WorldWideScience

Sample records for current environmental policy

  1. Environmental education policy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe; Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Blum, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    in the areas of Environmental Education (EE), Education for Sustainable Development and Climate Change Education. It especially makes a case for two kinds of research on EE policy: (1) a multi-sited approach to empirical documentation and theory development which explores the relationships between......This essay examines the relationship between research and policy and, more specifically, how researchers might relate to policy work. Given the current international policy focus on climate change, green growth and sustainability in general, it argues for strengthening and widening policy research...... international policy agreements and local practice, and (2) an interactive policy-engaged approach to research....

  2. Environmental policy in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuru, Shigeto; Weidner, H. (eds.)

    1989-01-01

    This book deals in English with the most important features of Japanese environmental policy in a number of individual articles by different authors. The various sections report on: 1. History and organization of environmental policy; 2. The role of non-governmental actors in environmental policy (large industries); 3. Special features of environmental policies and problems; 4. Classical pollution control areas: Regulations and effects; 5. Environmental problems in a broader perspective (nature conservation); 6. Policy areas with influence on environmental quality; 7. Environmental monitoring and reporting; 8. Japanese environmental policy in an international perspective (preventive policies, developing countries). (HSCH).

  3. National Environmental Policy Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was the first major environmental law in the United States and established national environmental policies for the...

  4. Environmental agricultural policy in Japan in harmony with WTO agricultural agreements: current situation and its development (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masaaki ISHIDA

    2005-01-01

    Environmental agricultural policies in Japan have yet to be initiated in earnest, being in what might be called a “preparation stage.” The reasons for this have already been discussed above, but in fact it is not only the environmental agricultural policies that are incomplete; so too are the environmental measures that would form the foundations for these policies.

  5. Environmental science-policy interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamelarczyk, Kewin Bach Friis

    In response to a history of contended and ineffective policy initiatives aimed at arresting environmental problems, scientific knowledge is increasingly called for to inform decision makers in their design of better policy solutions. Based on the rationale that scientific knowledge on the environ......In response to a history of contended and ineffective policy initiatives aimed at arresting environmental problems, scientific knowledge is increasingly called for to inform decision makers in their design of better policy solutions. Based on the rationale that scientific knowledge...... on the environment is indispensable in environmental policy making, significant human and financial resources are being allocated to activities that are able to generate the required scientific knowledge. However, for many involved in such activities, the question arises: when do policy makers actually listen...... by an epistemic community, which in a current situation of weak and contradictory empirical evidence is able to sustain a deforestation discourse centered on high forest loss and neo-Malthusian causal explanations. The third paper examines how knowing about deforestation is closely linked to issues of framing...

  6. Antitrust Policy and Environmental Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeru Matsumoto; Hajime Sugeta

    2007-01-01

    We examine the effects of antitrust policy (the prohibition of a input price discrimination) when an emission tax is used for environmental protection. We show that antitrust policy reduces pollution emission and improves social welfare. Therefore, antitrust policy contributes to environmental protection.

  7. Global environmental policy; Globale Umweltpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varwick, J. (ed.)

    2008-07-01

    For some years, the interest in global environmental problems and global environmental policy increased substantially. In order to prevent a sustainable and irreversible damage of the global ecological systems, it requires an ecological restructuring of the economy of the industrial nations and a environmental compatible development in the developing countries. Under this aspect, the book under consideration dedicates itself to this problem by means of five scientific contributions: (a) The principle sustainability (Felix Ekardt); (b) Climate change as a world problem (Andreas Rechkemmer); (c) The role of the pioneer of the European Union in the international climate policy: Successes and challenges (Sebastian Oberthuer); (d) Cause for conflict water (Tobias Lindenberg); (e) Environmental political instruments in theory and practice (Johanna Reichenbach/Till Requate). Instruction practice also is concerned with a cross section topic consisting of environmental and European politics: Competent instructions concerning to the European Union - an instruction series for the secondary school I (George Wiesseno, Valentin Eck). Two forum contributions go beyond the topic: (a) Against rigid (society-)political borders in the science (Tim Engartner); (b) Elections in Hamburg - Schwarz-Gruen as new coalition model for the federation? In the column 'the current topic' Gotthard Breit reports on the protests against China on the occasion of the Olympic Games 2008. The author focuses some strangenesses in the debate and pleads for a sober view of the topic. With a report on 'the Beutelsbacher discussions' at 18th to 20th February, 2008, Timo Web finishes this book.

  8. Environmental science-policy interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamelarczyk, Kewin Bach Friis

    on the environment is indispensable in environmental policy making, significant human and financial resources are being allocated to activities that are able to generate the required scientific knowledge. However, for many involved in such activities, the question arises: when do policy makers actually listen......In response to a history of contended and ineffective policy initiatives aimed at arresting environmental problems, scientific knowledge is increasingly called for to inform decision makers in their design of better policy solutions. Based on the rationale that scientific knowledge...... in future REDD+ design and implementation. To curtail potential negative consequences of the identified mode of science-policy interaction in Zambia, the study concludes by making a number of proposals. The proposals are generic in nature and may be found relevant in environmental policy processes outside...

  9. Influences of transaction costs in environmental policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coggan, Anthea [CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, 306 Carmody Rd., St. Lucia, Qld, 4067 (Australia); Whitten, Stuart M. [CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, Gungahlin Homestead, Bellenden St., Gungahlin, Canberra (Australia); Bennett, Jeff [Crawford School of Economics and Government, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    There is a growing literature reporting the extent of transaction costs for environmental policies. However understanding why transaction costs occur and why they are small or large is also important for efficient policy selection and evaluation. Following an analysis of the organisational economics literature and reports of the extent of transaction costs for a number of environmental policies, three key influences to transaction costs in environmental policies are identified. These are the following: (1) the characteristics of the transaction for the environmental good; (2) the nature of the transactors; and (3) the current institutional environment and arrangements. These affect transaction costs to the government and all other parties influenced by a policy. Transaction costs occur due to actions of information collection and policy design, policy enactment and establishment, implementation and contracting, administration and monitoring, and enforcement. An interrogation of transaction cost influences reveals that: (1) the influence varies between parties and is affected by the actions and interactions of and between all parties to a policy; (2) how transaction costs are experienced varies across time; and (3) who experiences transaction costs depends on the policy itself. Future policy selection and refinement will benefit from empirical analysis of the causes of transaction costs. (author)

  10. Institutionalizing environmental valuation into policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phelps, Jacob; Dermawan, Ahmad; Garmendia, Eneko

    2017-01-01

    Monetary valuation of the environment is increasingly embedded in policy. Despite broad claims that valuation is policy-relevant, there is widespread frustration that it has not widely improved environmental outcomes, that it obscures many other types of values, and presents unintended consequences.

  11. Institutionalizing environmental valuation into policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phelps, Jacob; Dermawan, Ahmad; Garmendia, Eneko

    2017-01-01

    Monetary valuation of the environment is increasingly embedded in policy. Despite broad claims that valuation is policy-relevant, there is widespread frustration that it has not widely improved environmental outcomes, that it obscures many other types of values, and presents unintended consequences.

  12. Environmental Pricing: Studies in Policy Choices and Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    areas of current practice that must be addressed. Empirical studies of policy strategies are discussed to illustrate the extent to which current climate change policy is integrated against the proposed successful policy combinations that are presented in this insightful book. Environmental pricing......Environmental taxes can be efficient tools for successful environmental policy. Their use, however, has been limited in many countries. This thoughtful book explores the scope of environmental pricing and examines a variety of national experiences in environmental policy integration, to identify...

  13. National Environmental Policy Act compliance guide. Volume II (reference book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This document (Volume II of the National Environmental Policy Act Compliance Guide) contains current copies of regulations and guidance from the Council on Environmental Quality, the Department of Energy, the Department of State, and the Environmental Protection Agency, related to compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

  14. Environmental policy integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grift-Simeonova, van der Vanya; Valk, van der Arnold

    2016-01-01

    As urban areas continue to expand, the need to consider nature conservation objectives in planning is growing. Policy makers across Europe recognize that effective nature conservation requires an integrated approach to land use planning that includes relevant ecological and spatial knowledge. Alt

  15. The politics of federal environmental education policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Richard Craig

    Both environmental governance1 and education governance 2 occupy contested territory in contemporary US political discourse. Environmental education (EE) policy has emerged at this intersection and taken on aspects of both controversies. Central to debates surrounding environmental education are still unresolved issues concerning the role of the federal government in education, the role of education in citizen-making, and the role of the public in environmental governance. As a case study of the politics of environmental education policy, I explore these issues as they relate to the National Environmental Education Act of 1990,3 attempts at its reauthorization, its continued appropriations, and its current state of policy stasis. The political controversy over the federal role in environmental education is an appropriate case study of environmental education politics insofar as it reflects the different positions held by actor groups with regard to the definition, efficacy, and legitimacy of environmental education. At the core of these debates, as we will see, is a definitional crisis---that is, there is no common understanding across the relevant actor groups as to what environmental education is, or should be. I suggest here that this definitional issue can be best understood as having technical, ideological, and structural components4---all of which are mutually reinforcing and thus perpetuate the stasis in federal environmental education policy. 1I rely on Durant, Fiorino and O'leary's definition of environmental governance in Environmental Governance Reconsidered ; "In the term environmental governance, we refer to the increasingly collaborative nature of [environmental and natural resource] policy formulation and implementation. In this vein, a wide array of third parties (for example, actors in the profit sector, the nonprofit sector, and civic society), in addition to government agencies, comprise non hierarchical networks of actors wielding a variety of

  16. Environmental budget and policy goal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sang Hwan [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The assigned budget for environmental sector is quite insufficient to meet enormous environmental demand. Under this circumstance, there is only one way to solve environmental problems efficiently, i.e. to use a given budget efficiently. Therefore, the study on efficient utilization of a given environmental invested finance is needed by customizing a diagnosis of present condition on the operation of environmental budget and environmental investment analysis. In this respect, an entire national budget of 1999 and environmental budget were analyzed in this study. By analyzing economic efficiency of sewage disposal program, integrated septic tank system, VOC regulation, incinerator construction program, food waste disposal program, and recycling program, an efficient budget policy was presented. 19 refs., 18 figs., 169 tabs.

  17. EU environmental policy and competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Boban

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection of the environment was not a specific importance to the Community although the Treaty of Rome expressly specified that "health, safety environmental protection" shall be based on "a high level of protection". In deciding upon a framework for a European environmental policy, the Community was also responding to increased public awareness of the problem and concerns about the state of the natural and man-made environment. During the past years, competitiveness concerns have dominated the EU policy debate, in the course of which a growing consensus is being developed on the importance of eco-innovations and resource efficiency for EU competitiveness and on the market opportunities they offer. There is an increasing evidence that environmental policy and eco-innovations can promote economic growth, as well as maintain and create jobs, contributing both to competitiveness and employment. Environmental constraints to rapid economic growth are increasingly recognized by countries, leading to a rising awareness of the need for sustainable development. Implementation of an environmental policy however, generates significant implications for competition among countries.

  18. International environmental policy; Internasjonal miljoepolitikk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, Steinar; Boasson, Elin Lerum; Hoenneland, Geir (eds.)

    2008-07-01

    The global climate crisis has brought the questions on environment forward to top level in international politics. 'International environmental policy' gives an overview over the most central international cooperation directed on solving the environmental problems of the world, such as problems connected to climatic changes, marine pollution and loss of the diversity of nature. The authors describe the problems, how they are sought solved in agreements, which results are achieved globally and in Norway. They explain why cooperation varies in success and discuss how to improve them. How can reality get closer to ideals? This book is the first total exposition of international environmental policy in Norwegian. It is aimed for students in social studies and science, to participants in environmental debate and others interested in the theme. (AG). 50 refs

  19. Interactions management in environmental policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram; Franco-Garcia, Maria-Laura; Micallef, David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to address regulator-management interactions in environmental policy with reference to direct regulations, social regulations and market-based regulation. Design/methodology/approach: Revision of literature to identify the European Union regulations for companies producing po

  20. Interactions management in environmental policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram; Franco Garcia, Maria Maria; Micallef, David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to address regulator-management interactions in environmental policy with reference to direct regulations, social regulations and market-based regulation. Design/methodology/approach: Revision of literature to identify the European Union regulations for companies producing

  1. The environmental policy of Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Luna Cuéllar, Edgar Ramiro

    2010-01-01

    Thanks of the wealth at natural resources was classified Colombia within the Environmental Sustainability Index 2002 by "The global Leaders for Tomorrow Environment task Force", World Economic forum, on rank 22 under 142 countries. Nevertheless the current not lasting processes could lead the country medium-term to an environmental crisis. Some for the degradation of the environmental situation in Colombia responsible person factors are: the poverty of an important part of the Colombi...

  2. Integrated environmental policy: A review of economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmeth, Hans; Häckl, Dennis

    2017-04-01

    Holistic environmental policies, which emerged from a mere combination of technical activities in waste management some 40 years ago, constitute the most advanced level of environmental policies. These approaches to environmental policy, among them the policies in integrated waste management, attempt to guide economic agents to an environment-friendly behaviour. Nevertheless, current holistic policies in waste management, including policies on one-way drinks containers and waste electrical and electronic equipment, and implementations of extended producer responsibility with further applications to waste electrical and electronic equipment, reveal more or less severe deficiencies - despite some positive examples. This article relates these policy failures, which are not necessarily the result of an insufficient compliance with the regulations, to missing constitutive elements of what is going to be called an 'integrated environmental policy'. This article therefore investigates - mostly from a practical point of view - constitutive elements, which are necessary for a holistic policy to serve as a well-functioning allocation mechanism. As these constitutive elements result from a careful 'integration' of the environmental commodities into the economic allocation problems, we refer to these policies as 'integrated environmental policies'. The article also discusses and illustrates the main steps of designing such a policy - for waste electrical and electronic equipment and a (possible) ban of Glyphosat in agriculture. As these policies are dependent on economic and political stability with environmental awareness sufficiently developed, the article addresses mostly waste management policies in highly industrialised countries.

  3. Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) Policy Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Policy Compendium summarizes operational decisions made to date by participants in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to encourage consistency among the ETV centers. The policies contained herein evolved fro...

  4. 24 CFR 50.3 - Environmental policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental policy. 50.3 Section... Development PROTECTION AND ENHANCEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY General: Federal Laws and Authorities § 50.3 Environmental policy. (a) It is the policy of the Department to reject proposals which have significant...

  5. Environmental policy - a diaspora for market economists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endres, A.

    1987-03-01

    The environmental policy of the Federal Republic of Germany still leaves more than enough room for the implementation of marketing elements. With the help of evaluation processes borrowed from the market mechanism all those in search of appropriate environmental policies are able to better analyse the very priorities they have made their aim. Democratic decision making should make it a point to see to the integration of information gained on the preferences of the citizen. Market-analogous evaluation processes currently seem about to be given a better chance. The vehicles of environmental policy are obviously suffering even more from a suppressed demand for market impulses. In the Federal Republic of Germany environmental vehicles generally tend to be lead and determined by regulations. For the benefit of economy and the environment data and certificates (or compensatory regulations) could be combined much more than before with the traditional regulation-oriented policy. For the time being chances seem to be poor for completions to come in from the market. The revised Clean Air Technical Guide (TA Luft) has wasted a promising chance. (orig./HSCH).

  6. Rationality, institutions and environmental policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatn, Arild [Department of Economics and Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas (Norway)

    2005-11-01

    This paper is about how institutions determine choices and the importance of this for environmental policy. The model of individual rational choice from neoclassical economics is compared with the model of socially determined behavior. While in the first case, institutions are either exempted from or understood as mere economizing constraints on behavior, the latter perspective views institutions as basic structures necessary also to enable people to act. The paper develops a way to integrate the individualistic model into the wider perspective of social constructivism by viewing it as a special form of such construction. On the basis of this synthesis three issues with relevance for environmental economics are discussed. First, the role of institutional factors in the process of preference formation is emphasized. Next, the role of institutions for the choice of desired states of the environment is analyzed. Finally, the effect of various policy instruments to motivate people to produce these states is discussed. It is concluded that the core policy issue is to determine which institutional frameworks are most reasonable to apply to which kind of problem. Issues, which from the perspective of neoclassical economics are pure technical, become serious value questions if understood from an institutional perspective.

  7. The Political Economy of Carbon Securities and Environmental Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polborn, Sarah

    The costs of the current suboptimal carbon abatement policy are likely in the range of 3 to 6 trillion 2005 US dollars. Using methods from the political economy of environmental policy, the paper develops a new carbon abatement policy instrument, carbon securities. A carbon security entitles its...

  8. Plant gene flow and environmental policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental policy development and interpretation often require the consideration and application of scientific information. "Boundary work" can happen at the science-policy interface. I will discuss two different areas of boundary work in which emerging studies of pl...

  9. Environmental Education Policy Implementation Challenges in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    analysis of key documents and interviews with policy makers. A post-structural analysis ... policy text, environment and environmental education concepts. The analysis ... This form of governance influences classroom practice. In addition to the ...

  10. Environmental policy for engineers and natural scientists: a teaching module

    OpenAIRE

    Zingerli, Claudia; Zimmermann, Willi

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses a new course entitled “Environmental Policy for Engineers and Natural Scientists” that is currently being developed in the Department of Environmental Sciences of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. Its overarching goal is that students of the technical and natural sciences acquire skills for critically examining and assessing complex environmental policy issues and for expressing themselves clearly in writing and speech. The didactic concept of the co...

  11. Current adaptation measures and policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoff Roberts; John A. Parrotta; Anita. Wreford

    2009-01-01

    As stated in earlier chapters, the possible impacts of climate change on forests and the forest sector are considerable, and many impacts have already been observed. As forest conditions change, there is an inherent need to change management and policy measures to minimise negative impacts and to exploit the benefits derived from climate change. This chapter highlights...

  12. Environmental Policy, Practice and Education in Swaziland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reflection on the concept of sustainable development is not within the scope of the paper (see for example ... The paper then raises environmental policy practice and environmental .... Likewise, the methods of data analysis were somewhat ...

  13. 77 FR 35471 - National Environmental Policy Act Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Federal Railroad Administration National Environmental Policy Act Implementation AGENCY: Federal Railroad...) or environmental impact statement (EIS) under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). FRA's... National Environmental Policy Act (Nov. 23, 2010), FRA consulted with CEQ prior to publishing this...

  14. Environmental policies in competitive electricity markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langestraat, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we model and analyze several environmental policies in an existing mathematical representation of a perfectly competitive electricity market. We contribute to the literature by theoretically and numerically establishing a number of effects of environmental policies on investment strat

  15. The Current Cluster Policy: Essence and Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onipko Tetiana A.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at defining essence of the current cluster policy and its characteristics. It was specified that, in the process of developing and implementing regional, innovation and entrepreneurial policies, many governments drew attention to the clustering of economy as a means of achieving a high level of regional and national competitiveness. The current cluster policy needs to be integrated, that is, to unify different policies, programs, and means. One of the characteristics of the current cluster policy is its orientation towards public-private partnership. The efficient form of such a partnership is cluster organizations. The author’s vision of the current cluster policy is that both the State and the private sector should be parties to it. Emphasis has been placed on the need to support in Ukraine, at the State level, the innovation clusters that facilitate modernization of the existing economic sectors by combining the traditions and the challenges of modernity. It has been concluded that social organizations could be involved in the process of development and implementation of cluster policy in Ukraine. A prospect for further research can be development of the «intellectual specialization» strategy for regions as an important constituent of the current cluster policy.

  16. Environmental systems and local actors: decentralizing environmental policy in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterveer, Peter; Van Vliet, Bas

    2010-02-01

    In Uganda, environmental and natural resource management is decentralized and has been the responsibility of local districts since 1996. This environmental management arrangement was part of a broader decentralization process and was intended to increase local ownership and improve environmental policy; however, its implementation has encountered several major challenges over the last decade. This article reviews some of the key structural problems facing decentralized environmental policy in this central African country and examines these issues within the wider framework of political decentralization. Tensions have arisen between technical staff and politicians, between various levels of governance, and between environmental and other policy domains. This review offers a critical reflection on the perspectives and limitations of decentralized environmental governance in Uganda. Our conclusions focus on the need to balance administrative staff and local politicians, the mainstreaming of local environmental policy, and the role of international donors.

  17. Chapitre 13. Overview of Current Public Policies

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Current Public Policies, Rules and Legislation – especially European ones – With Regard to Highly Skilled Immigration, Nationality Regimes, Stay Rights, etc.Binod Khadria Introduction: Three Levels of Public Policies Policies and programs adopted by the developed receiving countries – mainly the United States, Canada, Australia, and the European Union (EU) countries – for the admission of foreign workers with a view to facilitating and/or regulating high-skill immigration fall into three broa...

  18. Distributional effects of environmental policies in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekakis, Joseph N.

    1990-07-01

    Environmental protection policies generate an equity question concerning the fair allocation of environmental benefits and costs. This paper presents evidence from Greece during the 1980s. The findings reveal that Greek environmental policies, in the form of government self-regulatory programs, are mostly regressive in nature. At the regional level these programs combine all forms of vertical equity. Since the public sector finances the majority of related expenditures out of taxes, the regressive elements of environmental policies have been reinforced by discretionary fiscal measures and tax evasion, accompanied by inflation, which have distorted the country's progressive tax system.

  19. Regulatory reform of Finnish environmental policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sairinen, R.

    2000-07-01

    The main question of this study concerns the regulatory reform i.e. formation and design of new policy instruments in the Finnish environmental policy. The research question is divided into two parts: (1) How have the new policy instruments evolved and been designed (2) What are the political, administrative, historical and ideological factors underlying the processes of policy instrument formation and design? Three main approaches for analysis are introduced: the model of policy instrument choice by Linder and Peters, the model of policy explanation by Jaenicke, and the concept of governmentality developed by Foucault. Within the developed theoretical framework, the general societal background of regulatory reform is composed of the various features of 'environmental governmentality'. The research questions are divided into two empirical research tasks. (1) Analysis of the historical development of Finnish environmental governing and policy style provides background information about the national institutional settings and policy cultures in order to understand the role of the new policy instruments in the Finnish environmental policy during last two decades. Here, Finnish environmental policy divides into consensual pollution policies and adversial nature conservation. Four main periods of environmental governmentality in Finland is presented: the early nature conservation initiatives (1800-1939), the neglect of environmental issues (1945-1969), the environmental institutionalisation (1970-1986), and the regulatory reform (1987-). (2) The contextual case studies concerns: the drafting of the EIA Act in 1982-1994; the formation of the carbon tax policy in 1989-1996; and the implementation of voluntary environmental agreements in 1987-99. The study shows that regulatory reform has not been an easy policy process in Finland. There has been no common environmental governmentality behind the on-going regulatory reform. The new policy instruments have been

  20. Emission taxes versus other environmental policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoel, Michael

    1997-06-01

    In most countries, various forms of quotas and direct regulation play a more important role in environmental policy than environmental taxes. This report discusses four arguments often given against emission taxes. Three of the arguments, which are related to information asymmetries and non-convexities, are valid arguments in the sense that they point at complications which make the use of environmental taxes less straightforward than what elementary textbooks would suggest. The fourth argument is related to the employment effects of different types of environmental policies in economies with unemployment. This is perhaps the argument most often used by politicians against environmental taxes. The analysis did not justify this type of argument. On the contrary: In the model used, employment is higher with environmental taxes than with non revenue-raising environmental policies. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Heat Waves, Droughts, and Preferences for Environmental Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Ann L.; Conover, Emily; Videras, Julio; Wu, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Using data from a new household survey on environmental attitudes, behaviors, and policy preferences, we find that current weather conditions affect preferences for environmental regulation. Individuals who have recently experienced extreme weather (heat waves or droughts) are more likely to support laws to protect the environment. We find…

  2. Strategic Delegation of Environmental Policy Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelfsema, H. [Utrecht University, Utrecht School of Economics, Vredenburg 138, 3511 BG Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2004-04-15

    A common claim is that nations should cooperate in environmental policy making. However, there is little empirical support that noncooperative decision making results in too low environmental standards and taxes. We develop a theoretical model and show that if the median voter cares sufficiently for the environment, she has an incentive to delegate policy making to a politician that cares more for the environment than she does herself. By doing so, she mitigates the 'race to the bottom' in environmental taxes. In contrast, if environmental policies are determined cooperatively with other countries, the median voter has an incentive to delegate policy making to a politician that cares less for the environment than she does herself, so as to free ride on international environmental agreements.

  3. The innovation of EU environmental policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and alliances, the shifting balance between leader and laggard members, and the ongoing problem integrating the environment into other policy fields. The book also draws on theoretical approaches ranging from institutional to policy network analyses and examines such pertinent contemporary issues as packaging......Inspired by the recent accession of three environmentally progressive member states to the European Union (EU), this book explores the process of environmental policy innovation in the EU, the forces behind the introduction of new issues and policy approaches, and the roles played by the major...

  4. Essays on Environmental Economics and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, W. Reed

    A central feature of modern government is its role in designing welfare improving policies to address and correct market failures stemming from externalities and public goods. The rationale for most modern environmental regulations stems from the failure of markets to efficiently allocate goods and services. Yet, as with any policy, distributional effects are important there exist clear winners and losers. Despite the clear theoretical justification for environmental and energy policy, empirical work credibly identifying both the source and consequences of these externalities as well as the distributional effects of existing policies remains in its infancy. My dissertation focuses on the development of empirical methods to investigate the role of environmental and energy policy in addressing market failures as well as exploring the distributional implications of these policies. These questions are important not only as a justification for government intervention into markets but also for understanding how distributional consequences may shape the design and implementation of these policies. My dissertation investigates these questions in the context of programs and policies that are important in their own right. Chapters 1 and 2 of my dissertation explore the economic costs and distributional implications associated with the largest environmental regulatory program in the United States, the Clean Air Act. Chapters 3 and 4 examine the social costs of air pollution in the context of transportation externalities, showing how effective transportation policy has additional co-benefits in the form of environmental policy. My dissertation remains unified in both its subject matter and methodological approach -- using unique sources of data and sound research designs to understand important issues in environmental policy.

  5. Tax Competition Leading to Strict Environmental Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Withagen, Cees; Halsema, Alex

    2012-01-01

    We study tax competition when pollution matters. Most notably we present a dynamic setting, where the supply of capital is endogenous. It is shown that tax competition may involve stricter environmental policy than the cooperative outcome.

  6. Environmental Policy Integration: Towards an Analytical Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafferty, William M.; Hovden, Eivind

    2003-01-01

    Environmental policy integration (EPI) is a key defining feature of sustainable development. Despite the fact that EPI has been the subject of much debate both in academic and policy-making circles, conceptual issues relating to EPI have received relatively little treatment. The conceptual work that

  7. European environmental policy: The pioneers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    environmental politics at the European Union level. Following Robert Putnam's theory, environmental policymaking in the EU is viewed as a reciprocal two-level game in which activities, actors and politics in domestic and EU arenas affect each other. Governments at times need to build domestic political support...

  8. Applied decision research and environmental policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pligt, J.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the construction of scenarios as a tool to improve the quality of decision making, research in environmental risk assessment and the public's perception of risks, and cost-benefit analyses of environmental policy. The actual and possible role of (behavioral) decision theory and the

  9. Anthropology and environmental policy: What counts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Charnley; William H. Durham

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we call for enhanced quantitative and environmental analysis in the work of environmental anthropologists who wish to influence policy. Using a database of 77 leading monographs published between 1967 and 2006, 147 articles by the same authors, and a separate sample of 137 articles from the journal Human Organization, we document a...

  10. The innovation of EU environmental policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    actors involved. The seven case-study chapters, written from a variety of perspectives, focus on such topics as the impact of formal and informal institutional factors on policy innovation, the potential influence of new members on EU environmental policy-making, the role of cross-national networks......Inspired by the recent accession of three environmentally progressive member states to the European Union (EU), this book explores the process of environmental policy innovation in the EU, the forces behind the introduction of new issues and policy approaches, and the roles played by the major...... waste, energy taxaton, and freight transport (from EC Poncelet, Books of note, Environment Jun 1998; 40:5)....

  11. Environmental policy in India. Umweltpolitik in Indien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyska, B.

    1991-01-01

    In spite of its strict environmental protection legislation, India is faced with a disastrous level of environmental destruction. The national ecological problems must be faced with great determination if India's ever-growing population is to survive. India's environmental policy is discussed and analyzed in theory and practice. Legal measures and their implementation in reality are discussed for the following examples: Destruction of vegetation, pollution of water and air, nuclear pollution. (orig.).

  12. New directions in Mexican environmental policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumme, Stephen P.; Sanchez, Roberto A.

    1992-07-01

    Since taking office 1 December 1988, Mexico's incumbent president, Carlos Salinas de Gortari, has introduced important innovations in environmental policy that distinguish his administration from those of his predecessors. Greater administrative continuity, improved regulatory capacity achieved through statutory change, focused priorities centering on pollution abatement in Mexico City, and an aggressive search for external financing for pollution control are hallmarks of Salinas' approach. The success of these environmental reforms depends heavily on economic recovery, however, and environmental policy still suffers from underfunding, bureaucratic fragmentation, and heavy reliance on voluntarist enforcement mechanisms. Recently, U.S. congressional debate on a proposed free trade agreement with Mexico has been a factor in spurring the Salinas government to take new antipollution and conservation measures. Mexico's growing environmental movement is also an important force behind the government's new responsiveness in environmental matters. The Salinas administration recognizes the issue's political salience and has sought to defuse environmental criticism using a large arsenal of resources at its disposal. Salinas' environmental policy strategy may thus be characterized as both proactive and reactive in nature. While the reforms are evidence that Mexico is beginning to take environmental matters more seriously, economic recovery and sustained environmental activism remain vital to further progress.

  13. Coordination of environmental policy for transboundary environmental problems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoel, M.

    1996-01-01

    In order to reach a Pareto optimal outcome with transboundary environmental problems, there must be some kind of international agreement. One possibility would be an international agreement focusing directly on emissions in each country. Given such an agreement, an important issue is whether one should supplement the agreement with some kind of policy coordination, or if the choice of environmental policies should be left for each country to decide for itself. The present paper shows that under ``ideal`` conditions, policies need not be coordinated across countries. Such ideal conditions include, among other things, that all markets, including the labour market, are competitive. However, if one has imperfect competition in goods markets, or unemployment, it may be desirable to let an international environmental agreement not only specify emission levels, but also the policy mix between emission taxes and direct regulation. 16 refs.

  14. Radiation indicator options for environmental policy

    CERN Document Server

    Pruppers, M J M

    2002-01-01

    It has proven impossible to create an indicator capable of showing the state of the art in a single figure so as to determine the progress made in the 'radiation component' of environmental policy from the trends indicated. This is the conclusion following an investigation requested by the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment in the framework of the environmental theme 'dispersion of radioactive substances and ionising radiation' to develop a radiation indicator comparable to the indicators for proprietary substances and pesticides. The most important reasons for failing to develop this indicator lie in the absence of both suitable policy targets and data for the calculations necessary for the indicator. Substituting policy targets with reference emissions, reference concentrations and reference doses would make it possible to define indicators for radiation protection. Here, environmental pressure indicators are proposed for nuclear installations and the process industry. The environment...

  15. Volatility and Uncertainty in Environmental Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniloff, Peter Taylor

    Environmental policy is increasingly implemented via market mechanisms. While this is in many ways a great success for the economics profession, a number of questions remain. In this dissertation, I empirically explore the question of what will happen as environmental outcomes are coupled to potentially volatile market phenomena, whether policies can insulate environmental outcomes and market shocks, and policymakers should act to mitigate such volatility. I use a variety of empirical methods including reduced form and structural econometrics as well as theoretical models to consider a variety of policy, market, and institutional contexts. The effectiveness of market interventions depends on the context and on the policy mechanism. In particular, energy markets are characterized by low demand elasticities and kinked supply curves which are very flat below a capacity constraint (elastic) and very steep above it (inelastic). This means that a quantity-based policy that acts on demand, such as releasing additional pollution emission allowances from a reserved fund would be an effective way to constrain price shocks in a cap-and-trade system. However, a quantity-based policy that lowers the need for inframarginal supply, such as using ethanol as an oil product substitute to mitigate oil shocks, would be ineffective. Similarly, the benefits of such interventions depends on the macroeconomic impacts of price shocks from the sector. Relatedly, I show that a liability rule designed to reduce risk from low-probability, high-consequence oil spills have very low compliance costs.

  16. Do current European policies support soil multifunctionality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helming, Katharina; Glaesner, Nadia; de Vries, Wim

    2017-04-01

    Soils are multifunctional. Maximising one function, e.g. production of biomass, is often at the costs of the other functions, e.g. water purification, carbon sequestration, nutrient recycling, habitat provision. Sustainable soil management actually means the minimization of trade-offs between multiple soil functions. While Europe does not have a policy that explicitly focuses on soil functions, a number of policies exist in the agricultural, environmental and climate domains that may affect soil functions, in particular food production, water purification, climate change mitigation, biodiversity conservation. The objective of this study was to identify gaps and overlaps in existing EU legislation that is related to soil functions. We conducted a cross-policy analysis of 19 legislative policies at European level. Results revealed two key findings: (i) soil functions are addressed in existing legislation but with the approach to their conservation rather than their improvement. (ii) Different legislations addressed isolated soil functions but there is no policy in place that actually addressed the soil multifunctionality, which is the integrated balancing of the multitude of functions. Because soil degradation is ongoing in Europe, it raises the question whether existing legislation is sufficient for maintaining soil resources and achieving sustainable soil management. Addressing soil functions individually in various directives fails to account for the multifunctionality of soil. Here, research has a role to play to better reveal the interacting processes between soil functions and their sensitivity to soil management decisions and to translate such understanding into policy recommendation. We conclude the presentation with some insights into a research approach that integrates the soil systems into the socio-economic systems to improve the understanding of soil management pressures, soil functional reactions and their impacts on societal value systems, including

  17. 75 FR 33838 - National Environmental Policy Act; Scientific Balloon Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; Scientific Balloon Program AGENCY: National... Draft Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) and Draft Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for NASA's Scientific Balloon Program. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of...

  18. Choosing environmental policy instruments: An assessment of the 'environmental dimension' of EU energy policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Schulze

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Although they have formerly constituted distinct traditions in the European integration process, EU regulatory activities in environmental and energy policy have now become highly interwoven. Environmental concerns increasingly influence the formulation of the EU’s energy policy, especially given the twofold challenge of securing sufficient energy supply whilst also addressing the necessity of combating climate change. In this context, a key question is, how exactly does the EU approach environmental policy objectives as part of its energy policy? Is the ‘environmental dimension’ of EU energy policy subject to a different regulatory approach than EU environmental policy in general? This paper addresses these questions from a neo-functionalist perspective by comparing the different types of policy instruments adopted by the EU in the two interrelated areas over the past four decades. Overall, this work finds that the EU continues to rely heavily on traditional command and control regulation in the context of air pollution control, whereas the environmental dimension of EU energy policy is frequently controlled by new, less interventionist forms of governance.

  19. Environmental Education Policy Research--Challenges and Ways Research Might Cope with Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laessoe, Jeppe; Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Blum, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines the relationship between research and policy and, more specifically, how researchers might relate to policy work. Given the current international policy focus on climate change, green growth and sustainability in general, it argues for strengthening and widening policy research in the areas of Environmental Education (EE),…

  20. Health Educators as Environmental Policy Advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Kimberly J.; Baker, Judith A.

    1993-01-01

    Health educators must complement individual-level change with communitywide policy and legislative initiatives, focusing on environmental issues such as air pollution, ozone layer depletion, and toxic waste disposal. Recent increases in discomfort and disease related to the physical environment call for immediate action from health professionals…

  1. Environmental policies in an international mixed duopoly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of environmental and trade policies in an international mixed duopoly serving two markets. We suppose that the firm in the home country is a welfare-maximizing public firm, while the firm in the foreign country is its own profit-maximizing private firm. We find that the environmental tax can be a strategic instrument for the home government to distribute production from the foreign private firm to the home public firm. An additional effect of the home environmental tax is the reduction of the foreign private firm's output for local consumption, thereby expanding the foreign market for the home public firm.

  2. 7 CFR 1940.328 - State Environmental Policy Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true State Environmental Policy Acts. 1940.328 Section 1940... (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program § 1940.328 State Environmental Policy Acts. (a) Numerous States have enacted environmental policy acts or regulations similar to...

  3. INTEGRATION POLICY TOWARDS IMMIGRANTS: CURRENT EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiia Bureiko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary world the intensity of the immigration movements is constantly increasing. Countries which experience great immigrant flows are facing numerous problems which should be solved. The article studies the current immigration flows in EU countries, the United States of America and Canada and presents three main models of integration policy towards immigrants – political assimilation, functional integration and multicultural model. Separate models are distinguished for the Muslims’ integration. The author examines the peculiarities of every model and examines the conclusions provided by the Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX concerning the situation of the immigrants’ integration in 31 countries in 2011. Among all the policy indicators the first that are defined are as follows: political participation, education, labour market mobility and anti-discrimination. The situation with immigrants’ integration in Ukraine is also studied as it is gaining a great attention of the authorities and the public. The measures and practical steps done regarding this situation in Ukraine in recent years are analyzed using the information offered by the State Migration Service of Ukraine.

  4. Dynamics in National Agri-environmental Policy implementation under Changing EU Policy Priorities: does one size fit all?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Jens Peter; Frederiksen, Pia; Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, Agri-Environmental Policies (AEP) in the EU have developed with relative nationalautonomy and according to the subsidiarity principle. The environmental directives represent an increasein EU-level environmental ambitions and challenge the current implementation of EU AEP b...

  5. Environmental regulatory and policy framework in China: an overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    China has developed one of the most comprehensive environmental regulatory and policy framework in the world. This paper provides a description of the main institutions for environmental management in China, and overviews the regulatory and policy framework in place.

  6. Environmental Policy under Imperfect Competition : A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Requate, Till

    2005-01-01

    In this article I survey the theoretical literature on environmental policy in the presence of imperfect competition, ranging from early contributions in the 1960s to the present. I cover the following market structures when polluting firms have market power in the output market: monopoly, Cournot oligopoly, Bertrand duopoly with homogeneous products, pricesetting duopoly with differentiating commodities, and models of monopolistic competition. Among the latter I consider Cournot oligopoly wi...

  7. 75 FR 26270 - Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Compliance Costs Policy; Environmental Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Compliance Costs Policy; Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Mitigation Policy AGENCY: Federal... Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is accepting comments on a draft Environmental Planning and Historic...

  8. The EU environmental policy context for monitoring for and with raptors in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Guy

    2008-09-01

    This paper outlines the importance of the policy context for monitoring with and for raptors, and, conversely, of the importance of such monitoring for policy. It then outlines two key areas of European Union (EU) environmental policy most relevant to monitoring for and with raptors, namely biodiversity policy and pollution policy. For each of the policy areas, the pertinent objectives and actions of the current EU policy are identified, and their relevance for raptor monitoring is discussed. The potential contribution of raptor monitoring to the further development of these policy areas is also addressed.

  9. Environmental impacts from Danish fish products:hot spots and environmental policies

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This dissertation presents an assessment of the environmental impacts from Danish fish products in a life cycle perspective (from sea to table). The assessment is carried out in three steps ? and includes a MECO analysis, a quantitative LCA and a qualitative LCA. The results are used to discuss current environmental policies addressing the fishery, landing and auction, the fish processing industry, wholesale, transport, retail, and use.It is concluded that considerable improvement potentials ...

  10. 41 CFR 101-25.111 - Environmental impact policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Environmental impact...-General Policies § 101-25.111 Environmental impact policy. (a) From time to time, Congress enacts... Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321). The objective of such legislation is, among other things, the...

  11. Essays on Environmental Policy in Energy Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomhower, Judson Paul

    Producing and consuming energy involves costly environmental externalities, which are addressed through a wide range of public policy interventions. This dissertation examines three economic questions that are important to environmental regulation in energy. The first chapter measures the effect of bankruptcy protection on industry structure and environmental outcomes in oil and gas extraction. The second chapter measures additionality in an appliance replacement rebate program. Finally, the third chapter focuses on the environmental impacts of subsidizing electricity production from forest-derived biomass fuels. The first chapter measures the incentive effect of limited liability. When liability is limited by bankruptcy, theory says that firms will take excessive environmental and public health risks. In the long run, this "judgment-proof problem'' may increase the share of small producers, even when there are economies of scale. I use quasi-experimental variation in liability exposure to measure the effects of bankruptcy protection on industry structure and environmental outcomes in oil and gas extraction. Using firm-level data on the universe of Texas oil and gas producers, I examine the introduction of an insurance mandate that reduced firms' ability to avoid liability through bankruptcy. The policy was introduced via a quasi-randomized rollout, which allows me to cleanly identify its effects on industry structure. The insurance requirement pushed about 6% of producers out of the market immediately. The exiting firms were primarily small and were more likely to have poor environmental records. Among firms that remained in business, the bond requirement reduced oil production among the smallest 80% of firms by about 4% on average, which is consistent with increased internalization of environmental costs. Production by the largest 20% of firms, which account for the majority of total production, was unaffected. Finally, environmental outcomes, including those

  12. Energy and environmental policy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbard, P.J.; Tierney, S.F

    2003-08-15

    The energy and environmental policies of the United States are, like those of any nation, greatly shaped by a particular economic, institutional and political context. Understanding that context is useful for providing insights into the substance of US energy and environmental policy, the challenges and opportunities associated with it, and future potential for change. This article examines this policy context, focusing on the interaction of energy and environmental policies related to the electric industry. (author)

  13. Environmental Policy in a Green Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraga-Gonzalez, J. Luis [Erasmus University and Tinbergen Institute, Burg. Oudlaan 50, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam (Netherlands); Padron-Fumero, N. [Dept. de Economia de las Instituciones y Estadistica, Universidad de La Laguna, Facultad de CC.EE, Campus de Guajara, 38071 La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    This paper studies the impact of some frequently-used environmental policies in a duopolistic market where purchasers are willing to pay more for less polluting goods. When consumers differ in their environmental awareness, a cleaner and a dirtier variant coexist in equilibrium. The higher the average willingness-to-pay for the good, the lower are variants' unit emissions but the higher are industrial aggregate effluents. A maximum unit emission standard reduces unit emissions of both variants, but boosts firms' sales and consequently increases industrial aggregate emissions. As a result, social welfare may be reduced. We also explore the effects of technological subsidies and product charges, including differentiation of charges.

