WorldWideScience

Sample records for current energy issues

  1. Current issues in energy: a selection of papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, C

    1979-01-01

    From this collection of papers by Dr. Starr one can possibly see the emergence of a new science of energy and society. The papers analyze problems underlying energy and its uses, the connections between energy and production processes and between economic output, and the effect of energy on present and future national/global welfare. The book questions and examines various energy options, their consequences and opportunities, and the role of energy efficiency in an industrialized society. The three major book divisions cover: (1) risk/benefit: analysis, disclosure, and acceptance; (2) energy technology; solar power generation, nuclear power and weapons proliferation, future technological options, and technical innovation; and (3) energy analysis and planning. Dr. Starr implies that, given the problems of our world - particularly its population growth and its inexorable demand for resources - technology offers the principal means to their solution. Further, he asserts that technology may be the only remaining unlimited resource available to man and to the kind of society he has evolved.

  2. Current legal issues of European integration in the area of peaceful uses of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handrlica, Jakub

    2009-01-01

    The main issues of current discussions concerning the status of European integration in the area of peaceful uses of nuclear energy are described with focus on the present and future of the EURATOM Treaty. The basic features of the EURATOM Treaty are highlighted and those issues which are currently subject to discussion in foreign literature (e.g. EURATOM's legitimacy, specification of competencies, obsolete provisions, etc.) are pointed out. The major attempts to reform the wording of the EURATOM Treaty and the relevance of the Treaty to its Member States in the future, in relation to the 'Nuclear New Build' in particular, are also described. (orig.)

  3. Current Issues in Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Shi; Martinez, Larry R.; Hubert, Van Hoof; Tews, Michael; Torres, Leonardo; Farfán, Karina

    2015-01-01

    Ram (2015 Ram, Y. (2015). Hostility or hospitality? A review on violence, bullying and sexual harassment in the tourism and hospitality industry. Current Issues in Tourism. doi:10.1080/13683500.2015.1064364 [Taylor & Francis Online], [Google Scholar] . Hostility or hospitality? A review on violence, bullying and sexual harassment in the tourism and hospitality industry. Current Issues in Tourism. doi:10.1080/13683500.2015.1064364) posits that violence and harassment are areas of concern...

  4. The World energy issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, Herve

    2011-01-01

    This Power Point document proposes figures and data about the current world energy consumption, the various energy sources, the share of primary energy consumption by different sectors, and the levels of energy reserves. It addresses the issue of global warming (evolution of temperature, regional anomalies, the challenge of limitation of temperature, the greenhouse gas emissions), the strategic role of electricity (energy mix, heat production with electricity), energy savings, electricity production (key data on solar, wind, solar and biomass energy, possibilities of carbon capture, nuclear energy, costs of these different energies)

  5. Issues in neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    The experimental results on low energy confirming the structure of the effective Lagrangian of the weak neutral current processes as predicted by the Salam-Weinberg model are reviewed. Some possible modifications of the effective Lagrangian and the feasibility of their experimental verification are also considered. (P.L.)

  6. Current issues in asteroseismology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazot, Michael; Monteiro, Mario J P F G; Straka, Christian W [Centro de Astrofisica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal)

    2008-10-15

    In this contribution we briefly review some of the current issues and promises for the future by asteroseismology. We are entering a new phase in this field driven by the wealth of data that has been collected and data that will soon be available for asteroseismology across the HR Diagram. Major difficulties in the descriptions of stellar interiors that arose in the second half of the 20th century may now be in part addressed and solved (this is the expectation{exclamation_point}) by asteroseismology with unprecedented precision. In this contribution we list some of the key open questions in stellar physics, the seismic data we expect to collect in the near future, and some techniques that will provide the tools to connect data and models.

  7. Energy and environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skea, Jim

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current energy-environmental issues. Firstly, the environmental problems associated with energy production and use are briefly described. Secondly, the paper reviews the availability of technological solutions to environmental problems, focussing particularly on atmospheric emission control. Finally, it moves on to look at recent policy developments in some parts of the world. Since the paper is written from the perspective of an industrialized country, emerging policy issues in Europe, Japan, and North America receive the greatest attention, with a particular focus on Europe where greenhouse gases and the proposed carbon tax have received a particularly high priority. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the issues arising from the 1992 UNCED (UN Conference on Environment and Development) and implications for the diffusion of cleaner technologies from North to South. (author). 36 refs

  8. Current issues and actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the progress that has been made toward achieving full regulatory compliance at the Hanford Site. Ongoing compliance self-assessments, implementation of the Tri-Party Agreement, and public meetings continue to identify environmental compliance issues. These issues are discussed openly with the regulatory agencies and with the public to ensure that all environmental compliance issues are addressed.

  9. Current issues and actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the progress that has been made toward achieving full regulatory compliance at the Hanford Site. Ongoing compliance self-assessments, implementation of the Tri-Party Agreement, and public meetings continue to identify environmental compliance issues. These issues are discussed openly with the regulatory agencies and with the public to ensure that all environmental compliance issues are addressed

  10. Current Issues in Cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbour, J B [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester (United States)

    2007-02-07

    These colloquium proceedings will be valuable, the blurb says, for graduate students and researchers in cosmology and theoretical astrophysics. Specifically, the book 'looks at both the strengths and weaknesses of the current big bang model in explaining certain puzzling data' and gives a 'comprehensive coverage of the expanding field of cosmology'. The reality is rather different. Conference proceedings rarely compare in value with a solid monograph or good review articles, and Current Issues in Cosmology is no exception. The colloquium was convened by the two editors, who have both long harboured doubts about the big bang, and was held in Paris in June 2004. The proceedings contain 19 presented papers and relatively brief summary comments by four panel speakers. The questions and answers at the end of each talk and a general discussion at the end were recorded and transcribed but contain little of interest. The nature of the colloquium is indicated by panellist Francesco Bertola's comment: 'While in the 1950s it was possible to speak of rival theories in cosmology, now the big-bang picture has no strong rivals. This is confirmed by the fact that out of 1500 members of the IAU Division VIII (Galaxies and the Universe) only a dozen, although bright people, devote their time to the heterodox views.' This was largely a platform for them to give their views. At least half of the dozen, all the 'usual suspects', were present: Geoffery and Margaret Burbidge, Jayant Narlikar, Halton Arp, Chandra Wickramasinghe and, in spirit only but playing a role somewhat like the ghost of Hamlet's father, the late Fred Hoyle. Doubters presented 12 of the 19 papers. Orthodoxy should certainly be challenged and the sociology of science questioned, but I found two main problems with this book. The papers putting the orthodox view are too short, even perfunctory. The most that a serious graduate student would get out of them is a reference

  11. Current Issues in Cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbour, J B

    2007-01-01

    These colloquium proceedings will be valuable, the blurb says, for graduate students and researchers in cosmology and theoretical astrophysics. Specifically, the book 'looks at both the strengths and weaknesses of the current big bang model in explaining certain puzzling data' and gives a 'comprehensive coverage of the expanding field of cosmology'. The reality is rather different. Conference proceedings rarely compare in value with a solid monograph or good review articles, and Current Issues in Cosmology is no exception. The colloquium was convened by the two editors, who have both long harboured doubts about the big bang, and was held in Paris in June 2004. The proceedings contain 19 presented papers and relatively brief summary comments by four panel speakers. The questions and answers at the end of each talk and a general discussion at the end were recorded and transcribed but contain little of interest. The nature of the colloquium is indicated by panellist Francesco Bertola's comment: 'While in the 1950s it was possible to speak of rival theories in cosmology, now the big-bang picture has no strong rivals. This is confirmed by the fact that out of 1500 members of the IAU Division VIII (Galaxies and the Universe) only a dozen, although bright people, devote their time to the heterodox views.' This was largely a platform for them to give their views. At least half of the dozen, all the 'usual suspects', were present: Geoffery and Margaret Burbidge, Jayant Narlikar, Halton Arp, Chandra Wickramasinghe and, in spirit only but playing a role somewhat like the ghost of Hamlet's father, the late Fred Hoyle. Doubters presented 12 of the 19 papers. Orthodoxy should certainly be challenged and the sociology of science questioned, but I found two main problems with this book. The papers putting the orthodox view are too short, even perfunctory. The most that a serious graduate student would get out of them is a reference to a far better review article or book on modern

  12. Energy in Germany: A critical review of current issues and analysis of future potential

    OpenAIRE

    Manz, CT; Tutesigensi, A

    2014-01-01

    Germany’s energy constellation is changing somewhat. The nuclear pull-out is being substituted by biofuels, however, with controversial results. In terms of sustainability, these biofuels cannot contribute as significantly as perhaps anticipated. Government subsidies for biofuels are at very high levels while the carbon footprint is far from being impressive. Soil depletion, erosion, high levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and resulting rising food prices are the drawbacks of this devel...

  13. Current issues in developing safety culture while establishing wind energy power plants in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gowda, M.C.M.; Repaka, B.; Gowda, P. [MSRIT Research Centre, Bangalore (India); Chandrashekar, R. [SaIT, Bangalore (India)

    2012-07-01

    Safety is important to every one working in the various organizations. They want to be safe when coming to work, at the time of work and going back to home. The ultimate aim of every worker is to work for the needs/money and or satisfaction where these would get prioritized according to the individuals. People don't want accidents to happen. People don't want to get themselves injured nor their colleagues. People would like and love to work in a company which cares for them and keeps them safe. Having said this then what makes them meet with or see an accident in the wind farm? Yes it is the unsafe act and unsafe condition which causes an accident in the wind farm. The present study put forward the factors /issues that influence people behaviors as part of weakening the safety culture to perform an unsafe act or to ignore and work in an unsafe condition. (Author)

  14. Current issues in onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trépanier, E F; Amsden, G W

    1998-02-01

    To review the epidemiology, mycology, clinical features and diagnosis, current pharmacotherapy, and pharmacoeconomics of onychomycosis. We conducted a MEDLINE search from 1966 to May 1997. References from these articles, manufacturers of the discussed antimycotics, and relevant abstracts from recent dermatology conferences were used to collect pertinent data. Data were obtained from published controlled studies and case reports. In the pharmacotherapy section, the most weight was placed on fully reported, randomized, controlled comparative trials, but abstracts and case series were included when well-controlled studies were unavailable. Onychomycosis is a common nail disorder that has a substantial impact on patients' quality of life. It is most commonly caused by dermatophytes, but yeasts and molds can also be involved. Diagnosis is made through clinical presentation, potassium hydroxide preparations, and culture of tissue/nail samples. Griseofulvin was the drug of choice for many years, but its low cure rates and the development of newer, more effective drugs made it fall out of favor. Current therapeutic alternatives include fluconazole, itraconazole, and terbinafine. Data on the use of fluconazole are limited to case series and reports. Continuous dosing of itraconazole and terbinafine are well-proven therapies. New data are becoming available on the use of pulse itraconazole dosing, which has recently been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for fingernail infections. These drugs are well tolerated, but attention to drug interactions is necessary with the azoles. Currently, continuous terbinafine appears to be the most cost-effective drug for dermatophyte onychomycosis.

  15. Clopidogrel Resistance: Current Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NS Neki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Antiplatelet agents are mainly used in the prevention and management of atherothrombotic complications. Dual antiplatelet therapy, combining aspirin and clopidogrel, is the standard care for patients having acute coronary syndromes or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention according to the current ACC/AHA and ESC guidelines. But in spite of administration of dual antiplatelet therapy, some patients develop recurrent cardiovascular ischemic events especially stent thrombosis which is a serious clinical problem. Antiplatelet response to clopidogrel varies widely among patients based on ex vivo platelet function measurements. Clopidogrel is an effective inhibitor of platelet activation and aggregation due to its selective and irreversible blockade of the P2Y12 receptor. Patients who display little attenuation of platelet reactivity with clopidogrel therapy are labeled as low or nonresponders or clopidogrel resistant. The mechanism of clopidogrel resistance remains incompletely defined but there are certain clinical, cellular and genetic factors including polymorphisms responsible for therapeutic failure. Currently there is no standardized or widely accepted definition of clopidogrel resistance. The future may soon be realised in the routine measurement of platelet activity in the same way that blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar are followed to help guide the therapy, thus improving the care for millions of people. This review focuses on the methods used to identify patients with clopidogrel resistance, the underlying mechanisms, metabolism, clinical significance and current therapeutic strategies to overcome clopidogrel resistance. J Enam Med Col 2016; 6(1: 38-46

  16. Environmental issues: I - Energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, I.

    2001-01-01

    In this article, energy utilization and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and consequent environmental issues and policies. Overall, the paper also examines several issues related to energy utilization, environment, sustainable development from both current and future perspectives, and energy use and its environmental impacts in the transportation sector. Finally, the conclusions and recommendations are presented in the form to be beneficial to energy scientists, engineers and energy policy makers. (author)

  17. Current Issues in Maritime Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagtmann, Maria Anne

    2008-01-01

     In the early part of 2008, Maria Anne Wagtmann had the opportunity to interview the former president of the International Maritime Health Association, Dr. Tim Carter, in London about a number of current maritime health issues. In this interview, Dr. Tim Carter, who is cur­rently employed...... as the Chief Medical Advisor for the British government's Department for Transport, gives his personal - and thus non-official - opinions on these issues....

  18. Current issues in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinchliffe, I.

    1994-12-01

    This review talk discusses some issues of active research in perturbative QCD. The following topics are discussed: (1) current value of αs; (2) heavy quark production in hadron collisions; (3) production of Ψ and Υ in p anti p collisions; (4) prompt photon production; (5) small-x and related phenomena; and (6) particle multiplicity in heavy quark jets

  19. Energy issues in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhandi, M.

    1991-01-01

    The topic of the energy sector-and the petroleum sector in particular-in sub-Saharan Africa might well be considered an insignificant issue compared with many of the energy concerns which now command international attention. However, the World Bank believes that it is important for all those in international energy not to forget about the crucial problems facing Africa. They should become informed and concerned about these problems, and, hopefully, work together to bring about a satisfactory solution for an ongoing development dilemma. Simply put, the cost of imported energy to the African economy is exorbitantly high, sapping the resources needed to produce economic growth and social progress. This paper reports that, to address this issue, the World Bank is about to undertake a major initiative-two ground-breaking studies in the field of energy for sub-Saharan Africa. Both of these proposed studies are designed to find ways to reduce the burden of the cost of energy imports, mainly petroleum products, to this continent. One study will examine the design (and, subsequently, the implementation) of a rationalization scheme for the supply and distribution of petroleum products throughout sub-Saharan Africa. The other will consider the feasibility of transporting Nigeria's natural gas to neighbors to the west, all of which presently are importers of energy

  20. Energy Efficiency Financing for Low- and Moderate-Income Households: Current State of the Market, Issues, and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leventis, G; Kramer, C; Schwartz, LC

    2017-08-09

    Ensuring that low- and moderate-income (LMI) households have access to energy efficiency is equitable, provides energy savings as a resource to meet energy needs, and can support multiple policy goals, such as affordable energy, job creation, and improved public health. Although the need is great, many LMI households may not be able to afford efficiency improvements or may be inhibited from adopting efficiency for other reasons. Decision-makers across the country are currently exploring the challenges and potential solutions to ramping up adoption of efficiency in LMI households, including the use of financing. The report’s objective is to offer state and local policymakers, state utility regulators, program administrators, financial institutions, consumer advocates and other LMI stakeholders with an understanding of: -The relationship between LMI communities and financing for energy efficiency, including important considerations for its use such as consumer protections -The larger programmatic context of grant-based assistance and other related resources supporting LMI household energy efficiency -Lessons learned from existing energy efficiency financing programs serving LMI households -Financing products used by these programs and their relative advantages and disadvantages in addressing barriers to financing or to energy efficiency uptake for LMI households

  1. Current Energy Patents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    Current Energy Patents (CEP) provides abstracting and indexing coverage of the international patent literature, including patent applications, that concerns any aspect of energy production, conservation, and utilization

  2. Power quality issues current harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Mikkili, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Power Quality Issues: Current Harmonics provides solutions for the mitigation of power quality problems related to harmonics. Focusing on active power filters (APFs) due to their excellent harmonic and reactive power compensation in two-wire (single phase), three-wire (three-phase without neutral), and four-wire (three-phase with neutral) AC power networks with nonlinear loads, the text:Introduces the APF technology, describing various APF configurations and offering guidelines for the selection of APFs for specific application considerationsCompares shunt active filter (SHAF) control strategi

  3. Issues in energy finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokher, Zeigham Islam

    As opposed to the well developed and understood equity markets, the energy markets are still in their infancy. The explosion of contracts, of both the primary and derivative types, are testament both to the existing size and the untapped growth potential of this exciting industry. However, because of its relative youth many basic issues in the energy markets remain unresolved. This thesis introduces some interesting questions and provides insights into these issues. Thematically, the chapters of this thesis are linked by an emphasis on valuation and risk management decisions. A contribution of this thesis is to show that subtle differences between the endogenous price process in our general equilibrium setting and the exogenous processes considered in earlier papers can generate significant differences in both financial and real option values. In addition to these valuation concerns there has been much debate about the corporate risk management function. Finance theory suggests that a value maximizing corporation should either be indifferent to hedging or, in the presence of certain imperfections, it should completely hedge all exposures. Both these extremes contradict empirical evidence. We show that existing corporate hedging behaviour is best explained in light of both physical market imperfections and directional predictions on future prices. While these speculative motives may arise from corporate hubris or genuine informational advantages, we argue that it would be difficult to implement private information in the absence of noise traders. Related to the risk management decision is the existence of futures risk premia. These premia have been thought to be cause by covariance with priced factors or due to the hedging demands of consumers and producers. This thesis argues that inventories serve as a signal of available quantity, which coupled with consumers fears regarding stockouts can induce a positive relationship between premia and inventories. In

  4. Volume 42, Issue5 (May 2005)Articles in the Current Issue:Developmental growth in students' concept of energy: Analysis of selected items from the TIMSS database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiufeng; McKeough, Anne

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a model of students' energy concept development. Applying Case's (1985, 1992) structural theory of cognitive development, we hypothesized that students' concept of energy undergoes a series of transitions, corresponding to systematic increases in working memory capacity. The US national sample from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) database was used to test our hypothesis. Items relevant to the energy concept in the TIMSS test booklets for three populations were identified. Item difficulty from Rasch modeling was used to test the hypothesized developmental sequence, and percentage of students' correct responses was used to test the correspondence between students' age/grade level and level of the energy concepts. The analysis supported our hypothesized sequence of energy concept development and suggested mixed effects of maturation and schooling on energy concept development. Further, the results suggest that curriculum and instruction design take into consideration the developmental progression of students' concept of energy.

  5. Power issues at school; Energie macht Schule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heup, Juergen

    2011-09-15

    Energy and power are not only current issues in politics and society but also subjects for the classroom. In these time of short budgets, energy consultants are able to offer free teaching materials. However, this is a controversial issue as they may take the opportunity to advertise themselves.

  6. Geothermal Energy: Current abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringe, A.C. (ed.)

    1988-02-01

    This bulletin announces the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. (ACR)

  7. Current Issues and Distributive Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosal, Lorenca Consuelo

    1992-01-01

    Provides a lesson plan on the issue of distributive justice, or fairness in the ways things are distributed among individuals and groups. Includes a student reading concerning a proposed guaranteed standard of living. Proposes an activity that calls for student discussion of a constitutional amendment that would offer such a guarantee. (SG)

  8. Preface. Current Issues in Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holy-Luczaj Magdalena

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This interdisciplinary volume consist of papers on various problems in contemporary ethics. It presents the following issues: equalizing the level of positive liberty, the phenomenon of human cooperation, ethical questions related to artificial intelligence, extending ethical obligations toward artifacts, and soteriological threads of alienation criticism of religion.

  9. Preface. Current Issues in Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Holy-Luczaj Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    This interdisciplinary volume consist of papers on various problems in contemporary ethics. It presents the following issues: equalizing the level of positive liberty, the phenomenon of human cooperation, ethical questions related to artificial intelligence, extending ethical obligations toward artifacts, and soteriological threads of alienation criticism of religion.

  10. The current state and issues regarding communication from the nuclear energy industry to the mass media in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The mass media has the potential to effect the utilization of nuclear power in Japan. In most cases journalists contact PR staff of the nuclear energy industry (hereinafter called 'the industry') to collect information about various events of nuclear energy. The industry is always ready to distribute related information and hold a press conference timely when necessary. In terms of the organizational structure for the PR activities each electric power company organizes the PR section in-house. The PR staff provides journalists with information on a daily basis. For the purpose of grasping the mass media's awareness, the author conducted interviews with 22 journalists who had experience in reporting news on nuclear energy subjects. The result showed that the journalists recognized the necessity of nuclear energy. The interviewees suggested that a proper press launch should be needed at just the right time especially in emergency situations and a press release should be more easily understandable. This interview showed that journalists considered the media reports as reflection of citizens' opinion. Most of the journalists realize that the influence of the media coverage should not be negligible and they acknowledge commutation between the two sides is gradually improved compared to before. (author)

  11. Energy Efficiency Financing for Low- and Moderate-Income Households: Current State of the Market, Issues, and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-08-01

    Although the need is great, many LMI households may not be able to afford efficiency improvements or may be inhibited from adopting efficiency for other reasons. Decision-makers across the country are currently exploring the challenges and potential solutions to ramping up adoption of efficiency in LMI households, including the use of financing.

  12. Nuclear standards: current issues and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landis, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of the important issues that currently face the nuclear standards field is presented and a discussion of how each of these issues is being resolved is given. The economic benefits that properly developed standards produce are listed

  13. Current uranium mill licensing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarano, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    The problems encountered to insure environmentally safe mining and milling of uranium ores are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the management of tailings resulting from milling operations. It is pointed out that although the concentration of radioactivity in the tailings is relatively low, control measures are necessary because of the large quantities involved and because of the long half-life of the parent radionuclides present. The major concerns with mill tailings are radon release to the atmosphere and isolation of the tailings from the human environment. Since it is anticipated that the amount of tailings created by the year 2000 will be more than an order of magnitude greater than the quantities that have been generated during the past 30 years, it is recommended that all mill tailings storage areas be located remote from public contact and in areas such that disruption and dispersion by natural forces and seepage of toxic materials into ground water systems are reduced to the maximum extent achievable. Technical issues that receive attention during the NRC licensing process for uranium mills and the preparation of environmental impact statements are discussed briefly

  14. Current bioethical issues in parasitology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boury D.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic diseases constitute the most common infections among the poorest billion people, entailing high mortality rates and leading to long-term infirmities and poverty. Although the setting-up of public health programs implies many ethical consequences, the range of specific questions in parasitology that can be attributed to bioethics remains, to a large extent, unexplored. From the present analysis, it emerged three main issues which characterize ethical stakes in parasitology: accounting the complexity of the field of intervention, putting the principle of justice into practice and managing the changing context of research. From the research angle, medical parasitology-mycology, as other biological disciplines, is undergoing tensions derived from biological reductionism. Thanks to its links with the history and philosophy of the sciences, bioethics can help to clarify them and to explain the growing hold that technologies have over scientific thinking. On the whole, researchers as well as clinicians are called on to assume a specific responsibility, proportional to their competence and their place in the making of scientific, health, economic and social decisions.

  15. Current resistance issues in antimicrobial therapy | Senekal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 28, No 2 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Option valuation for energy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostertag, K.; Llerena, P.; Richard, A.

    2004-01-01

    In many industrial and economic situations, decision processes, both individual and collective, have to simultaneously face uncertainty and irreversibility of some kind. This is particularly valid for energy choices if they are linked to technological alternatives. The purpose of this book is to highlight specific aspects of these situations. This is done from the particular perspective of option valuation. The contributions to this book grew out of an international workshop on ''Option valuation in energy and environmental issues'' held at the Fraunhofer ISI in February 2003. This workshop brought together reseachers from energy economics, but also researchers working on option valuation in other empirical fields or with a more theoretical perspective. This is reflected in the organisation of the book, which starts with some theory-oriented contributions and subsequently presents more applied contributions in the field of energy economics with an extension to water infrastructure in the annex. (orig.)

  17. Sexting: Current Research Gaps and Legislative Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo, Fawn; Jaishankar, K; Agustina, Jose R.

    2017-01-01

    'Sexting, the portmanteau of Sex and Texting, has become a hot topic of debate between the legislators, researchers, educators, parents and teens' (Jaishankar, 2009, para 1). In spite of the considerable and growing body of literature on sexting, there are significant gaps in the current research. A review of research to date also reveals a dearth of cross-national and cross-cultural research on the topic of sexting. Notably, legal and ethical issues abound with the current method for punishi...

  18. Current work in energy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report describes the work performed at Berkeley Lab most recently. One of the Labs accomplishments is the publication of Scenarios of US Carbon Reductions, an analysis of the potential of energy technologies to reduce carbon emissions in the US. This analysis is described and played a key role in shaping the US position on climate change in the Kyoto Protocol negotiations. The Labs participation in the fundamental characterization of the climate change issue by the IPCC is described. Described also is a study of leaking electricity, which is stimulating an international campaign for a one-watt ceiling for standby electricity losses from appliances. This ceiling has the potential to save two-thirds of the 5% of US residential electricity currently expended on standby losses. The 54 vignettes contained in the report summarize results of research activities ranging in scale from calculating the efficacy of individual lamp ballasts to estimating the cost-effectiveness of the national Energy Star{reg_sign} labeling program, and ranging in location from a scoping study of energy-efficiency market transformation in California to development of an energy-efficiency project in the auto parts industry in Shandong Province, China.

  19. Issues in vibration energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Corr, Lawrence R.; Ma, Tianwei

    2018-05-01

    In this study, fundamental issues related to bandwidth and nonlinear resonance in vibrational energy harvesting devices are investigated. The results show that using bandwidth as a criterion to measure device performance can be misleading. For a linear device, an enlarged bandwidth is achieved at the cost of sacrificing device performance near resonance, and thus widening the bandwidth may offer benefits only when the natural frequency of the linear device cannot match the dominant excitation frequency. For a nonlinear device, since the principle of superposition does not apply, the ''broadband" performance improvements achieved for single-frequency excitations may not be achievable for multi-frequency excitations. It is also shown that a large-amplitude response based on the traditional ''nonlinear resonance" does not always result in the optimal performance for a nonlinear device because of the negative work done by the excitation, which indicates energy is returned back to the excitation. Such undesired negative work is eliminated at global resonance, a generalized resonant condition for both linear and nonlinear systems. While the linear resonance is a special case of global resonance for a single-frequency excitation, the maximum potential of nonlinear energy harvesting can be reached for multi-frequency excitations by using global resonance to simultaneously harvest energy distributed over multiple frequencies.

  20. Public Energy Education: Issues for Discussion. Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Energy Education Task Force.

    This paper was intended to stimulate discussion of energy education issues at a conference on energy issues. The discussion ranges through numerous topics at issue in energy education including public energy awareness, definition of public education, the distinction between public education and public relations, and the presentation of a model…

  1. Physics issues of high bootstrap current tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, T.; Azumi, M.; Ishii, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Physics issues of a tokamak plasma with a hollow current profile produced by a large bootstrap current are discussed based on experiments in JT-60U. An internal transport barrier for both ions and electrons was obtained just inside the radius of zero magnetic shear in JT-60U. Analysis of the toroidal ITG microinstability by toroidal particle simulation shows that weak and negative shear reduces the toroidal coupling and suppresses the ITG mode. A hard beta limit was observed in JT-60U negative shear experiments. Ideal MHD mode analysis shows that the n = 1 pressure-driven kink mode is a plausible candidate. One of the methods to improve the beta limit against the kink mode is to widen the negative shear region, which can induce a broader pressure profile resulting in a higher beta limit. The TAE mode for the hollow current profile is less unstable than that for the monotonic current profile. The reason is that the continuum gaps near the zero shear region are not aligned when the radius of q min is close to the region of high ∇n e . Finally, a method for stable start-up for a plasma with a hollow current profile is describe, and stable sustainment of a steady-state plasma with high bootstrap current is discussed. (Author)

  2. Current health issues in Korean adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ho Hong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available During the adolescent period, they experience rapid physical, emotional, cognitive developments while they establish their lifestyle and habitual routines that strongly influence adult health and life. Recent rapid economic growth in Korea, and the earlier onset of physical, sexual, and psychological maturation of adolescents, has resulted in changes in the health status of adolescents from many years ago. Risk-taking behaviors such as drinking alcohol, smoking, and sexual experiences are critical issues that affect the health of, adolescents. Therefore, it is important for pediatricians to note the that risk-taking behaviors of adolescents in Korea that are caused by individual psychosocial factors. This review article illustrates the current health status of Korean adolescents and provides an overview of risktaking behaviors, to inform pediatricians about some of the key issues.

  3. Energy modeling issues in quick service restaurants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, V.A.; Johnson, K.F.

    1997-03-01

    The complexity of monitoring and modeling the energy performance of food-service facilities was discussed. Usually, less than one third of the energy consumed in a commercial food-service facility is used by equipment and systems typically modeled in building simulation software such as DOE-2. Algorithms have not yet been developed to handle independent makeup air units and the kitchen and dining room HVAC systems. The energy used by food process equipment and water heating is based on customer-volume and operation-hours. Monitoring projects have been undertaken to provide detailed energy use profiles of individual appliances and whole restaurants. Some technical issues that are unique to food-service modeling in current versions of DOE-2.1E software in the context of quick service restaurants, such as difficulties in modelling internal heat gains of hooded cooking appliances and walk-in refrigeration, and system and zone limitations on tracking energy consumption, were discussed. 1 fig.

  4. Radiation risk - historical perspective and current issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellerer, Albrecht M. [Strahlenbiologisches Institut, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Munich, Germany and Institute for Radiation Biology, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2002-09-01

    The assessment of radiation risk needs to be seen against the background of a historical development that has reversed the initial belief in a general beneficial effect of radiation to apprehension and fear. Numerical risk estimates are, today, based on large epidemiological studies, and the observations on the A-bomb survivors are outlined as the primary source of information. Since the epidemiological findings are obtained from relatively high radiation exposures, extrapolations are required to the much lower doses that are relevant to radiation protection. The evolution of extrapolation procedures up to current attempts at mechanistic modelling is outlined, and some of the open issues are reviewed. (author)

  5. Radiation risk - historical perspective and current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellerer, Albrecht M.

    2002-01-01

    The assessment of radiation risk needs to be seen against the background of a historical development that has reversed the initial belief in a general beneficial effect of radiation to apprehension and fear. Numerical risk estimates are, today, based on large epidemiological studies, and the observations on the A-bomb survivors are outlined as the primary source of information. Since the epidemiological findings are obtained from relatively high radiation exposures, extrapolations are required to the much lower doses that are relevant to radiation protection. The evolution of extrapolation procedures up to current attempts at mechanistic modelling is outlined, and some of the open issues are reviewed. (author)

  6. Reforming health care in Canada: current issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baris Enis

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the current health care reform issues in Canada. The provincial health insurance plans of the 1960s and 1970s had the untoward effects of limiting the federal government's clout for cost control and of promoting a system centered on inpatient and medical care. Recently, several provincial commissions reported that the current governance structures and management processes are outmoded in light of new knowledge, new fiscal realities and the evolution of power among stake-holders. They recommend decentralized governance and restructuring for better management and more citizen participation. Although Canada's health care system remains committed to safeguarding its guiding principles, the balance of power may be shifting from providers to citizens and "technocrats". Also, all provinces are likely to increase their pressure on physicians by means of salary caps, by exploring payment methods such as capitation, limiting access to costly technology, and by demanding practice changes based on evidence of cost-effectiveness.

  7. Current issues and strategies for transmission planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, A.L. [Electranix, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Rajapakse, A. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Following the widespread deregulation of the electric power industry in the early 1990s, significant changes occurred in the regulatory and planning environments of the industry. Several regions of North America remain fully or partially regulated in the traditional sense including most Canadian provinces, except for Alberta and Ontario. Although the Mexican system has separate generation and transmission companies and current restructuring efforts are underway, all companies are state-owned, and private investment in energy is heavily constrained by the Mexican constitution. In these regulated regions, traditional generation and transmission expansion planning methods remain in use. This paper presented an overview of current trends in transmission planning strategies that have evolved in response to the restructuring of the power industry, and a conceptual framework of a procedure that would guide planners faced with the challenges of incorporating large scale wind generation in deregulated environments. The paper provided background information on the effect of deregulation on transmission planning. Planning strategies that were discussed included quantifying risk to help identify best alternatives; use of reference systems to estimate generator costs and reduce uncertainty; project based transmission expansion; transmission construction ahead of generation; and generation ahead of transmission. The impact of wind on transmission planning as well as future work addressing challenges posed by wind were also addressed. Research is continuing in this area to illustrate the concepts proposed through a detailed case study. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Current issues in allogeneic islet transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Charles A; Lawrence, Michael C; Naziruddin, Bashoo

    2017-10-01

    Transplantation of allogenic pancreatic islets is a minimally invasive treatment option to control severe hypoglycemia and dependence on exogenous insulin among type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients. This overview summarizes the current issues and progress in islet transplantation outcomes and research. Several clinical trials from North America and other countries have documented the safety and efficacy of clinical islet transplantation for T1D patients with impaired hypoglycemia awareness. A recently completed phase 3 clinical trial allows centres in the United States to apply for a Food and Drug Administration Biologics License for the procedure. Introduction of anti-inflammatory drugs along with T-cell depleting induction therapy has significantly improved long-term function of transplanted islets. Research into islet biomarkers, immunosuppression, extrahepatic transplant sites and potential alternative beta cell sources is driving further progress. Allogeneic islet transplantation has vastly improved over the past two decades. Success in restoration of glycemic control and hypoglycemic awareness after islet transplantation has been further highlighted by clinical trials. However, lack of effective strategies to maintain long-term islet function and insufficient sources of donor tissue still impose limitations to the widespread use of islet transplantation. In the United States, wide adoption of this technology still awaits regulatory approval and, importantly, a financial mechanism to support the use of this technology.

  9. International trends on sustainable energy Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitalnik, J.

    2007-01-01

    At the U.N. Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD), the role of nuclear power for a carbon free emission supply of energy is now being recognized although with certain reticence or opposition. Such recognition is taking place at the current cycle of discussions devoted to sustainable energy, industrial development, atmospheric pollution and climate change issues. This paper focuses on the arguments and facts provided during CSD deliberations for considering nuclear energy as a valid option: all available energy sources will need to be considered for an adjustment to a world that requires much less carbon liberation to the environment; in the transportation sector, actions need to be urgently implemented for promoting cleaner fuels and more efficient vehicles; massive reduction of greenhouse gas emissions must be urgently implemented in order to mitigate the impacts of global warming; sustainable energy solutions for developed economies are not always adequate in developing countries; the development evolution requires specifically tailored solutions to conditions of large annual growth-rates of energy demand. Consequently, nuclear power will provide the answer to many of these problems. (Author)

  10. Energy issues and policies in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, J.

    1981-10-01

    Initiative taken in Brazil to achieve 'energy autonomy' in vien of the petroleum crisis is analyzed. The dynamics of the movement away from oil and the desire to base the development of the country on locally available resources such as hydroelectricity and biomass derived fuels are emphasized. Energy resources, energy comsumption, issues and policies, energy projections and social issues are discussed, as well as the relevance and applicability to other countries of policies followed in Brazil. (I.C.R.) [pt

  11. French people and energy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesnais, L.

    2006-01-01

    An opinion poll made in France in 2006 shows that: - French people backs nuclear energy with a slight margin (45% versus 42%), - French people agrees with the electricity production policy led by the government, - about 4 people out of 10 expect a sharp increase in prices concerning car fuels, natural gas and heating fuels in a near future, on the other hand fewer people than in previous years are expecting a price rise for electricity. In this article some figures concerning the consumption of energy in France are given: - 230.000 jobs are directly or indirectly involved in the energy sector, this sector represents 5% of all investment, - a total bill of 24 milliard euros for the energy imports, and - energy spending represents 7.6% of the household budget. (A.C.)

  12. Sectoral energy demand data: Sources and Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ounali, A.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter of the publication is dealing with Sectoral Energy Demand Data giving details about the Sources and Issues. Some comments are presented on rural energy surveys. Guidelines for the Definition and Desegregation of Sectoral Energy Consumption is given and Data Necessary for Sectoral Energy Demand Analysis is discussed

  13. Current safety issues of CANDU licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.; Natalizio, A.

    1994-01-01

    As requested by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety(KINS), the status of five generic licensing issues has been examined and their potential impact on a new plant that would be constructed in Canada has been evaluated. The results and conclusions of this evaluation are summarized as follows: steam explosion in calandria, hydrogen explosion in containment, use of PSA in reactor licensing, human factors, safety critical software

  14. Energy access. Current situation, challenges and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    Globally over 1.3 billion people do not have access to electricity and 2.6 billion people rely on the traditional use of biomass for cooking. Energy access is one of the major challenges of the 21. century as it is a lever for both economic and human development, at individual and national level. Moreover, energy access represents a high-potential market and offers a lot of opportunities for private companies and industrials. In this publication, ENEA lays out the current situation of energy access (actors, actual and future needs, existing technological solutions, markets). The publication addresses the main issues energy access has to face: energy price, equipment financing, distribution, scale-up, and environmental performances

  15. Field primatology of today: current ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, K C; Riley, E P

    2010-09-01

    As members of professional organizations such as American Society of Primatologists (ASP) and the International Primatological Society (IPS), primatologists must adhere to a set of nonhuman primate-focused principles outlined in resolutions and policy statements on, for example, the ethical treatment of nonhuman primates. Those of us that work in the field must also address issues such as the protection of primate health in the wild and the conservation of wild primate populations. Moreover, we increasingly find ourselves in complex situations where we must balance human and nonhuman primate needs and interests. The selection of commentary pieces in this edition of the American Journal of Primatology originated from presentations given in the symposium, Field Primatology of Today: Navigating the Ethical Landscape, held at the 32nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists (ASP) in September 2009. The goals of that symposium and these resulting commentary pieces are threefold: (1) to revive a discussion of key contemporary ethical issues faced by field primatologists, (2) to highlight the need for centrally placed ethical considerations in various facets of our professional lives, particularly research and teaching, and (3) to consider what a comprehensive ethical code that addresses all of these issues might look like. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Current issues in electromagnetic knockout reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giusti, C.

    2002-01-01

    The role of correlations and two-body currents in one-nucleon emission reactions induced by an electromagnetic probe is discussed. The theoretical framework for cross section calculations is outlined and some results are presented for the exclusive "1"6O(e,e'p) "1"5N and "1"6O(γ, p) "1"5N reactions in relativistic and nonrelativistic models. A reliable and consistent evaluation of different types of correlations is needed to determine the spectroscopic factors. A consistent description of (e,e'p) and (γ, p) data, with the same spectroscopic factors, can be obtained when meson-exchange currents (MEC) are included in the theoretical model. MEC give an important contribution to (γ, p) cross sections and have only a small effect in (e, e'p). In the relativistic model the two-body seagull current affects the calculated cross sections less than in the nonrelativistic calculations.

  17. Current technical issues in international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    Safeguards systems, and the associated need for technical and systems development, reflect changing conditions and concerns associated with the nuclear fuel cycle and the safety and security of nuclear materials and facilities. In particular, the implementation of international safeguards has led to the recognition of certain technical issues, both old and new, which are in need of resolution. These are: 1. The grading of nuclear materials and facilities with respect to their relative safeguards significance. 2. The extension and upgrading of safeguards techniques to maintain adequate protection in view of constantly increasing amounts of material to be safeguarded. 3. The balance between safeguards mechanisms based on physical protection and material accounting, and the role of surveillance and containment in each case. 4. The role of information systems as a basis for both analytical feedback and the determination of the factors affecting system effectiveness and their interrelationship. 5. A determination of the degree to which the overall technical effectiveness of international inspection activities can be quantified. Each of these technical issues must be considered in light of the specific objectives of international safeguards, which differ from domestic safeguards in terms of the level of the threat, the safeguards mechanisms available, and the diversion strategies assumed. Their resolution in this international context is essential if the effectiveness and viability of international safeguards are to be maintained

  18. UK energy issues 1987-1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, P J

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes and analyses the energy issues and options which the British Government will either choose, or be required, to address over the next five years. After considering the domestic and international environment, the paper looks at the future for: electricity generation, and the coal industry in the light of the decision to privatise the Electricity Supply Industry; the oil and gas sector; research and development; demand and conservation including fuel poverty; energy pricing; international energy issues; and attitudes to energy policy making. 80 refs.

  19. Renewable energy costs, potentials, barriers: Conceptual issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, Aviel; Fischedick, Manfred; Moomaw, William; Weir, Tony; Nadai, Alain; Nilsson, Lars J.; Nyboer, John; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-01-01

    Renewable energy can become the major energy supply option in low-carbon energy economies. Disruptive transformations in all energy systems are necessary for tapping widely available renewable energy resources. Organizing the energy transition from non-sustainable to renewable energy is often described as the major challenge of the first half of the 21st century. Technological innovation, the economy (costs and prices) and policies have to be aligned to achieve full renewable energy potentials, and barriers impeding that growth need to be removed. These issues are also covered by IPCC's special report on renewable energy and climate change to be completed in 2010. This article focuses on the interrelations among the drivers. It clarifies definitions of costs and prices, and of barriers. After reviewing how the third and fourth assessment reports of IPCC cover mitigation potentials and commenting on definitions of renewable energy potentials in the literature, we propose a consistent set of potentials of renewable energy supplies.

  20. Current Aeromedical Issues in Rotary Wing Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    by seat and harness design faults. The introduction of armoured seats to protect the pilot from ground small arms fire has altered the geometry of...the flying position by pushing the pilot upwards and forwards. The weight of anterior body armour increases the flexing forces on the thoracic spine...should be put in place. Current four and five point restraint systems in pilot compartments require restraint straps be draped over flight jackets

  1. Gratitude: A Current Issue in Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Kardas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increase in the emphasis on the positive feelings and strengths of individuals in the mental health by the emergence of positive psychology approach. Positive psychology approach points to the potential of positive emotions contributing to clients' well-being, and various studies in this framework show that gratitude as a positive feeling has become one of the tools used to improve clients’ mental health. In this review study, the concept of gratitude, which is quite old in various fields but is a current topic in the field of psychology, is handled in various dimensions and some suggestions are given for practitioners and researchers in this framework.

  2. Reproductive rights: Current issues of late abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujović-Zornić Hajrija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the legal issues surrounding induced late abortion in cases when severe medical, therapeutic or ethical reasons have not been in dispute. Generally discussing the essential question about abortion today, it means not anymore legality of abortion but, in the first place, safety of abortion. From the aspect of woman health the most important aim is to detect and avoid possible risks of medical intervention, such as late abortion present. This is the matter of medical law context and also the matter of the woman's reproductive rights, here observed through legislation and court practice. The gynecologist has an obligation to obtain the informed consent of each patient. Information's should be presented in reasonably understandable terms and include alternative modes of treatment, objectives, risks, benefits, possible complications, and anticipated results of such treatment. Pregnant woman should receive supportive counseling before and particularly after the procedure. The method chosen for all terminations should ensure that the fetus is born dead. This should be undertaken by an appropriately trained practitioner. Reform in abortion law, making it legally accessible to woman, is not necessarily the product of a belief in woman's rights, but can be a means of bringing the practice of abortion back under better control. Counseling and good medical practice in performing late abortion are the instruments to drive this point even further home. It does not undermine the woman who wants to make a positive decision about her life and its purpose is not to produce feelings of insecurity and guilt. It concludes that existing law should not be changed but that clear rules should be devised and board created to review late term abortion. In Serbia, this leads to creation and set up guidelines for reconciling medical justification for late abortion with existing law, especially with solutions which brings comparative law. .

  3. Energy, a crucial environmental subject. Special issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In this issue of the magazine ArenA special attention is paid the use of energy in the Netherlands, the related problems and solutions, and the agenda for the Section Energy of the Dutch Association of Environmental Professionals (VVM) resulting from the technological, administrative and economical problems and solutions

  4. Renewable energy 1998: Issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report presents the following five papers: Renewable electricity purchases: History and recent developments; Transmission pricing issues for electricity generation from renewable resources; Analysis of geothermal heat pump manufacturers survey data; A view of the forest products industry from a wood energy perspective; and Wind energy developments: Incentives in selected countries. A glossary is included. 19 figs., 27 tabs.

  5. Global Energy Issues and Alternate Fueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes world energy issues and alternate fueling effects on aircraft design. The contents include: 1) US Uses about 100 Quad/year (1 Q = 10(exp 15) Btu) World Energy Use: about 433 Q/yr; 2) US Renewable Energy about 6%; 3) Nuclear Could Grow: Has Legacy Problems; 4) Energy Sources Primarily NonRenewable Hydrocarbon; 5) Notes; 6) Alternate Fuels Effect Aircraft Design; 7) Conventional-Biomass Issue - Food or Fuel; 8) Alternate fuels must be environmentally benign; 9) World Carbon (CO2) Emissions Problem; 10) Jim Hansen s Global Warming Warnings; 11) Gas Hydrates (Clathrates), Solar & Biomass Locations; 12) Global Energy Sector Response; 13) Alternative Renewables; 14) Stratospheric Sulfur Injection Global Cooling Switch; 15) Potential Global Energy Sector Response; and 16) New Sealing and Fluid Flow Challenges.

  6. Current educational issues in the clinical neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbiens, R; Elleker, M G; Goldsand, G; Hugenholtz, H; Puddester, D; Toyota, B; Findlay, J M

    2001-11-01

    Canadian training in the clinical neurosciences, neurology and neurosurgery, faces significant challenges. New balances are being set by residents, their associations and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada between clinical service, education and personal time. The nature of hospital-provided medical service has changed significantly over the past decade, impacting importantly on resident training. Finally, future manpower needs are of concern, especially in the field of neurosurgery, where it appears that soon more specialists will be trained than can be absorbed into the Canadian health care system. A special symposium on current challenges in clinical neuroscience training was held at the Canadian Congress of Neurological Sciences in June 2000. Representatives from the Canadian Association of Interns and Residents, the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada and English and French neurology and neurosurgery training programs made presentations, which are summarized in this report. Residency training has become less service-oriented, and this trend will continue. In order to manage the increasingly sophisticated hospital services of neurology and neurosurgery, resident-alternatives in the form of physician "moonlighters" or more permanent hospital-based clinicians or "hospitalists" will be necessary in order to operate major neuroclinical units. Health authorities and hospitals will need to recognize and assume this responsibility. As clinical experience diminishes during residency training, inevitably so will the concept of the fully competent "generalist" at the end of specialty training. Additional subspecialty training is being increasingly sought by graduates, particularly in neurosurgery. Training in neurology and neurosurgery, as in all medical specialties, has changed significantly in recent years and continues to change. Programs and hospitals need to adapt to these changes in order to ensure the production of fully

  7. Current issues and perspectives in prenatal nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison JC

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available John C Morrison1, John Elliott2, Robert A Knuppel3, Baha Sibai4, Michael W Pill51Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA; 2Saddleback Memorial Medical Center, Women's Hospital, Laguna Hills, CA, USA; 3DuBois Regional Medical Center, DuBois, PA, USA; 4University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA; 5Gemini Healthcare, Westbrook, CT, USAAbstract: The typical American diet, characterized by energy-dense foods rich in starches, sugars, and saturated fats, and low in fruits and vegetables, is relatively unhealthy and is associated with nutritional deficiencies. Suboptimal diets for pregnant women have been associated with serious maternal medical complications (eg, iron deficiency anemia, high blood pressure, gestational diabetes, and morning sickness, as well as an increased risk of intrauterine growth restriction, birth defects, developmental delays after birth, and future chronic health problems, (eg, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol during childhood, as well as later in life. Folic acid deficiency is one of the most common problems among pregnant women, and supplementation with folic acid during pregnancy has been reported to decrease the occurrence and recurrence of fetal neural tube defects. Folate supplementation beginning preconception, along with a multivitamin, at least 12 weeks prior to conception is recommended to achieve maximal risk reduction. The reported benefits of supplementing docosahexaenoic acid, an unsaturated omega-3 essential fatty acid, during pregnancy include promoting proper neurodevelopment in fetuses and infants that extends into childhood. Pregnancy is also associated with an increased susceptibility to oxidative stress, resulting from the imbalance between oxygen free radicals and the essential antioxidants that maintain homeostasis. Associated complications include preeclampsia, preterm labor, and

  8. Nuclear power systems: Their safety. Current issue review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, L.C.

    1994-04-01

    Human beings utilize energy in many forms and from a variety of sources. A number of countries have chosen nuclear-electric generation as a component of their energy system. At the end of 1992, there were 419 power reactors operating in 29 countries, accounting for more than 15% of the world's production of electricity. In 1992, 13 countries derived at least 25% of their electricity from nuclear units, with Lithuania leading at just over 78%, followed closely by France at 72%. In the same year, Canada produced about 16% of its electricity from nuclear units. Some 53 power reactors are under construction in 14 countries outside the former USSR. Within the ex-USSR countries, six new reactors are currently under construction. No human endeavour carries the guarantee of perfect safety and the question of whether of not nuclear-electric generation represents an 'acceptable' risk to society has long been vigorously debated. Until the events of late April 1986 in the then Soviet Union, nuclear safety had indeed been an issue for discussion, for some concern, but not for alarm. The accident at the Chernobyl reactor irrevocably changed all that. This disaster brought the matter of nuclear safety into the public mind in a dramatic fashion. Subsequent opening of the ex-Soviet nuclear power program to outside scrutiny has done little to calm people's concerns about the safety of nuclear power in that part of the world. This paper discusses the issue of safety in complex energy systems and provides brief accounts of some of the most serious reactor accidents that have occurred to date, as well as more recent, less dramatic events touching on the safety issue. (author). 7 refs

  9. Application of diffusion research to solar energy policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessner, J. D.; Posner, D.; Shoemaker, F.; Shama, A.

    1979-03-01

    This paper examines two types of information requirements that appear to be basic to DOE solar-energy-policy decisions: (1) how can the future market success of solar energy technologies be estimated, and (2) what factors influence the adoption of solar energy technologies, and what specific programs could promote solar energy adoption most effectively. This paper assesses the ability of a body of research, referred to here as diffusion research, to supply information that could partially satisfy these requirements. This assessment proceeds, first, by defining in greater detail a series of policy issues that face DOE. These are divided into cost reduction and performance improvement issues which include issues confronting the technology development component of the solar energy program, and barriers and incentives issues which are most relevant to problems of solar energy application. Second, these issues are translated into a series of questions that the diffusion approach can help resolve. Third, various elements within diffusion research are assessed in terms of their abilities to answer policy questions. Finally, the strengths and limitations of current knowledge about the diffusion of innovations are summarized, the applicability of both existing knowledge and the diffusion approach to the identified solar-energy-policy issues are discussed, and ways are suggested in which diffusion approaches can be modified and existing knowledge employed to meet short- and long-term goals of DOE. The inquiry covers the field of classical diffusion research, market research and consumer behavior, communication research, and solar-energy market-penetration modeling.

