken as study subjects. Data was collected on pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. StatisticalAnalysis : Analysis was done using percentages. Results: Physically disabled students predominantly belonged to age-group of 18-20 years (47.62%, birth order third (28.10%, Hindu religion (95.24%, OBC Caste (47.14% and social class V (51.90%. Poliomyelitis was the most common probable cause of disability in majority of students (77. 14% and right lower limb was the most common site (36.67% affected.

  14. Low doses of ionizing radiation and risk of cardiovascular disease: A review of epidemiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz-Flamant, C.; Bonaventure, A.; Tirmarche, M.; Laurier, D.; Bernier, M.O.; Milliat, F.

    2009-01-01

    Background While cardiovascular risks associated with high level of ionizing radiation are well-established, long-term effects of low and medium levels of exposure, between 0 and 5 gray (Gy), on the cardiovascular system are debated. Methods Available literature was reviewed considering various populations, such as survivors of atomic bombs, nuclear workers, Chernobyl liquidators, radiologists and radiological technologists and patients exposed for medical reasons. Results A significant increased risk of cardiovascular diseases associated with low doses of ionizing radiation was observed in 13 studies among the 27 analyzed. The ischemic heart diseases risk was detailed in 16 studies and seven of them showed a significant increase. The cerebrovascular risk was significantly increased in five studies among the 12 considered. Conclusion Some epidemiological and experimental data are clearly in favour of an increased cardiovascular risk associated with exposure to low doses. However, given the multi-factorial origin of cardiovascular diseases and the lack of a clear pathophysiologic mechanism, epidemiological results have to be carefully interpreted. Further research should be conducted in this area. (authors)

  15. [Social determinants of odontalgia in epidemiological studies: theoretical review and proposed conceptual model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, João Luiz Dornelles; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Peres, Karen Glazer; Nedel, Fúlvio Borges

    2007-01-01

    The epidemiological literature has been limited by the absence of a theoretical framework reflecting the complexity of causal mechanisms for the occurrence of health phenomena / disease conditions. In the field of oral epidemiology, such lack of theory also prevails, since dental caries the leading topic in oral research has been often studied through a biological and reductionist viewpoint. One of the most important consequences of dental caries is dental pain (odontalgia), which has received little attention in studies with sophisticated theoretical models and powerful designs to establish causal relationships. The purpose of this study is to review the scientific literature on the determinants of odontalgia and to discuss theories proposed for the explanation of the phenomenon. Conceptual models and emerging theories on the social determinants of oral health are revised, in an attempt to build up links with the bio-psychosocial pain model, proposing a more elaborate causal model for odontalgia. The framework suggests causal pathways between social structure and oral health through material, psychosocial and behavioral pathways. Aspects of the social structure are highlighted in order to relate them to odontalgia, stressing their importance in discussions of causal relationships in oral health research.

  16. [Epidemiological study on addictive behaviours during pregnancy in a universitary department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassevent-Pajot, A; Guillou-Landréat, M; Grall-Bronnec, M; Wainstein, L; Philippe, H-J; Lombrail, P; Vénisse, J-L