  14. 76 FR 9981 - National Environmental Policy Act Implementing Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... Part 1021 RIN 1990-AA34 National Environmental Policy Act Implementing Procedures AGENCY: Office of the... amendments to its regulations governing compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), made... Rulemaking Comments, Office of NEPA Policy and Compliance (GC-54), U.S. Department of Energy,...

  15. Sharing the Caring: Rethinking Current Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Don

    1992-01-01

    This article presents an argument for reforming Australian public policy in favor of social care, rather than family, residential, or community care, for the elderly, sick, and disabled. After noting policy assumptions that families are the focus of caring and women are the natural caregivers, the paper describes changes in Australian family…

  16. 28 CFR 91.67 - State Environmental Policy Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State Environmental Policy Acts. 91.67... Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Other State and Federal Law Requirements § 91.67 State Environmental Policy Acts. (a) Coordination. OJP will coordinate with grantees to...

  17. 75 FR 77673 - National Environmental Policy Act: Scientific Balloon Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act: Scientific Balloon Program AGENCY: National... the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321, et seq.); the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of NEPA (40...

  18. Food and environmental policies in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, M R; Biswas, A K

    1986-08-01

    Not only is Africa experiencing severe food production and nutrition problems, but environmental conditions, on which agricultural production ultimately depends, are deteriorating. A meeting of the African Ministers of Environment was held in Cairo last December, and an African solution to an African problem was put forth. The proposed program is examined in this paper. The usable extent of the pastoral area in the arid and semi-arid regions of Africa nas been reduced by 25% since 1968. At present only about 35% of the former area of slightly productive savannah is left. Africa's rich fishing grounds are being overfished and coastal regions are threatened by pollution. Africa's problems are linked with very high rates of population growth, rapid rates of urbanization, inappropriate development policies that have neglected the agricultural sector, and nonavailability of skilled manpower. The Cairo Program of African Cooperation included the following proposals: 8 continent-wide networks of institutions are to be established or strenghened in the fields of climatology, soils and fertilizers, water resources, energy, genetic resources, environmental monitoring, science and technology, and education and training; all available African skills and experience are to be applied to seek economically feasible, environmentally sound and socially acceptable solutions in certain regions; subregional cooperation is to be strenghened in terms of implementation of priority activities; 4 committees were established in areas of priority concerns; and a formula to provide US$32.5 million to finance the follow-up activities was approved.

  19. Uncertainty, Irreversibility and the Timing Problems of Environmental Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Haisheng; Jia Jia; Zhou Yongzhang

    2006-01-01

    Most environmental issues and policy designing are uncertain and irreversible; therefore, the timing of environmental policy implementation becomes especially important. This paper establishes a random dynamic programming model and analyzes the optimal timing problems in environmental policy under uncertain variables. This model results indicate that two variables have a significant impact on the timing of environmental policy implementation and they work in opposite direcfons: on one hand, the more uncertain the economy is, the higher the cost of policies implementation will be, and consequently the incentive to immediately adopt the policy will be stronger. On the other hand, the higher the uncertainty of the environment is, the stronger the irreversibility of ecological harm caused by pollutants per unit will be. Therefore, the government should implement new environmental policies as early as possible in order to gain more ecological benefits.

  20. Environmental Sustainability: A Case of Policy Implementation Failure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Howes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For a generation, governments around the world have been committed to sustainable development as a policy goal. This has been supported by an array of new policies ranging from international agreements, to national strategies, environmental laws at many levels of government, regional programs, and local plans. Despite these efforts, decades of scientific monitoring indicate that the world is no closer to environmental sustainability and in many respects the situation is getting worse. This paper argues that a significant contributing factor to this situation is policy implementation failure. A systematic review of the literature reveals that the failure to achieve the intended outcomes of environmental policies is due to economic, political and communication factors. Conflict between the objectives of environmental policies and those focused on economic development, a lack of incentives to implement environmental policies, and a failure to communicate objectives to key stakeholders are all key factors that contribute to the inability to attain environmental sustainability.

  1. Transnational communication and domestic environmental policy learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sietske VEENMAN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to provide patterns of how transnational communication may lead to domestic policy learning. Existing theories of policy learning, policy diffusion and policy convergence assume that transnational communication may lead to domestic policy learning and policy change, but do not suggest general, empirically investigated patterns. Two case studies on the policy of noise abatement around airports and the policy of contaminated land show that different venues in which transnational communication takes place may induce different types of policy change at the national level.

  2. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization. Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. [ed.

    1992-12-01

    This fifth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Information is presented on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. Models are described that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for the NEPA documents at the Hanford Site, are provided.

  3. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. (ed.)

    1992-12-01

    This fifth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Information is presented on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. Models are described that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for the NEPA documents at the Hanford Site, are provided.

  4. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A. [ed.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Fosmire, C.J. [and others

    1997-08-01

    This ninth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Chapters 4 and 6 in Hanford Site-related NEPA documents. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. Not all of the sections have been updated for this revision. The following lists the updated sections: climate and meteorology; ecology (threatened and endangered species section only); culture, archaeological, and historical resources; socioeconomics; all of Chapter 6.

  5. Scientific commentary: Strategic analysis of environmental policy risks--heat maps, risk futures and the character of environmental harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prpich, G; Dagonneau, J; Rocks, S A; Lickorish, F; Pollard, S J T

    2013-10-01

    We summarise our recent efforts on the policy-level risk appraisal of environmental risks. These have necessitated working closely with policy teams and a requirement to maintain crisp and accessible messages for policy audiences. Our comparative analysis uses heat maps, supplemented with risk narratives, and employs the multidimensional character of risks to inform debates on the management of current residual risk and future threats. The policy research and ensuing analysis raises core issues about how comparative risk analyses are used by policy audiences, their validation and future developments that are discussed in the commentary below. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Market performance and environmental policy. A scenario study for a market oriented environmental policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boom, J.T.; Duizendstraal, A.; De Jong, R.; Koster, J.M.M.; Nentjes, A.; Zhang, Z.X. [Department of Economics and Public Finance of the University of Groningen ECOF, Groningen (Netherlands); Van Buiren, K.; Van Es, G.A.; De Groot, A.W.M.; Velthuijsen, J.W. [Foundation for Economic Research of the University of Amsterdam SEO, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van Duyse, P.; Heijnes, H. [Applied Environmental Economics TME, The Hague (Netherlands); Dijkgraaf, E.; Varkevisser, M. [Research Centre for Economic Policy OCfEB, Erasmus Universiteit, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Wiersma, D.

    1998-08-01

    Different sets of instruments to realize targets set in the Dutch environmental policy are assessed by comparing scenarios. They have in common their aim to realise the targets set for the year 2010 in the Dutch National Environmental Policy plans, but they differ in the sets of instruments. In the reference scenario mainly conventional instruments are applied. The tradeable permit scenario introduces tradeable environmental permits. The right price scenario introduces competition instead of public monopoly and reduces tax exemptions and subsidies. Chapter 2 of this study deals with the essential features of tradeable permit systems and describes the specific schemes that are part of the tradeable permit scenario. This chapter also compares the economic results of each separate scheme with the corresponding policy in the reference scenario. Chapter 3 deals with the influence of (semi-)public monopoly in markets for environmental services and other services with major environmental impacts on costs and prices. Furthermore, a number of price distorting tax exemptions and subsidies with major environ- mental impacts are identified. This chapter then describes the specific measures aimed at the introduction of competition, control of monopolistic pricing prac- tices and termination of tax exemptions and subsidies that are part of the right price scenario. It also compares the economic results of each separate measure with the corresponding policy in the reference scenario. Whereas Chapters 2 and 3 present the economic consequences of market oriented policies one by one (partial analysis), Chapter 4 presents the economic im- pacts of simultaneous application of conventional versus market oriented instruments (comprehensive analysis). This is done by incorporating a selected num- ber of the instruments described in Chapters 2 and 3 in a computable general equilibrium model of the Dutch economy. Both (selective) scenarios are con- structed for the year 2010. First is the

  7. Valuing the benefits of environmental policy: the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howarth A; Pearce DW; Ozdemiroglu E; Seccombe-Hett T; Wieringa K; Streefkerk CM; Hollander AEM de; EFTEC; MNV

    2001-01-01

    This study seeks to set priorities for environmental policy in the Netherlands. We focused on seven environmental issues including: climate change, acidification, low level ozone, particulate matter, noise, eutrophication and land contamination. These issues are prioritised using three different app

  8. Valuing the benefits of environmental policy: the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howarth A; Pearce DW; Ozdemiroglu E; Seccombe-Hett T; Wieringa K; Streefkerk CM; Hollander AEM de; EFTEC; MNV

    2001-01-01

    This study seeks to set priorities for environmental policy in the Netherlands. We focused on seven environmental issues including: climate change, acidification, low level ozone, particulate matter, noise, eutrophication and land contamination. These issues are prioritised using three different app

  9. Pragmatics of policy: the compliance of dutch environmental policy instruments to European union standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruitwagen, Sonja; Reudink, Melchert; Faber, Albert

    2009-04-01

    Despite a general decrease in Dutch environmental emission trends, it remains difficult to comply with European Union (EU) environmental policy targets. Furthermore, environmental issues have become increasingly complex and entangled with society. Therefore, Dutch environmental policy follows a pragmatic line by adopting a flexible approach for compliance, rather than aiming at further reduction at the source of emission. This may be politically useful in order to adequately reach EU targets, but restoration of environmental conditions may be delayed. However, due to the complexity of today's environmental issues, the restoration of environmental conditions might not be the only standard for a proper policy approach. Consequently this raises the question how the Dutch pragmatic approach to compliance qualifies in a broader policy assessment. In order to answer this question, we adapt a policy assessment framework, developed by Hemerijck and Hazeu (Bestuurskunde 13(2), 2004), based on the dimensions of legitimacy and policy logic. We apply this framework for three environmental policy assessments: flexible instruments in climate policy, fine-tuning of national and local measures to meet air quality standards, and derogation for the Nitrate Directive. We conclude with general assessment notes on the appliance of flexible instruments in environmental policy, showing that a broad and comprehensive perspective can help to understand the arguments to put such policy instruments into place and to identify trade-offs between assessment criteria.

  10. Working Children: Current Trends and Policy Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bequele, Assefa; Boyden, Jo

    1988-01-01

    Examines the types of employment children are most frequently engaged in, the risks involved, earnings, relationship between work and school, and the constraints on the exercise of their rights. Discusses initiatives underway to protect child workers, meet their needs, and formulate government policy. (JOW)

  11. Firm behavior, environmental externalities and public policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Earnest Markell, IV

    This dissertation consists of three essays which examine environmental policy, employer mandates and energy consumption. The essays explore how firms respond to government policies such as environmental regulation and employer mandates. Understanding how firms adjust to government policies is crucial to law makers attempting to design optimal policies that maximize net benefits to society. The first essay, titled Who Loses under Power Plant Cap-and-Trade Programs tests how a major cap-and-trade program, known as the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP), affected labor markets in the region where it was implemented. The cap-and-trade program dramatically decreased levels of NOx emissions and added substantial costs to energy producers. Using a triple-differences approach that takes advantage of the geographic and time variation of the program as well as variation in industry energy-intensity levels, I examine how employment dynamics changed in manufacturing industries whose production process requires high levels of energy. After accounting for a variety of flexible state, county and industry trends, I find that employment in the manufacturing sector dropped by 1.7% as a result of the NBP. Young workers experienced the largest employment declines and earnings of newly hired workers fell after the regulation began. Employment declines are shown to have occurred primarily through decreased hiring rates rather than increased separation rates, thus mitigating the impact on incumbent workers. The second essay, titled Evaluating Workplace Mandates with Flows versus Stocks: An Application to California Paid Family Leave uses an underexploited data set to examine the impact of the California Paid Family Leave program on employment outcomes for young women. Most papers on mandated benefits examine labor outcomes by looking at earnings and employment levels of all workers. Examining these levels will be imprecise if the impacts of the program develop over time and firms are wary

  12. 75 FR 8045 - National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Draft Guidance, Establishing, Applying, and Revising...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... QUALITY National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Draft Guidance, Establishing, Applying, and Revising Categorical Exclusions Under the National Environmental Policy Act AGENCY: Council on Environmental Quality... Exclusions Under the National Environmental Policy Act.'' SUMMARY: On February 18, 2010, the Council...

  13. 76 FR 68183 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... Environmental Policy and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of meeting... of the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and...

  14. 78 FR 74129 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... AGENCY National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management issues. NACEPT...

  15. 77 FR 2719 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... AGENCY National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology; Meeting AGENCY: Environmental... Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, ] and management issues. NACEPT members represent...

  16. 77 FR 8859 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... AGENCY National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Cancellation and Rescheduling of National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy... 12, 2012 a National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT) Meeting to...

  17. 78 FR 17395 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... AGENCY National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection... public meeting for the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT.... NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology,...

  18. 75 FR 52941 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... AGENCY National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection... 92463, EPA gives notice of a public meeting of the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy... environmental policy, technology, and management issues. NACEPT represents diverse interests from...

  19. 78 FR 9689 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... AGENCY National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management issues. NACEPT represents diverse interests...

  20. 77 FR 1931 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ... AGENCY National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management issues. NACEPT members represent...

  1. 76 FR 53057 - National Environmental Policy Act Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 775 National Environmental Policy Act Procedures AGENCY: Postal Service. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule amends the Postal Service's National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance procedures to...

  2. Sustainable housing policies and the environmental potential of the existing housing stock in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sunikka, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    What is the environmental potential of the existing housing stock in the EU and the accession countries? How prepared are the countries to face the challenge of the existing housing stock? This article describes policies and policy instruments currently used to encourage sustainable renovation in

  3. Sustainable housing policies and the environmental potential of the existing housing stock in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sunikka, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    What is the environmental potential of the existing housing stock in the EU and the accession countries? How prepared are the countries to face the challenge of the existing housing stock? This article describes policies and policy instruments currently used to encourage sustainable renovation in Eu

  4. Environmental and policy change to support healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Rebecca H; Sykes, Kathy; Lowman, Sarah G; Duncan, Richard; Satariano, William A; Belza, Basia

    2011-10-01

    Given the growing evidence of the influence of the environment on older adult health, the need to design and implement effective environmental policy around healthy and vital aging is urgent. This article describes issues amenable to improvement through policy change, evidence supporting specific policy approaches and outcomes, and promising strategies for implementing those approaches. Key areas of focus are neighborhood design and safety, housing, transportation, and mobility. Strategies to build capacity for policy change are also addressed. Our goals are to foster greater attention to environmental change in support of healthy aging and to illuminate directions for policy change.

  5. Environmental Policy Performance Revisited: Designing Effective Policies for Green Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2012-01-01

    instruments directed at the demand-side of the market. Therefore this article develops a policy typology for government intervention aimed at creating green markets. The typology distinguishes between four types of policies based on the balance between supply-side and demand-side policy instruments applied....... On the basis of the typology, a hypothesis on their ability to expand green markets is generated and tested in a comparative analysis of the performance of organic food policies in Denmark, Sweden, the UK and the US, focusing on their impact on organic consumption. Our analysis demonstrates that cross...

  6. Essays on refining markets and environmental policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladunjoye, Olusegun Akintunde

    This thesis is comprised of three essays. The first two essays examine empirically the relationship between crude oil price and wholesale gasoline prices in the U.S. petroleum refining industry while the third essay determines the optimal combination of emissions tax and environmental research and development (ER&D) subsidy when firms organize ER&D either competitively or as a research joint venture (RJV). In the first essay, we estimate an error correction model to determine the effects of market structure on the speed of adjustment of wholesale gasoline prices, to crude oil price changes. The results indicate that market structure does not have a strong effect on the dynamics of price adjustment in the three regional markets examined. In the second essay, we allow for inventories to affect the relationship between crude oil and wholesale gasoline prices by allowing them to affect the probability of regime change in a Markov-switching model of the refining margin. We find that low gasoline inventory increases the probability of switching from the low margin regime to the high margin regime and also increases the probability of staying in the high margin regime. This is consistent with the predictions of the competitive storage theory. In the third essay, we extend the Industrial Organization R&D theory to the determination of optimal environmental policies. We find that RJV is socially desirable. In comparison to competitive ER&D, we suggest that regulators should encourage RJV with a lower emissions tax and higher subsidy as these will lead to the coordination of ER&D activities and eliminate duplication of efforts while firms internalize their technological spillover externality.

  7. Evaluation of the Waste Tire Resources Recovery Program and Environmental Health Policy in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ching Chen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effectiveness of Taiwanese environmental health policies, whose aim is to improve environmental quality by reducing tire waste via the Tire Resource Recovery Program. The results confirm that implemented environmental health policies improve the overall health of the population (i.e. a decrease in death caused by bronchitis and other respiratory diseases. Current policy expenditures are far below the optimal level, as it is estimated that a ten percent increase in the subsidy would decrease the number of deaths caused by bronchitis and other respiratory diseases by 0.58% per county/city per year on average.

  8. Systematic environmental monitoring model for decision in Public Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Cunha Cardoso Filho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Addresses the existing interdisciplinary between Information Science and public policies, and proposes to environmental monitoring tool as a relevant tool for improving the process of evaluating the effectiveness of these social policies and social programs, there included the legislative branch, through the collection, processing and provision of information allowing to identify the environmental changes and propose, consistently, the improvement of public policies that meet the demands of citizens.

  9. THE POTENTIAL USE OF POLLUTION INSURANCE AS ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Aihoon, John Komo; Groenewald, Jan A.; von Bach, Helmke J. Sartorius

    1997-01-01

    Market-based environmental policies have been forwarded as alternatives to current pollution control policies. Implementation of the "polluter pays" principle and governmental enforcement of pollution clean-up have led to astronomical environmental liabilities and clean-up costs, which may threaten the survival of many productive ventures, unless producers can spread pollution risk through insurance. An emission constrained target MOTAD LP (TMLP) model showed that pollution insurance for irri...

  10. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, T.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Community Involvement and Issues Management Dept.; Hansen, R.P. [Hansen Environmental Consultants, Englewood, CO (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This report on National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) chronicles past and current compliance activities and includes a recommended strategy that can be implemented for continued improvement. This report provides a list of important references. Attachment 1 contains the table of contents for SAND95-1648, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Guide Sandia National Laboratories (Hansen, 1995). Attachment 2 contains a list of published environmental assessments (EAs) and environmental impact statements (EISs) prepared by SNL/NM. Attachment 3 contains abstracts of NEPA compliance papers authored by SNL/NM and its contractors.

  11. Leaders and laggards in environmental policy: a quantitative analysis of domestic policy outputs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefferink, J.D.; Arts, B.J.M.; Kamstra, J.; Ooijevaar, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the domestic characteristics of 'leaders' and 'laggards' in environmental policy in 21 European countries as well as the USA, Mexico and Japan from 1970. Data with regard to environmental policy strength are related to a set of potentially explanatory domestic factors. By way

  12. Leaders and laggards in environmental policy: a quantitative analysis of domestic policy outputs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefferink, D.; Arts, B.; Kamstra, J.; Ooijevaar, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the domestic characteristics of 'leaders' and 'laggards' in environmental policy in 21 European countries as well as the USA, Mexico and Japan from 1970. Data with regard to environmental policy strength are related to a set of potentially explanatory domestic factors. By way

  13. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. [ed.; Baker, D.A.; Chamness, M.A. [and others

    1995-09-01

    This seventh revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes up-to-date information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, environmental monitoring, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. More detailed data are available from reference sources cited or from the authors. Chapter 5.0 was not updated from the sixth revision (1994). It describes models, including their principal underlying assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. The updated Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE Orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site, following the structure of Chapter 4.0. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be used directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the Hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  14. Policy and Current Account Determination under Floating Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Genberg; Alexander K. Swoboda

    1989-01-01

    The determinants of current account imbalances under floating exchange rates are analyzed. The analysis provides a framework within which the sources of, and the remedies for, the current account imbalances between the United States, Japan, and the Federal Republic of Germany can be discussed. The effects of various government policies are emphasized, in particular the differences between expenditure-changing and expenditure-switching policies. Short-run and long-run considerations are invest...

  15. Environmental Impact of Eu Policies On Acheloos River Basin, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoulikidis, N.; Nikolaidis, N. P.; Oikonomopoulou, A.; Batzias, F.

    The environmental impact of EU policies aiming at protecting surface and ground wa- ters are being assessed in the Acheloos River Basin, Greece as part of a Joint Research Centre (JRC) / DG Environment (DG Env) funded project. The basin offers the possi- bility of studying the impact of EU policies on a multitude of aquatic ecosystems: four artificial and four natural lakes and a large estuary with important hydrotops (lagoons, coastal salt lacustrine and freshwater marshes, etc.) that belong to the NATURA 2000 sites or are protected by the RAMSAR Convention. A database has been developed that includes all available information on sources, fluxes, and concentration levels of nutrients and selected heavy metals from prior and current research programs at the Acheloos River Basin and coastal environment. This information has been used to identify the environmental pressures and develop nutrient budgets for each sub-basin of the watershed to assess the relative contributions of nutrients from various land uses. The mathematical model HSPF is being used to model the hydrology and nitro- gen fate and transport in the watershed. Management scenarios will be developed and modelling exercises will be carried out to assess the impacts of the scenarios. Eco- nomic analysis of the nutrient management scenarios will be conducted to evaluate the costs associated with management practices for reaching acceptable water quality status.

  16. 77 FR 47862 - National Environmental Policy Act: Implementing Procedures; Addition to Categorical Exclusions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... Office of the Secretary National Environmental Policy Act: Implementing Procedures; Addition to... Final National Environmental Policy Act Implementing Procedures. SUMMARY: This notice announces the addition of a new categorical exclusion under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) to be...

  17. 77 FR 26314 - National Environmental Policy Act: Implementing Procedures; Addition to Categorical Exclusions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... Office of the Secretary National Environmental Policy Act: Implementing Procedures; Addition to..., (703) 390-6470. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA.... Dated: April 20, 2012. Willie R. Taylor, Director, Office of Environmental Policy and...

  18. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Guide, Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, R.P. [Hansen Environmental Consultants, Englewood, CO (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This report contains a comprehensive National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Guide for the Sandia National Laboratories. It is based on the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) NEPA regulations in 40 CFR Parts 1500 through 1508; the US Department of Energy (DOE) N-EPA implementing procedures in 10 CFR Part 102 1; DOE Order 5440.1E; the DOE ``Secretarial Policy Statement on the National Environmental Policy Act`` of June 1994- Sandia NEPA compliance procedures-, and other CEQ and DOE guidance. The Guide includes step-by-step procedures for preparation of Environmental Checklists/Action Descriptions Memoranda (ECL/ADMs), Environmental Assessments (EAs), and Environmental Impact Statements (EISs). It also includes sections on ``Dealing With NEPA Documentation Problems`` and ``Special N-EPA Compliance Issues.``

  19. Trees and Water: Mainstreaming Environmental Policy in the Graduate Public Policy Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Tankha, Sunil; Gasper, Des

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this article, we describe and evaluate a teaching project embedded within a core policy analysis course that allows students to engage with a major public policy issue—in our case, environmental policy—without a corresponding cost in terms of reducing curricular space for developing general policy analysis skills. We think that a win-win arrangement is attainable: a fairly intense immersion into a key thematic area of public policy and a correspondingly more vivid, realistic, a...

  20. Notification: National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    October 29, 2012. The EPA's OIG plans to begin preliminary research on EPA’s reviews of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) environmental impact statements (EIS) as submitted to EPA under Section 309 of the Clean Air Act.

  1. Environmetal report 2016. Impulses for an integrative environmental policy; Umweltgutachten 2016. Impulse fuer eine integrative Umweltpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-08-01

    The ecological challenges in the EU and Germany are so large that they can no longer simply be addressed using the remedial and even the technically-oriented, preventive environmental protection measures of the past. In relation to climate protection and many other fields, impacts on natural ecosystems must be substantially reduced in order to ensure that key ecosystem services remain functional. Yet, environmental policies continue to encounter stiff opposition, which is targeted at supposedly unnecessary regulatory burdens and restrictions. Opponents of environmental protection claim that environmental policies jeopardize the competitiveness of the German industrial and agricultural sectors by imposing unduly high costs. Or they bring up social issues, such as the current housing crisis or energy poverty, as arguments against an effective environmental policy. Such arguments call for nuanced assessments - and in some cases should be clearly rejected. Defusing such conflicts calls for approaches that promote compromise and that appeal to the general public. In the Environmental Report 2016, the German Advisory Council on the Environment (SRU) sets itself the task of addressing this challenge, by focusing on six key topics. What these topics all have in common is that they exhibit tensions between environmental and economic or social policy goals. The Environmental Report aims to stimulate ideas about environmental oriented reforms and approaches to managing these issues which cut across policy fields.

  2. DETERMINANTS OF CURRENT ACCOUNT DEFICIT AND ECONOMY POLICIES PRACTICES FOR CURRENT ACCOUNT DEFICIT IN TURKISH ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysel Karagol

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In last years with the impact of rapid globalization and financiallisation current account deficit became a major problem for Turkish economy. Hence, many studies have been conducted foreseeing for policy recommendations and precautions against the current deficit. In this study, by considering determinants of current account deficit and implemented policies, it is intended to provide policy recommendations for closing the deficit. As part of this goal, the determinants of current account deficit and impacts of the determinantsa re discussed. Also, by mentioning monetary and fiscal policies during the period 2003-2015 overall assessment of the policies and a set of policiy recommendations for the next periods were presented. The most important result achieved by the study is applying discussed structural reforms in able to have quick progress in dealing with the current account deficit would have a great effect.

  3. Energy Planning Policies With Environmental Considerations In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. U. Ike, and S. S. N. Okeke

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed a fundamental change in the planning process for development in Nigeria. It is now recognized that the dimension of environment protection is of vital importance for sustainable development. From the comparative survey of available energy planning models, it was found that the environmental considerations are limited only to estimating the pollution load, thus sending false price signals to the technology market and leading to environmentally distorted policy decisions. The main focus of this research is a methodology for integrated energy sector planning, policy impact assessment, and policy mix analysis, incorporating the impact of environmental externality cost of energy supply and use into the planning process. The model aims at determining the least cost energy planning policy path for Nigeria with the least environmental damage.

  4. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - Policy and Environmental Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes data on policy and environmental supports for physical activity, diet, and breastfeeding. This data is used for DNPAO's Data, Trends, and Maps...

  5. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - Policy and Environmental Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes data on policy and environmental supports for physical activity, diet, and breastfeeding. This data is used for DNPAO's Data, Trends, and Maps...

  6. Review on environmental policies in China:Evolvement,features,and evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the development of current environmental policies in China and the great progress made during 1979-2006.Applying lessons learned from industrialized countries to its own situation,China's environmental policies have the following main features:(1) to explore command and control measures to their fullest extent,(2) to strive to raise funding for environmental protection,(3) to identify who should take accountability for environmental protection;(4) to encourage strategies of "combination of prevention and control" and "integrated utilization",(5) to embrace openness in the field of environmental policy and early international cooperation.During the past 30 years,China's environmental policies have evolved and deepened:status expanded the national basic policies of environmental protection by adding a sustainable development strategy,focus changed from pollution control to a combination of pollution control and ecological protection,method changed from end control to source control,scope changed form point source control to watershed and territory pollution control,and management style changed from primarily using executive power to using legal and economic measures.This article introduces how they are evaluated by the international community and provides the prospects of the policies.

  7. Developments in Dutch Environmental Policy: Target Rationality or Cultural Shift?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Klok, Pieter J.

    1996-01-01

    In this article we have discussed developments in Dutch environmental policy from a certain 'rational' and a certain 'cultural' perspective. Both perspectives appear to be satisfactory only to a certain degree. The interpretation of the development of policy as a consequence of a learning process

  8. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. [ed.; Baker, D.A.; Chamness, M.A. [and others

    1994-08-01

    This sixth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes up-to-date information on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. More detailed data are available from reference sources cited or from the authors; Chapter 5.0 has been significantly updated from the fifth revision. It describes models, including their principal underlying assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions; The updated Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site, following the structure of Chapter 4.0. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be utilized directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the Hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  9. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A. [ed.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Fosmire, C.J.; Fowler, R.A. [and others

    1996-08-01

    This eighth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Chapters 4 and 6 in Hanford Site-related NEPA documents. Chapter 4 (Affected Environment) includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, historical, archaeological and cultural resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. The following sections were updated in this revision: climate and meteorology; ecology (threatened and endangered species section only); historical; archaeological and cultural resources; and all of chapter 6. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be used directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  10. National Environmental Policy Act source guide for the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansky, M.T.

    1998-09-30

    This Source Guide will assist those working with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 to become more familiar with the environmental assessments (EA) and environmental impact statements (EIS) that apply to specific activities and facilities on the Hanford Site. This document should help answer questions concerning NEPA coverage, history, processes, and the status of many of the buildings and units on and related to the Hanford Site. This document summarizes relevant EAs and EISs by briefly outlining the proposed action of each document and the decision made by the US Department of Energy (DOE) or its predecessor agencies, the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the US Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). The summary includes the proposed action alternatives and current status of the proposed action. If a decision officially was stated by the DOE, as in a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) or a record of decision (ROD), and the decision was located, a summary is provided. Not all federal decisions, such as FONSIs and RODS, can be found in the Federal Register (FR). For example, although significant large-action FONSIs can be found in the FR, some low-interest FONSIs might have been published elsewhere (i.e., local newspapers).

  11. Environmental cost-effectiveness analysis in intertemporal natural resource policy: evaluation of selective fishing gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Vestergaard, Niels

    2013-12-15

    In most decision-making involving natural resources, the achievements of a given policy (e.g., improved ecosystem or biodiversity) are rather difficult to measure in monetary units. To address this problem, the current paper develops an environmental cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA) to include intangible benefits in intertemporal natural resource problems. This approach can assist managers in prioritizing management actions as least cost solutions to achieve quantitative policy targets. The ECEA framework is applied to a selective gear policy case in Danish mixed trawl fisheries in Kattegat and Skagerrak. The empirical analysis demonstrates how a policy with large negative net benefits might be justified if the intangible benefits are included.

  12. Partners for a healthy city: implementing policies and environmental changes within organizations to promote health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyerherm, Laura; Tibbits, Melissa; Wang, Hongmei; Schram, Sarah; Balluff, Mary

    2014-07-01

    Current research has suggested that obesity prevention efforts should promote policy and environmental changes. The Partners for a Healthy City project, implemented in Douglas County, Nebraska, focused on collaborating with local organizations to help them select and implement 1 or more policies that promoted healthy eating and physical activity. Of the 346 organizations participating in the project and completing the follow-up assessment, 92% implemented at least 1 new policy or expanded an existing policy related to healthy food and drink options and physical activity, totaling 952 individual policy changes. Common policies included providing water as the primary beverage and installing bike racks to support active commuting to and from work. These findings suggest widespread support for policy changes that promote community health.

  13. 78 FR 25079 - Forum on Environmental Measurements Announcement of Competency Policy for Assistance Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    ... AGENCY Forum on Environmental Measurements Announcement of Competency Policy for Assistance Agreements... Agreements. SUMMARY: The Environmental Protection Agency's Forum on Environmental Measurements (FEM) is... and Technology Policy Council) established the Forum on Environmental Measurements (FEM) as a standing...

  14. Essential psychology for environmental policy making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlek, C.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    In this article major environmental problems and their different levels and global spheres of impact are surveyed. Environmental exploitation is discussed as an inherent characteristic of free market economies under limited cognitive-motivational inclinations of individual actors. A conceptual model

  15. The role of multi-target policy instruments in agri-environmental policy mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schader, Christian; Lampkin, Nicholas; Muller, Adrian; Stolze, Matthias

    2014-12-01

    The Tinbergen Rule has been used to criticise multi-target policy instruments for being inefficient. The aim of this paper is to clarify the role of multi-target policy instruments using the case of agri-environmental policy. Employing an analytical linear optimisation model, this paper demonstrates that there is no general contradiction between multi-target policy instruments and the Tinbergen Rule, if multi-target policy instruments are embedded in a policy-mix with a sufficient number of targeted instruments. We show that the relation between cost-effectiveness of the instruments, related to all policy targets, is the key determinant for an economically sound choice of policy instruments. If economies of scope with respect to achieving policy targets are realised, a higher cost-effectiveness of multi-target policy instruments can be achieved. Using the example of organic farming support policy, we discuss several reasons why economies of scope could be realised by multi-target agri-environmental policy instruments.

  16. The impact of the member states on EU environmental policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of the fourth enlargement (with Sweden, Austria and Finland) on the European Union's environmental policy. This is done by comparing the priorities and strategies of the newcomers with those of the former environmental pioneers (Germany, Netherlands and Denmark)....

  17. EU environmental state aid policy: wide implications, narrow participation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaam, Karoline

    2008-11-15

    This article investigates the 2008 reform of the EU's environmental state aid guidelines, with an eye to determining the degree of external pressure and lobbyism towards environmental state aid policies. What is found is a strikingly low level of external pressure on the policy-field, not least on the part of the private sector. In fact, EU environmental state aid policy is largely the making of a few Commission officials, without much external 'interference'. The article discusses possible reasons for this, and asks whether state aid policy-making might be marked less by clear and established interests and utility maximising, and more by actors constrained by complexity and bounded rationality. (author). refs.,tab

  18. Environmental justice in Scotland: policy, pedagogy and praxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scandrett, Eurig [Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    In the first decade of Scottish devolution, environmental justice became a significant component of environmental policy for the Scottish Executive, especially under First Minister Jack McConnell. This paper analyses how a discourse developed within policy narratives which separated environmental justice from economic growth and the interests of capital. In particular, it explores the role which research has played in justifying this discourse. By contrast, an alternative discourse has developed through reflexive and dialogical research associated with the praxis of the environmental organization Friends of the Earth Scotland. This alternative discourse is embedded in the embryonic environmental justice movement in Scotland, and identifies environmental justice as a social conflict which exposes negative externalities at the heart of economic development.

  19. Resource conservation program in terms of Vostokgazprom environmental policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibulnikova, M. R.; Nadyumov, S. V.; Adam, A. M.; Korotchenko, T. V.

    2016-09-01

    The article examines a number of key areas of environmental policy of Vostokgazprom. The Associated Petroleum Gas program is an important step within the resource conservation and environmental protection framework. In addition, the company undertakes the extensive work on emergency response programs, and carries out continuous protection of the subsurface and control over environmental safety in all production sites. Vostokgazprom continuously modernizes the basic industrial facilities and invests money in new projects. The study analyzes the steps being taken by the company within the energy saving policy that leads to significant costs cut.

  20. From Practice to Policy in Environmental Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    assumptions about education, science, history and, in general, the ..... worry that suggesting alternative ideas introduces 'bias', framed by the ..... Based on this argument, we could say that the infusion of environmental concerns into the.

  1. Norwegian environmental policy-making and the role of NGOs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rommetvedt, Hilmar; Farsund, Arild Aurvaag; Melberg, Kjersti

    1997-12-31

    This publication examines the role of pressure groups and their influence in the environmental policy-making processes in Norway. Fields concerned in this connection are in which ways do environmental and industrial organizations influence political authorities, and what kind of impact do the different organizations have on the processes mentioned. The publication presents firstly a classification of different types of relations between organized interests and public authorities, and of the different methods used to influence policy-making. Based on this classification and more general developmental trends in Norwegian politics, the publication then gives an elaboration of some hypotheses regarding environmental and industrial organizations and their influence on environmental policy. The validity of these hypotheses is examined through empirical data from surveys and case-studies. 27 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  2. Environmental Policy Tools: A User’s Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    involved in RECLAIM development including firms such as Allied signal Aerospace Co., ARCO, Chevron, Hughes, Mobil Oil, and the Walt Disney Company, among...Threat of Environmental Racism ," National Resources and the Environment, winter 1993, pp. 23-26, 55-56. 160 1 Environmental Policy Tools: A User’s Guide...Bullard, R.D., "The Threat of Environmen- 545, spring 1994. tal Racism ," National Resources and the 35. Collin, R.W., "Environmental Equity: A Environment

  3. Food concerns and support for environmental food policies and purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Anthony; Wang, Wei C; Burton, Melissa

    2015-08-01

    Consumer support for pro environmental food policies and food purchasing are important for the adoption of successful environmental policies. This paper examines consumers' views of food policy options as their predisposition to purchase pro environmental foods along with their likely demographic, educational and cognitive antecedents including food and environmental concerns and universalism values (relating to care for others and the environment). An online survey to assess these constructs was conducted among 2204 Australian adults in November 2011. The findings showed strong levels of support for both environmental food policies (50%-78% support) and pro environmental food purchasing (51%-69% intending to purchase pro environmental foods). Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling showed that different cognitive mediators exist along pathways between demographics and the two outcome variables. Support for food policy was positively related to food and environment concerns (std. Beta = 0.25), universalism (0.41), perceived control (0.07), and regulatory issues (0.64 but negatively with food security issues (-0.37). Environment purchasing intentions were positively linked to food and nutrition concerns (0.13), food and environment concerns (0.24), food safety concerns (0.19), food and animal welfare concerns (0.16), universalism (0.25), female gender (0.05), education (0.04), and perceived influence over the food system (0.17). In addition, health study in years 11 and 12 was positively related to the beginning of both of these pathways (0.07 for each). The results are discussed in relation to the opportunities that communications based on the mediating variables offer for the promotion of environmental food policies and purchasing.

  4. Environmental policy integration in bioenergy: policy learning across sectors and levels?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederberg, Charlotta

    2011-07-01

    A central principle within UN and EU policy is environmental policy integration (EPI), aiming at integrating environmental aspirations, targets and requirements into sector policy in order to promote sustainable development. The focus of this study is EPI in bioenergy policy. Bioenergy is a renewable energy source of increasing importance in the EU and Swedish energy mix. At the same time, it is debated how environmentally friendly bioenergy really is. Furthermore, bioenergy can be considered both a multi sector and a multi-level case, since bioenergy is produced in many different sectors and bioenergy policy is formulated and implemented on different levels. Therefore, EPI in bioenergy policy is here analysed over time in two sectors (energy and agriculture) and on three levels (EU, national, subnational). A cognitive, policy learning perspective on EPI is adopted, tracing EPI through looking for reframing of policy towards incorporating environmental objectives in policy rhetoric and practice. Furthermore, institutional and political explanations for the development are discussed. Paper I analyses EPI in Swedish bioenergy policy within energy and agriculture. Paper II analyses institutional conditions for multi-sector EPI in Swedish bioenergy policy. Paper III analyses EPI in EU bioenergy policy within energy and agriculture. Paper IV analyses sub-national EPI in the case of the Biofuel Region in north Sweden. The material examined consists of policy documents complemented by semi-structured interviews. Together, the four papers provide a more complex and holistic picture of the EPI process than in previous research, which mainly has focused on studying EPI in single sectors and on single levels. The study shows that priorities are different on different levels; that EPI has varied over time; but that EPI today is detectable within bioenergy policy in both studied sectors and on all levels. Policy learning in bioenergy is found to be mainly a topdown process

  5. Essays on Industry Response to Energy and Environmental Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Richard Leonard

    .8 and 3.3 billion worth of investment in order to produce this new fuel. The results highlight the importance of accounting for sunk costs when evaluating environmental regulation, and suggest that the estimation approach used here might provide a viable way to estimate the sunk costs of other environmental policies. Chapter 3, coauthored with Hunt Allcott, turns the to retail market for water heaters to study the topic of energy efficiency. We run a natural field experiment at a large nationwide retailer to measure the effects of energy use information disclosure, customer rebates, and sales agent incentives on demand for energy efficient durable goods. We find that while a combination of large rebates plus sales incentives substantially increases market share, information and sales incentives alone each have zero statistical effect and explain at most a small fraction of the low baseline market share. Sales agents strategically comply only partially with the experiment, targeting information at more interested consumers but not discussing energy efficiency with the disinterested majority. These results suggest that at current prices in this context, seller-provided information is not a major barrier to energy efficiency investments. We theoretically and empirically explore the novel policy option of combining customer subsidies with government-provided sales incentives.

