WorldWideScience

Sample records for current energy crisis

  1. Energy crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subrahmanyam, K.V.; Mudgal, A.G. (comp.)

    1980-01-01

    Energy sources and energy consumption in India are discussed. Human and animal power constitute the principal sources of energy; both are extremely efficient users of the energy in food if they get enough; the food itself takes little energy to grow if energy-intensive agriculture does not take over from traditional methods. Of the commercial sources of energy with which India is endowed, the scarcest are natural gas and petroleum; the most abundant and reasonably well distributed geographically, except for the metallurgical grade, is coal; the one which holds out the greatest promise for the future is nuclear energy. The most important aspect of the energy problem in India is the short supply of coal to steel plants, electric utilities, and such vital industries as cement and textiles. There is a stark confession of the absence of progress on the energy front during the past 18 years. (MCW)

  2. Dark energy crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, J.-A. [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (LeCosPA), National Taiwan University (NTU), Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2010-11-01

    In cosmology we are facing the dark energy crisis: How can we survive huge vacuum energy, meanwhile living with tiny dark energy? For the solution to this crisis, we raise several clues and hints, in particular, supersymmetry and the double hierarchy, M{sub p}-M{sub SM}-M{sub DE} (Planck-Standard Model-dark energy scales). These two clues naturally lead to a solution with a supersymmetry-breaking brane-world. The train of thought from the clues to the solution is elucidated.

  3. Welcome to the energy crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, L.J.; Seligman, C.

    1981-01-01

    The author provides an overview of several articles on the impact of the energy crisis which examine key ideas, emerging theories, findings, and methodologies that are guiding current social research. The articles deal with energy policy and how energy conservation fits into national policy, the social psychological context for energy conservation research on behavior and attitudes, and how to facilitate the adoption of conservation measures that increase the efficiency of energy use. The papers review psychological theory on the adoption of innovations, and offer modifications and extensions that tailor it to fit the adoption of energy-conserving innovations. 7 references.

  4. Energy Crisis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Pathak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The impending energy crisis and climate change concerns coupled with the mounting oil prices and the depleting fossil fuel sources, have grabbed significant attention from around the globe toward the establishment of environment friendly, renewable, carbon-neutral alternative fuels to fulfil the growing energy demands. Bioenergy derived from the micro-organisms is of great interest in the present world‟s energy scenario due to its renewability. Fuel cells and batteries powered by various sources such as blood, urine, bacteria, viruses, mitochondria have been discussed herein. Energy from biomass and derived fuels like biodiesel, which is a promising candidate to replace fossil fuels as the primary transport energy source may also lead to an era of economic bloom and prosperity of the society. The batteries and fuels discussed in the composition could be the next-generation fuels and a breakthrough to a less polluted, better, greener society, the way we all dream our world to be!

  5. The Energy Crisis and Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockris, J. O'M.

    1974-01-01

    Examines the status of the energy crisis in Australia. Outlines energy alternatives for the 1990's and describes the present status of solar energy research and the economics of solar energy systems. (GS)

  6. The Energy Crisis and Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockris, J. O'M.

    1974-01-01

    Examines the status of the energy crisis in Australia. Outlines energy alternatives for the 1990's and describes the present status of solar energy research and the economics of solar energy systems. (GS)

  7. Global energy and environmental security in the current global economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosov Yuri

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problems of the environmental impact of energy. Further reduction of this impact on the global environment can be achieved two ways. The short-term one implies the increase in energy efficiency. In the next 15—20 years, the increase in efficiency should become a priority of the energy policy of all states. The long-term one is based on the gradual expansion of renewable energy. This method is aimed to avoid further economic and energy crises. At the same time, it has an important environmental aspect. Experts claim that the new area of global energy should be less costly than the traditional ones.