    2011-05-01

    Epidemiological study on addictive disorders during pregnancy. An epidemiological study about addictive disorders has been led in the maternity of the University Hospital of Nantes in 2008 on a sample of 300 women, just after childbirth. The prevalence of consumption of drugs was assessed on declared consumption of legal and illegal substances and on the Fagerström questionnaire, the AUDIT questionnaire and the CAST questionnaire. Diagnostic of eating disorders was based on DSM IV criteria of mental anorexia and bulimia nervosa. At the beginning of pregnancy, 34% of women used tobacco, 63% alcohol and 8% cannabis. Among the women of the study 0.7% had criteria for mental anorexia, 2.3% for bulimia nervosa and 9% for sub clinic forms. After the first trimester, 22% of women declared using tobacco, 20% alcohol and 3% cannabis. The use of various drugs during pregnancy concerned 6.3% of women, and 38% used at least one drug after the first trimester. The high prevalence of addictive disorders during pregnancy should incite professional of prenatal care to improve their screening methodology and not only when tobacco or alcohol is suspected. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Diagnostic electrocardiography in epidemiological studies of Chagas' disease: multicenter evaluation of a standardized method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázzari Julio O.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available An electrocardiographic recording method with an associated reading guide, designed for epidemiological studies on Chagas' disease, was tested to assess its diagnostic reproducibility. Six cardiologists from five countries each read 100 electrocardiographic (ECG tracings, including 30 from chronic chagasic patients, then reread them after an interval of 6 months. The readings were blind, with the tracings numbered randomly for the first reading and renumbered randomly for the second reading. The physicians, all experienced in interpreting ECGs from chagasic patients, followed printed instructions for reading the tracings. Reproducibility of the readings was evaluated using the kappa (k index for concordance. The results showed a high degree of interobserver concordance with respect to the diagnosis of normal vs. abnormal tracings (k = 0.66; SE 0.02. While the interpretations of some categories of ECG abnormalities were highly reproducible, others, especially those having a low prevalence, showed lower levels of concordance. Intraobserver concordance was uniformly higher than interobserver concordance. The findings of this study justify the use by specialists of the recording of readings method proposed for epidemiological studies on Chagas' disease, but warrant caution in the interpretation of some categories of electrocardiographic alterations.

  18. Diagnostic electrocardiography in epidemiological studies of Chagas' disease: multicenter evaluation of a standardized method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio O. Lázzari

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available An electrocardiographic recording method with an associated reading guide, designed for epidemiological studies on Chagas' disease, was tested to assess its diagnostic reproducibility. Six cardiologists from five countries each read 100 electrocardiographic (ECG tracings, including 30 from chronic chagasic patients, then reread them after an interval of 6 months. The readings were blind, with the tracings numbered randomly for the first reading and renumbered randomly for the second reading. The physicians, all experienced in interpreting ECGs from chagasic patients, followed printed instructions for reading the tracings. Reproducibility of the readings was evaluated using the kappa (k index for concordance. The results showed a high degree of interobserver concordance with respect to the diagnosis of normal vs. abnormal tracings (k = 0.66; SE 0.02. While the interpretations of some categories of ECG abnormalities were highly reproducible, others, especially those having a low prevalence, showed lower levels of concordance. Intraobserver concordance was uniformly higher than interobserver concordance. The findings of this study justify the use by specialists of the recording of readings method proposed for epidemiological studies on Chagas' disease, but warrant caution in the interpretation of some categories of electrocardiographic alterations.

  19. Comparison of methods of extracting information for meta-analysis of observational studies in nutritional epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Myon Bae

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A common method for conducting a quantitative systematic review (QSR for observational studies related to nutritional epidemiology is the “highest versus lowest intake” method (HLM, in which only the information concerning the effect size (ES of the highest category of a food item is collected on the basis of its lowest category. However, in the interval collapsing method (ICM, a method suggested to enable a maximum utilization of all available information, the ES information is collected by collapsing all categories into a single category. This study aimed to compare the ES and summary effect size (SES between the HLM and ICM. METHODS: A QSR for evaluating the citrus fruit intake and risk of pancreatic cancer and calculating the SES by using the HLM was selected. The ES and SES were estimated by performing a meta-analysis using the fixed-effect model. The directionality and statistical significance of the ES and SES were used as criteria for determining the concordance between the HLM and ICM outcomes. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in the directionality of SES extracted by using the HLM or ICM. The application of the ICM, which uses a broader information base, yielded more-consistent ES and SES, and narrower confidence intervals than the HLM. CONCLUSIONS: The ICM is advantageous over the HLM owing to its higher statistical accuracy in extracting information for QSR on nutritional epidemiology. The application of the ICM should hence be recommended for future studies.