  10. Energy Geographies: Thinking Critically about Energy Issues in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Elvin

    2016-01-01

    Energy issues are becoming increasingly common subjects of instruction in undergraduate- and graduate-level classrooms across a variety of disciplines. The interdisciplinary character of energy studies provides geographers with a great opportunity to present different applied and theoretical approaches to help students conceptualize energy issues…

  11. Ocean energy: key legal issues and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Glen; Rochette, Julien; O'Hagan, Anne Marie; De Groot, Jiska; Leroy, Yannick; Soininen, Niko; Salcido, Rachael; Castelos, Montserrat Abad; Jude, Simon; Kerr, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Ocean energy is a novel renewable energy resource being developed as part of the push towards a 'Blue Economy'. The literature on ocean energy has focused on technical, environmental, and, increasingly, social and political aspects. Legal and regulatory factors have received less attention, despite their importance in supporting this new technology and ensuring its sustainable development. In this Issue Brief, we set out some key legal challenges for the development of ocean energy technologies, structured around the following core themes of marine governance: (i) international law; (ii) environmental impacts; (iii) rights and ownership; (iv) consenting processes; and (v) management of marine space and resources. (authors)

  12. Public perceptions of energy issues in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    In October 2004, the Environics Research Group conducted a telephone survey of 608 adult Ontarians to collect information on matters regarding energy; consumer confidence and protection; responsibilities of the Ontario Energy Board; and consumer information preferences. This report summarizes the key findings of the survey. According to the survey, the most important electricity and natural gas issue was identified as being price and cost issues, followed by reliability of supply, conservation, keeping utilities publicly owned, finding renewable sources of energy, and over-consumption. The survey revealed that Ontarians show much interest in conserving energy to save money, to protect the environment and ensure future energy supply, but they are generally sceptical that their interests are being protected on electricity and natural gas price issues. At least 9 in 10 Ontarians consider the tasks of the Ontario Energy Board to be important. The majority of Ontarians prefer to receive energy conservation information through the mail and from public regulators over a government department or a company. 10 tabs

  13. Energy - Resources, technologies and power issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzucchi, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    For a better understanding of complex relationships between States, enterprises and international bodies, the author proposes a detailed analysis of power issues which structure the energy sector at the world level. He first considers the energy policy of a country as a result of an arbitration between three main concerns (access to energy, energy security, and struggle against climate change) which are differently addressed depending on consumption and production profiles of the country, and on its geographic and political characteristics. The author then proposes a synthetic overview of this landscape by analysing the history of exploitation of different energy sources (oil, coal, gas, uranium) and by proposing a regional analysis of resources. In the next part, he addresses various aspects of energy transports (bottlenecks of sea transport, trans-national grids, geopolitical restructuring of pipelines in front of the development of new LNG terminals). Then, for different regions, he describes the various modes of energy consumption, and challenges related to the transformation of this consumption due to the emergence of renewable energies. He analyses and discusses international mechanisms which underlie energy markets, and power issues which govern them. He shows that nuclear and renewable energies in fact strengthen the dependence on strategic materials and on technological companies. A chapter proposes an analysis of relationships between three prevailing actors in the elaboration of energy policies (enterprises, State and civil society) with their reciprocal influences, moments of collaboration, and information exchange or withholding. The last chapter addresses the study of power rivalries in the elaboration of policies for the struggle against climate change, and proposes a critical review of international organisations which square them

  14. Energies-climate review (Panorama energies-climate) - issue 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goubet, Cecile; Beriot, Nicolas; Daurian, Aurelien; Vieillefosse, Alice; Ducastelle, Julien; Le Guen, Solenn; Strang, Axel; Courtois, Sophie; Brender, Pierre; Guibert, Olivier de; Croquette, Gilles; Simiu, Diane; Venturini, Isabelle; Hesske, Philip; Oriol, Louise; Louati, Sami; Cadin, Didier; Korman, Bernard; Defays, Julien; Balian, Armelle; Guichaoua, Sabine; Isoard, Vivien; Lamy, Jean-michel; Pelce, Frederic; Fondeville, Louis; Baumont, Thierry; Triquet, Olivier; Mouloudi, Fadwa; Quintaine, Thierry; Reizine, Stanislas; Pertuiset, Thomas; Caron, Antoine; Blanchard, Sidonie; Timsit, Isabelle; Lewis, Florian; Ducouret, Melanie; Leclercq, Martine; Derville, Isabelle; Grenon, Georgina; Thomas, Julien; Oeser, Christian; Thouin, Catherine; Dumiot, Jacques-Emmanuel; Rondeau, Claudine; Menager, Yann; Barber, Nicolas; Weill, Jonathan; Furois, Timothee; Thomines, Marie; Brunet-Lecomte, Helene; Boutot, Romary; Strang, Axel; Giraud, Jean; Thomas, Julien; Oeser, Christian; Perrette, Lionel; Breda, Willy; Panetier, Vincent; Miraval, Bruno; Delaugerre, Frederique; Leinekugel Le Cocq, Thibaut; Lemaire, Yves; Thabet, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    This issue first analyses what is at stake with energy transition: struggle against climate change, management of energy demand and promotion of energy efficiency, struggle against energy poverty, development of technologies for tomorrow's energy system. It discusses France's position within its European and international environment: European energy-climate objectives, world context of oil and gas markets, European electricity markets, imports and exports, energy bill. It presents and analyses the situation of the oil and gas sector in France: hydrocarbon exploration and production in France, refining activities, substitution fuels, oil infrastructures, oil product retailing, and gas infrastructures. It then presents the French electric system (electricity production, electricity transport and distribution grids and networks, electric system safety) and the industrial sectors involved in de-carbonated energy production: biomass, wind energy, sea energy, geothermal energy, hydroelectricity, nuclear energy, photovoltaic and thermodynamic solar energy. It addresses the industrial sectors involved in a better use of energy: dynamic control of smart energy systems (smart grids, hydrogen, energy storage), CO 2 capture and storage, de-carbonated vehicle and its ecosystem. The last part addresses oil product prices, gas prices, electricity prices, the energy tax system, and the arrangements and costs of the support to renewable energy production

  15. Reflections on energy issues in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zemin

    2008-01-01

    Energy, which has a bearing on both economic and national security, is of importance and a major constraining factor to the economic and social development of China. The article analyses the current world energy status and development trend from the perspectives of resources, production and consumption and in the context of its implications on the environment and economic and social development, and explores opportunities and challenges for China's energy development. With a focus on the strategy of energy development in China, the author proposes a new energy development approach with Chinese characteristics whose main elements are: energy-saving, high-efficiency, diversified development, environment protection, technology guidance and international cooperation. In other words, China is striving to build a reliable energy production, circulation and consumption system that is efficient, technologically advanced, low polluting and ecologically friendly. A long-term development strategy with priority on energy conservation, efficient utillization of primary energy and advanced electricity system is expounded in the paper. The author also describes the prospect of energy technology development and stresses the implementation of energy strategy by further improving energy policy and related mechanisms, strengthening macro-management and the essential role of the market in resource allocation so as to ensure the economic and social development of China through reliable energy supply. (authors)

  16. Energy production for environmental issues in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Ibrahim; Arman, Hasan; Halil Demirel, Ibrahim

    2017-11-01

    Due to the diversification efforts of energy sources, use of natural gas that was newly introduced into Turkish economy, has been growing rapidly. Turkey has large reserves of coal, particularly of lignite. The proven lignite reserves are 8.0 billion tons. The estimated total possible reserves are 30 billion tons. Turkey, with its young population and growing energy demand per person, its fast growing urbanization, and its economic development, has been one of the fast growing power markets of the world for the last two decades. It is expected that the demand for electric energy in Turkey will be 580 billion kWh by the year 2020. Turkey's electric energy demand is growing about 6-8% yearly due to fast economic growing. This paper deals with energy demand and consumption for environmental issues in Turkey.

  17. Sustainable energy issues in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munasinghe, M [Environmental Policy Division, The World Bank, Washington D.C. (US)

    1991-07-01

    Increased energy use is a vital pre-requisite for economic development, and less developing countries (LDCs) are struggeling to meet energy needs at acceptable costs. LDC decision-makers share the worldwide environmental concerns, but also face other urgent issues like poverty. The industrialised countries can afford to substitute environmental protection for further material growth, but the LDCs will need concessional funding to participate in addressing global environmental problems. Global financing issues may be analysed and resolved through tradeoffs among several criteria including affordability/additionality, fairness/equity, and economic efficiency. The short-term LDC response to sustainable energy issues will be limited mainly to conventional technologies in efficiency improvements, conservation and resource development. The industrialised nations should provide financial resources to LDCs and develop the technology to be used in the 21st century. Pilot international funds like the Global Environmental Facility and the Ozone Fund will help LDCs participate in the effort to solve global environmental issues. (author) 16 refs.

  18. Current issues in medical education | Al Shehri | West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22, No 4 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. Trends in Current Issues, Y2K-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltz, Leslie; DeBlois, Peter B.

    2005-01-01

    EDUCAUSE inaugurated its annual Current Issues Survey in 2000 by asking the primary representatives, typically CIOs, of its member institutions to identify up to three critical IT issues (five starting in 2004) from among 30 to 40 in response to each of four questions. The survey response rate has typically been 35 to 40 percent, with a…

  20. International and European regulations in the energy law: selected issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, F.

    2010-01-01

    This work deals with four selected legal aspects or issues in the energy sector, which are mainly located in the international, European and at the interface to national law. The first question is 'The status of the investor to the Energy Charter' and addresses issues regarding the investor position and their characteristics according to the Energy Charter Treaty. The second question is 'aspects of energy competence under the Treaty of Lisbon' and deals among others questions with the new energy expertise offense, as well as direct investment. The third issue, titled 'The admissibility of ownership unbundling' illuminates terms of a proposal, which plan a full ownership unbundling of transmission system operators, in more detail. The fourth issue is 'aspects for the implementation of directive 2006/32/EC' and deals with aspects of the implementation of this directive in Austria. This work is making an attempt to shed light on these questions and their issues in more detail by also taking into account the Austrian perspectives. In my view the energy sector is an economically important and politically embossed area that always has a current relevance to daily life and will raise more legal questions in future. (kancsar) [de

  1. Current Issues in LPP Research and Their Impact on Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darquennes, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    After a very broad description of what language policy and planning is about this paper presents an overview of some of the current preoccupations of researchers focusing on language policy and planning as one of the blooming fields of applied linguistics. The current issues in language policy and planning research that are dealt with include…

  2. Neutrino dark energy. Revisiting the stability issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggers Bjaelde, O.; Hannestad, S. [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Brookfield, A.W. [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Dept. of Physics, Astro-Particle Theory and Cosmology Group; Van de Bruck, C. [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Mathematics, Astro-Particle Theory and Cosmology Group; Mota, D.F. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik]|[Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, Oslo (Norway); Schrempp, L. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Tocchini-Valentini, D. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2007-05-15

    A coupling between a light scalar field and neutrinos has been widely discussed as a mechanism for linking (time varying) neutrino masses and the present energy density and equation of state of dark energy. However, it has been pointed out that the viability of this scenario in the non-relativistic neutrino regime is threatened by the strong growth of hydrodynamic perturbations associated with a negative adiabatic sound speed squared. In this paper we revisit the stability issue in the framework of linear perturbation theory in a model independent way. The criterion for the stability of a model is translated into a constraint on the scalar-neutrino coupling, which depends on the ratio of the energy densities in neutrinos and cold dark matter. We illustrate our results by providing meaningful examples both for stable and unstable models. (orig.)

  3. Issue on supply chain of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucchiella, Federica; D’Adamo, Idiano

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • One of the most relevant debates, is related to energy and environmental issue. • The development of renewable energy usage is due to several factors. • Indeed challenges from a supply chain point of view are required. • Thorough survey on topics of supply chain and renewable energy has been conducted. • Findings are discussed against the backdrop of SCs as sustainable RE option. - Abstract: Actually, one of the most relevant debates, among both citizens that government, is related to energy and environmental issue. The development of renewable energy usage is due to several factors such as the political strategic decisions and geographical situation. Indeed the high development of renewable energies requires challenges from a supply chain point of view. In this paper, a thorough survey of the extant literature on the topic of supply chain (SC) and renewable energy (RE) has been conducted. English papers published on international peer-reviewed journals from 2003 to 2013 have been considered. Sustainable Supply Chain Management (SSCM) resolves the duality between environmental, economic and social aspects. Sustainable manufacturing practices play an essential role in promoting renewable energy development and commercialization; this will require significant changes to the industry’s traditional Supply Chain Management and business model. The aim of the paper is investigate literature insights useful to increase the performance and overcome barriers to the RE supply chain development. Like many typical supply chains, also supply chain related to RE includes elements such as: physical, information, and financial flows. The present research is useful to individualize characteristics of a RE supply chain. Moreover, the research is useful improve the performance of RE supply chain in some aspects like: • better control supply chain costs to make renewable energy more affordable; • manage supply chain to address weakened demand in the near

  4. 1984 Statistical symposium on national energy issues: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnison, R.; Doctor, P.

    1985-07-01

    The 1984 Statistical Symposium on National Energy Issues was the tenth in a series of annual symposia bringing together statisticians and other interested parties who are actively engaged in the pursuit of solving the nation's energy problems. Initially the symposium was sponsored by US Department of Energy (DOE) and named the DOE Statistical Symposium. The symposium is organized by a steering committee made up of representatives from the national laboratories. The 1984 symposium was hosted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and it was organized around four special topical sessions: (1) assessing and assuring high reliability, (2) spatial statistical, (3) quantification of informed opinion, and (4) health effects of energy technologies. These were chosen by the steering committee as topics currently of high importance in energy research and data analysis. Several contributed papers were also presented. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 17 papers for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  5. Policy issues in Ethiopian energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    One of the most serious constraints to current survival and future development in Ethiopia is energy. The question of energy for survival is dependent on biomass which is being rapidly depleted;at the current rate of deforestation, Ethiopia will be bare of forests in 20 years. There are several points to emphasize in establishing a forestry policy which include: 1) Accurate costing of per unit of production 2) Selection of appropriate species by ecological zone 3) Land management improvements 4) Suitable Land Tenure Systems It is possible to outline general principles for energy-forestry management, namely: 1) Around densely settled areas, encourage the production of trees as a cash crop 2) In dry areas, encourage agroforestry to enchance total biomass productivity 3) Require state farms and all new settlement as far as possible to be self supporting in fuel through settlement woodlots 4) Enforce 'Green (Energy) Belts' around major urban areas. Without forestry, there will be no fuel. Except for hydroelectricity and geothermal, there are no substantial, really proven indigenous reserves: even the exploitation of hydropower and geothermal potential is totally dependent on foreign technology.

  6. Tidal current energy resource assessment in Ireland: Current status and future update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rourke, Fergal; Boyle, Fergal; Reynolds, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Interest in renewable energy in Ireland has increased continually over the past decade. This interest is due primarily to security of supply issues and the effects of climate change. Ireland imports over 90% of its primary energy consumption, mostly in the form of fossil fuels. The exploitation of Ireland's vast indigenous renewable energy resources is required in order to reduce this over-dependence on fossil fuel imports to meet energy demand. Various targets have been set by the Irish government to incorporate renewable energy technologies into Ireland's energy market. As a result of these targets, the development in wind energy has increased substantially over the past decade; however this method of energy extraction is intermittent and unpredictable. Ireland has an excellent tidal current energy resource and the use of this resource will assist in the development of a sustainable energy future. Energy extraction using tidal current energy technologies offers a vast and predictable energy resource. This paper reviews the currently accepted tidal current energy resource assessment for Ireland. This assessment was compiled by Sustainable Energy Ireland in a report in 2004. The assessment employed a 2-dimensional numerical model of the tidal current velocities around Ireland, and from this numerical model the theoretical tidal current energy resource was identified. With the introduction of constraints and limitations, the technical, practical, accessible and viable tidal current energy resources were obtained. The paper discusses why the assessment needs updating including the effect on the assessment of the current stage of development of tidal current turbines and their deployment technology. (author)

  7. Internet governance origins, current issues, and future possibilities

    CERN Document Server

    Balleste, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Internet Governance: Origins, Current Issues, and Future Possibilities provides an introductory, multidisciplinary account of the forces at work in the evolving concept of internet governance and includes computer history, Internet beginnings, institutions and stakeholders, proposed models of governance, and human rights.

  8. Summary of current issues regarding space flight habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, J B

    2000-09-01

    One of the implicit, yet often under-emphasized qualities of human tended spaceflight is the habitability of the spacecraft and mission. This document summarizes some of the points that characterize the current status of this topic. In addition, the summary concludes with goals for future development for this issue.

  9. Current Economic Issues in Employee Benefits. Background Paper No. 39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, Stephen A.

    A multitude of public policy issues currently surround the tax treatment of employee benefits, particularly since the tax-favored status of employer contributions to pensions and health insurance has been blamed for a shrinking tax base that has exacerbated the federal budget deficit, an inefficient and bloated health-care sector, overinsurance by…

  10. Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-04

    as Putin’s attempt to test how far he can go in destabilizing Ukraine while avoiding the imposition of additional sanctions by the EU and United...cooperative threat reduction and other nonproliferation activities with Russia. Figure 1. Ukraine Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

  11. Exploring Current Issues through the Hot Topics Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbett, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a research paper and poster assignment used in an undergraduate leisure and human behavior course. The intent of this learning activity is to increase student knowledge of current issues within the industry as well as to enhance students' professional communication skills. A description of the assignment is shared along with…

  12. Marine current energy devices: Current status and possible future applications in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rourke, Fergal O.; Boyle, Fergal; Reynolds, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing demand for the use of renewable energy technologies to generate electricity due to concerns over climate change. The oceans provide a huge potential resource of energy. Energy extraction using marine current energy devices (MCEDs) offers a sustainable alternative to conventional sources and a predictable alternative to other renewable energy technologies. A MCED utilises the kinetic energy of the tides as opposed to the potential energy which is utilised by a tidal barrage. Over the past decade MCEDs have become an increasingly popular method of energy extraction. However, marine current energy technology is still not economically viable on a large scale due to its current stage of development. Ireland has an excellent marine current energy resource as it is an island nation and experiences excellent marine current flows. This paper reviews marine current energy devices, including a detailed up-to-date description of the current status of development. Issues such as network integration, economics, and environmental implications are addressed as well as the application and costs of MCEDs in Ireland. (author)

  13. Investing in the Energy Sector: An Issue of Governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst Keppler, J.; Schulke, Ch.

    2009-01-01

    Of all economic sectors, energy is among those where the issue of investments is the most urgent. Because of its technological structure and significant fixed costs, the energy sector is by nature heavily capital intensive. With growing demand and increasingly difficult access to resources, the amounts needed become enormous. The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates in its World Energy Outlook 2008 that total energy investment needs between now and 2030 will stand at $26 trillion, or close to $1 trillion per year. This is just for energy supply. Half of these investments will be needed in the electricity sector (see below for more details on these estimations). Even after putting these figures into perspective in terms of total worldwide investments over the next 25 years, the amount of money is still significant. All types of energy are involved - oil, gas, coal, nuclear and renewables. In addition, all steps in the supply chain are included - exploration, production, transformation and transportation. The stakes are high. Without the necessary investments, security of supply, global economic growth and environmental integrity are put at risk. The most important challenge for the energy sector in the years to come is thus to pave the way for realising timely and appropriate investments. The current economic recession that is threatening to curb global economic growth will not change this fact. Even if global energy demand slows down in the next two or three years, the world will return to its long term growth path. An energy facility lasts between 20 and 60 years. Thus, the structure of energy production in 2050, when the current economic crisis has been forgotten, will be determined now and over the next years. Even if global energy demand remains stable between now and 2050 (which is highly improbable), the replacement of existing facilities that have reached the end of their life-cycle will still require considerable efforts. (authors)

  14. Consumer protection issues in energy: a guide for attorneys general. Insulation, solar, automobile device, home devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Harry I.; Hulse, William S.; Jones, Robert R.; Langer, Robert M.; Petrucelli, Paul J.; Schroeder, Robert J.

    1979-11-01

    The guide attempts to bring together two important and current issues: energy and consumer protection. Perhaps the most basic consumer-protection issue in the energy area is assuring adequate supplies at adequate prices. It is anticipated, though, that consumers will want to consider new ways to lower enegy consumption and cost, and will thus be susceptible to fraudulent energy claims. Information is prepared on insulation, solar, energy-saving devices for the home, and energy-saving devices for the automobile.

  15. Energy from streaming current and potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthuis, Wouter; Schippers, Bob; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert

    2005-01-01

    It is investigated how much energy can be delivered by a streaming current source. A streaming current and subsequent streaming potential originate when double layer charge is transported by hydrodynamic flow. Theory and a network model of such a source is presented and initial experimental results

  16. Nuclear power in the OECD countries results and current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.F.

    1989-01-01

    The first use of nuclear power for the generation of electricity on a commercial scale occurred in the United Kingdom in 1956. Today, 13 OECD countries have 318 nuclear units in operation and 66 more in construction or on order. This outstanding achievement is the result of the successful organization, start up, and operation of an industry to design, build, equip, fuel, and maintain these facilites. Nuclear power, however, is currently troubled by a number of issues that may impair its ability to reach its full potential. The industry has acknowledged problems that can be and are being managed. But the industry also has a number of political difficulties that could be beyond its ability to resolve with its own resources. These are issues common to the introduction of new technologies into a complex world. Nevertheless, nuclear power continues to be the means by which we can provide the electric power needed to raise the living standard of everyone on the globe

  17. Female sex trafficking: conceptual issues, current debates, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkovska, Biljana; Siegel, Melissa; Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bos, Arjan E R

    2015-01-01

    Female sex trafficking is a pressing concern. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of relevant issues regarding the concept of female sex trafficking and research in the field of human trafficking, drawing on a variety of disciplines, including economics, gender and sexuality studies, psychology, sociology, law, and social work. We discuss the debates surrounding the definition of human trafficking, compare and contrast it with human smuggling, and outline connections between female sex trafficking and the issue of sex work and prostitution. We further discuss the history and current estimations of female sex trafficking. We then outline the main actors in female sex trafficking, including trafficked persons, traffickers, clients, and service providers, and we overview the trafficking process from recruitment to identification, recovery, and (re)integration. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future research that tie together the concepts of vulnerability, exploitation, and long-term recovery and (re)integration.

  18. Feminism and nurse-midwifery. Historical overview and current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, W F; McCool, S J

    1989-01-01

    Despite the fact that the profession of nurse-midwifery and feminism are both disciplines concerned with women and issues affecting women's lives, there has been little investigation or acknowledgement of relationships between their two paradigms. The work presented here is an attempt to discover both similarities and differences between nurse-midwifery and feminist thought. Using a historical approach, it is shown that despite the common goal of improving and maintaining women's status in the world, whether in general or more specifically with regard to health, feminist theorists and nurse-midwives, to a large degree, have worked separately from each other, rarely acknowledging in any formal way the importance of the other discipline. Current issues that have an effect on the practice of nurse-midwifery today--lay midwifery, the profession of nursing, and nurse-midwifery research--are presented in relation to contemporary feminist thought.

  19. Long term energy-related environmental issues of copper production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, S. [University of Chile, Santiago (Chile). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Maldonado, P.; Barrios, A.; Jaques, I. [University of Chile, Santiago (Chile). Energy Research Program

    2002-02-01

    Primary copper production is a major activity in the mining sector of several countries. However, it is highly energy-intensive and poses important environmental hazards. In the case of Chile, the world's largest copper producer (40% of world total), we examine its energy consumption and energy-related environmental implications over a time horizon of 25 years. Concerning the latter, we focus on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions, one of the most debated environmental issues. This paper follows up our previous report in which the current situation was analyzed and a particular technical option for improving the energy efficiency and concurrently reducing GHG emissions was discussed. Estimated reference or base (BS) and mitigation (MS) scenarios are developed for the period ending in 2020. The former assesses the energy demand projected in accordance with production forecasts and specific energy consumption patterns (assuming that energy efficiency measures are adopted 'spontaneously') with their resultant GHG emissions, while the latter assumes induced actions intended to reduce emissions by adopting an aggressive policy of efficient energy use. For the year 2020, the main results are: (i) BS, 1214 t of CO{sub 2}/ton of refined copper content (49% lower than in 1994); (ii) MS, 1037 t of CO{sub 2}/t of refined copper content (56% lower than in 1994). CO{sub 2} emissions have been estimated considering both fuel and electricity process requirements. (author)

  20. Long term energy-related environmental issues of copper production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, S.; Maldonado, P.; Barrios, A.; Jaques, I.

    2002-01-01

    Primary copper production is a major activity in the mining sector of several countries. However, it is highly energy-intensive and poses important environmental hazards. In the case of Chile, the world's largest copper producer (40% of world total), we examine its energy consumption and energy-related environmental implications over a time horizon of 25 years. Concerning the latter, we focus on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions, one of the most debated environmental issues. This paper follows up our previous report in which the current situation was analyzed and a particular technical option for improving the energy efficiency and concurrently reducing GHG emissions was discussed. Estimated reference or base (BS) and mitigation (MS) scenarios are developed for the period ending in 2020. The former assesses the energy demand projected in accordance with production forecasts and specific energy consumption patterns (assuming that energy efficiency measures are adopted 'spontaneously') with their resultant GHG emissions, while the latter assumes induced actions intended to reduce emissions by adopting an aggressive policy of efficient energy use. For the year 2020, the main results are: (i) BS, 1214 t of CO 2 /ton of refined copper content (49% lower than in 1994); (ii) MS, 1037 t of CO 2 /t of refined copper content (56% lower than in 1994). CO 2 emissions have been estimated considering both fuel and electricity process requirements. (author)

  1. Energy sector in Ecuador: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelaez-Samaniego, M.R.; Garcia-Perez, M.; Cortez, L.A.B.; Oscullo, J.; Olmedo, G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the current energy sector in Ecuador, its present structure, the oil industry, subsidies, and renewable energy, focusing on the evolution and reform of the electricity sector. Currently, 86% of the primary energy originates from nonrenewable sources. In 2005, the gross electricity generation was 15 127 GWh (45.5% hydropower, 43.11% thermal, and 11.39% imported). Ecuador is the fifth largest oil producer in South America but lacks sufficient oil refining capacity. Reserves of natural gas (NG) are small, and most of NG is produced from oil fields without energy recovery. Several projects are underway to increase the utilization of NG and renewable energies to meet Ecuador commitments to the Kyoto Protocol

  2. Food and Health Some Current Issues and Future Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Gormley, T. R. (Thomas Ronan)

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with some of the many current issues and future trends in the area of food, diet and health in Europe. A complete coverage would be impossible in a short article in view of the extent and complexity of the food system and its major interaction with health. It is also important to stress at the outset that food/diet is only one component of health and other factors such as environment, overall lifestyle and genetics also play a major role. The genetic dimension is of particula...

  3. Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-27

    benefit Kyiv for a while longer. Current Economic Situation After Russia proper, the Ukrainian republic was the most important economic component of...greater strides in energy conservation, which has required a steep and politically unpopular hike in natural gas prices, including for households...or enthusiasm for funding social policies, Moscow has been bankrolling pensions, social benefits , and salaries of local officials and the separatist

  4. Energy use management: the critical issues of interdependency and indeterminateness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davos, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The translation of energy concerns into effective policies under a democratic regime is currently impaired by two interrelated factors: (1) the interdependency of energy goals with most of society's other concerns and (2) the indeterminateness of both the scientific evidence and public interest. Some of the manifestations of the failure to address these factors are the prevailing energy policy uncertainties and the polarization of values, issues and research efforts. Awareness of this reality has not prevented, however, the suggestion of policies the majority of which either neglect the synergistic effect of the factors or depend for their legitimization on principles incompatible with democratic decision-making. I suggest that systematic examination of the web of interdependencies and of the scientific and public interest indeterminateness supports the assertion that the effectiveness of energy use management will depend on: (i) supplementing quantitative research with qualitative evaluation of scientific and public values; (ii) synthesizing the findings of the numerous currently performed analyses; and (iii) substituting the paternalistic dictates of scientists and special interest groups as the basis for policy decision-making with a participatory process that will aim to maximize the accord among all interested in, and/or impacted by, energy policies. (author)

  5. Energy use management: The critical issues of interdependency and indeterminateness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davos, C A

    1982-01-01

    The translation of energy concerns into effective policies under a democratic regime is currently impaired by two interrelated factors: the interdependency of energy goals with most of society's other concerns and the indeterminateness of both the scientific evidence and public interest. Some of the manifestations of the failure to address these factors are the prevailing energy policy uncertainties and the polarization of values, issues and research efforts. Awareness of this reality has not prevented, however, the suggestion of policies the majority of which either neglect the synergistic effect of the factors or depend for their legitimization on principles incompatible with democratic decision-making. Systematic examination of the web of interdependencies and of the scientific and public interest indeterminateness supports the assertion that the effectiveness of energy use management will depend on: supplementing quantitative research with qualitative evaluation of scientific and public values; synthesizing the findings of the numerous currently performed analyses; and substituting the paternalistic dictates of scientists and special interest groups as the basis for policy decision-making with a participatory process that will aim to maximize the accord among all interested in, and/or impacted by, energy policies.

  6. Energy use management: the critical issues of interdependency and indeterminateness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davos, C A [California Univ., Los Angeles (USA)

    1982-01-01

    The translation of energy concerns into effective policies under a democratic regime is currently impaired by two interrelated factors: (1) the interdependency of energy goals with most of society's other concerns and (2) the indeterminateness of both the scientific evidence and public interest. Some of the manifestations of the failure to address these factors are the prevailing energy policy uncertainties and the polarization of values, issues and research efforts. Awareness of this reality has not prevented, however, the suggestion of policies the majority of which either neglect the synergistic effect of the factors or depend for their legitimization on principles incompatible with democratic decision-making. I suggest that systematic examination of the web of interdependencies and of the scientific and public interest indeterminateness supports the assertion that the effectiveness of energy use management will depend on: (i) supplementing quantitative research with qualitative evaluation of scientific and public values; (ii) synthesizing the findings of the numerous currently performed analyses; and (iii) substituting the paternalistic dictates of scientists and special interest groups as the basis for policy decision-making with a participatory process that will aim to maximize the accord among all interested in, and/or impacted by, energy policies.

  7. World Energy Issues: An Inquiry-Based Lesson Using ArcGIS Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Injeong

    2018-01-01

    This 45 minute inquiry lesson can be used for a high school world geography or AP Human Geography course when the class discusses various issues regarding world energy resources. The lesson focuses on two particular issues: fossil fuel dependency and the growing energy demand. Students will examine the geographic distribution of current energy…

  8. The renewable energies: a topical issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    This document analyzes the situation of the renewable energies in the french energy sector. The first part presents the part of the renewable energies in the energy production and consumption, their interest in the fight against the climatic change and in the employment creation. The second part details for each renewable energy source the government policy in favor their development and the legislative framework. The third part provides data on cost, CO 2 emissions, life cycle and employments to illustrate the analysis. The last part presents the government objectives of the renewable energies development for 2010. (A.L.B.)

  9. The Japanese energy sector: Current situation, and future paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Kae; Suzuki, Tatsujiro

    2011-01-01

    As the world's third leading economy and a major importer of fuels, the choice of future energy paths and policies that Japan makes in the next few years will have a significant influence on the energy security of the world as a whole, and of the Northeast Asia region in particular. In this article we describe the current status of and recent trends in the Japanese energy sector, including energy demand and supply by fuel and by sector. We then discuss the current energy policy situation in Japan, focusing on policies related to climate change targets, renewable energy development and deployment, liberalization of energy markets, and the evolution of the Japanese nuclear power sector. The final section of the article presents the structure of the Japan LEAP (long-range energy alternatives planning software system) dataset, describes several alternative energy paths for Japan - with an emphasis on alternative paths for nuclear power development and GHG emission abatement - and touches upon key current issues of energy policy facing Japan, as reflected in the modeling inputs and results.

  10. The Japanese energy sector: Current situation, and future paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takase, Kae, E-mail: kae@gdl.jp [Governance Design Laboratory, Inc., 2301 City Tower Bashamichi 5-71 Onoe-cho, Naka-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 231-0015 (Japan); Suzuki, Tatsujiro [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Public Policy, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0081 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    As the world's third leading economy and a major importer of fuels, the choice of future energy paths and policies that Japan makes in the next few years will have a significant influence on the energy security of the world as a whole, and of the Northeast Asia region in particular. In this article we describe the current status of and recent trends in the Japanese energy sector, including energy demand and supply by fuel and by sector. We then discuss the current energy policy situation in Japan, focusing on policies related to climate change targets, renewable energy development and deployment, liberalization of energy markets, and the evolution of the Japanese nuclear power sector. The final section of the article presents the structure of the Japan LEAP (long-range energy alternatives planning software system) dataset, describes several alternative energy paths for Japan - with an emphasis on alternative paths for nuclear power development and GHG emission abatement - and touches upon key current issues of energy policy facing Japan, as reflected in the modeling inputs and results.

  11. Current status of low energy EB machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshiro Nishikimi; Shuichi Taniguchi; Kenichi Mizusawa

    1999-01-01

    Electron beam processing systems have been in use in a variety of applications such as curing of paints and printing inks, crosslinking of PE products, treating of rubber tire and so on. Low energy electron processing systems have become popular as self-shielded machines, which are compact and easy to use and do not require special facility as an irradiation room. This manuscript introduces the status of low energy EB (electron beam) machine through Nissin's products current

  12. Energy Issues and Problems in Developing Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdizadeh, Saeed

    1999-01-01

    In general, the developing countries due to changes in supply and demand for energy in the world, are facing several problems, such as: 1. Energy growth. 2.Energy consumption 3.Environmental protection. The objective of this paper is to study the problems caused by the increase in the energy consumption of the developing countries. also several guideline and solution schemes are recommended for these problems

  13. Tidal power harnessing energy from water currents

    CERN Document Server

    Lyatkher, Victor

    2014-01-01

    As the global supply of conventional energy sources, such as fossil fuels, dwindles and becomes more and more expensive, unconventional and renewable sources of energy, such as power generation from water sources, is becoming more and more important.  Hydropower has been around for decades, but this book suggests new methods that are more cost-effective and less intrusive to the environment for creating power sources from rivers, the tides, and other sources of water.   The energy available from water currents is potentially much greater than society's needs.  Presenting a detailed discussi

  14. Nuclear energy policy and atomic energy law. Issues and developmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Preuss, M.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear energy policy and the atomic energy law recurrently have been a focal point of interest and an issue of political debate in Germany. However, this time the political debate is gaining a new dimension in the wake of the general elections held in September 1998 and the resulting change of government. The contribution compares aspects of the history of atomic energy research and nuclear technology with the current political situation and assesses the impacts of announced changes in government policy and legislation. (orig./CB) [de

  15. Current and future industrial energy service characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.; Thomas, T.; Jackson, F.; Limaye, D.R.; Isser, S.; Karnofsky, K.; Davis, T.D.

    1980-10-01

    Current and future energy demands, end uses, and cost used to characterize typical applications and resultant services in the industrial sector of the United States and 15 selected states are examined. A review and evaluation of existing industrial energy data bases was undertaken to assess their potential for supporting SERI research on: (1) market suitability analysis, (2) market development, (3) end-use matching, (3) industrial applications case studies, and (4) identification of cost and performance goals for solar systems and typical information requirements for industrial energy end use. In reviewing existing industrial energy data bases, the level of detail, disaggregation, and primary sources of information were examined. The focus was on fuels and electric energy used for heat and power purchased by the manufacturing subsector and listed by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC, primary fuel, and end use. Projections of state level energy prices to 1990 are developed using the energy intensity approach. The effects of federal and state industrial energy conservation programs on future industrial sector demands were assessed. Future end-use energy requirements were developed for each 4-digit SIC industry and were grouped as follows: (1) hot water, (2) steam (212 to 300/sup 0/F, each 100/sup 0/F interval from 300 to 1000/sup 0/F, and greater than 1000/sup 0/F), and (3) hot air (100/sup 0/F intervals). Volume I details the activities performed in this effort.

  16. Urban science education: examining current issues through a historical lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Cheryl A.

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes urban science education studies published between 2000 and 2013 with a view to identifying current challenges faced by both teachers and students in urban classrooms. Additionally, this paper considers the historical events that have shaped the conditions, bureaucracies, and interactions of urban institutions. When the findings from these urban science education studies were consolidated with the historical overview provided, it was revealed that the basic design and regulatory policies of urban schools have not substantively changed since their establishment in the nineteenth century. Teachers in urban science classrooms continue to face issues of inequality, poverty, and social injustice as they struggle to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse student population. Furthermore, persistent concerns of conflicting Discourses, cultural dissonance, and oppression create formidable barriers to science learning. Despite the many modifications in structure and organization, urban students are still subjugated and marginalized in systems that emphasize control and order over high-quality science education.

  17. Current issues and perspectives in food safety and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbrand, G

    2015-12-01

    In this review, current issues and opportunities in food safety assessment are discussed. Food safety is considered an essential element inherent in global food security. Hazard characterization is pivotal within the continuum of risk assessment, but it may be conceived only within a very limited frame as a true alternative to risk assessment. Elucidation of the mode of action underlying a given hazard is vital to create a plausible basis for human toxicology evaluation. Risk assessment, to convey meaningful risk communication, must be based on appropriate and reliable consideration of both exposure and mode of action. New perspectives, provided by monitoring human exogenous and endogenous exposure biomarkers, are considered of great promise to support classical risk extrapolation from animal toxicology. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Current safety issues related to research reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcala-Ruiz, F.

    2000-01-01

    The Agency has included activities on research reactor safety in its Programme and Budget (P and B) since its inception in 1957. Since then, these activities have traditionally been oriented to fulfil the Agency's functions and obligations. At the end of the decade of the eighties, the Agency's Research Reactor Safety Programme (RRSP) consisted of a limited number of tasks related to the preparation of safety related publications and the conduct of safety missions to research reactor facilities. It was at the beginning of the nineties when the RRSP was upgraded and expanded as a subprogramme of the Agency's P and B. This subprogramme continued including activities related to the above subjects and started addressing an increasing number of issues related to the current situation of research reactors (in operation and shut down) around the world such as reactor ageing, modifications and decommissioning. The present paper discusses some of the above issues as recognised by various external review or advisory groups (e.g., Peer Review Groups under the Agency's Performance Programme Appraisal System (PPAS) or the standing International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG)) and the impact of their recommendations on the preparation and implementation of the part of the Agency's P and B relating to the above subject. (author)

  19. Charged current weak interactions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, D.

    1977-01-01

    We review high energy neutrino and antineutrino charged current interactions. An overview of the experimental data is given, including a discussion of the experimental status of the y anomaly. Locality tests, μ-e universality and charge symmetry invariance tests are discussed. Charm production is discussed. The experimental status of trimuon events and possible phenomenological models for these events are presented. (orig.) [de

  20. Environmental issues of Ukrainian energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streimikiene, D.

    2005-01-01

    Ukraine's power sector is the twelfth-largest in the world in terms of installed capacity, with 54 GW and Ukraine still obtains over 50% of its electricity usage from nuclear source. In terms of energy consumption per dollar, Ukraine has one of the highest levels of energy and carbon intensity in the world. The country has very huge energy sector which cause a significant impact on environment

  1. Nuclear issues in the Canadian energy context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Participants holding a wide spectrum of views and representing the nuclear industry, churches, anti-nuclear groups, and the general public participated in sessions on the ethics of nuclear power, waste disposal, health and environmental effects of energy development, decision making and the regulatory process, and the economics of nuclear and other energy sources.

  2. The role of sustainable energy issues in development cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, J.C.; Buskens, V.W.

    1994-01-01

    The author discusses the need to reduce primary energy resource requirements to provide more affordable basic energy services to the developing countries. The relationship between energy supply and environment/developing issues (such as climate change, deforestation, poverty, health etc.) is discussed. The Bruntland Report and two UNCED agreements the Framework Convention on Climate Change, and Agenda 21 are summarised and a brief assessment made of their coverage of sustainable energy issues. 27 refs

  3. Harnessing the Ocean's Power : Energy from Waves and Currents (Part I)

    OpenAIRE

    Yukihisa, Washio; Japan Marine Science and Technology Center

    1985-01-01

    The oceans are a potential source of renewable and pollution-free energy of particular importance to Japan. In this Issue we look at current development work to harness wave energy for power generation.

  4. Energy. Against the current; Energie. Gegen den Strom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stellpflug, Juergen (comp.)

    2008-07-01

    This is a special issue 'Oeko-Test Spezial Energie' of Oeko-Test journal of 15 December 2008. It contains information on the following subjects: Builder-owners over 50: Passive buildings, the best way to prepare for old age; Floor heating systems: Floors that give you a good feeling; CO2 check: How to check a home from the basement to the roof; Insulating materials; Energy certificates - none is perfect; Energy consulting: detecting leaks; Energy saving with thermal insulation; Heating with wood; Radiators and radiator design; Internal thermal insulation: Better than nothing; Tiled stoves for thermal comfort; Combined heat and power generation for energy autonomy; New laws and ordinances: Energy conservation becomes obligatory; Solar energy: Big is beautiful; Solar energy: Public funding: Solar energy technology; Solar power generation: High yields but impending obstacles; Wall heating systems: Thermal comfort out of the wall; Integrated thermal insulation systems: Nothing to fear from the cold; Heat pumps: Getting heat into the house; Thermal engineering: High efficiency is advantageous. (orig.)

  5. Energy Drinks: A Contemporary Issues Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, John P; Babu, Kavita; Deuster, Patricia A; Shearer, Jane

    2018-02-01

    Since their introduction in 1987, energy drinks have become increasingly popular and the energy drink market has grown at record pace into a multibillion-dollar global industry. Young people, students, office workers, athletes, weekend warriors, and service members frequently consume energy drinks. Both health care providers and consumers must recognize the difference between energy drinks, traditional beverages (e.g., coffee, tea, soft drinks/sodas, juices, or flavored water), and sports drinks. The research about energy drinks safety and efficacy is often contradictory, given the disparate protocols and types of products consumed: this makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. Also, much of the available literature is industry-sponsored. After reports of adverse events associated with energy drink consumption, concerns including trouble sleeping, anxiety, cardiovascular events, seizures, and even death, have been raised about their safety. This article will focus on energy drinks, their ingredients, side effects associated with their consumption, and suggested recommendations, which call for education, regulatory actions, changes in marketing, and additional research.

  6. Historical and economic aspects of energy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sander, M.

    2000-01-01

    The classical macro-economic aggregate production function considered that output as measured by Gross Domestic product (GDP) was the result of the factor inputs: land, labour and capital. The production function was given by: GDP=f(Land, Capital, Labour). We propose: GDP=function (LAND, CAPITAL, LABOUR, ENERGY, TECHNOLOGY, INFORMATION), GDP=function(Z, K, R, E, T, I). Measuring effects of these variables on growth of GDP over longer periods of time is difficult statistical and mathematical task. Mathematical relations are not derived but instead historical exposition with a selection of statistical data was given to prove validity of the production function relation. through long historical periods, energy was reduced to energy of animal and human muscles sometimes with a help of mechanical levers and mechanisms. With coal use in 18th century animal and human muscles are no more main energy sources but in substitute to them thermal machines (from steam reciprocating machines to Otto, diesel machines in combination with electric machines) startedto be main movers of industrial age with high energy intensity. Energy as general thermodynamic concept for availability or ability of substance to produce work was introduced. Between primary forms of energy crude oil like fuel with greatest energy or ability to produce mechanical work, specially in transport takes the dominant place in 20th and 21st century. Use of crude oil in gas turbines, internal combustion engines, reaches upper levels of efficiency, but in the same time there is no technology that could substitute it in the transport. Influence of crude oil on prices and all other forms of energy and as political and economic factor is considered. (author)

  7. Mycoplasma genitalium infections: current treatment options and resistance issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethi S

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sunil Sethi, Kamran Zaman, Neha Jain Department of Medical Microbiology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India Abstract: Mycoplasma genitalium is one of the important causes of non-gonococcal urethritis. Rising incidence and emerging antimicrobial resistance are a major concern these days. The poor clinical outcomes with doxycycline therapy led to the use of azithromycin as the primary drug of choice. Single-dose azithromycin regimen over a period of time was changed to extended regimen following studies showing better clinical cures and less risk of resistance development. However, emerging macrolide resistance, either due to transmission of resistance or drug pressure has further worsened the management of this infection. The issues of drug resistance and treatment failures also exist in cases of M. genitalium infection. At present, the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR M. genitalium strains is an alarming sign for its treatment and the associated public health impact due to its complications. However, newer drugs like pristinamycin, solithromycin, sitafloxacin, and others have shown a hope for the clinical cure, but need further clinical trials to optimize the therapeutic dosing schedules and formulate appropriate treatment regimens. Rampant and inappropriate use of these newer drugs will further sabotage future attempts to manage MDR strains. There is currently a need to formulate diagnostic algorithms and etiology-based treatment regimens rather than the syndromic approach, preferably using combination therapy instead of a monotherapy. Awareness about the current guidelines and recommended treatment regimens among clinicians and local practitioners is of utmost importance. Antimicrobial resistance testing and global surveillance are required to assess the efficacy of current treatment regimens and for guiding future research for the early detection and management of MDR M. genitalium infections

  8. Current energy usage and sustainable energy in Kazakhstan: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatayev, Marat; Islam, Tofazzal; Salnikov, Vitaliy

    2014-05-01

    Kazakhstan has abundant natural resources. The country has enough coal to supply its energy needs for the next 150 years, and has the world's largest deposits of uranium, substantial quantities of natural gas and petroleum deposits. However, despite such energy riches, due to the size of the territory, its geography, and the country's economic structure, distribution of electricity in Kazakhstan is not uniform. As a result, Kazakhstani rural and remote areas suffer from serious electricity deficits. According to the latest estimates from the Ministry of Industry and New Technologies, about 25-30% of the Kazakhstani population lives in rural communities, where access to affordable energy (for heating, cooling, cooking, refrigeration, lighting, household as well as IT use) is limited. Furthermore, with the main electricity production infrastructure concentrated in the main urban areas, a high amount of electricity is therefore lost during transmission. Moreover, the consumption of poor quality coal as the main source of power generation creates a significant amount of environmental pollution. To illustrate this development, fuel combustion from coal has produced around 75% of carbon dioxide emissions in Kazakhstan. Thus, in order to address the country's electricity and environmental challenges, the Kazakhstani government is taking initiatives to promote renewable energy resources. However, so far, the outcome of these initiatives remains negligible. The current contribution of renewable energy to the total energy consumption is less than 1% (with 90% provided by hydropower) despite the significant potential for renewable energy in the country. As yet, no comprehensive study has been published on the energy scenario and on the potential for renewable energy resources in Kazakhstan. This comprehensive review aims to present an overview of the country's energy resources, supply and demand as the current energy scenario, while discussing the potential for renewable

  9. Energy and sustainable development: issues and options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appert, O.

    2001-01-01

    Future development needs to be sustainable in all of its dimensions if it is to continue to fully contribute to human welfare. In the achievement of this objective, the manner in which energy is produced and consumed is of crucial importance. In the wake of these insights, first attempts begin to provide concrete options for steps towards sustainability in the energy sector. Two criteria can be identified for developing sustainable development policies. First, such policies need to strike a balance between the three dimensions of sustainable development - economic, environmental and social - acknowledging that all three are intrinsically linked. Second, policies in the energy sector need to reduce exposure to large-scale risks and improve the resilience of the energy system through active risk management and diversification. (authors)

  10. Issues affecting Northeast Asian minerals and energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheales, T.; Smith, V.

    1993-01-01

    Some of the broad issues likely to affect industry developments and trade in minerals and energy commodities in Northeast Asia in the 1990s are examined. Many of these issues will have a bearing on the development of mineral and energy resources of the Russian Far East region. 23 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  11. Energy: An endless story. The history of the energy issue and changing scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuermer, M.

    1989-01-01

    Two oil crises and the reactor accident at Chernobyl have had a profound effect on the population in the USSR and its awareness of environmental issues and hazards. The contribution explains the energy policy and scenarios and the changes undergone in the USSR, the COMECON countries, in the Middle East and in the Persian Gulf, in the Pacific Ocean area, in the North Sea area, and in the USA, also pointing out consequences for the current situation. (DG) [de

  12. Low energy current accumulator for high-energy proton rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Month, M.

    1977-01-01

    Building current in high-energy p-p colliding beam machines is most appropriately done in a low-energy (small circumference) current accumulator. Three significant factors favor such a procedure: First, large rings tend to be susceptible to unstable longitudinal density oscillations. These can be avoided by pumping up the beam in the accumulator. When the current stack is injected into the storage ring, potentially harmful instability is essentially neutralized. Second, high-field magnets characteristic of future high energy proton rings are designed with superconducting coils within the iron magnetic shield. This means coil construction and placement errors propagate rapidly within the beam aperture. An intermediate ''stacking ring'' allows the minimum use of the superconducting ring aperture. Finally, the coils are vulnerable to radiation heating and possible magnet quenching. By minimizing beam manipulaion in the superconducting environment and using only the central portion of the beam aperture, coil vulnerability can be put at a minimum

  13. Global panorama of energy access: Current situation, challenges and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galichon, Ines; Lacroix, Olivier; Wiedmer, Damien

    2014-07-15

    Globally 1.3 billion people do not have access to electricity. If this figure is projected to decline 1 billion by 2030, the global population who relies on the traditional use of biomass for cooking is expected to substantially increase, from 2.6 billion to 2.7 billion people. In its commitment to energy access, ENEA published a synthesis on the current situation and the further development perspectives of energy access worldwide, a crucial issue of human and economic development and an opportunity for the private sector. This synthesis present the ecosystem of the actors involved in the improvement of energy access and the technical solutions that serve the needs of this high-potential market. The five main challenges energy access has to address are presented in this publication: energy prices, equipment financing, distribution, change of scale and environmental performances.

  14. Dynamical dark energy: Current constraints and forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhye, Amol; Ishak, Mustapha; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2005-09-01

    We consider how well the dark energy equation of state w as a function of redshift z will be measured using current and anticipated experiments. We use a procedure which takes fair account of the uncertainties in the functional dependence of w on z, as well as the parameter degeneracies, and avoids the use of strong prior constraints. We apply the procedure to current data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the supernova searches, and obtain results that are consistent with other analyses using different combinations of data sets. The effects of systematic experimental errors and variations in the analysis technique are discussed. Next, we use the same procedure to forecast the dark energy constraints achievable by the end of the decade, assuming 8 years of Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data and realistic projections for ground-based measurements of supernovae and weak lensing. We find the 2σ constraints on the current value of w to be Δw0(2σ)=0.20, and on dw/dz (between z=0 and z=1) to be Δw1(2σ)=0.37. Finally, we compare these limits to other projections in the literature. Most show only a modest improvement; others show a more substantial improvement, but there are serious concerns about systematics. The remaining uncertainty still allows a significant span of competing dark energy models. Most likely, new kinds of measurements, or experiments more sophisticated than those currently planned, are needed to reveal the true nature of dark energy.