  6. Institutional and policy responses to uncertainty in environmental policy: A comparison of dutch and US styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arentsen, Maarten J.; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; O'Toole, Laurence J.

    2000-01-01

    Uncertainties regarding problem definition and policy response are an endemic pan of environmental decisionmaking. Some standard responses to uncertainty in decisionmaking are analyzed and then used to suggest the importance of learning-oriented policy processes in open, flexible, and adaptive

  7. Trees and Water: Mainstreaming Environmental Policy in the Graduate Public Policy Curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Tankha (Sunil); D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this article, we describe and evaluate a teaching project embedded within a core policy analysis course that allows students to engage with a major public policy issue—in our case, environmental policy—without a corresponding cost in terms of reducing curricular space for developing

  8. Evaluating efficacy of an environmental policy to prevent biological invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sarah A; Deneau, Matthew G; Jean, Laurent; Wiley, Chris J; Leung, Brian; MacIsaac, Hugh J

    2011-04-01

    Enactment of any environmental policy should be followed by an evaluation of its efficacy to ensure optimal utilization of limited resources, yet measuring the success of these policies can be a challenging task owing to a dearth of data and confounding factors. We examine the efficacy of ballast water policies enacted to prevent biological invasions in the Laurentian Great Lakes. We utilize four criteria to assess the efficacy of this environmental regulation: (1) Is the prescribed management action demonstrably effective? (2) Is the management action effective under operational conditions? (3) Can compliance be achieved on a broad scale? (4) Are desired changes observed in the environment? The four lines of evidence resulting from this analysis indicate that the Great Lakes ballast water management program provides robust, but not complete, protection against ship-mediated biological invasions. Our analysis also indicates that corresponding inspection and enforcement efforts should be undertaken to ensure that environmental policies translate into increased environmental protection. Similar programs could be implemented immediately around the world to protect the biodiversity of the many freshwater ecosystems which receive ballast water discharges by international vessels. This general framework can be extended to evaluate efficacy of other environmental policies.

  9. Environmental and social risks: defensive National Environmental Policy Act in the US Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Mortimer; Marc J. Stern; Robert W. Malmsheimer; Dale J. Blahna; Lee K. Cerveny; David N. Seesholtz

    2011-01-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and its accompanying regulations provide a spectrum of alternative analytical pathways for federal agencies proposing major actions that might significantly impact the human environment. Although guidance from the President's council on Environmental Quality suggests the decision to develop an environmental impact...

  10. Environmental performance policy indicators for the public sector: the case of the defence sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Tomás B; Alves, Inês; Subtil, Rui; Joanaz de Melo, João

    2007-03-01

    The development of environmental performance policy indicators for public services, and in particular for the defence sector, is an emerging issue. Despite a number of recent initiatives there has been little work done in this area, since the other sectors usually focused on are agriculture, transport, industry, tourism and energy. This type of tool can be an important component for environmental performance evaluation at policy level, when integrated in the general performance assessment system of public missions and activities. The main objective of this research was to develop environmental performance policy indicators for the public sector, specifically applied to the defence sector. Previous research included an assessment of the environmental profile, through the evaluation of how environmental management practices have been adopted in this sector and an assessment of environmental aspects and impacts. This paper builds upon that previous research, developing an indicator framework--SEPI--supported by the selection and construction of environmental performance indicators. Another aim is to discuss how the current environmental indicator framework can be integrated into overall performance management. The Portuguese defence sector is presented and the usefulness of this methodology demonstrated. Feasibility and relevancy criteria are applied to evaluate the set of indicators proposed, allowing indicators to be scored and indicators for the policy level to be obtained.

  11. The Biomanizales: A local environmental policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Marulanda (Liliana)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThe documentation of the experience in Urban Environmental Management of the city of Manizales, Colombia has been prepared between the years 1999 and 2.000 within the framework of the implementation of the SINPA project (Support for the Implementation of National Plans of Action) –

  12. Environmental Education Policy Implementation in Botswana: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tional innovation in the curriculum grouped together with HIV/AIDS and ... This entailed the use of a survey technique in which questionnaires were given to the ... education implementation in schools; in-service training; support materials; and .... they are required to take part in environmental education is not practical as ...

  13. Financing environmental policy in East Central Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; van der Weij, E.

    1998-01-01

    The transition in East Central Europe created a general optimism which was reflected in a belief that a solution to the environmental problems faced by these countries would be found. There were great expectations regarding the blessings of the market economy, which would diminish state-guided waste

  14. Global environmental ratings as an instrument of environmental policies: what factors determine the rank of Russia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseeva, Nina; Arshinova, Marina; Milanova, Elena

    2017-04-01

    Systems of global environmental rankings have emerged as a result of the escalating need for revealing the trends of ecological development for the world and for certain countries and regions. Both the environmental indicators and indexes and the ratings made on their basis are important for the assessment and forecast of the ecological situation in order to tackle the global and regional problems of sustainable development and help to translate the research findings into policy developments. Data sources for the global environmental ratings are most often the statistical information accumulated in databases of the international organizations (World Bank, World Resources Institute, FAO, WHO, etc.) These data are highly reliable and well-comparable that makes the ratings very objective. There are also good examples of using data of sociological polls, information from social networks, etc. The global environmental ratings are produced by the international organizations (World Bank, World Resources Institute, the UN Environment Program), non-governmental associations (WWF, Climate Action Network Europe (CAN-E), Germanwatch Nord-Süd-Initiative, Friends of the Earth, World Development Movement), research structures (scientific centers of the Yale and Colombian universities, the Oak-Ridge National Laboratory, the New Economic Foundation), and also individual experts, news agencies, etc. Thematic (sectoral) ratings cover various spheres from availability of resources and anthropogenic impact on environment components to nature protection policies and perception of environmental problems. The environmental indicators cover all parameters important for understanding the current ecological situation and the trajectories of its development (the DPSIR model, i.e. drivers, pressures, state, impact and response). Complex (integral) ratings are based on environmental indexes which are combined measurement tools using a complex of aggregated indicators based on a wide range of

  15. Environmental policy, pollution, unemployment and endogenous growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Haagen; Nielsen, Søren Bo; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1995-01-01

    The paper develops a model of endogenous economic growth with pollution externalities and a labor market distorted by union monopoly power and by taxes and transfers. We study the optimal second-best pollution tax and abatement policy and find that a shift toward greener preferences will tend...... to reduce unemployment, although it will hamper growth. We also find that greater labor-market distortions call for higher pollution tax rates. Finally, we show that a switch from quantity control of pollution combined with grandfathering of pollution rights to regulation via emission charges has...

  16. [Integration, exclusion and solidarity in the current social policy debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, R

    2001-01-01

    The current global trend involving transformation of work and the crisis in large government economic development and intervention projects in the market are raising new challenges for social policies to combat poverty. This study reconstitutes and analyzes the tensions, paradoxes, and main consequences of this process, focusing on problems concerned with combining solidarity strategies and public welfare systems.

  17. Department of defense environmental cleanup cost allowability policy. Master`s thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdock, J.M.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the factors affecting the allowability determination of defense contractor environmental remediation costs. The primary objective of this thesis was to determine what policies and contracting cost principles the Department of Defense (DOD) should develop to address environmental costs in a consistent manner, providing a `single face` to industry. A secondary objective was to develop an audit framework and questions to allow for consistent policy analysis and application to a contractor`s proposed environmental remediation costs based upon the materiality of the situation. Background material was presented to show the amount and complexity of environmental regulations, the effects of current judicial decisions and DOD`s efforts to develop a consistent policy. Research material was provided from Congress, the General Accounting Office, DOD, defense contractors, California, Washington, industry associations and environmental protection coalitions. The researcher`s analysis of the material produced an environmental cost principle. This cost principle was applied to a current environmental claim, producing an audit framework and tailored list of cost and/or pricing data analysis, questions. Both the cost principle and audit framework are recommended for incorporation into DOD`s final environmental cost allowability decision.

  18. Environmental Policy Beliefs of Stakeholders in Protected Area Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Kostas

    2007-04-01

    Although the importance of understanding stakeholder beliefs regarding environmental policy has been noted by many authors, research focusing on the heterogeneity of stakeholder views is still very scarce and concentrated on a product-oriented definition of stakeholders. The aim of the present study is to address this gap by examining environmental policy beliefs of stakeholder groups engaged in protected area management. Questionnaires containing 73 five-point Likert scale items were administered to eight different stakeholder groups involved in the management of Greek protected areas. Items referred to core beliefs on environmental policy, namely, the value framework and sustainable development, and secondary beliefs, that is, beliefs on social consensus and ecotourism development. Our study used as a starting point respondent recruitment on the basis of a traditional product-centered approach. We investigated whether environmental policy beliefs can be used to effectively segregate stakeholders in well-defined segments, which override the product-oriented definition of stakeholders. Indeed, K-means clustering revealed an innovation-introduction and an implementation-charged sample segment. The instrument utilized in this research proved quite reliable and valid in measuring stakeholder environmental policy beliefs. Furthermore, the methodology implied that stakeholder groups differ in a significant number of belief-system elements. On the other hand, stakeholder groups were effectively distinguished on a small set of both core and secondary beliefs. Therefore, the instrument used can be an effective tool for determining and monitoring environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management. This is of considerable importance in the Greek case, given the recent establishment of 27 administrative bodies of protected areas, all of which are required to incorporate public consultation into management practices.

  19. Environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Kostas

    2007-04-01

    Although the importance of understanding stakeholder beliefs regarding environmental policy has been noted by many authors, research focusing on the heterogeneity of stakeholder views is still very scarce and concentrated on a product-oriented definition of stakeholders. The aim of the present study is to address this gap by examining environmental policy beliefs of stakeholder groups engaged in protected area management. Questionnaires containing 73 five-point Likert scale items were administered to eight different stakeholder groups involved in the management of Greek protected areas. Items referred to core beliefs on environmental policy, namely, the value framework and sustainable development, and secondary beliefs, that is, beliefs on social consensus and ecotourism development. Our study used as a starting point respondent recruitment on the basis of a traditional product-centered approach. We investigated whether environmental policy beliefs can be used to effectively segregate stakeholders in well-defined segments, which override the product-oriented definition of stakeholders. Indeed, K-means clustering revealed an innovation-introduction and an implementation-charged sample segment. The instrument utilized in this research proved quite reliable and valid in measuring stakeholder environmental policy beliefs. Furthermore, the methodology implied that stakeholder groups differ in a significant number of belief-system elements. On the other hand, stakeholder groups were effectively distinguished on a small set of both core and secondary beliefs. Therefore, the instrument used can be an effective tool for determining and monitoring environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management. This is of considerable importance in the Greek case, given the recent establishment of 27 administrative bodies of protected areas, all of which are required to incorporate public consultation into management practices.

  20. Informing versus nudging in environmental policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ölander, Folke; Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    Information has not been proven a very successful means to promote voluntary behaviour change to protect the environment. On this backcloth, there is currently increasing interest in recommendations from behavioural economics focusing on making the choice architecture more facilitating for the de......Information has not been proven a very successful means to promote voluntary behaviour change to protect the environment. On this backcloth, there is currently increasing interest in recommendations from behavioural economics focusing on making the choice architecture more facilitating...

  1. The impact of new member states on EU environmental policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1996-01-01

    The fourth enlargement of the EU, with Sweden, Finland and Austria, which took effect on 1 January 1995, is by many expected to have a positive impact on the environmental policy dimension of the Union, which has been under strain since the Rio Summit in 1992.......The fourth enlargement of the EU, with Sweden, Finland and Austria, which took effect on 1 January 1995, is by many expected to have a positive impact on the environmental policy dimension of the Union, which has been under strain since the Rio Summit in 1992....

  2. Environmental refugees: Consequences and policies from a western perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan E. Nash

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Canada as an example, this paper argues that the phenomenon of the environmental refugee poses a series of important public policy issues for countries of resettlement. Arguing that Canada has an obligation to aid environmental refugees, for reasons of both self-interest and self-sacrifice, the paper then explores those reasons that have, so far, prevented Canada acting on these obligations. These lie, the paper argues, in a conjunction of both present public opinion and government practice. It is therefore in these realms that action to remove impediments to policy change must now occur.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND EDUCATION PROGRAMS: LETS GET HONEST ABOUT SCIENCE, POLICY, AND ADVOCACY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Those of us who are involved in undergraduate education should change the current situation where many, arguably most, students graduating from environmental programs have a limited appreciation of the proper role of science in ecological policy deliberations. To be fair, perhap...

  4. Policy, Systems, and Environmental Change in the Mississippi Delta: Considerations for Evaluation Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegler, Michelle C.; Honeycutt, Sally; Davis, Melvin; Dauria, Emily; Berg, Carla; Dove, Cassandra; Gamble, Abigail; Hawkins, Jackie

    2015-01-01

    Community-level policy, systems, and environmental (PSE) change strategies may offer an economical and sustainable approach to chronic disease prevention. The rapidly growing number of untested but promising PSE strategies currently underway offers an exciting opportunity to establish practice-based evidence for this approach. This article…

  5. 75 FR 12496 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; DOC National Environmental Policy Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... Office of the Secretary Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; DOC National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Questionnaire and Checklist AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Office of... INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Department of Commerce (DOC) National Environmental Policy Act...

  6. 75 FR 29533 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology Notice of Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... Environmental Policy and Technology Notice of Charter Renewal AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... U.S.C. App.2, the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT) is a...

  7. Analyzing environmental policy change: United States Landsat policy, 1964--1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gerald B.

    In recent years there has been an increase in the attention paid by policy scholars to the subject of policy change. Early attempts at studying this phenomena produced typologies of policy change and interesting case studies of specific instances of significant policy change. Recently, some policy scholars have worked to develop theoretical models of policy change that include explicit explanations of how and why public policies change over time. In general, scholars have identified two major sources of change: policy-oriented conflict and policy-oriented learning. One of the most advanced theoretical models of policy change is Sabatier and Jenkins-Smith's (1993, 1997) Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF). This comprehensive theoretical model is at the forefront of policy change research because, among other things, it explicitly integrates both conflict and teaming as interdependent sources of policy change. This dissertation uses the case of changes in U.S. land remote sensing (Landsat) policy between 1964 and 1998 to demonstrate a combined qualitative/quantitative application of the ACF, test several of the ACF's key theoretical propositions, and generate a set of criteria for solidifying the policy subsystem concept. The first part of this study uses a detailed case-study of Landsat politics to demonstrate the emergence of this policy arena as a semi-autonomous policy subsystem from the larger U.S. science and technology policy domain during the 1970's and 80's. This case study also serves to illuminate the importance of policy-oriented conflict, policy-oriented learning, and exogenous events in influencing the significant policy changes that have occurred in U.S. Landsat policy over the last 35 years. The second part of this study uses historical data on the preferences of key Landsat policy elites (generated from the systematic content analysis of 163 testimonies, reports, and official statements), in combination with survey data collected on current Landsat

  8. EUROPEAN POLICY CONCERNING THE PROTECTION OF THE QUALITY OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTOR - WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORICA BRASOVEANU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available European Union environmental policy, as was established in the EC Treaty aims at ensuring environmental sustainability activities through its inclusion in EU sectoral policies, by developing measures to prevent by following the basic principles of sustainable development and by taking joint responsibilities. Environmental legislation is one of those tools that combine management of natural resources with the prevention and control of the pollution. These laws attempt to prevent, or at least limit the effects of environmental degradation caused by the phenomenon of pollution. Environmental legislation should primarily be flexible in the sense to allow the fulfillment of current and the future goals in order to stimulate sustainable development concept and to base on general criteria for the purposes of allowing the extension to complex environmental problems. The environmental legislation is due to focus on integrating the source - effect policy, that is to focus on regulations for issuing permits for pollution, but also the responsibility of companies and citizens.Despite the significant improvements that have occurred especially in reducing air and water pollution, European legislation should be developed further. It is true that there are still many points that require completion and perfection, but the path followed is the best. In the European Union the process of implementation and adoption of new regulations on environmental protection (regulations, directives, decisions,recommendations to combat the causes of degradation of environmental quality and life quality time with them continues.

  9. Vietnam's energy sector: A review of current energy policies and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien Minh Do, E-mail: tmdo@eng.uts.edu.au [Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST), 1 Dai Co Viet Street, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Sharma, Deepak [University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), Broadway, Ultimo, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    Since the introduction of market-oriented economy in 1986, Vietnam has made noticeable socio-economic progress. In this progress, the energy sector has played a vital role. This role is likely to deepen in the years to come as Vietnam strives to achieve even higher levels in economic progress. Such deepening in the role of energy, this paper argues, will heighten concerns about the security of energy supply, and economic, environmental, social and political consequences. In order to address these issues, Vietnam has over the last decade, developed a suite of energy policies. A deeper review of these policies suggests that they are typified by economic-growth orientation, exclusive focus on a single-sector or single issue, and largely neglect the significance of cross-sectoral and cross-thematic issues arising from the interdependencies between energy, economy, and the polity at large. The existing energy policy settings are, therefore, unlikely to be able to provide a satisfactory redress to the challenges noted above. This paper provides an overview of the current energy policies with a view to identify areas where further policy effort is needed in order to facilitate a sustainable development of the Vietnamese energy sector. - Highlights: > Identifying challenges faced by the Vietnamese energy sector. > Analyzing limitations of the existing energy policy settings (policies, strategies and institutions) in addressing these challenges. > Developing recommendations on improving the existing energy policy settings to provide a satisfactory redress for the challenges noted above.

  10. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  11. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua

    1992-09-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  12. Policy development for environmental licensing and biodiversity offsets in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroya, Ana; Barros, Ana Cristina; Kiesecker, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to meet biodiversity goals through application of the mitigation hierarchy have gained wide traction globally with increased development of public policy, lending standards, and corporate practices. With interest in biodiversity offsets increasing in Latin America, we seek to strengthen the basis for policy development through a review of major environmental licensing policy frameworks in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. Here we focused our review on an examination of national level policies to evaluate to which degree current provisions promote positive environmental outcomes. All the surveyed countries have national-level Environmental Impact Assessment laws or regulations that cover the habitats present in their territories. Although most countries enable the use of offsets only Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru explicitly require their implementation. Our review has shown that while advancing quite detailed offset policies, most countries do not seem to have strong requirements regarding impact avoidance. Despite this deficiency most countries have a strong foundation from which to develop policy for biodiversity offsets, but several issues require further guidance, including how best to: (1) ensure conformance with the mitigation hierarchy; (2) identify the most environmentally preferable offsets within a landscape context; (3) determine appropriate mitigation replacement ratios; and (4) ensure appropriate time and effort is given to monitor offset performance.

  13. Policy development for environmental licensing and biodiversity offsets in Latin America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Villarroya

    Full Text Available Attempts to meet biodiversity goals through application of the mitigation hierarchy have gained wide traction globally with increased development of public policy, lending standards, and corporate practices. With interest in biodiversity offsets increasing in Latin America, we seek to strengthen the basis for policy development through a review of major environmental licensing policy frameworks in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. Here we focused our review on an examination of national level policies to evaluate to which degree current provisions promote positive environmental outcomes. All the surveyed countries have national-level Environmental Impact Assessment laws or regulations that cover the habitats present in their territories. Although most countries enable the use of offsets only Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru explicitly require their implementation. Our review has shown that while advancing quite detailed offset policies, most countries do not seem to have strong requirements regarding impact avoidance. Despite this deficiency most countries have a strong foundation from which to develop policy for biodiversity offsets, but several issues require further guidance, including how best to: (1 ensure conformance with the mitigation hierarchy; (2 identify the most environmentally preferable offsets within a landscape context; (3 determine appropriate mitigation replacement ratios; and (4 ensure appropriate time and effort is given to monitor offset performance.

  14. European Regional Populations: Current Trends, Future Pathways, and Policy Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Philip; van der Gaag, Nicole; de Beer, Joop; Heins, Frank

    2012-11-01

    Europe is currently experiencing an ageing population and slowing population growth of both the total and working-age populations. These trends are likely to continue. Even though population ageing will affect all European regions, different regions will be affected in different ways. Even under favorable conditions, 35-40 % of all NUTS2 regions will face a labor force decline. If economic conditions are poor, some regions may continue to grow, but 55-70 % of the regions will see a labor force decline by 10 % or more. In most regions of Eastern Europe, the labor force may decrease by more than 30 %. To keep regions prosperous (maintaining competitiveness) and to avoid worse inequality (maintaining cohesion), policy-makers must find ways to cope with these challenges through new fiscal and social policies, though policies directly affecting demographic and migratory trends may also be needed.

  15. How do new innovation paradigms challenge current innovation policy perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mette Præst; Tanev, Stoyan; Bisgaard, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    multiple actors by managing knowledge sharing processes across entire value networks. The chapter provides a brief description and comparison of these new innovation paradigms and discusses the challenges that these paradigms imply for existing innovation policies. The innovation policy recommendations......Successful firms today are forced to deal with new competitive realities by being globally present, innovatively resourceful and internationally competitive on multiple markets across the world. The new competitive realities challenge firms to open their innovation processes by adopting new...... innovation paradigms such as user-driven innovation, open innovation and value co-creation. The user-driven and open innovation paradigms have already become the subject of extensive research and are currently discussed in terms of their potential implications for policy development. The value co...

  16. Editorial: Sustainable Democracy, Development and Environmental Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Martin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Urbanisation, climate change, footloose economies, multi-culturality and resource constraints pose unprecedented challenges for local governments today. In the developing world the gulf between needs and finance remains acute. Many western countries forced to reduce public spending in the wake of the sovereign debt crisis, are struggling to reconcile the need for efficiency savings with local pressure to maintain service standards and working conditions. This special double issue of the journal features a selection of papers presented at the third Commonwealth Local Government Research Colloquium held in Cardiff on 13-15 March 2011 which explored these and other important contemporary challenges. Hosted by the School of City and Regional Planning and the Centre for Local and Regional Government Research at Cardiff University, the colloquium provided a valuable opportunity for scholars from across the Commonwealth to present research on three key themes: sustainable democracy and governance, sustainable economic development and environmental sustainability.

  17. Bridging Water Resources Policy and Environmental Engineering in the Classroom at Cornell University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, M. T.; Shaw, S. B.; Seifert, S.; Schwarz, T.

    2006-12-01

    Current university undergraduate students in environmental sciences and engineering are the next generation of environmental protection practitioners. Recognizing this, Cornell's Biological and Environmental Engineering department has developed a popular class, Watershed Engineering (BEE 473), specifically designed to bridge the too-common gap between water resources policy and state-of-art science and technology. Weekly homework assignments are to design real-life solutions to actual water resources problems, often with the objective of applying storm water policies to local situations. Where appropriate, usually in conjunction with recent amendments to the Federal Clean Water Act, this course introduces water resource protection tools and concepts developed in the Cornell Soil and Water Lab. Here we present several examples of how we build bridges between university classrooms and the complex world of water resources policy.

  18. Agri‐environmental Policies to Meet Consumer Preferences in Japan: An Economic‐Biophysical Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Uetake

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Promoting environmentally friendly farming products is crucial to meeting consumer demand. Although governments implement policy measures to improve the environmental performance of the agriculture sector, theirimpacts are difficult to assess. This study analyses the performance of agri‐environmental policies in Japan, by using the OECD’s policy impact model and reference level framework. In particular, it identifies the environmental impacts of three simulated agri‐environmental policies based on farms’ characteristics. The results suggest that a policy mix of regulation and an incentive payment would reduce environmental impacts, suggesting that targeted approaches could improve the cost‐effectiveness of agri‐environmental policies.

  19. The Baltic policy of Germany and current international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salikov Aleksey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the Baltic policy of united Germany from the 1990s until today. The authors set out to identify the significance of German-Baltic relations and the role of the Eastern policy in Russian-German relations. The method of dynamic comparison between the political and economic narrative in intergovernmental relations makes it possible to identify distinctive features of Germany’s Baltic policy in the context of current international relations. In particular, it is noted that Germany was most active in the Baltic region in the 1990s, when the country was establishing political, economic, and cultural ties with the new independent states. In the second half of the 1990s, Germany’s foreign policy became less intense. After the accession of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia to the EU and NATO in 2004, certain disagreements started to arise between Germany and the Baltics. It explains the lukewarm relations between them. The Ukraine events brought about a change in Germany’s regional policy. Despite Russia remaining one of the key economic and political counteractors, Germany, being a partner of the Baltics in the EU and NATO, cannot adopt a neutral position in the conflict of interests between the Baltics and Russia.

  20. Indonesian "Adat" Customs as the Backbone of Effective Environmental Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Stephen F.

    "Adat" is a term in Indonesia that defines culture, customs, and traditions to foreigners, but to the people of Indonesia it means basically the rules of the village life. Villages are predominant and overseen by chiefs. Adat's rules are the roots of Islamic religion. Many of Indonesia's environmental policies stem from the teachings of…

  1. 75 FR 13139 - The National Environmental Policy Act Procedures Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... COMMISSION The National Environmental Policy Act Procedures Manual AGENCY: The National Indian Gaming... comments on the Draft NEPA Procedures Manual published in the Federal Register on December 4, 2009 (74 FR... March 4, 2010 (75 FR 3756). ] DATES: The comment period for the Draft NEPA Procedures Manual is...

  2. 75 FR 3756 - The National Environmental Policy Act Procedures Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission The National Environmental Policy Act Procedures Manual AGENCY: National... period for comments on the Draft NEPA Procedures Manual published in the Federal Register on December 4, 2009 (74 FR 63765, 74 FR 63787). DATES: The comment period for the Draft NEPA Procedures Manual...

  3. Environmental Education Policy Processes in the Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    strategies, action plans and other policy processes in southern Africa.This was done .... The evolution of environmental education in southern Africa can be linked to developments both within and ..... As outlined above, the audit revealed that more attention has been paid historically to the ..... PROTECTION_ACT.pdf. Stiles ...

  4. The road to Environmental Policy Integration is paved with obstacles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrhauge, Helene

    2014-01-01

    . The article analyses the co-decision process which led to the adoption of the 2011 Eurovignette Directive, and examines how intra-organizational conflicts in the European Parliament and the Council shaped inter-organizational negotiations and thus the level of environmental policy integration in the adopted...

  5. Curricular Critique of an Environmental Education Policy: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrow, Douglas D.; Fazio, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a curricular critique of an environmental education policy framework called "Acting Today, Shaping Tomorrow" (Ontario Ministry of Education, 2009). Answers to the following two curricular questions: "What should be taught?" and "How it should be taught?" frame the critique. Scrutiny of the latter…

  6. 46 CFR 385.39 - Socio-economic and environmental policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Socio-economic and environmental policies. 385.39... DEVELOPMENT GRANT AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS General Policies § 385.39 Socio-economic and environmental policies. A number of socio-economic and environmental policies of the Federal Government...

  7. Direct payments as an instrument of the environmental policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Sadłowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is the area of human activity that is accompanied by the formation of positive and negative external environmental effects. In order to motivate farmers to conduct production activities in a way that reduces the negative impact of these activities on the environment, the so-called principle of cross compliance has been incorporated into the direct support system. This study characterises the area payments as an instrument of the environmental policy and is a review of the European Commission’s different proposals for the reform of direct payments through the prism of environmental functions of this instrument.

  8. Trade Liberalization and Optimal Environmental Policies in Vertical Related Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Shu Lin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a symmetric two-country model with vertically related markets. In the downstream market, there is one firm in each country selling a homogeneous good, whose production generates pollution, to its home and the foreign markets a la Brander (1981. In the intermediate good market, there is also one upstream firm in each country, supplying the intermediate good only to its own country’s downstream market. The upstream firms can choose either price or quantity to maximize their profits. With this setting, the paper examines the optimal environmental policy and how it is affected by the tariff on the final good. It is found that, under free trade, the optimal final-good output with imperfect intermediate-good market will have the same output level as that with perfect intermediate-good market after imposing the optimal emission tax. The optimal environmental tax is smaller and the optimal environmental policy is less likely to be a green strategy under trade liberalization if the market structure in the intermediate good market is imperfect than perfect competition. On the other hand, the optimal environmental tax is necessarily higher if the upstream firm chooses price than quantity. Moreover, the optimal environmental policy is less likely to be a green strategy under trade liberalization if the upstream firms choose quantity than price to maximize their profits.

  9. Empirically derived guidance for social scientists to influence environmental policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Katrina; Crissman, Charles; De Young, Cassandra; Gooch, Margaret; James, Craig; Jessen, Sabine; Johnson, Dave; Marshall, Paul; Wachenfeld, Dave; Wrigley, Damian

    2017-01-01

    Failure to stem trends of ecological disruption and associated loss of ecosystem services worldwide is partly due to the inadequate integration of the human dimension into environmental decision-making. Decision-makers need knowledge of the human dimension of resource systems and of the social consequences of decision-making if environmental management is to be effective and adaptive. Social scientists have a central role to play, but little guidance exists to help them influence decision-making processes. We distil 348 years of cumulative experience shared by 31 environmental experts across three continents into advice for social scientists seeking to increase their influence in the environmental policy arena. Results focus on the importance of process, engagement, empathy and acumen and reveal the importance of understanding and actively participating in policy processes through co-producing knowledge and building trust. The insights gained during this research might empower a science-driven cultural change in science-policy relations for the routine integration of the human dimension in environmental decision making; ultimately for an improved outlook for earth’s ecosystems and the billions of people that depend on them. PMID:28278238

  10. Multi-basket approaches to climate and environmental policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Katsumasa

    2014-05-01

    Short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) such as methane (CH4) and black carbon (BC) receive increasing attention because emission abatements of most of these substances not only reduce air pollution but also slow down the global warming. Cutting the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), a long-lived gas in contrast, is of primary importance to mitigate the global climate change as well as to stop ocean acidification. To keep abreast of such multiple challenges in a flexible and cost-effective manner, emission caps can be specified in terms of a reference gas (e.g., CO2) and emissions of different components can be converted according to emission metrics. However, under a current one-basket approach (used continuously in the Kyoto Protocol), which allows trading for all the components, any emission metrics may not be scientifically acceptable due to their diverse atmospheric lifetimes among many other reasons. Here we question whether an emerging multi-basket approach, which groups substances based on their atmospheric lifetimes and permits trading for components within each basket, is more robust in guiding us to achieve multiple policy targets and more useful to maintain the balance between SLCP and CO2 abatements with relatively small additional costs. In a wider context a multi-basket approach may simplify the dialogue among stakeholders and underpin a parallel pursuit of multiple climate and environmental challenges that our society faces.

  11. 77 FR 39705 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... Environmental Policy and Technology; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT) is a necessary committee which is in the... environmental policy, technology and management issues. Inquiries may be directed to Mark Joyce, U.S. EPA,...

  12. 75 FR 38810 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... Environmental Policy and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of meeting... teleconference of the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and...

  13. 77 FR 39705 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... Environmental Policy and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Advisory... a public meeting of the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology,...

  14. Guidelines for compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act and the California Environmental Quality Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kielusiak, C.

    1993-02-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) sets forth national policy for the protection of the environment. The NEPA process is intended to help officials of the federal government make decisions that are based on an understanding of environmental consequences, and take actions that protect, restore, and enhance the environment. The California Environmental Quality Act of 1970 (CEQA) is similar to NEPA. The California legislature established CEQA to inform both state and local governmental decision-makers and the public about potential significant environmental effects of proposed activities, to identify ways to avoid or reduce environmental impacts, and to disclose to the public the reasons why a project is approved if significant environmental effects are involved. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), complies with the provisions of both NEPA and CEQA. This document defines the responsibilities and authorities for NEPA/CEQA compliance at LBL.

  15. Guidelines for compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act and the California Environmental Quality Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kielusiak, C.

    1993-02-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) sets forth national policy for the protection of the environment. The NEPA process is intended to help officials of the federal government make decisions that are based on an understanding of environmental consequences, and take actions that protect, restore, and enhance the environment. The California Environmental Quality Act of 1970 (CEQA) is similar to NEPA. The California legislature established CEQA to inform both state and local governmental decision-makers and the public about potential significant environmental effects of proposed activities, to identify ways to avoid or reduce environmental impacts, and to disclose to the public the reasons why a project is approved if significant environmental effects are involved. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), complies with the provisions of both NEPA and CEQA. This document defines the responsibilities and authorities for NEPA/CEQA compliance at LBL.

  16. Connecting reason to power: assessments, learning, and environmental policy integration in Swedish energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Maans

    2005-12-01

    The overall purpose of this thesis is to contribute to understanding what makes a policy-making system better at integrating sustainability concerns into its processes. Policy integration has been put forward as something of a 'holy grail' of public policy in Europe and is even stated in the European Treaty. However, so far progress appears to have been slow and partial. Furthermore, neither analysts nor policy practitioners are in agreement on what policy integration really means. A starting point is to clarify policy integration from a theoretical interpretation of the political principle. The thesis presents a framework for analysing environmental policy integration as a policy-learning process, defined to occur when sectoral actors reframe their understanding of key problems, objectives, and strategies towards sustainable development. This framework combines theoretical perspectives such as policy networks, learning, institutionalism, and knowledge-policy studies. The empirical analysis is concerned with analysing patterns of policy learning and policy integration in Swedish energy policy and policymaking processes, and with tracing these processes and their outcomes in different rounds and stages of policy formation over the last two decades. The analysis is based on a triangulation of: a) qualitative analysis of arguments and reasoning in publicly-available documents; b) characterisation of policy decisions; and c) complementary information from 30 semi-structured interviews with policy actors, carried out between 2002 and 2004. Energy policy in general since the late 1980s has undergone major reframing, from a distinct central planning frame towards an international and market-based understanding of the sector, and towards partial EPI. This has induced important policy shifts primarily in relation to climate policy, but also how the sector is governed in general, moving away from national taxes and subsidies and into marker-based systems and

  17. Voluntary Tools Of The Environmental Oriented Product Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusko, Miroslav

    2015-06-01

    Environmentally oriented product policy is in general determined by the relationships between its aims - subjects - objects - tools. It is based on the integrated approach to the product life cycle, which anticipates an enormous amount of information. It has to solve the questions of the international trade as well as the rules of the International Trade Organization. New forms of preventive environmental strategies and especially Green Marketing are being introduced helping to solve environmental problems and environmental motivation of producers. Many producers face great attention of the public regarding their approach to the environment. Despite the fact that the customers buy products fairly prudently and their behaviour is markedly affected by prices, a particular part of the population prefers the products that do not burden the environment. This brings about a situation, in which the producers within their mutual competition and in relation to customers are enforced to behave responsibly.

  18. Voluntary Tools Of The Environmental Oriented Product Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusko Miroslav

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally oriented product policy is in general determined by the relationships between its aims – subjects – objects - tools. It is based on the integrated approach to the product life cycle, which anticipates an enormous amount of information. It has to solve the questions of the international trade as well as the rules of the International Trade Organization. New forms of preventive environmental strategies and especially Green Marketing are being introduced helping to solve environmental problems and environmental motivation of producers. Many producers face great attention of the public regarding their approach to the environment. Despite the fact that the customers buy products fairly prudently and their behaviour is markedly affected by prices, a particular part of the population prefers the products that do not burden the environment. This brings about a situation, in which the producers within their mutual competition and in relation to customers are enforced to behave responsibly.

  19. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Eschbach, Tara O.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Goodwin, Shannon M.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Rohay, Alan C.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2002-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  20. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Eschbach, Tara O.; Fowler, Richard A.; Goodwin, Shannon M.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast, Ellen L.; Rohay, Alan C.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2001-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  1. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization, Revision 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Burk, Kenneth W.; Cannon, Sandra D.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Reidel, Steve P.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.; Woody, Dave M.

    2003-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  2. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Cannon, Sandra D.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Reidel, Steve P.; Rohay, Alan C.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2004-09-22

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the sixteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the seventeenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety and health, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  3. Market performance and environmental policy. Four tradeable permits schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boom, J.T.; Duizendstraal, A.; De Jong, R.; Koster, J.M.M.; Nentjes, A.; Zhang, Z.X. [Department of Economics and Public Finance of the University of Groningen ECOF, Groningen (Netherlands); Van Buiren, K.; Van Es, G.A.; De Groot, A.W.M.; Velthuijsen, J.W. [Foundation for Economic Research of the University of Amsterdam SEO, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van Duyse, P.; Heijnes, H. [Applied Environmental Economics TME, The Hague (Netherlands); Dijkgraaf, E.; Varkevisser, M. [Research Centre for Economic Policy OCfEB, Erasmus Universiteit, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Wiersma, D.

    1998-08-01

    Six feasible schemes of tradeable permits are presented and the cost savings arising from the application of such schemes instead of conventional policies have been calculated. In this background study four other schemes are discussed. The major reason for their separate presentation is twofold: there was insufficient statistical information available to calculate potential cost savings that are sufficiently reliable and further study is needed to determine the most appropriate design of the schemes. Only after the questions about cost savings and design have been answered it can be established whether indeed introduction of the schemes will improve environmental effectiveness and cost effectiveness of environmental policy. The schemes to be presented in the next sections are tradeable permits for winning sand, for mortar and cement, for noise control on industrial sites, for packaging materials and for heavy metals in waste water and sludge. 13 refs.

  4. Environmental risks and future generations: Criteria for public policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, R.B.

    1992-10-01

    This paper examines alternative normative approaches to the policy challenges posed by long-term environmental problems such as toxic and radioactive waste disposal, stratospheric ozone depletion, and climate change. The paper argues that cost-benefit analysis is limited in its ability to handle the issues of intergenerational equity and uncertainty that are intrinsic to such problems. Also considered is the precautionary principle, which holds that policies should seek to reduce threats to the welfare of future generations if the costs of doing so would not significantly reduce the subjective well-being of existing persons. Although the precautionary principle depends on an explicit value judgement, it yields a policy criterion that is operationally decisive under a wide array of circumstances.

  5. Internalization of agri-environmental policies and the role of institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stobbelaar, D.J.; Groot, J.C.J.; Bishop, C.; Hall, J.; Pretty, J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent investigations have indicated that environmental and conservation policies frequently fail to reach anticipated aims, which raises concern over the cost-effectiveness of governmental policy-related expenditure. The limited effectiveness of policies is often attributed to methodological aspect

  6. Coherence in product-oriented policies and environmental management systems in the car industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla Kornelia; Nielsen, Eskild Holm

    Over the last decade, product-oriented policies as Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) and Integrated Product Policy (IPP) are more and more recognised as a target for both corporate environmental strategy and government environmental policy. These product-oriented policies are distinct from...... the useful life into the post-consumer stage. [2] IPP is a public policy strategy, which seeks to reduce the life cycle environmental impacts of products from the mining of raw materials to production, distribution, use and waste management....

  7. The Control of Environmental Tobacco Smoke: A Policy Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence William Gill

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area.

  8. The control of environmental tobacco smoke: a policy review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNabola, Aonghus

    2009-02-01

    According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area.

  9. Environmental change in refugee-affected areas of the Third World: the role of policy and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, R

    1994-06-01

    This paper reviews the current nature of policy responses to environmental change in refugee assistance programmes. Based on a review of existing documentary material and a survey of UK-based NGOs, it is suggested that although refugee assistance agencies are aware of environmental issues, this is rarely translated into effective policy measures to identify and combat environmental degradation. Various existing methods used to calculate environmental impacts are considered, but a number of pitfalls are identified. It is suggested that little is known about the processes that lead to accelerated environmental change in situations of forced displacement, and that research providing deeper understanding of local environments and resource management systems is required for environmental policies to be effective.

  10. Policies of natural Resources Management and Environmental Economic Advantages - Attractions in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrim Selimaj

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem management is a recent alternative policy proposed by the Kosovo government to address a new generation of environmental issues. All Kosovo agency managements are currently exploring the concept of ecosystem management and their implications. Their activities are focused in the management of land and natural resources, by developing policy guidelines regarding the management of the ecosystem and the efforts undertaken that are only one layer of a larger phenomenon nationwide. Similar activities occur at the state and local levels, as well as within the NGO sector. In this sense, this paper addresses two questions: What is the policy of ecosystem management? Would Ecosystem management remain only a land management policy and resource?

  11. Green Activism. The European Parliament's Environmental Committee promoting a European Environmental Policy in the 1970s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Jan-Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This article challenges the standard assumption in the academic literature on the European Parliament (EP) that the EP only became a more assertive and activist institution after the first direct elections of 1979. Instead, I argue that already in the 1970s the EP was asserting its role...... the new policy, to insert citizens' views into the policy process, thus linking the EC to its constituency, and contributing to the legitimacy of EC policy-making. Clearly, the EP began to assert its role in (environmental) policymaking already well before direct elections, even though it would require...