  8. Global energy and environmental security in the current global economic crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Kosov Yuri; Mallon Vim

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the problems of energy sector environmental impact. Further reduction of the global energy sector impact on the global environment can be achieved by two methods. The first, short-term one implies the increase in energy efficiency. In the next 15—20 years, the increase in the efficiency should become a priority of the energy policy of all states. The second, long-term method is based on the gradual expansion of the scope of re-newable energy application. This method is ...

  9. GLOBAL ENERGY CRISIS AND RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Piechota

    2013-01-01

    The sudden development of the mankind at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries brought along the growth in importance of exploiting the energy of different type. When uninterruptedly a demand for the energy is growing, and abilities of increasing the supply for her are limited, we can deal with the occurrence of an energy crisis. The article is moving the subject matter of an global energy crisis. A definition of an energy crisis, his genesis and effects were included in it for world econom...

  10. Understanding the importance of an energy crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechtenberg, Abigail Reid

    Human development and energy, in general, and electrical energy, specifically, co-exist seamlessly in high HDI countries where reliability and availability is greater than 99%. In numerous low HDI countries, there is 2-50% electric grid availability with reliability at or below 50% due to load shedding and faults. In Africa, solar, wind, biomass and hydroelectric energy production are cited to meet growing demand and increase reliability and availability; however, the capital costs are greater than the ability-to-pay for wide scale implementation. Since the 1970s, the United States has continued to argue over the new sustainable energy infrastructure solution(s); thus resulting in no new infrastructure being built for wide scale implementation. Together the world is facing the daunting task of averting an energy crisis in developed countries and facing energy crises in developing countries. This thesis explores the importance of energy crises: from the past, current, and future. The first part entails arguing that the United States is not on a pathway to prevent an energy crisis based on an analysis of 1986 and 2004 niche and status-quo manufacturing of light-duty vehicles. The second part answers the question of what an energy crisis looks like by exploring and investigating current electrical energy crises in Fort Portal, Uganda. This part used both anthropological and physics education empowerment research to co-design and build for various energy crisis situations in hospitals, schools, and businesses all from locally available materials and expertise. Finally, looking into the US light-duty vehicle's future, I design a new hybrid vehicle powertrain (called transition mode hybrid). This third part describes my new patent as a way to avert an energy crisis in the light-duty transportation sector.

  11. Marxist logic tells origin of current crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵磊

    2009-01-01

    Since the Great Depression in 1929,economists have continued soul-searching for the lessons to be drawn from the crisis.But mainstream reflections have been misguided,conf ined to stereotypical targets of blame such as "lax regulation," "policy mistakes" and "underestimation of risks." Regretfully,understanding of the root cause of the current sub-prime crisis is as superficial as before.The reasons for both crises seem to be polar opposites:the Great Depression of 1929 was triggered by insufficient effective demand,while the ongoing sub-prime mortgage crisis was triggered by "excess" effective demand.In fact,however,the classic crisis and the modern crisis in the capitalist world essentially originate from the same thing:crisis of overproduction.The shift from classic crisis into modern crisis only kicks the ball from supply side to demand side.Given the intrinsic contradictions of the market economy that give rise to the crisis,the analytical framework of "risk and regulation" proves difficult to help us understand its nature.For this reason,we must turn to a Marxist questioning of the crisis.

  12. Energy Crisis In Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Present, and Future,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12, no. 6 (2008): 107. 20 Kashmir (AJ&K). Existing installed projects... Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review 13, no. 6 (2009): 1659. 25 • Encourage the transfer of technology and develop an indigenous manufacturing...Harijan. “Hydropower Use in Pakistan: Past, Present, and Future.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12, no. 6 (2008): 307–20. Musadiq

  13. The new energy crisis : Climate, Economics and Geopolitics

    OpenAIRE

    Chevalier, Jean-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Global warming reveals that the current evolution of the world consumption is on an unsustainable path. Humankind's insatiable appetite for energy has sparked a new crisis. In a world where climate change has become a proven reality, there lies a deep uncertainty about the physical, economic and social impacts of this phenomenon. The New Energy Crisis examines the impact of climate change issues into energy economics and geopolitics. Climate is a public resource that needs to be universally m...