  15. Energy for Tomorrow: An Issue for Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    centage increases per year as proof of the simplicity of the solution. These are similar to the rates used to describe inflation, give birth and death ...Hayes, Denis, Nuclear Power: The Fifth Horseman , Worldwatch Paper No. 6, Worldwatch Institute, Washington, D.C., May 1976. 16. The International Energy

  16. Animal-cell culture media: History, characteristics, and current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tatsuma; Asayama, Yuta

    2017-04-01

    Cell culture technology has spread prolifically within a century, a variety of culture media has been designed. This review goes through the history, characteristics and current issues of animal-cell culture media. A literature search was performed on PubMed and Google Scholar between 1880 and May 2016 using appropriate keywords. At the dawn of cell culture technology, the major components of media were naturally derived products such as serum. The field then gradually shifted to the use of chemical-based synthetic media because naturally derived ingredients have their disadvantages such as large batch-to-batch variation. Today, industrially important cells can be cultured in synthetic media. Nevertheless, the combinations and concentrations of the components in these media remain to be optimized. In addition, serum-containing media are still in general use in the field of basic research. In the fields of assisted reproductive technologies and regenerative medicine, some of the medium components are naturally derived in nearly all instances. Further improvements of culture media are desirable, which will certainly contribute to a reduction in the experimental variation, enhance productivity among biopharmaceuticals, improve treatment outcomes of assisted reproductive technologies, and facilitate implementation and popularization of regenerative medicine.

  17. Vietnam's energy sector: A review of current energy policies and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tien Minh Do; Sharma, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of market-oriented economy in 1986, Vietnam has made noticeable socio-economic progress. In this progress, the energy sector has played a vital role. This role is likely to deepen in the years to come as Vietnam strives to achieve even higher levels in economic progress. Such deepening in the role of energy, this paper argues, will heighten concerns about the security of energy supply, and economic, environmental, social and political consequences. In order to address these issues, Vietnam has over the last decade, developed a suite of energy policies. A deeper review of these policies suggests that they are typified by economic-growth orientation, exclusive focus on a single-sector or single issue, and largely neglect the significance of cross-sectoral and cross-thematic issues arising from the interdependencies between energy, economy, and the polity at large. The existing energy policy settings are, therefore, unlikely to be able to provide a satisfactory redress to the challenges noted above. This paper provides an overview of the current energy policies with a view to identify areas where further policy effort is needed in order to facilitate a sustainable development of the Vietnamese energy sector. - Highlights: → Identifying challenges faced by the Vietnamese energy sector. → Analyzing limitations of the existing energy policy settings (policies, strategies and institutions) in addressing these challenges. → Developing recommendations on improving the existing energy policy settings to provide a satisfactory redress for the challenges noted above.

  18. Vietnam's energy sector: A review of current energy policies and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien Minh Do, E-mail: tmdo@eng.uts.edu.au [Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST), 1 Dai Co Viet Street, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Sharma, Deepak [University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), Broadway, Ultimo, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    Since the introduction of market-oriented economy in 1986, Vietnam has made noticeable socio-economic progress. In this progress, the energy sector has played a vital role. This role is likely to deepen in the years to come as Vietnam strives to achieve even higher levels in economic progress. Such deepening in the role of energy, this paper argues, will heighten concerns about the security of energy supply, and economic, environmental, social and political consequences. In order to address these issues, Vietnam has over the last decade, developed a suite of energy policies. A deeper review of these policies suggests that they are typified by economic-growth orientation, exclusive focus on a single-sector or single issue, and largely neglect the significance of cross-sectoral and cross-thematic issues arising from the interdependencies between energy, economy, and the polity at large. The existing energy policy settings are, therefore, unlikely to be able to provide a satisfactory redress to the challenges noted above. This paper provides an overview of the current energy policies with a view to identify areas where further policy effort is needed in order to facilitate a sustainable development of the Vietnamese energy sector. - Highlights: > Identifying challenges faced by the Vietnamese energy sector. > Analyzing limitations of the existing energy policy settings (policies, strategies and institutions) in addressing these challenges. > Developing recommendations on improving the existing energy policy settings to provide a satisfactory redress for the challenges noted above.

  19. Emerging Regional Energy Security Issues China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-29

    moving toward European standards and taxation of least efficient vehicles www.csis.org | 7 China’s Energy Strategy - Clean Power Generation...Project Type of Contract Signature Date Estimated Value Contractor(s) Remarks Malaysian Amona (Main Contractor), Chinese COSL and CNOOC The first...infrastructure. List of Upstream Agreements Between Iran and China in Recent Years ** The original buyback contract w as signed betw een Malaysian Amona and

  20. Intermediate energy semileptonic probes of the hadronic neutral current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musolf, M.J.; Donnelly, T.W.; Dubach, J.; Beise, E.J.; Maryland Univ., College Park, MD

    1993-06-01

    The present status and future prospects of intermediate-energy semileptonic neutral current studies are reviewed. Possibilities for using parity-violating electron scattering from nucleons and nuclei to study hadron structure and nuclear dynamics are emphasized, with particular attention paid to probes of strangeness content in the nucleon. Connections are drawn between such studies and tests of the electroweak gauge theory using electron or neutrino scattering. Outstanding theoretical issues in the interpretation of semileptonic neutral current measurements are highlighted and the prospects for undertaking parity-violating electron or neutrino scattering experiments in the near future are surveyed

  1. Some Major Issues Influencing Nuclear Energy Prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feretic, D.

    2012-01-01

    The presentation analyses some issues which are of particular importance for future nuclear power application. These include duration of uranium reserves and high level radioactive waste decay period in function of uranium reserves (determined, assumed and speculative) and type of fuel cycle used. Public acceptance during essential historical milestones of nuclear power use, influence of safety and compatibility evaluations, quantified risk, externalities and nuclear accidents. Short review of major accidents, causes, consequences, impact of LNT and hormesis hypothesis. Particular problem for future of nuclear power is potential shortage of experienced personnel due to long period without plants construction. To address some of problems which may face future investors a brief review of specific events experienced during construction of NPP Krsko is presented. Such events could be of interest to countries planning to construct nuclear power plant.(author).

  2. Energy - an overview of issues in power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, Y.S.; Anil Kumar, B.

    1998-01-01

    Economic growth is critically dependent on energy which is a key input in all forms of products. With the ecological and environmental concerns for sustainable use of energy, much emphasis is being laid on demand side management, energy efficiency and conservation and alternative sources of energy. This is being witnessed in the long term trends of energy - gross domestic product (GDP) elasticity, which has declined due to changing technology especially for the industrial sector whose share is comparatively reducing in the overall energy consumption. This paper examines mainly the issues involved in meeting the growing demand for electricity, most important form of energy. These issues have been classified as Technical, Financial, Institutional, Policy, Political and International. Each issue is not mutually exclusive of the other and therefore calls for an integrated and holistic approach while addressing them. (author)

  3. China energy, environment, and climate study: Background issues paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, Jonathan E.; Fridley, David G.; Logan, Jeffrey; Guo, Yuan; Wang, Bangcheng; Xu, Qing

    2000-10-10

    The total costs and impacts of expanding energy use in China will depend, in part, on a number of important factors, an understanding of which is vital for China's policy-makers. These issues include the additional environmental and public health impacts associated with energy use, the economic costs of infrastructure expansion to meet growing energy needs, and the potential role that renewable energy technologies could play if pushed hard in China's energy future. This short report summarizes major trends and issues in each of these three areas.

  4. Current situation of wind energy in the world and Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alper Kaplan, Yusuf; San, Ismail [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Anadolu University (Turkey)], email: yakaplan@anadolu.edu.tr, email: isan@anadolu.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    This paper gives an overview of the current situation of wind power in Turkey and in the world by evaluating installed wind power using current data. It also looks at the political conditions of Turkey in relation to the current installed wind energy power in Turkey compared with that of certain developed countries. The problems encountered are also illustrated as a basis for proposing solutions. Turkey's wind energy potential is 48,000 MW but installed wind power was only 1,329 MW as of 2011. Wind energy is at present one of the most cost-competitive renewable energy technologies in the world when technical, geographical and social issues are taken into consideration. Economic sources should be researched. The development of current potential and the market entry of renewable energy resources requires a legal and regulatory framework that support suitable mechanisms. Local support is recommended together with tax exemptions. Long-term fixed-price guarantees should also be considered by government.

  5. Energy consensus talks collapse over nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Germany's energy consensus talks, ongoing since March 1993, were brought to unsuccessful end on October 26. Representatives from the Social Democratic Party (SDP), led by Lower Saxony's prime minister, Gerhard Schroeder, failed to get approval from party leaders on continued development of advanced reactors with enhanced safety - notably the Siemens/Framatome-designed 1500-MWe European pressurized water reactor (EPR) plan, for which the prospective schedule envisages a construction start in 1998. Nor would the SDP leadership accept the continued operation of existing nuclear plans to the end of their design life (some 20 to 25 years)

  6. Current and Future Critical Issues in Rocket Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaz, Homayun K.; Dix, Jeff C.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this research was to tackle several problems that are currently of great importance to NASA. In a liquid rocket engine several complex processes take place that are not thoroughly understood. Droplet evaporation, turbulence, finite rate chemistry, instability, and injection/atomization phenomena are some of the critical issues being encountered in a liquid rocket engine environment. Pulse Detonation Engines (PDE) performance, combustion chamber instability analysis, 60K motor flowfield pattern from hydrocarbon fuel combustion, and 3D flowfield analysis for the Combined Cycle engine were of special interest to NASA. During the summer of 1997, we made an attempt to generate computational results for all of the above problems and shed some light on understanding some of the complex physical phenomena. For this purpose, the Liquid Thrust Chamber Performance (LTCP) code, mainly designed for liquid rocket engine applications, was utilized. The following test cases were considered: (1) Characterization of a detonation wave in a Pulse Detonation Tube; (2) 60K Motor wall temperature studies; (3) Propagation of a pressure pulse in a combustion chamber (under single and two-phase flow conditions); (4) Transonic region flowfield analysis affected by viscous effects; (5) Exploring the viscous differences between a smooth and a corrugated wall; and (6) 3D thrust chamber flowfield analysis of the Combined Cycle engine. It was shown that the LTCP-2D and LTCP-3D codes are capable of solving complex and stiff conservation equations for gaseous and droplet phases in a very robust and efficient manner. These codes can be run on a workstation and personal computers (PC's).

  7. Energy and ICT. Special issue; Energie en IT. Themanummer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brehm, T.; Marx, P.; Offerman, A.; Knoppers, R.; Bakker-Boone, M.; Van Lanen, A.; Ceelie, T.; Lobregt, S.

    2007-04-15

    In seven brief articles attention is paid to the role of energy in the ICT-sector and the impact of ICT-developments on energy consumption. [Dutch] In zeven korte artikelen wordt aandacht besteed aan de rol van energie in de ICT-sector en de invloed van ICT-ontwikkelingen op energiegebruik.

  8. The current wind energy programme in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, G.; Foli, U.; Sesto, E.; Vigotti, R.

    1991-01-01

    In Italy, the main activities in the field of wind energy are carried out by two state-owned organizations, ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) and ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board), and two major wind turbine generator manufacturers, Alenia/WEST and Riva Calzoni, within the framework of a national programme which is supervized by the Ministry of Industry and Commerce. The work currently under way concerns both wind power plant siting and the development and testing of Italian-made wind turbine generators ranging from 5 to 1500 kW in power. In addition, programmes aimed at constructing wind-farms made up of medium-sized machines (200-400 kW) have recently been launched

  9. Compilation of current high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    This compilation of current high-energy physics experiments is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and the nine participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), KEK, Rutherford (RHEL), Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. Nominally, the compilation includes summaries of all high-energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about June 1978, and had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1975. The experimental summaries are supplemented with three indexes to the compilation, several vocabulary lists giving names or abbreviations used, and a short summary of the beams at each of the laboratories (except Rutherford). The summaries themselves are included on microfiche

  10. EU Energy Law and Policy Issues. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delvaux, B.; Hunt, M.; Talus, K. (eds.)

    2011-12-15

    This third volume of EU Energy Law and Policy Issues presents an overview of some of the most recent developments taking place in the EU energy sector at a time when the Third Energy Package is likely to be or has been implemented in the EU Member States. In this respect, the reader will find a number of contributions which offer detailed and critical views on some of the main issues tackled by the Third Energy Package. Aside from this, the relationship between sector specific regulation and the rules of general competition law is examined in the second section of the book. This part also contains particular contributions on access regimes in gas and electricity markets as well as an innovating analysis on the methods for allocating allowances under the EU Emissions trading scheme and the interaction of such methods with EU state aid rules. Just like the previous volumes of the book, section III offers a deep insight into the external aspects of EU energy policy. Accordingly, the role of the Lisbon Treaty in promoting EU energy policy in the international arena is scrutinized in addition to the most recent evolutions on the topical issue of the Energy Charter Treaty. This section is completed with a daring contribution about the need to adopt a comprehensive theory of legal harmonization between the EU and third partners, which is presented using the specific case of the EU-Russia Energy Dialogue. Last but not least, some fundamental issues regarding the environmental aspects of EU Energy policy undergo an in-depth study in the final section of the book. Not only is the legal regime of energy efficiency in energy-related products examined, but also the issue of carbon constraining policies under WTO law. Finally, the electricity's industry viewpoint on the 2020 targets rounds off this third volume of EU Energy Law and Policy Issues with judicious comments.

  11. EU Energy Law and Policy Issues. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delvaux, B.; Hunt, M.; Talus, K.

    2011-12-01

    This third volume of EU Energy Law and Policy Issues presents an overview of some of the most recent developments taking place in the EU energy sector at a time when the Third Energy Package is likely to be or has been implemented in the EU Member States. In this respect, the reader will find a number of contributions which offer detailed and critical views on some of the main issues tackled by the Third Energy Package. Aside from this, the relationship between sector specific regulation and the rules of general competition law is examined in the second section of the book. This part also contains particular contributions on access regimes in gas and electricity markets as well as an innovating analysis on the methods for allocating allowances under the EU Emissions trading scheme and the interaction of such methods with EU state aid rules. Just like the previous volumes of the book, section III offers a deep insight into the external aspects of EU energy policy. Accordingly, the role of the Lisbon Treaty in promoting EU energy policy in the international arena is scrutinized in addition to the most recent evolutions on the topical issue of the Energy Charter Treaty. This section is completed with a daring contribution about the need to adopt a comprehensive theory of legal harmonization between the EU and third partners, which is presented using the specific case of the EU-Russia Energy Dialogue. Last but not least, some fundamental issues regarding the environmental aspects of EU Energy policy undergo an in-depth study in the final section of the book. Not only is the legal regime of energy efficiency in energy-related products examined, but also the issue of carbon constraining policies under WTO law. Finally, the electricity's industry viewpoint on the 2020 targets rounds off this third volume of EU Energy Law and Policy Issues with judicious comments.

  12. Nuclear energy - social and ethical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Association believes that the continued exploration and mining and the construction and operation of nuclear reactors, both domestically and for export, is and will continue to be ethically and socially sound. Benefit and risk should be shared equally in the ideal society, in the real world this does not seem possible, but nuclear power appears not to worsen the situation and may even improve it. The real risks of nuclear power are less than those tolerated by many in their daily lives, but the public is relucant to accept them. The diversion of effort from dealing with real risks to worrying about hypothetical ones can be a disservice to society. Technology is inherently value-free, but can be used to raise the standard of living and provide a lifestyle in which non-material values can thrive. Withholding uranium from world markets increases the pressure on oil and the probability of armed conflict. A connection is made between uranium supply and food production. Social justice is a vital concern, but boycotts and trade embargoes may worsen suffering and have little effect on oppressors. There are formally defined international obligations to share nuclear technology. Scientists and engineers have a responsibility, which they are living up to more frequently, to make their specialized knowledge available to decision makers, and to express the ethical basis for their work. Nuclear energy appears to be more benign to future generations than many other present-day activities. (LL)

  13. Development and sustainability issues - energy scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakodkar, Anil

    2000-01-01

    The 20th century has seen an unprecedented rise in the rate of consumption of material and energy resources. These patterns of growth and consumption have caused enormous strains on the available natural resources and the environment. Further, the benefits of available natural resources have been shared in a highly inequitable manner with a small fraction of mankind using up a large fraction of resources to a level that environmental concerns have become a global matter and are threatening to jeopardize the development of the larger fraction of humanity on grounds of global sustainability. While it has been seen that major achievements in almost all areas of human endeavour in recent times, enabling improvements in quality of life and better control over environmental degradation, there is a new challenge now of sustainability of the development process for the majority of human population. The environment with its large inertia, flexibility and stabilising mechanisms has so far some how copped up at least on a global scale with the unprecedented consumption. However, the recent trends indicate that most of the environment related cycles may not be able to take the continued abuse without disastrous global consequences. Piloting and sustaining the legitimate development of societies particularly those which are left far behind in the march towards better quality of life has, therefore, become a matter which needs very urgent consideration and action. There is thus a strong need for charting of a well deliberated goal oriented action plan with a vision that ensures due attention to the interests of all sections of society on the basis of their justifiable needs

  14. ANALYSIS OF ENERGY SAVING AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY ISSUES DURING OPERATION OF THE METRO ROLLING STOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Donchenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.Nowadays a problem of significant power consumption of the rolling stock during its operation is a current issue. In connection with staged electricity rates increase further development of the rail electric transport, including metro rolling stock is impossible without a use of modern energy saving solutions and energy-efficient systems. To solve the specified problem it is necessary to carry out analysis of measures and determine prospective directions in energy saving and increase of energy efficiency on the metro rolling stock. Methodology. Using methods of scientific analysis, generalization, comparative analysis, forecasting and using results of experimental studies, the authors determined main ways for reduction of energy consumption during operation of the metro rolling stock. Energy cost analysis for metro rolling stock of the public utility (PU «Kiev Metro» was carried out. A great number of research works of native and foreign authors concerning the above mentioned problem were analyzed. Findings. Principal directions in energy saving and increase of energy efficiency of the metro rolling stock are implementation of recuperation systems, energy storage systems and energy-efficient control systems. It was determined that implementation of recuperation and energy storage systems helps to save a considerable amount of energy, consumed for traction, but it involves substantial investments. It is pointed out that in current complicated conditions of economic development of Ukraine, use of energy-efficient control systems is a perspective direction in energy saving. Main advantage of this direction is the economic effect obtaining without significant investments. Originality. For the first time was performed potential assessment for energy saving as a result of energy-efficient control systems use at type routine rolling stock operation modes on sections «Khreschatik –Teatralnaya – Khreschatik» and «Shulyavskaya

  15. Deciding the way. Comparing energy risks: methodologies and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuki, Yoshio; Lee, R.

    1999-01-01

    The following major issues in comparative assessment of energy systems are discussed: target users; decision making process; subject policy-making; setting boundaries; aggregated health indicators; monetary valuation; long-term health effects; global warming; methods to reflect uncertainties. Suggestions for study approaches of the mentioned issues are proposed

  16. Current Therapeutic Cannabis Controversies and Clinical Trial Design Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Ethan B.

    2016-01-01

    This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issues in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirements for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration “Botanical Guidance.” The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer, and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanica...

  17. Current Therapeutic Cannabis Controversies and Clinical Trial Design Issues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan Budd Russo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issue in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirement for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration Botanical Guidance. The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanical cannabis displays herbal synergy of its components, pharmacokinetics of cannabis and dose titration, whether cannabis medicines produce cyclo-oxygenase inhibition, cannabis-drug interactions and cytochrome P450 issues, whether cannabis randomized clinical trials are properly blinded, combatting the placebo effect in those trials via new approaches, the drug abuse liability of cannabis-based medicines and their regulatory scheduling, their effects on cognitive function and psychiatric sequelae, immunological effects, cannabis and driving safety, youth usage, issues related to cannabis smoking and vaporization, cannabis concentrates and vape-pens, and laboratory analysis for contamination with bacteria and heavy metals. Finally, the issue of pesticide usage on cannabis crops is addressed. New and disturbing data on pesticide residues in legal cannabis products in Washington State are presented with the observation of an 84.6% contamination rate including potentially neurotoxic and carcinogenic agents. With ongoing developments in legalization of cannabis in medical and recreational settings, numerous scientific, safety and public health issues remain.

  18. Current Therapeutic Cannabis Controversies and Clinical Trial Design Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ethan B.

    2016-01-01

    This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issues in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirements for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration “Botanical Guidance.” The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer, and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanical cannabis displays herbal synergy of its components, pharmacokinetics of cannabis and dose titration, whether cannabis medicines produce cyclo-oxygenase inhibition, cannabis-drug interactions, and cytochrome P450 issues, whether cannabis randomized clinical trials are properly blinded, combatting the placebo effect in those trials via new approaches, the drug abuse liability (DAL) of cannabis-based medicines and their regulatory scheduling, their effects on cognitive function and psychiatric sequelae, immunological effects, cannabis and driving safety, youth usage, issues related to cannabis smoking and vaporization, cannabis concentrates and vape-pens, and laboratory analysis for contamination with bacteria and heavy metals. Finally, the issue of pesticide usage on cannabis crops is addressed. New and disturbing data on pesticide residues in legal cannabis products in Washington State are presented with the observation of an 84.6% contamination rate including potentially neurotoxic and carcinogenic agents. With ongoing developments in legalization of cannabis in medical and recreational settings, numerous scientific, safety, and public health issues remain. PMID:27683558

  19. NREL Leads Energy Systems Integration, Continuum Magazine: Issue 4 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-04-01

    Continuum Magazine showcases NREL's latest and most impactful clean energy innovations. This issue, 'NREL Leads Energy Systems Integration' explores the discipline of energy systems integration, in particular the role of the laboratory's new, one-of-a-kind Energy System Integration Facility. NREL scientists, engineers, and analysts deeply understand the fundamental science and technologies underpinning major energy producing and consuming systems, as well as the transmission infrastructure and communications and data networks required to integrate energy systems at all scales.

  20. Assistance to States on Policies Related to Wind Energy Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Matthew, H; Decesaro, Jennifer; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2005-07-15

    This final report summarizes work carried out under agreement with the US Department of Energy, related to wind energy policy issues. This project has involved a combination of outreach and publications on wind energy, with a specific focus on educating state-level policymakers. Education of state policymakers is vitally important because state policy (in the form of incentives or regulation) is a crucial part of the success of wind energy. State policymakers wield a significant influence over all of these policies. They are also in need of high quality, non-biased educational resources which this project provided. This project provided outreach to legislatures, in the form of meetings designed specifically for state legislators and legislative staff, responses to information requests on wind energy, and publications. The publications addressed: renewable energy portfolio standards, wind energy transmission, wind energy siting, case studies of wind energy policy, avian issues, economic development, and other related issues. These publications were distributed to legislative energy committee members, and chairs, legislative staff, legislative libraries, and other related state officials. The effect of this effort has been to provide an extensive resource of information about wind information for state policymakers in a form that is useful to them. This non-partisan information has been used as state policymakers attempt to develop their own policy proposals related to wind energy in the states.

  1. AGRICULTURAL DYNAMICS IN PAKISTAN: CURRENT ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawad Zafar Ahmad Khan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is heavily contributing towards the economy of Pakistan. Water deficiency and drought conditions, long duration load shedding issue, poor extension services, absence of land reforms, absence of distribution of certified varieties, high price of fertilizers, deliberate use of adulterated, non-recommended and expired insecticides, non utilization of cultivable waste land, conventional farming practices, indirect access of farmer to main market, absence of ecological based cropping pattern, smuggling of agricultural inputs and outputs, lack of cooperation between agricultural research, education & extension services, absence of crop insurance, depletion of forests, lack of modern post-harvest technologies and disease outbreaks of poultry birds are some of the key issues that are playing a negative role in demotion of agricultural sector in Pakistan. The review article will briefly discuss above mentioned issues and some of the possible remedies under the environment of Pakistanand their adoption to improve the agricultural productivity in the country.

  2. Interlocal collaboration on energy efficiency, sustainability and climate change issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ssu-Hsien

    Interlocal energy collaboration builds upon network structures among local policy actors dealing with energy, climate change and sustainability issues. Collaboration efforts overcome institutional collective action (ICA) dilemmas, and cope with the problems spanning jurisdictional boundaries, externalities, and free-rider problems. Interlocal energy collaboration emerges as the agreements in greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction, pollution control, land use, purchasing, retrofits, transportation, and so forth. Cities work collaboratively through contractual mechanisms (i.e. formal/informal agreements) and collective mechanisms (i.e. regional partnerships or membership organizations) on a variety of energy issues. What factors facilitate interlocal energy collaboration? To what extent is collaboration through interlocal contractual mechanisms different from collective mechanisms? This dissertation tries to answer these questions by examining: city goal priority on energy related issues as well as other ICA explanatory factors. Research data are drawn mainly from the 2010 national survey "Implementation of energy efficiency and sustainability program" supported by National Science Foundation and the IBM Endowment for the Business of Government. The research results show that city emphasis on common pool resource, scale economies and externality issues significantly affect individual selection of tools for energy collaboration. When expected transaction costs are extremely high or low, the contractual mechanism of informal agreement is more likely to be selected to preserve most local autonomy and flexibility; otherwise, written and formal tools for collaboration are preferred to impose constraints on individual behavior and reduce the risks of defection.

  3. Current constraints on interacting holographic dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qiang; Gong Yungui; Wang Anzhong; Alcaniz, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Although there is mounting observational evidence that the cosmic expansion is undergoing a late-time acceleration, the physical mechanism behind such a phenomenon is yet unknown. In this Letter, we investigate a holographic dark energy (HDE) model with interaction between the components of the dark sector in the light of current cosmological observations. We use both the new gold sample of 182 type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and the 192 SNe Ia ESSENCE data, the baryon acoustic oscillation measurement from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the shift parameter from the three-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data. In agreement with previous results, we show that these observations suggest a very weak coupling or even a noninteracting HDE. The phantom crossing behavior in the context of these scenarios is also briefly discussed

  4. Current Issues in the Teaching of Grammar: An SLA Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rod

    2006-01-01

    The study of how learners acquire a second language (SLA) has helped to shape thinking about how to teach the grammar of a second language. There remain, however, a number of controversial issues. This paper considers eight key questions relating to grammar pedagogy in the light of findings from SLA. As such, this article complements…

  5. Spain: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woehrel, Steven

    2007-01-01

    .... The United States and Spain have generally enjoyed good relations. However, problems have arisen in recent years over such issues as the war in Iraq, promoting democracy in Latin America, and the tactics to be used in fighting the war on terrorism...

  6. Infectious Diseases: Current Issues in School and Community Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Wilma; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Some children in American schools have known and unknown communicable diseases, including herpes, cytomegalovirus, AIDS, mononucleosis, pinworms, and hepatitis. This article examines major public health issues, school responsibility, preventative measures (like basic hygiene), and the need for more effective community education programs. A disease…

  7. Current Issues for Higher Education Information Resources Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAUSE/EFFECT, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Issues identified as important to the future of information resources management and use in higher education include information policy in a networked environment, distributed computing, integrating information resources and college planning, benchmarking information technology, integrated digital libraries, technology integration in teaching,…

  8. Current issues in libraries, information science and related fields

    CERN Document Server

    Woodsworth, Anne

    2015-01-01

    This volume is unusual in that the theme is quite broad in scope yet focused on a specific topic; innovations and boundary-pushing studies in areas not usually found in library literature. It examines the periphery of the field surveyed in previous volumes. The chapters are grouped in two categories: professional issues and transforming services.

  9. Theological education, considered from South Africa: Current issues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taking into review the newly published series of substantial multi-authored volumes on ecumenical theological education internationally, this article identifies, from the author's own experience in ecumenical theological education and from his publications in this field, the central issue of specificity, locality and context in ...

  10. Wind energy - current status in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindley, D.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty two windfarms are operational or are under construction in the U.K. They have a total installed capacity of approximately 140 MW and will generate about 360 GWh in a full year and provide the electricity needs of about 250 000 individuals and save the emission of about 400 000 tonnes of CO 2 each year. Developments so far have required an investment of about Pound 140 million provided mostly by banks and large corporate investors. Financing these projects has broken new ground for renewable technologies and established a framework for the financing of windfarms built using future NFFO contracts. Obtaining planning consents for these windfarms has involved thirteen public inquiries, eight of which have been successful. Four of these remain unused and the result of another is awaited. Statutory and other bodies have responded to the rapid deployment of windfarms by issuing guidelines and these together with Public Inquiry documentation now provide invaluable guidance for the industry. The U.K. market is arguably the most 'open' in Europe and Danish Wind Turbine manufacturers have gained over 50 per cent of the total market. A Japanese manufacturer has gained 25 per cent whilst the major U.K. turbine supplier has gained 17 per cent market share. There are still over thirty manufacturers worldwide and signs that a combination of innovation and market pressures are continuing to reduce the costs of wind energy. (author)

  11. Canadian energy supply and demand 1993 - 2010: Trends and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The National Energy Board has since 1959 prepared and maintained projections of energy supply requirements and has from time to time published reports on them. The objectives of this report are to provide a comprehensive 'all energy' market analysis and outlook to service as a standard of reference for all parties interested in Canadian energy issues; to provide a framework for public discussion on emerging energy issues of national importance and to monitor the prospects for the supply, demand and price of natural gas in Canada pursuant to the Market-Based Procedure for regulating. The focus being on the broad outlines of prospective energy market developments under different underlying assumptions about key variables. 7 tabs., 60 figs

  12. Canadian energy supply and demand 1993 - 2010: Trends and issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-07-01

    The National Energy Board has since 1959 prepared and maintained projections of energy supply requirements and has from time to time published reports on them. The objectives of this report are to provide a comprehensive `all energy` market analysis and outlook to service as a standard of reference for all parties interested in Canadian energy issues; to provide a framework for public discussion on emerging energy issues of national importance and to monitor the prospects for the supply, demand and price of natural gas in Canada pursuant to the Market-Based Procedure for regulating. The focus being on the broad outlines of prospective energy market developments under different underlying assumptions about key variables. 7 tabs., 60 figs.

  13. Energy security issues at household level in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Garima

    2010-01-01

    Energy security at the household level implies ensuring assured and regular supply of clean energy fuels at an affordable price for various household activities. Threat to physical availability of clean energy fuels for cooking and lighting is determined through various indicators such as dependence on traditional fuels and limited access to clean fuels. Energy insecurity translates into various adverse social impacts. Financial threat to energy security is indicated by expenses incurred on energy fuels and affordability of clean fuels. Households spend a major portion of their income on acquiring energy fuels; however, due to high price of clean fuels, they continue to depend on traditional and inefficient fuels. There is an urgent need to address factors that pose a threat to energy security at the household level. In this regard, measures taken by the government agencies and other institutions are also reviewed. The paper also suggests the regulatory and policy interventions required to address the energy security issues at the household level.

  14. The 19th KAIF/KNS annual conference growth of nuclear industry and its current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhn, Poong Eil

    2004-01-01

    After the president Eisenhower's 'Atoms for Peace' speech at the UN general Conference in December 1953, nuclear industry for peaceful uses of nuclear energy has been developed steadily worldwide through international co-operation and collaboration during last half a century. However, from late 1980s, in particular, after Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 and growing public opposition on nuclear waste management and disposal, the growth of nuclear power plants worldwide, except some Asian countries, has been slowed down. Nuclear power currently supplies about 16 % of the world's electricity. In the next 50 years, it is expected that the world energy demand will increase about two times comparing current level while electricity demand will be tripled. Therefore, the nuclear industry should be expanded significantly in the next 50 years to meet the role for 'Prosperity beyond Peace'. The main issues for nuclear industry to take this important role are to increase in economics of nuclear power, and to resolve nuclear waste management and disposal. Some of these issues have been resolved mainly through international co-operation. For example, there are significant efforts to improve economics of nuclear power. This paper reviews worldwide efforts to resolve these issues and mentions what are the remaining ones

  15. Legal and regulatory issues affecting compressed air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1981-07-01

    Several regulatory and legal issues that can potentially affect implementation of a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system are discussed. This technology involves the compression of air using base load electric power for storage in an underground storage medium. The air is subsequently released and allowed to pass through a turbine to generate electricity during periods of peak demand. The storage media considered most feasible are a mined hard rock cavern, a solution-mined cavern in a salt deposit, and a porous geologic formation (normally an aquifer) of suitable structure. The issues are discussed in four categories: regulatory issues common to most CAES facilities regardless of storage medium, regulatory issues applicable to particular CAES reservoir media, issues related to possible liability from CAES operations, and issues related to acquisition of appropriate property rights for CAES implementation. The focus is on selected federal regulation. Lesser attention is given to state and local regulation. (WHK)

  16. Current situation and issue of Industrial Accident Compensation insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inah; Rhie, Jeongbae; Yoon, Jo-Duk; Kim, Jinsoo; Won, Jonguk

    2012-05-01

    Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance (IACI) has a history of about 50 yr, and is the oldest social insurance system in Korea. After more than 20 times of revision improvements in benefits, its contents and claim systems have been upgraded. It became the protector of injured workers and their families, and at the same time became the system which could cope with both financial burden of employers and their responsibilities. However, there are some issues to be reformed to upgrade the IACI: 1) the problems in the approval system of occupational diseases, 2) quality improvement of workers' compensation medical care, 3) vocational rehabilitation and return to work, 4) workers' compensation premiums and out-of-pocket money of injured workers, 5) issues in application of IACI. Growth of IACI cannot be achieved by an effort of an individual. Efforts by workers, owners, and government, in addition to physicians and welfare professionals toward the same goal are required for the next level improvement of IACI.

  17. Current issues on a standard for surrogate pregnancy procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Jung-Ok

    2012-01-01

    While Korea does not have any legal statement on surrogacy, treatments are carried out in practice. As a result, every Institutional Review Board (IRB) of each fertility clinic faces an ethical predicament in reviewing each case. There is a need to arrange the institutions' own standards of surrogate pregnancy procedures before the establishment of national or professional regulation. This article examines the legal, social, and medical issues of surrogacy to help IRBs to judge their cases.

  18. Current issues on a standard for surrogate pregnancy procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jung-Ok

    2012-12-01

    While Korea does not have any legal statement on surrogacy, treatments are carried out in practice. As a result, every Institutional Review Board (IRB) of each fertility clinic faces an ethical predicament in reviewing each case. There is a need to arrange the institutions' own standards of surrogate pregnancy procedures before the establishment of national or professional regulation. This article examines the legal, social, and medical issues of surrogacy to help IRBs to judge their cases.

  19. Current Renewable Energy Technologies and Future Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Stephen W [ORNL; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Ward, Christina D [ORNL; Smith, Barton [ORNL; Grubb, Kimberly R [ORNL; Lee, Russell [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    The generally acknowledged sources of renewable energy are wind, geothermal, biomass, solar, hydropower, and hydrogen. Renewable energy technologies are crucial to the production and utilization of energy from these regenerative and virtually inexhaustible sources. Furthermore, renewable energy technologies provide benefits beyond the establishment of sustainable energy resources. For example, these technologies produce negligible amounts of greenhouse gases and other pollutants in providing energy, and they exploit domestically available energy sources, thereby reducing our dependence on both the importation of fossil fuels and the use of nuclear fuels. The market price of renewable energy technologies does not reflect the economic value of these added benefits.

  20. Cruise Crimes: Economic-Legal Issues and Current Debates

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas R Panko; Babu P George; Tony L Henthorne

    2009-01-01

    Cruise tourism is one of the sunshine sectors of international tourism and is growing rapidly in many parts of the world. It is estimated that the growth rate of cruise tourism is twice the rate of tourism overall. Notwithstanding all the positives that accompany this growth, many critics have drawn attention to the “dark side” of cruise crimes. The eco-system aboard the cruise ship offers a fertile ground for the occurrence of crimes. The present paper examines the issue of crimes onboard fr...

  1. Cloud portability and interoperability issues and current trends

    CERN Document Server

    Di Martino, Beniamino; Esposito, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This book offers readers a quick, comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the most important methodologies, technologies, APIs and standards related to the portability and interoperability of cloud applications and services, illustrated by a number of use cases representing a variety of interoperability and portability scenarios. The lack of portability and interoperability between cloud platforms at different service levels is the main issue affecting cloud-based services today. The brokering, negotiation, management, monitoring and reconfiguration of cloud resources are challenging tasks

  2. Sovereignty: analysis of its current issues in certain countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Koščo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The purpose of my article work is analyzing of the issue of sovereignty in international law. Originality of my article is that events described in the text are for people little known. Method: In the text I used to describe the method. Result: I evaluated the most important facts and influences for States Kosovo, South Ossetia, Abkhazia, Tibet and South Sudan. Society: The lives of people in the above countries, the history and present. Limitation: I clarified the important facts and dates, also bring comparison between past and the future.

  3. Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-03

    although the exact sources are rarely named, if known. One example of a group identified as launching attacks is Black Energy, a known cybercrime toolkit ...Logistics and Standardization; Cyber Defense; Military Career Transition; and Medical Rehabilitation. 105 Relations with the United States The United

  4. Revisiting Antipsychotic-induced Akathisia: Current Issues and Prospective Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Haitham; Nagpal, Caesa; Pigott, Teresa; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio

    2017-01-01

    Background: Akathisia continues to be a significant challenge in current neurological and psychiatric practice. Prompt and accurate detection is often difficult and there is a lack of consensus concerning the neurobiological basis of akathisia. No definitive treatment has been established for akathisia despite numerous preclinical and clinical studies. Method: We reviewed antipsychotic-induced akathisia including its clinical presentation, proposed underlying pathophysiology, current and under investigation therapeutic strategies. Conclusion: Despite the initial promise that second generation antipsychotics would be devoid of akathisia effects, this has not been confirmed. Currently, there are limited therapeutic options for the clinical practice and the evidence supporting the most widely used treatments (beta blockers, anticholinergic drugs) is still absent or inconsistent. PMID:27928948

  5. 1979 New Mexico legislative session: energy issues and legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsumian, L.; Vandevender, S.G.

    1979-10-01

    This report is an account of the energy legislation and associated issues considered during the 1979 session of the 34th New Mexico Legislature. The session's major issue was the federal study of a proposed nuclear Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. A large proportion of time and effort was spent on resolving the state's formal position toward the federal project. However, other energy concerns were also significant even though they were neither as controversial nor as visible as the primary issue. The two most important laws enacted were the Radioactive Waste Consultation Act and the Radioactive Waste Transportation Act. The Legislature considered 47 other energy-related bills, of which 17 were enacted

  6. Power sector reform in India: current issues and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Anoop

    2006-01-01

    Power sector reforms in India were initiated at a juncture when the sector was plagued with commercial losses and burgeoning subsidy burden. Investment in the sector was not able to keep pace with growing demand for electricity. This paper takes stock of pre-reform situation in Indian power sector and identifies key concerns that led to initiation of the process of reform. The paper discusses major policy and regulatory changes undertaken since the early 1990s. The paper also illustrates changes in the market structure as we move along the reform process. We also discuss some of the major provisions of the recently enacted Electricity Act 2003 that aims to replace the prevailing acts which govern the functioning of the power sector in the country. In this context, we discuss two issues arising out of it, namely open access and multi-year tariff that we think would have a significant bearing on the performance of the sector in the near future. The paper also evaluates the reform process in the light of some of the regulatory changes undertaken. Finally, the paper briefly discusses the issues involved in introduction of competition in the power sector primarily through development of a market for bulk power

  7. Urban Science Education: Examining Current Issues through a Historical Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Cheryl A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes urban science education studies published between 2000 and 2013 with a view to identifying current challenges faced by both teachers and students in urban classrooms. Additionally, this paper considers the historical events that have shaped the conditions, bureaucracies, and interactions of urban institutions.…

  8. Coal, energy efficiency and environmental issues in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surridge, A.D.; Grobbelaar, C.J.; Barker, R.; Asamoah, J.K.; Barnard, W.O.

    1997-01-01

    Like China, a large portion of South Africa's primary energy is sourced from coal, and is likely to remain South Africa's major source of energy for the short to medium term. It is imperative to address the environmental dimension as an integral component of coal energy considerations. This issue is discussed through energy efficiency, and South Africa's Low-Smoke Coal Programme as it pertains to the use of coal in households. South Africa is engaged on several other programmes to minimise the impact of coal on the atmospheric environment. Some of those activities have been outlined in this paper. (R.P.)

  9. Evaluating training and information to teachers on nuclear energy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnell, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    In England and Wales, school programs are defined by National Curricula; the method of teaching is left for the teacher to determine. This establishes the framework within which nuclear energy issues are taught. Teachers need a good understanding of what they teach and competence in the appropriate and effective learning strategies. A range of training opportunities is available to teachers (conferences from Local Education Authority, etc.), but the attention given to nuclear energy matters and controversial issues varies significantly between them. Many teaching resources are available but alone they cannot satisfy the training needs of all teachers (practical works, visits). 2 refs

  10. Environmental economics and policy making in developing countries. Current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta, R.S. da

    2001-01-01

    In developing countries, where growth expectations are high, least-cost environmental policies are crucial since they can reduce the conflict between economic growth and the environment. In view of this, policymakers in these economies must be very aware of the relationship between economic and environmental issues to offer policy initiatives which can increase efficiency and improve equity. The authors provide a comprehensive analysis of topics varying from the general problems of growth and conservation to specific applications such as; pollution costs, environmental taxation, deforestation and climate change. This volume also offers policymakers a comprehensive view of the challenges they face, and the legacies they leave, in order to convert environmental policy making into an actual programme of welfare improvement. (author)

  11. Current status and burning issues in immunotoxicity testing of drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, Jan Willem van der; Loveren, Henk van

    2005-01-01

    Besides pathology endpoints, additional immune function endpoints have been included in the Note for Guidance on Repeated Dose Toxicity by the European Union (July 2001), which concern the analysis of antibody responses to a T-cell-dependent antigen. Guidance papers of other regulatory authorities are published as well. The main issue is the need for functional immunotoxicity testing to detect unintended immunosuppression. The International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) has surveyed studies from the files of the pharmaceutical industry to find the proportion of compounds that can be detected by additional immunotoxicity testing. Preliminary analysis shows that 10-15% of the compounds in the survey only react positively to the additional tests. More data are requested from the pharmaceutical industry. The Expert Working Group of the ICH has decided to choose a cause-for-concern approach to immmunotoxicity rather than a routine-screening approach. The causes for concern are to be defined during ICH negotiations

  12. Medical photography: current technology, evolving issues and legal perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harting, M T; DeWees, J M; Vela, K M; Khirallah, R T

    2015-04-01

    Medical photographic image capture and data management has undergone a rapid and compelling change in complexity over the last 20 years. This is because of multiple factors, including significant advances in ease of photograph capture, alongside an evolution of mechanisms of data portability/dissemination, combined with governmental focus on health information privacy. Literature to guide medical, legal, governmental and business professionals when dealing with issues related to medical photography is virtually nonexistent. Herein, we will address the breadth of uses of medical photography, device properties/specific devices utilised for image capture, methods of data transfer and dissemination and patient perceptions and attitudes regarding photography in a medical setting. In addition, we will address the legal implications, including legal precedent, copyright and privacy law, informed consent, protected health information and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), as they pertain to medical photography. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Current issues in nuclear power projects decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, Y.; Rogner, H.

    2011-01-01

    Concluding Comments: Firm government commitment and support - imminent; New financing approaches/models are emerging, repackaging existing methods and combination of project finance/co-operative mode; Global financial crisis will make financing for investors very challenging, especially for large scale infrastructure projects like NNP –financial regulators to impose tougher rules (Basel III, UK bank levy, US Financial Regulatory Bill, etc; Pure project finance is still challenging for nuclear projects - the availability of finance for new NPPs will depend on the initial government support. This presentation presents a “free market” view on investment in nuclear power projects; If the public sector (governments) wishes to invest in nuclear power as part of its socioeconomic development priorities, finance is not a real obstacle; It becomes an issue in the presence of other equally important development needs and private sector participation is sought

  14. Provision of genetic services in Europe: current practices and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godard, Béatrice; Kääriäinen, Helena; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Tranebjaerg, Lisbeth; Coviello, Domenico; Aymé, Ségolène

    2003-12-01

    This paper examines the professional and scientific views on the social, ethical and legal issues that impact on the provision of genetic services in Europe. Many aspects have been considered, such as the definition and the aims of genetic services, their organization, the quality assessment, public education, as well as the partnership with patients support groups and the multicultural aspects. The methods was primarily the analysis of professional guidelines, legal frameworks and other documents related to the organization of genetic services, mainly from Europe, but also from USA and international organizations. Then, the method was to examine the background data emerging from an updated report produced by the Concerted Action on Genetic Services in Europe, as well as the issues debated by 43 experts from 17 European countries invited to an international workshop organized by the European Society of Human Genetics Public and Professional Policy Committee in Helsinki, Finland, 8 and 9 September 2000. Some conclusions were identified from the ESHG workshop to arrive at outlines for optimal genetic services. Participants were concerned about equal accessibility and effectiveness of clinical genetic services, quality assessment of services, professional education, multidisciplinarity and division of tasks as well as networking. Within European countries, adherence to the organizational principles of prioritization, regionalization and integration into related health services would maximize equal accessibility and effectiveness of genetic actions. There is a need for harmonization of the rules involved in financial coverage of DNA tests in order to make these available to all Europeans. Clear guidelines for the best practice will ensure that the provision of genetic services develops in a way that is beneficial to its customers, be they health professionals or the public, especially since the coordination of clinical, laboratory and research perspectives within a

  15. The incentive sensitization theory of addiction: some current issues

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Terry E; Berridge, Kent C

    2008-01-01

    We present a brief overview of the incentive sensitization theory of addiction. This posits that addiction is caused primarily by drug-induced sensitization in the brain mesocorticolimbic systems that attribute incentive salience to reward-associated stimuli. If rendered hypersensitive, these systems cause pathological incentive motivation (‘wanting’) for drugs. We address some current questions including: what is the role of learning in incentive sensitization and addiction? Does incentive s...

  16. Security issues at the Department of Energy and records management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NUSBAUM, ANNA W.

    2000-01-01

    In order to discuss the connection between security issues within the Department of Energy and records management, the author covers a bit of security history and talks about what she calls ''the Amazing Project''. Initiated in late May 1999, it was to be a tri-laboratory (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory of Livermore, California, Los Alamos National Laboratory of Los Alamos, New Mexico, and Sandia National Laboratories of Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California) project. The team that formed was tasked to develop the best set of security solutions that still enabled weapon mission work to get done and the security solutions were to be the same set for everyone. The amazing project was called ''The Integrated Security Management Project'', or ''ISecM' for short. She'll describe why she thinks this project was so amazing and what it accomplished. There's a bit of sad news about the project, but then she'll move onto discuss what was learned at Sandia as a result of the project and what they're currently doing in records management

  17. Nuclear energy in Texas: major issues and policy recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    On December 15, 1978 the Texas Energy Advisory Council (TEAC) adopted the Texas Energy Policy, 1978 Update. The Council recognized the great complexity of technical, economic, social, and political issues which have an impact on nuclear power, and therefore decided that a special committee was needed to examine in greater detail the nuclear energy issues facing Texas. This report summarizes the work of the Advisory Committee on Nuclear energy. Topics discussed include: biological affects of low levels of radiation; transportation of radioactive material in Texas; uranium mining and milling; severance tax on uranium mining; alternate reactor designs and fuel cycles; financing nuclear plant construction; cost of disposing of nuclear wastes and decommissioning nuclear plants; low-level wastes; disposal of high-level wastes; commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing; and transmutation of radioactive wastes

  18. Oxidative stress and life histories: unresolved issues and current needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speakman, John R; Blount, Jonathan D; Bronikowski, Anne M; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Isaksson, Caroline; Kirkwood, Tom B L; Monaghan, Pat; Ozanne, Susan E; Beaulieu, Michaël; Briga, Michael; Carr, Sarah K; Christensen, Louise L; Cochemé, Helena M; Cram, Dominic L; Dantzer, Ben; Harper, Jim M; Jurk, Diana; King, Annette; Noguera, Jose C; Salin, Karine; Sild, Elin; Simons, Mirre J P; Smith, Shona; Stier, Antoine; Tobler, Michael; Vitikainen, Emma; Peaker, Malcolm; Selman, Colin

    2015-12-01

    Life-history theory concerns the trade-offs that mold the patterns of investment by animals between reproduction, growth, and survival. It is widely recognized that physiology plays a role in the mediation of life-history trade-offs, but the details remain obscure. As life-history theory concerns aspects of investment in the soma that influence survival, understanding the physiological basis of life histories is related, but not identical, to understanding the process of aging. One idea from the field of aging that has gained considerable traction in the area of life histories is that life-history trade-offs may be mediated by free radical production and oxidative stress. We outline here developments in this field and summarize a number of important unresolved issues that may guide future research efforts. The issues are as follows. First, different tissues and macromolecular targets of oxidative stress respond differently during reproduction. The functional significance of these changes, however, remains uncertain. Consequently there is a need for studies that link oxidative stress measurements to functional outcomes, such as survival. Second, measurements of oxidative stress are often highly invasive or terminal. Terminal studies of oxidative stress in wild animals, where detailed life-history information is available, cannot generally be performed without compromising the aims of the studies that generated the life-history data. There is a need therefore for novel non-invasive measurements of multi-tissue oxidative stress. Third, laboratory studies provide unrivaled opportunities for experimental manipulation but may fail to expose the physiology underpinning life-history effects, because of the benign laboratory environment. Fourth, the idea that oxidative stress might underlie life-history trade-offs does not make specific enough predictions that are amenable to testing. Moreover, there is a paucity of good alternative theoretical models on which contrasting

  19. Review. The incentive sensitization theory of addiction: some current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Terry E; Berridge, Kent C

    2008-10-12

    We present a brief overview of the incentive sensitization theory of addiction. This posits that addiction is caused primarily by drug-induced sensitization in the brain mesocorticolimbic systems that attribute incentive salience to reward-associated stimuli. If rendered hypersensitive, these systems cause pathological incentive motivation ('wanting') for drugs. We address some current questions including: what is the role of learning in incentive sensitization and addiction? Does incentive sensitization occur in human addicts? Is the development of addiction-like behaviour in animals associated with sensitization? What is the best way to model addiction symptoms using animal models? And, finally, what are the roles of affective pleasure or withdrawal in addiction?

  20. Metabolic syndrome in children: current issues and South Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anoop; Khurana, Lokesh; Vikram, Naval K; Goel, Ashish; Wasir, Jasjeet S

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this review is to discuss definition, determinants, and management issues of the metabolic syndrome in children with a focus on South Asians. The literature search was done using the PubMed search engine (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD, USA). Manual searches for other important references and medical databases were also done. There is a need for an integrated definition of the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents, taking cognizance of the ethnic-specific variations. Obesity and body fat patterning are important determinants of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome in children and ethnic variations in these parameters are seen. Excess body fat and thicker truncal subcutaneous fat are important predisposing factors for development of insulin resistance in South Asian children. Because the metabolic syndrome tracks into adulthood, its manifestations need to be recognized early for prevention of diabetes and coronary heart disease. Therapeutic lifestyle changes, maintenance of high levels of physical activity and normal weight are most important strategies; pharmacologic therapy for individual components of the metabolic syndrome is occasionally needed. The metabolic syndrome in children is an important clinical marker of diabetes and coronary heart disease in adults. In view of the rapid increase in the metabolic syndrome in most populations, high-risk screening and effective public-intervention educational programs are urgently needed.

  1. PALLIATIVE CARE IN GERIATRICS: CURRENT ISSUES AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Рonomareva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to identify the main problems and prospects of development of palliative care in geriatrics at the present stage. Method of research was to analyze the printed and electronic databases that meet the stated issues. The results of the study highlight the problems of the development of palliative care in geriatric practice: the lack of a developed procedure of rendering palliative care and adequate elderly patient selection criteria, the lack of trained professional staff. The main prospects-association of palliative practices and concepts of modern geriatrics required specialized geriatric assessment and the provision of clinical, medical, social and socio-psychological geriatric syndromes. While promising option for the development of palliative care geriatrics is the integration into the existing health care system, acceptance of the fact that it is a part of the specialized geriatric care. This requires the involvement and training of not only specialists with medical education, but also persons without medical training from among social workers and volunteers working in palliative care. Therefore, the obtained data allowed to conclude that topical is the development of palliative care in geriatrics, taking into account not only clinical but medico-social, socio-psychological features.