  12. Environmental Scenarios for the Future Nitrogen Policy in Flanders, Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    stijn M.M. Overloop

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural sector accounts for two thirds of nitrogen losses in Flanders, Belgium. Since 1991 both the government and the farmers have been taking measures to reduce the nitrogen surplus. Initially, the manure policy was aimed at distributing the manure surplus equally across Flanders. At the same time, the growth of livestock was stopped by a strict licensing policy, which required “command and control” measures. In recent years, the policy has switched to the use of individual target commitments by farmers. The Flemish manure policy will be tightened even more as a result of international pressures. An ex ante evaluation of possible policy options was carried out using three different scenarios spread out until 2010 (Business As Usual, Additional Measures, and Sustainable Development. To do this, a sector-economic, regionalized, environmental, comparative static, partial equilibrium, mathematical programming model of the Flemish agriculture was developed. The nitrogen emission into the agricultural soil was calculated by means of a regional soil balance. European targets can only be reached with manure processing, reduced fertilizer usage, and a strong reduction of intensive livestock breeding activities. The atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds will strongly decrease in 2010 if additional measures are taken. This will also result in a strong reduction of nitrous oxide emissions.

  13. 78 FR 44138 - National Environmental Policy Act; Implementing Procedures; Addition of Categorical Exclusion for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Environmental Policy Act; Implementing Procedures; Addition of Categorical... Property Disposal under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). This CATEX amends the United States... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Recently, Congress passed two pieces of legislation that directly authorize...

  14. 76 FR 19309 - Solicitation of Letters of Interest To Participate in National Environmental Policy Act Pilot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... Environmental Policy Act Pilot Project AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice... part 340 to participate in a National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Pilot Project. The NEPA Pilot... plant pest risk of the article. In accordance with The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969...

  15. 36 CFR 800.8 - Coordination With the National Environmental Policy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... National Environmental Policy Act. 800.8 Section 800.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ADVISORY COUNCIL... Coordination With the National Environmental Policy Act. (a) General principles—(1) Early coordination. Federal... steps taken to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Agencies...

  16. 78 FR 39307 - National Environmental Policy Act: Implementing Procedures; Addition to Categorical Exclusions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ...; FXFR13360900000-134-FF09F14000] National Environmental Policy Act: Implementing Procedures; Addition to... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The proposed categorical exclusion...-877-8339. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Under the National Environmental Policy Act (42...

  17. 78 FR 50079 - National Environmental Policy Act: Implementing Procedures; Addition to Categorical Exclusions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Office of the Secretary National Environmental Policy Act: Implementing Procedures; Addition to... proposed categorical exclusion under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for the U.S. Fish and... 12, 2013. Willie R. Taylor, Director, Office of Environmental Policy and Compliance. BILLING...

  18. 77 FR 3935 - National Environmental Policy Act Compliance for Proposed Tower Registrations; Effects of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 1, 17, 22, 24, 25, 27, 80, 87 and 90 National Environmental Policy Act Compliance for... Commission considers categorically excluded from review under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA....'' Forty Most Asked Questions Concerning CEQ's National Environmental Policy Act Regulations, 46 FR...

  19. A linear programming model to optimize diets in environmental policy scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, L E; Wilen, J E; Robinson, P H; Fadel, J G

    2012-03-01

    The objective was to develop a linear programming model to formulate diets for dairy cattle when environmental policies are present and to examine effects of these policies on diet formulation and dairy cattle nitrogen and mineral excretions as well as methane emissions. The model was developed as a minimum cost diet model. Two types of environmental policies were examined: a tax and a constraint on methane emissions. A tax was incorporated to simulate a greenhouse gas emissions tax policy, and prices of carbon credits in the current carbon markets were attributed to the methane production variable. Three independent runs were made, using carbon dioxide equivalent prices of $5, $17, and $250/t. A constraint was incorporated into the model to simulate the second type of environmental policy, reducing methane emissions by predetermined amounts. The linear programming formulation of this second alternative enabled the calculation of marginal costs of reducing methane emissions. Methane emission and manure production by dairy cows were calculated according to published equations, and nitrogen and mineral excretions were calculated by mass conservation laws. Results were compared with respect to the values generated by a base least-cost model. Current prices of the carbon credit market did not appear onerous enough to have a substantive incentive effect in reducing methane emissions and altering diet costs of our hypothetical dairy herd. However, when emissions of methane were assumed to be reduced by 5, 10, and 13.5% from the base model, total diet costs increased by 5, 19.1, and 48.5%, respectively. Either these increased costs would be passed onto the consumer or dairy producers would go out of business. Nitrogen and potassium excretions were increased by 16.5 and 16.7% with a 13.5% reduction in methane emissions from the base model. Imposing methane restrictions would further increase the demand for grains and other human-edible crops, which is not a progressive

  20. The market and environmental effects of alternative biofuel policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabik, Dusan

    This dissertation analyzes market and environmental effects of alternative U.S. and Brazilian biofuel policies. Although we focus on corn- and sugarcane-ethanol, the advanced analytical framework can easily be extended to other biofuels and biofuel feedstocks, such as biodiesel and soybean. The dissertation consists of three chapters. The first chapter develops an analytical framework to assess the market effects of a set of biofuel policies (including subsidies to feedstocks). U.S. corn-ethanol policies are used as an example to study the effects of biofuel policies on corn prices. We determine the 'no policy' ethanol price, analyze the implications for the 'no policy' corn price and resulting 'water' in the ethanol price premium due to the policy, and generalize the surprising interaction effects between mandates and tax credits to include ethanol and corn production subsidies. The effect of an ethanol price premium depends on the value of the ethanol co-product, the value of production subsidies, and how the world ethanol price is determined. U.S. corn-ethanol policies are shown to be a major reason for recent rises in corn prices. The ethanol policy-induced increase in corn prices is estimated to be 33 -- 46.5 percent in the period 2008 -- 2011. The second chapter seeks to answer the question of what caused the significant increase in ethanol, sugar, and sugarcane prices in Brazil in the period 2010/11 to 2011/12. We develop a general economic model of the Brazilian fuel-ethanol-sugar complex. Unlike biofuel mandates and tax exemptions elsewhere, Brazil's fuel-ethanol-sugar markets and fuel policies are unique in that each policy, in this setting, theoretically has an ambiguous impact on the market price of ethanol and hence on sugarcane and sugar prices. Our empirical analysis shows that there are two policies that seemingly help the ethanol industry but do otherwise in reality: a low gasoline tax and a high anhydrous tax exemption result in lower ethanol

  1. Organizational frame of environmental policy convergence of Ukraine with EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlovska Juliia Valeriivna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to elaborate organizational frame of environmental policy convergence of Ukraine with EU. The emphasis was placed on one of the goals of Ukraine-European Union Association Agreement, in particular: “to establish conditions for strengthening economic and trade relations, which will lead to the gradual integration Ukraine in the EU internal market”. It has been revealed that the primary constraints that hinder deepening trade relationships between Ukraine and the EU are factors, which by their nature relate to structural and technological aspects of Ukrainian economy. The results of the analysis. The effectiveness of harmonization process can be tracked through the progress in implementing the priorities agenda EU-Ukraine Association. The data of 2013 evidence that Ukraine is gradually moving towards the implementation of the international conventions. A considerable attention should be paid to the progress in diffusion process, because it greatly contributes to the development and applying innovations. The latter is on the agenda for Ukraine as it can solve both the problems concerning technology and environmental effectiveness. Another fundamental problem of poor ecological condition in Ukraine could be seen in uneven spatial concentration of production. Indeed, the present conditions of sector entities activities create significant anthropogenic environmental change, its degradation and destruction due to a combination of large amounts of industrial and agricultural production in some areas and the same. It should be noted that the influence of public on environmental decision-making is absent. Thus, the Law “On regulation of urban development” doesn't realize compliance with the relevant legal procedures by which public participation would be determined in the decision-making on urban development, that in turn eliminates the provisions of the Aarhus Convention “On Access to

  2. Strategies of Environmental Policy in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Modiga

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for achieving environmental policy reinforce the principle of subsidiary ( delegation ofresponsibilities of Member States, while European Union outlines only the general objectives to be taken intoaccount and try replacing the traditional vertical approach, command and control type, by promoting analternative model for achieving the EU average. One can say that these strategies are a kind of “aids”, whichcomplement standard tools and acting as incentives for the adoption of measures for environmental protectionthat emphasizes the trend towards an approach based on the principle of volunteering. In the early '70s, wasrecognized the need and legitimacy of a common environment. In time, will develop a progressiveenvironmental Community law, which includes over 200 directives and regulations. They concern mainlywater protection, air quality, protection of flora and fauna, noise, waste disposal. Environmental legislationhas a particular characteristic; it takes into account economic aspects.

  3. E-waste: Environmental Problems and Current Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D. Aktsoglou; K. Angelakoglou; G. Gaidajis

    2010-01-01

    ..., are reviewed.Moreover, the current and the future production of e-waste, the potential environmental problems associated with theirdisposal and management practices are discussed whereas the existing e-waste...

  4. E-waste: Environmental Problems and Current Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Aktsoglou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the environmental problems related with the discarded electronic appliances, known as e-waste, are reviewed.Moreover, the current and the future production of e-waste, the potential environmental problems associated with theirdisposal and management practices are discussed whereas the existing e-waste management schemes in Greece and othercountries (Japan, Switzerland are also quoted.

  5. 75 FR 22829 - National Environmental Policy Act; Final Environmental Impact Statement on U.S. Coast Guard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Environmental Policy Act; Final Environmental Impact Statement on U.S. Coast... Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) to implement enhanced environmental protection measures, as necessary, for... potential environmental impacts of specific Coast Guard vessel and aircraft operations on MPS and MPAs...

  6. Rapid policy network mapping: a new method for understanding governance structures for implementation of marine environmental policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, John Michael; Potts, Tavis; O'Higgins, Tim Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the relationships and dependencies in the development and implementation of environmental policy is essential to the effective management of the marine environment. A new method of policy network analysis called 'Rapid Policy Network Mapping' was developed that delivers an insight for both technical and non-technical users into the lifecycle, relationships and dependencies of policy development. The method was applied to the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the Water Framework Directive in the UK. These case studies highlight the environmental policy challenges to protect the UK's marine coastal environment and they identify differences in the styles of policy implementation between the devolved authorities of the UK. Rapid Policy Network Mapping provides an opportunity to create a collaborative policy data environment with a relatively small investment. As a tool for civil society it should assist in their ability to understand and influence policy making and implementation.

  7. CURRENT STATUS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR FOSTERING SOCIAL ENTREPRENEUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Doo Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, problems in current status of social entrepreneurs in Korea were examined and further policy issues for them were suggested as well. For the methodology, the study analyzed the drawbacks and policy implication of fostering social entrepreneurs through Focus Group Interview (FGI on analysis of present condition of incubating social entrepreneur and programs for it. First, it should escape from personnel expense-centered one and convert to ecosystem-centered or division-centered project in the direction of the government for fostering social entrepreneurs, putting emphasis on follow-up management and evaluation. Second, it must suggest a standard model for social entrepreneur promotion project. In other words, the projects with low performance should be reduced and education models appropriate for new circumstances and changes must be adopted through not only programs standardized in divisions, categories and local provinces, but also appointing expert instructors and project evaluation. Third, it’s necessary to propose specific guideline for detailed education operation according to education trainee and objectives of social entrepreneur. Fourth, it is needed to have more various contents development and distribution by strengthening support for specialized foundation, management and case studies related to fostering social entrepreneurs. Finally, it is even more required to spread awareness on social economics relating to programs for fostering social entrepreneur. With the long-term perspective, it is needed to render policy and specialization for fostering Korean-model social entrepreneurs, which is able to raise competent social entrepreneurs suitable for each stage of growth such as sourcing, incubation and launching social entrepreneurs.

  8. Environmental Technology Policy in a Consensus Mode: The Case of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baark, Erik

    1997-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the historical, political and cultural factors which influenced the development of environmentalism and the formulation of policies for environmental technology in Denmark......This paper provides an analysis of the historical, political and cultural factors which influenced the development of environmentalism and the formulation of policies for environmental technology in Denmark...

  9. 75 FR 25240 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... AGENCY National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection... 92463, EPA gives notice of a meeting of the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental...

  10. 77 FR 3475 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... Environmental Policy and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of advisory... notice of a public teleconference of the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental...

  11. Incorporating evolutionary principles into environmental management and policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lankau, Richard; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Harris, David J.

    2011-01-01

    As policymakers and managers work to mitigate the effects of rapid anthropogenic environmental changes, they need to consider organisms’ responses. In light of recent evidence that evolution can be quite rapid, this now includes evolutionary responses. Evolutionary principles have a long history...... in conservation biology, and the necessary next step for the field is to consider ways in which conservation policy makers and managers can proactively manipulate evolutionary processes to achieve their goals. In this review, we aim to illustrate the potential conservation benefits of an increased understanding...... of evolutionary history and prescriptive manipulation of three basic evolutionary factors: selection, variation, and gene flow. For each, we review and propose ways that policy makers and managers can use evolutionary thinking to preserve threatened species, combat pest species, or reduce undesirable evolutionary...

  12. Environmental values and risk: A review of Sierra Club policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, P.P. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Graduate Group in Ecology

    1999-12-01

    Sierra Club values are driven by an overriding environmental ethic. Sierra Club environmental values may be characterized by the concept of 'usufruct' a term favored by United States Founding Father Thomas Jefferson. Usufruct conveys the idea that the environment is ours to use, but not to destroy. Each generation has the obligation to pass on to future generations a world at least as environmentally rich as the one it inherited. It is appropriate to accept risk today in order to preserve the environment for generations yet to come. As viewed through the lens of its formal policies, the Sierra Club is an organization that embraces technology, but insists that technology be evaluated comprehensively, taking full account of both environmental and social externalities. The Club is 'risk averse' with respect to early introduction of technologies seen as likely to have significant negative environmental or social impact. The Club places heavy emphasis on process, which must involve the public meaningfully.

  13. NCBI Reference Sequences: current status, policy and new initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Kim D; Tatusova, Tatiana; Klimke, William; Maglott, Donna R

    2009-01-01

    NCBI's Reference Sequence (RefSeq) database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/RefSeq/) is a curated non-redundant collection of sequences representing genomes, transcripts and proteins. RefSeq records integrate information from multiple sources and represent a current description of the sequence, the gene and sequence features. The database includes over 5300 organisms spanning prokaryotes, eukaryotes and viruses, with records for more than 5.5 x 10(6) proteins (RefSeq release 30). Feature annotation is applied by a combination of curation, collaboration, propagation from other sources and computation. We report here on the recent growth of the database, recent changes to feature annotations and record types for eukaryotic (primarily vertebrate) species and policies regarding species inclusion and genome annotation. In addition, we introduce RefSeqGene, a new initiative to support reporting variation data on a stable genomic coordinate system.

  14. Establishing green roof infrastructure through environmental policy instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Timothy; Fowler, Laurie

    2008-07-01

    Traditional construction practices provide little opportunity for environmental remediation to occur in urban areas. As concerns for environmental improvement in urban areas become more prevalent, innovative practices which create ecosystem services and ecologically functional land cover in cities will be in higher demand. Green roofs are a prime example of one of these practices. The past decade has seen the North American green roof industry rapidly expand through international green roof conferences, demonstration sites, case studies, and scientific research. This study evaluates existing international and North American green roof policies at the federal, municipal, and community levels. Green roof policies fall into a number of general categories, including direct and indirect regulation, direct and indirect financial incentives, and funding of demonstration or research projects. Advantages and disadvantages of each category are discussed. Salient features and a list of prompting standards common to successfully implemented green roof strategies are then distilled from these existing policies. By combining these features with data collected from an experimental green roof site in Athens, Georgia, the planning and regulatory framework for widespread green roof infrastructure can be developed. The authors propose policy instruments be multi-faceted and spatially focused, and also propose the following recommendations: (1) Identification of green roof overlay zones with specifications for green roofs built in these zones. This spatial analysis is important for prioritizing areas of the jurisdiction where green roofs will most efficiently function; (2) Offer financial incentives in the form of density credits and stormwater utility fee credits to help overcome the barriers to entry of the new technology; (3) Construct demonstration projects and institutionalize a commitment greening roofs on publicly-owned buildings as an effective way of establishing an educated

  15. Establishing Green Roof Infrastructure Through Environmental Policy Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Timothy; Fowler, Laurie

    2008-07-01

    Traditional construction practices provide little opportunity for environmental remediation to occur in urban areas. As concerns for environmental improvement in urban areas become more prevalent, innovative practices which create ecosystem services and ecologically functional land cover in cities will be in higher demand. Green roofs are a prime example of one of these practices. The past decade has seen the North American green roof industry rapidly expand through international green roof conferences, demonstration sites, case studies, and scientific research. This study evaluates existing international and North American green roof policies at the federal, municipal, and community levels. Green roof policies fall into a number of general categories, including direct and indirect regulation, direct and indirect financial incentives, and funding of demonstration or research projects. Advantages and disadvantages of each category are discussed. Salient features and a list of prompting standards common to successfully implemented green roof strategies are then distilled from these existing policies. By combining these features with data collected from an experimental green roof site in Athens, Georgia, the planning and regulatory framework for widespread green roof infrastructure can be developed. The authors propose policy instruments be multi-faceted and spatially focused, and also propose the following recommendations: (1) Identification of green roof overlay zones with specifications for green roofs built in these zones. This spatial analysis is important for prioritizing areas of the jurisdiction where green roofs will most efficiently function; (2) Offer financial incentives in the form of density credits and stormwater utility fee credits to help overcome the barriers to entry of the new technology; (3) Construct demonstration projects and institutionalize a commitment greening roofs on publicly-owned buildings as an effective way of establishing an educated

  16. A critical assessment of environmental policy studies - Towards a discursive analysis and critique of the ideology of policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Gabriel Foa Torres

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks, from a critical evaluation of a range of environmental public policy studies, to question their most important theoretical assumptions, in order to propose and put the focus of discourse analysis and ideology critique of policies. Faced with perspectives that emphasize the management function of the state, intends to focus on discursive and ideological conditions that make possible the stabilization and political transformation of those social practices related to the formulation and implementation of environmental policies.

  17. Incorporating evolutionary principles into environmental management and policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lankau, Richard; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Harris, David J.;

    2011-01-01

    As policymakers and managers work to mitigate the effects of rapid anthropogenic environmental changes, they need to consider organisms’ responses. In light of recent evidence that evolution can be quite rapid, this now includes evolutionary responses. Evolutionary principles have a long history...... of evolutionary history and prescriptive manipulation of three basic evolutionary factors: selection, variation, and gene flow. For each, we review and propose ways that policy makers and managers can use evolutionary thinking to preserve threatened species, combat pest species, or reduce undesirable evolutionary...

  18. On the design of incentive mechanisms in environmental policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, K.; Wang, Jianmin (Fakultaet fuer Volkswirtschaftslehre, Mannheim Univ., Mannheim (Germany))

    1993-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to present environmental policy as a simple game in two stages within a principal-agent framework. At the outset the authority adopts a transfer payment rule. Then the firms react by carrying out abatement activities, based on their chosen levels of emission and output. Next the authority measures the emissions (and residual profit of the industry) and revises the level of its instrument. Then the game starts again. It is the authors' purpose to narrow the scope of ad hoc incentive schemes by characterizing families of optimal linear schemes. 2 figs., 2 appendices, 10 refs.

  19. Agri-environmental policy measures in Israel: the potential of using market-oriented instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdur, Liron; Bertke, Elke; Freese, Jan; Marggraf, Rainer

    2011-05-01

    This paper examines the possibilities of developing agri-environmental policy measures in Israel, focusing on market-oriented instruments. A conceptual framework for developing agri-environmental policy measures is presented, first in very broad lines (mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures) and subsequently focusing on economic instruments, and specifically, on market-oriented ones. Two criteria of choice between the measures are suggested: their contribution to improving the effectiveness of the policy; and the feasibility of their implementation. This is the framework used for analyzing agri-environmental measures in Israel. Israel currently implements a mix of mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures to promote the agri-environment. The use of additional economic instruments may improve the effectiveness of the policy. When comparing the effectiveness of various economic measures, we found that the feasibility of implementation of market-oriented instruments is greater, due to the Israeli public's preference for strengthening market orientation in the agricultural sector. Four market-oriented instruments were practiced in a pilot project conducted in an Israeli rural area. We found that in this case study, the institutional feasibility and acceptance by stakeholders were the major parameters influencing the implementation of the market-oriented instruments, whereas the instruments' contribution to enhancing the ecological or economic effectiveness were hardly considered by the stakeholders as arguments in favor of their use.

  20. The environmental and political policies in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, E.P.

    1980-12-01

    Due to the active demographic and industrial growth, the permanent incorporation of new lands to agricultural and cattle industries, the increasing heavy pressure on the renewable natural resources, the demand for new articles and products for human, conford, and the growing needs of water for human, agricultural, industrial and energetic uses, the present situation of Colombia as a developing country points out to the urgent need of a permanent and effective action by the state, that has been delegated to the National Institute of Natural Renewable Resources and the Environment (Instituto Nacional de los Recursos Naturales Renovables y del Ambiente-INDERENA). Accordingly a national environmental policy is being implemented by INDEPENA, based on primary fields of activity such as Environmental Education, a system of environmental information and environmental planning, coupled with the necessary actions for control and protection of natural renewable resources. A dynamic cooperation with the neighbowring Latin American countries would imply a meaningful diminution of possible duplicated efforts that usually are the result of efforts carried on when each country individually attempts to solve problems of a common nature.

  1. 77 FR 61642 - National Environmental Policy Act; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research... Flat Research Range (PFRR), Alaska. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act, as... Implementing the Procedural Provisions of NEPA (40 CFR Parts 1500-1508), and NASA's NEPA policy and...

  2. 78 FR 40196 - National Environmental Policy Act; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research... Flat Research Range (PFRR), Alaska. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act, as... Implementing the Procedural Provisions of NEPA (40 CFR Parts 1500-1508), and NASA's NEPA policy and...

  3. Governmentality in Environmental Education Policy Discourses: A Qualitative Study of Teachers in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketlhoilwe, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    International environmental education policy discourses have influenced policy construction in Botswana and how teachers conduct themselves and teaching in environmental learning. The researcher uses Foucault's notion of governmentality to understand the effects of power/knowledge relations in policy. The analysis is taken further through a…

  4. Governmentality in Environmental Education Policy Discourses: A Qualitative Study of Teachers in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketlhoilwe, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    International environmental education policy discourses have influenced policy construction in Botswana and how teachers conduct themselves and teaching in environmental learning. The researcher uses Foucault's notion of governmentality to understand the effects of power/knowledge relations in policy. The analysis is taken further through a…

  5. The need for a Communicative Approach to improve Environmental Policy integration in urban Land Use Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simeonova, V.; Valk, van der A.J.J.

    2009-01-01

    The debate on sustainable development emphasizes the importance of integrating environmental policy into all policy sectors. It is increasingly recognized that this integration is needed at both the national and the local levels of governance. The Environmental Policy Integration (EPI) principle agr

  6. Integration of freshwater environmental policies and wastewater treatment plant management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas, Lluís; Acuña, Vicenç; Ginebreda, Antoni; Poch, Manel

    2013-02-15

    In the last decade the political awareness of river water quality issues has grown substantially over the world and legislation is accordingly adapting. In the European Union (EU), two different directives regulate separately the characteristics of the discharged water and the chemical status of the receiving freshwater ecosystem. On the one hand, the characteristics of the urban effluents are regulated by the EU Directive 91/271/EEC, which defines limits on different elements set in the form of both static emission limits and minimum percentage load reductions. On the other hand, the characteristics of the receiving freshwater ecosystems are described in the EU Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EEC), which sets minimum 'good' chemical and ecological status in water bodies that should be achieved by 2015, and aims for an ecosystem-based management. With the support of an example, we show that there is a gap in these EU environmental policies leading to non-integrated management, which may result on adverse environmental and economical consequences. We believe that these policies should be updated and tuned to account for an integrated perspective, allowing a more efficient and sustainable management of wastewater treatment plants, maximizing the ecological, economical and social benefits of the system as a whole.

  7. Integrating Environmental Sustainability Considerations into Food and Nutrition Policies: Insights from Australia's National Food Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Ella Megan; Lawrence, Mark Andrew; Woods, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The environmental sustainability (ES) of food systems is a critical challenge for policy makers. This is a highly contested policy area with differing views among stakeholders. The aim of the study was to develop a better understanding of how ES considerations are addressed in Australian food and nutrition policies and the way that consultation processes affect final policy outcomes. A mixed-methods study design combined a detailed chronology of key policy developments (2009-2015), a content analysis of written submissions obtained during the NFP's consultation period (2011-2013) and a frame analysis of the sustainability perspectives - efficiency, demand restraint, and system transformation - in the NFP's Issues, Green, and White Papers. There were 555 written submissions responding to two consultation papers. Stakeholders represented all sectors of Australia's food system including government, non-government organizations, the food supply chain, research and academic institutions, and members of the general public. Around 74% of submissions referred to ES considerations and ~65% supported their inclusion into the final policy. Efficiency frames were most dominant; emphasizing a production-oriented approach that regards the environment as a natural resource base for food production but overlooks consumption and equity concerns. Despite strong support for the inclusion of ES considerations in the NFP, the influence of Australia's socio-political context, powerful, industry-dominated stakeholders, and a reliance on traditional production-oriented perspectives delivered a business-as-usual approach to food policy making. It has since been replaced by an agricultural strategy that provides only cursory attention to ES. Our findings indicate that Australia's political environment is not sufficiently mature for ES considerations to be integrated into food and nutrition policies. We propose reforms to the current consultation process in Australia to better support this

  8. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Joanne P.; Burk, Kenneth W.; Chamness, Mickie A.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Kennedy, Ellen P.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Scott, Michael J.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2007-09-27

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site for the many environmental documents being prepared by DOE contractors concerning the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). No statements regarding significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year’s report is the eighteen revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the nineteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. Two chapters are included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6), numbered to correspond to chapters typically presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology; air quality; geology; hydrology; ecology; cultural, archaeological, and historical resources; socioeconomics; noise; and occupational health and safety. Sources for extensive tabular data related to these topics are provided in the chapter. When possible, subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information, where available, for the 100, 200, 300 and other areas. This division allows the reader to go directly to those sections of particular interest. When specific information on each of these separate areas is not complete or available, the general Hanford Site description should be used. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities. Information in Chapter 6 can be adapted and supplemented with

  9. 76 FR 38399 - Assessing the Current Research, Policy, and Practice Environment in Public Health Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Assessing the Current Research, Policy, and..., and other information helpful to assess the current research, policy, and practice environment in... Control and Prevention (CDC) has worked to integrate genomics into public health research, policy,...

  10. Three essays in transportation energy and environmental policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiamiri, Sara

    technologies instead of a similar-sized conventional gasoline-powered vehicle (CV). The electric vehicle technologies considered are gasoline-powered hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and battery electric vehicles. It is found that the private benefits are positive, but smaller than the expected short-term cost premiums on these technologies, which suggest the need for government support if a large-scale adoption of electric vehicles is desired. Also, it is found that the net present values of the societal benefits that are not internalized by the vehicle purchaser are not likely to exceed $1,700. This estimate accounts for changes in GHG emissions, criteria air pollutants, gasoline consumption and the driver's contribution to congestion. The third essay explores the implications of a large-scale adoption of electric vehicles on transportation finance. While fuel efficiency improvements are desirable with respect to goals for achieving energy security and environmental improvement, it has adverse implications for the current system of transportation finance. Reductions in gasoline consumption relative to the amount of driving that takes place would result in a decline in fuel tax revenues that are needed to fund planning, construction, maintenance, and operation of highways and public transit systems. In this paper the forgone fuel tax revenue that results when an electric vehicle replaces a similar-sized CV is estimated. It is found that under several vehicle electrification scenarios, the combined federal and state trust funds could decline by as much as 5 percent by 2020 and as much as 12.5 percent by 2030. Alternative fee systems that tie more directly to transportation system use rather then to fuel consumption could reconcile energy security, environmental, and transportation finance goals.

  11. Embracing panarchy, building resilience and integrating adaptive management through a rebirth of the National Environmental Policy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Melinda Harm; Garmestani, Ahjond S

    2011-05-01

    Environmental law plays a key role in shaping policy for sustainability of social-ecological systems. In particular, the types of legal instruments, institutions, and the response of law to the inherent variability in social-ecological systems are critical. Sustainability likely must occur via the institutions we have in place, combined with alterations in policy and regulation within the context of these institutions. This ecosystem management arrangement can be characterized as a panarchy, with research on sustainability specific to the scale of interest. In this manuscript we examine an opportunity for integrating these concepts through a regulatory rebirth of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). NEPA currently requires federal agencies to take a "hard look" at the environmental consequences of proposed action. The original intent of NEPA, however, was more substantive and its provisions, while currently equilibrium based, may be reconfigured to embrace new understanding of the dynamics of social-ecological systems.

  12. Analysis of federal and state policies and environmental issues for bioethanol production facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Chandra; Chan Hilton, Amy B

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate incentives and barriers to fuel ethanol production from biomass in the U.S. during the past decade (2000-2010). In particular, we examine the results of policies and economic conditions during this period by way of cellulosic ethanol activity in four selected states with the potential to produce different types of feedstocks (i.e., sugar, starch, and cellulosic crops) for ethanol production (Florida, California, Hawaii, and Iowa). Two of the four states, Iowa and California, currently have commercial ethanol production facilities in operation using corn feedstocks. While several companies have proposed commercial scale facilities in Florida and Hawaii, none are operating to date. Federal and state policies and incentives, potential for feedstock production and conversion to ethanol and associated potential environmental impacts, and environmental regulatory conditions among the states were investigated. Additionally, an analysis of proposed and operational ethanol production facilities provided evidence that a combination of these policies and incentives along with the ability to address environmental issues and regulatory environment and positive economic conditions all impact ethanol production. The 2000-2010 decade saw the rise of the promise of cellulosic ethanol. Federal and state policies were enacted to increase ethanol production. Since the initial push for development, expansion of cellulosic ethanol production has not happened as quickly as predicted. Government and private funding supported the development of ethanol production facilities, which peaked and then declined by the end of the decade. Although there are technical issues that remain to be solved to more efficiently convert cellulosic material to ethanol while reducing environmental impacts, the largest barriers to increasing ethanol production appear to be related to government policies, economics, and logistical issues. The numerous federal and state

  13. 75 FR 885 - 40th Anniversary of the National Environmental Policy Act, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... of the National Environmental Policy Act, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Forty years ago, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was signed into law with overwhelming bipartisan support, ushering in a new era of environmental awareness and citizen participation in...

  14. 76 FR 72218 - National Environmental Policy Act; NASA Routine Payloads on Expendable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; NASA Routine Payloads on Expendable Launch... (FONSI). SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321, et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) Regulations for Implementing the...

  15. 76 FR 52694 - National Environmental Policy Act: Launch of NASA Routine Payloads on Expendable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act: Launch of NASA Routine Payloads on Expendable... availability and request for comments on the draft environmental assessment (``Draft EA'') for launch of NASA routine payloads on expendable launch vehicles. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy...

  16. Environmental and Occupational Interventions for Primary Prevention of Cancer: A Cross-Sectorial Policy Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espina, Carolina; Porta, Miquel; Schüz, Joachim; Aguado, Ildefonso Hernández; Percival, Robert V.; Dora, Carlos; Slevin, Terry; Guzman, Julietta Rodriguez; Meredith, Tim; Landrigan, Philip J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nearly 13 million new cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths occur worldwide each year; 63% of cancer deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. A substantial proportion of all cancers are attributable to carcinogenic exposures in the environment and the workplace. Objective: We aimed to develop an evidence-based global vision and strategy for the primary prevention of environmental and occupational cancer. Methods: We identified relevant studies through PubMed by using combinations of the search terms “environmental,” “occupational,” “exposure,” “cancer,” “primary prevention,” and “interventions.” To supplement the literature review, we convened an international conference titled “Environmental and Occupational Determinants of Cancer: Interventions for Primary Prevention” under the auspices of the World Health Organization, in Asturias, Spain, on 17–18 March 2011. Discussion: Many cancers of environmental and occupational origin could be prevented. Prevention is most effectively achieved through primary prevention policies that reduce or eliminate involuntary exposures to proven and probable carcinogens. Such strategies can be implemented in a straightforward and cost-effective way based on current knowledge, and they have the added benefit of synergistically reducing risks for other noncommunicable diseases by reducing exposures to shared risk factors. Conclusions: Opportunities exist to revitalize comprehensive global cancer control policies by incorporating primary interventions against environmental and occupational carcinogens. PMID:23384642

  17. Policies for second generation biofuels: current status and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egger, Haakan; Greaker, Mads; Potter, Emily

    2011-07-01

    Current state-of-the-art knowledge concludes that green house gas (GHG) emissions must be controlled and reduced within the next 30-40 years. The transport sector contributes almost a fifth of the current global emissions, and its share is likely to increase in the future. The US and a number of European countries have therefore introduced various support schemes for research and development (RandD) of low emission fuels that can potentially replace the current fossil fuels. One such alternative is biofuels. The advantage of biofuels are that it is easy to introduce into the transport sector. On the other hand, recent research papers question whether the supply of feedstock is sufficient, and to what extent biofuels lead to GHG emission reductions. This report reviews the current status of second generation biofuels. Second generation biofuels are made from cellulose, which according to our survey of the literature, is in more abundant supply than the first generation biofuels feedstocks. Furthermore, it seems to have the potential to reduce GHG emissions from the transport sector without leading to devastating land use changes, which recent critique has held against first generation biofuels. Given that governments have decided to support RandD of low emission fuels, we ask the following questions: Should second generation biofuels receive RandD support to the same extent as other low emission fuels like hydrogen? How should support schemes for second generation biofuels be designed? Second generation biofuels can be divided according to the production process into thermo-chemical and bio-chemical. With respect to the thermo-chemical process the potential for cost reductions seems to be low. On the other hand, ethanol made from cellulose using the biochemical conversion process is far from a ripe technology. Expert reports point to several potential technological breakthroughs which may reduce costs substantially. Hence, cellulosic ethanol, should receive direct

  18. Approaches and uncertainties in nutrient budgets; Implications for nutrient management and environmental policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Kros, J.; Vries, de W.

    2003-01-01

    Nutrient budgets of agroecosystems are constructed either (i) to increase the understanding of nutrient cycling, (ii) as performance indicator and awareness raiser in nutrient management and environmental policy, or (iii) as regulating policy instrument to enforce a certain nutrient management

  19. Environmental tipping points significantly affect the cost-benefit assessment of climate policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yongyang; Judd, Kenneth L; Lenton, Timothy M; Lontzek, Thomas S; Narita, Daiju

    2015-04-14

    Most current cost-benefit analyses of climate change policies suggest an optimal global climate policy that is significantly less stringent than the level required to meet the internationally agreed 2 °C target. This is partly because the sum of estimated economic damage of climate change across various sectors, such as energy use and changes in agricultural production, results in only a small economic loss or even a small economic gain in the gross world product under predicted levels of climate change. However, those cost-benefit analyses rarely take account of environmental tipping points leading to abrupt and irreversible impacts on market and nonmarket goods and services, including those provided by the climate and by ecosystems. Here we show that including environmental tipping point impacts in a stochastic dynamic integrated assessment model profoundly alters cost-benefit assessment of global climate policy. The risk of a tipping point, even if it only has nonmarket impacts, could substantially increase the present optimal carbon tax. For example, a risk of only 5% loss in nonmarket goods that occurs with a 5% annual probability at 4 °C increase of the global surface temperature causes an immediate two-thirds increase in optimal carbon tax. If the tipping point also has a 5% impact on market goods, the optimal carbon tax increases by more than a factor of 3. Hence existing cost-benefit assessments of global climate policy may be significantly underestimating the needs for controlling climate change.

  20. THE IMPORTANCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN CSR POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosca Mihai Ioan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The CSR policy of companies occupy a privileged environment through coaching programs to other interests such as employees, suppliers, customers, authorities and various NGOs. This is why we wanted to see what the environment is important for managers on companies in Romania, the company's CSR policy. In the literature the definition of social responsibility and ways to implement this in practice are often encountered. Some authors claim that societal marketing concept has not found its way into the language of business. From here, there were other terms that had a greater impact on the business environment such as social responsibility. Increasing the company's impact on the environment, the pressure exerted by stakeholders, and identifying positive elements of socially responsible approach have been the main stimulus for development of social responsibility. From that a lot of studies on academic and commercial problem. And the present study fit the same line we conducted a research on 50 companies,it was an exploratory research. As respondents were chosen only marketing managers or general managers or even owners compnaie depending, in other words I tried to go directly to company decision makers in developing and building its image. While this one sample is statistically representative of the point of view we have covered with him in all areas of business activities and of all sizes can say that the results provide a clear enough picture of managersmentality in companies in Romania on business activities with the problem of intereactiunii environment Managers of companies in Romania recognize the environmental problems and say they are implicating in various actions to protect the environment. On the declarative level social environment is one of the most important areas being the most nominated as one of the top three areas of social nature that would involve having the greatest opportunity for development in coming years, over 60% of

  1. National Environmental Policy Act Hazards Assessment for the TREAT Alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd D. Christensen; Annette L. Schafer

    2013-11-01

    This document provides an assessment of hazards as required by the National Environmental Policy Act for the alternative of restarting the reactor at the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility by the Resumption of Transient Testing Program. Potential hazards have been identified and screening level calculations have been conducted to provide estimates of unmitigated dose consequences that could be incurred through this alternative. Consequences considered include those related to use of the TREAT Reactor, experiment assembly handling, and combined events involving both the reactor and experiments. In addition, potential safety structures, systems, and components for processes associated with operating TREAT and onsite handling of nuclear fuels and experiments are listed. If this alternative is selected, a safety basis will be prepared in accordance with 10 CFR 830, “Nuclear Safety Management,” Subpart B, “Safety Basis Requirements.”

  2. National Environmental Policy Act Hazards Assessment for the TREAT Alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd D. Christensen; Annette L. Schafer

    2014-02-01

    This document provides an assessment of hazards as required by the National Environmental Policy Act for the alternative of restarting the reactor at the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility by the Resumption of Transient Testing Program. Potential hazards have been identified and screening level calculations have been conducted to provide estimates of unmitigated dose consequences that could be incurred through this alternative. Consequences considered include those related to use of the TREAT Reactor, experiment assembly handling, and combined events involving both the reactor and experiments. In addition, potential safety structures, systems, and components for processes associated with operating TREAT and onsite handling of nuclear fuels and experiments are listed. If this alternative is selected, a safety basis will be prepared in accordance with 10 CFR 830, “Nuclear Safety Management,” Subpart B, “Safety Basis Requirements.”

  3. Bridging the Gap between Environmental Policy Integration and the EU’s Energy Policy: Mapping out the ‘Green Europeanisation’ of Energy Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Solorio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Europeanisation of energy policy has occupied a remote place in the European integration literature to date. However, current developments such as the Energy Policy for Europe launched in 2007 and the Lisbon Treaty Title XXI on Energy have given greater prominence to this policy area within the integration process. Hence, there are several indications that the Europeanisation of energy policy is already taking place, even though the understanding of this process is still weak. And indeed, European studies are just beginning to shed light on this policy area. Against this backdrop, this article examines the EU environmental performance, supported by the Environmental Policy Integration (EPI, as a driver for energy governance during the process of Europeanisation. Its main argument is that EPI is not only a variable for explaining the governance changes at the EU level concerning energy – defined here as ‘green Europeanisation’–, but also a useful instrument for pursuing coherence within the emergent EU energy policy.

  4. Environmental tobacco smoke: health policy and focus on Italian legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldi, G; Fovi De Ruggiero, G; Marsella, L T; De Luca d'Alessandro, E

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide tobacco smoking kills nearly 6 million people each year, including more than 600,000 non-smokers who die from smoke exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, also called secondhand smoke, involuntary smoke, or passive smoke) is the combination of sidestream smoke, the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and mainstream smoke, the smoke exhaled by smokers. People may be exposed to ETS in homes, cars, workplaces, and public places, such as bars, restaurants, and recreational settings. In addition, there is another type of smoke which until now has not been recognized: the so-called thirdhand smoke, that comes from the reaction of mainstream smoke and environmental nitrous acid (HNO2) making carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). The effects of ETS on human health are well-known, passive smoking is harmful to those who breathe the toxins and it is a serious problem for public health. The smoking ban in Italy had reduced ETS pollution, as in the United States and in other countries all over the world. However, the implementation of comprehensive legislation on smoking policy will necessitate other tobacco control measures for its successful fulfillment: increased media awareness, telephone smoking cessation helplines and smoking cessation support services could be an opportunity to ensure awareness, comprehension and support to those who want to quit smoking. The effectiveness of legislative efforts will also depend on successful enforcement of smoking bans and compliance with the legislation. This review summarizes the evidences about the effect of ETS and provides an overview of smoke-free laws and policies.