  20. Computerized micrographics in processing hard-copy records for an epidemiologic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robie, D.M.; Fry, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    The availability of computers with increasing capabilities has made feasibile epidemiologic studies involving large populations such as those utilized to evaluate the health effects of occupational exposure to radiation. However, the storage and retrieval of data from the large numbers of hard-copy personnel, health physics, employment medical, historical or anecdotal documents that are the bases of such studies pose major logistics problems to investigators. The potential value of such records to epidemiologic studies depends, not only on their accuracy and completeness, but also on ease of accessibility. To address the latter problem, we are using a stand-alone user-oriented electronic filing system that records, stores, and secures hard-copy documents micrographically. This system is controlled by a computer that provides retrieval of a document image and printed copy (if desired) in less than 30 seconds from a maximum of eight fields. One thousand documents are randomly filmed and indexed on computer storage diskettes in two hours. Manual sorting and filing of the same number of documents takes over a day. At present two thousand documents can be recorded on each microfilm roll and 85,000 documents indexed on each diskette. Simultaneous searching for documents can be done using up to ten terminals while indexing is being done at the main terminal. The micrographics system provides the space-saving and security advantages of microfilm with the speed of computerized data retrieval

  1. Use of World Wide Web-based directories for tracing subjects in epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, M M; Rohan, T E

    2000-11-01

    The recent availability of World Wide Web-based directories has opened up a new approach for tracing subjects in epidemiologic studies. The completeness of two World Wide Web-based directories (Canada411 and InfoSpace Canada) for subject tracing was evaluated by using a randomized crossover design for 346 adults randomly selected from respondents in an ongoing cohort study. About half (56.4%) of the subjects were successfully located by using either Canada411 or InfoSpace. Of the 43.6% of the subjects who could not be located using either directory, the majority (73.5%) were female. Overall, there was no clear advantage of one directory over the other. Although Canada411 could find significantly more subjects than InfoSpace, the number of potential matches returned by Canada411 was also higher, which meant that a longer list of potential matches had to be examined before a true match could be found. One strategy to minimize the number of potential matches per true match is to first search by InfoSpace with the last name and first name, then by Canada411 with the last name and first name, and finally by InfoSpace with the last name and first initial. Internet-based searches represent a potentially useful approach to tracing subjects in epidemiologic studies.

  2. Epidemiological and Experimental Studies: The Role of Metformin on Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih D. Yudhani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available GLOBOCAN data in 2012 showed colorectal cancer was the third leading cancer worldwide. In Indonesia, based on WHO data in 2014, colorectal cancer was the second common cancer ini men and third cancer in women. Epidemiological studies showed that diabetes mellitus have a correlation with the incidence of cancer and increase colorectal cancer risk by 30%. Some of epidemiological study showed that metformin therapy in diabetes patient reduce the risk of cancer incidence. It supported by experimental study which showed that metformin inhibit the growth and proliferation of cancer cells by influence the AMPK/mTOR pathway as a main role. The method was literature review based on publication at Pubmed, Scopus, and Google Scholar with keywords “metformin, colorectal cancer”, “metformin, colon cancer”, without index factor limitation in free journal and paid journal. The aim of this review is to give a new insight of metformin activity as anti-cancer and its potential for both preventif and adjuvant cancer therapy, especially for colorectal cancer.

  3. A social epidemiological study on HIV/AIDS in a village of Henan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jin; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Zhou, Liang; Tang, Yong; Xu, Guangming; Luo, Dan; Yi, Qifeng

    2013-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic caused by commercial blood donation in rural Henan Province of China in the early- to mid-1990s is the largest known cohort in the world related to blood donation but is not fully described. The objectives of this study were to describe the epidemic, epidemiology, and social epidemiology of commercial blood donation and HIV/AIDS. Both qualitative and quantitative mixed methods were used. A village was randomly selected from the 38 key HIV/AIDS pandemic villages in Henan Province. "Demographic Data Form" was applied to collect demographic information of each resident. Focus groups were held for the managers, some residents, members of "HIV/AIDS Work-Team" (organized by the Henan Provincial Government) in the village. Every village physician, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), school header, and other stakeholders were interviewed individually. The social epidemiology of HIV/AIDS was a