  2. Transdisciplinarity: A Review of Its Origins, Development, and Current Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Hillel Bernstein

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Transdisciplinarity originated in a critique of the standard configuration of knowledge in disciplines in the curriculum, including moral and ethical concerns. Pronouncements about it were first voiced between the climax of government-supported science and higher education and the long retrenchment that began in the 1970s. Early work focused on questions of epistemology and the planning of future universities and educational programs. After a lull, transdisciplinarity re-emerged in the 1990s as an urgent issue relating to the solution of new, highly complex, global concerns, beginning with climate change and sustainability and extending into many areas concerning science, technology, social problems and policy, education, and the arts. Transdisciplinarity today is characterized by its focus on “wicked problems” that need creative solutions, its reliance on stakeholder involvement, and engaged, socially responsible science. In simultaneously studying multiple levels of, and angles on, reality, transdisciplinary work provides an intriguing potential to invigorate scholarly and scientific inquiry both in and outside the academy.

  3. Legal issues related to adolescent pregnancy: current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, A M

    1986-09-01

    Adolescent pregnancies have risen in recent years. Options open to the pregnant adolescent are: terminating the pregnancy; giving birth to the child out of wedlock; keeping the baby; giving the baby up for adoption; and marriage before or after the birth of the baby. Each of these options carries certain legal ramifications, since the adolescent patients have not reached the age of majority. The state or the parents usually assume the role of decision making on behalf of the adolescent or assist in the decision making process. Court rulings since the early seventies have legalized abortion and enlarged the rights of minors seeking termination of their pregnancies. Both parents and minors have rights under the certain state laws; parent have the right to notification, minors have the right to privacy. Keeping the child, out of wedlock, might result in legal battles over custody and/or establishing financial support from the father. Some adolescent mothers give up their children for adoption. There are 2 legal procedures that have to be accomplished before a child can be adopted: termination of the rights of the natural parents and adoption proceedings. If the parents marry after the birth of the child, the child is then considered legitimate and the father does not have to go through the process of adopting the child. Other issues requiring parental or individual consent include consent to treatment, contraception, or sterilization. In the case of forcible rape or incest, the physician is required to report incidents to law enforcement officials.

  4. Cognition in epilepsy: current clinical issues of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Juri-Alexander; Helmstaedter, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    This review provides an update and summary of recent neuropsychological findings in epilepsy focusing on three major clinical topics among the many developments in the field. We will critically outline the current state with regard to cognition in new-onset epilepsies, social cognition in epilepsy, and the long-term outcome of epilepsy surgery and the cognitive outcomes of superselective surgical procedures. Current studies indicate that neuropsychological impairments are prevalent already at the onset of epilepsy and even before, social cognition (i.e., emotion recognition and theory of mind) is impaired in different epilepsy populations, the long-term outcome of epilepsy surgery is mostly characterized by a stable or even improved cognitive status, and superselective epilepsy surgeries are associated with a promising neuropsychological outcome. The high prevalence of cognitive deficits around epilepsy onset challenges the assumption that epilepsy is the major cause of cognitive problems and calls for early neuropsychological diagnostics. Social cognition seems to be a relevant domain that is not yet routinely considered in epilepsy. The cognitive long-term outcome of epilepsy surgery is mostly positive. Stereotactic thermocoagulation and gamma knife surgery appear to be cognitively safe procedures.

  5. A review study of the current research on energy hub for energy positive neighborhoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, S.W.W.; Labeodan, T.; Maassen, W.H.; Zeiler, W.

    2017-01-01

    Energy positive neighborhoods and cities are emerging concepts aimed at addressing the current energy and environmental sustainability challenges. In this paper, the concept and current research on energy hubs relating to energy positive neighborhoods are presented. In addition to discussing

  6. Achieving a secure energy future: Environmental and economic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, David; Herdendorf, M.; Eisenfeld, S.

    1994-01-01

    Energy, economics, and the environment are interdependent. Land, water, atmospheric, and biological resources are being degraded by current high energy consumption. U.S. energy consumption is the highest in the world and the U.S. Department of Energy reports that the United States has only about 10 years of known and potentially discoverable oil reserves. The U.S. should reduce its energy consumption by one half to help restore the quality of the environment while improving the American standard of living by strengthening the economy and increasing the number of jobs. Because of the interdependence of energy, economics, and the environment, energy efficiency and transition to renewable energy sources are critical. An estimated 40% of current energy consumption could be produced employing solar energy technologies, but would require about 20% of total U.S. land area. Therefore, the development of solar energy technologies to substitute for fossil energy is projected to compete for land required for agriculture and forestry as well as have other environmental impacts

  7. RENEWABLE ENERGY: POLICY ISSUES AND ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulden Boluk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current energy policy of Turkey is to increase the renewable energy share in total energy and to maximize benefit from existing potential until next 15 years. It was planed that the share of renewable energy resources in electricity production would be at least 30% by 2023 and government ensured some incentives such as feed-in tariff, investment incentives etc. for renewable energy. Moreover Turkish Energy Regulatory Agency (EMRA announced that biofuel blending would be mandatory starting from 2013 and 2014 for bioethanol (2% and biodiesel (1%, respectively. This study examines the current situation and potential of renewable resources and evaluates the impacts of renewable energy policy both on the energy sector and whole national economy. Renewable energy targets can generate around 275-545 thousand direct jobs possibilities in energy sector and 7.9 thousand tones natural gas and 464 thousand cubic meters fossil fuel saving by 2023. Net trade impact of renewable energy targets will be aggravated due to mandatory biodiesel blending since Turkey has oilseed deficit. In Turkey, utilization of all type of resources will contribute to economy but most feasible and sustainable renewable energy is biomass. Between the other renewables, biomass would provide highest social well-being in the country.

  8. Energy policy issues in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Sierra, G.

    1994-01-01

    Whilst recognising that the reduction of poverty levels in developing countries takes precedence to the improvement and protection of the environment, the author comments that any efforts geared to fostering socioeconomic development will indirectly address the environment issue. The aims of a broad strategy and a more specific energy strategy geared at fostering sustainable development in Latin America are discussed. It is suggested that development of hydropower should continue, that the share of natural gas in the regional energy balance be increased and that efforts be put into increasing energy efficiency and improving utilization technologies. Promotion of energy projects that generate employment, promotion of projects for the use of biomass as an energy source, and implementation of a series of joint ventures are ideas advocated. Possibilities of cooperation between the Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE) and the Dutch government are aired

  9. Gastroesophageal reflux disease in pediatric practice: current topical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Yu. Bielousova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, much attention has been paid to the upper digestive tract diseases in children, particularly gastroesophageal reflux disease, as a cause that has an impact on the quality of life, even in children of school age, and thereafter in young adults. Consequently, there are searches for optimization of early detection, new me-thods of non-invasive diagnosis, screening of this pathology in children’s population in order to determine persons with risk factors and to control disease development and complicated course, as well as searches for the formation of preventive activities algorithm. Scientists came to a consensus that all examinations, which are used in pediatric practice, must be maximally available, simple and non-invasive to the extent of child’s condition. The question about advisability of performing esophagogastroduodenoscopy for all patients with complaints of heartburn and with other symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease, the question relative to performing ultrasonography of the esophagus in children as an additional method of examination, usage of questionnaire in pediatric practice, formation of disease course prediction algorithm, and identification of preventive measures specific to every patient remain open. In order to explain their application, the developmental mechanisms of this pathology must be well-understood, and individual risk factors that may influence disease severity and disease course prediction, which occur in children in different periods of life, must be taken into account. Therefore, the goal of this research is to provide an overview of modern literature with reference to topical issues of clinical evidence, risk factors, diagnosis, prediction of gastroesophageal reflux disease course in children of different ages (regarding main causative and pathogenic factors, clinical evidence (esophageal and extra-esophageal, diagnostic methods and modern approaches to gastroesophageal reflux disease

  10. Data Analysis and Data Mining: Current Issues in Biomedical Informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellazzi, Riccardo; Diomidous, Marianna; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Takabayashi, Katsuhiko; Ziegler, Andreas; McCray, Alexa T.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Medicine and biomedical sciences have become data-intensive fields, which, at the same time, enable the application of data-driven approaches and require sophisticated data analysis and data mining methods. Biomedical informatics provides a proper interdisciplinary context to integrate data and knowledge when processing available information, with the aim of giving effective decision-making support in clinics and translational research. Objectives To reflect on different perspectives related to the role of data analysis and data mining in biomedical informatics. Methods On the occasion of the 50th year of Methods of Information in Medicine a symposium was organized, that reflected on opportunities, challenges and priorities of organizing, representing and analysing data, information and knowledge in biomedicine and health care. The contributions of experts with a variety of backgrounds in the area of biomedical data analysis have been collected as one outcome of this symposium, in order to provide a broad, though coherent, overview of some of the most interesting aspects of the field. Results The paper presents sections on data accumulation and data-driven approaches in medical informatics, data and knowledge integration, statistical issues for the evaluation of data mining models, translational bioinformatics and bioinformatics aspects of genetic epidemiology. Conclusions Biomedical informatics represents a natural framework to properly and effectively apply data analysis and data mining methods in a decision-making context. In the future, it will be necessary to preserve the inclusive nature of the field and to foster an increasing sharing of data and methods between researchers. PMID:22146916

  11. Study of Security Attributes of Smart Grid Systems- Current Cyber Security Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne F. Boyer; Scott A. McBride

    2009-04-01

    This document provides information for a report to congress on Smart Grid security as required by Section 1309 of Title XIII of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. The security of any future Smart Grid is dependent on successfully addressing the cyber security issues associated with the nation’s current power grid. Smart Grid will utilize numerous legacy systems and technologies that are currently installed. Therefore, known vulnerabilities in these legacy systems must be remediated and associated risks mitigated in order to increase the security and success of the Smart Grid. The implementation of Smart Grid will include the deployment of many new technologies and multiple communication infrastructures. This report describes the main technologies that support Smart Grid and summarizes the status of implementation into the existing U.S. electrical infrastructure.

  12. [Current issues of assisted reproduction in the Czech Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventruba, P; Žáková, J; Trávník, P; Crha, I; Mrázek, M; Rumpík, D; Štěpán, J; Režábek, K; Mardešić, T; Malenovská, A; Veselá, K; Brandejská, M

    2013-08-01

    Participants of the lunch table discussion held during the 22nd symposium of assisted reproduction in Brno discussed some current topics of assisted reproduction. DISCUSSED TOPICS: More than 150 participants at round tables discussed 10 topics: 1. IVF in native AR cycle,2. observation of the embryo development dynamics, 3. evaluation and support of endometrial receptivity,4. increased number of elective single embryo transfers (eSET), 5. transport of gametes and embryos in the Czech Republic and between the Czech Republic and abroad, 6. National registry of assisted reproduction,7. new view on sperm pathology, 8. problems with the SAR membership records, 9. surogacy motherhood and 10. preimplantation genetic diagnosis and preimplantation genetic screening. All findings were presented in the afternoon session. Some of the topics brought concrete results. Some topics could not be clearly concluded and will be the subject of further discussions. A brief summary of those discussion conclusions presents this paper.

  13. Improve processes on healthcare: current issues and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jason C H; Dolan, Matt; Lin, Binshan

    2004-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) is a critical resource for improving today's business competitiveness. However, many healthcare providers do not proactively manage or improve the efficiency and effectiveness of their services with IT. Survival in a competitive business environment demands continuous improvements in quality and service, while rigorously maintaining core values. Electronic commerce continues its development, gaining ground as the preferred means of business transactions. Embracing e-healthcare and treating IT as a strategic tool to improve patient safety and the quality of care enables healthcare professionals to benefit from technology formerly used only for management purposes. Numerous improvement initiatives, introduced by both the federal government and the private sector, seek to better the status quo in IT. This paper examines the current IT climate using an enhanced "Built to Last" model, and comments on future IT strategies within the healthcare industry.

  14. Current issues of RNAi therapeutics delivery and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haussecker, D

    2014-12-10

    12 years following the discovery of the RNAi mechanism in Man, a number of RNAi therapeutics development candidates have emerged with profiles suggesting that they could become drugs of significant medical importance for diseases like TTR amyloidosis, HBV, solid cancers, and hemophilia. Despite this robust progress, the perception of RNAi therapeutics has been on a roller-coaster ride driven not only by science, but also regulatory trends, the stock markets, and Big Pharma business development decisions [1]. This presentation provides an update on the current state of RNAi therapeutics development with a particular focus on what RNAi delivery can achieve today and key challenges to be overcome to expand therapeutic opportunities. The delivery of RNAi triggers to disease-relevant cell types clearly represents the rate-limiting factor in broadly expanding the applicability of RNAi therapeutics. Today, with at least 3 delivery options (lipid nanoparticles/LNPs, GalNAc-siRNA conjugates, Dynamic PolyConjugates/DPCs) for which profound gene knockdowns have been demonstrated in non-human primates and in the clinic, RNAi therapeutics should in principle be able to address most diseases related to gene expression in the liver. Given the central importance of the liver in systemic physiology, this already represents a significant therapeutic and commercial opportunity rivaling that of e.g. monoclonal antibodies. Beyond the liver, there is a reason to believe that current RNAi therapeutics technologies can address a number of solid tumors (e.g. LNPs), diseases of the eye (e.g. self-delivering RNAi triggers) as well as diseases involving the respiratory epithelium (e.g. aerosolized LNPs), certain phagocytic cells (LNPs), hematopoietic stem cells and their progeny (lentiviral DNA-directed RNAi), vascular endothelial cells (cationic lipoplexes), and certain cell types in the kidney (self-delivering RNAi triggers, DPCs; Table 1). Despite this success, there has been a sense that

  15. Global energy outlook. Key issue paper no. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The objectives of this key issue paper are to outline the expected trends in energy and electricity demand and supply that will impact the future of nuclear power and to highlight new realities that are likely to affect the assessment and implementation of alternative reactor and fuel cycle strategies in the next five to six decades. 14 refs, figs, tabs.

  16. Marine renewable energy in China: Current status and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Yong-liang Zhang; Zheng Lin; Qiu-lin Liu

    2014-01-01

    Based on a general review of marine renewable energy in China, an assessment of the development status and amount of various marine renewable energy resources, including tidal energy, tidal current energy, wave energy, ocean thermal energy, and salinity gradient energy in China's coastal seas, such as the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea, and the South China Sea, is presented. We have found that these kinds of marine renewable energy resources will play an important role in meeti...

  17. Soviet energy: current problems and future options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, J B

    1981-12-01

    The connection between Soviet oil and energy resources, their efficient and timely utilization, and politico-military opportunities in the Persian Gulf region offer an inescapable link for analysis. Worsening trends in economic growth, factor productivity, social unrest, and energy production/distribution offset optimistic trends in Soviet military procurement and deployment. A conjunction of geologic, geographic, and systemic factors all point to a mid-1980s energy imbalance which in turn will pose hard questions for the Moscow leadership. 28 references.

  18. Issues surrounding biomass energy use in non-OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diouf, M. Mines and Industry.

    1997-01-01

    The problem of energy-supply of Senegal is described by the Minister of Energy of Senegal. The destruction and degradation of forests in Senegal is a major risk because of the high demographic growth, the extensive agriculture and poverty. New policies are required that guarantee a sustainable energy supply to populations, and conserve the fragile environment. The biomass issue is to be incorporated into an overall development policy that effectively combines strategies relating to forestry, agriculture, rearing and resource management but also to population, poverty elimination, urban development and decentralization. (K.A.)

  19. Alternatives - talk about energy differently. Radioactive waste a societal issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    ''Alternatives'' is an information magazine proposed by the Areva Group, a world nuclear energy leader. It is devoted to the public information on topics of the Group activities. This issue deals with the fusion technology, the strengths and weaknesses of interconnected networks, the undersea tidal power farms, the danish paradox which has the highest levels of CO 2 emissions despite the use of wind energy, the international community renewed commitment to renewable energy, the hydrogen, the low speed wind turbines and the future miniature fuel cells. A special interest is given to the radioactive wastes management. (A.L.B.)

  20. [Current issues in legal cases of compensation for healthcare malpractice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiner, Tamás; Barzó, Tímea

    2014-09-21

    dogmatic and practical problems related to this topic. Another important area of current analysis is the institution of injury fees, which replaced the reimbursement of non-pecuniary damages. The mere fact of infringement allows setting injury fees. Taking into consideration the current resources in staff and equipment available in healthcare, this regulation may promote claims for injury fees impartial. Consequently, courts will have to apply other criteria when judgment in 'trivial cases', which might not require legal assessment, is delivered.

  1. Current Issues in Histology, Biology and Prognosis of Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Goran

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High risk Hodgkin lymphoma patients may occasionally have borderline characteristics similar to gray zone lymphomas and T-cell/histiocyte rich B cell lymphomas. These entities require different and more aggressive treatment modalities. Aggressive behavior is often associated with disturbances caused by Epstein Barr virus, or immune evasion caused by overexpression of check point inhibitors PDL-1 and PDL-2 coupled with the lack of expression of Class I and II MHC molecules. Galectin-1, TARC, sCD163 and other surrogate markers of immunosuppression in Hodgkin lymphoma may be useful for the assessment of treatment response. The improvements in lymphoma management diminished the importance of prognostic factors unified in the International Prognostic Scoring system, reducing them from 7 to 3 factors that remained relevant. Interim PET analysis is the only method able to identify resistant patients while chemotherapy is ongoing, thus enabling adjustment of treatment according to the treatment response. Efforts for stratification of patients according to disease histology, biology, microenvironment, clinical scoring systems and PET scan are ongoing. Current breakthroughs have set strong background for novel therapies with monoclonal antibodies and check point inhibitors that will result in improvement of management of high risk patients.

  2. Current Status and Issues in Basic Pharmaceutical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Tomohisa

    2017-01-01

    Basic research in pharmaceutical sciences has a long and successful history. Researchers in this field have long given prime importance to the knowledge they have gained through their pharmaceutical education. The transition of pharmacy education to a 6-year course term has not only extended its duration but also placed more emphasis on practical clinical education. The School Education Act (in article 87, second paragraph) determines that "the term of the course, whose main purpose is to cultivate practical ability in clinical pharmacy, shall be six years" (excerpt). The 6-year pharmacy education is an exception to the general 4-year university term determined by the School Education Act. Therefore, the purpose of the 6-year course in pharmacy is clearly proscribed. This is true of the basic course in pharmaceutical education as well; hence, the basic course must be oriented toward developing "practical ability in clinical" education, too. The 6-year pharmacy course, starting from practice (Do), has evolved with the development of a syllabus that includes a model core curriculum (Plan). Furthermore, improvement in the course can be seen by the promoted development of faculty (Act). Now, evidence-based education research will be introduced (Check). This is how the Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle in pharmaceutical education is expected to work. Currently, pedagogy research in pharmacy education has just begun, so it is difficult to evaluate at this time whether basic pharmaceutical education does in fact contribute to enhancing the "practical clinical ability" component of pharmaceutical education.

  3. Sleep disturbance due to noise: Current issues and future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Hume

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in carrying out further research to understand and reduce the impact of aircraft noise on airport neighborhood in anticipation of the projected substantial increase in global aviation. Soundscapes provide new analytical methods and a broader, more comprehensive appreciation of the aural environment, which may have a useful role in understanding noise-induced sleep disturbance and annoyance. Current noise metrics like Leq do not provide a common language to report noise environment to residents, which is a key obstacle to effective noise management and acceptance. Non-auditory effects complicate the production of consistent dose-response functions for aircraft noise affecting sleep and annoyance. There are various end-points that can be chosen to assess the degree of sleep disturbance, which has detracted from the clarity of results that has been communicated to wider audiences. The World Health Organization (WHO-Europe has produced Night Noise Guidelines for Europe, which act as a clear guide for airports and planners to work towards. Methodological inadequacies and the need for simpler techniques to record sleep will be considered with the exciting potential to greatly increase cost-effective field data acquisition, which is needed for large scale epidemiological studies

  4. Current Situation in Vocational Schools: Issues and Some Suggested Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reha Metin ALKAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vocational Schools which have undertaken various missions throughout history were established in order to train intermediate staff s with suff icient knowledge and skills in their fields, in accordance with the requirements of trade, industry and services sectors and they are the most important components of ‘vocational and technical education system' today. Analyzing the education given in the vocational schools in accordance with the national and international requirements, developing technologies and the needs of business world and making the necessary arrangements in line with these will contribute to the employability and preferability of graduates of these schools in an eff icient way. Many industrialists/businessmen in our country stated that they experienced serious problems in the supply of qualified staff with suff icient knowledge and skills needed in sectors. Although much progress has been achieved in this subject, it is a fact that there are still a lot of work to be done. In this study, current situation and main troubles in vocational schools are discussed in the light of the experiences gained at Hitit University Vocational School which was established about 40 years ago in Çorum and which is one of the first high schools in Turkey and some solutions are suggested in accordance with the problems mentioned.

  5. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood - current knowledge and open issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Mariacarolina; Capalbo, Donatella; Cerbone, Manuela; De Luca, Filippo

    2016-12-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as serum levels of TSH above the upper limit of the reference range, in the presence of normal concentrations of total T 4 or free T 4 . This biochemical profile might be an indication of mild hypothyroidism, with a potential increased risk of metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular disease recorded among adults. Whether subclinical hypothyroidism results in adverse health outcomes among children is a matter of debate and so management of this condition remains challenging. Mild forms of untreated subclinical hypothyroidism do not seem to be associated with impairments in growth, bone health or neurocognitive outcome. However, ongoing scientific investigations have highlighted the presence of subtle proatherogenic abnormalities among children with modest elevations in their TSH levels. Although current findings are insufficient to recommend levothyroxine treatment for all children with mild asymptomatic forms of subclinical hypothyroidism, they highlight the potential need for assessment of cardiovascular risk among children with this condition. Increased understanding of the early metabolic risk factors associated with subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood will help to improve the management of affected individuals.

  6. Contribution of safety issues to public perceptions of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.; Thomas, K.

    1978-01-01

    Public opposition is an important consideration for those responsible for energy planning; however, the formulation of socially viable policies requires an understanding of the reasons for this opposition. An attitude model was applied to identify the underlying determinants of public perceptions of five energy systems: nuclear, coal, oil, solar and hydro. Empirical results (heterogeneous sample of the general public, N = 224) are reported in which these energy systems were found to be perceived in terms of four basic dimensions: psychological aspects; economic benefits; socio-political implications; environmental and physical safety issues. For the total sample, safety issues made an appreciable contribution to attitudes toward all of the systems except nuclear energy, where it was not significant. A differential analysis of two sub-samples, those respondents PRO and CON nuclear energy, showed that benefits and safety issues were important determinants of PRO attitudes while CON attitudes were primarily due to psychological aspects and concerns about personal and political power. The role of technical information in the formation of public attitudes toward technological policies is discussed

  7. Current issues in billing and coding in interventional pain medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, L

    2000-10-01

    Interventional pain management is a dynamic field with changes occurring on a daily basis, not only with technology but also with regulations that have a substantial financial impact on practices. Regulations are imposed not only by the federal government and other regulatory agencies, and also by a multitude of other payors, state governments and medical boards. Documentation of medical necessity with coding that correlates with multiple components of the patient's medical record, operative report, and billing statement is extremely important. Numerous changes which have occurred in the practice of interventional pain management in the new millennium continue to impact the financial viability of interventional pain practices along with patient access to these services. Thus, while complying with regulations of billing, coding and proper, effective, and ethical practice of pain management, it is also essential for physicians to understand financial aspects and the impact of various practice patterns. This article provides guidelines which are meant to provide practical considerations for billing and coding of interventional techniques in the management of chronic pain based on the current state of the art and science of interventional pain management. Hence, these guidelines do not constitute inflexible treatment, coding, billing or documentation recommendations. It is expected that a provider will establish a plan of care on a case-by-case basis taking into account an individual patient's medical condition, personal needs, and preferences, along with physician's experience and in a similar manner, billing and coding practices will be developed. Based on an individual patient's needs, treatment, billing and coding, different from what is outlined here is not only warranted but essential.

  8. The US Opioid Crisis: Current Federal and State Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soelberg, Cobin D; Brown, Raeford E; Du Vivier, Derick; Meyer, John E; Ramachandran, Banu K

    2017-11-01

    The United States is in the midst of a devastating opioid misuse epidemic leading to over 33,000 deaths per year from both prescription and illegal opioids. Roughly half of these deaths are attributable to prescription opioids. Federal and state governments have only recently begun to grasp the magnitude of this public health crisis. In 2016, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released their Guidelines for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain. While not comprehensive in scope, these guidelines attempt to control and regulate opioid prescribing. Other federal agencies involved with the federal regulatory effort include the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), and the Department of Justice. Each federal agency has a unique role in helping to stem the burgeoning opioid misuse epidemic. The DEA, working with the Department of Justice, has enforcement power to prosecute pill mills and physicians for illegal prescribing. The DEA could also implement use of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs), currently administered at the state level, and use of electronic prescribing for schedule II and III medications. The FDA has authority to approve new and safer formulations of immediate- and long-acting opioid medications. More importantly, the FDA can also ask pharmaceutical companies to cease manufacturing a drug. Additionally, state agencies play a critical role in reducing overdose deaths, protecting the public safety, and promoting the medically appropriate treatment of pain. One of the states' primary roles is the regulation of practice of medicine and the insurance industry within their borders. Utilizing this authority, states can both educate physicians about the dangers of opioids and make physician licensure dependent on registering and using PDMPs when prescribing controlled substances. Almost every state has implemented a PDMP to some degree; however, in addition to mandating their use, increased interstate

  9. Current issues and future prospects of dairy sector in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.J.; Naeem, M.; Abbas, A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore the current status of livestock resources, their status of utilisation and the future research concepts in dairy production and milk processing in Pakistan. Advances in the areas of genetics of dairy species, cow reproduction, nutrition, dairy chemistry, milk microbiology, processing technology and milk-based functional foods, have to be applied in Pakistan since the increase in Pakistan's population from 65 to 165 million over the past 3 decades is forecasted to an increase to 234 million by 2025. The need to increase food production means that competition for land and water resources will become more intense. The ecological sustainability of already fragile systems will be further challenged. Agro-industrial byproducts and non-conventional feed resources could be used for feeding of livestock, if farmers are trained accordingly. Situation may be significantly improved if fodder conservation techniques are introduced in livestock feeding systems. Pakistan needs a competitive and profitable dairy farming industry not just for economic but also environmental and social reasons. Productivity potential of local breeds is low and an attempt to genetically improve the local cattle through cross breeding has resulted in improvement in milk yield, acceleration in growth rates and higher prices; however, its discriminate use has been also associated with decreased immunity against temperature changes, disease and nutritional and environmental stresses prevailing in the region. The long-term effects of new systems (such as extended lactations, robot milking and all-year-round housing) will call for ever more intelligent approaches to the simultaneous achievement of quality systems that minimise environmental burdens, sustain high standards of health and welfare and deliver nutritionally valuable products into well organised food supply chains. Value addition, processing, packaging and marketing of milk, meat and eggs, backed up by

  10. The Current Issues on Osteoporosis among Male Saudi Arabians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Sadat-Ali

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Osteoporosis was reported to be common among Saudi Arabian population. In the last decade there have been no reports related to the male osteoporosis in Saudi Arabian citizens. The objective of this study was to find the hospital-based prevalence of male osteoporosis among Saudi Arabians. Methodology: This is the retrospective study between January 2014 and December 2016 in which all patients who were referred for DEXA (Dual Energy X ray Absorptiometry scan to the radiology department of the King Fahd Hospital of the University, AlKhobar. Patient’s demographic data was collected from the medical records. Patients who were younger than 50 years and those who had a fragility fracture were excluded from the analysis. From the IPAC the readings of the DEXA were collected. Associated diseases of the patients were also extracted from the QuadruMed Data Base. The data was entered in the database and analyzed using SPSS Inc. version 19 and p value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: Four hundred and fifty five patients had a DEXA scan during the study period. Three hundred and seventy one (81.5% were ≥50 years. The average was 65.33±9.85 years (Range 50-97. On the basis of Spinal T score, 222 (59.8% were osteoporotic with the spinal T score of <-3.58±0.88, while with hip T score 120 (32.3% were osteoporotic with T score of <-3.24±0.59. Thirty-six (9.7% had a normal DEXA of spine and 74(19.9% of patients had normal DEXA when Hip was taken into consideration. Patients could be divided into four groups based on their diseases; they were on treatment for Cardiac disease 106 (28.5%, Diabetes mellitus 95 (25.7%, osteoarthritis 141 (38% and Respiratory Disease 29 (7.8%. Based on the Spinal T score osteoporosis was observed in 61/106 (57.5% patients with cardiac disease, 62/95 (65.3% Diabetics, in osteoarthritis 83/141 (58.9% and 16/29 (55.1% in patients with respiratory system diseases. Majority of the patients had

  11. Book Review: Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer.......The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer....

  12. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, L J; Hammel, C J

    1997-04-01

    Electrochemical capacitors are a candidate for traction power assists in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Other advanced automotive applications, while not the primary focus of current development efforts, are also possible. These include load leveling high-energy batteries, power conditioning electronics, electrically hated catalysts, electric power steering, and engine starter power. Higher power and longer cycle life are expected for electrochemical capacitors than for batteries. Evaluation of environmental, health, and safety (EH and S) issues of electrochemical capacitors is an essential part of the development and commercialization of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicles. This report provides an initial EH and S assessment. This report presents electrochemical capacitor electrochemistry, materials selection, intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of those hazards, environmental requirements, pollution control options, and shipping requirements. Most of the information available for this assessment pertains to commercial devices intended for application outside the advanced vehicle market and to experiment or prototype devices. Electrochemical capacitors for power assists in HEVs are not produced commercially now. Therefore, materials for advanced vehicle electrochemical capacitors may change, and so would the corresponding EH and S issues. Although changes are possible, this report describes issues for likely electrochemical capacitor designs.

  13. Sufficiency does energy consumption become a moral issue?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Adrian (Socio-economic Inst. and Univ. Research Priority Programme in Ethics, Univ. of Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland))

    2009-07-01

    Reducing the externalities from energy use is crucial for sustainability. There are basically four ways to reduce externalities from energy use: increasing technical efficiency ('energy input per unit energy service'), increasing economic efficiency ('internalising external costs'), using 'clean' energy sources with few externalities, or sufficiency ('identifying 'optimal' energy service levels'). A combination of those strategies is most promising for sustainable energy systems. However, the debate on sustainable energy is dominated by efficiency and clean energy strategies, while sufficiency plays a minor role. Efficiency and clean energy face several problems, though. Thus, the current debate should be complemented with a critical discussion of sufficiency. In this paper, I develop a concept of sufficiency, which is adequate for liberal societies. I focus on ethical foundations for sufficiency, as the discussion of such is missing or cursory only in the existing literature. I first show that many examples of sufficiency can be understood as (economic) efficiency, but that the two concepts do not coincide. I then show that sufficiency based on moralization of actions can be understood as implementation of the boundary conditions for social justice that come with notions of liberal societies, in particular the duty not to harm other people. By this, to increase sufficiency becomes a duty beyond individual taste. I further illustrate this in the context of the adverse effects of climate change as externalities from energy use.

  14. Quantifying the perceived risks associated with nuclear energy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, G.M.

    2004-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented for quantifying and assessing perceived risks in an empirical manner. The analytical model provides for the identification and assignment of any number of quantifiable risk perception factors that can be incorporated within standard risk methodology. The set of risk perception factors used to demonstrate the model are those that have been identified by social and behavioural scientists as principal factors influencing people in their perception of risks associated with major technical issues. These same risk factors are commonly associated with nuclear energy issues. A rational means is proposed for determining and quantifying these risk factors for a given application. The model should contribute to improved understanding of the basis and logic of public risk perception and provide practical and effective means for addressing perceived risks when they arise over important technical issues and projects. (author)

  15. Geothermal energy technology: issues, R and D needs, and cooperative arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    In 1986, the National Research Council, through its Energy Engineering Board, formed the Committee on Geothermal Energy Technology. The committee's study addressed major issues in geothermal energy technology, made recommendations for research and development, and considered cooperative arrangements among government, industry, and universities to facilitate RandD under current severe budget constraints. The report addresses four types of geothermal energy: hydrothermal, geopressured, hot dry rock, and magma systems. Hydrothermal systems are the only type that are now economically competitive commercially. Further technology development by the Department of Energy could make the uneconomical hydrothermal resources commercially attractive to the industry. The economics are more uncertain for the longer-term technologies for extracting energy from geopressured, hot dry rock, and magma systems. For some sites, the cost of energy derived from geopressured and hot dry rock systems is projected within a commercially competitive range. The use of magma energy is too far in the future to make reasonable economic calculations.

  16. Energy Demand and Supply Analysis and Outlook - Energy Forecast for 2001 and Policy Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, In Gang; Ryu, Ji Chul [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The energy consumption in Korea has grown at impressive rates during the last 3 decades, along with the economic growth. The global concern about the environment issue and the restructuring in Korea energy industry has an effect on the pattern and trend of energy demand in Korea. Under the situation, this research are focusing on the analysis of energy consumption and forecast of energy demand. First of all, we analyze the trends and major characteristics of energy consumption, beginning with 1970s and up to the third quarter of 2000. In the analysis of energy consumption by energy types, we also perform qualitative analysis on the trends and characteristics of each energy types, including institutional analysis. In model section, we start with the brief description of synopsis and outline the survey on empirical models for energy demand. The econometric model used in KEEI's short-term energy forecast is outlined, followed by the result of estimations. The 2001 energy demand forecast is predicted in detail by sectors and energy types. In the year 2001, weak demand is projected to continue through the First Half, and pick up its pace of growth only in the Second Half. Projected total demand is 201.3 million TOE or 4.4% growth. In the last section, the major policy issues are summarized in three sub-sections: the restructuring in energy industry, the security of energy demand and supply, international energy cooperation including south-north energy cooperation. (author). 86 refs., 43 figs., 73 tabs.

  17. Energy audit practices in China: National and local experiences and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Bo; Price, Lynn; Lu Hongyou

    2012-01-01

    China set an ambitious goal of reducing its energy use per unit of GDP by 20% between 2006 and 2010. Much of the country’s effort is focused on improving the energy efficiency of the industrial sector, which consumes about two-thirds of China’s primary energy. Industrial energy audits are an important part of China’s efforts to improve its energy intensity. Such audits are employed to help enterprises identify energy-efficiency improvement opportunities and serve as a means to collect critical energy-consuming information. Information about energy audit practices in China is, however, little known to the outside world. This study combines a review of China’s national policies and programs on energy auditing with information collected from surveying a variety of Chinese institutions involved in energy audits. A key goal of the study is to conduct a gap analysis to identify how current practices in China related to energy auditing differ from energy auditing practices found around the world. This article presents our findings on the study of China’s energy auditing practices at the national and provincial levels. It discusses key issues related to the energy audits conducted in China and offers policy recommendations that draw upon international best practices. - Highlights: ► We examine China’s national and regional energy auditing practices in the 11th FYP. ► Energy audits have helped China achieve its energy efficiency target. ► Issues still remain preventing energy auditing from achieving its full potential. ► Gap analysis is conducted to compare with other international auditing program. ► We offer recommendations for the development of best energy audit practices.

  18. Malaysian public perception towards nuclear power energy-related issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misnon, Fauzan Amin; Hu, Yeoh Siong; Rahman, Irman Abd.; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi

    2017-01-01

    Malaysia had considered nuclear energy as an option for future electricity generation during the 9th Malaysia Development Plan. Since 2009, Malaysia had implemented a number of important preparatory steps towards this goal, including the establishment of Nuclear Power Corporation of Malaysia (MNPC) as first Nuclear Energy Programme Implementing Organization (NEPIO) in Malaysia. In light of the establishment of MNPC, the National Nuclear Policy was formulated in 2010 and a new comprehensive nuclear law to replace the existing Atomic Energy Licensing Act (Act 304) is currently in the pipeline. Internationally, public acceptance is generally used to gauge the acceptance of nuclear energy by the public whenever a government decides to engage in nuclear energy. A public survey was conducted in between 14 March 2016 to 10 May 2016 focusing on the Malaysian public acceptance and perception towards the implementation of nuclear energy in Malaysia. The methodology of this research was aim on finding an overview of the general knowledge, public-relation recommendation, perception and acceptance of Malaysian towards the nuclear power development program. The combination of information gathered from this study can be interpreted as an indication of the complexity surrounding the development of nuclear energy and its relationship with the unique background of Malaysian demography. This paper will focus mainly on energy-related section in the survey in comparison with nuclear energy.

  19. current status and outlook of renewable energy development in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a critical review of the available renewable energy resources in Nigeria, namely; biomass, hydropower, solar and wind energy. It examines the current energy situation in the country and equally discusses the various energy policy documents developed by the government. Using the scenario-based ...

  20. Issues and problems raised by a world energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantzke, U

    1983-07-14

    The author begins by welcoming the participants to the occupational group of conference and then proceeds to examine the current situation affecting the oil market. He presents the oil consumption figures for OECD countries and explains the industrial causes behind the decline in oil consumption. The effects are investigated of the dramatic oil price increase of 1973/74, i.e. the balance of payments, economic growth, inflation and unemployment. The author then discusses future energy prospects and examines the technical and economic assumptions on which these forecasts are based. The paper deals with those measures aimed at safeguarding energy supplies (oil, gas, coal and uranium) and examines the situation in western Europe with regard to energy self-sufficiency. The creation of the IEA and the resolve of the industrial nations to develop the 3 other energy sources - coal, nuclear power and gas is described. The paper concludes with a brief assessment of the way ahead.

  1. Key issues in the outlook for minerals and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waring, T.; Love, G.; Hogan, J.; Gooday, P.

    1996-01-01

    The outlook for Australia's minerals and energy sector continues to be positive because of the flow-on effects of economic growth in the newly industrialized Asia. The East Asian share of mineral and energy commodities continues to expand reflecting the growing demand for consumer goods and new economic and social infrastructure. Uncertainties in the minerals and energy outlook include the future economic performance of the developed countries and the former Soviet Union, trade and environmental issues and the effects of changing technology on minerals and energy production and consumption. Encouraged by good prospects for exploration success and firmer markets, real exploration expenditure is forecast to continue to rise and the volume of Australian mine production is expected to rise by 14 percent between 1995-6 and 2000-1. Export earnings from mineral and energy commodities are expected to rise by $5.6 billion Australian (16 percent) from 1995-6 levels to reach $41.9 billion in real terms by 2000-1. (author). 2 tabs., 14 figs., 14 refs

  2. Climate policies in China, India and Brazil: current issues and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellevrat, Elie

    2012-07-01

    Emerging countries will have to tackle different social and economic development challenges in the future, which translate nationally into the concepts of 'harmonious society' in China and 'inclusive growth' in India, and into the Brazilian slogan 'a wealthy country is a country without poverty'. Per capita (current US$), Brazil is more than two times richer than China, which in turn is three times richer than India. This graduation explains the variety of priorities of those countries: reducing inequalities and achieving the development processes in China and Brazil, alleviating poverty and enhancing energy access in India. Furthermore, these countries are increasingly linked internationally, along with the globalization process. Energy security is a key issue for China and India, while Brazil aims at playing a key role on future international energy markets. Emerging economies are progressively laying the foundations for low-carbon development strategies that will depend on their national contexts and priorities. Investments in building and transport infrastructures are increasingly important in all those countries, creating the conditions today for tomorrow's low-carbon economic development. China recently made important resolutions in the framework of its 12. Five-Year Plan, decoupling economic growth from GHG emissions. India has developed eight 'National Missions' on climate change and is now exploring future low-carbon strategies. And Brazil is affirming its position internationally, pushing for innovative 'green growth' concepts, within the framework of the Rio+20 Conference. All countries have already implemented several energy and climate policies and plan to develop them further, through innovative policy institutions and instruments. They are switching progressively from command- and-control to economic instruments. In particular, market-based mechanisms are increasingly used in all countries: mandatory pilot Emission Trading Systems (ETS) in China

  3. Dark clouds in particle physics and cosmology: the issues of dark matter and dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xinmin

    2011-01-01

    Unveiling the nature of dark matter and dark energy is one of the main tasks of particle physics and cosmology in the 21st century. We first present an overview of the history and current status of research in cosmology, at the same time emphasizing the new challenges in particle physics. Then we focus on the scientific issues of dark energy, dark matter and anti-matter, and review the recent progress made in these fields. Finally, we discuss the prospects for future research on the experimental probing of dark matter and dark energy in China. (authors)

  4. Marine renewable energy in China: Current status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-liang Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a general review of marine renewable energy in China, an assessment of the development status and amount of various marine renewable energy resources, including tidal energy, tidal current energy, wave energy, ocean thermal energy, and salinity gradient energy in China's coastal seas, such as the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea, and the South China Sea, is presented. We have found that these kinds of marine renewable energy resources will play an important role in meeting China's future energy needs. Additionally, considering the uneven distribution of China's marine renewable energy and the influences of its exploitation on the environment, we have suggested several sites with great potential for each kind of marine energy. Furthermore, perspectives on and challenges related with marine renewable energy in China are addressed.

  5. Nuclear energy in Lithuania: Its role, efficiency and safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskinis, V.; Galinis, A.; Streimikiene, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the present status of the Lithuanian economy and the power sector as well as problems related to further operation of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (Ignalina NPP) which plays a crucial role in the Lithuanian energy sector. Recent studies have validated that it is economical to keep the Ignalina NPP in operation as long as it is possible and the necessary licenses can be obtained. However, its safe operation remains a very important issue determining its lifetime. Development of an infrastructure and activities necessary for safe and reliable operation of the plant are also very important. (author)

  6. Chernobyl, Three Mile Island and beyond: Lessons for Ontario? Current issue paper 117

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeager, K L

    1991-03-01

    This current issue paper reviews major accidents which have occurred at commercial and military nuclear facilities, and provides basic background on nuclear power and reactor design features to assist the novice in understanding the very complex technical issues surrounding these events. Above all, the role of human factors in the prevention of potential accident situations is emphasized. (author).

  7. Chernobyl, Three Mile Island and beyond: Lessons for Ontario? Current issue paper 117

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeager, K.L.

    1991-03-01

    This current issue paper reviews major accidents which have occurred at commercial and military nuclear facilities, and provides basic background on nuclear power and reactor design features to assist the novice in understanding the very complex technical issues surrounding these events. Above all, the role of human factors in the prevention of potential accident situations is emphasized. (author)

  8. Current and Emerging Ethical Issues in Counseling: A Delphi Study of Expert Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Barbara; Dufrene, Roxane L.

    2011-01-01

    A Delphi study was conducted to ascertain the opinions of panel experts regarding the most important current and emerging ethical issues facing the counseling profession. Expert opinions on ethical issues in counselor preparation also were sought. Eighteen panelists responded to 3 rounds of data collection interspersed with feedback. Themes that…

  9. Study on fusion energy conformity with global environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Kenichi

    1998-01-01

    Global environmental conformity has been one of the most important issues discussed recently as being required for all human activities. From this point of view, this report investigates whether nuclear fusion can be a benign energy source for the global environment. First of all, we chose the following global environmental problems: (1) Global warming, (2) Acid rain, (3) Ozonosphere destruction, (4) Air pollution, (5) Environmental hormones, (6) Radiation and radioactive materials, (7) Electromagnetic waves, and (8) Heat drainage from an energy source. Secondly, these problems were fully surveyed in terms of their relationships with proposed nuclear fusion power plant. Finally, as a result of this discussion, it was confirmed that a fusion power plant would not produce any new problems, but would partially contribute to solving some of the environmental problems. (author)

  10. Licensing and Environmental Issues of Wave Energy Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Frank; Tedd, James; Prado, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    a special standing or facilitated access to operating licenses due to their experimental character, the move of wave energy projects towards commercial applications implies complex procedures for obtaining licenses both with respect to the construction and deployment and operation phases, as well......The major non-technical barrier for large-scale wave energy implementation is the wide range of licensing issues and potential environmental concerns, in addition to significant National/regional differences in licensing procedures and permit requirements. Whereas some pilot plants have had...... as concerning ocean space use and environmental concerns. Despite recent efforts to streamline European EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) in general, potential project developers are far from having a clear view of present and future requirements concerning these barriers on a trans-national level...

  11. Energy Audit Practices in China: National and Local Experiences and Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo; Price, Lynn; Lu, Hongyou

    2010-12-21

    China has set an ambitious goal of reducing its energy use per unit of GDP by 20% between 2006 and 2010. Since the industrial sector consumes about two-thirds of China's primary energy, many of the country's efforts are focused on improving the energy efficiency of this sector. Industrial energy audits have become an important part of China's efforts to improve its energy intensity. In China, industrial energy audits have been employed to help enterprises indentify energy-efficiency improvement opportunities for achieving the energy-saving targets. These audits also serve as a mean to collect critical energy-consuming information necessary for governments at different levels to supervise enterprises energy use and evaluate their energy performance. To better understand how energy audits are carried out in China as well as their impacts on achieving China's energy-saving target, researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted an in-depth study that combines a review of China's national policies and guidelines on energy auditing and a series of discussions with a variety of Chinese institutions involved in energy audits. This report consists of four parts. First, it provides a historical overview of energy auditing in China over the past decades, describing how and why energy audits have been conducted during various periods. Next, the report reviews current energy auditing practices at both the national and regional levels. It then discusses some of the key issues related to energy audits conducted in China, which underscore the need for improvement. The report concludes with policy recommendations for China that draw upon international best practices and aim to remove barriers to maximizing the potential of energy audits.

  12. Water-Energy-Food Nexus: Compelling Issues for Geophysical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhbari, M.; Grigg, N. S.; Waskom, R.

    2014-12-01

    The joint security of water, food, and energy systems is an urgent issue everywhere, and strong drivers of development and land use change, exacerbated by climate change, require new knowledge to achieve integrated solution using a nexus-based approach to assess inter-dependencies. Effective research-based decision support tools are essential to identify the major issues and interconnections to help in implementation of the nexus approach. The major needs are models and data to clearly and unambiguously present decision scenarios to local cooperative groups of farmers, electric energy generators and water officials for joint decisions. These can be developed by integrated models to link hydrology, land use, energy use, cropping simulation, and optimization with economic objectives and socio-physical constraints. The first step in modeling is to have a good conceptual model and then to get data. As the linking of models increases uncertainties, each one should be supplied with adequate data at suitable spatial and temporal resolutions. Most models are supplied with data by geophysical scientists, such as hydrologists, geologists, atmospheric scientists, soil scientists, and climatologists, among others. Outcomes of a recently-completed project to study the water-energy-food nexus will be explained to illuminate the model and data needs to inform future management actions across the nexus. The project included a workshop of experts from government, business, academia, and the non-profit sector who met to define and explain nexus interactions and needs. An example of the findings is that data inconsistencies among sectors create barriers to integrated planning. A nexus-based systems model is needed to outline sectoral inter-dependencies and identify data demands and gaps. Geophysical scientists can help to create this model and take leadership on designing data systems to facilitate sharing and enable integrated management.

  13. Energy considerations concerning current loops and magnetic objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fluitman, J.H.J.

    1980-01-01

    In the thermodynamics of compound magnetic systems there is an ambiguity in defining the free energies connected to the constituent parts or subsystems. It is argued that the choice, usually made in defining the energy of a magnetized body, leads to an expression for the energy of a current loop or

  14. High-current pulses from inductive energy stores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wipf, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    Superconducting inductive energy stores can be used for high power pulse supplies if a suitable current multiplication scheme is used. The concept of an inductive Marx generator is superior to a transformer. A third scheme, a variable flux linkage device, is suggested; in multiplying current it also compresses energy. Its function is in many ways analogous to that of a horsewhip. Superconductor limits indicate that peak power levels of TW can be reached for stored energies above 1 MJ

  15. Environmental issues in planning building energy efficiency R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhar, B.C.

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Building Technologies (OBT) has initiated analyses on the relationship and impact of buildings energy conservation on the environment. A plethora of activities involving DOE, its national laboratories and other organizations are addressing various aspects of global climate change, acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion, and indoor air quality. Elements of the current task include (1) a literature review of buildings' contribution to these problems; (2) inventories of OBT studies directly and indirectly related to these environmental problems, and other germane DOE and non-DOE projects; (3) identifying OBT projects that should be done; and (4) analyzing differential impacts on the environment of alternative OBT planning strategies and varying National Energy Strategy scenarios. The success of this project relies, at least in part, on suggestions from the buildings research community on information sources, literature, and ideas that OBT should consider

  16. The energy issue in debate. Energy: answers to questions one does not dare to ask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-08-01

    This publication first outlines four main issues which should govern the definition of alternate propositions regarding the energy policy: energy is a vital need; access to energy is unequal for the world population; energy resources are being depleted; energy plays an important part in the equilibrium of our environment. Then, after having noticed that transports are responsible for the main part of greenhouse gas emissions, it discusses different energetic scenarios: business as usual (or heading for disaster), to respond to the ecological demand (to choose between nuclear plants and wind farms), a management of demand and of negative growth, a choice between energy markets and energy public services. Some objectives are defined: to reduce as quickly as possible the use of non-renewable energies, to promote energy saving and rational collective and individual choices, a better management of fossil energies while respecting the first objective, the right for an energetic independence based on the use of renewable energies for all countries, and to promote a European policy with technology transfer to and solidarity with developing countries. The article concludes by outlining the main objective (to safeguard the planet) while taking global, economic, geopolitical and ecological issues into account

  17. Current Work in Energy Analysis (Energy Analysis Program -1996 Annual Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy Analysis Program

    1998-03-01

    This report describes the work that Environmental Energy Technologies Division of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been doing most recently. One of our proudest accomplishments is the publication of Scenarios of U.S. Carbon Reductions, an analysis of the potential of energy technologies to reduce carbon emissions in the U.S. This analysis played a key role in shaping the U.S. position on climate change in the Kyoto Protocol negotiations. Our participation in the fundamental characterization of the climate change issue by the IPCC is described. We are also especially proud of our study of ''leaking electricity,'' which is stimulating an international campaign for a one-watt ceiling for standby electricity losses from appliances. This ceiling has the potential to save two-thirds of the 5% of U.S. residential electricity currently expended on standby losses. The 54 vignettes contained in the following pages summarize results of research. activities ranging in scale from calculating the efficacy of individual lamp ballasts to estimating the cost-effectiveness of the national ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} labeling program, and ranging in location from a scoping study of energy-efficiency market transformation in California to development of an energy-efficiency project in the auto parts industry in Shandong Province, China. These are the intellectual endeavors of a talented team of researchers dedicated to public service.

  18. The globalization of energy activities: what are the issues?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percebois, J.