  5. Shifting currents: Progress, setbacks, and shifts in policy and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Dunning, Charles; Robertson, Dale

    2016-01-01

    clean water future. More than a decade has passed since our first statewide WOW conversation and the report that captured recommendations from its participants: Waters of Wisconsin: The Future of Our Aquatic Ecosystems and Resources. Drawing from a diverse and growing set of stakeholders from across the state, the Wisconsin Academy initiated a new conversation in 2012 (known as WOW II) to assess progress in regard to our 2003 recommendations. We also sought to review the status of waters in Wisconsin today. The result of this renewed conversation is Shifting Currents: Progress, Setbacks, and Shifts in Policy and Practice. The new report assesses progress in brief, and explores in greater depth the continuing and emerging challenges to water quality, supply, and aquatic ecosystems in Wisconsin.In this report, we first review the context and frameworks for public decision-making about water and then examine some of the root causes—or “drivers”—and ecological stressors that underlie many of the symptoms we see in the form of pollution or ecosystem degradation in Wisconsin. This is followed by a summary of current water issues, many of which had been identified in the 2003 report and remain relevant today. We examine progress since 2003 but also setbacks, and discuss issues that we are likely to continue to face in the coming decades, including controlling agricultural runoff, mitigating climate change and grappling with its effects on the state’s waters, protecting groundwater from bacterial contamination and other pollutants, and preventing groundwater depletion. We also attempt to anticipate issues on the horizon. We offer a deeper look at some particular challenges, such as phosphorus pollution and groundwater contamination. We then consider the current decision-making framework and how it is shaping our capacity to respond to water challenges in Wisconsin. Finally, we offer recommendations and identify opportunities to safeguard Wisconsin’s waters in the

  6. Environmental policy discourse and its material objects: Bridging the gap with 'modest realism'

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Discourse theories offer a penetrating approach to environmental policy analysis, as they focus on the interpretive worlds produced in policy actors' utterances and writings, and the argumentative struggles that lead to one view dominating over others in a policy domain. However they fail to theorise the relationships between policy discourse and the material realities that are the objects of policy. This is because their social constructivist epistemology deprives them of criteria for judgin...

  7. Ecological Situation and Environmental Protection Policy in Russian Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Olegovna Tagaeva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present ecological situation and negative influence of ecological factors on public health in the Russian Federation are analysed in this article. Russia is one of the most polluted countries in the world, and the environmental problem is very important here. In spite of some decrease in pollution during the crisis period, nature does not have time to neutralize pollution accumulated before, and as a result, there is an increase in the pollution concentration. In 66 cities (40 million people with excess 10 times and more than permitted maximum concentration level, the morbidity is above the average Russian level of 1.6 — 2 times. The forecast of emission according to the various scenarios of Russian development has been done: a pessimistic scenario with a slowdown in economic growth and an optimistic scenario with the acceleration of economic growth. The optimistic scenario is realized under the hypothesis about the oil prices increase and the real rouble exchange rate strengthening at the end of 2015, the revival of investment processes, the successful policy of import substitution, and the competent using of the instruments of monetary and fiscal policy. The pessimistic scenario is implemented under the assumption of negative economic tendency prolongation of 2014. For the forecast analysis, the dynamic inter-industry model with the ecological block was used. At the optimistic scenario implementation, the additional burden on the natural environment should be expected. The most important result of the research is the estimation of the rates of ecological payments which are necessary for performing the functions stimulating the environmental protection activity. The article presents the findings about the need to improve the institutional ecological structures, the scientific basis of pollution taxes, the introductions of the stimulating tools of the economic nature protection mechanism. The results presented in the article may be used

  8. Risk policies and risk perceptions: a comparative study of environmental health risk policy and perception in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröer, C.; Moerman, G.; Spruijt, P.; van Poll, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the influence that health risk policies have on the citizens’ perceptions of those health risks. Previously, detailed mixed methods research revealed that noise annoyance policies shaped noise perception. This idea is now applied to nine different environmental health risks in si

  9. A current global view of environmental and occupational cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mihi

    2011-07-01

    This review is focused on current information of avoidable environmental pollution and occupational exposure as causes of cancer. Approximately 2% to 8% of all cancers are thought to be due to occupation. In addition, occupational and environmental cancers have their own characteristics, e.g., specific chemicals and cancers, multiple factors, multiple causation and interaction, or latency period. Concerning carcinogens, asbestos/silica/wood dust, soot/polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [benzo(a) pyrene], heavy metals (arsenic, chromium, nickel), aromatic amines (4-aminobiphenyl, benzidine), organic solvents (benzene or vinyl chloride), radiation/radon, or indoor pollutants (formaldehyde, tobacco smoking) are mentioned with their specific cancers, e.g., lung, skin, and bladder cancers, mesothelioma or leukemia, and exposure routes, rubber or pigment manufacturing, textile, painting, insulation, mining, and so on. In addition, nanoparticles, electromagnetic waves, and climate changes are suspected as future carcinogenic sources. Moreover, the aspects of environmental and occupational cancers are quite different between developing and developed countries. The recent follow-up of occupational cancers in Nordic countries shows a good example for developed countries. On the other hand, newly industrializing countries face an increased burden of occupational and environmental cancers. Developing countries are particularly suffering from preventable cancers in mining, agriculture, or industries without proper implication of safety regulations. Therefore, industrialized countries are expected to educate and provide support for developing countries. In addition, citizens can encounter new environmental and occupational carcinogen nominators such as nanomaterials, electromagnetic wave, and climate exchanges. As their carcinogenicity or involvement in carcinogenesis is not clearly unknown, proper consideration for them should be taken into account. For these purposes, new

  10. Stimulating environmental management capability deployment: towards a differentiated environmental policy. The case of the Dutch food and drink industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkamp, D.J.; Bremmers, H.J.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of the institutional and network context on the adoption of environmental management capabilities. The aim is to gain insight into the managerial drivers for environmental pro-activeness and learn lessons for environmental policy renewal. A longitudinal empirica

  11. What's Yours Is Mine: An Investigation of Current Copyright Policies of Education Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Katrina A.

    2009-01-01

    This research investigated the current copyright policies of 21 education journals published by academic societies, universities and university presses, and commercial publishers. For the sample I chose only journals with a copyright policy on the journal or publisher web site, and I then analyzed the content of the policies in order to answer…

  12. The Effects of North America Free Trade Agreement on Mexican Environmental Policy (1994-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningu J.   Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study was to analyze the implementation of the environmental policy and the way Mexico has integrated the environmental aspects into a North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA. We are aware of the fact that many environmental costs do not necessarily reflect the environmental damage. Environmental costs are often defined by determining either the willingness of the users to pay for the damages or for admittance of claims for damage. Since everyone has the right to a clean and thriving natural environment it is the policy maker who determines the basis of admittance of the most correct means to determine environmental costs in order to reduce the damages. Methodologically, we analyzed the existence and implementation of environmental policy. Instead of looking at the tradeoff between trade related incentives and environmental considerations, we analyzed how trade-offs changes under free trade effects the policy issues. When compared the countries environmental policy and the NAFTA stipulations we found that Mexico has a well-defined environmental policy but less integrated in the free trade agreement. The decision makers have increased the concessions of consumption of fixed capital as a means to increase gains from trade. This has lead to increased environmental damage, natural resource depletion and environmental costs.

  13. Applying gene flow science to environmental policy needs: a boundary work perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Caroline E; Alexander, Laurie C

    2016-08-01

    One application of gene flow science is the policy arena. In this article, we describe two examples in which the topic of gene flow has entered into the U.S. national environmental policymaking process: regulation of genetically engineered crops and clarification of the jurisdictional scope of the Clean Water Act. We summarize both current scientific understanding and the legal context within which gene flow science has relevance. We also discuss the process by which scientific knowledge has been synthesized and communicated to decision-makers in these two contexts utilizing the concept of 'boundary work'. Boundary organizations, the work they engage in to bridge the worlds of science, policy, and practice, and the boundary objects they produce to translate scientific knowledge existed in both examples. However, the specific activities and attributes of the objects produced varied based on the needs of the decision-makers. We close with suggestions for how scientists can contribute to or engage in boundary work with policymakers.

  14. ON THE CURRENT RMB EXCHANGE RATE REGIME AFFECTING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MONETARY POLICY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄燕君

    2001-01-01

    The current exchange rate regime of China is just like the US dollar-pegged exchange rate regime, which weakens the effectiveness of monetary policy but increases the effectiveness of fiscal policy. Since the scope of implementing the fiscal policy is quite narrow, it is necessary to promote the effectiveness of monetary policy by enlarging the elasticity of the RMB exchange rate regime so as to stimulate the rapid development of the Chinese economy effectively.

  15. Spatial analysis of agri-environmental policy uptake and expenditure in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Anastasia L; Rounsevell, Mark D A; Wilson, Ronald M; Haggett, Claire

    2014-01-15

    Agri-environment is one of the most widely supported rural development policy measures in Scotland in terms of number of participants and expenditure. It comprises 69 management options and sub-options that are delivered primarily through the competitive 'Rural Priorities scheme'. Understanding the spatial determinants of uptake and expenditure would assist policy-makers in guiding future policy targeting efforts for the rural environment. This study is unique in examining the spatial dependency and determinants of Scotland's agri-environmental measures and categorised options uptake and payments at the parish level. Spatial econometrics is applied to test the influence of 40 explanatory variables on farming characteristics, land capability, designated sites, accessibility and population. Results identified spatial dependency for each of the dependent variables, which supported the use of spatially-explicit models. The goodness of fit of the spatial models was better than for the aspatial regression models. There was also notable improvement in the models for participation compared with the models for expenditure. Furthermore a range of expected explanatory variables were found to be significant and varied according to the dependent variable used. The majority of models for both payment and uptake showed a significant positive relationship with SSSI (Sites of Special Scientific Interest), which are designated sites prioritised in Scottish policy. These results indicate that environmental targeting efforts by the government for AEP uptake in designated sites can be effective. However habitats outside of SSSI, termed here the 'wider countryside' may not be sufficiently competitive to receive funding in the current policy system.

  16. Elements of Sustainable Development. Contents and backgrounds of policy scenario III in the Dutch National Environmental Policy Plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas RJM

    1991-01-01

    The report "Concern for Tomorrow - a National Environmental survey 1985-2010" (RIVM, 1989) lead to the conclusion that traditional environmental policy measures were insulfficient to combine further growth of production and consumption with the realisation of a 70-90% reduction goal, which

  17. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON THE ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calburean Raluca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental policy has become an object for description and analysis. A global environmental mechanism intents to promote collective action at the international scale and to build an integrated environmental policymaking and management framework concerning the tasks of a shared global ecosystem. Governments use a number of different types of environmental policy instruments to implement their environmental policies: legislative, technical and economic-financial instruments. The encounter is to combine the environmental protection with continuing economic growth in an over the long term sustainable way. This paper tries to underline that there is an under appreciation of the adaptability of social structures even within economics of environmental policy, to the extent that it is necessary to fully acknowledge and highlight the inborn trade-off between economy and environment.

  18. Importance of strengthening of the democratic and political capacity in environmental policy of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadić Darko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental policy is one of the new policies in the corpus of public policies in Serbia. Although the beginning of environmental policy in Serbia, or organized directing of society towards the environment, can be noticed even at the beginning of the nineties, the real development and intensification of this policy occurs only in the last five years. The slowness of the acceptance of the political idea that society and the state must change their attitude towards the environment is one of the causes of inefficiency of environmental policy in Serbia. This is also supported by the fact that in the process of conception and implementation of environmental policy in Serbia an essential element is missing that is reflected in the lack of sufficient democratic and political capacity. Environmental policy in Serbia is still defined and viewed as a strictly national policy, as a right and obligation of public authorities to protect the environment, while completely neglecting the role of other social institutions and especially the citizens. The lack of democracy in decision-making on environmental image of Serbia is also visible in the non-use of different models of direct democracy, and lack of objective and timely information of citizens about environmental problems in the country. In that way, the combination of impairment of democracy in decision-making, lack of information, as well as slowness of solving environmental problems and so-called "black spots" in Serbia leads to the conclusion that the environmental policy of the Republic of Serbia, led by the state authorities, shows signs of a specific "eco-monopolism" that is inappropriate in the democratic spirit of environmental policy.

  19. Dynamics in National Agri-environmental Policy implementation under Changing EU Policy Priorities: does one size fit all?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Jens Peter; Frederiksen, Pia; Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard

    2016-01-01

    directiveobjectives nationally in the future. In this paper, we first investigate the dynamics in the implementationof national Agri-Environmental Schemes (AES) through changes in (i) AES policy objectives over time,(ii) administrative implementation structures, and (iii) administrative policy decision structures...... in theNetherlands, Denmark, Greece, Austria and Romania. Second, we examine the extent to which variousfactors have influenced the development of national policies over time. The study identifies developmentbased on the theory of ‘process of institutional change’, i.e. we qualitatively estimate the costs...... and trans-formation, which are characteristic of the national responses to changing AEP at the EU level. We discussAES dynamics; whether policy content or structures should be in focus for future policy design and theimplications of these findings for the future role of AEP in fulfilling environmental...

  20. 77 FR 9964 - Availability of the Reclamation National Environmental Policy Act Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Availability of the Reclamation National Environmental Policy Act Handbook AGENCY... announcing the availability of its updated National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Handbook. This handbook... of authority. Reclamation is announcing the availability of its NEPA Handbook to assure transparency...

  1. The Capacity to Integrate and Deal with Environmental Issues in Local Transport Policy and Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    2002-01-01

    The article identifies and discuss the capacity to integrate and deal with environmental issues in local transport policy-making and planning processes.......The article identifies and discuss the capacity to integrate and deal with environmental issues in local transport policy-making and planning processes....

  2. The Capacity to Integrate and Deal with Environmental Issues in Local Transport Policy and Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    2002-01-01

    The article identifies and discuss the capacity to integrate and deal with environmental issues in local transport policy-making and planning processes.......The article identifies and discuss the capacity to integrate and deal with environmental issues in local transport policy-making and planning processes....

  3. 15 CFR 930.37 - Consistency determinations and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consistency determinations and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requirements. 930.37 Section 930.37 Commerce and Foreign Trade... National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requirements. A Federal agency may use its NEPA documents as...

  4. Plain Language in Environmental Policy Documents: An Assessment of Reader Comprehension and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Natasha; McDavid, Justin; Derthick, Katie; Dowell, Randy; Spyridakis, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Several government agencies are seeking quality improvement in environmental policy documents by asking for the implementation of Plain Language (PL) guidelines. Our mixed-methods research examines whether the application of certain PL guidelines affects the comprehension and perceptions of readers of environmental policy documents. Results show…

  5. Two effective causal paths that explain the adoption of US state environmental justice policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Yushim; Verweij, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Over two decades have passed since the federal policy on environmental justice (EO 12898) was issued. However, empirical evidence indicates that injustice persists and that US states vary in their adoption of the terms of the environmental justice (EJ) policy. Moreover, studies of the explanations

  6. 42 CFR 137.287 - What is the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA... INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.287 What is the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)? The NEPA is a procedural law...

  7. Poliomyelitis in the United States: A Historical Perspective and Current Vaccination Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farizo, Karen M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines poliomyelitis in the United States by reviewing clinical manifestations and outcomes, history, recent epidemiologic characteristics, characteristics of currently available vaccines, controversies surrounding vaccination policy, current poliovirus vaccination recommendations, and prospects for worldwide eradication. Poliomyelitis remains…

  8. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. (ed.)

    1988-09-01

    This document describes the Hanford Site environment (Chapter 4) and contains data in Chapter 5 and 6 which will guide users in the preparation of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)-related documents. Many NEPA compliance documents have been prepared and are being prepared by site contractors for the US Department of Energy, and examination of these documents reveals inconsistencies in the amount of detail presented and the method of presentation. Thus, it seemed necessary to prepare a consistent description of the Hanford environment to be used in preparing Chapter 4 of environmental impact statements and other site-related NEPA documentation. The material in Chapter 5 is a guide to the models used, including critical assumptions incorporated in these models, in previous Hanford NEPA documents. The users will have to select those models appropriate for the proposed action. Chapter 6 is essentially a definitive NEPA Chapter 6, which describes the applicable laws, regulations, and DOE and state orders. In this document, a complete description of the environment is presented in Chapter 4 without excessive tabular data. For these data, sources are provided. Most subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information where it is available on the 100, 200, 300, and other Areas. This division will allow a person requiring information to go immediately to those sections of particular interest. However, site-specific information on each of these separate areas is not always complete or available. In this case, the general Hanford Site description should be used. 131 refs., 19 figs., 32 tabs.

  9. Artificial Neural Networks in Policy Research: A Current Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelfel, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    Suggests that artificial neural networks (ANNs) exhibit properties that promise usefulness for policy researchers. Notes that ANNs have found extensive use in areas once reserved for multivariate statistical programs such as regression and multiple classification analysis and are developing an extensive community of advocates for processing text…

  10. Artificial Neural Networks in Policy Research: A Current Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelfel, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    Suggests that artificial neural networks (ANNs) exhibit properties that promise usefulness for policy researchers. Notes that ANNs have found extensive use in areas once reserved for multivariate statistical programs such as regression and multiple classification analysis and are developing an extensive community of advocates for processing text…

  11. Socio-environmental policy of Brazilian electric sector: effects of the environmental legislation; Politica socio-ambiental do setor eletrico brasileiro: efeitos da legislacao ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, A.C.; Menezes, C.F.S. [Departamento Nacional de Producao Mineral (DNPM), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Projeto RADAMBRASIL

    1993-12-31

    This work discusses the socio-environmental policy of Brazilian electric sector. Implications of environmental legal aspects on the electric sector are also discussed. The main problems concerning the implementation of the socio-environment policy are presented 3 refs.

  12. Future agenda for environmental policy in the Netherlands; Toekomstagenda Milieu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-15

    An overview is given of the planning of the Dutch government for a goal-oriented and secure and targeted environmental policy. [Dutch] Een overzicht wordt gegeven van de agenda van de Nederlandse regering voor een doelgerichte en toekomstvaste aanpak van het milieubeleid. Hoofdstuk 2 (Toekomstvast Milieubeleid) van deze agenda heeft een strategisch en agenderend karakter en er wordt in beschreven hoe de aanpak van het milieubeleid zal worden vernieuwd en aangepast aan nieuwe inzichten en veranderde omstandigheden. Het agenderende karakter is omdat het kabinet het van belang acht met maatschappelijke partners te overleggen, in andere gevallen omdat voorstellen nog moeten worden uitgewerkt. Hoofdstuk 3 (Beleidsprogramma: toekomstvast) beschrijft voor de belangrijkste beleidsterreinen de maatregelen die het kabinet neemt of gaat voorbereiden om het beleid beter op de toekomst te richten, en besteedt apart aandacht aan de maatregelen die het kabinet voorstelt om de efficientie van het beleid te verbeteren. Hoofdstuk 4 (Doelgericht milieubeleid) beschrijft kort en bondig de aanvullende maatregelen die nodig zijn om de afgesproken doelen van het milieubeleid te halen (met als referentie de Milieubalans 2005)

  13. U.S. nanotechnology policy and the decay of environmental law, 1980--2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Jeffrey D.

    2009-11-01

    Environmental law's authority to protect humans and the environment from pollution and resource exploitation began to deteriorate in the early 1980s. The dissertation is a modest attempt to answer the question, "What caused the gradual erosion in environmental law's normative authority?" It argues that the emergence of a neoliberal, market-centered ideology redefined the relationship between economic and environmental policies, causing environmental law's transformation into an instrument of economic discourse. This ethical transformation weakened environmental law's authority to protect humans and the environment from risks posed by unbridled economic growth policies. It also sparked the rise of an ideology to counter neoliberalism's power over environmental policy: sustainable development or "sustainability." Sustainable development reaffirms environmental law's normative authority and relies upon deliberative democratic principles similar to those that drove the enactment of environmental legislation during the 1960s and 1970s. The dissertation analyzes environmental law's transformation through two complementary case studies. First, it shows how the expansion of regulatory agencies' legislative power has combined with cost-benefit analysis mandates to undermine the goals of environmental law and limit democratic debate about environmental policy. Second, it analyzes the genesis and development of nanotechnology policy in the United States to show how neoliberalism's economic logic subtly erodes environmental law's normative authority. These case studies illuminate pragmatic differences in substance and process between neoliberalism and sustainable development. They also show that the relative balance of institutional authority over risk-related information determines the effectiveness and durability of legislative mandates intended to protect the environment.

  14. An audit of a diverse community for safe routes to age in place: environmental policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Adriana; Garces, Anamarie; Hunter, Rebecca H; Marquez, David X

    2015-03-01

    Physical and cognitive limitations often accompany aging, increasing the importance of a safe and supportive environment to help older adults maintain mobility. Neighborhood design and maintenance must be evaluated to promote physical activity, mobility, and safety. Audit tools, geographic information system data, and resident interviews are used for this purpose, but often fail to provide information that can be translated to practice. The current project is part of a larger Miami-Dade Age-Friendly Initiative to create a metropolitan area that fosters a healthy environment for diverse adults of all ages and abilities. Safe Routes uses a toolkit based on the 5-E model providing practical resources to guide stakeholders in meeting the needs of the community. Findings include the Centers for Disease Control Healthy Aging Research Network Audit Tool assessment for environmental walkability factors. Results from street segment audits along with input from residents can be used to inform sound environmental policies.

  15. Discerning environmental factors affecting current tree growth in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cienciala, Emil; Russ, Radek; Šantrůčková, Hana; Altman, Jan; Kopáček, Jiří; Hůnová, Iva; Štěpánek, Petr; Oulehle, Filip; Tumajer, Jan; Ståhl, Göran

    2016-12-15

    We examined the effect of individual environmental factors on the current spruce tree growth assessed from a repeated country-level statistical landscape (incl. forest) survey in the Czech Republic. An extensive set of variables related to tree size, competition, site characteristics including soil texture, chemistry, N deposition and climate was tested within a random-effect model to explain growth in the conditions of dominantly managed forest ecosystems. The current spruce basal area increment was assessed from two consecutive landscape surveys conducted in 2008/2009 and six years later in 2014/2015. Tree size, age and competition within forest stands were found to be the dominant explanatory variables, whereas the expression of site characteristics, environmental and climatic drives was weaker. The significant site variables affecting growth included soil C/N ratio and soil exchangeable acidity (pH KCl; positive response) reflecting soil chemistry, long-term N-deposition (averaged since 1975) in combination with soil texture (clay content) and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), a drought index expressing moisture conditions. Sensitivity of growth to N-deposition was positive, although weak. SPI was positively related to and significant in explaining tree growth when expressed for the growth season. Except SPI, no significant relation of growth was determined to altitude-related variables (temperature, growth season length). We identified the current spruce growth optimum at elevations about 800ma.s.l. or higher in the conditions of the country. This suggests that at lower elevations, limitation by a more pronounced water deficit dominates, whereas direct temperature limitation may concern the less frequent higher elevations. The mixed linear model of spruce tree growth explained 55 and 65% of the variability with fixed and random effects included, respectively, and provided new insights on the current spruce tree growth and factors affecting it within the

  16. The current status of environmental health research in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowland, Angela; Cook, Angus; Heyworth, Jane

    2012-01-01

    At present, the extent of environmental health research in Australia is unclear and there are no recent overarching reviews of national publications on the subject. This study investigates the current status of environmental health research in Australia using a bibliometric analysis. Three databases (Medline, Web of Science, and AUSTHealth) were used to access original, peer-reviewed journal articles with Australian data published between 1 January 2001 and 11 June 2010. A total of 337 articles from 174 different journal titles were used in the analysis and were classified according to 15 pre-determined environmental health areas. The highest number of articles related to water health and resources (66 articles), exposure to hazardous chemicals (57 articles), and air pollution including indoor air (58 articles). These areas made up 54% of the total publication output over the past 10 years. The amount of environmental health research published in Australia over the past 10 years, and the topics explored in these studies, is comparable to that of other countries of similar socio-economic status.

  17. MONETARY POLICY UNDER THE IMPACT OF THE CURRENT GLOBAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zina Marcu (Cioran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the financial crisis draws more and more the specialists’ attention. The monetary policy has a decisive role in monitoring and reducing the inflationary phenomenon as much as possible, since it can become a real danger for an economy during a period of crisis. Inflation is a negative thing that affects the economy. It discourages the investments and the economic growth. The aim of this paper is to find the Central Bank’s economic instruments and levers that can contribute to price stability in the economy. It was found that the elaboration of a measure of monetary policy with a restrictive feature can contribute to price stability on long term, but we should take into account the macroeconomic context in which it is applied.

  18. Environmental policy, fuel prices and the switching to natural gas in Santiago, Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coria, Jessica [University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Universidad Diego Portales, Santiago (Chile)

    2009-09-15

    In this study I analyzed the role of environmental policies and energy cost savings on the pattern of switching to natural gas by stationary sources in Chile. According to the data most of the switching was induced by the lower cost of natural gas, although environmental policies played a small role and showed that sources were more sensitive to the cost of energy than to the environmental regulation. (author)

  19. Comparative policy analysis for alcohol and drugs: Current state of the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Alison; Livingston, Michael; Chalmers, Jenny; Berends, Lynda; Reuter, Peter

    2016-05-01

    A central policy research question concerns the extent to which specific policies produce certain effects - and cross-national (or between state/province) comparisons appear to be an ideal way to answer such a question. This paper explores the current state of comparative policy analysis (CPA) with respect to alcohol and drugs policies. We created a database of journal articles published between 2010 and 2014 as the body of CPA work for analysis. We used this database of 57 articles to clarify, extract and analyse the ways in which CPA has been defined. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the CPA methods employed, the policy areas that have been studied, and differences between alcohol CPA and drug CPA are explored. There is a lack of clear definition as to what counts as a CPA. The two criteria for a CPA (explicit study of a policy, and comparison across two or more geographic locations), exclude descriptive epidemiology and single state comparisons. With the strict definition, most CPAs were with reference to alcohol (42%), although the most common policy to be analysed was medical cannabis (23%). The vast majority of papers undertook quantitative data analysis, with a variety of advanced statistical methods. We identified five approaches to the policy specification: classification or categorical coding of policy as present or absent; the use of an index; implied policy differences; described policy difference and data-driven policy coding. Each of these has limitations, but perhaps the most common limitation was the inability for the method to account for the differences between policy-as-stated versus policy-as-implemented. There is significant diversity in CPA methods for analysis of alcohol and drugs policy, and some substantial challenges with the currently employed methods. The absence of clear boundaries to a definition of what counts as a 'comparative policy analysis' may account for the methodological plurality but also appears to stand in the way

  20. POLICY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH USING SIMULATION TO ASSESS ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchitel, Kirsten; Tanana, Heather

    2014-11-01

    This report examines the relationship between simulation-based science and judicial assessments of simulations or models supporting evaluations of environmental harms or risks, considering both how it exists currently and how it might be shaped in the future. This report considers the legal standards relevant to judicial assessments of simulation-based science and provides examples of the judicial application of those legal standards. Next, this report discusses the factors that inform whether there is a correlation between the sophistication of a challenged simulation and judicial support for that simulation. Finally, this report examines legal analysis of the broader issues that must be addressed for simulation-based science to be better understood and utilized in the context of judicial challenge and evaluation. !

  1. ANSTO`s radioactive waste management policy. Preliminary environmental review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levins, D.M.; Airey, P.; Breadner, B.; Bull, P.; Camilleri, A.; Dimitrovski, L.; Gorman, T.; Harries, J.; Innes, R.; Jarquin, E.; Jay, G.; Ridal, A.; Smith, A.

    1996-05-01

    For over forty years, radioactive wastes have been generated by ANSTO (and its predecessor, the AAEC) from the operation of nuclear facilities, the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial use, and from various research activities. the quantities and activities of radioactive waste currently at Lucas Heights are very small compared to many other nuclear facilities overseas, especially those in countries with nuclear power program. Nevertheless, in the absence of a repository for nuclear wastes in Australia and guidelines for waste conditioning, the waste inventory has been growing steadily. This report reviews the status of radioactive waste management at ANSTO, including spent fuel management, treatment of effluents and environmental monitoring. It gives details of: relevant legislative, regulatory and related requirements; sources and types of radioactive waste generated at ANSTO; waste quantities and activities (both cumulative and annual arisings); existing practices and procedures for waste management and environmental monitoring; recommended broad strategies for dealing with radioactive waste management issues. Detailed proposals on how the recommendations should be implemented is the subject of a companion internal document, the Radioactive Waste Management Action Plan 1996-2000 which provides details of the tasks to be undertaken, milestones and resource requirements. 44 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs.

  2. Environmental potentials of policy instruments to mitigate nutrient emissions in Chinese livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaohui; Liu, Yi; Bluemling, Bettina; Mol, Arthur P J; Chen, Jining

    2015-01-01

    To minimize negative environmental impact of livestock production, policy-makers face a challenge to design and implement more effective policy instruments for livestock farmers at different scales. This research builds an assessment framework on the basis of an agent-based model, named ANEM, to explore nutrient mitigation potentials of five policy instruments, using pig production in Zhongjiang county, southwest China, as the empirical filling. The effects of different policy scenarios are simulated and compared using four indicators and differentiating between small, medium and large scale pig farms. Technology standards, biogas subsidies and information provisioning prove to be the most effective policies, while pollution fees and manure markets fail to environmentally improve manure management in pig livestock farming. Medium-scale farms are the more relevant scale category for a more environmentally sound development of Chinese livestock production. A number of policy recommendations are formulated as conclusion, as well as some limitations and prospects of the simulations are discussed.

  3. Policy, systems, and environmental approaches for obesity prevention: a framework to inform local and state action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyn, Rodney; Aytur, Semra; Davis, Tobey A; Eyler, Amy A; Evenson, Kelly R; Chriqui, Jamie F; Cradock, Angie L; Goins, Karin Valentine; Litt, Jill; Brownson, Ross C

    2013-01-01

    The public health literature has not fully explored the complexities of the policy process as they relate to public health practice and obesity prevention. We conducted a review of the literature across the policy science and public health fields, distilled key theories of policy making, and developed a framework to inform policy, systems, and environmental change efforts on obesity prevention. Beginning with a conceptual description, we focus on understanding three domains of the policy process: the problem domain, the policy domain, and the political domain. We identify key activities in the policy process including the following: (a) assessing the social and political environment; (b) engaging, educating and collaborating with key individuals and groups; (c) identifying and framing the problem; (d) utilizing available evidence; (e) identifying policy solutions; and (f) building public support and political will. The article provides policy change resources and case studies to guide and support local and state efforts around obesity prevention.

  4. 77 FR 36177 - National Environmental Policy Act Compliance for Proposed Tower Registrations; Effects of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 1, 17, 22, 24, 25, 27, 80, 87, and 90 National Environmental Policy Act Compliance... on the environmental effects of a proposed structure that requires registration; determining if the... application while the ASR application is going through the new environmental notice process as required by...

  5. 78 FR 39283 - Forum on Environmental Measurements Announcement of Competency Policy for Assistance Agreements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... [Federal Register Volume 78, Number 126 (Monday, July 1, 2013)] [Notices] [Pages 39283-39284] [FR Doc No: 2013-15753] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9829-9] Forum on Environmental Measurements... Protection Agency's Forum on Environmental Measurements (FEM) is implementing a policy requiring...

  6. Parameter uncertainty in CGE Modeling of the environmental impacts of economic policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abler, D.G.; Shortle, J.S. [Agricultural Economics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Rodriguez, A.G. [University of Costa Rica, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    1999-07-01

    This study explores the role of parameter uncertainty in Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) modeling of the environmental impacts of macroeconomic and sectoral policies, using Costa Rica as a case for study. A CGE model is constructed which includes eight environmental indicators covering deforestation, pesticides, overfishing, hazardous wastes, inorganic wastes, organic wastes, greenhouse gases, and air pollution. The parameters are treated as random variables drawn from prespecified distributions. Evaluation of each policy option consists of a Monte Carlo experiment. The impacts of the policy options on the environmental indicators are relatively robust to different parameter values, in spite of the wide range of parameter values employed. 33 refs.

  7. 228 Empirical Analysis of Fiscal Policy Shocks and Current Account ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2013-01-28

    Jan 28, 2013 ... extension by Obstfeld and Rogoff, (1995) in open economy macroeconomics .... worsens the U.S. current account deficit by 47 cents by using Romer and ..... crowding-out hypothesis in Pakistan's manufacturing industry. The.

  8. Environmental life cycle assessment of different domestic wastewater streams: policy effectiveness in a tropical urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Bernard J H; Zhou, Jin; Giannis, Apostolos; Chang, Victor W-C; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2014-07-01

    To enhance local water security, the Singapore government promotes two water conservation policies: the use of eco-friendly toilets to reduce yellow water (YW) disposal and the installation of water efficient devices to minimize gray water (GW) discharge. The proposed water conservation policies have different impacts on the environmental performance of local wastewater management. The main purpose of this study is to examine and compare the impacts of different domestic wastewater streams and the effectiveness of two water conservation policies by means of life cycle assessment (LCA). LCA is used to compare three scenarios, including a baseline scenario (BL), YW-reduced scenario (YWR) and GW-reduced scenario (GWR). The BL is designed based on the current wastewater management system, whereas the latter two scenarios are constructed according to the two water conservation policies that are proposed by the Singapore government. The software SIMPARO 7.3 with local data and an eco-invent database is used to build up the model, and the functional unit is defined as the daily wastewater disposal of a Singapore resident. Due to local water supply characteristics, the system boundary is extended to include the sewage sludge management and tap water production processes. The characterization results indicate that the GWR has a significant impact reduction (22-25%) while the YWR has only a 2-4% impact reduction compared with the BL. The contribution analysis reveals that the GW dominates many impact categories except eutrophication potential. The tap water production is identified as the most influential process due to its high embodied energy demand in a local context. Life cycle costing analysis shows that both YWR and GWR are financially favorable. It is also revealed that the current water conservation policies could only achieve Singapore's short-term targets. Therefore, two additional strategies are recommended for achieving long-term goals. This study provides a

  9. A Study of Heavy Metal Pollution in China: Current Status, Pollution-Control Policies and Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Hu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past 30 years, China’s economy has experienced rapid development, which led to a vast increase in energy consumption and serious environmental pollution. Among the different types of pollution, heavy metal pollution has become one of the major environmental issues in China. A number of studies show that high level of heavy metal exposure is a frequent cause of permanent intellectual and developmental disabilities. In recent years, some traditional pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide, have been put under control in China. However, heavy metal pollution, which poses even greater risks to public health and sustainable development, has yet to gain policymakers’ attention. The purpose of this paper is to explore effective countermeasures for heavy metal pollution in China. The present study reviews the current status of China’s heavy metal pollution and analyzes related public policies and countermeasures against that pollution. It also presents a few recommendations and measures for prevention of heavy metal pollution.

  10. 25 CFR 224.70 - Will the Secretary review a proposed TERA under the National Environmental Policy Act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... National Environmental Policy Act? 224.70 Section 224.70 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... Secretary review a proposed TERA under the National Environmental Policy Act? Yes, the Secretary will conduct a review under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of the potential impacts on...

  11. Environmental Public Health Policy for Asbestos in Schools: Unintended Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, Jacqueline Karnell

    This book explores the history of asbestos in schools and buildings and how this issue shaped the development of public health policy. It provides insight into past policy including how and why action was taken and who caused it to be taken; it also offers guidance for the scientific and regulatory communities in the future. While explaining…

  12. Energy and environmental policy in a period of transition. Proceedings of the twenty-third annual Illinois energy conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Twenty-Third Annual Illinois Energy Conference entitled, ``Energy and Environmental Policy in a Period of Transition`` was held in Chicago, Illinois on November 20--21, 1995. The conference program explored how federal policy in energy and environment is changing and how these shifts will impact the economy of the Midwest. The conference was divided in four plenary sessions. Session 1 focused on the national policy scene where speakers discussed proposed legislation to change federal energy and environmental policy. Session 2 looked at the future structure of the energy industry, projecting the roles of natural gas, the electric utility industry, and independent power producers in the overall energy system of the 21st century. Session 3 examined current federal policy in research and development as a baseline for discussing the future role of government and industry in supporting research and development. In particular, it looked at the relationship between energy research and development and global competitiveness. Finally, Session 4 attempted to tie these issues together and consider the impact of national policy change on Illinois and the Midwest.

  13. 28 CFR Appendix A to Part 61 - Bureau of Prisons Procedures Relating to the Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act A Appendix A to Part 61 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY... of the National Environmental Policy Act 1. Authority: (CEQ Regulations) NEPA, the...

  14. Pricing Policies of a Dual-Channel Supply Chain Considering Channel Environmental Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the dual-channel supply chain in which the differentiation of the environmental sustainability of channels is considered. We analyze the influences of the level of environmental sustainability of channels on the pricing policies for the supply chain members in both centralized and decentralized models using the Stackelberg game model under inconsistent price policy. We obtain the optimal level of environmental sustainability of channels and pricing decisions for the players in the centralized and decentralized dual-channel supply chains. Results show that the influence mechanisms of the level of environmental sustainability of channels on the pricing decisions are different in the centralized and decentralized models. Furthermore, numerical analysis has been conducted to investigate the effects of the cross-environmental-sustainability sensitivity factor and the initial proportion of consumers who prefer the retail channel on the level of environmental sustainability of channels, pricing policies and players’ profits.

  15. European regional populations: current trends, future pathways and policy options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rees, P.H.; van der Gaag, N.L.; de Beer, J.A.A.; Heins, F.

    2012-01-01

    Europe is currently experiencing an ageing population and slowing population growth of both the total and working-age populations. These trends are likely to continue. Even though population ageing will affect all European regions, different regions will be affected in different ways. Even under

  16. Technology, managerial, and policy initiatives for improving environmental performance in small-scale gold mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilson, Gavin; Van der Vorst, Rita

    2002-12-01

    This paper reviews a series of strategies for improving environmental performance in the small-scale gold mining industry. Although conditions vary regionally, few regulations and policies exist specifically for small-scale gold mining activity. Furthermore, because environmental awareness is low in most developing countries, sites typically feature rudimentary technologies and poor management practices. A combination of policy-, managerial- and technology-related initiatives is needed to facilitate environmental improvement in the industry. Following a broad overview of these initiatives, a recommended strategy is put forth for governments keen on improving the environmental conditions of resident small-scale gold mines.

  17. Challenges of Environmental Management Accounting - Current Accounting Practices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prof. Ph.D. Gheorghe Popescu; Prof. Ph.D. Adriana Popescu; Univ. Junior Assistant, PhD Attendant Cristina Raluca Popescu

    2008-01-01

    ...).Environmental Management Accounting is a relatively new tool in environmental management definedas the identification, collection, estimation, analysis, internal reporting, and use of materials...

  18. Contested environmental policy infrastructure: socio-political acceptance of renewable energy, water, and waste facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolsink, M.

    2010-01-01

    The construction of new infrastructure is hotly contested. This paper presents a comparative study on three environmental policy domains in the Netherlands that all deal with legitimising building and locating infrastructure facilities. Such infrastructure is usually declared essential to environmen

  19. 75 FR 8997 - National Environmental Policy Act; Wallops Flight Facility Shoreline Restoration and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; Wallops Flight Facility Shoreline Restoration... Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) Shoreline Restoration and Infrastructure Protection Program (SRIPP). SUMMARY... from the Wallops Island shoreline and the infrastructure behind it. Alternative One, NASA's...

  20. Contested environmental policy infrastructure: socio-political acceptance of renewable energy, water, and waste facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolsink, M.

    2010-01-01

    The construction of new infrastructure is hotly contested. This paper presents a comparative study on three environmental policy domains in the Netherlands that all deal with legitimising building and locating infrastructure facilities. Such infrastructure is usually declared essential to

  1. 76 FR 39443 - National Environmental Policy Act; Santa Susana Field Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; Santa Susana Field Laboratory AGENCY: National... administered portion of the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL), Ventura County, California. SUMMARY:...

  2. Current Sino-Latin American Relations and the Corresponding Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ. History of the Relationship and Its Current Situation. The Sino-Latin American relationship has a long-standing history that starts from the trade exchanges in the middle of the 16th century.From the 18th century to the early 19th century,hundreds and thousands of Chinese laborers were seized and sold by the western colonists to Latin America as "coolies" who made contribution to the local economic development there.

  3. A Security plan for LMOs - concentrated on environmental policy of Biosafety Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Ha [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Biotechnology industry in Korea is raised by the national support. Also, Korea imports 70% of entire agricultural products. Considering the present situation in Korea, signing a Biosafety Protocol is necessary to prevent harm by LMOs and to protect associated biotechnological industry. Therefore, the problems on signing Biosafety Protocol were analyzed and the environmental policy to be pursued was proposed. This study result will be a cornerstone to prepare a definite environmental policy by government. 54 refs., 7 figs., 27 tabs.