  14. Forgotten Fundamentals of the Energy Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Albert A.

    1992-01-01

    Applies exponential growth and the speed of doubling times to the energy crises. Increases comprehension of this mathematical law and the significance of findings made through its use. Examines statements from authoritative sources on energy to illustrate the lack of understanding of arithmetic's relationship to the energy crisis. Suggests ways to…

  15. THE EVOLUTION OF ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION DURING THE CURRENT GLOBAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Tuca

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis constitutes a serious test for the process of globalization. The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of the current global crisis on economic globalization. To assess the impact of the current crisis on economic globalization, this paper examines the KOF Index of Globalization, before and during the crisis. The findings generally support the idea that economic globalization has been, in fact, weakened, after the onset of the current crisis. However, there is evidence that suggest that economic globalization has resumed the upward trend that characterized it before the crisis. Despite the fact the global crisis has shaken the process of globalization, we cannot talk of an end of globalization, as some predictions have indicated.

  16. Forgotten Fundamentals of the Energy Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Albert A.

    1980-01-01

    Examines what is believed to be the forgotten fundamental of the energy crisis, the elementary arithmetic of growth. The arithmetic is applied to what is known about the reserves of fossil fuels. A large number of erroneous pronouncements from public figures and news media are collected here. (SA)

  17. Financial Crisis and Energy Efficiency. Information paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de T' Serclaes, Philippine; Gasc, Emilien; Saussay, Aurelien

    2009-10-15

    Governments have understood the importance of financing energy efficiency now. This realisation is exemplified through the central role occupied by energy efficiency in most stimulus packages. The purpose of this memo is to identify the impact of the financial and economic crisis on the evolution of public sector investments, energy efficiency policy development, and private sector investments. The paper will first identify trends which have emerged from the implementation of IEA government stimulus packages. Most relevant case studies are then provided along with lessons and challenges.

  18. ENERGY CRISIS IN COMMUNIST ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pãrean Mihai - Olimpiu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available If during the interwar period Romania has managed to move from an agrarian economy to an industrial-agrarian one, after the 2nd world war in Romania, as in other communist countries, has monitored the further development of the industry. It wanted to be a true industrial revolution.Over time one can identify several types of industrial revolutions, each giving impetus to a given development cycle, which had its beneficiaries and the losers. At first it was steam power, and then use the internal combustion engine, which used oil instead of steam. While other countries developed would increase of production capacity of nuclear power, a higher stage of economic development, in Romania continued the industrial development on the same grounds as in the inter-war period. This has had very serious tracks for the Romanian economy and society, since before and during World War II, the German war machine operated within the national resources of energy. The time and manner in which each country is part of this race are defining the social welfare. Unfortunately, Romania has failed to take advantage, each time losing the start. Creation of some production capacity and the development of industries (metallurgy, chemical industry, iron and steel industry, which consumed significant energy amounts was the wrong decision for the future well-being of the country. Oil impacts which have affected the world economy, hit also Romania. The first oil shock (impact was more easily broken because of the continued use of internal resources (oil, coal, natural gas, but the second shock was catastrophic. It was too much for Romania after being forced to use those resources in the last decades (including the interwar period. Romanian leaders probably had in mind that Western countries were developed by enhancing industry of this type, but they did it in a different historical period when also the prices of such resources were much smaller and the lack of them was not a

  19. European Energy Security amid Ukrainian Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of overall analysis of the European dependence on Russia for its energy needs (mainly gas and oil this paper tries to argue that economic sanction against Russia will have limited success. It will hurt the region badly, but it has more potential to jeopardize the European energy security aspect – a long cherished goal of the European nations. So, the best means to solve the Ukraine crisis is political and diplomatic tools, not the economic ones.