    2001-01-01

    Globalization in many sectors such as information, research and development, finance, technology, etc. led to the implementation of transnational networks to facilitate decision-making. The result is that governments are left to regulation functions. This globalization also led to a larger gap between North and South. Developing countries represent 80 per cent of world population, yet only produce less than 33 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP). In the energy sector, developing countries have limited access to energy and use it less efficiently, since they do not master the latest technologies. States must retain their power to regulate this sector to ensure competition takes place in a fair environment within specified guidelines. Licenses must be issued through bidding or auctioned off, but in every case the State must ensure that commitments are met. It must also ensure that pricing is fair. Access for third parties to the power distribution system must be adequate, especially when the company operates in a monopoly environment. The State ends up managing a new category of risks (called major risks) that the private sector is not willing to consider, for example global warming or the management of nuclear waste. Confidence in market mechanisms is limited. Energy exchanges and others represent an economic growth factor and a potential guarantee for world peace. Who is responsible for the social costs associated with economic growth, and what are the solutions? A major issue left to decision-makers is the sharing of wealth within humankind and nations, and the State has a vital role to play. 5 refs., 5 tabs

  19. Energy policy and alternative energy in Malaysia: Issues and challenges for sustainable growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Tick Hui; Pang, Shen Yee; Chua, Shing Chyi

    2010-01-01

    Energy is essential to the way we live. Whether it is in the form of oil, gasoline or electricity, a country's prosperity and welfare depends on having access to reliable and secure supplies of energy at affordable prices. However, it is also one of the benefits taken for granted by many people, knowing little about the impact of electricity on their lives. Having dependent mainly on oil and gas for half a century, Malaysia has started to realize the importance to adopt renewable energy in the energy mix and continuously reviewed its energy policy to ensure sustainable energy supply and security. This paper examines and discusses the intricacy of the existing and new energy policies, issues and challenges in Malaysia. The overall approach in addressing the energy issues and challenges will continue to focus on adequacy, quality, security and sustainability of both non-renewable and renewable energy supply in the country's development and the promotion and implementation of its energy efficiency programs. The recently launched National Green Technology Policy is also discussed. (author)

  20. Efficient energy utilization and environmental issues applied to power planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, Hector; Montero, Gisela; Perez, Carlos; Lambert, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    This document shows the importance of policies for electric energy savings and efficient energy utilization in power planning. The contributions of economic, social, and environmental items were evaluated according to their financial effects in the delay of investments, reduction of production costs and decrement of environmental emissions. The case study is Baja California, Mexico; this system has a unique primary source: geothermal energy. Whether analyzing the planning as usual or planning from the supply side, the forecast for 2005-2025 indicates that 4500 MW additional installed capacity will be required (3-times current capacity), representing an investment that will emit 12.7 Mton per year of CO 2 to the atmosphere and will cost US$2.8 billion. Systemic planning that incorporates polices of energy savings and efficiency allows the reduction of investments and pollutant emissions. For example, a reduction of 20% in the growth trend of the electricity consumption in the industrial customers would save US$10.4 billion over the next 20 years, with a potential reduction of 1.6 Mton/year of CO 2 . The increase in geothermal power generation is also attractive, and it can be combined with the reduction of use and energy losses of utilities, which would save US$13.5 billion and prevent the discharge of 8.5 Mton/year of CO 2 . - Highlights: → We contrast power planning methods for supply electricity for economy development. → Importance of policies for electricity savings and efficient use in power planning. → Systemic planning facilitates decision-making process for electricity optimization. → Supply-side planning will cause climb in prices and loss of energy self-sufficiency. → Power planning should be immersed in an environment of appropriate energy policies.

  1. Overview of safety and environmental issues for inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.; Brereton, S.J.; Tanaka, S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes safety and environmental issues of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE): inventories, effluents, maintenance, accident safety, waste management, and recycling. The fusion confinement approach among inertial and magnetic options affects how the fusion reaction is maintained and which materials surround the reaction chamber. The target fill technology has a major impact on the target factory tritium inventory. IFE fusion reaction chambers usually employ some means to protect the first structural wall from fusion pulses. This protective fluid or granular bed also moderates and absorbs most neutrons before they reach the first structural wall. Although the protective fluid activates, most candidate fluids have low activation hazard. Hands-on maintenance seems practical for the driver, target factory, and secondary coolant systems; remote maintenance is likely required for the reaction chamber, primary coolant, and vacuum exhaust cleanup systems. The driver and fuel target facility are well separated from the main reaction chamber

  2. Nuclear energy: Environmental issues at DOE's nuclear defense facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    GAO's review of nine Department of Energy defense facilities identified a number of significant environmental issues: (1) eight facilities have groundwater contaminated with radioactive and/or hazardous substances to high levels; (2) six facilities have soil contamination in unexpected areas, including offsite locations; (3) four facilities are not in full compliance with the Clean Water Act; and (4) all nine facilities are significantly changing their waste disposal practices to obtain a permit under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. GAO is recommending that DOE develop and overall groundwater and soil protection strategy that would provide a better perspective on the environmental risks and impacts associated with operating DOE's nuclear defense facilities. GAO also recommends that DOE allow outside independent inspections of the disposal practices used for any waste DOE self-regulates and revise its order governing the management of hazardous and mixed waste

  3. High energy density physics issues related to Future Circular Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N. A.; Burkart, F.; Schmidt, R.; Shutov, A.; Wollmann, D.; Piriz, A. R.

    2017-07-01

    A design study for a post-Large Hadron Collider accelerator named, Future Circular Collider (FCC), is being carried out by the International Scientific Community. A complete design report is expected to be ready by spring 2018. The FCC will accelerate two counter rotating beams of 50 TeV protons in a tunnel having a length (circumference) of 100 km. Each beam will be comprised of 10 600 proton bunches, with each bunch having an intensity of 1011 protons. The bunch length is of 0.5 ns, and two neighboring bunches are separated by 25 ns. Although there is an option for 5 ns bunch separation as well, in the present studies, we consider the former case only. The total energy stored in each FCC beam is about 8.5 GJ, which is equivalent to the kinetic energy of Airbus 380 (560 t) flying at a speed of 850 km/h. Machine protection is a very important issue while operating with such powerful beams. It is important to have an estimate of the damage caused to the equipment and accelerator components due to the accidental release of a partial or total beam at a given point. For this purpose, we carried out numerical simulations of full impact of one FCC beam on an extended solid copper target. These simulations have been done employing an energy deposition code, FLUKA, and a two-dimensional hydrodynamic code, BIG2, iteratively. This study shows that although the static range of a single FCC proton and its shower is about 1.5 m in solid copper, the entire beam will penetrate around 350 m into the target. This substantial increase in the range is due to the hydrodynamic tunneling of the beam. Our calculations also show that a large part of the target will be converted into high energy density matter including warm dense matter and strongly coupled plasmas.

  4. Political-administrative approaches towards energy-environment issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degli Espinosa, P.

    1992-01-01

    A discussion is made of how Italian regional administrations could best approach the implementation of environmental strategies mirroring those proposed by the United Nations, especially those calling for a rapid reduction in carbon dioxide emissions to abate the risk of greenhouse gas induced climate change. Citing the current difficulties being had by the Italian national government in securing adequate funding to allow the fulfillment of already legislated and urgently needed energy conservation/environmental protection proposals, this paper calls for greater involvement and high level of social awareness on the part of regional governments. It is noted that, within the Italian context, the best approach towards the cost effective implementation of energy conservation/environmental protection strategies is to have a combined effort, involving municipally run power and gas utilities and transport departments acting together with concerned citizens, under the direct management of regional administrations

  5. Environmental and energy issues in an open economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyungsoo

    The environmental and energy consequences of globalization have become an important topic of debate. My dissertation examines the interaction between environmental and energy issues and international trade. Specifically, I investigate environmental regulations and policy in an open economy. In the first chapter, I analyze how an environmental tax on pollution from consumption affects trade flows and welfare in an open economy. In particular, I argue that the effect of an environmental tax on the direction of trade flows depends on who is directly burdened by the regulation (consumers or producers) regardless of who is the polluter. In the case of pollution generated by consumers, a tax on consumers who are the polluters tends to increase exports and reduce imports of dirty goods. This result is the opposite of the well-known effect arising from taxes on pollution-intensive industries. Stringent environmental regulations on pollution-intensive industries diminishes exports and increases imports of dirty industries. In terms of welfare, I show the importance of targeting the policy instrument to the correct source of pollution. Assuming pollution is caused by the consumption of a good, a production tax has a weak effect on increasing welfare through reducing pollution. Furthermore, welfare can fall if the production tax ratio is too high, leading to reduced national income. The second chapter is motivated by recent trends in the U.S. economy: increasing imports from China, decreasing energy consumption, and increasing output. There are two primary theoretical approaches related to the relationship between energy use in U.S. manufacturing and increasing imports from China: Heckscher-Ohlin (H-O) trade theory and the Pollution Haven Hypothesis (PHH). These two frameworks generate opposite predictions about the relationship between these trends. H-O theory suggests that with increased Chinese import penetration, U.S. manufacturing should move toward more energy

  6. Current status and some aspects of the future energy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antic, D. P.; Sokcic-Kostic, M. S. . E-mail address of corresponding author: dragon@vin.bg.ac.yu; Antic, D.)

    2005-01-01

    Current status of the energy production and of the energy sources in the world, European Union, Serbia and Montenegro and the Balkan states is analyzed. Some trends in the energy consumption and productions in some European states are analyzed. Some problems of the Serbia and Montenegro energy production system are compared with situation in neighbor states, Germany, and European Union. At present, anywhere in the world, the nuclear power in on the defensive. In some countries it has been even outlawed. Some parameters show that nuclear power, on the global scale and during this century at least, is absolutely essential and reasons for revival of nuclear energy are realistic. (author)

  7. Information Technology in New Zealand: Review of Emerging Social Trends, Current Issues, and Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Erturk, Emre; Fail, Derwyn

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the general state of information technology in New Zealand society, current issues, and policies. It is a qualitative study that reviews recent scholarly articles, periodicals, and surveys in order to create an understanding of some of the information technology issues and trends in New Zealand. After reviewing previous research, it assesses the potential existence and nature of a 'digital divide' in New Zealand society whilst also evaluating possible strategic responses ...

  8. Proceedings of the Hydrokinetic and Wave Energy Technologies Technical and Environmental Issues Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-03-01

    Renewable energy technologies offer the promise of non-polluting alternatives to fossil and nuclear-fueled power plants to meet growing demand for electrical energy. Two emerging categories of renewable energy technologies, hydrokinetic and wave energy conversion devices, offer ways to tap the energy of moving water without impoundment (dams) or diversion required by many conventional hydroelectric facilities. These technologies include devices designed for deployment in natural streams, tidal estuaries, ocean currents, and constructed waterways, as well as devices designed to capture the energy of ocean waves. On October 26-28, 2005, 54 representatives from government, non-governmental organizations, and private business met to (1) identify the varieties of hydrokinetic energy and wave technology devices, their stages of development, and the projected cost to bring each to market; (2) identify where these technologies can best operate; (3) identify the potential environmental issues associated with these technologies and possible mitigation measures; (4) develop a list of research needs and/or practical solutions to address unresolved environmental issues. These workshop proceedings include detailed summaries of the 24 presentations made and the discussions that followed.

  9. Nuclear and energy. Special issue on the Fukushima power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This issue analyses the first consequences of the Fukushima accident at the world level, i.e. impacts which are either already noticeable or predictable. A first article proposes a portrait of Japan (its historical relationship with nature, the cultural education, the role of its bureaucracy, the Japanese business and political worlds) and evokes the nuclear safety organization at the institutional level. It also evokes the different companies involved in nuclear energy production. The second article discusses and comments the environmental and radiological impact of the accident (protection of the inhabitants, environment monitoring, comparison with Chernobyl, main steps of degradation of the reactors, releases in the sea, total release assessment, soil contamination, food contamination, radiation protection). A third article discusses the international impact, notably for the existing or projected power plants in different countries, in terms of public opinion, and with respect to negotiations on climate. The fourth article discusses the reactions of different countries possessing nuclear reactors. The last article questions the replacement of the lost production (that of Fukushima and maybe another power plant) by renewable energies

  10. Some critical environmental issues of the energy discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Richard

    2001-01-01

    There are two complementary approaches to studying the environmental effects of fuel use and energy conversion. The first is to be completely systematic and to follow through each technology in great detail, and itemise each impact, whether large or small. The second, followed here, is to pick out those items that either dominate the risk or impact, or dominate the public perception therefore, and try to understand them in some detail. I pick the following that I believe are the most important environmental issues today: 1 What is the effect of particulate air pollution on today's levels? 2 What is the probability that carbon dioxide emissions will cause global warming? 3 Can we use this energy source in a sustainable fashion over several millennia? I will spend much of the space on a discussion of these three. However, there are a number of other items that some group or another think are important. They must also be considered to sufficient extent to persuade everyone involved that indeed they are less important. These include: 4 What is the probability and effect of a severe nuclear power accident? 5 Why is there public concern about nuclear waste although it is not justified by the calculations? 6 Why are hydroelectric dams not as universally popular as they were? 7 Can we avoid the proliferation of bombs using plutonium if we have a nuclear power program? 8 Can we reduce the cost of electricity from nuclear power to what is was 25 years ago? (Author)

  11. Overview of Variable Renewable Energy Regulatory Issues: A Clean Energy Regulators Initiative Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.; Cox, S.

    2014-05-01

    This CERI report aims to provide an introductory overview of key regulatory issues associated with the deployment of renewable energy -- particularly variable renewable energy (VRE) sources such wind and solar power. The report draws upon the research and experiences from various international contexts, and identifies key ideas that have emerged from the growing body of VRE deployment experience and regulatory knowledge. The report assumes basic familiarity with regulatory concepts, and although it is not written for a technical audience, directs the reader to further reading when available. VRE deployment generates various regulatory issues: substantive, procedural, and public interest issues, and the report aims to provide an empirical and technical grounding for all three types of questions as appropriate.

  12. Evolving the Nation's Energy Infrastructure: A Challenging System Issue for the Twenty-First Century; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, B.

    2007-04-01

    Over the next several decades, a profound transformation of the global energy enterprise will occur driven largely by population growth and economic development. How this growing demand for energy is met poses one of the most complex and challenging issues of our time. The current national energy dialogue reflects the challenge in simultaneously considering the social, political, economic, and technical issues as the energy system is defined, technical targets are established, and programs and investments are implemented to meet those technical targets. This paper examines the general concepts and options for meeting this challenge.

  13. Analysis of the Current Technical Issues on ASME Code and Standard for Nuclear Mechanical Design(2009)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Lee, B. S.; Yoo, S. H.

    2009-11-01

    This report describes the analysis on the current revision movement related to the mechanical design issues of the U.S ASME nuclear code and standard. ASME nuclear mechanical design in this report is composed of the nuclear material, primary system, secondary system and high temperature reactor. This report includes the countermeasures based on the ASME Code meeting for current issues of each major field. KAMC(ASME Mirror Committee) of this project is willing to reflect a standpoint of the domestic nuclear industry on ASME nuclear mechanical design and play a technical bridge role for the domestic nuclear industry in ASME Codes application

  14. Report on the Current Technical Issues on ASME Nuclear Code and Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Lee, B. S.; Yoo, S. H.

    2008-11-01

    This report describes the analysis on the current revision movement related to the mechanical design issues of the U.S ASME nuclear code and standard. ASME nuclear mechanical design in this report is composed of the nuclear material, primary system, secondary system and high temperature reactor. This report includes the countermeasures based on the ASME Code meeting for current issues of each major field. KAMC(ASME Mirror Committee) of this project is willing to reflect a standpoint of the domestic nuclear industry on ASME nuclear mechanical design and play a technical bridge role for the domestic nuclear industry in ASME Codes application

  15. Analysis of the Current Technical Issues on ASME Code and Standard for Nuclear Mechanical Design(2009)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Lee, B. S.; Yoo, S. H.

    2009-11-15

    This report describes the analysis on the current revision movement related to the mechanical design issues of the U.S ASME nuclear code and standard. ASME nuclear mechanical design in this report is composed of the nuclear material, primary system, secondary system and high temperature reactor. This report includes the countermeasures based on the ASME Code meeting for current issues of each major field. KAMC(ASME Mirror Committee) of this project is willing to reflect a standpoint of the domestic nuclear industry on ASME nuclear mechanical design and play a technical bridge role for the domestic nuclear industry in ASME Codes application

  16. Energy of magnetic moment of superconducting current in magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurtovoi, V.L.; Nikulov, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Quantization effects observed in superconducting loops are considered. • The energy of magnetic moment in magnetic field can not be deduced from Hamiltonian. • This energy is deduced from a history of the current state in the classical case. • It can not be deduced directly in the quantum case. • Taking this energy into account demolishes agreement between theory and experiment. - Abstract: The energy of magnetic moment of the persistent current circulating in superconducting loop in an externally produced magnetic field is not taken into account in the theory of quantization effects because of identification of the Hamiltonian with the energy. This identification misleads if, in accordance with the conservation law, the energy of a state is the energy expended for its creation. The energy of magnetic moment is deduced from a creation history of the current state in magnetic field both in the classical and quantum case. But taking this energy into account demolishes the agreement between theory and experiment. Impartial consideration of this problem discovers the contradiction both in theory and experiment

  17. Dissipation of magnetic energy during disruptive current termination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Schmidt, G.L.

    1983-09-01

    The magnetic coupling during a disruption between the plasma and the various coil systems on the PDX tokamak has been modeled. Using measured coil currents, the model indicates that dissipation of magnetic energy in the plasma equal to 75 % of the energy stored in the poloidal field of the plasma current does occur and that coupling between the plasma and the coil systems can reduce such dissipation. In the case of PDX ohmic discharges, bolometric measurements of radiation and charge exchange, integrated over a disruption, account for 90 % of the calculated energy dissipation. (author)

  18. CALL FOR PAPERS: Special issue on Current Trends in Integrability and Nonlinear Phenomena Special issue on Current Trends in Integrability and Nonlinear Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ullate, D.; Lombardo, S.; Mañas, M.; Mazzocco, M.; Nijhoff, F.; Sommacal, M.

    2009-12-01

    may be found at www.iop.org/Journals/jphysa. Contributions to the special issue should if possible be submitted electronically by web upload at www.iop.org/Journals/jphysa, or by email to jphysa@iop.org, quoting 'JPhysA Special Issue: Current Trends in Integrability and Nonlinear Phenomena' Submissions should ideally be in standard LaTeX form. Please see the website for further information on electronic submissions. Authors unable to submit electronically may send hard-copy contributions to: Publishing Administrators, Journal of Physics A, IOP Publishing, Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Please quote 'JPhysA Special Issue—Current Trends in Integrability and Nonlinear Phenomena'. All contributions should be accompanied by a read-me file or covering letter giving the postal and e-mail addresses for correspondence. The Publishing Office should be notified of any subsequent change of address. This special issue will be published in the paper and online version of the journal.

  19. Current energy situation affecting national economy, security, and psyche

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blundell, H.; Culbreath, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear energy should be perceived by Americans as the energy option that can fill the gap left by petroleum shortages. Opposition to nuclear power symbolizes a drive to slow economic growth and return to a decentralized society, but it overlooks the implications that not going nuclear will have for the economy and national security. The General Accounting Office plotted the consequences for three scenarios and concluded that only nuclear power can provide enough domestic energy to meet projected electrical needs. The impact of higher energy prices that will follow energy-supply shortages will result in social change and in a decline in national security. The issues of import dependence, proliferation, economic competition, and morality are not valid reasons to forego nuclear development because the connections are not valid

  20. Key figures of energy in Brittany. Issue 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, Ronan; Briot, Vincent; Dusuzeau, Jean-Jacques

    2015-04-01

    This publication presents and comments maps, graphs and tables of data related to energy in Brittany. More precisely, it addresses the following topics: regional energy assessment for 2013, final energy consumption, consuming sectors (building, transports, industry, agriculture and fishery), regional energy production, renewable energy production (global assessment, ground-based wind energy, wood, household waste incineration plants, bio-gas, photovoltaic solar energy, thermal solar energy, marine energies, hydroelectricity), energy supply, transport and distribution, heat networks, electricity, natural gas, energy-related CO 2 emissions

  1. The Current Situation of Wind Energy in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raşit Ata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy applications and turbine installations at different scales have increased since the beginning of this century. As wind energy is an alternative clean energy source compared to the fossil fuels that pollute the atmosphere, systems that convert wind energy to electricity have developed rapidly. Turkey’s domestic fossil fuel resources are extremely limited. In addition, Turkey’s geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of wind power. In this context, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Among the renewable sources, Turkey has very high wind energy potential. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD Turkey theoretically has 166 TWh a year of wind potential. However the installed wind power capacity is approximately 14% of total economical wind potential. In this study, Turkey’s installed electric power capacity and electric energy production are investigated and also the current situation of wind energy in Turkey is examined. The wind data used in this study were taken from Turkish Wind Energy Association (TUREB for the year 2012. This paper reviews the assessment of wind energy in Turkey as of the end of July 2012 including wind energy applications.

  2. Overview of current energy-efficiency policies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Nan; Levine, Mark D.; Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    From 1970 to 2001, China was able to significantly limit energy demand growth through aggressive energy-efficiency programs. Energy use per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) declined by approximately 5% per year during this period. However, the period 2002-2005 saw energy use per unit of GDP increase an average of 3.8% per year. To stem this out-of-control growth in energy demand, in November 2005 the Chinese government enunciated a mandatory goal of 20% reduction of energy intensity between 2006 and 2010. The National People's Congress passed legislation identifying the National Reform and Development Commission as the lead agency to design and carry out programs in support of this goal. These policies and programs, created after almost a decade of decline of the energy-efficiency policy apparatus, have had considerable impact. Although initial efforts have not been sufficient to meet the annual declines required to reach the ambitious 20% energy intensity target, the latest reports indicate that China may now be on track to meet this goal. The paper provides an assessment of these policies and programs to begin to understand issues that will play a critical role in China's energy and economic future. Activities undertaken in China will have a significant influence on the global effort to reduce the growth, and later the absolute quantity, of greenhouse gas emissions.

  3. Implementation issues on the design of current loops based on resonant regulators for isolated microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, de Bosio; Pastorelli, Michele; Antonio DeSouza Ribeiro, Luiz

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of state feedback coupling between the capacitor voltage and inductor current in voltage source inverters (VSI) operating in stand-alone microgrids. A decoupling technique is proposed as an effective measure to enhance the dynamics. Further implementation issues ...

  4. A Study of Current Trends and Issues Related to Technical/Engineering Design Graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Aaron C.; Scales Alice

    2000-01-01

    Presents results from a survey of engineering design graphics educators who responded to questions related to current trends and issues in the profession of graphics education. Concludes that there is a clear trend in institutions towards the teaching of constraint-based modeling and computer-aided manufacturing. (Author/YDS)

  5. Assessment of BSBA Students' Conversancy in Current Business Issues: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Eileen A.; Maskulka, Therese A.; Kaminski, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the faculty of the College of Business at Kutztown University developed a set of five learning goals for its BSBA program. In fall, 2011, the college's Assurance of Learning Committee began to pursue the assessment of the last of these goals: "BSBA graduates will be conversant in current business issues, including ethics, social…

  6. Interpersonal Relationships, Motivation, Engagement, and Achievement: Yields for Theory, Current Issues, and Educational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Dowson, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this review, we scope the role of interpersonal relationships in students' academic motivation, engagement, and achievement. We argue that achievement motivation theory, current issues, and educational practice can be conceptualized in relational terms. Influential theorizing, including attribution theory, expectancy-value theory, goal theory,…

  7. Perspective on the current realities confronting Canadian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oulton, D.

    1993-01-01

    The importance of the Canadian energy sector is indicated by the large proportion of energy investments in the economy, the significant contribution of energy exports to total exports, the major role of the energy sector in Canada's regional economies, the high per-capita energy consumption, and the high contribution of fossil fuels to Canadian greenhouse gas emissions. The history of Canadian energy policy is characterized by three relatively distinct periods: a period of strong growth and development in the energy sector starting in the late 1940s, a crisis management period starting with the oil crises in the 1970s, and a market orientation in the early 1980s which reduced the role of government in the energy sector. Energy policy has generally focused on two main themes: assuring access to competitively priced energy supplies, and ensuring maximum economic benefit from energy developments. A third theme, environmental responsibility, has emerged since the late 1980s. Current pressures on Canadian energy policies include the increasing integration of energy markets in North America, the influence of international conditions on energy prices, and environmental quality concerns relating to the costs and uncertainties of environmental assessment, climate change, and sustainable development. Further constraints and influences on energy policy come from multilateral agreements with other countries and international agencies, and the need for cooperation among the different levels of Canadian governments. Economic regulation has fallen out of favor with most governments, industry, and the public, and the increased use of regulation to pursue environmental goals in the energy sector seems likely to continue

  8. Implementation Issues of Adaptive Energy Detection in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobron, Iker; Eizmendi, Iñaki; Martins, Wallace A.; Diniz, Paulo S. R.; Ordiales, Juan Luis; Velez, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Spectrum sensing (SS) enables the coexistence of non-coordinated heterogeneous wireless systems operating in the same band. Due to its computational simplicity, energy detection (ED) technique has been widespread employed in SS applications; nonetheless, the conventional ED may be unreliable under environmental impairments, justifying the use of ED-based variants. Assessing ED algorithms from theoretical and simulation viewpoints relies on several assumptions and simplifications which, eventually, lead to conclusions that do not necessarily meet the requirements imposed by real propagation environments. This work addresses those problems by dealing with practical implementation issues of adaptive least mean square (LMS)-based ED algorithms. The paper proposes a new adaptive ED algorithm that uses a variable step-size guaranteeing the LMS convergence in time-varying environments. Several implementation guidelines are provided and, additionally, an empirical assessment and validation with a software defined radio-based hardware is carried out. Experimental results show good performance in terms of probabilities of detection (Pd>0.9) and false alarm (Pf∼0.05) in a range of low signal-to-noise ratios around [-4,1] dB, in both single-node and cooperative modes. The proposed sensing methodology enables a seamless monitoring of the radio electromagnetic spectrum in order to provide band occupancy information for an efficient usage among several wireless communications systems. PMID:28441751

  9. Rotating gravity currents. Part 1. Energy loss theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. R.; Lane-Serff, G. F.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive energy loss theory for gravity currents in rotating rectangular channels is presented. The model is an extension of the non-rotating energy loss theory of Benjamin (J. Fluid Mech. vol. 31, 1968, p. 209) and the steady-state dissipationless theory of rotating gravity currents of Hacker (PhD thesis, 1996). The theory assumes the fluid is inviscid, there is no shear within the current, and the Boussinesq approximation is made. Dissipation is introduced using a simple method. A head loss term is introduced into the Bernoulli equation and it is assumed that the energy loss is uniform across the stream. Conservation of momentum, volume flux and potential vorticity between upstream and downstream locations is then considered. By allowing for energy dissipation, results are obtained for channels of arbitrary depth and width (relative to the current). The results match those from earlier workers in the two limits of (i) zero rotation (but including dissipation) and (ii) zero dissipation (but including rotation). Three types of flow are identified as the effect of rotation increases, characterized in terms of the location of the outcropping interface between the gravity current and the ambient fluid on the channel boundaries. The parameters for transitions between these cases are quantified, as is the detailed behaviour of the flow in all cases. In particular, the speed of the current can be predicted for any given channel depth and width. As the channel depth increases, the predicted Froude number tends to surd 2, as for non-rotating flows.

  10. Energy Security of Russia and the EU: Current Legal Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seliverstov, S.

    2009-07-01

    Security of energy supply is a cornerstone of European energy policy. It receives specific mention both in the Constitution Treaty and in the Lisbon Treaty. Of course, energy and energy-generated revenues are vital for Russia as well. It is a common understanding that Russia and the EU are extremely interdependent in terms of energy. On the one hand, Russia is the strategic energy supplier to the EU as a whole; for some member states Russian supplies represent the only source of the external energy flows. On the other hand, the revenues generated from the west-bound supplies of oil and gas constitute a significant share of the overall export income and of the budget of Russian Federation. Taking the interdependency as a point of departure the present article answers the following questions: What are the differences and the similarities in the European and the Russian approaches towards security of energy supply? Is their understanding of energy security so different? What are the current legal instruments guiding interaction in this sphere? What are the actual trends that could give some indication of how the situation may develop in the future? - While the concepts of 'security of energy supplies' or of 'energy security' are theoretical in nature, the ways the concepts are understood and the legal framework for them directly influences the way they are applied in practice. (author)

  11. Energy Security of Russia and the EU: Current Legal Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seliverstov, S.

    2009-01-01

    Security of energy supply is a cornerstone of European energy policy. It receives specific mention both in the Constitution Treaty and in the Lisbon Treaty. Of course, energy and energy-generated revenues are vital for Russia as well. It is a common understanding that Russia and the EU are extremely interdependent in terms of energy. On the one hand, Russia is the strategic energy supplier to the EU as a whole; for some member states Russian supplies represent the only source of the external energy flows. On the other hand, the revenues generated from the west-bound supplies of oil and gas constitute a significant share of the overall export income and of the budget of Russian Federation. Taking the interdependency as a point of departure the present article answers the following questions: What are the differences and the similarities in the European and the Russian approaches towards security of energy supply? Is their understanding of energy security so different? What are the current legal instruments guiding interaction in this sphere? What are the actual trends that could give some indication of how the situation may develop in the future? - While the concepts of 'security of energy supplies' or of 'energy security' are theoretical in nature, the ways the concepts are understood and the legal framework for them directly influences the way they are applied in practice. (author)

  12. Current and potential utilisation of biomass energy in Fiji

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, S.

    1990-01-01

    Energy from biomass accounts for an average of 43% of the primary energy used in developing countries, with some countries totally dependent on biomass for all their energy needs. The most common use for biomass for energy is the provision of heat for cooking and heating; other uses include steam and electricity generation and crop and food drying. Fiji, a developing country, uses energy from wood and coconut wastes for cooking and copra drying. Bagasse from sugar mills is used to generate process steam as well as some 15 MW of electricity, for mill consumption and for sale to the national grid. Other, relatively small scale uses for biomass include the generation of steam and electricity for industry. This paper attempts to quantify the amount of biomass, in its various forms, available in Fiji and assesses the current potential utilisation of biomass for energy in Fiji. (author)

  13. Renewable energy sources in Bulgaria: Current state and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolev, K.

    The over-dependency of Bulgaria on imported fuel stressed the importance of developing a new energy strategy based on energy saving which includes also using renewable energy sources (RES). The target is the substitution of at least 2 percent of the real primary energy consumption with RES by 2010. The author gives a generalized analysis of the available RES in Bulgaria -solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and mini-hydraulic. The potentialities of each source for its usage as a suitable energy supply are pointed out, as well as the current status of research and implementation work, problems connected with legislation, financing and production of particular facilities. The governmental policy concerning RES is considered briefly. A description is given to the project 'Technical and Economical Assessment of Possibilities for Expansion of the RES-part in the Energy Balance of the Country' developed and started in 1994 in the framework of the PHARE program.

  14. Method and device for current driven electric energy conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Device comprising an electric power converter circuit for converting electric energy. The converter circuit comprises a switch arrangement with two or more controllable electric switches connected in a switching configuration and controlled so as to provide a current drive of electric energy from...... configurations such as half bridge buck, full bridge buck, half bridge boost, or full bridge boost. A current driven conversion is advantageous for high efficient energy conversion from current sources such as solar cells or where a voltage source is connected through long cables, e.g. powerline cables for long...... an associated electric source connected to a set of input terminals. This is obtained by the two or more electric swiches being connected and controlled to short-circuit the input terminals during a part of a switching period. Further, a low pass filter with a capacitor and an inductor are provided to low pass...

  15. Regional growth and energy supply: Is there an energy security issue?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, J.M.; Freund, K.A.; Godoy-Kain, P.; Gu, A.Y.; Johnson, A.K.; Paananen, O.H.; Woodruff, M.G.

    1996-12-01

    This study examines how the growth of the developing world might affect energy markets in the future. Based on recent growth trends, world energy demand could reasonably be expected to grow from about 350 Exajoules (EJ: 1.0E18=0.95 Quad) to nearly 1025 EJ by the year 2020, nearly 3x current consumption estimates. Introduction of more energy-efficient technologies could reduce this growth by about 17% to 830 EJ. But one cannot rely exclusively on current trends to forecast future energy demand. The growth of the developing world will interact with supply to affect prices, which in turn will mitigate the growth of demand, and growth rates of energy use will be much more modes. Under the Business as Usual scenario, energy demand will grow to 835 EJ by 2020, and this could be reduced a further 15% to 714 EJ through the adoption of more energy efficient technologies. Fuel prices based on model results are analyzed. Energy security implications of rapid growth in the developing world are considered and found to be of likely little significance.

  16. Thermal energy and charge currents in multi-terminal nanorings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Tobias [Novel Materials Group, Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum für Informationstechnik Berlin, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Kreisbeck, Christoph; Riha, Christian, E-mail: riha@physik.hu-berlin.de; Chiatti, Olivio; Buchholz, Sven S.; Fischer, Saskia F. [Novel Materials Group, Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Wieck, Andreas D. [Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Reuter, Dirk [Optoelektronische Materialien und Bauelemente, Universität Paderborn, 33098 Paderborn (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    We study in experiment and theory thermal energy and charge transfer close to the quantum limit in a ballistic nanodevice, consisting of multiply connected one-dimensional electron waveguides. The fabricated device is based on an AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure and is covered by a global top-gate to steer the thermal energy and charge transfer in the presence of a temperature gradient, which is established by a heating current. The estimate of the heat transfer by means of thermal noise measurements shows the device acting as a switch for charge and thermal energy transfer. The wave-packet simulations are based on the multi-terminal Landauer-Büttiker approach and confirm the experimental finding of a mode-dependent redistribution of the thermal energy current, if a scatterer breaks the device symmetry.

  17. Current Solutions: Recent Experience in Interconnecting Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.

    2003-09-01

    This report catalogues selected real-world technical experiences of utilities and customers that have interconnected distributed energy assets with the electric grid. This study was initiated to assess the actual technical practices for interconnecting distributed generation and had a particular focus on the technical issues covered under the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1547(TM) Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems.

  18. Farmers' current attitudes to energy forestry in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranter, R.B.; Carruthers, S.P.; Jones, P.J.; Miller, F.A.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the project were twofold: first, to assess the current level of interest in energy coppice among farmers in GB and, hence, its present potential as a farm enterprise; and, second, to gauge the effects of any changes in the agricultural situation and in the 'state-of-the-art' of energy coppice that have occurred since a similar study was carried out some five years ago. (Author)

  19. ULTRAHIGH ENERGY COSMIC RAYS: REVIEW OF THE CURRENT SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Stanev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the current situation of the data on the highest energy particles in the Universe – the ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. The new results in the field come from the Telescope Array experiment in Utah, U.S.A. For this reason we concentrate on the results from these experiments and compare them to the measurements of the other two recent experiments, the High Resolution Fly’sEye and the Southern Auger Observatory.

  20. On some Issues of the Energy Policy and Sustainable Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotsiridze, A.

    2003-01-01

    Some aspects of the energy resources world commerce problems are considered in the article. East-West and North-South energy transport corridors functioning significance and the importance of energy resources transit legal regime creation in the limits of the Energy Charter Theaty are mentioned. World Community great interest to the energy security strengthening and energy sustainable development problems is underscored in the work. (authors)

  1. Energy confinement in JT-60 lower hybrid current driven plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushigusa, K.; Imai, T.; Naito, O.; Ikeda, Y.; Tsuji, S.; Uehara, K.

    1990-01-01

    The energy confinement in high power lower hybrid current driven (LHCD) plasmas has been studied in the JT-60 tokamak. At a plasma current of 1 MA, the diamagnetically estimated energy confinement time in LHCD plasmas has almost the same value as the confinement time in ohmically heated plasmas at n-bar e ∼ 1.0x10 19 m -3 . The confinement time of high power LHCD plasmas (P LH E varies as to P LH α n e β I p 0 with α + β ∼ -0.3. (author). Letter-to-the-editor. 12 refs, 5 figs

  2. Low-energy hadronic interactions beyond the current algebra approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.N.; Troitskaya, N.I.; Nagy, M.

    1993-06-01

    The new low-energy AP 3 -interaction, which is produced by convergent box-constituent-quark-loop diagrams, is obtained within chiral perturbation theory at the quark level (CHPT) q with linear realization of chiral U(3) x U(3) symmetry. Its contributions to processes of low-energy interactions of low-lying mesons are investigated. The new interaction goes beyond the framework of the low-energy current algebra approach and of the effective chiral Lagrangians with linear realization of chiral symmetry, constructed at the hadronic level. (author). 17 refs, 3 figs

  3. The current state of wind energy development in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainkwa, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Wind Energy is one of the renewable power sources that is currently used in a commercial scale for various end-uses such as pumping water deep wells and electricity generation. A precise knowledge of wind speed characteristics is an essential for the efficient planning and implementation of any wind energy project. In Tanzania the use of wind energy in generating electricity has not yet taken place due to lack of knowledge on prospective sites with high wind energy potential. The main objective of this paper is to review some attempts that have been made to explore the wind energy potential in Tanzania and the corresponding prospective sites that have been earmarked so far. (author)

  4. Basic environmental bookshelf: An annotated bibliography. Current issue paper No. 116

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeager, L.

    1995-11-01

    This bibliography is intended to provide objective basic information on science and the environment, and includes books and journal articles that should be understandable to the nonspecialist. The bibliographic entries are arranged alphabetically by author within broad categories such as acid precipitation, air quality, climate change, ecology and ecosystems, energy, environmental assessment, hazardous wastes, law, natural history, ozone depletion, parks and urban issues, public policy, toxic chemicals, and water resources. Most entries have brief annotations.

  5. Physics of societal issues calculations on national security, environment, and energy

    CERN Document Server

    Hafemeister, David

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the reader with essential tools needed to analyze complex societal issues and demonstrates the transition from physics to modern-day laws and treaties. This second edition features new equation-oriented material and extensive data sets drawing upon current information from experts in their fields. Problems to challenge the reader and extend discussion are presented on three timely issues:   •        National Security: Weapons, Offense, Defense, Verification, Nuclear Proliferation, Terrorism •        Environment: Air/Water, Nuclear, Climate Change, EM Fields/Epidemiology •        Energy: Current Energy Situation, Buildings, Solar Buildings, Renewable  Energy, Enhanced End-Use Efficiency, Transportation, Economics   Praise for the first edition: "This insight is needed in Congress and the Executive Branch. Hafemeister, a former Congressional fellow with wide Washington experience, has written a book for physicists, chemists and engineers who want to learn science...

  6. Cities, planning and energy: the challenges and issues at stake today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roudil, Nadine

    2017-01-01

    Energy has become an integral part of urban politics to very varying degrees. This introductory paper examines the current structuring of a public policy for energy underway in France. It is emerging in the indications of 'energy governance', with apposite urban projects and coordinated development actions. For a long time, French cities were seen as lagging behind in environmental matters, but they are now showing proof of a hybrid incorporation of energy issues into urban policies. The progression of their relationship with energy is connected to the European experiments at the same time as occurring in the wake of a national incentive for transition. French cities' changing relationship with energy is embodied in three approaches. It is symbolised by local councillors' capacity to move beyond this combined influence and propose original projects; by their tendency to refocus their energy commitments on the social rather than market benefits of these initiatives, and by the opportunity it gives them to guide the ongoing transformation of the professional landscape of fashioning cities, and the knowledge and skills associated with this

  7. Introduction to the Issue on Current Trends in Terahertz Photonics and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Since the last special issue on terahertz science and technology, nearly three years have been passed. During this period, while there have been further developments in terahertz (THz) sources, detectors, materials, and applications, there have been new discoveries. The purpose of this issue of t...... reviews on recent THz research, the contributed papers cover a wide range of the cutting-edge research in the topics described earlier....... of the IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics (JSTQE) is to highlight the advances in materials, devices, and applications and new directions in the THz domain within the last three years. Broad technical areas include: 1) materials; 2) matamaterials, plasmonics, and plasmons; 3) techniques...... and effects; 4) generation and power scaling; 5) detectors; 6) devices; 7) applications. These key THz topics are discussed in both invited and contributed papers published in this issue, providing comprehensive overviews of the current status and future directions as well as publishing original results...

  8. Streaming current of a rotary atomizer for energy harvesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Trieu; de Boer, Hans L.; Tran, T.; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Zengerle, R.

    2013-01-01

    We present the experimental results of an energy conversion system based on a rotary atomizer and the streaming current phenomenon. The advantage of using a rotary atomizer instead of a channel or membrane micropore as in conventional pressure-driven approached is that the centrifugal force exerted

  9. Climate, air and energy - Issue 2014. Key figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    After having recalled international objectives (Kyoto protocol), European objectives (directives related to energy efficiency and renewable energies, greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation, air quality, wastes) and French national (plans, laws) and sector-based objectives (for buildings, transports, agriculture, renewable energies, industry, office building and local communities, air quality), this publication presents and comments numerous tables and graphs of data and indicators (and of their evolution) regarding energy consumptions and intensities (primary and final energy), greenhouse gas emissions and climate change, emissions of pollutants and air quality in France and in European countries, but also the implementation of various plans and tools (Agenda 21 for example), the creation of specific public bodies, jobs and markets related to renewable energies in France. The other chapters propose detailed data related to energy consumption or production, energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions, and so on for different sectors: housing, tertiary sector, transport, industry, agriculture and forest, renewable energies and heat networks, wastes, individuals

  10. Climate change and radical energy innovation: the policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Keith

    2009-01-15

    necessary for coordination purposes, for resource commitments, and for risk management. These considerations suggest very different roles for government in climate-relevant innovation than are currently envisaged in the climate debate. We now require new large-scale 'mission-oriented' technology programs for low- or zero emissions energy carriers and technologies, resting on public sector coordination and taking a system-wide perspective. However the key point about global warming is that it results from a global negative externality, which is beyond the capabilities of any single government to resolve. Government action for technology development is also constrained by globalisation, by changing views of the legitimate roles of government, and by changing forms of the state at the present time (in particular the decline of nation states and the rise of transnational governance). This is therefore a challenge for which global innovation policy cooperation is necessary.

  11. Current ethical and legal issues in health-related direct-to-consumer genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Emilia; Kalokairinou, Louiza; Howard, Heidi Carmen

    2017-09-01

    A variety of health-related genetic testing is currently advertized directly to consumers. This article provides a timely overview of direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC GT) and salient ethical issues, as well as an analysis of the impact of the recently adopted regulation on in vitro diagnostic medical devices on DTC GT. DTC GT companies currently employ new testing approaches, report on a wide spectrum of conditions and target new groups of consumers. Such activities raise ethical issues including the questionable analytic and clinical validity of tests, the adequacy of informed consent, potentially misleading advertizing, testing in children, research uses and commercialization of genomic data. The recently adopted regulation on in vitro diagnostic medical devices may limit the offers of predisposition DTC GT in the EU market.

  12. Current trends in research and clinical issues in the study of personality and its disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Sørensen, Per; Pedersen, Liselotte

    2014-01-01

    lecture (Simonsen), a young researchers' symposium (Hopwood, Sharp, and Kaess), and special lectures on the Danish philosopher Soeren Kierkegaard and the poet Hans Christian Andersen. In this article we will survey the presentations and highlight the important issues in order to underline the current......The International Society for the Study of Personality Disorders (ISSPD) celebrated its 25th anniversary in September 2013 in Copenhagen and commemorated the First International Congress at the same site. The overall theme of the congress was "Bridging Personality and Psychopathology: The Person...... Behind the Illness." More than 400 abstracts were submitted, and the program included 8 keynote presentations, 18 invited symposia, a debate on current controversial issues in the classification of personality disorders (Fossati, Tyrer, Livesley, and Krueger), an ISSPD award lecture (Silk), a jubilee...

  13. Resolving environmental issues in energy development: roles for the Department of Energy and its field offices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellickson, P.L.; Merrow, E.W.

    1979-01-01

    This study asks what the Department of Energy (DOE) might do to resolve environmental conflicts that arise during the implementation of energy projects or programs. We define implementation as efforts to establish an energy facility at a specific site. The environmental concerns surrounding implementation serve as touchstones of the relevance and feasibility of national energy policies. We have analyzed geothermal development in California and oil shale development in Colorado and Utah and addressed the following questions: By what processes are energy and environmental tradeoffs made. In what circumstances can DOE participation in these processes lead to a more satisfactory outcome. What options does DOE have for resolving environmetal issues and how can it choose the best option. How can DOE establish an effective working relationship with both the governmental and private groups affected by the siting and operation of energy projects. The government's most effective role in resolving environmental conflicts and uncertainties is to improve communications among the concerned parties. This role requires flexibility and evenhandedness from the government as well as an understanding of the local conditions and a commitment to appropriate local solutions. Involving local sources at every stage of the environmental impact analysis will reduce the probability of conflicts and make those that do arise more easily resolvable.

  14. Low-energy neutral current phenomenology and grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Aguila, F.; Mendez, A.

    1981-01-01

    We derive necessary and sufficient conditions to be satisfied by any expanded electroweak gauge model in order to reproduce the standard model low-energy neutral current predictions. These conditions imply several constraints on the neutral gauge boson masses and the quantum number assignments for the ordinary fermions. Using these conditions, we prove that the popular grand unified theories based on the gauge groups SO(10) and E6 can only accommodate trivial extensions of the standard model. As a consequence, if any of these grand unified models works at some energy scale, present low-energy neutral current phenomenology implies that the Z-boson must be produced with the expected mass and couplings to the ordinary fermions. Any additional neutral gauge boson (with the possible exception of very heavy ones) could only be produced in hadronic collisions and it would not decay in e + e - . (orig.)

  15. DoMUS a model to communicate energy issues in households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, René; Kok, Rixt

    1999-01-01

    Simulation models and games can be a valuable tool to communicate complex issues. Environmental problems in general and the problem described here in particular, are not always easily to explain. To communicate the issue of household energy use, energy reduction and shifting of energy expenditures

  16. Current issues in the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Paul J; Nigg, Joel T

    2012-01-01

    This review evaluates the diagnostic criteria for three of the most common disorders for which children and adolescents are referred for mental health treatment: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). Although research supports the validity and clinical utility of these disorders, several issues are highlighted that could enhance the current diagnostic criteria. For ADHD, defining the core features of the disorder and its fit with other disorders, enhancing the validity of the criteria through the lifespan, considering alternative ways to form subtypes of the disorder, and modifying the age-of-onset criterion are discussed relative to the current diagnostic criteria. For ODD, eliminating the exclusionary criteria of CD, recognizing important symptom domains within the disorder, and using the cross-situational pervasiveness of the disorder as an index of severity are highlighted as important issues for improving classification. Finally, for CD, enhancing the current subtypes related to age of onset and integrating callous-unemotional traits into the diagnostic criteria are identified as key issues for improving classification.

  17. Current Issues in the Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Paul J.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2015-01-01

    This review evaluates the diagnostic criteria for three of the most common disorders for which children and adolescents are referred for mental health treatment: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). Although research supports the validity and clinical utility of these disorders, several issues are highlighted that could enhance the current diagnostic criteria. For ADHD, defining the core features of the disorder and its fit with other disorders, enhancing the validity of the criteria through the lifespan, considering alternative ways to form subtypes of the disorder, and modifying the age-of-onset criterion are discussed relative to the current diagnostic criteria. For ODD, eliminating the exclusionary criteria of CD, recognizing important symptom domains within the disorder, and using the cross-situational pervasiveness of the disorder as an index of severity are highlighted as important issues for improving classification. Finally, for CD, enhancing the current subtypes related to age of onset and integrating callous-unemotional traits into the diagnostic criteria are identified as key issues for improving classification. PMID:22035245

  18. Franchise Agreements and Clean Energy: Issues in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project evaluates the impact on energy efficiency of municipal franchise agreements that supply electricity or gas service without a direct charge (unbilled energy) for certain municipal government facilities in Illinois.)

  19. Environmental issues and waste management in energy and minerals production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yegulalp, T.M.; Kim, K.

    1992-01-01

    This book includes the following topics: water management in the minerals industry; management of radioactive wastes in the energy industry; the US high-level radioactive waste program; acid mine drainage; health risks from uranium mill tailings; alternate energy sources, such as hydrogen; superconductive magnetic energy storage; nuclear waste

  20. Current issues in the transport of radioactive waste and spent fuel: work by the World Nuclear Transport Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neau, H-J.; Bonnardel-Azzarelli, B. [World Nuclear Transport Inst., London (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Various kinds of radioactive waste are generated from nuclear power and fuel cycle facilities. These materials have to be treated, stored and eventually sent to a repository site. Transport of wastes between these various stages is crucial for the sustainable utilization of nuclear energy. The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SSR-6) have, for many decades, provided a safe and efficient framework for radioactive materials transport and continue to do so. However, some shippers have experienced that in the transport of certain specific radioactive wastes, difficulties can be encountered. For example, some materials produced in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities are unique in terms of composition or size and can be difficult to characterize as surface contaminated objects (SCO) or homogeneous. One way WNTI (World Nuclear Transport Institute) helps develop transport methodologies is through the use of Industry Working Groups, bringing together WNTI members with common interests, issues and experiences. The Back-End Transport Industry Working Group focuses on the following issues currently. - Characterization of Waste: techniques and methods to classify wastes - Large Objects: slightly contaminated large objects (ex. spent steam generators) transport - Dual Use Casks: transportable storage casks for spent nuclear fuels, including the very long term storage of spent fuel - Fissile Exceptions: new fissile exceptions provisions of revised TS-R-1 (SSR-6) The paper gives a broad overview of current issues for the packaging and transport of radioactive wastes and the associated work of the WNTI. (author)

  1. Bibliography of Literature for Avian Issues in Solar and Wind Energy and Other Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walston, Leroy J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); White, Ellen M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Meyers, Stephanie A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). National Center for Photovoltaics; Sinclair, Karin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). National Center for Photovoltaics

    2015-04-01

    Utility-scale solar energy has been a rapidly expanding energy sector in the United States in recent years and is expected to continue to grow. In 2014, concerns were raised over the risk of avian fatalities associated with utility-scale solar plants. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Program, Argonne National Laboratory and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory studied the issue and released A Review of Avian Monitoring and Mitigation Information at Existing Utility-Scale Solar Facilities (ANL/EVS-15/2, March 2015). A comprehensive literature review included peer-reviewed journal articles on avian fatalities from solar energy facilities and other sources (e.g., wind energy, building collisions, etc.), project-specific technical reports on avian monitoring and fatality at solar facilities, information on mitigation measures and best management practices, and literature pertaining to avian behavioral patterns and habitat use. The source citations are listed in this bibliography; they are current through December 2014.

  2. Energy statistical data (overseas). 1995 issue; Energy tokei shiryo (kaigaihen). 1995 nen ban

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-10

    The energy statistical data (a 1995 overseas issue) were made public by the Energy Metrics Analysis Center, the Institute of Energy Economics. As for energy in general, described are the reserve/existing amount, a change of the production amount, the consumption amount of primary energy in the world, etc. As to oil, natural gas and coal, stated were the confirmed reserve, a change of the production amount, a change of the consumption amount, world import/export flows, etc. Concerning electric power, the paper deals with a change of the amount of electric power consumption in the world, constitution of the power generation amount by power source, a change of power generation capability, changes of capabilities of thermal, hydroelectric, and nuclear power, etc. With regard to data by country, a lot of data are included on the U.S., Canada, England, France, Germany, Italy, Australia, Russian Federation, and China. The paper also describes situations in OPEC countries, changes of the situation of Majors, and prices of crude oil, petroleum products, coal, natural gas and LPG, and electric power, etc.