  4. PROFILE: Environmental Impact Assessment Under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger; McCold; Webb

    1999-07-01

    / Antarctica has been set aside by the international community for protection as a natural reserve and a place for scientific research. Through the Antarctic Treaty of 1961, the signing nations agreed to cooperate in protecting the antarctic environment, in conducting scientific studies, and in abstaining from the exercise of territorial claims. The 1991 signing of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (Protocol) by representatives of the 26 nations comprising the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (Parties) significantly strengthened environmental protection measures for the continent. The Protocol required ratification by each of the governments individually prior to official implementation. The US government ratified the Protocol by passage of the Antarctic Science, Tourism, and Conservation Act of 1997. Japan completed the process by ratifying the Protocol on December 15, 1997. US government actions undertaken in Antarctica are subject to the requirements of both the Protocol and the US National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). There are differences in the scope and intent of the Protocol and NEPA; however, both require environmental impact assessment (EIA) as part of the planning process for proposed actions that have the potential for environmental impacts. In this paper we describe the two instruments and highlight key similarities and differences with particular attention to EIA. Through this comparison of the EIA requirements of NEPA and the Protocol, we show how the requirements of each can be used in concert to provide enhanced environmental protection for the antarctic environment. NEPA applies only to actions of the US government; therefore, because NEPA includes certain desirable attributes that have been refined and clarified through numerous court cases, and because the Protocol is just entering implementation internationally, some recommendations are made for strengthening the procedural requirements of the Protocol

  5. Privatizing policy: Market solutions to energy and environmental problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroup, R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses how and why privatization can improve policy, not only in terms of managing production, but also in terms of regulation. Three major aspects of privatization are discussed. The importance for the environment of economic efficiency and prosperity is examined. The role of private law and a rights-based policy for controlling pollution is considered. Finally the claim that privatization would replace farsighted government decisions with shortsighted decisions by owners is examined. 83 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Environmental Policy Convergence in Europe : the impact of international institutions and trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzinger, K.; Knill, C.; Arts, B.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Has globalisation led to a convergence in policy-making across nations and, if so, what are the causal mechanisms? This book analyses the extent to which the environmental policies of nation states have converged over the last thirty years and whether this convergence led to a strengthening

  7. The Integration of Environmental Issues in The Agricultural Policy: The Role of Economic Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    the Editors

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of environmental issues into agricultural policies has attracted significant attention in recent years. The objective of this paper is to discuss the (past and future research questions in this area and the role of economic analysis in supporting decisions regarding the integration of environmental issues into agricultural policies, with a special focus on the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP of the European Union (EU. The paper first examines the evolution of the process integrating environmental concerns into the CAP. Then, the role of economic analysis is discussed with reference to selected major issues, including: the evaluation of the relationship between agriculture and environmental impacts, and the economic value of such effects; the evaluation of policy effectiveness and efficiency; optimal policy design; the effects on markets and farm structures; and the coordination and governance of policy measures. The contents of these study areas are discussed and the research priorities required to meet future needs are identified. The work concludes by highlighting the need to develop more detailed policy analysis studies while, at the same time, developing a wider and more innovative vision of the role of agricultural policy in the global context.

  8. The impact of foresight on environmental science and technology policy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der Barend

    1999-01-01

    Globalisation, high tech development and environmental issues have made policy makers aware again of the possibilities of future studies for policy making. However, the lack of systematic knowledge about their impact is a major obstruction to a proper use of future studies. Especially since future s

  9. A checklist for model credibility, salience, and legitimacy to improve information transfer in environmental policy assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Voorn, G.A.K; Verburg, R.W.; Kunseler, E.-M.; Vader, J.; Janssen, P.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Modelers involved in environmental policy assessments are commonly confronted with the lack of uptake of model output by policy actors. Actors have different expectations of models, condensed into three quality criteria: credibility, salience, and legitimacy. The fulfilment of quality criteria is

  10. A checklist for model credibility, salience, and legitimacy to improve information transfer in environmental policy assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorn, van G.A.K.; Verburg, R.W.; Kunseler, E.M.; Vader, J.; Janssen, P.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Modelers involved in environmental policy assessments are commonly confronted with the lack of uptake of model output by policy actors. Actors have different expectations of models, condensed into three quality criteria: credibility, salience, and legitimacy. The fulfilment of quality criteria is

  11. A checklist for model credibility, salience, and legitimacy to improve information transfer in environmental policy assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Voorn, G.A.K; Verburg, R.W.; Kunseler, E.-M.; Vader, J.; Janssen, P.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Modelers involved in environmental policy assessments are commonly confronted with the lack of uptake of model output by policy actors. Actors have different expectations of models, condensed into three quality criteria: credibility, salience, and legitimacy. The fulfilment of quality criteria is al

  12. The role of innovators in the introduction of preventive environmental policy in local government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.M.; Reijenga, F.A.

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses the role of innovators in the introduction of 'preventive environmental' policy in local government in the Netherlands. With the help of the configuration theory of Mintzberg and the innovation theory of Rogers a description is given of making this new prevention policy within

  13. The role of innovators in the introduction of preventive environmental policy in local government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.M.; Reijenga, F.A.

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses the role of innovators in the introduction of 'preventive environmental' policy in local government in the Netherlands. With the help of the configuration theory of Mintzberg and the innovation theory of Rogers a description is given of making this new prevention policy within

  14. Environmental potentials of policy instruments to mitigate nutrient emissions in Chinese livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, C.; Liu, Y.; Bluemling, B.; Mol, A.P.J.; Chen, J.

    2015-01-01

    To minimize negative environmental impact of livestock production, policy-makers face a challenge to design and implement more effective policy instruments for livestock farmers at different scales. This research builds an assessment framework on the basis of an agent-based model, named ANEM, to exp

  15. Spatial targeting of agri-environmental policy using bilevel evolutionary optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study we describe the optimal designation of agri-environmental policy as a bilevel optimization problem and propose an integrated solution method using a hybrid genetic algorithm. The problem is characterized by a single leader, the agency, that establishes a policy with the goal of optimiz...

  16. Viewpoint – Swimming against the Current: Questioning Development Policy and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Mørck Jensen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The water world is dominated by normative policies prescribing what 'good development' is all about. It is a universe of its own where policies live their own lives and feed in and out of each other. As new buzzwords continue to be invented or reinvented, policies continue to maintain their shiny images of how water resources or water supply should be managed. There are many water professionals acting as missionaries in the service of policies but probably fewer professionals acting up against blindfolded policy promotion. It is when water policies are being implemented in the real world that the trouble starts. In spite of their well-intended mission, water policies often suffer shipwreck on the socio-economic and political realities in developing countries. Through cases from India and the Mekong, the author demonstrates what happens when normative water polices are forced out of their comfort zone and into social and political realities. Although policies are made of stubborn material they need to be questioned through continuous analytical insight into developing country realities. But undertaking critical analysis and questioning the wisdom of water policies are easier said than done. It takes a lot of effort to swim against the policy current.

  17. Environmental assessment of policy through budgetary analysis: Conceptual framework and methods. Manuscript report No. MR5-93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerrett, M.L.B.

    1993-01-01

    The need to apply environmental assessment to government policies that encourage environmentally damaging human behaviour is now generally accepted by leading environmental experts, although few methods exist for conducting them. Part of the problem lies in the complexity of the policy-making process, which confuses the identification of policies. This problem of policy identification can be partially overcome by focusing on the budget. This report begins with a rationale for why government budgets are the most appropriate unit of analysis for performing environmental assessment on government policy. A literature review is conducted on the methods for assessing the environmental effects of policy, followed by an analysis of the interactions occurring among budgetary policies, human economic behaviour, natural life support systems, and political systems. Methods of assessing the environmental implications of government policy through government analysis are proposed and there is a discussion of promising directions for future research.

  18. Evaluating National Environmental Sustainability: Performance Measures and Influential Factors for OECD-Member Countries featuring Canadian Performance and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbick, Kenneth S.

    This research reviews five studies that evaluate national environmental sustainability with composite indices; performs uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of techniques for building a composite index; completes principal components factor analysis to help build subindices measuring waste and pollution, sustainable energy, sustainable food, nature conservation, and sustainable cities (Due to its current importance, the greenhouse gases (GHG) indicator is included individually as another policy measure.); analyses factors that seem to influence performance: climate, population growth, population density, economic output, technological development, industrial structure, energy prices, environmental governance, pollution abatement and control expenditures, and environmental pricing; and explores Canadian policy implications of the results. The techniques to build composite indices include performance indicator selection, missing data treatment, normalisation technique, scale-effect adjustments, weights, and aggregation method. Scale-effect adjustments and normalisation method are significant sources of uncertainty inducing 68% of the observed variation in a country's final rank at the 95% level of confidence. Choice of indicators also introduces substantial variation as well. To compensate for this variation, the current study recommends that a composite index should always be analysed with other policy subindices and individual indicators. Moreover, the connection between population and consumption indicates that per capita scale-effect adjustments should be used for certain indicators. Rather than ranking normalisation, studies should use a method that retains information from the raw indicator values. Multiple regression and cluster analyses indicate economic output, environmental governance, and energy prices are major influential factors, with energy prices the most important. It is statistically significant for five out of seven performance measures at the 95

  19. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Source Guide for the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JANSKY, M.T.

    2000-09-01

    This Source Guide will assist those working with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 to become more familiar with the environmental assessments (EA) and environmental impact statements (EIS) that apply to specific activities and facilities on the Hanford Site. This document should help answer questions concerning NEPA coverage, history, processes, and the status of many of the buildings and units on and related to the Hanford Site. This document summarizes relevant EAs and EISs by briefly outlining the proposed action of each document and the decision made by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or its predecessor agencies, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). The summary includes the proposed action alternatives and current status of the proposed action. If a decision officially was stated by the DOE, as in a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) or a record of decision (ROD), and the decision was located, a summary is provided. Not all federal decisions, such as FONSIs and RODs, can be found in the Federal Register (FR). For example, although significant large-action FONSIs can be found in the FR, some low-interest FONSIs might have been published elsewhere (i.e., local newspapers).

  20. Current anti-doping policy: a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauron Alexandre

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current anti-doping in competitive sports is advocated for reasons of fair-play and concern for the athlete's health. With the inception of the World Anti Doping Agency (WADA, anti-doping effort has been considerably intensified. Resources invested in anti-doping are rising steeply and increasingly involve public funding. Most of the effort concerns elite athletes with much less impact on amateur sports and the general public. Discussion We review this recent development of increasingly severe anti-doping control measures and find them based on questionable ethical grounds. The ethical foundation of the war on doping consists of largely unsubstantiated assumptions about fairness in sports and the concept of a "level playing field". Moreover, it relies on dubious claims about the protection of an athlete's health and the value of the essentialist view that sports achievements reflect natural capacities. In addition, costly antidoping efforts in elite competitive sports concern only a small fraction of the population. From a public health perspective this is problematic since the high prevalence of uncontrolled, medically unsupervised doping practiced in amateur sports and doping-like behaviour in the general population (substance use for performance enhancement outside sport exposes greater numbers of people to potential harm. In addition, anti-doping has pushed doping and doping-like behaviour underground, thus fostering dangerous practices such as sharing needles for injection. Finally, we argue that the involvement of the medical profession in doping and anti-doping challenges the principles of non-maleficience and of privacy protection. As such, current anti-doping measures potentially introduce problems of greater impact than are solved, and place physicians working with athletes or in anti-doping settings in an ethically difficult position. In response, we argue on behalf of enhancement practices in sports within a

  1. Current anti-doping policy: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Bengt; Mauron, Alexandre; Miah, Andy

    2007-03-29

    Current anti-doping in competitive sports is advocated for reasons of fair-play and concern for the athlete's health. With the inception of the World Anti Doping Agency (WADA), anti-doping effort has been considerably intensified. Resources invested in anti-doping are rising steeply and increasingly involve public funding. Most of the effort concerns elite athletes with much less impact on amateur sports and the general public. We review this recent development of increasingly severe anti-doping control measures and find them based on questionable ethical grounds. The ethical foundation of the war on doping consists of largely unsubstantiated assumptions about fairness in sports and the concept of a "level playing field". Moreover, it relies on dubious claims about the protection of an athlete's health and the value of the essentialist view that sports achievements reflect natural capacities. In addition, costly antidoping efforts in elite competitive sports concern only a small fraction of the population. From a public health perspective this is problematic since the high prevalence of uncontrolled, medically unsupervised doping practiced in amateur sports and doping-like behaviour in the general population (substance use for performance enhancement outside sport) exposes greater numbers of people to potential harm. In addition, anti-doping has pushed doping and doping-like behaviour underground, thus fostering dangerous practices such as sharing needles for injection. Finally, we argue that the involvement of the medical profession in doping and anti-doping challenges the principles of non-maleficience and of privacy protection. As such, current anti-doping measures potentially introduce problems of greater impact than are solved, and place physicians working with athletes or in anti-doping settings in an ethically difficult position. In response, we argue on behalf of enhancement practices in sports within a framework of medical supervision. Current anti

  2. An overview of current NAMA guidance. Policy Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, L.R. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    The International Climate Initiative formed a number of working groups within an Enhanced NAMA Cooperation Group. The Tools and Guides working group seeks to coordinate current efforts on NAMA related tools, guidebooks and templates, as well as reduce repetition of such work by different organisations. As a first step towards this goal, this brief analysis looks at the 8 main guides on NAMA development that have been published, or made available in draft form, as of May 2013. This note summarises the approach found in these guides and identifies a number of areas, or gaps, that would benefit from further effort to provide supporting resources and guidance. It also aims to provide the basis for further discussion within the working group.

  3. Towards a green economy in Europe. EU environmental policy targets and objectives 2010-2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-15

    The 'green economy' has emerged as a priority in policy debate in recent years. But what does the concept mean in practice and how can decision-makers measure progress towards this strategic goal? This report provides some answers, presenting a detailed overview of the key objectives and targets in EU environmental policy and legislation for the period 2010-2050. It focuses on selected environmental and resource policy areas, specifically: energy; greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and ozone-depleting substances; air quality and air pollution; transport sector emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants; waste; water; sustainable consumption and production (SCP); chemicals; biodiversity and land use. (Author)

  4. The Policy Use of Environmental Indicators - Learning from Evaluation Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2003-01-01

    indicators and monitoring systems are increasingly used, but what does the use of indicators mean for policymaking? The article exploits indicator theory and the evaluation research literature to develop an analytical framework so as to study the policy uses of indicators. The paper then provides...... system and partly to the lack of accountability mechanisms. The article concludes that the analytical framework and the concepts derived from evaluation research are useful starting points, but that further research should extend the analysis to other policy contexts (national or local) and broaden...

  5. 76 FR 16391 - Call for Innovative National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Pilot Project Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... QUALITY Call for Innovative National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Pilot Project Proposals AGENCY: Council On Environmental Quality. ACTION: Notice of Availability, Call for Innovative National..., or excessively burdensome. 76 FR 3821, Jan. 21, 2011; 40 CFR 1500-1508. DATES: The Call...

  6. The Roots and Routes of Environmental and Sustainability Education Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Poeck, Katrien; Lysgaard, Jonas A.

    2016-01-01

    "Environmental Education Research" has developed a Virtual Special Issue (VSI) (http://explore.tandfonline.com/content/ed/ceer-vsi) focusing on studies of environmental and sustainability education (ESE) policy. The VSI draws on key examples of research on this topic published in the Journal from the past two decades, for three reasons.…

  7. An environmental-economic framework to support multi-objective policy-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacini, G.C.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: environmental accounting, environmental indicators, farming systems, sustainability, organic farming, ecological-economic modelling, spatial analysis, multi-objective policy-making, opportunity cost.There is a growing awareness in present-day society of the potent

  8. The roots and routes of environmental and sustainability education policy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jonas Andreasen; Van Poeck, Katrien

    2016-01-01

    Environmental Education Research has developed a Virtual Special Issue (VSI) (http://explore.tandfonline.com/content/ed/ceer-vsi) focusing on studies of environmental and sustainability education (ESE) policy. The VSI draws on key examples of research on this topic published in the Journal from...

  9. The Roots and Routes of Environmental and Sustainability Education Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Poeck, Katrien; Lysgaard, Jonas A.

    2016-01-01

    "Environmental Education Research" has developed a Virtual Special Issue (VSI) (http://explore.tandfonline.com/content/ed/ceer-vsi) focusing on studies of environmental and sustainability education (ESE) policy. The VSI draws on key examples of research on this topic published in the Journal from the past two decades, for three reasons.…

  10. Changing track, changing tack: Dutch ideas for a robust environmental policy for the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogervorst, N.; Hajer, M.; Dietz, F.; Timmerhuis, J.; Kruitwagen, S.

    2013-01-01

    In the essay ‘Changing track, changing tack’, PBL summarises 40 years of Dutch environmental policy and draws lessons for the future; lessons that may also be interesting to other countries in the developed world. Looking back, we learned that the Dutch approach to environmental problems has been ve

  11. Environmental Policy, the Porter Hypothesis and the Composition of Capital : Effects of Learning and Technological Progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feichtinger, G.; Hartl, R.F.; Kort, P.M.; Veliov, V.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the e.ect of environmental policy on the composition of capital is investigated.By allowing for non-linearities it generalizes Xepapadeas and De Zeeuw (Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 1999) and determines scenarios in which their results do not carry over.In

  12. the roots and routes of environmental and sustainability education policy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jonas Andreasen; Van Poeck, Katrien

    2016-01-01

    Environmental Education Research has developed a Virtual Special Issue (VSI) (http://explore.tandfonline.com/content/ed/ceer-vsi) focusing on studies of environmental and sustainability education (ESE) policy. The VSI draws on key examples of research on this topic published in the Journal from...

  13. The roots and routes of environmental and sustainability education policy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jonas Greve; Van Poeck, Katrien

    2015-01-01

    Environmental Education Research has developed a Virtual Special Issue (VSI) (http://explore.tandfonline.com/content/ed/ceer-vsi) focusing on studies of environmental and sustainability education (ESE) policy. The VSI draws on key examples of research on this topic published in the Journal from...

  14. Change as "Appropriate Adaptation": Administrative Adjustment to European Environmental Policy in Britain and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Knill

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is looking at European environmental policy from the "second image reversed" perspective. Specifically, it investigates the conditions under which we see administrative change in the EU member states as a consequence of the implementation of EU environmental policies. We adopt a comparative research design – analyzing the impact of four environmental policies in Britain and Germany – to trace the conditions for adaptation in the context of different administrative structures and traditions. As a starting hypothesis we adopt the institutionalist expectation that administrative adaptation depends on the "goodness of fit" between European policy requirements and existing national structures and procedures. On the basis of our empirical evidence we further refine the notion of "goodness of fit" by looking at the level of embeddedness of national structures in the overall administrative tradition from a static and dynamic perspective. Furthermore, we develop an explanatory framework that links sociological and rational choice variants of institutional analysis.

  15. Change as "Appropriate Adaptation": Administrative Adjustment to European Environmental Policy in Britain and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lenschow

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is looking at European environmental policy from the "second image reversed" perspective. Specifically, it investigates the conditions under which we see administrative change in the EU member states as a consequence of the implementation of EU environmental policies. We adopt a comparative research design analyzing the impact of four environmental policies in Britain and Germany to trace the conditions for adaptation in the context of different administrative structures and traditions. As a starting hypothesis we adopt the institutionalist expectation that administrative adaptation depends on the "goodness of fit" between European policy requirements and existing national structures and procedures. On the basis of our empirical evidence we further refine the notion of "goodness of fit" by looking at the level of embeddedness of national structures in the overall administrative tradition from a static and dynamic perspective. Furthermore, we develop an explanatory framework that links sociological and rational choice variants of institutional analysis.

  16. A comparative analysis of the effects of economic policy instruments in promoting environmentally sustainable transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Ramjerdi, Farideh

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of the effects of economic policy instruments in promoting environmentally sustainable transport. Promoting environmentally sustainable transport is defined as follows: (1) Reducing the volume of motorised travel; (2) Transferring travel to modes...... generating less external effects, and (3) Modifying road user behaviour in a way that will reduce external effects of transport. External effects include accidents, congestion, traffic noise and emissions to air. Four economic policy instruments are compared: (1) Prices of motor fuel; (2) Congestion charges......; (3) Toll schemes; (4) Reward systems giving incentives to reduce driving or change driver behaviour. The effects of these policy instruments are stated in terms of elasticities. All four economic policy instruments have negative elasticities, which means that they do promote environmentally...

  17. Strategic effects of future environmental policy commitments: climate change, solar radiation management and correlated air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jingwen; Silva, Emilson Caputo Delfino

    2015-03-15

    We study the effects of environmental policy commitments in a futuristic world in which solar radiation management (SRM) can be utilized to reduce climate change damages. Carbon and sulfur dioxide emissions (correlated pollutants) can be reduced through tradable permits. We show that if nations simultaneously commit to carbon permit policies, national SRM levels rise with carbon quotas. Alternatively, if they simultaneously commit to SRM policies, the global temperature falls with each unit increase in the global SRM level. A nation always wishes to be a leader in policymaking, but prefers carbon to SRM policymaking. The globe prefers SRM policy commitments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Challenges of Environmental Management Accounting ?- Current Accounting Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Ph. D. Gheorghe Popescu; Prof. Ph.D . Adriana Popescu; Univ.Junior Assistant, PhD Attendant Cristina Raluca Popescu

    2008-01-01

    The goal of our paper is to reduce some of the international confusion generated on such an important topic by providing a general framework and set of definitions for Environmental Management Accounting (EMA). Environmental Management Accounting is a relatively new tool in environmental management defined as the identification, collection, estimation, analysis, internal reporting, and use of materials and energy flow information, environmental cost information, and other cost information for...

  19. effect of land policy on compensation for environmental damage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-02-21

    Feb 21, 2013 ... monetary terms) to the environment, caused by these oil industry ... government has continued to initiate policies over the years but unfortunately, these ..... and tools was put at N5, 600 annually. A similar oil palm estate at ...

  20. Environmental conflicts in compact cities : complexity, decisionmaking, and policy approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roo, G

    2000-01-01

    In most parts of Europe compact city policies have become a popular means of planning for sustainability. Dense compact cities were seen as solutions to reduce continually increasing mobility. They were also seen as a way to avoid urbanization of the countryside. Lately planners have been expressing

  1. The Policy Use of Environmental Indicators - Learning from Evaluation Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2003-01-01

    indicators and monitoring systems are increasingly used, but what does the use of indicators mean for policymaking? The article exploits indicator theory and the evaluation research literature to develop an analytical framework so as to study the policy uses of indicators. The paper then provides...

  2. How Does Environmental Regulation Affect Industrial Transformation? A Study Based on the Methodology of Policy Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The difference of factor input structure determines different response to environmental regulation. This paper constructs a theoretical model including environmental regulation, factor input structure, and industrial transformation and conducts a policy simulation based on the difference of influencing mechanism of environmental regulation considering industrial heterogeneity. The findings show that the impact of environmental regulation on industrial transformation presents comparison of distortion effect of resource allocation and technology effect. Environmental regulation will promote industrial transformation when technology effect of environmental regulation is stronger than distortion effect of resource allocation. Particularly, command-control environmental regulation has a significant incentive effect and spillover effect of technological innovation on cleaning industries, but these effects do not exist in pollution-intensive industries. Command-control environmental regulation promotes industrial transformation. The result of simulation showed that environmental regulation of market incentives is similar to that of command-control.

  3. Short Review: Mitigation of Current Environmental Concerns from Methanol Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Young

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Methanol has become a widely used and globally distributed product. Methanol is very important due to the current depletion of fossil fuels. Industrially, methanol produced from the catalytic reaction of synthetic gas composed of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. Methanol production has brought great attention due to carbon dioxide as the main source of greenhouse gas emissions. Combined of reducing CO2 emissions and supplying an alternative fuel source has created the idea of a carbon neutral cycle called “the methanol economy”. The best catalyst for the methanol economy would show a high CO2 conversion and high selectivity for methanol production. This paper investigates research focused on catalyst development for efficient methanol synthesis from hydrogenation of carbon dioxide through added various supports and additives such as silica, zirconium, and palladium. Catalysts that displayed the highest activity included a zirconia and silicon-titanium oxide promoted Cu/Zn/Al2O3 catalyst. Alternative method of catalyst preparation, include the oxalate-gel, solid-state reaction, co-precipitation and combustion method also investigated.  © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 10th October 2012; Revised: 7th February 2012; Accepted: 10th February 2013[How to Cite: Young, A., Lesmana, D., Dai, D.J., Wu, H.S. (2013. Short Review: Mitigation of Current En-vironmental Concerns from Methanol Synthesis. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 1-13. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4055.1-13][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4055.1-13] | View in  |

  4. Backcasting as a Tool for Sustainable Transport Policy Making. The Environmentally Sustainable Transport Study in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geurs, K. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Van Wee, B. [Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes the backcasting approach used in the OECD's Environmentally Sustainable Transport (EST) Study, in which several countries participated. The backcasting approach can be seen as an innovative tool for policy making, which aims at generating alternative images of the future. These images have been thoroughly analysed as to their feasibility, consequences and policy implications. Here, results and implications for backcasting shown in the Netherlands case study are highlighted and conclusions drawn that EST criteria will only be attainable if a substantial increase in development of technology and stringent behavioural adaptations, with changes in economic structures at an international level, are assumed. If EST is to be realised, measures will have to be taken and instruments will have to be implemented in the short term. Timely implementation will probably mean a necessary radical change in the current Dutch policy ''life cycle''.

  5. 76 FR 63763 - National Environmental Policy Act Implementing Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... from Jean Public (at page 1) listed wildlife, birds, reptiles, and mammals as environmental resources... Protection Agency's Repowering America Program, in partnership with DOE. In response, DOE clarifies that...

  6. Alternative Policy Study: Environment and energy in Europe and Central Asia 1990-2010. Energy-related environmental impacts of policy scenarios GEO-2000 alternative policy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren DP van; Bakkes JA; United Nations Environment; MNV

    2000-01-01

    The GEO-2000 study into alternative policy options for Europe and Central Asia focuses on energy use as an important driver for environmental problems across the region. The problems analyzed are climate change, acidification, summer smog, urban air pollution and risks of reactor accidents associate

  7. Integrating environmental sustainability considerations into food and nutrition policies: insights from Australia’s National Food Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Megan Ridgway

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The environmental sustainability (ES of food systems is a critical challenge for policy-makers. This is a highly contested policy area with differing views among stakeholders. The aim of the study was to develop a better understanding of how ES considerations are addressed in Australian food and nutrition policies and the way that consultation processes affect final policy outcomes. A mixed-methods study design combined a detailed chronology of key policy developments (2009 – 2015, a content analysis of written submissions obtained during the NFP’s consultation period (2011 – 2013 and a framing analysis of the sustainability perspectives - efficiency, demand restraint and system transformation – in the NFP’s Issues, Green and White Papers. There were 555 written submissions responding to two consultation papers. Stakeholders represented all sectors of Australia’s food system including government, non-government organizations, the food supply chain, research and academic institutions and members of the general public. Around 74% of submissions referred to ES considerations and approximately 65% supported their inclusion into the final policy. Efficiency frames were most dominant; emphasizing a production-oriented approach that regards the environment as a natural resource base for food production but overlooks consumption and equity concerns. Despite strong support for the inclusion of ES considerations in the NFP the influence of Australia’s sociopolitical context, powerful, industry-dominated stakeholders and a reliance on traditional production-oriented perspectives delivered a business-as-usual approach to food policy-making. It has since been replaced by an agricultural strategy that provides only cursory attention to ES. Our findings indicate that Australia’s political environment is not sufficiently mature for ES considerations to be integrated into food and nutrition policies. We propose reforms to the current consultation

  8. Integrating Environmental Sustainability Considerations into Food and Nutrition Policies: Insights from Australia’s National Food Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Ella Megan; Lawrence, Mark Andrew; Woods, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The environmental sustainability (ES) of food systems is a critical challenge for policy makers. This is a highly contested policy area with differing views among stakeholders. The aim of the study was to develop a better understanding of how ES considerations are addressed in Australian food and nutrition policies and the way that consultation processes affect final policy outcomes. A mixed-methods study design combined a detailed chronology of key policy developments (2009–2015), a content analysis of written submissions obtained during the NFP’s consultation period (2011–2013) and a frame analysis of the sustainability perspectives – efficiency, demand restraint, and system transformation – in the NFP’s Issues, Green, and White Papers. There were 555 written submissions responding to two consultation papers. Stakeholders represented all sectors of Australia’s food system including government, non-government organizations, the food supply chain, research and academic institutions, and members of the general public. Around 74% of submissions referred to ES considerations and ~65% supported their inclusion into the final policy. Efficiency frames were most dominant; emphasizing a production-oriented approach that regards the environment as a natural resource base for food production but overlooks consumption and equity concerns. Despite strong support for the inclusion of ES considerations in the NFP, the influence of Australia’s socio-political context, powerful, industry-dominated stakeholders, and a reliance on traditional production-oriented perspectives delivered a business-as-usual approach to food policy making. It has since been replaced by an agricultural strategy that provides only cursory attention to ES. Our findings indicate that Australia’s political environment is not sufficiently mature for ES considerations to be integrated into food and nutrition policies. We propose reforms to the current consultation process in Australia to

  9. Epidemiology and Pathogenesis of C. difficile and MRSA in the Light of Current NHS Control Policies: A Policy review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Maliha

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare associated infections (HCAIs) cause significant morbidity and mortality, and are estimated to cost the United Kingdom National Health Service £1 billion annually. The current health care infection rates suggest that the level of performance to avoid HCAIs is not maintained consistently. Increasing screening, improving local accountability and performance management, careful use of antibiotics in the management of emergency patients, health economy wide approaches, and improved hand washing will be effective in lowering the rate of HCAIs. This paper reviews current NHS Control Policies in place for Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) and C. difficile.

  10. Environmental Governance Challenges in Kiribati : An Agenda for Legal and Policy Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejo Olowu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the global notion of environmental governance is principally about how to achieve the goals of environmental conservation and sustainable development, analysing approaches to environmental governance invariably requires critical study of the policies and structures in place that determine how power is exercised and how environmental decisions are made not only in the abstract context of internationalism but with particular regard to national situations. This essay examines the legal and policy frameworks regulating environmental protection and the conservation of biodiversity within the broader goal of effective environmental governance in Kiribati . Acknowledging that Kiribati encounters formidable challenges in institutional, normative and policy terms, this essay particularly deals with the issue of pollution and its long- and short-term implications for this nation of many atolls. While highlighting the existence of significant treaties, municipal laws and diverse policy mechanisms, this essay identifies gaps and weaknesses, making suggestions for their reform and enhancement. Recognising that the path to the future lies in the synergy of initiatives and inputs from the government, the people and all other stakeholders in the environmental well-being of Kiribati, this essay proffers some viable trajectories for strategic responses.

  11. Perspective: Improving nutritional guidelines for sustainable health policies: Current status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magni, Paolo; Bier, Dennis M; Pecorelli, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    application of these concepts requires the translation of scientific information into practical approaches that have a tangible and measurable impact at both individual and population levels. The agenda for the future is expected to support available methodology in nutrition research to personalize guideline...... a constructive coalition among scientists, policy makers, and communication professionals for sustainable health and nutritional policies. Currently, a strong rationale and available data support a personalized dietary approach according to personal variables, including sex and age, circulating metabolic...

  12. Soil environmental quality in greenhouse vegetable production systems in eastern China: Current status and management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenyou; Zhang, Yanxia; Huang, Biao; Teng, Ying

    2017-03-01

    Greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) has become an important source of public vegetable consumption and farmers' income in China. However, various pollutants can be accumulated in GVP soils due to the high cropping index, large agricultural input, and closed environment. Ecological toxicity caused by excessive pollutants' accumulation can then lead to serious health risks. This paper was aimed to systematically review the current status of soil environmental quality, analyze their impact factors, and consequently to propose integrated management strategies for GVP systems. Results indicated a decrease in soil pH, soil salinization, and nutrients imbalance in GVP soils. Fungicides, remaining nutrients, antibiotics, heavy metals, and phthalate esters were main pollutants accumulating in GVP soils comparing to surrounding open field soils. Degradation of soil ecological function, accumulation of major pollutants in vegetables, deterioration of neighboring water bodies, and potential human health risks has occurred due to the changes of soil properties and accumulation of pollutants such as heavy metals and fungicides in soils. Four dominant factors were identified leading to the above-mentioned issues including heavy application of agricultural inputs, outmoded planting styles with poor environmental protection awareness, old-fashion regulations, unreasonable standards, and ineffective supervisory management. To guarantee a sustainable GVP development, several strategies were suggested to protect and improve soil environmental quality. Implementation of various strategies not only requires the concerted efforts among different stakeholders, but also the whole lifecycle assessment throughout the GVP processes as well as effective enforcement of policies, laws, and regulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Frames of Reference: A Metaphor for Analyzing and Interpreting Attitudes of Environmental Policy Makers and Policy Influencers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaffield

    1998-07-01

    / The concept of frame of reference offers a potentially useful analytical metaphor in environmental management. This is illustrated by a case study in which attitudes of individuals involved in the management of trees in the New Zealand high country are classified into seven distinctive frames of reference. Some practical and theoretical implications of the use of the frame metaphor are explored, including its potential contribution to the emerg- ing field of communicative planning. KEY WORDS: Frames of reference; Environmental policy analysis; Metaphor; New Zealand high country

  14. New prospects in EU environmental policies. The Integrated Product Policy (IPP); Nuove prospettive delle politiche ambientali comunitarie. La integrated product policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnimeo, G. [IEFE, Universita' Bocconi, Milan (Italy); Iraldo, F. [IEFE, Universita' Bocconi, Daest-Iuav, Milan (Italy)

    2000-06-01

    The Integrated Product Policy - IPP - is becoming one of the top priorities for the European Commission within the framework of the product-oriented environmental policies. Rather than a new policy, this is an innovative approach aimed at co-originated existing and forthcoming environmental policies, in order to manage in an integrated way and minimise the impacts connected with the whole product life-cycle. The underlying life-cycle guideline requires the management of each phase by considering what happens in all the other phases. What clearly emerges from a research carried out by Iefe Bocconi is, on the one hand, the effectiveness of co-operation and networking between all the actors involved in the product environmental management within the different phases of its life cycle (policy makers, producers, retailers, consumers, NGOs, etc.) and, on the other, the opportunity of developing an integrated management of both environmental policy instruments and corporate management tools. [Italian] La Integrated Product Policy - IPP rappresenta una delle priorita' che la Commissione Europea si e' posta nell'ambito delle politiche volte al miglioramento degli aspetti ambientali legati al prodotto. Essa non costituisce una nuova politica, ma piuttosto un approccio attraverso cui coordinare le diverse politiche ambientali, gia' esistenti o di prossima generazione, in un'ottica di integrazione delle politiche stesse, con l'obiettivo di ridurre gli impatti ambientali legati all'intero ciclo di vita dei prodotti. La logica del ciclo di vitra implica la necessita' di gestire ogni singola fase prestando attenzione a cio' che accade in tutte le altre. Dalle esperienze analizzate nell'ambito di una ricerca condotta dallo Iefe Bocconi emerge come, per conseguire questi obiettivi, risulti particolarmente efficace la scelta di attivare forme di collaborazione e cooperazione tra i vari attori coinvolti nella gestione del prodotto

  15. Current Status and Progress of Market for Forest Environmental Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yong; CHEN Jie

    2006-01-01

    With the analyses of the reasons for the emergence of domestic and overseas markets for forest environmental service and its significance, this paper summarizes the progress in the research on the market and reviews the operations of the markets for 4 kinds of forest environmental services that are watershed protection services, biodiversity protection services, carbon sequestration services and landscape services. At the end, the paper discusses the major problems arising in the creation of markets for environmental services and the developing tendency.

  16. The making of environmental policy in the European Council

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Rasmussen, Lise Nordvig

    1998-01-01

    Details the decision-making processes regarding the legal acts approved by the European Union Council of Ministers on environmental issues during 1993 and 1994. Role of the Committee of the Permanent Representatives; Use of council presidency by member states; Significance of decision-making proc......Details the decision-making processes regarding the legal acts approved by the European Union Council of Ministers on environmental issues during 1993 and 1994. Role of the Committee of the Permanent Representatives; Use of council presidency by member states; Significance of decision...

  17. Environmental health in Mexico: current situation and future prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Schilmann, Astrid; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Finkelman, Jacobo

    2013-01-01

    Environmental health has been established in Mexico as a discipline since the early nineties resuming the sanitarian tradition developed over the past century and incorporating new knowledge generated...

  18. 24 CFR 570.205 - Eligible planning, urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building activities. 570.205 Section 570.205..., urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building activities. (a) Planning... known or suspected environmental contamination. (5) (6) Policy—planning—management—capacity building...

  19. 75 FR 8046 - National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Draft Guidance, “NEPA Mitigation and Monitoring.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Draft Guidance, ``NEPA Mitigation and Monitoring... implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Enacted in 1970, NEPA is a fundamental tool...

  20. Environmental policy, legislation and management of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Melody Hoi Yin; Leung, Kenneth Mei Yee; Wong, Stella Wing Yu; Wang, Hong; Yan, Zhen-Guang

    2012-06-01

    Since early 1980s, chemical pollution has become a serious environmental problem in rapidly developing China. This study reviewed the policy and legal framework for monitoring and management of chemical pollutants in China, with reference to the relevant experience in other jurisdictions. Although efforts in environmental monitoring of chemical contamination have been substantially increased over the last decade, China is lagging behind in terms of nationwide monitoring of chemical contamination in human population, and standardization of sampling and analytical protocols. While actively participating in various international treaties and conventions related to pollution control, China also has a very comprehensive set of environmental laws and policies. These include the newly enacted legislation on the control of new chemicals (i.e., China REACH) and the development of a set of National Environmental Standards. In addition to environmental education, these new measures will further enhance the control of chemical pollutants and facilitate effective law enforcement.

  1. Integrative Models in Environmental Planning and Policy Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyler, David Clinton

    1984-01-01

    Discusses conceptual models of thought that have recently emerged to confront the conventional approaches to analysis and solution to complex environmental problems. In addition to a critical attack on the tradition of specialization and reductionism, several models are summarized that originated from ecology, cybernetics, and system theory. (BC)

  2. Bridging gaps : governing conflicts between transport and environmental policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, Tim; Zuidema, Christian; Tillema, Taede; Arts, Jos

    2014-01-01

    Developing new road infrastructure can be problematic in the face of environmental quality ambitions. These conflicts can even undermine the development of such new infrastructure, as occurred for example in the Netherlands in the mid-2000s as a result of European Union air quality standards. To gov

  3. The snowmobile and environmental quality: A report on social and environmental effects of the snowmobile with suggested policies for its regulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is intended to educate policy-makers on the environmental and social costs and benefits of snowmobiles. It concentrates on the environmental impact of...

  4. Regional environmental analysis and management: New techniques for current problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honea, R. B.; Paludan, C. T. N.

    1974-01-01

    Advances in data acquisition and processing procedures for regional environmental analysis are discussed. Automated and semi-automated techniques employing Earth Resources Technology Satellite data and conventional data sources are presented. Experiences are summarized. The ERTS computer compatible tapes provide a very complete and flexible record of earth resources data and represent a viable medium to enhance regional environmental analysis research.

  5. Environmental transparency of food supply chains - Current Status and Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wognum, N.; Bremmers, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Food chains need to become more sustainable to regain and retain consumer trust after recent food incidents and scandals. One of the key components of sustainability is environmental care. To what extent do supply chains invest in environmental care and to what extent are consumers willing to pay

  6. Environmental transparency of food supply chains - Current Status and Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wognum, N.; Bremmers, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Food chains need to become more sustainable to regain and retain consumer trust after recent food incidents and scandals. One of the key components of sustainability is environmental care. To what extent do supply chains invest in environmental care and to what extent are consumers willing to pay fo

  7. Challenges of Environmental Management Accounting –- Current Accounting Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Ph.D. Gheorghe Popescu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of our paper is to reduce some of the international confusion generated on such animportant topic by providing a general framework and set of definitions for Environmental ManagementAccounting (EMA.Environmental Management Accounting is a relatively new tool in environmental management definedas the identification, collection, estimation, analysis, internal reporting, and use of materials and energyflow information, environmental cost information, and other cost information for both conventionaland environmental decision-making within an organization.Due to their special role, accountants, since they are the ones with access to the important monetarydata and information systems needed for management accounting activities, must to improve both theirability to verify the quality of such information and the skills to use that information for decision making.

  8. Does problem complexity matter for environmental policy delivery? How public authorities address problems of water governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschke, Sabrina; Newig, Jens; Völker, Jeanette; Borchardt, Dietrich

    2017-03-08

    Problem complexity is often assumed to hamper effective environmental policy delivery. However, this claim is hardly substantiated, given the dominance of qualitative small-n designs in environmental governance research. We studied 37 types of contemporary problems defined by German water governance to assess the impact of problem complexity on policy delivery through public authorities. The analysis is based on a unique data set related to these problems, encompassing both in-depth interview-based data on complexities and independent official data on policy delivery. Our findings show that complexity in fact tends to delay implementation at the stage of planning. However, different dimensions of complexity (goals, variables, dynamics, interconnections, and uncertainty) impact on the different stages of policy delivery (goal formulation, stages and degrees of implementation) in various ways.

  9. Energy and environmental policy in a competitive marketplace: The role of the national labs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastman, D.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper is one of three keynote presentations given at the conference. The recent history of energy and environmental markets is briefly summarized, and factors affecting future policy are discussed. The emphasis of the address is on issues influencing or influenced by the US DOE. Some of the major items addressed are the need for a national energy policy; flexibility and multiple capabilities in energy supply, distribution, and use; and effective research and development. Trends in research and development funding are also discussed.