  3. Predicting the behavioural impact of transcranial direct current stimulation: issues and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archy Otto De Berker

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The transcranial application of weak currents to the human brain has enjoyed a decade of success, providing a simple and powerful tool for non-invasively altering human brain function. However, our understanding of current delivery and its impact upon neural circuitry leaves much to be desired. We argue that the credibility of conclusions drawn with tDCS is contingent upon realistic explanations of how tDCS works, and that our present understanding of tDCS limits the technique’s use to localize function in the human brain. We outline two central issues where progress is required: the localization of currents, and predicting their functional consequence. We encourage experimenters to eschew simplistic explanations of mechanisms of transcranial current stimulation. We suggest the use of individualized current modelling, together with computational neurostimulation to inform mechanistic frameworks in which to interpret the physiological impact of tDCS. We hope that through mechanistically richer descriptions of current flow and action, insight into the biological processes by which transcranial currents influence behaviour can be gained, leading to more effective stimulation protocols and empowering conclusions drawn with tDCS.

  4. Compilation of current high-energy-physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohl, C.G.; Kelly, R.L.; Armstrong, F.E.

    1980-04-01

    This is the third edition of a compilation of current high energy physics experiments. It is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and ten participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), the Institute for Nuclear Study, Tokyo (INS), KEK, Rutherford (RHEL), Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. The compilation includes summaries of all high energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that (1) were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about January 1980, and (2) had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1976

  5. Managing radioactive waste issues and misunderstandings (radiation realities, energy comparison, waste strategies)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.

    2001-01-01

    The technical specialist is confident that radioactive waste can be safely managed, but many in the public remain totally unconvinced. There are issues and deep-seated misunderstandings that drive public doubts. Currently, a growing concern with pollution from other industrial waste is enabling radioactive waste issues to be debated in a wider context that allows comparisons with other potentially hazardous waste, particularly from energy generation sources. Health effects and time period issues are not unique to radioactive waste. This paper concentrates on 3 topics. The first concerns radiation health effects where the real realities of radiation are covered. The large misunderstandings that exist about radiation and its health effects have led to an almost zero health impact regulatory policy. A policy which must be more fully understood and dealt with. The second topic deals with a few revealing comparisons about the various energy generation systems. Nuclear power's 10 thousand fold lower fuel requirements, compared with a comparable fossil fuelled plant, is a dominating factor decisively minimising environmental impacts. The third topic examines waste disposal strategies. Extraordinarily small radioactive waste quantities permit a confinement strategy for disposal as opposed to the more common dispersion strategy for most toxic waste. The small quantities coupled with radioactive decay, contrary to the public perception, make any potential hazard from both low and high level radioactive waste exceedingly small. (author)

  6. Natural gas for power generation : issues and implications : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This report presented a historical examination of trends in natural gas-fired generation as well as a perspective on the issues and potential implications of increasing reliance on natural gas. Potential changes to Canadian energy consumers were reviewed in addition to natural gas infrastructure and services. Electricity prices relating to natural gas generation were examined. A broad regional and continental perspective was employed to account for energy market integration and the fact that gas trends reflect developments outside of Canada. The report was divided into 2 sections: (1) an examination of the trend toward natural-gas fired generation of electricity in North America; and (2) an examination of issues in closer detail from a regional perspective followed by a discussion of the changes in generation and natural gas markets in western, eastern, and central North America. Questions arising from the analysis of specific regional supply, demand and infrastructure situations were also examined. Recommendations were presented for issues concerning the current gas market and the appropriate role of the government in ensuring adequate generation. Uncertainties in future natural gas supply were also considered. It was concluded that rapid industrial growth will continue to increase demand for natural gas and electricity supply. 5 figs

  7. Special issue about the ENERGIE interdisciplinary program of the CNRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lallemand, M.; Stitou, D.; Lallemand, A.; Destruel, P.; Seguy, I.; Bock, H.; Nierengarten, J.F.; Alonso, C.; Estibals, B.; Menanteau, Ph.; David, S.; Clement, A.H.

    2006-01-01

    The French national center of scientific research (CNRS) has started in 2001 a huge interdisciplinary program about the development of new energy sources (solar, biomass, wind energy, geothermal energy, future nuclear systems), the mastery of energy vectors (electricity, heat, hydrogen), and the development of clean and ecological processes (combustion, fuel cells, dwellings, industrial processes etc..). The program has involved about a thousand of researchers and has led to the realization of 65 projects. This newsletter presents the results of a selection of these integrated research projects: development of thermochemical processes for solar cooling and refrigeration, two-phase refrigerants for a lower environmental impact, organic semiconductors for photovoltaic conversion, TECHPOL - an observatory for new energy technologies, scenarios for future nuclear reactors (enriched uranium cycle, regeneration, uranium cycle, thorium cycle), waves energy conversion systems. (J.S.)

  8. Nuclear power issue as seen by the International Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, P.

    1976-01-01

    An account is given of the work of the International Energy Agency towards reducing the dependence of member states on imported oil. Forecasts of energy consumption are discussed, and the contributions that could be made by various energy sources, and by energy conservation, are examined. It is concluded that nuclear power is essential to a reduced dependence policy. The constraints on full realization of national nuclear programmes are stated as follows: licensing delays, waste disposal, financing, uranium supply, and fuel services. Ways in which these could be overcome by national and international action are suggested. Reference is made to the work of other atomic energy agencies: IAEA and OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. (U.K.)

  9. Scope of current abandonment issues in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, I.F.H.

    1997-01-01

    Abandonment issues in the oil and gas industry, such as well sites, batteries, gas plants, compressor stations, and pipelines, were discussed. Responsibilities of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) for informing the Canadian public about energy and environmental issues on behalf of the upstream petroleum industry were reviewed. Industry regulators and those who have jurisdiction over the abandonment of facilities were identified. In Alberta, the main agencies are the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Alberta Environmental Protection, and Alberta Food and Rural Development in addition to the National Energy Board and Indian Oil and Gas Canada. At the end of 1995, 160,000 wells had been drilled in Alberta of which 60,000 are still active, 35,000 are suspended and 70,000 wells have been abandoned. The industry-financed Orphan Well Program was established to provide funds for facility abandonment, decontamination and surface reclamation costs associated with orphaned facilities. CAPP agrees that operators of oil and gas facilities must be held responsible and accountable for the abandonment of their facilities. CAPP is looking for support from government to ensure that enforcement actions limit the number of orphan facilities. tabs., figs

  10. Cognitive determinants of energy balance-related behaviours : measurement issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremers, Stef P J; Visscher, Tommy L S; Seidell, Jacob C; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    The burden of disease as a result of overweight and obesity calls for in-depth examination of the main causes of behavioural actions responsible for weight gain. Since weight gain is the result of a positive energy balance, these behavioural actions are referred to as 'energy balance-related

  11. The energy issue. Demand and potentials, utilization, risks, costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinloth, K.

    1997-01-01

    Will the demand for energy be growing or decreasing in future? How are prosperity and energy consumption linked up? How can the CO 2 reduction target announced at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro be achieved? What is the price for ''''benign'''' energy as compared to ''''malignant'''' energy? What is the future contribution to energy supplies that can be expected from renewable energy sources? What are the good and the evil aspects of nuclear energy? These are questions that will sooner or later concern us all, and in any case when it comes to paying the bill for our present squandering. The author Klaus Heinloth, a renown expert in this field, presents with this book a scientifically well-founded and unbiased analysis and source of information that may serve politicians as a basis for objective debates about the future energy policy. Provided with a generous grant by the Heraeus foundation, the author was free to pursue his studies and inquiries independent of industry and relevant associations, and collect, evaluate and analyse the required information. (orig./CB) [de

  12. NREL Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation: Issue 3 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-11-01

    This quarterly magazine is dedicated to stepping beyond the technical journals to reveal NREL's vital work in a real-world context for our stakeholders. Continuum provides insights into the latest and most impactful clean energy innovations, while spotlighting those talented researchers and unique facilities that make it all happen. This edition focuses on the NREL Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation.

  13. The treatment of Parkinson's disease with deep brain stimulation: current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Alexia-Sabine; Groiss, Stefan Jun; Elben, Saskia; Südmeyer, Martin; Schnitzler, Alfons; Wojtecki, Lars

    2015-07-01

    Deep brain stimulation has become a well-established symptomatic treatment for Parkinson's disease during the last 25 years. Besides improving motor symptoms and long-term motor complications, positive effects on patients' mobility, activities of daily living, emotional well-being and health-related quality of life have been recognized. Apart from that, numerous clinical trials analyzed effects on non-motor symptoms and side effects of deep brain stimulation. Several technical issues and stimulation paradigms have been and are still being developed to optimize the therapeutic effects, minimize the side effects and facilitate handling. This review summarizes current therapeutic issues, i.e., patient and target selection, surgical procedure and programming paradigms. In addition it focuses on neuropsychological effects and side effects of deep brain stimulation.

  14. The treatment of Parkinson′s disease with deep brain stimulation: current issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia-Sabine Moldovan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation has become a well-established symptomatic treatment for Parkinson′s disease during the last 25 years. Besides improving motor symptoms and long-term motor complications, positive effects on patients′ mobility, activities of daily living, emotional well-being and health-related quality of life have been recognized. Apart from that, numerous clinical trials analyzed effects on non-motor symptoms and side effects of deep brain stimulation. Several technical issues and stimulation paradigms have been and are still being developed to optimize the therapeutic effects, minimize the side effects and facilitate handling. This review summarizes current therapeutic issues, i.e., patient and target selection, surgical procedure and programming paradigms. In addition it focuses on neuropsychological effects and side effects of deep brain stimulation.

  15. Current status of high energy nucleon-meson transport code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Hiroshi; Sasa, Toshinobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of design code of accelerator (NMTC/JAERI code), outline of physical model and evaluation of accuracy of code were reported. To evaluate the nuclear performance of accelerator and strong spallation neutron origin, the nuclear reaction between high energy proton and target nuclide and behaviors of various produced particles are necessary. The nuclear design of spallation neutron system used a calculation code system connected the high energy nucleon{center_dot}meson transport code and the neutron{center_dot}photon transport code. NMTC/JAERI is described by the particle evaporation process under consideration of competition reaction of intranuclear cascade and fission process. Particle transport calculation was carried out for proton, neutron, {pi}- and {mu}-meson. To verify and improve accuracy of high energy nucleon-meson transport code, data of spallation and spallation neutron fragment by the integral experiment were collected. (S.Y.)

  16. Landfill gas: energy and environmental issues in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandeville, R.T.

    1991-01-01

    Lessons learned about landfill gas generation, recovery, and control over the last 10 to 15 years are reviewed. Some major issues that are worthy of discussion include the difficulty of assessing generation rates; the limitations of field testing; the use of modeling; landfill characterization and the expense of landfill gas processing and condensate disposal. (author)

  17. Output Current Ripple Reduction Algorithms for Home Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hyuk Park

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an output current ripple reduction algorithm using a proportional-integral (PI controller for an energy storage system (ESS. In single-phase systems, the DC/AC inverter has a second-order harmonic at twice the grid frequency of a DC-link voltage caused by pulsation of the DC-link voltage. The output current of a DC/DC converter has a ripple component because of the ripple of the DC-link voltage. The second-order harmonic adversely affects the battery lifetime. The proposed algorithm has an advantage of reducing the second-order harmonic of the output current in the variable frequency system. The proposed algorithm is verified from the PSIM simulation and experiment with the 3 kW ESS model.

  18. Legal issues associated with preparing for a nuclear energy programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, N.

    2009-01-01

    Developing and implementing a national programme for the civilian use of nuclear energy means embarking on the use of a Janus-faced form of energy. We all know that nuclear energy implies both extraordinary benefits and extraordinary risks. This fact requires a legal framework appropriate to cope with both elements of nuclear power. Legislators and State authorities have to establish a sound balance between risks and benefits. That is not at all an easy task. While excluding or limiting risks requires severe legal control mechanisms, the benefits can only fully be enjoyed if the legal framework ensures freedom of research and of economic and industrial development including the guarantee of property ownership and of investments. Combining both opposite poles seems like trying to square the circle. In case of a conflict between promotion and protection, there is no doubt that the protection against nuclear risks has to prevail. Therefore this aspect of nuclear law will be mainly dealt with in this presentation. Establishing a legal framework to tame the hazards of nuclear energy is a much more challenging task for law-makers than providing a legal basis for promoting the use of nuclear energy. With regard to the promotion of nuclear energy, States enjoy a broad range of discretion and may use a great number of legal and non-legal instruments to support the development of a nuclear programme. From a legal point of view, promoting nuclear energy does not require a specific regime. However, it does require a specific regime to control the risks of nuclear energy. States preparing for a nuclear energy programme have to be aware that the use of nuclear energy is not an exclusively national matter. In particular the risk associated with nuclear energy extends beyond national borders. Using the benefits also needs international cooperation in many fields including, e.g., research or fuel supply. Today a network of multilateral and bilateral international treaties exists

  19. LMFBR safety. 3. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1972--1974)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-02-24

    The report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1972 through 1974. The bibliography consists of approximately 1380 abstracts covering research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included.

  20. LMFBR safety. 4. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1974--1975)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1974 through 1975. The bibliography consists of approximately 1554 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness

  1. Current Issues of Antipyretic Therapy in Children with Acute Respiratory Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Novikova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the current issues in the pediatric practice of seasonal incidence of children with acute respiratory infections. The basic etiological aspects of this pathology, specific clinical symptoms typical for different pathogens, causes of bursts of disease in certain periods are described. Special attention is paid to the tactics of antipyretic therapy in different groups of children with fever and acute respiratory diseases, understand the typical errors in its appointment. The author discusses the domestic and foreign results of using ibuprofen to relieve fever in children with this pathology, comparative efficacy and safety data of ibuprofen with other analgesics-antipyretics.

  2. LMFBR safety. 4. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1974--1975)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-03-21

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1974 through 1975. The bibliography consists of approximately 1554 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  3. LMFBR safety. 2. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature, 1970--1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1970 through 1972. The bibliography consists of approximately 1620 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness

  4. LMFBR safety. 3. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1972--1974)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    The report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1972 through 1974. The bibliography consists of approximately 1380 abstracts covering research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included

  5. Special Issue: Current Trends in Research in Accounting Finance and Management Control

    OpenAIRE

    Lassala, Carlos; Ripoll Feliu, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    On January 27, 2016, an agreement was signed with OmniaScience to select articles to be published in the journal Intangible Capital, in a special issue titled "Current Trends in Research in Accounting, Finance and Management Control." The agreement was reached within the framework of three events at the University of Valencia, from June 27 to 30, 2016: XXI Workshop on Accounting and Management Control. “Memorial Raymond Konopka”, X Iberoamerican Congress of Management Accounting, III  Int...

  6. LMFBR safety. 5. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1975--1976)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    The current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA), are discussed. Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development and safety of the breeder reactor is presented for the period 1975 through 1976. The bibliography consists of approximately 1618 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Keyword, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness

  7. LMFBR safety. 2. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature, 1970--1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1976-11-22

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1970 through 1972. The bibliography consists of approximately 1620 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  8. LMFBR safety. 5. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1975--1976)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-06-08

    The current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA), are discussed. Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development and safety of the breeder reactor is presented for the period 1975 through 1976. The bibliography consists of approximately 1618 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Keyword, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  9. LMFBR safety. 1. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature, 1960--1969

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1976-08-16

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1960 through 1969. The bibliography consists of 1560 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  10. LMFBR safety. 1. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature, 1960--1969

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1960 through 1969. The bibliography consists of 1560 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness

  11. Energy and population: transitional issues and eventual limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werbos, P J

    1990-08-01

    The implication of population size for US energy requirements is explored in this essay. The basic argument is that the present supply of fuels and energy technologies is not sustainable in the long run, that a wide range of choices is possible when a complete transition is made to sustainable technologies, and that the growth of population and the composition of this growth during the next 30 years are the most serious problems impacting on the achievement of sustainable technology. The importance and future of fuel oil is discussed as well as the transition to sustainable energy supplies: conservation, renewables, nuclear and coal. Dependency on oil can only be changed through time and the infusion of money, but even with these givens, the transition is also dependent on the political and budgetary climate. The race is between crisis and cure. It is argued that the soft energy systems (biomass, solar water heater, wind, hydro, and geothermal energy) along with conservation will increase easily and naturally, but the total potential from these sources amounts to only 10% of the present US energy supply. Conservation offers greater hope because 80% of end-use fossil fuel is used in transportation and industry. Further growth of the population in the US would create a demand to desalinate water, which would increase the demand for energy. A totally soft energy economy is probably not feasible without a drastic reduction in US population. The expected direction is in the increased use of coal, and then nuclear energy. Unfortunately, coal contributes to greenhouse warming, and the supply is limited to 60-100 years. Nuclear proliferation and terrorism is connected to the widespread use of nuclear energy. Some breakthrough technology with cold fusion may offer a safer alternative. High technology renewables such as solar cells can be competitive with nuclear energy, if prices can be kept down. on earth or in space, are being investigated. Exploring a variety of advanced

  12. Wind energy: A review of technical and market issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrad, A.D. [Garrad Hassan & Partners Ltd., Bristol (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on the world market for wind power are presented in this paper. The paper is divided into three sections: the market, the technology, and general conclusions. The market section compares European and US wind energy growth and contributing factors and barriers to growth. A technology overview discusses wind turbine concepts, mass reduction, blade structural flexibility, and growth in machine size. Political decisions, economic aspects, public acceptance, and technology limitations are assessed for their influence on the growth of wind energy. 11 figs.

  13. Recent environment, energy and resources cases and issues in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruhlak, R.; Naffin, D.K. [McLennan Ross LLP, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Significant environmental issues and regulatory proceedings in Alberta were discussed. The Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Project was reviewed in relation to the Deh Cho First Nation's advanced actions in the federal court to enjoin the review panel from proceeding with the review process. The Deh Cho First Nation is seeking a declaration that the plan violates their rights under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the Constitution Act. Various regulatory and government agencies have now developed a plan to coordinate their different regulatory processes and approvals in the Cooperation Plan for the Environmental Impact Assessment and Regulatory Review of the Northern Gas Pipeline project. The Deh Cho allege that they were not afforded the opportunity to participate in the development and implementation of the plan. A review panel plans to proceed once the environmental and social impacts are determined, and the consortiums plan to minimize harm has been submitted. Issues concerning contaminated sites were discussed with reference to Lynnview Ridge, where Imperial Oil and Devon Estates Ltd. built a residential subdivision built on the site of a decommissioned oil storage tank site. Periodic monitoring detected some general concerns, including high lead levels in soil and hydrocarbon vapors. Environmental Protection Orders (EPO) and appeals were discussed, including Imperial and Devon's appeal that the pollution problem should have been addressed through the contaminated sites provision and not the substance release EPO. Several recommendations were made, including better definition processes for liability allocation; a clarification of persons excluded from responsibility; voluntary remediation agreements that limit liability; and environmental site information systems to support due diligence. It was expected that the final set of recommendations will be of use to all jurisdictions in Canada. Regulatory issues concerning public safety were

  14. A US-China Interview Study: Biology Students' Argumentation and Explanation about Energy Consumption Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hui; Hokayem, Hayat; Wang, Sasha; Wei, Xin

    2016-01-01

    As China and the United States become the top two carbon emitters in the world, it is crucial for citizens in both countries to construct a sophisticated understanding of energy consumption issues. This interview study examines how U.S. and Chinese students compare in explaining and arguing about two critical energy consumption issues: burning…

  15. Current situation of energy consumption and measures taken for energy saving in the iron and steel industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Z.C.; Fu, Z.X.

    2010-01-01

    A survey of the key issues associated with the development in the Chinese iron and steel industry and current situations of energy consumption are described in this paper. The apparent production of crude steel in China expanded to 418.78 million tonnes in 2006, which was about 34% share of the world steel production. The iron and steel industry in China is still one of the major high energy consumption and high pollution industries, which accounts for the consumption of about 15.2% of the national total energy, and generation of 14% of the national total wastewater and waste gas and 6% of the total solid waste materials. The average energy consumption per unit of steel is about 20% higher than that of other advanced countries due to its low energy utilization efficiency. However, the energy efficiency of the iron and steel industry in China has made significant improvement in the past few years and significant energy savings will be achieved in the future by optimizing end-use energy utilization. Finally, some measures for the industry in terms of the economic policy of China's 11th five-year plan are also presented.

  16. A BRIEF ANALYSIS OF THE TOURISM SECTOR - CURRENT TRENDS AND ISSUES IN THE BULGARIAN TOURIST BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostadin Valkov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thе analysis presented in current article deepens and summarizes the results of an economic study focused on the management of human resources in the sector "Tourism". The expected changes in organizational and technological terms are taken into account. The law on tourism in the Republic of Bulgaria and the types of taxes that directly and indirectly affect those employed in tourism are considered. Leading accents are the current trends and issues that arise from the lack of skilled workers in this sector and their deficit caused by the seasonal nature of employment. Growing gray economy is concerned as a major obstacle to development of the tourism industry and its future.

  17. Current status of international training center for nuclear security and security issues in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong-UK; Sin, Byung Woo

    2013-01-01

    During the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit (NSS) President Lee declared that Korea will establish an international training center (ITC) for nuclear security near the Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC). It will be open to the world in 2014. The government's long term goal is to make the center a hub for education and training in the nuclear field in Asia. The ITC will accomplish this by establishing facilities for practical and realistic exercises through the use of a test bed and various other experiments. The center will also provide comprehensive educational programs for nuclear newcomers. Its main programs include: a well designed educational program, customized training courses, and on-the-job training. This paper will discuss the current status of the ITC and describe practical plans for solving current security issues in Korea. (authors)

  18. Supporting Current Energy Conversion Projects through Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S. C.; Roberts, J.

    2016-02-01

    The primary goals of current energy conversion (CEC) technology being developed today are to optimize energy output and minimize environmental impact. CEC turbines generate energy from tidal and current systems and create wakes that interact with turbines located downstream of a device. The placement of devices can greatly influence power generation and structural reliability. CECs can also alter the environment surrounding the turbines, such as flow regimes, sediment dynamics, and water quality. These alterations pose potential stressors to numerous environmental receptors. Software is needed to investigate specific CEC sites to simulate power generation and hydrodynamic responses of a flow through a CEC turbine array so that these potential impacts can be evaluated. Moreover, this software can be used to optimize array layouts that yield the least changes to the environmental (i.e., hydrodynamics, sediment dynamics, and water quality). Through model calibration exercises, simulated wake profiles and turbulence intensities compare favorably to the experimental data and demonstrate the utility and accuracy of a fast-running tool for future siting and analysis of CEC arrays in complex domains. The Delft3D modeling tool facilitates siting of CEC projects through optimization of array layouts and evaluation of potential environmental effect all while provide a common "language" for academics, industry, and regulators to be able to discuss the implications of marine renewable energy projects. Given the enormity of any full-scale marine renewable energy project, it necessarily falls to modeling to evaluate how array operations must be addressed in an environmental impact statement in a way that engenders confidence in the assessment of the CEC array to minimize environmental effects.

  19. Measurement Issues for Energy Efficient Commercial Buildings: Productivity and Performance Uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.W.

    2002-05-16

    In previous reports, we have identified two potentially important issues, solutions to which would increase the attractiveness of DOE-developed technologies in commercial buildings energy systems. One issue concerns the fact that in addition to saving energy, many new technologies offer non-energy benefits that contribute to building productivity (firm profitability). The second issue is that new technologies are typically unproven in the eyes of decision makers and must bear risk premiums that offset cost advantages resulting from laboratory calculations. Even though a compelling case can be made for the importance of these issues, for building decision makers to incorporate them in business decisions and for DOE to use them in R&D program planning there must be robust empirical evidence of their existence and size. This paper investigates how such measurements could be made and offers recommendations as to preferred options. There is currently little systematic information on either of these concepts in the literature. Of the two there is somewhat more information on non-energy benefits, but little as regards office buildings. Office building productivity impacts can be observed casually, but must be estimated statistically, because buildings have many interacting attributes and observations based on direct behavior can easily confuse the process of attribution. For example, absenteeism can be easily observed. However, absenteeism may be down because a more healthy space conditioning system was put into place, because the weather was milder, or because firm policy regarding sick days had changed. There is also a general dearth of appropriate information for purposes of estimation. To overcome these difficulties, we propose developing a new data base and applying the technique of hedonic price analysis. This technique has been used extensively in the analysis of residential dwellings. There is also a literature on its application to commercial and industrial

  20. Energy infrastructure modeling for the oil sands industry: Current situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzaroni, Edoardo Filippo; Elsholkami, Mohamed; Arbiv, Itai; Martelli, Emanuele; Elkamel, Ali; Fowler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A simulation-based modelling of energy demands of oil sands operations is proposed. • Aspen simulations used to simulate delayed coking-based upgrading of bitumen. • The energy infrastructure is simulated using Aspen Plus achieving self-sufficiency. • Various scenarios affecting energy demand intensities are investigated. • Energy and CO_2 emission intensities of integrated SAGD/upgrading are estimated. - Abstract: In this study, the total energy requirements associated with the production of bitumen from oil sands and its upgrading to synthetic crude oil (SCO) are modeled and quantified. The production scheme considered is based on the commercially applied steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) for bitumen extraction and delayed coking for bitumen upgrading. In addition, the model quantifies the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the production of energy required for these operations from technologies utilized in the currently existing oil sands energy infrastructure. The model is based on fundamental engineering principles, and Aspen HYSYS and Aspen Plus simulations. The energy demand results are expressed in terms of heat, power, hydrogen, and process fuel consumption rates for SAGD extraction and bitumen upgrading. Based on the model’s output, a range of overall energy and emission intensity factors are estimated for a bitumen production rate of 112,500 BPD (or 93,272 BPD of SCO), which were determined to be 262.5–368.5 MJ/GJ_S_C_O and 14.17–19.84 gCO_2/MJ_S_C_O, respectively. The results of the model indicate that the majority of GHG emissions are generated during SAGD extraction (up to 60% of total emissions) due to the combustion of natural gas for steam production, and the steam-to-oil ratio is a major parameter affecting total GHG emissions. The developed model can be utilized as a tool to predict the energy demand requirements for integrated SAGD/upgrading projects under different operating conditions, and

  1. Students Teach Pupils Environmental Issues and Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friman, H.; Banner, I.; Tuchin, B. S.; Einav, Y.

    2018-05-01

    Technological advances and accessibility to information on the internet have opened a new channel of pupils that are being taught by students throughout the country. Students, full of motivation and a will to learn and teach, have understood that this way is good for them – enabling them to profit from a side job and take advantage of the knowledge they have accumulated in their degree. Holon Institute of Technology (“HIT”) developed a new program at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering. The Renewable Energy program gives the students technical and practical aspects of energy use (technology and methodology of the study) and energy efficiency. The program also deals with minimizing the environmental impacts of energy use, as well as with energy economy and environmental policy. The entrance of students to the field of teaching pupils while still in their studies brings many advantages, such as: fresh knowledge, motivation to teach, and innovative, out of the ordinary methods that arouse interest in the pupils and intrigue them.

  2. Study of high-energy neutrino neutral-current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aderholz, M.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Akbari, H.; Allport, P.P.; Badyal, S.K.; Ballagh, H.C.; Barth, M.; Baton, J.P.; Bingham, H.H.; Brucker, E.B.; Burnstein, R.A.; Campbell, J.R.; Cence, R.J.; Chatterjee, T.K.; Clayton, E.F.; Corrigan, G.; Coutures, C.; DeProspo, D.; Devanand; De Wolf, E.A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Foeth, H.; Fretter, W.B.; Gupta, V.K.; Hanlon, J.; Harigel, G.; Harris, F.A.; Jabiol, M.A.; Jacques, P.; Jain, V.; Jones, G.T.; Jones, M.D.; Kafka, T.; Kalelkar, M.; Kasper, P.; Kohli, J.M.; Koller, E.L.; Krawiec, R.J.; Lauko, M.; Lys, J.E.; Marage, P.; Milburn, R.H.; Miller, D.B.; Mittra, I.S.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Moreels, J.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Myatt, G.; Nailor, P.; Naon, R.; Napier, A.; Neveu, M.; Passmore, D.; Peters, M.W.; Peterson, V.Z.; Plano, R.; Rao, N.K.; Rubin, H.A.; Sacton, J.; Sambyal, S.S.; Schmitz, N.; Schneps, J.; Singh, J.B.; Smart, W.; Stamer, P.; Varvell, K.E.; Verluyten, L.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wainstein, S.; Willocq, S.; Yost, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    From an exposure of the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber to the Tevatron quadrupole triplet neutrino beam, we have determined the ratio of neutral-current (NC) to charged-current (CC) interactions to be 0.288±0.032 for events with visible hadron momentum above 10 GeV/c. The mean ν(bar ν) event energy is 150 (110) GeV, which is higher than that for any previous beam. This result agrees with those from previous experiments at lower energies. The NC/CC ratio is derived for a combined sample of ν and bar ν events. A value of 0.274±0.038 is obtained for the dominant ν component assuming bar ν NC/CC=0.39±0.08. For events with visible hadron momentum above 25 GeV/c, where the neutral hadron contamination remaining in the NC sample is assumed to be negligible, the combined NC/CC is 0.323±0.025 and the K 0 production rates are 0.375±0.064 per CC and 0.322±0.073 per NC event. The corresponding Λ rates are 0.161±0.030 per CC and 0.113±0.030 per NC event. The K 0 and Λ distributions of the fractional hadron energy variable z in NC events are consistent with those in CC events

  3. Study of high-energy neutrino neutral-current interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderholz, M.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Akbari, H.; Allport, P. P.; Badyal, S. K.; Ballagh, H. C.; Barth, M.; Baton, J. P.; Bingham, H. H.; Brucker, E. B.; Burnstein, R. A.; Campbell, J. R.; Cence, R. J.; Chatterjee, T. K.; Clayton, E. F.; Corrigan, G.; Coutures, C.; Deprospo, D.; Devanand; de Wolf, E. A.; Faulkner, P. J.; Foeth, H.; Fretter, W. B.; Gupta, V. K.; Hanlon, J.; Harigel, G.; Harris, F. A.; Jabiol, M. A.; Jacques, P.; Jain, V.; Jones, G. T.; Jones, M. D.; Kafka, T.; Kalelkar, M.; Kasper, P.; Kohli, J. M.; Koller, E. L.; Krawiec, R. J.; Lauko, M.; Lys, J. E.; Marage, P.; Milburn, R. H.; Miller, D. B.; Mittra, I. S.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Moreels, J.; Morrison, D. R.; Myatt, G.; Nailor, P.; Naon, R.; Napier, A.; Neveu, M.; Passmore, D.; Peters, M. W.; Peterson, V. Z.; Plano, R.; Rao, N. K.; Rubin, H. A.; Sacton, J.; Sambyal, S. S.; Schmitz, N.; Schneps, J.; Singh, J. B.; Smart, W.; Stamer, P.; Varvell, K. E.; Verluyten, L.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wainstein, S.; Willocq, S.; Yost, G. P.

    1992-04-01

    From an exposure of the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber to the Tevatron quadrupole triplet neutrino beam, we have determined the ratio of neutral-current (NC) to charged-current (CC) interactions to be 0.288+/-0.032 for events with visible hadron momentum above 10 GeV/c. The mean ν(ν¯) event energy is 150 (110) GeV, which is higher than that for any previous beam. This result agrees with those from previous experiments at lower energies. The NC/CC ratio is derived for a combined sample of ν and ν¯ events. A value of 0.274+/-0.038 is obtained for the dominant ν component assuming ν¯ NC/CC=0.39+/-0.08. For events with visible hadron momentum above 25 GeV/c, where the neutral hadron contamination remaining in the NC sample is assumed to be negligible, the combined NC/CC is 0.323+/-0.025 and the K0 production rates are 0.375+/-0.064 per CC and 0.322+/-0.073 per NC event. The corresponding Λ rates are 0.161+/-0.030 per CC and 0.113+/-0.030 per NC event. The K0 and Λ distributions of the fractional hadron energy variable z in NC events are consistent with those in CC events.

  4. Energy issues, destabilization challenge? The nuclear power example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castel, Viviane du

    2010-01-01

    The depletion of oil, geopolitical uncertainties resulting, fluctuation and price volatility leads, since the 2000's, a development in which the economy favors nuclear energy for civilian use. Thus, the development of the international market for nuclear industry is linked to the competitiveness of nuclear deal with their competitors using fossil fuels (oil, gas, coal). Nuclear power is both an energy benefit to the countries that we use (low emissions of greenhouse gas emissions, low pollution, stable prices and competitive supply without major obstacles) and worrying (no real solution for waste, transfer risk from civilian to nuclear weapons). The Business Intelligence (BI) appears to be essential for companies in this industry and is based on technical and urgent challenges. BI has become an imperative for companies in the energy sector

  5. Editorial : Introduction to Energy Strategy Reviews theme issue “Future Energy Systems and Market Integration of Wind Power”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lund, H.; Weijermars, R.

    2013-01-01

    Energy Strategy Reviews (ESR) provides a peer-reviewed publication platformto evaluate strategy options for tomorrow’s energy systems. The focus in this special issue is on “Future Energy Systems and Market Integration of Wind Power” and possible solutions are highlighted from the strategy viewpoint

  6. Current issues regarding radiation risk education in Medical Universities of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuzuki, Teruhisa; Hosoi, Yoshio; Matsuda, Naoki; Kanda, Reiko; Hosoya, Noriko; Miyagawa, Kiyoshi; Awai, Kazuo; Kondo, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of radiation research is to understand the biological effects of radiation exposure to humans, the molecular mechanisms of biological response m organisms, and its sale application for medical and industrial use. In order to know the current state or education on fundamentals of radiology including radiation biology, a nation-wide questionnaire survey had been performed at medical schools and different co-medical courses in Japanese universities, during the period of 2004 and 2005. The survey results showed: (1) Difference in teaching hours for education on radiation between medical schools with and without department or division of radiation biology or radiation-related field. (2) Teaching hours for education on radiation in nursing course were very limited among the co-medical courses. Although, some improvement have been found about the state of education on radiation risk at medical schools, after the disaster of nuclear accident at Fukushima No.1 Nuclear Power Plant of TEPCO in March 2011. However, still much more effort t is needed to improve basic education on radiation. Science Council of Japan issued the recommendation on September 4, 2014 'Making radiation health risk education compulsory in medical education'. The working group for this purpose was set up under the Council of Head of National Medical Schools of Japan, on January 28, 2015. Here, we describe the details and current issues regarding radiation risk education in medical schools of Japan, as well as the efforts required for its betterment. (author)

  7. CKM Phenomenology and B-mesons physics-present status and current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.

    2004-01-01

    We review the status of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix elements and the CP-violating phases in the CKM-unitarity triangle. The emphasis in these lecture notes is on B-meson physics, through we also review the current status and issues in the light quark sector of this matrix. Selected applications of theoretical methods in QCD used in the interpretation of data are given and some of the issues restricting the theoretical precision on the CKM matrix elements discussed. The overall consistency of the CKM theory with the available data in flavour physics is impressive and we quantify this consistency. Current data also show some anomalies which, however, are not yet statistically significant. They are discussed briefly. some benchmark measurements that remain to be done in experiments at the B-factories and hadron colliders are listed. Together with the already achieved results, they will provide unprecedented test of the CKM theory and by the same token may lead to the discovery of new physics. (Author) 284 refs

  8. Current Issues with Environmental Barrier Coatings for Ceramics and Ceramic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N.

    2004-01-01

    The environmental barrier coating (EBC) for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites and Si3N4 ceramics is an emerging field as the application of silicon-based ceramics in the gas turbine engine hot section is on the horizon, both for aero and industrial gas turbines. EBC is an enabling technology for silicon-based ceramics because these materials without an EBC cannot be used in combustion environments due to rapid surface recession. Significant progress in EBC development has been made during the last decade through various government-sponsored programs. Current EBCs are based on silicon, mullite (3Al2O3-2SiO2) and BSAS (barium strontium aluminum silicate with celsian structure). Volatility of BSAS, BSAS-silica chemical reaction, and low melting point of silicon limit temperature capability of current EBCs to about 1350 C for long-term applications. There is a need for higher temperature EBCs as the temperature capability of silicon-based ceramics continue to increase. Therefore, research is underway to develop EBCs with improved temperature capability compared to current EBCs. The current status and issues with the advanced EBC development efforts will be discussed.

  9. Implications of Current Ecological Thinking for Biodiversity Conservation: a Review of the Salient Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabatha J. Wallington

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Given escalating concern worldwide about the loss of biodiversity, and given biodiversity's centrality to quality of life, it is imperative that current ecological knowledge fully informs societal decision making. Over the past two decades, ecological science has undergone many significant shifts in emphasis and perspective, which have important implications for how we manage ecosystems and species. In particular, a shift has occurred from the equilibrium paradigm to one that recognizes the dynamic, non-equilibrium nature of ecosystems. Revised thinking about the spatial and temporal dynamics of ecological systems has important implications for management. Thus, it is of growing concern to ecologists and others that these recent developments have not been translated into information useful to managers and policy makers. Many conservation policies and plans are still based on equilibrium assumptions. A fundamental difficulty with integrating current ecological thinking into biodiversity policy and management planning is that field observations have yet to provide compelling evidence for many of the relationships suggested by non-equilibrium ecology. Yet despite this scientific uncertainty, management and policy decisions must still be made. This paper was motivated by the need for considered scientific debate on the significance of current ideas in theoretical ecology for biodiversity conservation. This paper aims to provide a platform for such discussion by presenting a critical synthesis of recent ecological literature that (1 identifies core issues in ecological theory, and (2 explores the implications of current ecological thinking for biodiversity conservation.

  10. Medicare Part D-a roundtable discussion of current issues and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, Donald C; Evans, Steven; Januska, Jeff; Lee, Helen Y; Lewis, Sonya J; Nolan, Steve R; Noga, Mark; Stemple, Charles; Thapar, Kishan

    2009-01-01

    Medicare Part D was introduced with a goal of providing access to prescription drug coverage for all Medicare beneficiaries. Regulatory mandates and the changing landscape of health care require continued evaluation of the state of the Part D benefit. To review the current state of plan offerings and highlight key issues regarding the administration of the Part D benefit. The Part D drug benefit continues to evolve. The benefit value appears to be diluted compared to the benefit value of large employer plans. Regulatory restrictions mandated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) are reported to inhibit the ability of plans to create an effective, competitive drug benefit for Medicare beneficiaries. Management in this restrictive environment impedes competitive price negotiations and formulary coverage issues continue to create confusion especially for patients with chronic diseases. The doughnut hole coverage gap represents a significant cost-shifting issue for beneficiaries that may impact medication adherence and persistence. To address these and other challenges, CMS is working to improve the quality of care for Part D beneficiaries by designing and supporting demonstration projects. Although these projects are in different stages, all stakeholders are hopeful that they will lead to the development of best practices by plans to help manage their beneficiaries more efficiently. A significant number of Medicare beneficiaries are currently receiving prescription drug benefits through Part D. The true value of this benefit has been called into question as a result of plan design parameters that lead to cost-shifting, an increasing burden for enrollees. Concerns regarding the ability to provide a competitive plan given the stringent rules and regulations have been voiced by plan administrators. In an effort to drive toward evidence-based solutions, CMS is working to improve the overall quality of care through numerous demonstration projects.

  11. Implications of higher energy - summary of benefits, issues, commissioning cost, SEU, Cryo, QPS margins, Potential availability issues

    CERN Document Server

    Alemany, R

    2012-01-01

    The LHC is technically almost ready to run at 4 TeV per beam in 2012. Nevertheless, a review of the advantages and disadvantages of such an energy step should be carefully made before taking this decision. There fore, this paper will summarize the benefits from the physics point of view; the potential issues like a possible increase of Single Event Errors , Unidentified Flying Objects, or a significant decrease of the quench margin from beam losses that, all in all , could lead to availability issues, compromising the integrated luminosity. And last but not least, the commissioning cost will be addressed.

  12. The current state of the California biomass energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, G.P.

    1994-01-01

    During the decade of the 1980s the California biomass energy industry grew from a few isolated facilities located mostly at pulp mills into the largest biomass energy industry in the world. Currently, more than fifty biomass powered electricity generating facilities provide the state with some 850 Megawatts (MW) of generating capacity, most of it interconnected to the state's electric utility systems. Each year, more than ten million tons of wood and agricultural wastes in the state are converted into fuel, rather than being disposed of using conventional, environmentally costly methods like open burning and landfill burial. As the 1980s began, the California biomass energy industry was in a nascent state. Optimism was blooming within the wood-products and agricultural sectors of California, who foresaw an opportunity to turn costly wastes into profits. At the same time, the independent energy industry itself was being launched. Interest in biomass energy development was spreading to the engineering and construction industries and the financial community as well. A great variety of firms and individuals were engaged in the development of biomass power plants and biomass fuel sources. The second half of the 1980s saw the fruits of the developmental activity that began in the first half of the decade. Biomass energy facilities were entering construction and coming on-line in increasing numbers, and the demand for biomass fuels was increasing in step. As the decade was coming to an end, biomass fuel supplies were hard put to meet the demand, yet a huge number of new facilities entered operation in 1990. This extreme growth spurt of new generating capacity caused a fuel crisis and a shake-out in the industry just as it was entering full-scale operation. The Crisis of Success had been reached. More recently an equilibrium has been achieved in which fuel prices are at levels that produce adequate supplies, while allowing profitable operations at the power plants

  13. Developing an Analytical Framework for Argumentation on Energy Consumption Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hui; Mehl, Cathy E.; Lan, Deborah H.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to develop a framework for analyzing the argumentation practice of high school students and high school graduates. We developed the framework in a specific context--how energy consumption activities such as changing diet, converting forests into farmlands, and choosing transportation modes affect the carbon cycle. The…

  14. Wind energy in China. Current scenario and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changliang, Xia; Zhanfeng, Song

    2009-01-01

    Wind power in China registered a record level of expansion recently, and has doubled its total capacity every year since 2004. Many experts believe that China will be central to the future of the global wind energy market. Consequently, the growth pattern of wind power in China may be crucial to the further development of the global wind market. This paper firstly presented an overview of wind energy potential in China and reviewed the national wind power development course in detail. Based on the installed wind capacity in China over the past 18 years and the technical potential of wind energy resources, the growth pattern was modeled in this study for the purpose of prospect analysis, in order to obtain projections concerning the development potential. The future perspectives of wind energy development in China are predicted and analyzed. This study provides a comprehensive overview of the current status of wind power in China and some insights into the prospects of China's wind power market, which is emerging as a new superpower in the global wind industry. (author)

  15. Compilation of current high energy physics experiments - Sept. 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addis, L.; Odian, A.; Row, G. M.; Ward, C. E. W.; Wanderer, P.; Armenteros, R.; Joos, P.; Groves, T. H.; Oyanagi, Y.; Arnison, G. T. J.; Antipov, Yu; Barinov, N.

    1978-09-01

    This compilation of current high-energy physics experiments is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and the nine participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), KEK, Rutherford (RHEL), Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. Nominally, the compilation includes summaries of all high-energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about June 1978, and had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1975. The experimental summaries are supplemented with three indexes to the compilation, several vocabulary lists giving names or abbreviations used, and a short summary of the beams at each of the laboratories (except Rutherford). The summaries themselves are included on microfiche. (RWR)

  16. An energy-efficient, adiabatic electrode stimulator with inductive energy recycling and feedback current regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfin, Scott K; Sarpeshkar, Rahul

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we present a novel energy-efficient electrode stimulator. Our stimulator uses inductive storage and recycling of energy in a dynamic power supply. This supply drives an electrode in an adiabatic fashion such that energy consumption is minimized. It also utilizes a shunt current-sensor to monitor and regulate the current through the electrode via feedback, thus enabling flexible and safe stimulation. Since there are no explicit current sources or current limiters, wasteful energy dissipation across such elements is naturally avoided. The dynamic power supply allows efficient transfer of energy both to and from the electrode and is based on a DC-DC converter topology that we use in a bidirectional fashion in forward-buck or reverse-boost modes. In an exemplary electrode implementation intended for neural stimulation, we show how the stimulator combines the efficiency of voltage control and the safety and accuracy of current control in a single low-power integrated-circuit built in a standard .35 μm CMOS process. This stimulator achieves a 2x-3x reduction in energy consumption as compared to a conventional current-source-based stimulator operating from a fixed power supply. We perform a theoretical analysis of the energy efficiency that is in accord with experimental measurements. This theoretical analysis reveals that further improvements in energy efficiency may be achievable with better implementations in the future. Our electrode stimulator could be widely useful for neural, cardiac, retinal, cochlear, muscular and other biomedical implants where low power operation is important.

  17. Energy confinement in a high-current reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Z.G.; Lee, G.S.; Diamond, P.H.

    1985-07-01

    The ion temperature gradient driven (eta/sub i/) mode is proposed as a candidate for the cause of anomalous transport in high current reversed field pinches. A 'four-field' fluid model is derived to describe the coupled nonlinear evolution of resistive interchange and eta/sub i/ modes. A renormalized theory is discussed, and the saturation level of the fluctuations is analytically estimated. Transport scalings are obtained, and their implications discussed. In particular, these results indicate that pellet injection is a potentially viable mechanism for improving energy confinement in a high temperature RFP

  18. Iran's energy policy current dilemmas and perspective for a sustainable energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massarrat, M.

    2005-01-01

    Iran is facing large challenges in the area of energy policy. In order to illuminate these challenges and the problems and possibilities they present, first I will analyze the current energy consumption patterns in Iran as well as the energy policy of the Iranian government-Including its atomic energy programs. Based on this analysis, I will then formulate alternative concepts for Iran's future energy and national security policy. The increase in energy usage in Iran is distinctly out of proportion with the development of economic productivity. Negative structural characteristics of this system are: first, an above-average energy intensity; second, an increase in energy consumption in the traffic sector; third, a high growth rate in the use of electrical energy; and lastly, an above-average amount of stress to the environment. Traditionally, Iran's energy policy has focused on satisfying the growing demand for energy by oil and, in the last fifteen years, by successively expanding natural gas. However, the further development of the natural gas supply only makes sense within the context of a holistic energy policy, which takes into account the principles of sustainable development. In the short term, such a policy would take advantage of both considerable energy-saving techniques, as well as potential renewable energy sources. In the long term, such a policy would strive for the complete transfer to renewable energy sources and technology. The atomic energy program is not a good answer to the future energy needs of Iran, and better solutions should be envisaged for Iran's legitimate security concerns

  19. Quantum dot as spin current generator and energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szukiewicz, Barbara; Wysokiński, Karol I.

    2015-05-01

    The thermoelectric transport in the device composed of a central nanoscopic system in contact with two electrodes and subject to the external magnetic field of Zeeman type has been studied. The device can support pure spin current in the electrodes and may serve as a source of the temperature induced spin currents with possible applications in spintronics. The system may also be used as an energy harvester. We calculate its thermodynamic efficiency η and the power output P. The maximal efficiency of the device reaches the Carnot value when the device works reversibly but with the vanishing power. The interactions between carriers diminish the maximal efficiency of the device, which under the constant load drops well below the Carnot limit but may exceed the Curzon-Ahlborn limit. While the effect of intradot Coulomb repulsion on η depends on the parameters, the interdot/interlevel interaction strongly diminishes the device efficiency.

  20. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Five Important Issues We Aren’t Discussing (But Probably Should Be

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Cooney Horvath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS is a neuromodulatory device often publicized for its ability to enhance cognitive and behavioral performance. These enhancement claims, however, are predicated upon electrophysiological evidence and descriptions which are far from conclusive. In fact, a review of the literature reveals a number of important experimental and technical issues inherent with this device that are simply not being discussed in any meaningful manner. In this paper, we will consider five of these topics. The first, inter-subject variability, explores the extensive between- and within-group differences found within the tDCS literature and highlights the need to properly examine stimulatory response at the individual level. The second, intra-subject reliability, reviews the lack of data concerning tDCS response reliability over time and emphasizes the importance of this knowledge for appropriate stimulatory application. The third, sham stimulation and blinding, draws attention to the importance (yet relative lack of proper control and blinding practices in the tDCS literature. The fourth, motor and cognitive interference, highlights the often overlooked body of research that suggests typical behaviors and cognitions undertaken during or following tDCS can impair or abolish the effects of stimulation. Finally, the fifth, electric current influences, underscores several largely ignored variables (such as hair thickness and electrode attachments methods influential to tDCS electric current density and flow.Through this paper, we hope to increase awareness and start an ongoing dialogue of these important issues which speak to the efficacy, reliability, and mechanistic foundations of tDCS.

  1. Current Issues in the Neurology and Genetics of Learning-Related Traits and Disorders: Introduction to the Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilger, Jeffrey W.

    2001-01-01

    This introductory article briefly describes each of the following eight articles in this special issue on the neurology and genetics of learning related disorders. It notes the greater appreciation of learning disability as a set of complex disorders with broad and intricate neurological bases and of the large individual differences in how these…

  2. Neutronics issues and inertial fusion energy: a summary of findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latkowski, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    We have analyzed and compared five major inertial fusion energy (IFE) and two representative magnetic fusion energy (MFE) power plant designs for their environment, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) characteristics. Our work has focussed upon the neutronics of each of the designs and the resulting radiological hazard indices. The calculation of a consistent set of hazard indices allows comparisons to be made between the designs. Such comparisons enable identification of trends in fusion ES ampersand H characteristics and may be used to increase the likelihood of fusion achieving its full potential with respect to ES ampersand H characteristics. The present work summarizes our findings and conclusions. This work emphasizes the need for more research in low-activation materials and for the experimental measurement of radionuclide release fractions under accident conditions

  3. Current status of wind energy and wind energy policy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaniktepe, B.; Savrun, M.M.; Koroglu, T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Present installations of wind power in the world. • Focus on the current state, potential, and development of Turkey’s wind energy. • Explain the institutional framework and support/incentive mechanisms in Turkey. • Investigate and give information about the new Turkish Renewable Energy Law. - Abstract: Over the past decades, the importance of renewable and sustainable energy resources has increased in the world due to both the rapid increase in energy demand and disadvantages of the fossil fuels. Many countries, such as Turkey, aim to increase the use of renewable and sustainable energy sources with different incentive mechanisms. In parallel with these incentive methods being implemented, wind energy capacity in Turkey has a remarkable increase in the growing rates of renewable energy sources according to installed wind power. Up to now, several wind power projects have been developed at different regions of Turkey. This paper aims to analyze the potential and development of wind energy systems in Turkey. Besides, the current usage and development of wind power installations have been explored for the World and Turkey in detail at the end of the 2011. Furthermore, this study also presents tax exemption, support, and incentive mechanisms to develop new wind energy investments in Turkey

  4. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium ion electric vehicle batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, L.J.; Ring, S.; Hammel, C.J.

    1995-09-01

    The lithium ion system considered in this report uses lithium intercalation compounds as both positive and negative electrodes and has an organic liquid electrolyte. Oxides of nickel, cobalt, and manganese are used in the positive electrode, and carbon is used in the negative electrode. This report presents health and safety issues, environmental issues, and shipping requirements for lithium ion electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A lithium-based electrochemical system can, in theory, achieve higher energy density than systems using other elements. The lithium ion system is less reactive and more reliable than present lithium metal systems and has possible performance advantages over some lithium solid polymer electrolyte batteries. However, the possibility of electrolyte spills could be a disadvantage of a liquid electrolyte system compared to a solid electrolyte. The lithium ion system is a developing technology, so there is some uncertainty regarding which materials will be used in an EV-sized battery. This report reviews the materials presented in the open literature within the context of health and safety issues, considering intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of material hazards, and safety testing. Some possible lithium ion battery materials are toxic, carcinogenic, or could undergo chemical reactions that produce hazardous heat or gases. Toxic materials include lithium compounds, nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and dimethoxyethane. Carcinogenic materials include nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and (possibly) cobalt compounds, copper, and polypropylene. Lithiated negative electrode materials could be reactive. However, because information about the exact compounds that will be used in future batteries is proprietary, ongoing research will determine which specific hazards will apply.

  5. Development of high current low energy H+ ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, A.T.; Crow, J.T.; Goebel, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this work is the development of an ion source suitable for double charge exchange of D + ions to D - ions in cesium or other vapor. Since the fraction of the D + which changes to D - may be as high as 0.35 in the energy below one keV, the process appears very favorable. What is desired is a source of several hundred cm 2 area, with a D + current density greater than, say 0.2A/cm 2 . Small angular spread is essential with up to about 0.1 radian being acceptable. A simple approach to this problem appears to be through fine mesh extraction electrodes. In this system a single grid facing the ion source plasma constitutes the entire extraction electrode system. If the potential difference between the grid and the source plasma is large compared to the ion energy at the plasma boundary, then the distance s 0 is just the Child-Langmuir distance corresponding to the ion current density J and the potential difference V 0 between the plasma and the grid

  6. Key Issues on Nuclear Energy Non-proliferation in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Whang, Joo Ho; Lee, Un Chul

    2005-01-01

    Energy demand in East Asia casts a significant challenge to sustainable economy development and socio-political stability in the region which has experienced tensions throughout the history. The energy demand in this region has been dramatically increased since the start of reform in PRC. DPRK is another challenge. The current electricity consumption in DPRK is around 10% of that in ROK. If the economy of PRC continuously grows to the level of neighboring states and if the living standard of DPRK reaches that of ROK, the energy and electricity demand in the region will certainly be out of control unless the proper measures are taken into actions from today. The only feasible energy option is the nuclear one. PRC already proclaimed its ambitious plan to deploy more than 30 reactors in the near future. In addition, a couple of the South Eastern Asian states expressed their willingness to introduce nuclear power plants in the future. The increase in the use of nuclear energy is expected to bring up the nuclear renaissance in the region. However, without the proper mechanisms to supply fresh fuels and to manage spent nuclear fuels with full compliance of nuclear energy nonproliferation, the new development will inevitably cause the instability in the region. So far many interesting proposals on nuclear cooperation in East Asia were announced. Unfortunately, none of them works out properly yet, partly because the old proposals were too political. To restart the engine of the nuclear cooperation and nonproliferation in the region, it is necessary to find out what would be the common interests of the region not so much related to politics. In this paper, some key technical issues are addressed for future regional joint studies

  7. Public Acceptance, a Key Issue of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.

    1996-01-01

    A brief history of public acceptance of nuclear energy in Slovenia is given. While in former Yugoslavia a problem of public acceptance virtually did not exist because of undemocratic social system, it grew larger and larger with the process of democratization in late eighties. The first democratic government in Slovenia had to abandon its original idea for an early closure of the nuclear power plant Krsko. In 1995 and 1996 there were two attempts to organize the national referendum about the future of the plant. The lessons learned from the public debates in recent years could help other countries entering the nuclear program to prepare and implement efficient public information strategy. (author)

  8. The Western Energy Corridor Initiative: Unconventional Fuel Development Issues, Impacts, and Management Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsberg, A.; Hagood, M.; Pasqualini, D.; Wood, T.; Wilson, C.; Witkowski, M.; Levitt, D.; Pawar, R.; Keating, G.; Ziock, H.

    2008-12-01

    The United States is increasingly dependent on imported oil and gas; commodities for which other nations are competing and for which future supply may be inadequate to support our transportation fuel needs. Therefore, a renewed interest in 'harder-to-get' unconventional fuels has emerged in both industry and government with directed focus on world class hydrocarbon resources within a corridor extending from Canada southward through the Rocky Mountain States. Within this Western Energy Corridor, co-located with significant conventional hydrocarbon and renewable energy resources, lie some of the world's richest unconventional hydrocarbon resources in oil shales, oil sands and coal for coal-to-liquid conversion. However, development of these resources poses substantial environmental concerns as well as increasing competition for limited resources of water and habitat. With large-scale energy development in the predominantly rural region, local communities, infrastructures, and economies will face increasing demands for roads, electricity, law enforcement, labor, and other support services. The Western Energy Corridor Initiative (WECI) seeks to develop an integrated assessment of the impacts of unconventional fuel development, the interrelationships of planned energy developments in different basins, and the resultant demands placed on the region. This initial WECI study focuses on two of the most important current issues for industry, regulators, and stakeholders -- the assessment of carbon and water resources issues, impacts, and management strategies. Through scenario analyses using coupled systems and process level models, this study investigates the viability of integrated development of multiple energy resources in a carbon neutral and environmentally acceptable manner, and the interrelationships of various energy resource development plans. The modeling framework is designed to extend to include infrastructure, employment, training, fiscal and economic demands

  9. Energy Consumption of Lactating Mothers: Current Situation and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fikawati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations on the adequacy of nutrient intake indicate that lactating mothers have higher nutritional needs than do pregnant mothers. High nutrient intake is necessary to help mothers recover after childbirth, produce milk, and maintain the quantity and quality of breast milk. It also prevents maternal malnutrition. Research has shown, however, that the dietary energy consumption of mothers during lactation was significantly lower than that during pregnancy. The current study explored the factors associated with decreased nutritional intake during maternal lactation. The study was conducted in March–April 2013, and the subjects were mothers with infants aged >6 months. Results revealed that the factors causing low dietary energy consumption among breastfeeding mothers were poor nutritional knowledge and attitude toward high energy intake requirements during lactation, lack of time to cook and eat because of infant care, reduced consumption of milk and supplements, dietary restrictions and prohibitions, and suboptimal advice from midwives/health personnel. Beginning from the antenatal care visit, health personnel should conduct effective counseling on the importance of nutrient intake during lactation. Advice should be provided not only to mothers, but also to their families to enable them to thoroughly support the mothers as they breastfeed their infants.

  10. Hydrology of and Current Monitoring Issues for the Chicago Area Waterway System, Northeastern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, James J.; Johnson, Kevin K.

    2015-10-28

    The Chicago Area Waterway System (CAWS) consists of a combination of natural and manmade channels that form an interconnected navigable waterway of approximately 90-plus miles in the metropolitan Chicago area of northeastern Illinois. The CAWS serves the area as the primary drainage feature, a waterway transportation corridor, and recreational waterbody. The CAWS was constructed by the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (MWRDGC). Completion of the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (initial portion of the CAWS) in 1900 breached a low drainage divide and resulted in a diversion of water from the Lake Michigan Basin. A U.S. Supreme Court decree (Consent Decree 388 U.S. 426 [1967] Modified 449 U.S. 48 [1980]) limits the annual diversion from Lake Michigan. While the State of Illinois is responsible for the diversion, the MWRDGC regulates and maintains water level and water quality within the CAWS by using several waterway control structures. The operation and control of water levels in the CAWS results in a very complex hydraulic setting characterized by highly unsteady flows. The complexity leads to unique gaging requirements and monitoring issues. This report provides a general discussion of the complex hydraulic setting within the CAWS and quantifies this information with examples of data collected at a range of flow conditions from U.S. Geological Survey streamflow gaging stations and other locations within the CAWS. Monitoring to address longstanding issues of waterway operation, as well as current (2014) emerging issues such as wastewater disinfection and the threat from aquatic invasive species, is included in the discussion.

  11. Various issues associated with laws concerning atomic energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Tadao.

    1989-01-01

    It the report, the legislation and policymaking systems, particularly for high-level radioactive wastes, in Japan and the U.S. are compared. Major legislation that reflects the policies for atomic energy in the U.S. includes: National Environmental Policy Act (1960, Nixon Administration), Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (1980, Carter Administration), Reagan's statement in October 1981, Nuclear Waste Policy Act (1982, Reagan Administration), 1986 Revision of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, and 1987 Revision of Nuclear Waste Policy Act. According to the basic concept specified in the revised Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Department of Energy is required to establish the 'Mission Plan'. The 1988 Mission Plan describes details of the wastes, MRS and repository as covered by the above-mentioned basic concept. The 1982 Nuclear Waste Policy Act and its 1987 revision focus procedures for policymaking concerning the treatment and disposal of wastes. In particular, the Act specifies the time sequence of the processes down to the waste disposal together with material-related processes including the material selection at the disposal site, and also clarifies the rights and obligations of the persons and organizations having the legal responsibility. (N.K.)

  12. Road safety in a globalised and more sustainable world: current issues and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Stijn; Risser, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Although many countries have had considerable success in reducing traffic injuries over recent decades, there are still some fundamental problems in this area. At the same time, there is increasing focus on road safety research and policy development in the context of globalisation, sustainability, liveability and health. This special section presents a selection of papers that were presented at the annual ICTCT workshop held on the 8th and 9th of November 2012 in Hasselt, Belgium, and accepted for publication in Accident Analysis and Prevention following the journal's reviewing procedure. The aim of the ICTCT workshop was to analyse road safety facts, data and visions for the future in the wider context of current issues and future challenges in road safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Domestic violence: a current issue to take into account in diagnostic imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Corraliza, E; Larrañaga Hernando, G; Neve Lete, I; Sánchez García, A

    2014-01-01

    Domestic violence is currently an issue of great political and social importance. The real incidence of domestic violence is difficult to determine due to the environment where it takes place and the reluctance of victims to report abuse. On the other hand, all types of violence represent an important public health problem. We report the case of a young woman who presented with thromboembolic phenomena at different sites due to domestic violence. We emphasize that it is necessary for radiologists and other healthcare professionals to consider the possibility of domestic violence when establishing the diagnosis. This can be important for determining the incidence of abuse, diminishing its sequela, and help increase its reporting. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Energy Current Cumulants in One-Dimensional Systems in Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Abhishek; Saito, Keiji; Roy, Anjan

    2018-06-01

    A recent theory based on fluctuating hydrodynamics predicts that one-dimensional interacting systems with particle, momentum, and energy conservation exhibit anomalous transport that falls into two main universality classes. The classification is based on behavior of equilibrium dynamical correlations of the conserved quantities. One class is characterized by sound modes with Kardar-Parisi-Zhang scaling, while the second class has diffusive sound modes. The heat mode follows Lévy statistics, with different exponents for the two classes. Here we consider heat current fluctuations in two specific systems, which are expected to be in the above two universality classes, namely, a hard particle gas with Hamiltonian dynamics and a harmonic chain with momentum conserving stochastic dynamics. Numerical simulations show completely different system-size dependence of current cumulants in these two systems. We explain this numerical observation using a phenomenological model of Lévy walkers with inputs from fluctuating hydrodynamics. This consistently explains the system-size dependence of heat current fluctuations. For the latter system, we derive the cumulant-generating function from a more microscopic theory, which also gives the same system-size dependence of cumulants.

  15. Current situation of energy conservation in high energy-consuming industries in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, D.Y.-L.; Yang, K.-H.; Hsu, C.-H.; Chien, M.-H.; Hong, G.-B.

    2007-01-01

    Growing concern in Taiwan has arisen about energy consumption and its adverse environmental impact. The current situation of energy conservation in high energy-consuming industries in Taiwan, including the iron and steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, textiles and electric/electrical industries has been presented. Since the energy consumption of the top 100 energy users (T100) comprised over 50% of total industry energy consumption, focusing energy consumption reduction efforts on T100 energy users can achieve significant results. This study conducted on-site energy audits of 314 firms in Taiwan during 2000-2004, and identified potential electricity savings of 1,022,656 MWH, fuel oil savings of 174,643 kiloliters (KL), steam coal savings of 98,620 ton, and natural gas (NG) savings of 10,430 kilo cubic meters. The total potential energy saving thus was 489,505 KL of crude oil equivalent (KLOE), representing a reduction of 1,447,841 ton in the carbon dioxide emissions, equivalent to the annual carbon dioxide absorption capacity of a 39,131-ha plantation forest

  16. CURRENT TRENDS IN THE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanya Zhivkova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy represents the amount of solar radiation per unit time on unit area. Solar energy is used to obtain thermal energy through solar, and electrical energy through exist for solar energy: passive and active. The utilization of solar energy is essential for the development of human civilization.

  17. CURRENT TRENDS IN THE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY

    OpenAIRE

    Vanya Zhivkova

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy represents the amount of solar radiation per unit time on unit area. Solar energy is used to obtain thermal energy through solar, and electrical energy through exist for solar energy: passive and active. The utilization of solar energy is essential for the development of human civilization.

  18. Phytosanitary irradiation of fresh tropical commodities in Hawaii: Generic treatments, commercial adoption, and current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follett, Peter A.; Weinert, Eric D.

    2012-01-01

    Hawaii is a pioneer in the use of phytosanitary irradiation. The commercial X-ray irradiation facility, Hawaii Pride LLC, has been shipping papaya and other tropical fruits and vegetables to the United States mainland using irradiation for 11 years. Irradiation is an approved treatment to control quarantine pests in 17 fruits and 7 vegetables for export from Hawaii to the US mainland. Hawaiian purple sweet potato is the highest volume product with annual exports of more than 12 million lbs (5500 t). The advent of generic radiation treatments for tephritid fruit flies (150 Gy) and other insects (400 Gy) will accelerate commodity export approvals and facilitate worldwide adoption. Lowering doses for specific pests and commodities can lower treatment costs and increase capacity owing to shorter treatment times, and will minimize any quality problems. Current impediments to wider adoption include the 1 kGy limit for fresh horticultural products, the labeling requirement, and non-acceptance of phytosanitary irradiation in Japan, the European Union, and elsewhere. Irradiation has potential as a treatment for unregulated imports to prevent new pest incursions. - Highlights: ► Irradiation is used to control quarantine insects in exported fresh commodities. ► Hawaii exported 5.7 t of tropical produce using irradiation in 2010. ► Generic radiation treatments will accelerate commodity export approvals. ► Lowering the dose for specific commodities will reduce costs/maintain quality. ► Current issues include the 1 kGy dose limit and labeling requirements.

  19. The importance of health advocacy in Canadian postgraduate medical education: current attitudes and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Alexander; Rose, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Health advocacy is currently a key component of medical education in North America. In Canada, Health Advocate is one of the seven roles included in the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada's CanMEDS competency framework. A literature search was undertaken to determine the current state of health advocacy in Canadian postgraduate medical education and to identify issues facing educators and learners with regards to health advocacy training. The literature revealed that the Health Advocate role is considered among the least relevant to clinical practice by educators and learners and among the most challenging to teach and assess. Furthermore learners feel their educational needs are not being met in this area. A number of key barriers affecting health advocacy education were identified including limited published material on the subject, lack of clarity within the role, insufficient explicit role modeling in practice, and lack of a gold standard for assessment. Health advocacy is defined and its importance to medical practice is highlighted, using pediatric emergency medicine as an example. Increased published literature and awareness of the role, along with integration of the new 2015 CanMEDS framework, are important going forward to address concerns regarding the quality of postgraduate health advocacy education in Canada.

  20. Clinical decision support systems in hospital care using ubiquitous devices: Current issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mirza Mansoor; GholamHosseini, Hamid; Moqeem, Aasia A; Mirza, Farhaan; Lindén, Maria

    2017-11-01

    Supporting clinicians in decision making using advanced technologies has been an active research area in biomedical engineering during the past years. Among a wide range of ubiquitous systems, smartphone applications have been increasingly developed in healthcare settings to help clinicians as well as patients. Today, many smartphone applications, from basic data analysis to advanced patient monitoring, are available to clinicians and patients. Such applications are now increasingly integrating into healthcare for clinical decision support, and therefore, concerns around accuracy, stability, and dependency of these applications are rising. In addition, lack of attention to the clinicians' acceptability, as well as the low impact on the medical professionals' decision making, are posing more serious issues on the acceptability of smartphone applications. This article reviews smartphone-based decision support applications, focusing on hospital care settings and their overall impact of these applications on the wider clinical workflow. Additionally, key challenges and barriers of the current ubiquitous device-based healthcare applications are identified. Finally, this article addresses current challenges, future directions, and the adoption of mobile healthcare applications.

  1. The importance of health advocacy in Canadian postgraduate medical education: current attitudes and issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Poulton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health advocacy is currently a key component of medical education in North America. In Canada, Health Advocate is one of the seven roles included in the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada’s CanMEDS competency framework. Method: A literature search was undertaken to determine the current state of health advocacy in Canadian postgraduate medical education and to identify issues facing educators and learners with regards to health advocacy training. Results:  The literature revealed that the Health Advocate role is considered among the least relevant to clinical practice by educators and learners and among the most challenging to teach and assess. Furthermore learners feel their educational needs are not being met in this area. A number of key barriers affecting health advocacy education were identified including limited published material on the subject, lack of clarity within the role, insufficient explicit role modeling in practice, and lack of a gold standard for assessment. Health advocacy is defined and its importance to medical practice is highlighted, using pediatric emergency medicine as an example. Conclusions: Increased published literature and awareness of the role, along with integration of the new 2015 CanMEDS framework, are important going forward to address concerns regarding the quality of postgraduate health advocacy education in Canada.

  2. Transfusion medicine and solid organ transplant - Update and review of some current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, R S; Philip, J; Yadav, Pramod

    2013-04-01

    Transfusion medicine holds a place of prime importance in organ transplant surgeries. There is a huge demand of organs worldwide with long waiting periods before the organ is available for transplant. Currently the dependency on ABO and HLA matching has decreased considerably with the use of modern immunosuppressant drugs and transplant techniques. The greatest advance in clinical implementation of ABO-incompatible transplants came about through desensitization and isoagglutinin elimination techniques with immunoadsorption and anti-CD20 antibodies becoming the norm, and spleenectomy fading out. The implications and practices of transfusion medicine in organ transplant are also undergoing drastic changes. The practice of infusion of one unit of donor's blood preoperatively for immunomodulation is no longer practiced. Use of leuco-reduced products has shown decreasing trends of alloimmunization and graft rejection in cases of multiple surgeries related to organ transplants. Worldwide donor and recipient registry programmes are being setup and existing ones are being upgraded. Such a registry system has been opened in India for kidney transplant cases very recently. Due to such registry programmes the dependency on siblings and directed donations have decreased considerably. This review deals with some of the current issues contributing to the successful outcome of mismatched transplants and the changing concepts of transfusion medicine related to it.

  3. Selected legal and institutional issues related to Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanda, V. P.

    1979-06-01

    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), an attractive alternative to traditional energy sources, is still in the early stages of development. To facilitate OTEC commercialization, it is essential that a legal and institutional framework be designed now so as to resolve uncertainties related to OTEC development, primarily involving jurisdictional, regulatory, and environmental issues. The jurisdictional issues raised by OTEC use are dependent upon the site of an OTEC facility and its configuration; i.e., whether the plant is a semipermanent fixture located offshore or a migrating plant ship that provides a source of energy for industry at sea. These issues primarily involve the division of authority between the Federal Government and the individual coastal states. The regulatory issues raised are largely speculative: they involve the adaptation of existing mechanisms to OTEC operation. Finally, the environmental issues raised center around compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) as well as international agreements. 288 references.

  4. Canadian electricity trends and issues : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    This report examines the supply and demand of electricity in Canada and provides a province by province analysis of trade, regulatory developments and electricity prices. The Canadian electricity market is regionally diverse, as evidenced by the variety of fuels used for power generation and the differences in market structure, regulation and pricing. Hydro accounts for 61 per cent of Canadian electricity generation. Other sources include coal (18 per cent), nuclear (13 per cent), natural gas (4 per cent) and oil and renewables (4 per cent). Most new power generation projects in Canada are expected to be gas-fired leading to a convergence between natural gas and electricity markets. Most provincial electricity markets are being adequately supplied, even with rising power demands. Alberta restructured its electricity market over a five year period culminating in full retail access on 1 January 2001. While power supply has been relatively tight in Alberta, new generation capacity is expected to become available over the next few years. Ontario plans to implement full retail access in May 2002. Most other provinces are implementing wholesale access. Canadian residential electricity prices are among the lowest of the industrialized countries, and tend to be lowest in hydro-rich provinces. Most hydro-rich provinces have surplus energy available for domestic and international trade. Some provinces are undergoing basic changes with respect to the restructuring of their markets through the unbundling of power generation, transmission and distribution services. 53 figs

  5. International institutions for nuclear energy: issues of assessment and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, W.R.

    1978-01-01

    Among the more attractive of candidate institutions and rules-of-trade for advanced fuel cycles are: extension of full-scope International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards as a condition of fuel assurances or technology transfer; international jurisdiction over spent fuel (custody or ownership); an IAEA remote near-real-time verification system for spent fuel remaining under national management; a convention on uniform nuclear fuel identification (tagging) designed to assist safeguards planners, trace diversionary pathways, assign liability, and enhance the credibility of fuel-cycle sanctions; international nuclear service centers for bulk processing operations (heavy water production, enrichment and reprocessing); and fuel-cycle specific regulations. Some risk-reduction measures, for example on internationally managed, remote shutdown and restart-delay system for bulk processing facilities, raise questions of acceptability. Despite uncertainties about international acceptability and hazards of enrichment technology transfer later in this century, it appears feasible to reduce proliferation risks associated with nuclear fuel cycles - existing ones and those under review within the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE). 6 refereces

  6. Academic plastic surgery: a study of current issues and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetrenne, Eleonore; Kosins, Aaron M; Wirth, Garrett A; Bui, Albert; Evans, Gregory R D; Wells, James H

    2008-06-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the role of a full-time academic plastic surgeon, (2) to define the indicators predictive of a successful career in academic plastic surgery, and (3) to understand the current issues that will affect future trends in the practice of academic plastic surgery. A questionnaire was developed to evaluate the role of current full-time academic plastic surgeons and to understand the current issues and future challenges facing academic plastic surgery. Each plastic surgery program director in the United States was sent the survey for distribution among all full-time academic plastic surgeons. Over a 6-week period, responses from 143 full-time academic plastic surgeons (approximately 31%) were returned. Fifty-three percent of respondents had been academic plastic surgeons for longer than 10 years. Seventy-three percent of respondents defined academic plastic surgeons as clinicians who are teachers and researchers. However, 53% of respondents believed that academic plastic surgeons were not required to teach or practice within university hospitals/academic centers. The 3 factors reported most frequently as indicative of a successful career in academic plastic surgery were peer recognition, personal satisfaction, and program reputation. Dedication and motivation were the personal characteristics rated most likely to contribute to academic success. Forty-four percent of respondents were unable to identify future academic plastic surgeons from plastic surgery residency applicants, and 27% were not sure. Most (93%) of the respondents believed that academic surgery as practiced today will change. The overall job description of a full-time academic plastic surgeon remains unchanged (teacher and researcher). Whereas peer recognition, personal satisfaction, and program reputation were most frequently cited as indicative of a successful plastic surgery career, financial success was rated the least indicative. Similarly, whereas the

  7. Current status and future expectation concerning probabilistic risk assessment of NPPs. 1. Features and issues of probabilistic risk assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) could play an important role in assuring safety of NPPs. However PRA had not always effectively used, which was indicated in Japanese government's report on Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. At the Risk Technical Committee (RTC) of Standards Committee of Atomic Energy Society of Japan, preparation of standards (implementing criteria) focusing on PRA methodology and investigation on basic philosophy for use of PRA had been in progress. Based on activities of RTC, a serial in three articles including this described current status and future expectation concerning probabilistic risk assessment of NPPs. This article introduced features and issues of PRA methodology related to the use of PRA. Features of PRA methodology could be shown as (1) systematic and comprehensive understanding of risk, (2) support of grading approach, (3) identification of effective safety upgrade measures and (4) quantitative understanding of effects of uncertainty. Issues of PRA methodology were (1) extension of PRA application area, (2) upgrade of PRA methodology, (3) quality assurance of PRA, (4) treatment of uncertainty and (5) quantitative evaluation criteria. (T. Tanaka)

  8. Feasibility of Tidal and Ocean Current Energy in False Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Bruce Albert [Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association, Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States)

    2014-05-07

    The Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association was awarded a U.S. Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program grant (DE-EE0005624) for the Feasibility of Tidal and Ocean Current Energy in False Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (Project). The goal of the Project was to perform a feasibility study to determine if a tidal energy project would be a viable means to generate electricity and heat to meet long-term fossil fuel use reduction goals, specifically to produce at least 30% of the electrical and heating needs of the tribally-owned buildings in False Pass. The Project Team included the Aleut Region organizations comprised of the Aleutian Pribilof Island Association (APIA), and Aleutian Pribilof Island Community Development Association (APICDA); the University of Alaska Anchorage, ORPC Alaska a wholly-owned subsidiary of Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), City of False Pass, Benthic GeoScience, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The following Project objectives were completed: collected existing bathymetric, tidal, and ocean current data to develop a basic model of current circulation at False Pass, measured current velocities at two sites for a full lunar cycle to establish the viability of the current resource, collected data on transmission infrastructure, electrical loads, and electrical generation at False Pass, performed economic analysis based on current costs of energy and amount of energy anticipated from and costs associated with the tidal energy project conceptual design and scoped environmental issues. Utilizing circulation modeling, the Project Team identified two target sites with strong potential for robust tidal energy resources in Isanotski Strait and another nearer the City of False Pass. In addition, the Project Team completed a survey of the electrical infrastructure, which identified likely sites of interconnection and clarified required transmission distances from the tidal energy resources. Based on resource and electrical data

  9. The file of the national debate on energy transition. Knowledge base, Current status, Commitments, Stakes, The debate. Let us imagine together our tomorrow's energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batho, Delphine

    2013-02-01

    Within the perspective of the French national debate on energy transition, four main issues are to be addressed: how to move towards energy efficiency and sobriety, which trajectory to reach the defined energy mix in 2025 and which types of possible scenarios by 2030 and 2050 while complying with climate-related commitments of France, which choices in terms of renewable energies and new energy technologies with which strategy of industry and land development, which costs, benefits and financing for energy transition. Within this context, this publication aims at providing all those who want to be informed or participate with information on the current situation of energy in France, in Europe and in the World. It also aims at presenting the main social, economic and ecologic challenges of energy transition. It proposes contributions and opinions of organisations which belong to the Debate National Council. Thus, after a presentation of the energy situation, the report recalls and comments the various commitments: European and international commitments, French legal frameworks and existing laws, additional political commitments. The main challenges are then discussed as the main debate issues: energy consumption management, energy mix equilibrium, development of the renewable energy sector and of new energy technologies, costs, benefits and financing. Transverse challenges are discussed, such as: energy safety, economic, social, environmental, international, and governance stakes. Finally, debate objectives, its mains steps, its locations and bodies are presented

  10. Nuclear energy: current situation and prospects to 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Sue

    2007-04-15

    For close to half a century nuclear fission has been providing reliable supplies of electricity to the UK, with virtually no emissions of carbon dioxide. Over that period, the UK nuclear industry has avoided the emission of over one and a half billion tonnes of CO2. Yet no nuclear plant has been built in the UK for over two decades even though many of the stations in our current fleet are now within a decade or so of the end of their lifetime. Without new plants being ordered soon, the UK's nuclear capacity will decline dramatically, from 23% today to 3% post-2020--just as considerations of supply security and climate change are becoming increasingly important. Elsewhere in the world, many countries such as China, India, Japan, South Korea, Finland and France are building new stations. Other countries such as the USA, South Africa, and some nations that currently do not have nuclear stations (such as Indonesia and Poland) are making preparations for future nuclear stations. Globally capacity factors for nuclear plants are higher than they have ever been, averaging around 85% and with the best stations achieving well over 90%. Lifetime can be 60 years. That the economics of such stations compete well with other technologies is well founded and easily verifiable--especially in the face of rising fossil fuel prices and the pricing in of costs for CO2 emissions--both of which stand to improve the economics of nuclear energy still further. Waste volumes arising from modern plants are just a fraction of those of some earlier stations, and the technologies are in place to deal with them safely and effectively. Following recent reviews and international developments, there is growing confidence that internationally available competitive designs of nuclear plant will provide part of the solution to the UK's long-term energy needs.

  11. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium polymer electric vehicle batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D; Hammel, C J

    1995-02-01

    Lithium solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) batteries are being investigated by researchers worldwide as a possible energy source for future electric vehicles (EVs). One of the main reasons for interest in lithium SPE battery systems is the potential safety features they offer as compared to lithium battery systems using inorganic and organic liquid electrolytes. However, the development of lithium SPE batteries is still in its infancy, and the technology is not envisioned to be ready for commercialization for several years. Because the research and development (R&D) of lithium SPE battery technology is of a highly competitive nature, with many companies both in the United States and abroad pursuing R&D efforts, much of the information concerning specific developments of lithium SPE battery technology is proprietary. This report is based on information available only through the open literature (i.e., information available through library searches). Furthermore, whereas R&D activities for lithium SPE cells have focused on a number of different chemistries, for both electrodes and electrolytes, this report examines the general environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues common to many lithium SPE chemistries. However, EH&S issues for specific lithium SPE cell chemistries are discussed when sufficient information exists. Although lithium batteries that do not have a SPE are also being considered for EV applications, this report focuses only on those lithium battery technologies that utilize the SPE technology. The lithium SPE battery technologies considered in this report may contain metallic lithium or nonmetallic lithium compounds (e.g., lithium intercalated carbons) in the negative electrode.

  12. Energy from biomass and biofuels. Current market initiatives. Altener seminar, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 26 May 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Biomass, organic wastes, hydroelectric power, wind power and solar energy contribute to approximately 6% of the current energy demand in the European Union (EU). Goals are set by the EU to double this share in the energy production in the next decade. The EU Altener Programme aims to increase the use of renewables as source of energy, the trade in renewable energy products and related equipment and services, supporting a wide variety of projects, sector and market studies, events and technical standards. The Agricultural and Forestrial Biomass Network (AFB-Nett) promotes and stimulates, as part of the Altener Programme, the implementation and commercial exploitation of energy from biomass by the initiation of among other things business opportunities and information exchange. The AFB-Nett National Coordinator for the Netherlands, Novem, organised in this respect the title seminar. 85 participants from several European countries attended presentations covering the whole bio-energy chain: from information on biomass supply, through trade, logistics and pretreatment issues up to discussion on conversion technologies. It became clear to the audience that it is a necessary condition to take into account the total chain when developing projects in a specific field of this chain. However, non-technical aspects must be considered as well. Therefore, in developing business opportunities the challenge remains to connect all good project initiatives covering parts of the chain into a few 'whole-chain'-projects

  13. A Helicopter View of the Special Issue on Wave Energy Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Vicinanza

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to provide the reader with an overview of the Special Issue on Wave Energy Converters. Through 16 contributions from authors of 10 different countries, a number of key topics have been tackled, including resource assessment, engineering design, and financial analysis. As a whole, the Special Issue forms an interesting and helpful compendium on the state of the art of wave energy extraction and exploitation.

  14. Thermal energy and bootstrap current in fusion reactor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.

    1993-01-01

    For DT fusion reactors with prescribed alpha particle heating power P α , plasma volume V and burn temperature i > ∼ 10 keV specific relations for the thermal energy content, bootstrap current, central plasma pressure and other quantities are derived. It is shown that imposing P α and V makes these relations independent of the magnitudes of the density and temperature, i.e. they only depend on P α , V and shape factors or profile parameters. For model density and temperature profiles analytic expressions for these shape factors and for the factor C bs in the bootstrap current formula I bs ∼ C bs (a/R) 1/2 β p I p are given. In the design of next-step devices and fusion reactors, the fusion power is a fixed quantity. Prescription of the alpha particle heating power and plasma volume results in specific relations which can be helpful for interpreting computer simulations and for the design of fusion reactors. (author) 5 refs

  15. Current funding and financing issues in the Australian hospice and palliative care sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Robert; Eagar, Kathy; Currow, David; Green, Janette

    2009-07-01

    This article overviews current funding and financing issues in the Australian hospice and palliative care sector. Within Australia, the major responsibilities for managing the health care system are shared between two levels of government. Funding arrangements vary according to the type of care. The delivery of palliative care services is a State/Territory responsibility. Recently, almost all States/Territories have developed overarching frameworks to guide the development of palliative care policies, including funding and service delivery structures. Palliative care services in Australia comprise a mix of specialist providers, generalist providers, and support services in the public, nongovernment, and private sectors. The National Palliative Care Strategy is a joint strategy of the Commonwealth and States that commenced in 2002 and includes a number of major issues. Following a national study in 1996, the Australian National Subacute and Nonacute Patient (AN-SNAP) system was endorsed as the national casemix classification for subacute and nonacute care. Funding for palliative care services varies depending on the type of service and the setting in which it is provided. There is no national model for funding inpatient or community services, which is a State/Territory responsibility. A summary of funding arrangements is provided in this article. Palliative care continues to evolve at a rapid rate in Australia. Increasingly flexible evidence-based models of care delivery are emerging. This article argues that it will be critical for equally flexible funding and financing models to be developed. Furthermore, it is critical that palliative care patients can be identified, classified, and costed. Casemix classifications such as AN-SNAP represent an important starting point but further work is required.

  16. Obtaining subjects' consent to publish identifying personal information: current practices and identifying potential issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Akiko; Dowa, Yuri; Murakami, Hiromi; Kosugi, Shinji

    2013-11-25

    In studies publishing identifying personal information, obtaining consent is regarded as necessary, as it is impossible to ensure complete anonymity. However, current journal practices around specific points to consider when obtaining consent, the contents of consent forms and how consent forms are managed have not yet been fully examined. This study was conducted to identify potential issues surrounding consent to publish identifying personal information. Content analysis was carried out on instructions for authors and consent forms developed by academic journals in four fields (as classified by Journal Citation Reports): medicine general and internal, genetics and heredity, pediatrics, and psychiatry. An online questionnaire survey of editors working for journals that require the submission of consent forms was also conducted. Instructions for authors were reviewed for 491 academic journals (132 for medicine general and internal, 147 for genetics and heredity, 100 for pediatrics, and 112 for psychiatry). Approximately 40% (203: 74 for medicine general and internal, 31 for genetics and heredity, 58 for pediatrics, and 40 for psychiatry) stated that subject consent was necessary. The submission of consent forms was required by 30% (154) of the journals studied, and 10% (50) provided their own consent forms for authors to use. Two journals mentioned that the possible effects of publication on subjects should be considered. Many journal consent forms mentioned the difficulties in ensuring complete anonymity of subjects, but few addressed the study objective, the subjects' right to refuse consent and the withdrawal of consent. The main reason for requiring the submission of consent forms was to confirm that consent had been obtained. Approximately 40% of journals required subject consent to be obtained. However, differences were observed depending on the fields. Specific considerations were not always documented. There is a need to address issues around the study

  17. Obtaining subjects’ consent to publish identifying personal information: current practices and identifying potential issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In studies publishing identifying personal information, obtaining consent is regarded as necessary, as it is impossible to ensure complete anonymity. However, current journal practices around specific points to consider when obtaining consent, the contents of consent forms and how consent forms are managed have not yet been fully examined. This study was conducted to identify potential issues surrounding consent to publish identifying personal information. Methods Content analysis was carried out on instructions for authors and consent forms developed by academic journals in four fields (as classified by Journal Citation Reports): medicine general and internal, genetics and heredity, pediatrics, and psychiatry. An online questionnaire survey of editors working for journals that require the submission of consent forms was also conducted. Results Instructions for authors were reviewed for 491 academic journals (132 for medicine general and internal, 147 for genetics and heredity, 100 for pediatrics, and 112 for psychiatry). Approximately 40% (203: 74 for medicine general and internal, 31 for genetics and heredity, 58 for pediatrics, and 40 for psychiatry) stated that subject consent was necessary. The submission of consent forms was required by 30% (154) of the journals studied, and 10% (50) provided their own consent forms for authors to use. Two journals mentioned that the possible effects of publication on subjects should be considered. Many journal consent forms mentioned the difficulties in ensuring complete anonymity of subjects, but few addressed the study objective, the subjects’ right to refuse consent and the withdrawal of consent. The main reason for requiring the submission of consent forms was to confirm that consent had been obtained. Conclusion Approximately 40% of journals required subject consent to be obtained. However, differences were observed depending on the fields. Specific considerations were not always documented. There is a need

  18. Current safety issues in the development of geological disposal of radioactive waste in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimbault, P.

    2002-01-01

    Deep geological disposal of high level and medium level long-lived waste in France is one of the three research paths defined by the law of 30th December 1991 on radioactive waste management. Research should be undertaken on: separation and transmutation of long-lived radionuclides in these waste; reversible or non reversible disposal in deep geological layers supported by investigations in underground laboratories; processes for conditioning and long term surface storage of these waste. In 2006, a global evaluation report on this research should be established by the Government and sent to the French Parliament. On this basis the Parliament should promulgate a law providing new objectives for the research and possibly presenting a framework for a deep disposal process. The French Nuclear Safety Authority has the responsibility to license the underground laboratories foreseen in the second research path and the nuclear facilities involved in the first and third research paths and make sure that existing high level and medium level long-lived waste currently produced are properly managed. It will give its advice on the safety aspects associated to the envisaged future management options. Its main concern is that results obtained in 2006 will be conclusive enough to take decisions for future orientations. Concerning the deep disposal option, under the responsibility of ANDRA (Agence Nationale pour la gestion des Dechets RAdioactifs), the construction of an underground laboratory has been authorized on the Bure site, in eastern France, and the shafts are under construction. The main issue is the level of investigations that may be performed in the host rock in order to support the feasibility study of a disposal concept on this site. Other issues are the elaboration of new safety standards to set a framework for a safety assessment of a disposal concept, the specifications for acceptance of waste packages in a future deep disposal, and relation of safety matters with

  19. Editorial : Introduction to Energy Strategy Reviews theme issue “Nuclear energy today & strategies for tomorrow”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogner, H.H.; Weijermars, R.

    2013-01-01

    Finding the optimum energy supply system is one of the aims of energy strategy research and nuclear energy is a much debated real option. Proponents of nuclear energy argue that there are no technologies without risks and that nuclear power is needed for meeting growing energy demand in the emerging

  20. The contribution of safety issues to public perceptions of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.; Thomas, Kerry

    1978-01-01

    Public opposition is an important consideration for those responsible for energy planning. An attitude model was applied to identify the underlying determinants of public perceptions of five energy systems: nuclear, coal, oil, solar and hydro. Empirical results are reported in which these energy systems were found to be perceived in terms of four basic dimensions: psychological aspects; economics benefits; socio-political implications; environmental and physical safety issues. For the total sample, safety issues made an appreciable contribution to attitudes toward all of the systems except nuclear energy, where it was not significant. A differential analysis of two sub-samples, those respondents PRO and CON nuclear energy, showed that benefits and safety issues were important determinants of PRO attitudes while CON attitudes were primarily due to psychological aspects and concerns about personal and political power. The role of technical information in the formation of public attitudes toward technological policies is discussed [fr

  1. Keeping current, June 1998. Issues 98: Securing the value of the federal Columbia River power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    This report focuses on issues which will enhance the value of the Columbia River for the future. Many important decisions must be made about the Bonneville Power Administration in the coming months. These issues include the following: cost management; future fish and wildlife funding; power markets, revenues and subscription; transmission issues; and risk management

  2. Securing the Value of the Federal Columbia River Power System, Keeping Current, June 1998, Issue 98.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-06-01

    This report focuses on issues which will enhance the value of the Columbia River for the future. Many important decisions must be made about the Bonneville Power Administration in the coming months. These issues include the following: cost management; future fish and wildlife funding; power markets, revenues and subscription; transmission issues; and risk management.

  3. Energy conservation: policy issues and end-use scenarios of savings potential. Part V. Energy efficient buildings: the causes of litigation against energy conservation building codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benenson, P.; Codina, R.; Cornwall, B.

    1978-09-01

    The guidelines laid out for the five subjects investigated in this series are to take a holistic view of energy conservation policies by describing the overall system in which they are implemented; provide analytical tools and sufficiently disagregated data bases that can be adapted to answer a variety of questions by the users; identify and discuss some of the important issues behind successful energy conservation policy; and develop an energy conservation policy in depth. Three specific cases reviewed are: the California nonresidential code (1976); the California residential code (1978); and the Farmers Home Administration code (1978). Although these three suits were brought by the building industry, this report also discusses considerations relevant to architects, bankers, and building inspectors. These cases are discussed from three perspectives: (1) objections to the codes explicitly stated in court, (2) industry conditions and practices behind objections stated in court, and (3) general beliefs not stated in court. This discussion focuses on suits intended to limit those building codes which the building industry sees as too strong. However, some energy conservation industries may sue to strengthen codes which they consider too weak. An example of such a case is Polarized Corporation's current suit against the Lighting section of ASHRAE 90-75 (Los Angeles Federal District Court, see Murnane, 1978). (MCW)

  4. Report on current status of petroleum substituting energy development in the USA in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (sekiyu daitai energy kaihatsu no genjo (Beikoku))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the last twenty-five years, the level of social recognition for the importance of energy conservation grew progressively from a total nonexistence of concern to the driving force that ensures the future environmental health of the nation and the world. Executive Order 12003, relating to energy policy and conservation, was signed by President Jimmy Carter and dated July 20, 1977. In 1992, President Clinton issued Executive Order 12759 - federal Energy Management. Each agency will prescribe policies under which its industrial facilities in the aggregate increase energy efficiency by at least 20% in fiscal 2000 in comparison to fiscal 1985. Current Federal programs for building efficiency are estimated to result in 31.5 billion dollars in annual energy saving for consumers by 2010. Future trends attract attention. The major programs currently in force to implement these policies and directives include Rebuild America, Million Solar Roofs Initiative, Home Energy Rating Systems, and Weatherization Assistance Program. 37 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  5. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Joyce C; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2013-01-01

    In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. Seven years later, in March 2012, a follow-up interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies, including experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. The main goal of this meeting was to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ARTs. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognised and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome before conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from randomised clinical trials to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole-genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (International Standards Organisation – ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving but still remains very heterogeneous and often contradictory. The lack of legal harmonisation and uneven access to infertility treatment and PGD/PGS fosters considerable cross-border reproductive care in Europe and beyond. The aim of this paper is to complement previous publications and

  6. Characterisation Of The Beam Plasma In High Current, Low Energy Ion Beams For Implanters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiala, J.; Armour, D. G.; Berg, J. A. van der; Holmes, A. J. T.; Goldberg, R. D.; Collart, E. H. J.

    2006-01-01

    The effective transport of high current, positive ion beams at low energies in ion implanters requires the a high level of space charge compensation. The self-induced or forced introduction of electrons is known to result in the creation of a so-called beam plasma through which the beam propagates. Despite the ability of beams at energies above about 3-5 keV to create their own neutralising plasmas and the development of highly effective, plasma based neutralising systems for low energy beams, very little is known about the nature of beam plasmas and how their characteristics and capabilities depend on beam current, beam energy and beamline pressure. These issues have been addressed in a detailed scanning Langmuir probe study of the plasmas created in beams passing through the post-analysis section of a commercial, high current ion implanter. Combined with Faraday cup measurements of the rate of loss of beam current in the same region due to charge exchange and scattering collisions, the probe data have provided a valuable insight into the nature of the slow ion and electron production and loss processes. Two distinct electron energy distribution functions are observed with electron temperatures ≥ 25 V and around 1 eV. The fast electrons observed must be produced in their energetic state. By studying the properties of the beam plasma as a function of the beam and beamline parameters, information on the ways in which the plasma and the beam interact to reduce beam blow-up and retain a stable plasma has been obtained

  7. [Current status and issues in development of occupational physicians in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Koji

    2013-10-01

    Training systems for occupational physicians (OPs) have existed since the Industrial Safety and Health Act was enacted in 1972. However, it is necessary to enhance them because of changes in the business environment of Japanese corporations and working patterns have brought about new needs of occupational health (OH) activities. In this paper, OPs were classified into three categories; doctors who spend a part of working time on OH activities, i.e. "non-specialist OPs", doctors who engage in OH activities full-time, i.e. "specialists OPs", and doctors who manage corporate-wide occupational health programs or lead programs at OH service institutes, i.e. "lead OPs", and the status and the issues were reviewed. The major concern identified for each of the three categories in training were found to be quality management for non-specialist OPs, short supply for specialists OPs, and development of competencies such as leadership and management skills for lead OPs, respectively. Current efforts and ideas to improve the training systems were discussed.

  8. Measuring retrograde autobiographical amnesia following electroconvulsive therapy: historical perspective and current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkovska, Maria; McLoughlin, Declan M

    2013-06-01

    Retrograde amnesia following electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a major concern for both patients and clinicians. In contemporary ECT research, retrograde autobiographical amnesia (RAA) is commonly measured with instruments assessing autobiographical memory (AM) consistency over time. However, normal AM recall loses in consistency with the passage of time, and time has a differential effect on stability of personal memories. In addition, experiencing depression is associated with a decreased ability to recall specific AMs, and this difficulty may persist in the euthymic phase of recurrent depression. Despite these scientific facts, relatively few attempts have been made to accurately measure the specific effect of ECT on AM independent of both normal and mood-associated forgetting over time. This major gap in our knowledge prevents us at present from objectively quantifying the nature and extent of RAA associated with ECT. In turn, this hinders our identifying and implementing strategies for prevention or remediation of AM deficits. The present article aims to provide an up-to-date review and historical perspective of this major methodological conundrum for ECT research, highlight current issues in retrograde amnesia assessment following ECT, and propose directions for future studies. In conclusion, we suggest methods to reliably and specifically measure the extent and progression over time of ECT-associated RAA independently from persistent depressive symptoms' contribution and normal loss in AM consistency over time.

  9. [Security Management in Clinical Laboratory Departments and Facilities: Current Status and Issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Haku; Nakamura, Junji; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Koike, Masaru; Inoue, Yuji

    2014-11-01

    We conducted a questionnaire survey regarding the current activities for protecting patients' privacy and the security of information systems (IS) related to the clinical laboratory departments of university hospitals, certified training facilities for clinical laboratories, and general hospitals in Yamaguchi Prefecture. The response rate was 47% from 215 medical institutions, including three commercial clinical laboratory centers. The results showed that there were some differences in management activities among facilities with respect to continuing education, the documentation or regulation of operational management for paper records, electronic information, remaining samples, genetic testing, and laboratory information for secondary use. They were suggested to be caused by differences in functions between university and general hospitals, differences in the scale of hospitals, or whether or not hospitals have received accreditation or ISO 15189. Regarding the IS, although the majority of facilities had sufficiently employed the access control to IS, there was some room for improvement in the management of special cases such as VIPs and patients with HIV infection. Furthermore, there were issues regarding the login method for computers shared by multiple staff, the showing of the names of personnel in charge of reports, and the risks associated with direct connections to systems and the Internet and the use of portable media such as USB memory sticks. These results indicated that further efforts are necessary for each facility to continue self-assessment and make improvements.

  10. Current Issues and Situation of Producer Responsibility in Waste Management in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius Priyo Nugroho Sulami

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Producer responsibility for wastes has been encouraged in Indonesia since 2008. The Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Indonesia also promoted the reduce, reuse, and recycle (3R concept using the community-based approach of waste banks integrated with the extended producer responsibility (EPR concept. However, related research and implementation are still limited. This study aims to identify the challenges of fulfilling producer responsibility in waste management and determine whether the integration concept could generate outcomes expected from the EPR concept. A semi-structured interview survey of several stakeholders from the government, industrial, and waste management sectors was conducted and the data generated was used to simulate an integration scheme using a system dynamics approach. Secondary data and information from Bandung municipality were used as input for the simulation. The interview survey found that the concerns and issues of fulfilling producer responsibility in waste management include lack of awareness, unavailability of clear guidelines, and the limited capacity of the current recycling sector. The results of the simulation suggested that if the integration scheme is applied, each business entity might bear the responsibility of IDR 29.4 million per year and 14.7 tons of waste per year for the scope of four sectors and IDR 34.1 million per year and 17 tons of waste per year for the scope of two sectors.

  11. The formation, properties and impact of secondary organic aerosol: current and emerging issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wildt

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA accounts for a significant fraction of ambient tropospheric aerosol and a detailed knowledge of the formation, properties and transformation of SOA is therefore required to evaluate its impact on atmospheric processes, climate and human health. The chemical and physical processes associated with SOA formation are complex and varied, and, despite considerable progress in recent years, a quantitative and predictive understanding of SOA formation does not exist and therefore represents a major research challenge in atmospheric science. This review begins with an update on the current state of knowledge on the global SOA budget and is followed by an overview of the atmospheric degradation mechanisms for SOA precursors, gas-particle partitioning theory and the analytical techniques used to determine the chemical composition of SOA. A survey of recent laboratory, field and modeling studies is also presented. The following topical and emerging issues are highlighted and discussed in detail: molecular characterization of biogenic SOA constituents, condensed phase reactions and oligomerization, the interaction of atmospheric organic components with sulfuric acid, the chemical and photochemical processing of organics in the atmospheric aqueous phase, aerosol formation from real plant emissions, interaction of atmospheric organic components with water, thermodynamics and mixtures in atmospheric models. Finally, the major challenges ahead in laboratory, field and modeling studies of SOA are discussed and recommendations for future research directions are proposed.

  12. Construct validity-Current issues and recommendations for future hand hygiene research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Jun Rong Jeffrey

    2017-05-01

    Health care-associated infection is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Hand hygiene is widely regarded as an effective prevention strategy. Often, hand hygiene research is designed and conducted by health care practitioners who may lack formal training in research methods, particularly in the area of social science. In a research context, a construct is a concept that can be measured or observed in some way. A construct can be directly or indirectly measured. For example, height can be directly measured by centimeters, whereas depression can be indirectly measured by a scale of 20 items. Every construct needs to be operationalized by measure(s) to make it a variable. Hence, construct validity refers to the degree of fit between the construct of interest and its operational measure. However, issues with construct validity often weaken the translation from construct to measure(s). This article will (1) describe the common threats to construct validity pertaining to hand hygiene research, (2) identify practical limitations in current research design, and (3) provide recommendations to improve construct validity in future hand hygiene research. By understanding how construct validity may affect hand hygiene research design, there is great potential to improve the validity of future hand hygiene research findings. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mite Pests in Plant Crops – Current Issues, Inovative Approaches and Possibilities for Controlling Them (2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Petanović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Part one discusses some principal mite pests in agroecosystems and urban horticulturein European countries, Serbia and its neighbouring countries focusing primarily on issueswith regard to plant production, novel methods and approaches in applied acaralogy. Parttwo displays some major properties of acaricides inhibiting respiration, growth and developmentand other synthetic substances with acaricide action on the market in the last decadeof the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century. Also some products of naturalorigin (azadirachtin, oils, micoacaricides are said to be gaining in importance. Issues withregard to the fact that mites can readily develop resistance to acardicides are discussed anda survey on the results of biochemical, physiological and genetical causes of resistance areanalyzed. Some basic principles of biological control of phytophagous mites and modernadvances and approaches are discussed as well as current knowledge on host plant resistanceto mites. Eventually, the possibility of using a combination of selective acaricides andbiological control agents is discussed but also the inclusion of other modes of control (agriculturalpractices and physical measures expected to contribute to an integrated managementof pest populations.