  10. On the margins of soy farms : traditional populations and selective environmental policies in the Brazilian Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Eloy, Ludivine; Aubertin, Catherine; Toni, Fabiano; Lucio, Silvia; Bosgiraud, Marion

    2016-01-01

    International audience; In the Cerrado, the expansion of soybean cultivation since the 1990s has coincided withthe strengthening of environmental regulations. We analyze how the two mainenvironmental policies – Protected Areas and the Forest Code – have played out at theground level in western Bahia state. These policies in Cerrado have not been designedto curb the expansion of this agricultural frontier. These norms have, on the contrary,accommodated this expansion because the way environmen...

  11. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A. [ed.; Fosmire, C.J.; Fowler, R.A. [and others

    1998-09-01

    This document describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site environment and is numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in Hanford Site NEPA related documents. The document is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many NEPA documents that are being prepared by contractors. The two chapters in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered this way to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Site-related NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes the Hanford Site environment, and includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes applicable federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site.

  12. Natural Resource Accounting Systems and Environmental Policy Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Cabe; Johnson, Stanley R

    1990-01-01

    Natural Resource Accounting (RCA) combines national income and product accounting concepts with analysis of natural resource and environmental issues. This paper considers this approach for the RCA Appraisal required by the Soil and Water Resources Conservation Act. Recent natural resource accounting literature is examined in light of requirements of the RCA Appraisal. The paper provides a critique of the economic content of the Second RCA Appraisal and develops a natural resource accounting ...

  13. Governance and the Gulf of Mexico Coast: How Are Current Policies Contributing to Sustainability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Jordan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The quality of life and economies of coastal communities depend, to a great degree, on the ecological integrity of coastal ecosystems. Paradoxically, as more people are drawn to the coasts, these ecosystems and the services they provide are increasingly stressed by development and human use. Employing the coastal Gulf of Mexico as an example, we explore through three case studies how government policies contribute to preventing, mitigating, or exacerbating the degradation of coastal ecosystems. We consider the effectiveness of the current systems, what alternate or additional policy solutions might be needed to ensure the sustainability of the region and its quality of life, and what this example can tell us about the sustainability of coastal systems globally. In our examples, among other aspects, policies that are proactive and networked governance structures are observed to favor sustainable outcomes, in contrast to reactive policies and hierarchical models of governance.

  14. Economic and Environmental Evaluation of Farm Bill Policy Options Using the CEEPES-FAPRI Modeling System, An

    OpenAIRE

    P. G. Lakshminarayan; Bruce A. Babcock

    1995-01-01

    This report estimates the economic and environmental trade-offs of the 1995 Farm Bill policy options evaluated by FAPRI. Assessments are provided for the 1995 FAPRI baseline, 25 percent Normal Flex, and the Revenue Assurance program. The authors describe the modeling systems and the CEEPES-FAPRI linkage, delineate the policy options and their likely economic and environmental impacts, and discuss predicted economic and environmental impacts of these policy options.

  15. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohay, A.C.; Fosmire, C.J.; Neitzel, D.A.; Hoitink, D.J.; Harvey, D.W.; Antonio, E.J.; Wright, M.K.; Thorne, P.D.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Fowler, R.A.; Goodwin, S.M.; Poston, T.M.

    1999-09-28

    This document describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many NEPA documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No conclusions or recommendations are provided. This year's report is the eleventh revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the 12th revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA; SEPA and CERCLA documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Site-related NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomic; occupational safety, and noise. Sources for extensive tabular data related to these topics are provided in the chapter. Most subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information, where available, of the 100,200,300, and other Areas. This division allows the reader to go directly to those sections of particular interest. When specific information on each of these separate areas is not complete or available, the general Hanford Site description should be used. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) is essentially a definitive NEPA Chapter 6.0, which describes applicable federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. People preparing environmental assessments and EISs should also be cognizant of the document entitled ''Recommendations for the Preparation of Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact

  16. Scientific authority in policy contexts: Public attitudes about environmental scientists, medical researchers, and economists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Timothy L

    2013-10-01

    This paper uses data from the US General Social Survey to examine public support for scientists in policy contexts and its link to scientific disciplines. An analysis of attitudes about the amount of influence that environmental scientists, two kinds of medical researchers, and economists should have over policy decisions reveals that in each discipline the extent to which scientists are thought to serve the nation's best interests is the strongest determinant of attitudes about scientists as policy advisors. Perceptions of scientists' technical knowledge and the level of consensus in the scientific community also have direct, albeit weaker effects on opinions about scientists' appropriate roles in policy settings. Whereas previous research has stressed the importance of local variability in understanding the transfer of scientific authority across institutional boundaries, these results point to considerable homogeneity in the social bases of scientific authority in policy contexts.

  17. Three Essays on Energy Efficiency and Environmental Policies in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamtessa, Samuel

    2011-09-01

    This thesis is organized into five Chapters. In Chapter 1, we provide an introduction. In Chapter 2, we present a study on residential energy-efficiency retrofits in Canada. We describe the EnerGuide for Houses data and model household decisions to invest in energy-efficiency retrofits. Our results show that government financial incentives have important positive effects. The decision to invest in energy-efficiency retrofits is positively related to potential energy cost savings and negatively related to the costs of the retrofits. We find that household characteristics such as the age composition of household members are important factors. All else remaining constant, low income households are more likely to undertake energy-efficiency retrofits. In the third Chapter, we present our study on price-induced energy efficiency improvements in Canadian manufacturing. Our study employs a new approach to the estimation of price-induced energy efficiency improvements and the results have important empirical and policy implications. In the fourth chapter, we present our study on the implications of the "shale gas revolution" on Alberta greenhouse gas emission abatement strategy. Given that the strategy is centered on deployment of CCS technologies, we analyze the effects of the declines in natural gas price on CCS deployment in the electricity sector. We use the CIMS simulation model to simulate various policy scenarios under high and low natural gas price assumptions. Comparison of the results shows that CCS market penetration in the electricity sector is very minimal in the low natural gas price scenario even when a 50% cost subsidy is applied. Accordingly, there is little gain from subsidizing CCS given the "shale gas revolution." We provide a few concluding remarks in Chapter 5.

  18. Cigarettes Butts and the Case for an Environmental Policy on Hazardous Cigarette Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Barnes

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Discarded cigarette butts are a form of non-biodegradable litter. Carried as runoff from streets to drains, to rivers, and ultimately to the ocean and its beaches, cigarette filters are the single most collected item in international beach cleanups each year. They are an environmental blight on streets, sidewalks, and other open areas. Rather than being a protective health device, cigarette filters are primarily a marketing tool to help sell ‘safe’ cigarettes. They are perceived by much of the public (especially current smokers to reduce the health risks of smoking through technology. Filters have reduced the machine-measured yield of tar and nicotine from burning cigarettes, but there is controversy as to whether this has correspondingly reduced the disease burden of smoking to the population. Filters actually may serve to sustain smoking by making it seem less urgent for smokers to quit and easier for children to initiate smoking because of reduced irritation from early experimentation. Several options are available to reduce the environmental impact of cigarette butt waste, including developing biodegradable filters, increasing fines and penalties for littering butts, monetary deposits on filters, increasing availability of butt receptacles, and expanded public education. It may even be possible to ban the sale of filtered cigarettes altogether on the basis of their adverse environmental impact. This option may be attractive in coastal regions where beaches accumulate butt waste and where smoking indoors is increasingly prohibited. Additional research is needed on the various policy options, including behavioral research on the impact of banning the sale of filtered cigarettes altogether.

  19. Cigarettes butts and the case for an environmental policy on hazardous cigarette waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Thomas E; Lum, Kristen; Smith, Elizabeth; Wang, Vivian; Barnes, Richard

    2009-05-01

    Discarded cigarette butts are a form of non-biodegradable litter. Carried as runoff from streets to drains, to rivers, and ultimately to the ocean and its beaches, cigarette filters are the single most collected item in international beach cleanups each year. They are an environmental blight on streets, sidewalks, and other open areas. Rather than being a protective health device, cigarette filters are primarily a marketing tool to help sell 'safe' cigarettes. They are perceived by much of the public (especially current smokers) to reduce the health risks of smoking through technology. Filters have reduced the machine-measured yield of tar and nicotine from burning cigarettes, but there is controversy as to whether this has correspondingly reduced the disease burden of smoking to the population. Filters actually may serve to sustain smoking by making it seem less urgent for smokers to quit and easier for children to initiate smoking because of reduced irritation from early experimentation. Several options are available to reduce the environmental impact of cigarette butt waste, including developing biodegradable filters, increasing fines and penalties for littering butts, monetary deposits on filters, increasing availability of butt receptacles, and expanded public education. It may even be possible to ban the sale of filtered cigarettes altogether on the basis of their adverse environmental impact. This option may be attractive in coastal regions where beaches accumulate butt waste and where smoking indoors is increasingly prohibited. Additional research is needed on the various policy options, including behavioral research on the impact of banning the sale of filtered cigarettes altogether.

  20. Environmental policy-making networks and the future of the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Maria Carmen; Roberts, J Timmons

    2008-05-27

    This article examines four periods of environmental policy-making in the Amazon region of Brazil. It specifically analyses the role of pro-environment and pro-development policy networks in affecting policy design and implementation. It argues that the efforts of environmentalist networks trying to advocate or block relative developmentalist policies in the Amazon depend on three critical factors-whether they are able to attract the support of elites (or at least block their developmentalist policy initiatives); the type and level of international support they have; and the organizational and financial resources that they are able to mobilize. In analysing the four periods, this article finds that while international influences and resources have been substantial in enabling environmentalist networks to flourish and influence the policy, their effectiveness has been nearly always outweighed by Brazilian developmentalist interests. The outcome in each phase has been a different form of stalemate on environmental protection, and the deforestation continued each time, albeit at slower rates. These findings suggest that the key for significantly lower rates of deforestation on the Amazon may be in the ability of pro-environment networks to neutralize opposition by creating an incentive structure that 'compensates' potential losers of policies that promote conservation.

  1. Short-run analysis of fiscal policy and the current account in a finite horizon model

    OpenAIRE

    Heng-fu Zou

    1995-01-01

    This paper utilizes a technique developed by Judd to quantify the short-run effects of fiscal policies and income shocks on the current account in a small open economy. It is found that: (1) a future increase in government spending improves the short-run current account; (2) a future tax increase worsens the short-run current account; (3) a present increase in the government spending worsens the short-run current account dollar by dollar, while a present increase in the income improves the cu...

  2. Environmental Assessment for power marketing policy for Southwestern Power Administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) needs to renew expiring power sales contracts with new term (10 year) sales contracts. The existing contracts have been in place for several years and many will expire over the next ten years. Southwestern completed an Environmental Assessment on the existing power allocation in June, 1979 (a copy of the EA is attached), and there are no proposed additions of any major new generation resources, service to discrete major new loads, or major changes in operating parameters, beyond those included in the existing power allocation. Impacts from a no action plan, proposed alternative, and market power for less than 10 years are described.

  3. Stakeholder perceptions of scientists: Lake Tahoe environmental policy from 1984 to 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weible, Christopher M

    2007-12-01

    What factors explain stakeholders' perceptions of scientists in environmental politics? Questionnaire data are used to examine stakeholders' views of scientific experts in the context of Lake Tahoe environmental policy from 1984 to 2001. Stakeholders' perceptions of scientists have remained the same over time - despite a shift from adversarial to collaborative policymaking and after decades of mounting scientific evidence showing water quality declines. On average, stakeholders perceive scientists with limited influence on Lake Tahoe environmental policy and view them with mixed levels of skepticism. Stakeholders' evaluation of scientists is best explained by their beliefs about development versus the environment. Stakeholders in favor of more land development express distrust of scientists and negatively evaluate university researchers and consultants. Stakeholders in favor of environmental protection are more likely to trust scientists and positively evaluate university researchers and consultants.

  4. Soft regulations in pharmaceutical policy making : an overview of current approaches and their consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wettermark, B.; Godman, B.; Jacobsson, B.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F.M.

    2009-01-01

    It is a challenge to improve public health within limited resources. Pharmaceutical policy making is a greater challenge due to conflicting interests between key stakeholder groups. This paper reviews current and future strategies to help improve the quality and efficiency of care, with special emph

  5. Current Trends in Malaysian Higher Education and the Effect on Education Policy and Practice: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapragasem, Selvaraj; Krishnan, Anbalagan; Mansor, Azlin Norhaini

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia has evolved from a production-based to knowledge-based economy in order to stay relevant and compete in the global marketplace. Thus, the purpose of this article is to discuss current trends in Malaysian higher education and how these affect education policies and practices. Four main trends are discussed in this study: Globalization,…

  6. Place of Diversity in the Current Ethiopian Education and Training Policy: Analysis of Cardinal Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sime, Tariku; Latchanna, Gara

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate to what extent the diversity dimensions are addressed in the current Education and Training Policy. To that end, document analysis was employed. The major diversity dimensions were analyzed based on their cardinal features. The study demonstrated that there is an ambitious need to address issues of…

  7. Strategic environmental noise mapping: methodological issues concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive and their policy implications.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, E

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores methodological issues and policy implications concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive (END) across Member States. Methodologically, the paper focuses on two key thematic issues relevant to the Directive: (1) calculation methods and (2) mapping methods. For (1), the paper focuses, in particular, on how differing calculation methods influence noise prediction results as well as the value of the EU noise indicator L(den) and its associated implications for comparability of noise data across EU states. With regard to (2), emphasis is placed on identifying the issues affecting strategic noise mapping, estimating population exposure, noise action planning and dissemination of noise mapping results to the general public. The implication of these issues for future environmental noise policy is also examined.

  8. Strategic environmental noise mapping: methodological issues concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive and their policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E; King, E A

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores methodological issues and policy implications concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive (END) across Member States. Methodologically, the paper focuses on two key thematic issues relevant to the Directive: (1) calculation methods and (2) mapping methods. For (1), the paper focuses, in particular, on how differing calculation methods influence noise prediction results as well as the value of the EU noise indicator L(den) and its associated implications for comparability of noise data across EU states. With regard to (2), emphasis is placed on identifying the issues affecting strategic noise mapping, estimating population exposure, noise action planning and dissemination of noise mapping results to the general public. The implication of these issues for future environmental noise policy is also examined. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The energy efficiency and environmental protection campaign demands policy incentives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The hottest topic now among Europe's automotive industry is CO2. The European Union has set the goal. By 2012, all Europe-based car makers would have to reduce the per car CO2 level to as low as 120-130g/km from the current 160g/km.

  10. Technological change, depletion and environmental policy in the offshore oil and gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managi, Shunsuke

    Technological change is central to maintaining standards of living in modern economies with finite resources and increasingly stringent environmental goals. Successful environmental policies can contribute to efficiency by encouraging, rather than inhibiting, technological innovation. However, little research to date has focused on the design and implementation of environmental regulations that encourage technological progress, or in insuring productivity improvements in the face of depletion of natural resources and increasing stringency of environmental regulations. This study models and measures productivity change, with an application to offshore oil and gas production in the Gulf of Mexico using Data Envelopment Analysis. This is an important application because energy resources are central to sustaining our economy. The net effects of technological progress and depletion on productivity of offshore oil and gas production are measured using a unique field-level set of data of production from all wells in the Gulf of Mexico over the time period from 1946--1998. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that technological progress has mitigated depletion effects over the study period, but the pattern differs from the conventional wisdom for nonrenewable resource industries. The Porter Hypothesis was recast, and revised version was tested. The Porter Hypothesis states that well designed environmental regulations can potentially contribute to productive efficiency in the long run by encouraging innovation. The Porter Hypothesis was recast to include market and nonmarket outputs. Our results support the recast version of Porter hypothesis, which examine productivity of joint production of market and environmental outputs. But we find no evidence for the standard formulation of the Porter hypothesis, that increased stringency of environmental regulation lead to increased productivity of market outputs and therefore increased industry profits. The model is used to

  11. The impact of environmental policy on economic indicators. Moving from global to sectoral and regional perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, Sebastian

    2013-07-01

    In recent times, environmental, energy and climate policies have gained tremendously in importance. Not least, this is due to the latest research findings related to climate change and the resulting growing environmental awareness among people. However, policy approaches to combat environmental pollution and climate change differ both in their intention and in their economic impacts. For instance, command-and-control instruments such as performance or technology standards have different implications than market-based mechanisms such as permit trading of greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, sectoral and regional characteristics play an important role when implementing and assessing policy measures. This applies both to the attainability of the targets and to the available instruments. The present doctoral thesis addresses this point and analyzes in several essays different policy instruments and their economic effects from global, regional and sectoral perspectives. In this respect, it deals with various, often very heterogeneous question: How are specific policy types implemented in different countries? What is the CO2 abatement potential in specific regions and sectors? What policy measures can be plausibly used to exploit this potential? How can technological developments and technology-directed policy interventions contribute to improve energy efficiency? Does the promotion of certain energy sources necessarily create positive production and employment effects? To answer these and further questions, different economic methods are applied that accommodate the particular problem, where special emphasis is put on computable general equilibrium modeling. The aim of this work is to contribute to the academic and political debate on measures to combat environmental and climate problems.

  12. SOCIAL LEGITIMACY VERSUS BUSINESS PERFORMANCE IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY POLICIES OF ANDALUSIAN GOLF COURSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José, Riquel Ligero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts an analysis of organizational motivations when developing policies for environmental liability. Specifically, to compare the production of social legitimacy to the improvement of organizational performance, we proceeded to test two models in a sector which in recent years has opened a wide debate on environmental sustainability. We refer to golf tourism in Andalusia, in which there has been a considerable increase in such facilities. We have used the statistical technique Partial Least Square (PLS.

  13. A policy model to initiate environmental negotiations: Three hydropower workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Berton Lee; Taylor, Jonathan G.; Burkardt, Nina; Ponds, Phadrea D.

    1998-01-01

    How do I get started in natural resource negotiations? Natural resource managers often face difficult negotiations when they implement laws and policies regulating such resources as water, wildlife, wetlands, endangered species, and recreation. As a result of these negotiations, managers must establish rules, grant permits, or create management plans. The Legal‐Institutional Analysis Model (LIAM) was designed to assist managers in systematically analyzing the parties in natural resource negotiations and using that analysis to prepare for bargaining. The LIAM relies on the theory that organizations consistently employ behavioral roles. The model uses those roles to predict likely negotiation behavior. One practical use of the LIAM is when all parties to a negotiation conduct a workshop as a way to open the bargaining on a note of trust and mutual understanding. The process and results of three LIAM workshops designed to guide hydroelectric power licensing negotiations are presented. Our experience with these workshops led us to conclude that the LIAM can be an effective tool to begin a negotiation and that trust built through the workshops can help create a successful result.

  14. Can all cause readmission policy improve quality or lower expenditures? A historical perspective on current initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, James F; Hockenberry, Jason M

    2014-04-01

    All-cause readmission to inpatient care is of wide policy interest in the United States and a number of other countries (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, in the United Kingdom by the National Centre for Health Outcomes Development, and in Australia by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare). Contemporary policy efforts, including high powered incentives embedded in the current US Hospital Readmission Reduction Program, and the organizationally complex interventions derived in anticipation of this policy, have been touted based on potential cost savings. Strong incentives and resulting interventions may not enjoy the support of a strong theoretical model or the empirical research base that are typical of strong incentive schemes. We examine the historical broad literature on the issue, lay out a 'full' conceptual organizational model of patient transitions as they relate to the hospital, and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of previous and proposed policies. We use this to set out a research and policy agenda on this critical issue rather than attempt to conduct a comprehensive structured literature review. We assert that researchers and policy makers should consider more fundamental societal issues related to health, social support and health literacy if progress is going to be made in reducing readmissions.

  15. Material research for environmental sustainability in Thailand: current trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranatlumpong, Panadda; Ramangul, Nudjarin; Dulyaprapan, Pongsak; Nivitchanyong, Siriluck; Udomkitdecha, Werasak

    2015-06-01

    This article covers recent developments of material research in Thailand with a focus on environmental sustainability. Data on Thailand’s consumption and economic growth are briefly discussed to present a relevant snapshot of its economy. A selection of research work is classified into three topics, namely, (a) resource utilization, (b) material engineering and manufacturing, and (c) life cycle efficiency. Material technologies have been developed and implemented to reduce the consumption of materials, energy, and other valuable resources, thus reducing the burden we place on our ecological system. At the same time, product life cycle study allows us to understand the extent of the environmental impact we impart to our planet.

  16. Material research for environmental sustainability in Thailand: current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranatlumpong, Panadda; Ramangul, Nudjarin; Dulyaprapan, Pongsak; Nivitchanyong, Siriluck; Udomkitdecha, Werasak

    2015-06-01

    This article covers recent developments of material research in Thailand with a focus on environmental sustainability. Data on Thailand's consumption and economic growth are briefly discussed to present a relevant snapshot of its economy. A selection of research work is classified into three topics, namely, (a) resource utilization, (b) material engineering and manufacturing, and (c) life cycle efficiency. Material technologies have been developed and implemented to reduce the consumption of materials, energy, and other valuable resources, thus reducing the burden we place on our ecological system. At the same time, product life cycle study allows us to understand the extent of the environmental impact we impart to our planet.

  17. Current status of alcohol marketing policy--an urgent challenge for global governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casswell, Sally

    2012-03-01

    To review research literature and available information on the extent and impacts of marketing, current policy response and the interests engaged in the policy debate in order to inform recommendations for policy change on alcohol marketing. Relevant literature, including systematic reviews and publicly available information (websites and participant observation) is reviewed and synthesized. Alcohol marketing has expanded markedly in the past 50 years and, while there remains uncertainty about the impact across the population, there is now clear evidence of its impact on the consumption of young people. Few countries have effective policy in place restricting alcohol marketing, and there is a lack of an international response to alcohol marketing which crosses national boundaries. The protection of alcohol marketing has been a major focus for vested interest groups and this has affected governmental response at national and international levels. There has been a lack of non-governmental organization engagement. The policy response to tobacco marketing provides a clear contrast to that of alcohol marketing policy and provides a model for alcohol marketing policy. The global exposure of young people to alcohol marketing requires an urgent policy response. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provides an appropriate model for global governance to control alcohol marketing. There are extant examples of national level legislation achieving comprehensive bans with France's Loi Evin providing a feasible model. Resources from philanthropic organizations to allow non-governmental organization engagement are urgently required, as is engagement by the governmental sector independent of commercial influence. © 2012 The Author, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Geothermal Development and the Use of Categorical Exclusions Under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, A.; Young, K. R.

    2014-09-01

    The federal environmental review process under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) can be complex and time consuming. Currently, a geothermal developer may have to complete the NEPA process multiple times during the development of a geothermal project. One mechanism to reduce the timeframe of the federal environmental review process for activities that do not have a significant environmental impact is the use of Categorical Exclusions (CXs), which can exempt projects from having to complete an Environmental Assessment or Environmental Impact Statement. This study focuses primarily on the CX process and its applicability to geothermal exploration. In this paper, we: Provide generalized background information on CXs, including previous NEPA reports addressing CXs, the process for developing CXs, and the role of extraordinary circumstances; Examine the history of the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) geothermal CXs; Compare current CXs for oil, gas, and geothermal energy; Describe bills proposing new statutory CXs; Examine the possibility of standardizing geothermal CXs across federal agencies; and Present analysis from the Geothermal NEPA Database and other sources on the potential for new geothermal exploration CXs. As part of this study, we reviewed Environmental Assessments (EAs) conducted in response to 20 geothermal exploration drilling permit applications (Geothermal Drilling Permits or Notices of Intents) since the year 2001, the majority of which are from the last 5 years. All 20 EAs reviewed for this study resulted in a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). While many of these FONS's involved proponent proposed or federal agency required mitigation, this still suggests it may be appropriate to create or expand an exploration drilling CX for geothermal, which would have a significant impact on reducing geothermal exploration timelines and up-front costs. Ultimately, federal agencies tasked with permitting and completing

  19. Upending the social ecological model to guide health promotion efforts toward policy and environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Shelley D; McLeroy, Kenneth R; Green, Lawrence W; Earp, Jo Anne L; Lieberman, Lisa D

    2015-04-01

    Efforts to change policies and the environments in which people live, work, and play have gained increasing attention over the past several decades. Yet health promotion frameworks that illustrate the complex processes that produce health-enhancing structural changes are limited. Building on the experiences of health educators, community activists, and community-based researchers described in this supplement and elsewhere, as well as several political, social, and behavioral science theories, we propose a new framework to organize our thinking about producing policy, environmental, and other structural changes. We build on the social ecological model, a framework widely employed in public health research and practice, by turning it inside out, placing health-related and other social policies and environments at the center, and conceptualizing the ways in which individuals, their social networks, and organized groups produce a community context that fosters healthy policy and environmental development. We conclude by describing how health promotion practitioners and researchers can foster structural change by (1) conveying the health and social relevance of policy and environmental change initiatives, (2) building partnerships to support them, and (3) promoting more equitable distributions of the resources necessary for people to meet their daily needs, control their lives, and freely participate in the public sphere.

  20. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide.Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposur...

  1. Current developments in environmental psychology : topics and researchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werff, Ellen; Perlaviciute, Goda; Muinos, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this special issue is to bring the work of early-career researchers in environmental psychology to the spotlight. These young researchers come from different countries and cultures, have their own theoretical approaches and employ different research methods to increase knowledge on the re

  2. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide.Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposur...

  3. Global forces and local currents in Argentina's science policy crossroads: restricted access or open knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Javier Etchichury

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the tensions between two competing approaches to scientific policy in Argentina. The traditional vision favors autonomous research. The neoliberal conception fosters the link between science and markets. In the past few years, a neodevelopmentalist current also tries to stress relevance of scientific research. Finally, the article describes how the Open Access movement has entered the debate. The World Bank intervention and the human rights dimension of the question are discussed in depth. The article introduces the notion of open knowledge as a guiding criterion to design a human-rights based scientific policy.

  4. Changes in environmental policy and mountain tourism in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Sacareau

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Against a backdrop of environmental crisis, attributed to the impact of tourism and the practices of rural populations, Nepal has created protected areas with a view to preserving the Himalayan environment and promoting sustainable tourism in the regions concerned. Given the conflicts between conservation needs and development needs, local communities are now being given a bigger role in the governance of these protected areas. Yet the measures being taken simply accompany and guide well-established tourism dynamics that operate on a much greater scale. Trekking is thus a tourism system largely in the hands of the country’s mountain communities and is an activity that has enabled these communities to improve their living conditions while at the same time limiting environmental impacts. In this sense it is very much in line with the principles of sustainable development.Le développement du trekking au Népal a suscité des inquiétudes qui ont abouti à la création d’aires protégées sur la foi d’un scénario de crise environnementale dont les touristes et les paysans étaient jugés responsables. Devant les conflits entre la conservation et les nécessités de développement des régions concernées, la gouvernance des aires protégées a évolué dans le sens d’une meilleure prise en compte des sociétés locales. Pour autant les mesures prises ne font qu’accompagner et diriger des dynamiques touristiques plus anciennes qui s’exercent à des échelles plus vastes. Le trekking constitue ainsi un système touristique très largement aux mains des sociétés montagnardes du pays qui a permis l’amélioration de leurs conditions de vie tout en limitant ses impacts environnementaux. En ce sens le trekking répond assez largement aux principes du développement durable.

  5. Environmental policy instruments in an international duopoly with feedback investment strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, T; Kort, PM; de Zeeuw, A

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of the environmental policy instruments taxes and standards on the investment behaviour of firms in the context of an international duopoly. Two production factors are considered: the capital stock and a polluting input. The government of each country values high prof

  6. Payment for environmental services: mobilising an epistemic community to construct dominant policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez de Francisco, J.C.; Boelens, R.

    2015-01-01

    The alleged capacity of Payment for Environmental Services (PES) to reach conservation policy goals, while reducing poverty in a cost-effective manner, makes it an extremely attractive development instrument for policymakers and international funding agencies. This article reconstructs the process o

  7. Environmental and Sustainability Education Policy Research: A Systematic Review of Methodological and Thematic Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikens, Kathleen; McKenzie, Marcia; Vaughter, Philip

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a systematic literature review of policy research in the area of environmental and sustainability education. We analyzed 215 research articles, spanning four decades and representing 71 countries, and which engaged a range of methodologies. Our analysis combines quantification of geographic and methodological trends with…

  8. Payment for Environmental Services: mobilising an epistemic community to construct dominant policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez de Francisco, J.C.; Boelens, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    The alleged capacity of Payment for Environmental Services (PES) to reach conservation policy goals, while reducing poverty in a cost-effective manner, makes it an extremely attractive development instrument for policymakers and international funding agencies. This article reconstructs the process o

  9. Environmental Policy in an International Duopoly : An Analysis of Feedback Investment Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, T.L.; Kort, P.M.; de Zeeuw, A.J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses environmental policy instruments in a differential-game model of international trade with oligopolistic competition. Strategic interactions occur if firms use feedback strategies and therefore react on decisions of their competitor. Eventually this harms firm profits, because al

  10. Joint environmental policy making and sustainable practices for the cardboard production: case study: Smurfit Kappa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpio-Aguilar, J.C.; Franco-Garcia, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This paper presents an analysis of the influence of “Joint Environmental Policy-making” (JEP) in the operation of the company Smurfit Kappa (SK) in The Netherlands, Austria and Denmark (NL&AD). The paper aims to answer the question: to what extend has different levels of jointness and volu

  11. Environmental Responsibility and Policy in a Two Country Dynamic Input-Output Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Rutger; Janssen, Marco A.

    2002-01-01

    Increased spatial dependency of economic activities, as well as spatial differentiation of production and consumption, has implication for environmental policy. One of the issues that has gained importance is the responsibility for the emissions from products that cross national boundaries during it

  12. Impacts of Novel Protein Foods on Sustainable Food Production and Consumption: Lifestyle Change and Environmental Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, X.; Wesenbeeck, van A.J.M.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2006-01-01

    We analyse the impacts of a change in consumers¿ preference for Novel Protein Foods (NPFs), i.e. a lifestyle change with respect to meat consumption, and the impacts of environmental policies e.g. tradable emission permits for greenhouse gases (GHGs) or an EU ammonia (NH3) emission bound per hectare

  13. Borrowing green : economic and environmental effects of green fiscal policy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the economic and environmental impact of a policy instrument that is related to the tax deductibility of interest returns and dividend yields from specified 'green' projects. We investigate this so-called 'Green Project Facility' (Regeling Groenprojecten) in the Netherlands durin

  14. Environmental and Sustainability Education Policy Research: A Systematic Review of Methodological and Thematic Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikens, Kathleen; McKenzie, Marcia; Vaughter, Philip

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a systematic literature review of policy research in the area of environmental and sustainability education. We analyzed 215 research articles, spanning four decades and representing 71 countries, and which engaged a range of methodologies. Our analysis combines quantification of geographic and methodological trends with…

  15. Amplifying Public Opinion: The Policy Impact of the U.S. Environmental Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnone, Jon

    2007-01-01

    Time-series data from 1960-1998 is used to test hypotheses regarding the impact of protest and public opinion on the passage of U.S. environmental legislation. An amplification model of policy impact is introduced which posits that protest affects legislative action independent of public opinion as suggested by protest event theorists, whereas the…

  16. Valuing Environmental Decay : Quantitative Policy-oriented Studies on Urban and Rural Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travisi, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    By filling the gaps in research, the studies described in this thesis focus on a number of open policy issues in the context of urban and rural environments. With a retrospective look at the process of economic valuation and its integration within environmental decision making, this thesis brings u

  17. Joint environmental policy making and sustainable practices for the cardboard production: case study: Smurfit Kappa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpio-Aguilar, J.C.; Franco Garcia, Maria Maria

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This paper presents an analysis of the influence of “Joint Environmental Policy-making” (JEP) in the operation of the company Smurfit Kappa (SK) in The Netherlands, Austria and Denmark (NL&AD). The paper aims to answer the question: to what extend has different levels of jointness and

  18. Worksite Characteristics and Environmental and Policy Supports for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in New York State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Brissette, PhD

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionWorksite policy and environmental supports that promote physical activity, healthy eating, stress management, and preventive health screenings can contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease and lower employer costs. This study examines the availability of these four categories of supports in a statewide survey of New York State worksites.MethodsIn 2002, we recruited a statewide sample of worksites in New York State with 75 or more employees to participate in a mailed survey assessing worksite policy and environmental supports for wellness and health promotion. The overall response rate was 34.8%. The analysis included data from 832 worksites.ResultsWorksite size was an independent predictor of health promotion supports with small (75–99 employees and medium-small (100–199 employees worksites reporting significantly fewer policy and environmental supports in all four categories than worksites with 300 or more employees. Worksites in which most employees were nonwhite reported fewer supports for physical activity, healthy eating, and stress management than worksites in which most employees were white. A wellness committee or wellness coordinator was associated with more health promotion supports, regardless of the size of the worksite or composition of its workforce.ConclusionWorksites with fewer than 200 employees have an increased need for assistance in establishing environmental and policy supports promoting cardiovascular health. Worksites that have a wellness committee or coordinator are better able to establish and sustain supports with the potential to improve the health of their workers.

  19. Tools for integrating environmental objectives into policy and practice: What works where?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, Hens

    2016-01-01

    An abundance of approaches, strategies, and instruments – in short: tools – have been developed that intend to stimulate or facilitate the integration of a variety of environmental objectives into development planning, national or regional sectoral policies, international agreements, business strate

  20. Structural Approaches to Health Promotion: What Do We Need to Know about Policy and Environmental Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Lisa; Golden, Shelley D.; Earp, Jo Anne L.

    2013-01-01

    Although the public health literature has increasingly called on practitioners to implement changes to social, environmental, and political structures as a means of improving population health, recent research suggests that articles evaluating organization, community, or policy changes are more limited than those focused on programs with…

  1. Towards a Framework for Analysing Interactions between Social Science and Environmental Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Sarah; Murphy, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between social science and environmental policy have become increasingly important over the past 25 years. There has, however, been little analysis of the roles that social scientists adopt and the contributions they make. In this paper we begin the process, offering tentative answers to two key questions: in relation to environmental…

  2. New perspectives on agri-environmental policies; a multidisicplinary and transatlantic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goetz, S.J.; Brouwer, F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Significant advances have occurred in recent years in Europe and in North America in addressing agri-environmental policies. Land use issues tend to be more pressing in Europe than in the US as a whole because of different spatial exigencies. Because these advances have taken place within individual

  3. Payment for Environmental Services: mobilising an epistemic community to construct dominant policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez de Francisco, J.C.; Boelens, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    The alleged capacity of Payment for Environmental Services (PES) to reach conservation policy goals, while reducing poverty in a cost-effective manner, makes it an extremely attractive development instrument for policymakers and international funding agencies. This article reconstructs the process o

  4. Strict Liability Versus Policy and Regulation for Environmental Protection and Agricultural Waste Management in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Bakri Ishak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Basically, strict liability is part of the mechanism for expressing judgment or sentence by using direct evidence. This principle is very useful in order to obtain remedies from any damage either directly or indirectly. The principle in Rylands v Fletcher is responsible on imposing strict liability where if something brought onto land or collected there escapes liability under this rule can include not only the owner of land but also those who control or occupation on it. However, as a matter of fact, policy and regulation are also important in taking any action against any party who are responsible for environmental pollution or damage, which may include mismanagement of waste or industrial waste or agricultural waste. There are certain policies and regulations on environmental protection such as the National Environmental Policy, certain Acts and several regulations under the Environmental Quality Act 1974 (Act 127, which are very useful for agricultural waste management inter alia: Waters Act 1920 (Act 418, Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises (Crude Palm Oil Regulations 1977, Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises (Raw Natural Rubber Regulations 1978, Environmental Quality (Sewage and Industrial Effluents Regulations 1979, and Environmental Quality (Compounding of Offences Rules 1978. As a matter of fact, we should realize that time is of an essence for any parties which are involved in court cases and especially in avoiding the element of externality, which is commonly suffered by the government. In making this paper, therefore, some element of comparison with certain developed jurisdiction such as in the United Kingdom and Japan could not be avoided in order to obtain better outcome and to be more practical for the purpose of environmental protection and agricultural waste management.

  5. A qualitative analysis of environmental policy and children's health in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramirez Martha

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Mexico's joining the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD in 1994, it has witnessed rapid industrialization. A byproduct of this industrialization is increasing population exposure to environmental pollutants, of which some have been associated with childhood disease. We therefore identified and assessed the adequacy of existing international and Mexican governance instruments and policy tools to protect children from environmental hazards. Methods We first systematically reviewed PubMed, the Mexican legal code and the websites of the United Nations, World Health Organization, NAFTA and OECD as of July 2007 to identify the relevant governance instruments, and analyzed the approach these instruments took to preventing childhood diseases of environmental origin. Secondly, we interviewed a purposive sample of high-level government officials, researchers and non-governmental organization representatives, to identify their opinions and attitudes towards children's environmental health and potential barriers to child-specific protective legislation and implementation. Results We identified only one policy tool describing specific measures to reduce developmental neurotoxicity and other children's health effects from lead. Other governance instruments mention children's unique vulnerability to ozone, particulate matter and carbon monoxide, but do not provide further details. Most interviewees were aware of Mexican environmental policy tools addressing children's health needs, but agreed that, with few exceptions, environmental policies do not address the specific health needs of children and pregnant women. Interviewees also cited state centralization of power, communication barriers and political resistance as reasons for the absence of a strong regulatory platform. Conclusions The Mexican government has not sufficiently accounted for children's unique

  6. Greek Primary School Teachers' Understanding of Current Environmental Issues: An Exploration of Their Environmental Knowledge and Images of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michail, Sirmo; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Stamou, George P.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the Greek primary school teachers' understanding of three current environmental issues (acid rain, the ozone layer depletion, and the greenhouse effect) as well as the emerging images of nature were examined. The study revealed that teachers held several environmental knowledge gaps and misconceptions about the three phenomena.…

  7. Greek Primary School Teachers' Understanding of Current Environmental Issues: An Exploration of Their Environmental Knowledge and Images of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michail, Sirmo; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Stamou, George P.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the Greek primary school teachers' understanding of three current environmental issues (acid rain, the ozone layer depletion, and the greenhouse effect) as well as the emerging images of nature were examined. The study revealed that teachers held several environmental knowledge gaps and misconceptions about the three phenomena.…

  8. Engaging with Comparative Risk Appraisals: Public Views on Policy Priorities for Environmental Risk Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocks, Sophie A; Schubert, Iljana; Soane, Emma; Black, Edgar; Muckle, Rachel; Petts, Judith; Prpich, George; Pollard, Simon J

    2017-03-17

    Communicating the rationale for allocating resources to manage policy priorities and their risks is challenging. Here, we demonstrate that environmental risks have diverse attributes and locales in their effects that may drive disproportionate responses among citizens. When 2,065 survey participants deployed summary information and their own understanding to assess 12 policy-level environmental risks singularly, their assessment differed from a prior expert assessment. However, participants provided rankings similar to those of experts when these same 12 risks were considered as a group, allowing comparison between the different risks. Following this, when individuals were shown the prior expert assessment of this portfolio, they expressed a moderate level of confidence with the combined expert analysis. These are important findings for the comprehension of policy risks that may be subject to augmentation by climate change, their representation alongside other threats within national risk assessments, and interpretations of agency for public risk management by citizens and others.

  9. Sustainable Rural Development Policy in Poland – Environmental Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosiej Józef

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses issues of sustainable development in rural areas in Poland from the perspective of natural resources management. Sustainable development of rural areas is the way of managing which links economic, social and ethical principles with ecological safety. This may be reached by proper management, directed on cautious usage of ecosystems’ self-controlling mechanisms, with the progress of science and technology. Agriculture in Poland is one of the most important sectors from an economic perspective and its importance is greater in Poland than in other countries in the EU. It has an influence not only on the social and economic situation of the rural population, but also on the natural environment, structure of landscape and biodiversity. From ecological point of view, functions of rural areas are not only being a place for production of food, resources for industry and green energy, but also supplying environmental goods such as protection of biodiversity and influencing air and water quality as well as landscape. The author presents ways to reduce the pressure of agricultural activities on water resources in the region, catchment and farm scale

  10. Environmental externality and inequality in China: current status and future choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Zhang, Sufang; Fan, Chunyang

    2014-07-01

    Along with China's rapid economic growth, the environmental externality in the country is getting more and more serious. China's environmental externality is accompanied by environmental inequality, which presents two characteristics: First, the health loss caused by environmental externality is concentrated in the elderly and children. We take Beijing as an empirical analysis to conclude that children (0-4 years old) are the largest group suffered from respiratory disease; while the seniors are the largest group suffered from cardiovascular disease. Second, China's environmental inequality is mainly caused by the transfer of industries from urban to rural areas/suburbs. The villagers in poor rural areas are the biggest victims. China's environmental inequality is reflected particularly by the phenomenon of "cancer villages" which has existed ever since the end of 1970s. Finally, policy recommendations are provided for reducing China's environmental externality and inequality.

  11. Hanford Site implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act: Activities tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killinger, M.H.; Selby, K.B.