  14. Statistical issues in searches for new phenomena in High Energy Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Louis; Wardle, Nicholas

    2018-03-01

    Many analyses of data in High Energy Physics are concerned with searches for New Physics. We review the statistical issues that arise in such searches, and then illustrate these using the specific example of the recent successful search for the Higgs boson, produced in collisions between high energy protons at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider.

  15. Detecting W/Z pairs and Higgs at high energy pp colliders: Main experimental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alverson, G.; Bengtsson, H.U.; Hauptman, J.

    1987-03-01

    The main detection issues implied by the search for W and Z 0 pairs and Higgs in a high energy pp collider context are discussed here. It includes: precise electron identification, missing energy measurement, multilepton recognition, sophisticated jet pattern recognition, and pile-up. The study uses, as much as possible, a ''realistic simulation of life.''

  16. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Joyce; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo J; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2014-08-01

    How has the interface between genetics and assisted reproduction technology (ART) evolved since 2005? The interface between ART and genetics has become more entwined as we increase our understanding about the genetics of infertility and we are able to perform more comprehensive genetic testing. In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and ART and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. An interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies and experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. In March 2012, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics, the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology and the EuroGentest2 Coordination Action Project met to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ART. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognized and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome prior to conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and PGD may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from RCTs to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving, but still remains very

  17. Addressing 2030 EU policy framework for energy and climate: Cost, risk and energy security issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llano-Paz, Fernando de; Martínez Fernandez, Paulino; Soares, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The different energy sources, their costs and impacts on the environment determine the electricity production process. Energy planning must solve the existence of uncertainty through the diversification of power generation technologies portfolio. The European Union energy and environmental policy has been mainly based on promoting the security of supply, efficiency, energy savings and the promotion of Renewable Energy Sources. The recent European Commission communication “Towards an European Energy Union: A secure, sustainable, competitive and affordable energy for every European” establishes the path for the European future. This study deals with the analysis of the latest EU “Energy Union” goals through the application of Markowitz portfolio theory considering technological real assets. The EU targets are assessed under a double perspective: economic and environmental. The model concludes that implementing a high share of Renewable Energy target in the design of European Policies is not relevant: the maximization of Renewable Energy share could be achieved considering a sole Low Emissions of carbon dioxide policy. Additionally it is confirmed the need of Nuclear energy in 2030: a zero nuclear energy share in 2030 European Mix is not possible, unless the technological limits participation for Renewable Energy Sources were increased. - Highlights: • Implementing a high RES share target in European Policies could not be relevant. • Maximizing RES share could be achieved considering a sole Low Emissions policy. • The EU 2030 Nuclear energy 50% shutting down could be feasible. • Minimizing risk portfolio presents high diversification and energy security levels.

  18. The renewable energies: a topical issue; Les energies renouvelables: un sujet d'actualite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    This document analyzes the situation of the renewable energies in the french energy sector. The first part presents the part of the renewable energies in the energy production and consumption, their interest in the fight against the climatic change and in the employment creation. The second part details for each renewable energy source the government policy in favor their development and the legislative framework. The third part provides data on cost, CO{sub 2} emissions, life cycle and employments to illustrate the analysis. The last part presents the government objectives of the renewable energies development for 2010. (A.L.B.)

  19. Globalization of energy issues and Japan`s correspondance to it; Energy mondai no gurobaru ka to Nihon no taio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toichi, T. [Japan Energy Economic Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-02-20

    There are three energy issues in the 21st century, i.e., energy security, global warming, and improvement in efficiency of energy supply. The correspondence to these issues was described. Topics in the energy security issue are the present situation of Middle East, the trend of energy demand in the rapidly developing countries such as China, ASEAN countries, Korea, and Taiwan, and the nuclear fuel and peaceful utilization of plutonium. For the global warming, the Frame Work Convention on Climate Change, which has became officially effective, and the attitude of developed countries to it, the establishment of responsibility to reducing the emission after 2000, and the increasing expectation to co-operation and discrepancy among Japan, U.S.A., EU, and developing countries. Concerning the improvement in efficiency of energy supply system and the relaxation of regulation, the progress of regulation relaxation in the U.S.A. and necessity of promoting the flexibility and efficiency improvement in energy demand and supply system in Japan were explained. 3 tabs.

  20. MIGRATION, A CURRENT ISSUE: THE CRISIS OF TODAY, THE CHALLENGE OF TOMORROW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu PĂTRAŞCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to portray a clear perspective of the problem of immigrants, who are arriving in Europe from the Middle East conflict zones (particularly Syria and Iraq and from North Africa (mainly Libya. The causes that conducted to the development of such a phenomenon represent the motivation for choosing this theme, as well as its effects on the functionality of the EU at an institutional level and finally yet importantly the “trenchant” visions of the European public opinion, amplified by the mass media: the pros and cons of accepting the wave of refugees. The author's approach aims to put in balance both the positive effects of the phenomenon on the European continent, as well as the negative ones. Positive effects might consist in obtaining additional work force, as Europe is currently facing a demographic aging phenomenon. Furthermore, from the perspective of EU citizens, who believe in the cohesion of the European institutions, the acceptance of refugees represents a basic value for unity and further on stands for the formation of a homogenous European Union, therefore emphasising the importance of each individual. On the other hand, analysing the matter in the most realistic possible way, the risk of potential terrorist penetration in Europe is quite high and unmanageable. As a research method, we will use document analysis, referring to media articles and official documents. This phenomenon is particularly complex and the crisis result will depend on the effectiveness of the manner in which each national authority as well as the European ones will handle the issue.

  1. Bipolar disorder and complementary medicine: current evidence, safety issues, and clinical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Jerome; Lake, James; Hoenders, Rogier

    2011-10-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a debilitating syndrome that is often undiagnosed and undertreated. Population surveys show that persons with BD often self-medicate with complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) or integrative therapies in spite of limited research evidence supporting their use. To date, no review has focused specifically on nonconventional treatments of BD. The study objectives were to present a review of nonconventional (complementary and integrative) interventions examined in clinical trials on BD, and to offer provisional guidelines for the judicious integrative use of CAM in the management of BD. PubMed, CINAHL,(®) Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for human clinical trials in English during mid-2010 using Bipolar Disorder and CAM therapy and CAM medicine search terms. Effect sizes (Cohen's d) were also calculated where data were available. Several positive high-quality studies on nutrients in combination with conventional mood stabilizers and antipsychotic medications in BD depression were identified, while branched-chain amino acids and magnesium were effective (small studies) in attenuating mania in BD. In the treatment of bipolar depression, evidence was mixed regarding omega-3, while isolated studies provide provisional support for a multinutrient formula, n-acetylcysteine, and l-tryptophan. In one study, acupuncture was found to have favorable but nonsignificant effects on mania and depression outcomes. Current evidence supports the integrative treatment of BD using combinations of mood stabilizers and select nutrients. Other CAM or integrative modalities used to treat BD have not been adequately explored to date; however, some early findings are promising. Select CAM and integrative interventions add to established conventional treatment of BD and may be considered when formulating a treatment plan. It is hoped that the safety issues and clinical considerations addressed in this article may encourage the practice

  2. A discussion of current issues and concepts in the practice of skull-photo/craniofacial superimposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, G M; Steyn, M

    2016-05-01

    A recent review paper on cranio-facial superimposition (CFS) stated that "there have been specific conceptual variances" from the original methods used in the practice of skull-photo superimposition, leading to poor results as far as accuracy is concerned. It was argued that the deviations in the practice of the technique have resulted in the reduced accuracies (for both failure to include and failure to exclude) that are noted in several recent studies. This paper aims to present the results from recent research to highlight the advancement of skull-photo/cranio-facial superimposition, and to discuss some of the issues raised regarding deviations from original techniques. The evolving methodology of CFS is clarified in context with the advancement of technology, forensic science and specifically within the field of forensic anthropology. Developments in the skull-photo/cranio-facial superimposition techniques have largely focused on testing reliability and accuracy objectively. Techniques now being employed by forensic anthropologists must conform to rigorous scientific testing and methodologies. Skull-photo/cranio-facial superimposition is constantly undergoing accuracy and repeatability testing which is in line with the principles of the scientific method and additionally allows for advancement in the field. Much of the research has indicated that CFS is useful in exclusion which is consistent with the concept of Popperian falsifiability - a hypothesis and experimental design which is falsifiable. As the hypothesis is disproved or falsified, another evolves to replace it and explain the new observations. Current and future studies employing different methods to test the accuracy and reliability of skull-photo/cranio-facial superimposition will enable researchers to establish the contribution the technique can have for identification purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Current Issues in the Presentation of Asymptomatic Primary Hyperparathyroidism: Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Bart L.; Peacock, Munro; Bandeira, Francisco; Boutroy, Stephanie; Cusano, Natalie E.; Dempster, David; Lewiecki, E. Michael; Liu, Jian-Min; Minisola, Salvatore; Rejnmark, Lars; Silva, Barbara C.; Walker, Marcella D.; Bilezikian, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This report summarizes data on traditional and nontraditional manifestations of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) that have been published since the last International Workshop on PHPT. Participants: This subgroup was constituted by the Steering Committee to address key questions related to the presentation of PHPT. Consensus was established at a closed meeting of the Expert Panel that followed. Evidence: Data from the 5-year period between 2008 and 2013 were presented and discussed to determine whether they support changes in recommendations for surgery or nonsurgical follow-up. Consensus Process: Questions were developed by the International Task Force on PHPT. A comprehensive literature search for relevant studies was undertaken. After extensive review and discussion, the subgroup came to agreement on what changes in the recommendations for surgery or nonsurgical follow-up of asymptomatic PHPT should be made to the Expert Panel. Conclusions: 1) There are limited new data available on the natural history of asymptomatic PHPT. Although recognition of normocalcemic PHPT (normal serum calcium with elevated PTH concentrations; no secondary cause for hyperparathyroidism) is increasing, data on the clinical presentation and natural history of this phenotype are limited. 2) Although there are geographic differences in the predominant phenotypes of PHPT (symptomatic, asymptomatic, normocalcemic), they do not justify geography-specific management guidelines. 3) Recent data using newer, higher resolution imaging and analytic methods have revealed that in asymptomatic PHPT, both trabecular bone and cortical bone are affected. 4) Clinically silent nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis can be detected by renal imaging and should be listed as a new criterion for surgery. 5) Current data do not support a cardiovascular evaluation or surgery for the purpose of improving cardiovascular markers, anatomical or functional abnormalities. 6) Some patients with mild PHPT

  4. Issues to Be Solved for Energy Simulation of An Existing Office Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Uhn Ahn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing focus on low energy buildings and the need to develop sustainable built environments, Building Energy Performance Simulation (BEPS tools have been widely used. However, many issues remain when applying BEPS tools to existing buildings. This paper presents the issues that need to be solved for the application of BEPS tools to an existing office building. The selected building is an office building with 33 stories above ground, six underground levels, and a total floor area of 91,898 m2. The issues to be discussed in this paper are as follows: (1 grey data not ready for simulation; (2 subjective assumptions and judgments on energy modeling; (3 stochastic characteristics of building performance and occupants behavior; (4 verification of model fidelity-comparison of aggregated energy; (5 verification of model fidelity-calibration by trial and error; and (6 use of simulation model for real-time energy management. This study investigates the aforementioned issues and explains the factors that should be considered to address these issues when developing a dynamic simulation model for existing buildings.

  5. Special Education for Children with Attention Deficit Disorder: Current Issues. CRS Report for Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Steven R.

    This paper examines issues concerning the eligibility of children with attention deficit disorder (ADD) for special education and related services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). A policy memorandum was issued by the Department of Education in September 1991, identifying those circumstances under which such children…

  6. Germany and energy security in the 2000s. Rise and fall of a policy issue?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffield, John S.

    2009-01-01

    After some two decades of inattention, the issue of energy security once again moved to the top of the policy agenda in Germany in the mid-2000s. After briefly achieving renewed prominence, however, it was eclipsed in German energy policy, at least temporarily, by heightened concerns about climate change. This paper explains the re-emergence of concerns about energy insecurity in recent years as well as the reasons for their subsequent overshadowing. It describes and explains the steps that have been taken during this period to promote German energy security and analyzes their adequacy. The paper identifies a number of reasons to be skeptical about how much the agreed policies will improve Germany's energy security, but it concludes that there are nevertheless good reasons to expect the issue to regain the attention of policy-makers in the future. (author)

  7. Germany and energy security in the 2000s. Rise and fall of a policy issue?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffield, John S. [Department of Political Science, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    After some two decades of inattention, the issue of energy security once again moved to the top of the policy agenda in Germany in the mid-2000s. After briefly achieving renewed prominence, however, it was eclipsed in German energy policy, at least temporarily, by heightened concerns about climate change. This paper explains the re-emergence of concerns about energy insecurity in recent years as well as the reasons for their subsequent overshadowing. It describes and explains the steps that have been taken during this period to promote German energy security and analyzes their adequacy. The paper identifies a number of reasons to be skeptical about how much the agreed policies will improve Germany's energy security, but it concludes that there are nevertheless good reasons to expect the issue to regain the attention of policy-makers in the future. (author)

  8. Germany and energy security in the 2000s: Rise and fall of a policy issue?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffield, John S., E-mail: duffield@gsu.ed [Department of Political Science, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    After some two decades of inattention, the issue of energy security once again moved to the top of the policy agenda in Germany in the mid-2000s. After briefly achieving renewed prominence, however, it was eclipsed in German energy policy, at least temporarily, by heightened concerns about climate change. This paper explains the re-emergence of concerns about energy insecurity in recent years as well as the reasons for their subsequent overshadowing. It describes and explains the steps that have been taken during this period to promote German energy security and analyzes their adequacy. The paper identifies a number of reasons to be skeptical about how much the agreed policies will improve Germany's energy security, but it concludes that there are nevertheless good reasons to expect the issue to regain the attention of policy-makers in the future.

  9. Wind Plant Preconstruction Energy Estimates. Current Practice and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fields, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-19

    Understanding the amount of energy that will be harvested by a wind power plant each year and the variability of that energy is essential to assessing and potentially improving the financial viability of that power plant. The preconstruction energy estimate process predicts the amount of energy--with uncertainty estimates--that a wind power plant will deliver to the point of revenue. This report describes the preconstruction energy estimate process from a technical perspective and seeks to provide insight into the financial implications associated with each step.

  10. Renewable energies. Ambivalences, governance, legal issues; Erneuerbare Energien. Ambivalenzen, Governance, Rechtsfragen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekardt, Felix; Hennig, Bettina; Unnerstall, Herwig (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    The present publication is dedicated to renewable energies. The move to a new energy and climate policy impinges on many central humanistic issues (including issues of a legal, economic, sociological, ethical and politological nature). How is it possible to resolve the ambivalences that are associated with the use of renewable energies and which draw our attention not only to renewable energies as such but also to issues of energy efficiency and sufficiency. What political and economic instruments are needed in order to accelerate the market entry of renewable energies and at the same time contain the ambivalences associated with them? And what questions of legal interpretation result from the application of such instruments in practice, be it in the context of subsidies under the Renewable Energy Law or the laws on the planning of building projects. And where lie the causes of the fact seen here that so many individuals in business, the political realm and the public at large are finding it hard to go with the transition to renewable energies?.

  11. Special Issue on Advances in Integrated Energy Systems Design, Control and Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    and novel operation schemes, and new incentives and business models. This revolution is affecting the current paradigm and demanding that energy systems be integrated into multi-carrier energy hubs [1]. It is greatly increasing the interactions between today’s energy systems at various scales (ranging from...... energy costs to all consumers, increase reliability of service and mitigate carbon footprints. However, this plan of action necessitates regulatory frameworks, strategic incentives and business models for efficient deployment....

  12. Study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah: institutional and licensing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilman, C.B.; Herman, A.A. Jr.; Vito, D.J.

    1982-04-01

    This document constitutes a segment of a feasibility study investigating the ramification of construcing a nuclear energy center in an arid western region. In this phase of the study, the institutional and licensing issues impacting a NEC were analyzed. The most prominent issue facing such a concept is the ownership form of NEC. In addition, legislation and regulation also have a substantial impact regardless of the ownership format

  13. Reducing consumption of electric current and energy carriers. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppo, A.S.; Gruzdev, Yu.M.

    1985-01-01

    Evaluates the energy conservation program developed by the Giproshakht research institute is evaluated. The program was used in the Afanas'evo hydraulic mine in the Tulaugol association (with annual coal output of 2.1 Mt). Energy conservation program consisted of 2 groups of tasks: reducing energy consumption of the mine, and reducing energy consumption during the maximum demand hours in the morning and evening. The following methods were used: reducing idle running of chain and belt conveyors, separate draining of mine water free of dust and rock particles (reducing range of water cleaning), use of automatic control systems for mine blowers, automatic control of the system for coal drying, more efficient use of coal and materials transport in the mine. Energy demand of the mine during peak demand hours was reduced by adjusting fluctuations of energy consumption of the mine to fluctuations of energy demand in the power system of the area, e.g. by reducing mine draining in the morning and evening and operating at full capacity during the time of reduced energy demand. Using the energy conservation measures economized 4,324,300 kWh electric energy annually.

  14. Current issues in dental practice management. Part 1. The importance of shared values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Philip R H

    2003-04-01

    There can be few who would argue with the notion that the nature of dental practice in the United Kingdom has changed dramatically over the last couple of decades. A variety of factors, including new clinical techniques, growing consumerism, a much greater awareness of health-related and well-being issues in the public at large, as well as a marked deregulation within the dental profession, the development of vocational training and recently mandatory lifelong learning, the growing number of females working in the profession, and an increasing reluctance of young dentists to finance dental practices have all combined to create an environment which has enabled and encouraged a move away from traditional forms of dental care delivery. Instead, there has been considerable growth in independently-funded practice and a commensurate growth in the number of practices operating under a corporate body umbrella of one form or another. Currently there are 27 corporate bodies registered with the General Dental Council (GDC) with the likelihood of more in the future given the proposed GDC review. This will no doubt take into consideration European law, under which the restriction within the Dentist's Act on the number of corporate bodies is likely to be untenable. Although they still have only a small share of the dental market--with 4% of all dentists in the UK in 1999--they have expanded rapidly from a small base. The data available at the time the paper was written indicate that the global total of fees earned from dentistry in the UK in the financial year 2001/2002 was almost 3 billion Pounds, of which 1.9 billion Pounds (64%) came from NHS fees and 1.1 billion Pounds (36%) from private fees. Of this 1.9 billion Pounds received in NHS fees in 2001/2002, 0.55 billion Pounds were paid by patients who were not exempt from charges, bringing the total amount actually paid out of patients' pockets for dental treatment to 1.65 billion Pounds. Compare these figures with 1996

  15. Second Ripple Current Suppression by Two Bandpass Filters and Current Sharing Method for Energy Storage Converters in DC Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Ling; Chen, Yandong; Luo, An

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing of AC loads injected into DC microgird (MG) through the inverters, the second ripple current (SRC) in the front-end energy storage converter (ESC) and circulating current among the ESCs in DC MG become more and more serious. In this paper, the SRC suppression method by introdu......With the increasing of AC loads injected into DC microgird (MG) through the inverters, the second ripple current (SRC) in the front-end energy storage converter (ESC) and circulating current among the ESCs in DC MG become more and more serious. In this paper, the SRC suppression method...

  16. Current Issues in Finite-T Density-Functional Theory and Warm-Correlated Matter †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. C. Dharma-wardana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Finite-temperature density functional theory (DFT has become of topical interest, partly due to the increasing ability to create novel states of warm-correlated matter (WCM.Warm-dense matter (WDM, ultra-fast matter (UFM, and high-energy density matter (HEDM may all be regarded as subclasses of WCM. Strong electron-electron, ion-ion and electron-ion correlation effects and partial degeneracies are found in these systems where the electron temperature Te is comparable to the electron Fermi energy EF. Thus, many electrons are in continuum states which are partially occupied. The ion subsystem may be solid, liquid or plasma, with many states of ionization with ionic charge Zj. Quasi-equilibria with the ion temperature Ti ≠ Te are common. The ion subsystem in WCM can no longer be treated as a passive “external potential”, as is customary in T = 0 DFT dominated by solid-state theory or quantum chemistry. Many basic questions arise in trying to implement DFT for WCM. Hohenberg-Kohn-Mermin theory can be adapted for treating these systems if suitable finite-T exchange-correlation (XC functionals can be constructed. They are functionals of both the one-body electron density ne and the one-body ion densities ρj. Here, j counts many species of nuclei or charge states. A method of approximately but accurately mapping the quantum electrons to a classical Coulomb gas enables one to treat electron-ion systems entirely classically at any temperature and arbitrary spin polarization, using exchange-correlation effects calculated in situ, directly from the pair-distribution functions. This eliminates the need for any XC-functionals. This classical map has been used to calculate the equation of state of WDM systems, and construct a finite-T XC functional that is found to be in close agreement with recent quantum path-integral simulation data. In this review, current developments and concerns in finite-T DFT, especially in the context of non-relativistic warm

  17. Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Trickett

    1998-01-01

    This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH ampersand S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design com- pels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective

  18. Data Security, Privacy, Availability and Integrity in Cloud Computing: Issues and Current Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan Aldossary; William Allen

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing changed the world around us. Now people are moving their data to the cloud since data is getting bigger and needs to be accessible from many devices. Therefore, storing the data on the cloud becomes a norm. However, there are many issues that counter data stored in the cloud starting from virtual machine which is the mean to share resources in cloud and ending on cloud storage itself issues. In this paper, we present those issues that are preventing people from adopting the cl...

  19. Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trickett, D.

    1998-12-15

    This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design compels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective.

  20. CURRENT ISSUES ON JOB STRESS IN JAPAN AND WORKSITE MENTAL HEALTH APPLICATION AMONG JAPANESE COMPANY A Case Study Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    S Purnawati

    2013-01-01

    Background: Issues about job stress is more popular in the world currently. Not just for Japan, Korea and Taiwan, but also an important issue in EU countries, especially the UK and Finland Increase of awareness about job stress effects on work performance, productivity and mental health is as onereason of the phenomenon.Objective: The present study aimed to explore the issue of job stress in Japan for the reference of good practices to Indonesia.Methods: This study, based on observationalstud...

  1. Energy mix and sustainable development: Issues and challenges in Southern Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osop, Inoray

    2010-09-15

    Southern Philippines utilizes different sources of energy and like any other areas for every increase in energy; major concerns and issues on its sustainable development sprung up. Methods used were quantitative and qualitative measures, experiment, exploratory and descriptive in findings: (1) each of the energy dimensions are compared economic ; On their environment and health of the end users and Social dimensions . The ideal energy mixes based on sustainable development are renewable and some fossil fuels with strict adherence to clean technology since Coal Plants in the country ignores environmental regulations and yet allowed to operate.

  2. Energy investments and environmental implications: key policy issues in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddayao, Corazon M. (World Bank Washington, DC (USA). Economic Development Institute)

    1992-03-15

    Energy investments imply changes in the physical, social, and economic environment. Hence, both the short-term and the long-term costs and benefits of these investments must be taken into account. These changes may affect not only the immediate environment of the investment site but may extend geographically far beyond national borders as well as beyond the lifetimes of the people for whom the investments are intended. This paper reviews the issues relevant to developing countries. General conceptual and policies issues are discussed. Issues about the measurement of costs and benefits (including issues of 'sustainability' and the internalization of externalities resulting from environmental changes) as well as the role of opportunity costs in deciding a country's energy investment strategies are raised. The macroeconomic and institutional issues relevant to environmental impacts that might be incorporated in energy planning are suggested. The paper is based on a presentation to the 'Workshop on energy investments and the environment'. 24 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Resource Assessment of Tidal Current Energy in Hangzhou Bay Based on Long Term Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Dai, Chun-Ni; Xu, Xue-Feng; Wang, Chuan-Kun; Ye, Qin

    2017-05-01

    Compared with other marine renewable energy, tidal current energy benefits a lot in high energy density and good predictability. Based on the measured tidal current data in Hangzhou Bay from Nov 2012 to Oct 2012, this paper analysed temporal and spatial changes of tidal current energy in the site. It is the first time measured data of such long time been taken in tidal current energy analysis. Occurrence frequency and duration of the current of different speed are given out in the paper. According to the analysis results, monthly average power density changed a lot in different month, and installation orientation of tidal current turbine significantly affected energy acquisition. Finally, the annual average power density of tidal current energy with coefficient Cp in the site was calculated, and final output of a tidal current plant was also estimated.

  4. Energy: The endless story. The energy issue in the course of history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuermer, M.

    1988-01-01

    The historian reports on scenarios of energy policy, beginning with the present situation in the USSR, of which the Yom-Kippur War, the Ayatollah's revolution and the reactor accident of Chernobyl were particular determinants. The report sketches out energy-policy scenarios of the past and their consequences for the present as well as outlines of an agenda for the future. Questions regarding nuclear energy and the security of civil nuclear plants have not been considered. (DG) [de

  5. Energy conservation: policy issues and end-use scenarios of savings potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    The enclosed work is based on previous research during this fiscal year, contained in Construction of Energy Conservation Scenarios: Interim Report of Work in Progress, June 1978. Five subjects were investigated and summaries were published for each subject in separate publications. This publication summarizes policy issues on the five subjects: tradeoffs of municipal solid-waste-processing alternatives (economics of garbage collection; mechanical versus home separation of recyclables); policy barriers and investment decisions in industry (methodology for identification of potential barriers to industrial energy conservation; process of industrial investment decision making); energy-efficient recreational travel (information system to promote energy-efficient recreational travel; recreational travel; national importance and individual decision making); energy-efficient buildings (causes of litigation against energy-conservation building codes; description of the building process); and end-use energy-conservation data base and scenaerios (residential; commercial; transportation; and industrial).

  6. Central unresolved issues in thermal energy storage for building heating and cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swet, C.J.; Baylin, F.

    1980-07-01

    This document explores the frontier of the rapidly expanding field of thermal energy storage, investigates unresolved issues, outlines research aimed at finding solutions, and suggests avenues meriting future research. Issues related to applications include value-based ranking of storage concepts, temperature constraints, consistency of assumptions, nomenclature and taxonomy, and screening criteria for materials. Issues related to technologies include assessing seasonal storage concepts, diurnal coolness storage, selection of hot-side storage concepts for cooling-only systems, phase-change storage in building materials, freeze protection for solar water heating systems, and justification of phase-change storage for active solar space heating.

  7. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dumbaugh, Kerry

    2007-01-01

    .... policy makers have adopted tougher stances on issues involving China and U.S.-China relations, concerned about the impact of the PRC's strong economic growth and a more assertive international diplomacy...

  8. Analytical and policy issues in energy economics: Uses of the FRS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    The relevant literature concerning several major analytical and policy issues in energy economics is reviewed and criticized. The possible uses of the Financial Reporting System (FRS) data base for the analysis of energy policy issues are investigated. Certain features of FRS data suggest several ways in which the data base can be used by policy makers. FRS data are collected on the firm level, and different segments of the same firm operating in different markets can be separately identified. The methods of collection as well as FRS's elaborate data verification process guarantee a high degree of accuracy and consistency among firms.

  9. Conference communication. Managing change in tourism destinations: Key issues and current trends.

    OpenAIRE

    Mariani, M.M.; Buhalis, Dimitrios; Longhi, C.; Vitouladiti, O.

    2013-01-01

    This conference communication illustrates the major outcomes emerging from the EIASM Conference on Tourism Management and Tourism Related Issues held in Nice (France), September 20-21, 2012. While a number of managerial issues pertaining to the tourism field were dealt with, this communication covers three specific areas of interest for destination management and marketing: (1) the increasing competition among tourism destinations and the rise and consolidation of BRIC countries as outbound t...

  10. Greener energy solutions for a sustainable future: issues and challenges for Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamzam Jaafar, M.; Kheng, Wong Hwee E-mail: edwong@ptm.org.my; Kamaruddin, Norhayati

    2003-09-01

    This paper examines the intricacy of energy policies, issues and challenges woven into the development of the energy sector in Malaysia. As highlighted in the Third Outline Perspective Plan (OPP3) and the Eighth Malaysia Plan (8MP) unveiled in April 2001, efforts will be intensified to moderate the growth of energy demand and to develop renewable energy as the fifth fuel in electricity generation. Whilst the general energy policy thrust for the next ten years remains unchanged, concerted efforts will be made to usher the energy sector development on a greener path. With a projected average economic growth rate of 7.5% per year in the 2001-2005 period, resource rich Malaysia would have to cater for the 7.8% yearly increase in final energy demand. Total primary energy supply is projected to grow at an average of 7.2% per year in the same period. Against the backdrop of a growing need for coal and piped natural gas imports and Malaysia becoming a net crude oil importer in 2008, greater challenges lie ahead for the energy sector. This implies that Peninsular Malaysia may become a net importer of fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal) sooner than expected. Higher utilization rate of natural gas as the 'green' fuel will be encouraged in electricity and non-electricity sectors. Furthermore, fiscal incentives in Budget 2001 to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency provide a timely boost for implementation of the new fifth fuel strategy. Although the overall approach in addressing energy issues and challenges hinges on the precautionary principle, the main thrust of energy sector development in Malaysia will continue to focus on adequacy, quality and security of energy supply and the promotion of its efficient utilization with minimum negative impacts on the environment.

  11. Greener energy solutions for a sustainable future: issues and challenges for Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaafar, Mohammad Zamzam; Wonghwee Kheng; Kamaruddin, Norhayati [Kawasan Institusi Bangi, Pusat Tenaga Malaysia (Malaysia Energy Centre), Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2003-09-01

    This paper examines the intricacy of energy policies, issues and challenges woven into the development of the energy sector in Malaysia. As highlighted in the Third Outline Perspective Plan (OPP3) and the Eighth Malaysia Plan (8MP) unveiled in April 2001, efforts will be intensified to moderate the growth of energy demand and to develop renewable energy as the fifth fuel in electricity generation. Whilst the general energy policy thrust for the next ten years remains unchanged, concerted efforts will be made to usher the energy sector development on a greener path. With a projected average economic growth rate of 7.5% per year in the 2001-2005 period, resource rich Malaysia would have to cater for the 7.8% yearly increase in final energy demand. Total primary energy supply is projected to grow at an average of 7.2% per year in the same period. Against the backdrop of a growing need for coal and piped natural gas imports and Malaysia becoming a net crude oil importer in 2008, greater challenges lie ahead for the energy sector. This implies that Peninsular Malaysia may become a net importer of fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal) sooner than expected. Higher utilization rate of natural gas as the 'green' fuel will be encouraged in electricity and non-electricity sectors. Furthermore, fiscal incentives in Budget 2001 to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency provide a timely boost for implementation of the new fifth fuel strategy. Although the overall approach in addressing energy issues and challenges hinges on the precautionary principle, the main thrust of energy sector development in Malaysia will continue to focus on adequacy, quality and security of energy supply and the promotion of its efficient utilization with minimum negative impacts on the environment. (Author)

  12. Greener energy solutions for a sustainable future: issues and challenges for Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamzam Jaafar, M.; Kheng, Wong Hwee; Kamaruddin, Norhayati

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the intricacy of energy policies, issues and challenges woven into the development of the energy sector in Malaysia. As highlighted in the Third Outline Perspective Plan (OPP3) and the Eighth Malaysia Plan (8MP) unveiled in April 2001, efforts will be intensified to moderate the growth of energy demand and to develop renewable energy as the fifth fuel in electricity generation. Whilst the general energy policy thrust for the next ten years remains unchanged, concerted efforts will be made to usher the energy sector development on a greener path. With a projected average economic growth rate of 7.5% per year in the 2001-2005 period, resource rich Malaysia would have to cater for the 7.8% yearly increase in final energy demand. Total primary energy supply is projected to grow at an average of 7.2% per year in the same period. Against the backdrop of a growing need for coal and piped natural gas imports and Malaysia becoming a net crude oil importer in 2008, greater challenges lie ahead for the energy sector. This implies that Peninsular Malaysia may become a net importer of fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal) sooner than expected. Higher utilization rate of natural gas as the 'green' fuel will be encouraged in electricity and non-electricity sectors. Furthermore, fiscal incentives in Budget 2001 to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency provide a timely boost for implementation of the new fifth fuel strategy. Although the overall approach in addressing energy issues and challenges hinges on the precautionary principle, the main thrust of energy sector development in Malaysia will continue to focus on adequacy, quality and security of energy supply and the promotion of its efficient utilization with minimum negative impacts on the environment

  13. Greener energy solutions for a sustainable future: issues and challenges for Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaafar, Mohammad Zamzam; Wonghwee Kheng; Kamaruddin, Norhayati

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the intricacy of energy policies, issues and challenges woven into the development of the energy sector in Malaysia. As highlighted in the Third Outline Perspective Plan (OPP3) and the Eighth Malaysia Plan (8MP) unveiled in April 2001, efforts will be intensified to moderate the growth of energy demand and to develop renewable energy as the fifth fuel in electricity generation. Whilst the general energy policy thrust for the next ten years remains unchanged, concerted efforts will be made to usher the energy sector development on a greener path. With a projected average economic growth rate of 7.5% per year in the 2001-2005 period, resource rich Malaysia would have to cater for the 7.8% yearly increase in final energy demand. Total primary energy supply is projected to grow at an average of 7.2% per year in the same period. Against the backdrop of a growing need for coal and piped natural gas imports and Malaysia becoming a net crude oil importer in 2008, greater challenges lie ahead for the energy sector. This implies that Peninsular Malaysia may become a net importer of fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal) sooner than expected. Higher utilization rate of natural gas as the 'green' fuel will be encouraged in electricity and non-electricity sectors. Furthermore, fiscal incentives in Budget 2001 to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency provide a timely boost for implementation of the new fifth fuel strategy. Although the overall approach in addressing energy issues and challenges hinges on the precautionary principle, the main thrust of energy sector development in Malaysia will continue to focus on adequacy, quality and security of energy supply and the promotion of its efficient utilization with minimum negative impacts on the environment. (Author)

  14. How methodological issues affect the energy indicator results for different electricity generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modahl, Ingunn Saur; Raadal, Hanne Lerche; Gagnon, Luc; Bakken, Tor Haakon

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to improve the basis for the comparison of energy products. The paper will discuss important methodological issues with regard to various energy indicators and it will, by means of a few selected energy indicators, show examples of results for hydropower, wind power and electricity from biomass, gas and coal. Lastly it will suggest methods to achieve results which are more consistent when comparing electricity production technologies. In general, methodological issues can affect the results of life cycle assessments. In this paper, the authors have focused on the effect of system boundaries for energy indicators and found that the internal ranking of cases within one electricity generation technology is dependent on the indicator used. These variations do not, however, alter the general ranking of the major technologies studied. The authors suggest that future assessments should focus on a smaller set of indicators: the Cumulative Energy Demand (CED), which is the most “universal” indicator, Energy Payback Ratio (EPR) for assessment of upstream activities, and a suggested “Cumulative Fossil Energy Demand” (CFED) for resource depletion assessments. There is also a need for stricter standardisation and increased transparency in the assessment of energy products. - Highlights: • There is a need for stricter standardisation of energy performance assessments. • System boundaries for renewable sources should be harmonised. • One should focus on a smaller set of indicators. CED should be included

  15. Potential energy savings by using direct current for residential applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz, Enrique Rodriguez; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    improvement in the power converter units. However, for residential applications, the efficiency is not always improved. A grid connected residential microgrid, with renewable energy sources (RES), energy storage systems (ESS) and local loads, is presented in this work. The microgrid has been modelled...

  16. Current perspective of the renewable energy development in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Salsabila; Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin Ab; Shafie, Suhaidi

    2011-01-01

    It is estimated that oil reserves will not last very much longer; thus, a switch to alternative energy solutions is crucial. The Malaysian government has already prepared to face the situation decades before. Many policies have been implemented, as well as programmes and initiative. Now, Malaysia is waiting for the ultimate solutions, the Malaysian Fit-in Tariff (FiT), which is scheduled to be implemented second quarter of 2011. This paper presents the main sources of alternative renewable energy in Malaysia and its potential as well as the main reasons Malaysia is turning to alternative energy solutions; to fully utilize its renewable energy (RE) resources, fulfill the energy demand in the future and to reduce carbon emissions. This paper also discusses the steps taken by the government in preparation for FiT and overcoming the barriers in RE development. (author)

  17. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy into the Grid: Key Issues, Greening the Grid (Spanish Version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    This is the Spanish version of 'Greening the Grid - Integrating Variable Renewable Energy into the Grid: Key Issues'. To foster sustainable, low-emission development, many countries are establishing ambitious renewable energy targets for their electricity supply. Because solar and wind tend to be more variable and uncertain than conventional sources, meeting these targets will involve changes to power system planning and operations. Grid integration is the practice of developing efficient ways to deliver variable renewable energy (VRE) to the grid. Good integration methods maximize the cost-effectiveness of incorporating VRE into the power system while maintaining or increasing system stability and reliability. When considering grid integration, policy makers, regulators, and system operators consider a variety of issues, which can be organized into four broad topics: New Renewable Energy Generation, New Transmission, Increased System Flexibility, and Planning for a High RE Future.

  18. Materials compatibility issues related to thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faget, N. M.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to results obtained to date in developmental investigations of a thermal energy storage (TES) system for the projected NASA Space Station's solar dynamic power system; these tests have concentrated on issues related to materials compatibility for phase change materials (PCMs) and their containment vessels' materials. The five PCMs tested have melting temperatures that correspond to the operating temperatures of either the Brayton or Rankine heat engines, which were independently chosen for their high energy densities.

  19. Clean Energy Industries and rare Earth Materials: Economic and Financial Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Baldi, Lucia; Peri, Massimo; Vandone, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years Rare Earth Materials (REMs) prices have experienced a strong increase, due to geopolitical policies and sustainability issues. Provided that these materials at risk of supply disruptions are largely employed in the development of new technologies - such as clean energy industries - financial markets may already have included these concerns into clean energy companies evaluation. We use a multifactor market model for the period January 2006-September 2012 to analyse the i...

  20. Energy confinement of tokamak plasma with consideration of bootstrap current effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Ying; Gao Qingdi

    1992-01-01

    Based on the η i -mode induced anomalous transport model of Lee et al., the energy confinement of tokamak plasmas with auxiliary heating is investigated with consideration of bootstrap current effect. The results indicate that energy confinement time increases with plasma current and tokamak major radius, and decreases with heating power, toroidal field and minor radius. This is in reasonable agreement with the Kaye-Goldston empirical scaling law. Bootstrap current always leads to an improvement of energy confinement and the contraction of inversion radius. When γ, the ratio between bootstrap current and total plasma current, is small, the part of energy confinement time contributed from bootstrap current will be about γ/2

  1. Current Status and Challenges in Wind Energy Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Badger, Jake; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2014-01-01

    Here we discuss the status and challenges in the development of atlases for the assessment of the regional and global wind resources. The text more specifically describes a methodology that is under development at DTU Wind Energy in Denmark. As the wind assessment is based on mesoscale modelling,......, some of the specific challenges in mesoscale modelling for wind energy purposes are discussed such as wind profiles and long-term statistics of the wind speed time series. Solutions to these challenges will help secure an economic and effective deployment of wind energy....

  2. Processes of decision making on energy issues: micro and macro analysis (the case of Poland 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Iwińska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Article tackles the idea of environmental and participatory democracy in Poland. Due to Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters known as the Aarhus Convention people should be involved in decisions concerning environment and energy issues in the country. All large investments, and those are certainly investments in energy infrastructure, are associated with a variety of interest groups and organizations. The main goal of this article is to show the decision making processes do not come across the knowledge and public information on nuclear energy in Poland. We present the context and background for the structural model of energy decisions using and reinterpreting survey data from 2014 and 2015 from the opinion polls on various sources of energy in Poland. From this point of departure we distinguish the micro-, meso- and macro- level of energy decisions.

  3. The Current Status and Implications of Nuclear Energy Cultural Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Won

    2006-01-01

    The Korean nuclear energy community paid a high price in terms of the tremendous social costs incurred in the process of securing a site for mid-to-low radioactive waste disposal facility, indicating that interest in the technical danger of nuclear energy has spread to the realm of people's daily lives. Under the circumstances it is important to raise rational public awareness of nuclear science as a foundation of everyday life through nuclear cultural activities. This study examines the various types of public relations activities of the Korea Nuclear Energy Foundation, an organization in charge of promoting nuclear energy, and explores what activities are required to ensure efficient promotion in accordance with development of nuclear culture

  4. Energy situation and energy-related environment issues of Pacific Island countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwatibau, Suliana

    1991-01-01

    Pacific Islands have experienced low economic growth during the 1980s, and face significant energy problems. Petroleum products are imported at very high prices and biofuel use often leads to resource over-exploitation. However, perhaps the most basic energy-environment concern is the potential for sea level rise. Some Pacific Island nations would vanish altogether, while others would lose their most productive areas. (author)

  5. Development of a Reference Dose for Perchlorate: Current Issues and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleus, R. C.; Goodman, G.; Mattie, D. R.

    2000-01-01

    incomplete data from the other two, US EPA/NCEA issued a document in December 1998 stating that the critical effects were hormone and histology data from the neurodevelopmental/behavioral toxicity study that had been performed in rats; an RfD was proposed based upon the observation of thyroid-follicular-cell hypertrophy in the 5-day-old pups (PND) of dams given perchlorate in drinking water at 0.1 mg/kg-day (the lowest dose tested) in this study. US EPA/NCEA also focused attention on a nonsignificant increase in motor activity observed in 14-day-old male pups in the same study at the same dose. In February 1999, a public workshop was convened at which an external peer-review panel determined that there was still insufficient data to support the development of a RfD. Additional studies were recommended. Since that time a clinical study revealed significant depression of thyroidal uptake of iodide in volunteers receiving potassium perchlorate at 10 mg/day for 14 days. Follow-up studies currently underway include a pathology working-group review of histology slides from the all of the previous studies, a motor activity study similar to the first behavioral study, an additional immunotoxicity study, male and female rat kinetic studies, a hormone interlaboratory study, and an effects study for thyroid and brain in developing rats. These studies are expected to be complete by mid-2000. A clinical study is planned to determine inhibition of iodide uptake and kinetic parameters in humans following 14-day perchlorate ingestion. The kinetics studies will provide data for developing physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for rats and humans needed to establish the RfD.

  6. Current and emerging occupational safety and health (OSH) issues in the healthcare sector, including home and community care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, T. de; Bos, E.; Pawlowska-Cyprysiak, K.; Hildt-Ciupinska, K.; Malinska, M.; Nicolescu, G.; Trifu, A.

    2014-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the current and emerging OSH issues for health- and social care workers and how these affect their safety and health at work and influence the quality of care they provide. It combines a literature review and the responses received to a questionnaire sent to OSH

  7. Global energy and environmental issues, reflected in Toyota's advanced powertrain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Toshiaki [Toyota Motor Corporation, Aichi (Japan)

    2013-08-01

    Energy diversification is proceeding due to environmental issues and need for energy security. At the same time, the environmental challenges for the automobile are becoming more and more severe due to the requirement for low fuel consumption and air pollution. While the alternative fuels are expanding due to concerns on future oil supply, automakers need to promote multi-directional developments. However it is considered that oil will remain as the main fuel source in the next few decades. Thus, the development of internal combustion engine (ICE) and of high efficiency vehicle systems will remain an important challenge. Furthermore hybrid vehicle (HV) technology and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology are expected to be one effective technology to save oil usage. For that purpose, promoting electricity production which emits low CO{sub 2} and the development of a high energy density battery is important. In addition to the energy issue, air pollution issue is also an important matter. Although the emission regulations are continuously becoming more stringent to respond to the air pollution issue, many areas have a mismatch between emission regulation and suitable fuel quality. Therefore automakers are taking action for resolving the contradiction. Since it will take time until fuel quality meets the required specification, developing the technologies to prevent the major matters for consumers can't be avoided. Coordination of fuel properties and quality over a wide area is essential for improving air quality locally and globally. (orig.)

  8. Energy issues affecting corn/soybean systems: Challenges for sustainable production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantifying energy issues associated with agricultural systems, even for a simple two-crop corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) rotation, is not a simple task. It becomes even more complicated if the goal is to include all aspects of sustainability (i.e., economic, environmental, ...

  9. The gender issue in energy project planning. Welfare, empowerment or efficiency?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skutsch, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    The gap between gender policy as adopted by governments and donors, and the inclusion of gender issues in energy planning practice at project level, is great, despite the fact that there are many manuals available which demonstrate how to go about gathering gender-based data and analysing this. This

  10. The issue of energy security in relations between the European Union and Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O V Shabelnikova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on cooperation between the European Union and the Republic of Azerbaijan on energy issues. The author analyzes the EU initiatives and projects for the Black Sea and Caspian Sea region as well as the questions of delivery diversification of the Azerbaijani gas to the European markets.

  11. A systematic study of the explosion energy issue in core collapse supernova theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yu

    2016-06-01

    Massive stars with main sequence masses greater than 8 solar mass (Msun) the main target of CCSNe researches. According to initial mass function (IMF) they occupy about 15As a matter of fact, supernova theorists have failed to reproduce this energetic stellar explosion for about a half century because micro and macro physics are highly complex and are mutual influenced. The theoretical investigation of the explosion mechanism is based on numerical simulations, which will ultimately require computational sources of exsa scales. With recent remarkable developments both in hardware and software, however, more realistic physics are incorporated and research group are beginning to overcome the difficulties, reporting successful explosions in their numerical models. The successful is still partial, unfortunately, since in the most of the cases the explosion energy hardly reaches the typical value (10^51erg). What is worse other groups found no explosion for almost same setups. The robust explosion mechanism has not yet been ascertained and is still a remaining issue. The purpose of this paper is to study how far our understanding of "neutrino heating mechanism", the current paradigm, has reached, or put another way, to expose what kind of physics are still missing to explain observations , such as explosion energy and nickel mass. As already remarked the physics in CCSNe are quite complicated with extremely high Reynolds number, highly uncertain equation of state (EOS) at supra-nuclear densities, copious neutrinos not in thermal nor chemical equilibrium with matter normally. I believe that it is justified to devote a somewhat large number of pages to the introduction. It will be also helpful for understanding the motivation of this paper. Starting with evidence from supernova light curves I will then move to the basics idea of neutrino heating mechanism and summarize some recent developments in various micro and macro physics. Key factors in the theory of massive

  12. Management of municipal, hazardous and radioactive wastes: An environmental overview. Current issue paper 109

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeager, K L

    1990-10-01

    This paper attempts to provide the reader with essential information on the quantity and types of solid, hazardous and radioactive wastes being generated in the province and to introduce some of the existing and future management options being considered. As well, a number of possible issues are identified which may stimulate further interest in the future paths of waste management in Ontario. (author).

  13. Management of municipal, hazardous and radioactive wastes: An environmental overview. Current issue paper 109

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeager, K.L.

    1990-10-01

    This paper attempts to provide the reader with essential information on the quantity and types of solid, hazardous and radioactive wastes being generated in the province and to introduce some of the existing and future management options being considered. As well, a number of possible issues are identified which may stimulate further interest in the future paths of waste management in Ontario. (author)

  14. The relevancy of current environmental issues to solder joints in microelectronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walitsky, P.J.; Yost, F.G.

    1991-01-01

    The technical issues brought about by recent federal mandates are reviewed and discussed. Progress made in the elimination of CFCs is briefly reviewed. The problems, implications, and status of pending anti-lead legislation and taxation are discussed at length. Recommendations are made for the enactment of rational, fair, and orderly legislation and taxation

  15. Current concepts and issues in the management of regurgitation of infants : A reappraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenplas, Y; Belli, D; Benhamou, PH; Cadranel, S; Cezard, JP; Cucchiara, S; Dupont, C; Faure, C; Gottrand, F; Hassall, E; Heymans, HSA; Kneepkens, CMF; Sandhu, BK

    Regurgitation in infants is a common problem. Recent issues, such as the increased risk of sudden infant death in the prone sleeping position, the finding of persisting occult gastro-oesophageal reflux with feed thickeners, and the increasing awareness of the cost-benefit ratio of medications may

  16. Current issues and related activities in seismic hazard analysis in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong-Moon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-Rim; Chang, Chun-Joong

    1997-03-01

    This paper discusses some technical issues identified from the seismic hazard analyses for probabilistic safety assessment on the operating Korean nuclear power plants and the related activities to resolve the issues. Since there are no strong instrumental earthquake records in Korea, the seismic hazard analysis is mainly dependent on the historical earthquake records. Results of the past seismic hazard analyses show that there are many uncertainties in attenuation function and intensity level and that there is a need to improve statistical method. The identification of the activity of the Yangsan Fault, which is close to nuclear power plant sites, has been an important issue. But the issue has not been resolved yet in spite of much research works done. Recently, some capable faults were found in the offshore area of Gulupdo Island in the Yellow Sea. It is anticipated that the results of research on both the Yangsan Fault and reduction of uncertainty in seismic hazard analysis will have an significant influence on seismic design and safety assessment of nuclear power plants in the future. (author)

  17. Theory and History, Questions and Methodology: Current and Future Issues in Research into ICT in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Anne; Jones, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Serious criticisms of research in information and communications technology (ICT) in education have been published recently in both the UK and the USA. This paper addresses several issues raised in these commentaries: a lack of sound theoretical underpinnings to our research, persistent neglect of the history of our sub-discipline, the choice of…

  18. Current issues and related activities in seismic hazard analysis in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jeong-Moon; Lee, Jong-Rim; Chang, Chun-Joong.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses some technical issues identified from the seismic hazard analyses for probabilistic safety assessment on the operating Korean nuclear power plants and the related activities to resolve the issues. Since there are no strong instrumental earthquake records in Korea, the seismic hazard analysis is mainly dependent on the historical earthquake records. Results of the past seismic hazard analyses show that there are many uncertainties in attenuation function and intensity level and that there is a need to improve statistical method. The identification of the activity of the Yangsan Fault, which is close to nuclear power plant sites, has been an important issue. But the issue has not been resolved yet in spite of much research works done. Recently, some capable faults were found in the offshore area of Gulupdo Island in the Yellow Sea. It is anticipated that the results of research on both the Yangsan Fault and reduction of uncertainty in seismic hazard analysis will have an significant influence on seismic design and safety assessment of nuclear power plants in the future. (author)

  19. Ensuring energy security in ASEAN countries: Current trends and major challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senderov, Sergey; Vorobev, Sergey

    2018-01-01

    The paper discusses the issues of formation of future challenges to energy security of the ASEAN countries in the period up to 2035. The article gives examples of strategic threats to the energy security of Russia. The opportunities to meet future demand for primary energy for individual countries of ASEAN and the whole region are discussed.

  20. Global Energy-saving Map of Strong Ocean Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Current (SEC) current, which extends from the surface to about 100 m depth, approaches the Brazilian coast. The SEC splits into two branches near 10°S...19477–19498. FAO (2012). The state of world fisheries and Aquaculture 2012, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. ISBN 978-92-5...World Bank and FAO. (2009). The sunken billions. The economic justification for fisheries reform. Washington, DC, Agriculture and Rural Development