    1989-06-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) environmental review process is mandatory for federal agencies. This report provides the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and the Hanford contractors with a method for tracking, integrating, and coordinating NEPA compliance activities at the Hanford Site. The environmental review process is briefly described and illustrated in a flow chart. The report then explains a method for developing project timecharts that show when documents or decision points were completed or are projected to be completed. The tracking system has been automated and placed on the Hanford Local Area Network (HLAN). Time schedules for many Hanford projects are available for viewing. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Voluntary agreements as instruments for international environmental policy; Frivillege avtaler som internasjonalt miljoepolitisk verkemiddel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torvanger, Asbjoern

    1997-12-31

    According to this report, voluntary agreements have a potential as instruments for environmental policy. Such agreements can be national or international. Through an international voluntary agreement the authorities in one country may make contracts with factories in another country about emission reductions against some kind of compensation. A supranational organisation of voluntary agreements may ensure equal environmental political conditions for factories in different countries and be a useful means for the regulation of environmental problems of regional or global extent. It is most realistic to establish a supranational system of voluntary agreements in a group of countries that have already institutionalized their relations, such as the European Union. 14 refs., 1 table

  13. The delusion of decoupling, and policy options for mitigating the rebound effect and the environmental impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    When analyzing environmental problems, it is useful to apply the following simple equation for the environmental impact ‘I’, (here representing energy consumption): I = P·A·T, With ‘P’ representing population, ‘A’ affluence per capita, and ‘T’ resource intensity, i.e. energy per affluence unit ‘A......’. All three factors are through the equation coupled to ‘I’, and in general we should avoid using the misleading terminology of decoupling environmental impact (energy consumption) from the economy, represented by ‘P·A’. So far essentially all policies towards lowering ‘I’ has been devoted towards...

  14. Inclusive pedagogy in Australian universities: A review of current policies and professional development activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Hitch

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on activities undertaken by Australian universities to support academic staff to provide inclusive teaching. The findings of two lines of inquiry are reported - a desktop audit of the presence of inclusive teaching or universal design for learning (UDL in publically available policies and procedures documents, and a survey of the methods adopted to build staff capacity to provide inclusive teaching and learning. Just over a third (34.21% of Australian universities referred to inclusive teaching or UDL in their policies and procedures. A wide range of current practices in professional development for inclusive teaching was reported, with the most frequent being one-off workshops focussing on accommodating specific groups of students. Improved institutional support through policies, procedures and professional development would enable Australian higher education teachers to provide quality inclusive teaching to all students.

  15. Current State of Environmental Education in Mexico: A Study on Practices, Audiences, Settings, and Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-Iga, Jose; Shaw, William

    2011-01-01

    Environmental education in Mexico takes many forms and plays a wide variety of roles. Through an online survey, we addressed the need to present a wider picture on the current state of environmental education practices in Mexico: Who is engaging in environmental education practices, how important is it for their organization, who are they…

  16. Current Trends in Environmental Education in the French-Speaking Areas of Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffin, Louis

    1991-01-01

    The current status of environmental education in French-speaking Belgium is described, with attention given to the development of environmental interest and awareness, the evolution of an environmental education information dissemination network, other governmental and nongovernmental groups involved, school syllabuses, teacher training…

  17. Current State of Environmental Education in Mexico: A Study on Practices, Audiences, Settings, and Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-Iga, Jose; Shaw, William

    2011-01-01

    Environmental education in Mexico takes many forms and plays a wide variety of roles. Through an online survey, we addressed the need to present a wider picture on the current state of environmental education practices in Mexico: Who is engaging in environmental education practices, how important is it for their organization, who are they…

  18. A dynamic model for organic waste management in Quebec (D-MOWIQ) as a tool to review environmental, societal and economic perspectives of a waste management policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Martin, Jean-Philippe; Housset, Johann

    2017-08-01

    A dynamic systems model of organic waste management for the province of Quebec, Canada, was built. Six distinct modules taking into account social, economical and environmental issues and perspectives were included. Five scenarios were designed and tested to identify the potential consequences of different governmental and demographic combinations of decisions over time. Among these scenarios, one examines Quebec's organic waste management policy (2011-2015), while the other scenarios represent business as usual or emphasize ecology, economy or social benefits in the decision-making process. Model outputs suggest that the current governmental policy should yield favorable environmental benefits, energy production and waste valorization. The projections stemming from the current policy action plan approach the benefits gained by another scenario emphasizing the environmental aspects in the decision-making process. As expected, without the current policy and action plan in place, or business as usual, little improvements are expected in waste management compared to current trends, and strictly emphasizing economic imperatives does not favor sustainable organic waste management. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. 75 FR 8046 - National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Draft Guidance, “Consideration of the Effects of Climate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... QUALITY National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Draft Guidance, ``Consideration of the Effects of Climate... Availability, Draft Guidance, ``Consideration of the Effects of Climate Change and Greenhouse Gas Emissions... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Enacted in 1970, NEPA is a fundamental tool used to harmonize our economic...

  20. 24 CFR 1003.205 - Eligible planning, urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building activities. 1003.205 Section 1003.205... planning, urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building activities. (a... cost of such activities under §§ 1003.201 through 1003.204. (b) Policy—planning—management—capacity...

  1. 75 FR 52374 - National Environmental Policy Act; NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station Wind Farm Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... Environmental Policy Act; NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station Wind Farm Project AGENCY: National... and to conduct scoping for the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). SUMMARY: NASA intends to conduct... Project located near Sandusky, Ohio, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as...

  2. Towards integration and differentiation in environmental health risk governance. An international comparative quick-scan of policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, L.; Bree, L. van; Driessen, P.P.J.; Runhaar, H.A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decades several shifts can be identified in the field of environmental health risk reduction policies in the Netherlands. In response to the shortcomings of traditional sector-based (environmental) policy, the government has proposed a new approach to deal with health risks that encour

  3. The environmental policy in Mexico: Crisis and perspectives; La politica ambiental en Mexico: Crisis y perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquidi, Victor [Colegio de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper some aspects of the environmental situation in Mexico are condensed. The main roll performed by the modality of the energy resources consumption and the evolution of the environmental policy in Mexico from 1971 to 1996 is analyzed. It is concluded that in Mexico it has not been able to define the environmental policy in all its extension requiring, therefore, a greater participation of all the sectors to protect Nature and fight against the industrial and municipal pollution [Espanol] En esta ponencia se resumen algunos aspectos de la situacion ambiental actual de Mexico. Se analiza el papel central desempenado por la modalidad del consumo de energeticos y la evolucion de la politica ambiental en Mexico desde 1971 hasta 1996. Se concluye en que la politica ambiental en Mexico no se ha podido definir todavia en todos sus alcances por lo que se requiere una mayor participacion de todos los sectores para proteger la naturaleza y combatir la contaminacion industrial y municipal

  4. An Item Bank to Measure Systems, Services, and Policies: Environmental Factors Affecting People With Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jin-Shei; Hammel, Joy; Jerousek, Sara; Goldsmith, Arielle; Miskovic, Ana; Baum, Carolyn; Wong, Alex W; Dashner, Jessica; Heinemann, Allen W

    2016-12-01

    To develop a measure of perceived systems, services, and policies facilitators (see Chapter 5 of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health) for people with neurologic disabilities and to evaluate the effect of perceived systems, services, and policies facilitators on health-related quality of life. Qualitative approaches to develop and refine items. Confirmatory factor analysis including 1-factor confirmatory factor analysis and bifactor analysis to evaluate unidimensionality of items. Rasch analysis to identify misfitting items. Correlational and analysis of variance methods to evaluate construct validity. Community-dwelling individuals participated in telephone interviews or traveled to the academic medical centers where this research took place. Participants (N=571) had a diagnosis of spinal cord injury, stroke, or traumatic brain injury. They were 18 years or older and English speaking. Not applicable. An item bank to evaluate environmental access and support levels of services, systems, and policies for people with disabilities. We identified a general factor defined as "access and support levels of the services, systems, and policies at the level of community living" and 3 local factors defined as "health services," "community living," and "community resources." The systems, services, and policies measure correlated moderately with participation measures: Community Participation Indicators (CPI) - Involvement, CPI - Control over Participation, Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders - Ability to Participate, Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders - Satisfaction with Role Participation, Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Ability to Participate, PROMIS Satisfaction with Role Participation, and PROMIS Isolation. The measure of systems, services, and policies facilitators contains items pertaining to health services, community living, and community resources. Investigators and clinicians can measure

  5. Impact of Sustainable Environmental Expenditures Policy on Air Pollution Reduction, During European Integration Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Bostan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pursuant to the growth of society, against the boosting of scientific and technological progress, also arises the negative effect of pollution acceleration. In this context, we relate to risks that imply the growth of pollution, especially against nuisance air pollution increase (CO, SO2, NO etc. with major implications on the growth of greenhouse effect, the melting of the ice fields, respectively the pollution of the soil with nitrates from fertilizers intensively used in agriculture. Our study is up-to-date, as pursuant to the ONU Conference from Paris (France 2015, Conference on Climate Changes, they reached an agreement and the adopted text admits the menace of climate modifications is far more important than previously acknowledged and engages the participants to reduce their pollutant emissions. The researchers’ current concerns focus on studying the effects of the redistribution of financial resources obtained by practising the ‘green’ fiscal policy on dependent variables. Observing them, we integrate the respective variables into complex models analysed by multiple regression (both standard and robust and the fixed effects panel on 20 European countries which also reflect the different effects on the environmental policy and the expenses it incurred. The main purpose of the analysis we aim to accomplish is the impact of the policy for environment expenditure tenable within the European framework on against nuisance air pollution attenuation. The statistical analysis aims at identifying these effects by means of regression equations (OLS, robust regression (M method, fixed and random effects, using panel data from 18 EU countries, as well as Switzerland and Turkey due to their position in relation to the community block; we will analyse the period between 1995-2013. Further to the application of multiple regression statistical methods (OLS and robust M, our results show that teimiqgdp expenses played a major role in the reduction

  6. Iran`s petroleum policy: Current trends and the future outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezeshki, S.; Fesharaki, F.

    1994-12-01

    The Iranian economy and political situation have undergone radical changes since the 1979 Islamic revolution. The excesses of the early years of the revolution have gradually given way to moderation and a more pragmatic economic policy--based on the principles of the free market. The petroleum policy, as a subset of the economic policies, has been somewhat affected by the political and economic developments in Iran. The petroleum policy has changed from a position of no foreign participation to a position that includes a desire for foreign participation, the text of a model contract, and an attempt to introduce new technologies in the upstream sector. This report provides an overview of the key issues facing the Iranian oil industry and the economic context in which the oil industry is operating in Iran. It describes the evolution of policies meant to move the oil industry toward the free market; it discusses Iran`s oil trading partners, the outlook for refining and project investments, and current and likely future developments in the natural gas and petrochemical sectors. In short, the report provides an up-to-date assessment of the Iranian petroleum sector and its likely evolution in the future.

  7. Impact of current policies on future air quality and health outcomes in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholakia, Hem H.; Purohit, Pallav; Rao, Shilpa; Garg, Amit

    2013-08-01

    A key policy challenge in Indian megacities is to curb high concentrations of PM2.5 and mitigate associated adverse health impacts. Using the Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model we carry out an integrated analysis of the air quality regulations across different sectors for the city of Delhi. Our findings show that PM2.5 concentrations for Delhi will not reach the recommended national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) even by 2030 under the current policies scenario. Adopting advanced control technologies reduces PM2.5 concentrations by about 60% and all-cause mortality by half in 2030. Climate change mitigation policies significantly reduce greenhouse gases, but have a modest impact on reducing PM2.5 concentrations. Stringent policies to control the net flow of air pollution from trans-boundary sources will play a crucial role in reducing pollution levels in Delhi city. Achieving NAAQS requires a stringent policy portfolio that combines advanced control technologies with a switch to cleaner fuels and the control of trans-boundary pollution.

  8. Common pathways toward informing policy and environmental strategies to promote health: a study of CDC's Prevention Research Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Elizabeth M; Stringer, Kate J; Spadaro, Antonia J; Ballman, Marie R; Grunbaum, Jo Anne

    2015-03-01

    This study examined the roles academic researchers can play to inform policy and environmental strategies that promote health and prevent disease. Prevention Research Centers (PRCs) engage in academic-community partnerships to conduct applied public health research. Interviews were used to collect data on the roles played by 32 PRCs to inform policy and environmental strategies that were implemented between September 2009 and September 2010. Descriptive statistics were calculated in SAS 9.2. A difference in roles played was observed depending on whether strategies were policy or environmental. Of the policy initiatives, the most common roles were education, research, and partnership. In contrast, the most prevalent roles the PRCs played in environmental approaches were research and providing health promotion resources. Academic research centers play various roles to help inform policy and environmental strategies.

  9. The role of network bridging organisations in compensation payments for agri-environmental services under the EU Common Agricultural Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedeurwaerdere, Tom; Polard, Audrey; Melindi-Ghidi, Paolo

    2015-11-01

    Compensation payments to farmers for the provision of agri-environmental services are a well-established policy scheme under the EU Common Agricultural Policy. However, in spite of the success in most EU countries in the uptake of the programme by farmers, the impact of the scheme on the long term commitment of farmers to change their practices remains poorly documented. To explore this issue, this paper presents the results of structured field interviews and a quantitative survey in the Walloon Region of Belgium. The main finding of this study is that farmers who have periodic contacts with network bridging organisations that foster cooperation and social learning in the agri-environmental landscapes show a higher commitment to change. This effect is observed both for farmers with high and low concern for biodiversity depletion. Support for network bridging organisations is foreseen under the EU Leader programme and the EU regulation 1306/2013, which could open-up interesting opportunities for enhancing the effectiveness of the current payment scheme for agri-environmental services.

  10. Environmental Implications of Dynamic Policies on Food Consumption and Waste Handling in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Martin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study will review the environmental implications of dynamic policy objectives and instruments outlined in the European Union 7th Framework Programme (EU-FP7 Project DYNAmic policy MIXes for absolute decoupling of EU resource use from economic growth (DYNAMIX to address reductions in food consumption, food waste and a change in waste handling systems. The environmental implications of reductions in protein intake, food waste reductions, food waste management and donations are addressed using a life cycle approach to find the greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, land use and water consumption. Data are provided from the Statistics Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAOSTAT food balance sheets for the European Union (EU with a base year of 2010 and life cycle inventory (LCI data from a meta-study of available GHG, land use and water consumption data for major food products. The implications are reviewed using a number of scenarios for the years 2030 and 2050 assuming policy instruments are fully effective. Results indicate that reductions in animal-based protein consumption significantly reduce environmental impacts, followed thereafter by reductions in food waste (assuming this also reduces food consumption. Despite the positive implications the policy mixes may have for targets for decoupling, they are not enough to meet GHG emissions targets for the EU outlined in the DYNAMIX project, although land and water use have no significant change compared to 2010 levels.

  11. Corporate environmental policy. Practical hints to formulate it; Die Umweltpolitik. Praktische Hinweise zur Formulierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohdemann, D. [Unternehmensberatung Umweltschutz Dr. Werner Wohlfarth, Burscheid/ Leipzig, Hamburg (Germany). Arbeitsbereich Umweltmanagement

    1996-03-01

    According to ordinance no. 1836/93, issued by the Council of the European Union on 29 June 1993, concerning the ``voluntary participation of enterprises in a Community system for environmental management and environmental auditing at enterprises``, environmental policy represents both the first step towards participation in the system and the basic building block of an environmental management system. It forms, for each individual site, the guideline of a corporate environmental protection strategy. Therefore, the question arises of what should be the contents of this environmental policy and how should the relative environment-political headnotes be formulated in order to achieve results that conform to the ordinance, suit the needs of the enterprise and maintain its credibility. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Umweltpolitik bildet gemaess der `Verordnung (EWG) Nr. 1836/93 des Rates vom 29. Juni 1993 ueber die freiwillige Beteiligung gewerblicher Unternehmen an einem Gemeinschaftssystem fuer das Umweltmanagement und die Umweltbetriebspruefung` sowohl den Einstieg in das System als auch den grundlegenden Baustein des Umweltmanagementsystems. Sie ist fuer den jeweiligen Standort die Richtschnur fuer die strategische Ausrichtung des betrieblichen Umweltschutzes. Daher stellt sich die Frage, welche Inhalte die Umweltpolitik haben muss und wie die umweltpolitischen Leitsaetze zu formulieren sind, um zu einer verordnungskonformen, unternehmensspezifischen und glaubwuerdigen Umweltpolitik zu gelangen. (orig.)

  12. How do the public and policy makers communicate their perceptions of environmental risk to academics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Jennifer

    2010-05-01

    This paper investigates the ways that the public and policy makers talk about environmental risk to academics. The case study is heavy-metal contamination of food in Zambia, Southern Africa. In several localities in Zambia, urban agriculture is practised using heavy-metal contamination wastewater for irrigation. This leads to contaminated food crops that are subsequently consumed. One case study site where this occurs is Chunga, situated in the northwest of the Zambian capital: Lusaka. For members of the public, six focus groups were carried out at the Chunga, Zambia study site, involving a total of 48 participants. The participants were those involved in urban agriculture through cultivation, selling and consumption of food crops. Urban agriculturalist focus group participants were recruited through key field informants. Focus group discussion starter questions involved pollution awareness, health impacts of pollution in the area and who is responsible for communicating environmental contamination risks to the general population. For policy stakeholders, 39 semi-structured interviews were conducted with individuals from various organisations including government ministries, non-governmental organisations, community based organisations and international institutions. Semi-structured interviews investigated the perceived major health issues in Zambia, food safety, environmental contamination and specifically heavy-metal contamination. Policy stakeholders were identified through policy mapping and organisations mentioned in focus group discussions and other interviews. The results at the Chunga study site show that members of the public perceive: (i) heavy metal pollution is not an issue in Lusaka and for their irrigation practices, (ii) dirty food can cause illness, (iii) heavy metals in foods can cause illness but they are not present at the Chunga site. Amongst urban agriculturalists the quantity of food available is the greatest issue, with some saying that they

  13. Land-Use and Environmental Pressures Resulting from Current and Future Bioenergy Crop Expansion: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Saori; Renouf, Marguerite; Peterson, Ann; McAlpine, Clive; Smith, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Recent energy and climate policies, particularly in the developed world, have increased demand for bioenergy as an alternative, which has led to both direct and indirect land-use changes and an array of environmental and socio-economic concerns. A comprehensive understanding of the land-use dynamics of bioenergy crop production is essential for…

  14. Land-Use and Environmental Pressures Resulting from Current and Future Bioenergy Crop Expansion: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Saori; Renouf, Marguerite; Peterson, Ann; McAlpine, Clive; Smith, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Recent energy and climate policies, particularly in the developed world, have increased demand for bioenergy as an alternative, which has led to both direct and indirect land-use changes and an array of environmental and socio-economic concerns. A comprehensive understanding of the land-use dynamics of bioenergy crop production is essential for…

  15. Walden Pond, Massachusetts: Environmental Setting and Current Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, John A.; Waldron, Marcus C.

    1998-01-01

    Introduction Walden Pond, in Concord, Massachusetts, is famous among lakes because of its unique social history. Walden was the setting for American naturalist Henry David Thoreau's well-known essay 'Walden; or, Life in the Woods,' first published in 1854. Thoreau lived and wrote at Walden Pond from July 1845 to September 1847. In 'Walden,' Thoreau combined highly admired writing on Transcendental philosophy with pioneering observations of aquatic ecology and physical aspects of limnology, the study of lakes. Because Thoreau also defended so effectively the value of living close to nature in the Walden woods, the pond is considered by many to be the birthplace of the American conservation movement. Visitors come from all over the world to the pond, which has been designated a National Historic Landmark, and its fame has resulted in a major fund drive to preserve the surrounding woods. Walden Pond has no surfacewater inflow or outflow, and much of its ground-water contributing area likely is preserved within the Walden Pond Reservation area (fig. 1). Only 15 miles from Boston, the pond is unusually clear and pristine for an urban-area lake. However, point sources of nutrients near the pond, and a large annual visitor attendance, concentrated during the summer when the swimming beach (fig. 2) is open, may contribute a nutrient load sufficient to change the pond environment. The occurrence of nuisance algal species, a recent beach closing, and an awareness of water-quality problems suffered by other ponds in the region raise concerns about the risk of ecological change at Walden Pond. Despite the role of Walden Pond as a cultural and environmental icon, little is known about the pond's ecological features, such as its internal nutrient cycling or the structure of its food web, nor have consistent measurements been made to determine whether these features are changing or are stable. Production rates of aquatic plants in lakes and ponds naturally undergo a slow increase

  16. Causes of Climate and Environmental Changes: The Need for Environmental-Friendly Education Policy in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwankwoala, H. N. L.

    2015-01-01

    Man cannot naturally be detached from his environment. From time to time, changes in climate and environmental conditions occur as a result of natural and human factors. Obviously, the natural factors are almost beyond human control. But, the human factors are to a very large extent under human control. Thus, this paper tried to discover natural…

  17. On the environmental impact of energy market liberalisation: Environmental policy, economic reform and endogenous technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P. van Soest (Daan); H.L.F. de Groot (Henri)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn the literature, attention has been paid to the environmental consequences of lower energy prices caused by market liberalisation: the drop in energy prices reduces the attractiveness of investing in energy-saving technologies. In this paper we develop a simple model of investment deci

  18. Evolutionary or fragmented environmental policy making? coal, power, and agriculture in the Hunter Valley, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Diana G.

    1988-05-01

    Intensified surface mining, power generation, and smelting operations in the Hunter River lowlands, NSW, Australia have posed numerous new environmental management problems. Legislative controls over water, soils, and land use management have been clearly insufficient and remain so. The complex range of environmental changes is challenging government agencies as well as coal developers. While water demands are increasing in the region the proportionally greatest competitors are power generation and irrigation. Comprehensive regional water quality assessment is inadequate and divided between a number of agencies with fragmentary interests. Coal development inquiries signal further controversy over appropriate management solutions and are an ongoing phenomenon in the region. The early 1980s resource boom has been followed by lower rates of economic growth, which have resulted in disparate agency responses to major ongoing environmental questions. While issue attention cycles are often remarkably short in environmental management, matters of water, land, and air quality require intensive and ongoing monitoring and policy development.

  19. The National Environmental Policy Act and the role of the President's Council on Environmental Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, R. (President' s Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, the federal government has played a major role in acquiring, using, and disposing of land, including encouraging prospecting and mining and reserving special lands for public purposes; in funding infrastructure projects; and in approving private projects. While expanding economic growth opportunities for Americans, many of the decisions made by federal agencies have had long-term detrimental effects on the natural, cultural, and social environment. What the drafters of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) had in mind was nothing less than restructuring federal agency decision making to account for these unintended consequences. For too long, agency leadership had focused on the economic and technical feasibility of a program or project but had ignored the environmental consequences of their actions. NEPA added the necessary third dimension.

  20. The effects of current and expected future income on stated preferences for environmental improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Lundhede, Thomas; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2013-01-01

    determinants for preferences. The effect of income on WTP seems to be caused by changes in preferences for environmental attributes rather than by marginal utility of income. The results suggest that to evaluate the distributional impacts of environmental improvements, researchers need a better measure......We formulate and test the hypothesis that expectations regarding changes in future income influences the WTP for environmental goods. For valuation of environmental goods in forests and other habitats in Denmark, we find that both current income and expected changes in future income are significant...... of expected future consumption options than current income....

  1. Bioenergy market competition for biomass: A system dynamics review of current policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Robert Jeffers

    2013-07-01

    There is growing interest in the United States and abroad to increase the use of biomass as an energy source due to environmental and energy security benefits. In the United States, the biofuel and biopower industries are regulated by different policies and different agencies and have different drivers, which impact the maximum price the industries are willing to pay for biomass. This article describes a dynamic computer simulation model that analyzes future behavior of bioenergy feedstock markets based on varying policy and technical options. The model simulates the long-term dynamics of these markets by treating advanced biomass feedstocks as a commodity and projecting the total demand of each industry, as well as the market price over time. The model is used for an analysis of the United States bioenergy feedstock market that projects supply, demand, and market price given three independent buyers: domestic biopower, domestic biofuels, and foreign exports. With base-case assumptions, the biofuels industry is able to dominate the market and meet the federal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) targets for advanced biofuels. Further analyses suggest that United States bioenergy studies should include estimates of export demand for biomass in their projections, and that GHG-limiting policy would partially shield both industries from export dominance.

  2. Openness in participation, assessment, and policy making upon issues of environment and environmental health: a review of literature and recent project results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjola, Mikko V; Tuomisto, Jouni T

    2011-06-16

    Issues of environment and environmental health involve multiple interests regarding e.g. political, societal, economical, and public concerns represented by different kinds of organizations and individuals. Not surprisingly, stakeholder and public participation has become a major issue in environmental and environmental health policy and assessment. The need for participation has been discussed and reasoned by many, including environmental legislators around the world. In principle, participation is generally considered as desirable and the focus of most scholars and practitioners is on carrying out participation, and making participation more effective. In practice also doubts regarding the effectiveness and importance of participation exist among policy makers, assessors, and public, leading even to undermining participatory practices in policy making and assessment.There are many possible purposes for participation, and different possible models of interaction between assessment and policy. A solid conceptual understanding of the interrelations between participation, assessment, and policy making is necessary in order to design and implement effective participatory practices. In this paper we ask, do current common conceptions of assessment, policy making and participation provide a sufficient framework for achieving effective participation? This question is addresses by reviewing the range of approaches to participation in assessment and policy making upon issues of environment and environmental health and some related insights from recent research projects, INTARESE and BENERIS.Openness, considered e.g. in terms of a) scope of participation, b) access to information, c) scope of contribution, d) timing of openness, and e) impact of contribution, provides a new perspective to the relationships between participation, assessment and policy making. Participation, assessment, and policy making form an inherently intertwined complex with interrelated objectives and

  3. Why Does Environmental Policy in Representative Democracies Tend to Be Inadequate? A Preliminary Public Choice Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Kollmann

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a widespread consensus among the most important players in developed countries (voters, politicians, producers, traditional and green interest groups and bureaucracies that a shift towards an eco-social market economy is essential for sustainable growth. Nevertheless, market-based instruments have not as yet been implemented satisfactorily in environmental policy. To identify the reasons for this insufficient implementation over the past decade, the Public Choice theory is used. The players’ behavior is analyzed in order to show that their incentives for implementing market-based instruments in environmental policy, instead of command-and-control measures, are surprisingly weak. Knowing the obstacles to implementing market-based instruments provides valuable insight into how to overcome them.

  4. Promoting policy and environmental change using photovoice in the Kaiser Permanente Community Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Leila; Schwartz, Pamela; Cheadle, Allen; Borton, J Elaine; Wright, Merrick; Chase, Charlie; Lindley, Corina

    2010-05-01

    Creative ways must be found to engage both community residents and political leaders around policy and environmental solutions to public health issues. Photovoice is a community-based, participatory approach to documentary photography that provides people with training on photography, ethics, critical discussion, and policy advocacy. Photovoice projects have been implemented across the nation as part of Kaiser Permanente's Community Health Initiative-a community-based obesity prevention effort. This article focuses on the first Photovoice project implemented in three communities in Colorado. Photovoice themes related to healthy eating and active living include a lack of access to healthy food choices in stores and schools, unsafe street crossings and sidewalks, and the need to redevelop certain areas to encourage safe recreation. The involvement of policy leaders in the project combined with several dissemination activities has contributed to healthier food offerings in schools and neighborhoods and city planning efforts that emphasize walkability and access to healthy food, and park revitalization.

  5. The expansion of participatory governance in the environmental policies of developing countries: the example of Madagascar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froger, G.; Meral, P.; Herimandimby, V. [Versailles Univ., Guyancourt (France). Centre for Economics and Ethics in the Environment and Development

    2004-07-01

    The notion of governance is often considered to be essential, particularly by international institutions in developing countries, to improve the efficiency of policies and to strengthen the legitimacy of the aid. This article aims to clarify the various meanings of this notion and to analyse the policies for devolution of management of natural resources to local communities. The participatory practices involved supply some advantages: appropriation of the management of resources and policies by local actors, the intention to make these actors responsible, etc. But they do have limitations: an ''idyllic'' vision of community-based management; the risk of being ''captured'' by local community leaders; conflicts of interest and of temporality that are not discussed, but which do exist. The range and the limitations of this environmental governance, which we qualify as being participative, are illustrated by the case of Madagascar. (author)

  6. RUSSIAN POLICY IN POST-SOVIET SPACE: MILESTONES AND CURRENT STATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Valerievich Bespalov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the main trends in the development of bilateral relations in the post-Soviet Eurasia and is characterized the evolution of Russian foreign policy in the post-Soviet space using historiosophical and comparative research methods. Formulated periodization of Russian policy toward the region , taking into account the geopolitical , foreign , domestic economic and domestic factors. Current state of Russian policy towards neighboring countries and the prospects for improving its performance are analyzed in the article. The author identifies the main problem areas of the current state of international relations in the region and identifies opportunities available to Russia to strengthen the integration processes. Concludes that , without abandoning the appeal in a number of cases to the general traditions common historical experience accumulated over decades or even centuries of living together within a single state and remains an important resource in Russian politics , Russia needs to position itself as a state, able to provide its partners those preferences and assistance ( financial, informational , educational services , etc. , which they need , and who expect to get - usually without good reason - other centers of world politics . Offers practical guidance for experts, politicians , managers and representatives of public organizations.

  7. The environmental policy of companies: evolutions and perspectives; La politique environnementale des entreprises: evolutions et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demarq, F.; Martin, V.

    1999-07-01

    This document presents the stakes of the environmental management in French companies and the role played by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (ADEME) in adapting the French environmental plan, developed by the public authorities, to the small and medium-size companies and industries. The risks of environmental impact are numerous and linked with a bad mastery of the consumption of raw materials, energy and water and with a bad control of waste effluents (impact on ecosystems and on public health). In order to facilitate the application of the environmental plan, the international standard organization (ISO) has developed the series of ISO 14000 standards. This work was carried out by the technical committee 207 which has developed a common approach for the environmental management of processes and products. This paper focusses on the ISO 14001 standard, on its philosophy and on its accreditation procedure, and on the application of the European eco-audit regulation for the promotion of the continuous improvement of the environmental performances of companies. The Ademe has developed the 'company environment plan' (PEE) in order to define, grade and quantify the objectives of an environmental policy at the scale of companies. Different types of environmental indicators can be defined to characterize the environmental impact of the activities of companies and reported in an 'environmental report' in order to precise the financial effort made by companies to respect the regulations or to evaluate the possible financial consequences of the non-respect of the environmental regulations. (J.S.)

  8. 3 CFR 8469 - Proclamation 8469 of December 31, 2009. 40th Anniversary of the National Environmental Policy Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in a new era of environmental awareness and citizen participation in government. NEPA elevated the... Anniversary of the National Environmental Policy Act, 2010 8469 Proclamation 8469 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8469 of December 31, 2009 Proc. 8469 40th Anniversary of the National Environmental...

  9. 45 CFR 12.10 - Compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and other related Acts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Act of 1969 and other related Acts (environmental impact). 12.10 Section 12.10 Public Welfare... PROPERTY FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PURPOSES § 12.10 Compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and other related Acts (environmental impact). (a) The Department will, prior to making a...

  10. Environmental policy and the role of foreign assistance in Central- and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    During the 1990's, a large number of international donors and financing institutions have been active in providing financial support for improving the environment in Central and Eastern Europe. One of these actors have been the Danish Government and its Environmental Support Fund for Central and ...... policy in their own country and to provide an assessment of the role that foreign assistance has played and could play. Covers the following countries: Czech Republic; Poland; Romania; Russia; Slovakia; Ukraine....

  11. Environmental policy and the role of foreign assistance in Central- and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    During the 1990's, a large number of international donors and financing institutions have been active in providing financial support for improving the environment in Central and Eastern Europe. One of these actors have been the Danish Government and its Environmental Support Fund for Central and ...... policy in their own country and to provide an assessment of the role that foreign assistance has played and could play. Covers the following countries: Czech Republic; Poland; Romania; Russia; Slovakia; Ukraine....

  12. Environmental policy and the role of foreign assistance in Central- and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    During the 1990's, a large number of international donors and financing institutions have been active in providing financial support for improving the environment in Central and Eastern Europe. One of these actors have been the Danish Government and its Environmental Support Fund for Central...... policy in their own country and to provide an assessment of the role that foreign assistance has played and could play. Covers the following countries: Czech Republic; Poland; Romania; Russia; Slovakia; Ukraine....

  13. How consumers of plastic water bottles are responding to environmental policies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orset, Caroline; Barret, Nicolas; Lemaire, Aurélien

    2017-03-01

    Although plastic induces environmental damages, almost all water bottles are made from plastic and the consumption never stops increasing. This study evaluates the consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for different plastics used for water packaging. Successive messages emphasizing the characteristics of plastic are delivered to consumers allowing explaining the influence of information on the consumers' WTP. We find that information has a manifest effect on the WTP. We show there is a significant premium associated with recycled plastic packaging and biodegradable bioplastic packaging. As there is no consensus on the plastic which is the most or the least dangerous for the environment, we propose different policies for protecting the environment. We discuss about the impact of these policies on consumer's purchasing decisions: switching one plastic packaging for another, or leaving water plastic bottles market. We present the environmental policies that are effective according to the point of view adopted. Choosing between these policies then depends on the priorities of the regulator and pressure of lobbies.

  14. Towards translation of environmental determinants of physical activity in children into multi-sector policy measures: study design of a Dutch project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Oers Hans AM

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity in children is a major health problem in The Netherlands as well as in many other Western countries. In addition to health promotion among parents and children, creating "active" neighbourhoods can contribute to the solution of this health problem. However, changing environmental characteristics is often the responsibility of policy sectors outside the Public Health domain. Therefore this project identifies and evaluates the possibilities of multi-sector policy measures to stimulate physical activity in children. Methods and design The project consists of quantitative as well as qualitative research methods and is conducted in four medium sized Dutch cities. To identify perceived environmental determinants of physical activity in children, a large scale health survey was conducted at 42 primary schools. Written questionnaires including topics on the children's physical activity behaviour (i.e. sports participation, outdoor play, active commuting, television watching and computer usage and physical and social environmental characteristics were completed by 6,601 parents of children aged 3-13 years old and 3449 children aged 9-13 years old. In addition, 33 neighbourhood audits (systematic observations were conducted to assess objective neighbourhood characteristics. Furthermore, a policy analysis was conducted in the four participating municipalities to provide an overview of the current local policy measures directed at stimulation of physical activity in children. Policy plans of six different policy sectors (Public Health, Sports, Education & Youth, Spatial Planning, Traffic & Transport, and Safety were screened for their content on physical activity in children. In addition, semi-structured interviews were conducted with policy makers of each of these sectors to identify critical success factors in the development and realization of multi-sector policy plans aimed at stimulating physical activity in

  15. Impacts Analyses Supporting the National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Assessment for the Resumption of Transient Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette L. Schafer; Lloyd C. Brown; David C. Carathers; Boyd D. Christensen; James J. Dahl; Mark L. Miller; Cathy Ottinger Farnum; Steven Peterson; A. Jeffrey Sondrup; Peter V. Subaiya; Daniel M. Wachs; Ruth F. Weiner

    2013-11-01

    Environmental and health impacts are presented for activities associated with transient testing of nuclear fuel and material using two candidate test reactors. Transient testing involves irradiation of nuclear fuel or materials for short time-periods under high neutron flux rates. The transient testing process includes transportation of nuclear fuel or materials inside a robust shipping cask to a hot cell, removal from the shipping cask, pre-irradiation examination of the nuclear materials, assembly of an experiment assembly, transportation of the experiment assembly to the test reactor, irradiation in the test reactor, transport back to the hot cell, and post-irradiation examination of the nuclear fuel or material. The potential for environmental or health consequences during the transportation, examination, and irradiation actions are assessed for normal operations, off-normal (accident) scenarios, and transportation. Impacts to the environment (air, soil, and groundwater), are assessed during each phase of the transient testing process. This report documents the evaluation of potential consequences to the general public. This document supports the Environmental Assessment (EA) required by the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) (42 USC Subsection 4321 et seq.).

  16. Analyzing interaction of electricity markets and environmental policies using equilibrium models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yihsu

    Around the world, the electric sector is evolving from a system of regulated vertically-integrated monopolies to a complex system of competing generation companies, unregulated traders, and regulated transmission and distribution. One emerging challenge faced by environmental policymakers and electricity industry is the interaction between electricity markets and environmental policies. The objective of this dissertation is to examine these interactions using large-scale computational models of electricity markets based on noncooperative game theory. In particular, this dissertation is comprised of four essays. The first essay studies the interaction of the United States Environmental Protection Agency NOx Budget Program and the mid-Atlantic electricity market. This research quantifies emissions, economic inefficiencies, price distortions, and overall social welfare under various market assumptions using engineering-economic models. The models calculate equilibria for imperfectly competitive markets---Cournot oligopoly---considering the actual landscape of power plants and transmission lines, and including the possibility of market power in the NOx allowances market. The second essay extends the results from first essay and models imperfectly competitive markets using a Stackelberg or leader-follower formulation. A leader in the power and NO x markets is assumed to have perfect foresight of its rivals' responses. The rivals' best response functions are explicitly embedded in the leader's constraints. The solutions quantify the extent to which a leader in the markets can extract economic rents on the expense of its followers. The third essay investigates the effect of implementing the European Union (EU) CO2 Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) on wholesale power prices in the Western European electricity market. This research uses theoretical and computational modeling approaches to quantify the degree to which CO2 costs were passed on to power prices, and quantifies the

  17. Virtuous and Vicious Circles: Lessons for Current European Policies from Italian Post-War Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioacchino Garofoli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the Italian economic development, explaining the main features and the crucial variables in the long-term transformation process. The Italian economy has been analysed taking into account the different and changing international rules in medium and long-term to understand their role on the development strategies and on the changing competitive position of the country. The comparative international analysis on selected crucial variables shows some contradictions between expectations and effective outcomes of changing institutional rules and introduced economic policies. This underlines both the emergence of unexpected trajectories and economic performances and the lasting of structural differences among European countries. The selection of consistent economic policies in Europe, then, should take into account these phenomena. The paper underlines the crucial role of long-term economic analysis to fully understand not only the crucial structural variables but even opportunities and challenges for strategic decisions in the current economic crisis.

  18. The Social Lives of Global Policies against Malaria: Conceptual Considerations, Past Experiences, and Current Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckl, Julian

    2017-07-01

    While a casual observer might easily get the impression that global policies against malaria have unanimous support, there are strongly divergent perspectives on malaria control. Analyzing ethnographic and historical material through a political science lens, I foreground the social negotiation of malaria both as an illness experience of affected populations and as a disease problem defined by experts. Taking the interrelationship between problems, solutions, and solution providers as a point of departure, I reconstruct recurrent tensions and social mechanisms that can account for the tendency to downplay conflicts and to produce technical-biomedical solutions that seem to be irresistible. This helps to overcome the perception that current policies have no alternatives and that aiming directly for malaria eradication is the only form of sustainability in times of resistances when "saving the established technical-biomedical solutions" has become a key concern.

  19. DEA Efficiency of Energy Consumption in China’s Manufacturing Sectors with Environmental Regulation Policy Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Because overall energy consumption intensity in China’s manufacturing industry is extremely high, the study of energy efficiency in that industry, with an analysis of the policy impacts of energy intensity reduction and other key factors, will no doubt improve energy utilization in the industry and stimulate sustainable development within it. This paper uses 2004–2014 panel data of 28 manufacturing industries and a piecewise linear utility function to construct a data envelopment analysis (DEA model of energy consumption with environmental regulations constraints. We also examine the DEA evaluation of energy efficiency in manufacturing industries. We integrate environmental regulations as qualitative variables into the energy consumption evaluation model to research the coupling effects on energy consumption intensity of energy consumption structure, opening up, environmental regulations, technological progress, and competition within industries. The research shows that energy efficiency policy intensity is not the major effect on the development of low or moderate energy-consumption industries, whereas low-energy-efficiency policy is very favorable for the development of high energy-consumption industries.

  20. Computable general equilibrium modelling in the context of trade and environmental policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koesler, Simon Tobias

    2014-10-14

    This thesis is dedicated to the evaluation of environmental policies in the context of climate change. Its objectives are twofold. Its first part is devoted to the development of potent instruments for quantitative impact analysis of environmental policy. In this context, the main contributions include the development of a new computable general equilibrium (CGE) model which makes use of the new comprehensive and coherent World Input-Output Dataset (WIOD) and which features a detailed representation of bilateral and bisectoral trade flows. Moreover it features an investigation of input substitutability to provide modellers with adequate estimates for key elasticities as well as a discussion and amelioration of the standard base year calibration procedure of most CGE models. Building on these tools, the second part applies the improved modelling framework and studies the economic implications of environmental policy. This includes an analysis of so called rebound effects, which are triggered by energy efficiency improvements and reduce their net benefit, an investigation of how firms restructure their production processes in the presence of carbon pricing mechanisms, and an analysis of a regional maritime emission trading scheme as one of the possible options to reduce emissions of international shipping in the EU context.