  20. Energy Strategy of Russia in the Conditions of Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashulin Danila A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the transformation of the energy strategy of Russia in the conditions of the current economic crisis. The special attention is paid to current trends in the sphere of international relations having a decisive influence on the formation of Russia’s energy strategy. The authors point to the crisis of the modern world, the deepening of interstate contradictions, the expansion of confrontation, the revision of the uniform principles of trade, established by the World Trade Organization, the changes in the global financial system. The authors investigate the possibility of political arrangements between the leading suppliers of oil on the destabilization of the oil market in order to achieve geopolitical goals. In the article special attention is also paid to the issue of political motivation of anti-Russian sanctions directed at impeding Russia’s development and its Fuel & Energy Complex, in particular. Today, against the background of the current political situation, the energy strategy of Russia is exposed to adjustment. The country has the important task of ensuring technological independence of the energy sector on the basis of import substitution of the equipment, diversification of the directions of export of energy resources, preservation of leading positions in the world market of peaceful nuclear energy, etc. The authors conclude that the energy strategy of Russia is important part of foreign policy strategy of the country, and it is focused on practical cooperation with all countries and is aimed at protecting interests of the state.

  1. Energy crisis will be allowed alternative energy

    OpenAIRE

    Березуцкий, Вячеслав Владимирович; БЕРЕЗУЦКАЯ Н.Л.

    2014-01-01

    Рассмотрены традиционные источники получения энергии и показаны их недостатки. Выполнены исследования по определению наличия энергии в пирамидках, построенных по принципу египетских пирамид. Полученные результаты позволили сделать вывод о перспективности разработки технологий получения энергии в пирамидах. Considered traditional sources of energy and show their weaknesses. Studies were performed to identify the presence of energy in the pyramids that are built at the principle of the Egypt...

  2. The Current Global Economic Crisis: Gleaning from History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettah B. Essien

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study seeks to demonstrate how the knowledge of economic thought could help in explaining and managing the current global economic crisis. The current economic meltdown has affected nations of the world by differing degrees but adversely. Many analysts argue that the adoption of the Washington Consensusfinancial liberalization-gave vent to the crisis. The Washington Consensus discourages government involvement but promotes the operation of the market forces in economic and financial operations. However, the financial and economic devastation caused by the current economic crisis has prompted governments of various nations across the world to intervene through massive stimulus plans in order to rescue their economies from the meltdown situation. This suggests that the role of government in the economy is pertinent, and that the market forces are no substitutes but complement. This, therefore, suggests a fair balance of the government and the market forces in the operations of the economy.

  3. The Current Global Financial Crisis 2008-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albulena Shala

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The current global financial crisis is considered as one of the biggest crises after the crisis of the years of 30’s. The global financial crisis has affected all countries including developed and developing ones. It also has affected all the industries. Population with the low-income faced the greatest consequences. The last hope for the survival of the market economy was to undertake important steps for the nationalization of bankrupted banks and companies, thereby developing policies for the preservation of jobs. Through this analysis, we have included briefly some of the development followed the period of 2008 and onwards. A summary of statistics for some important economic indicators such as employment, exporting and importing is covered in this study as well.

  4. The Current Economic Crisis: Effects, Consequences, Measures and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana-Antonela BONTA (cas. MITEA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present research project is the current economiccrisis, its effects, consequences but especially the measures and the solutions that we can find to resolve this situation. A key problem preoccupying developing countries today is the global economic crisis and how they can address it. The epicenter of the crisis is in the developed countries, especially the USA. But the developing countries that have no role in causing the crisis have suffered the most severe “collateral damage”. I will try to present the similarities with other periods of recession that we have crossed-over time. I will propose a few measures to remedy this situation, both long-term and short-term, referring of course to Romania and EU as well.

  5. Global'naja jenergeticheskaja i jekologicheskaja bezopasnost' v uslovijah sovremennogo mirovogo jekonomicheskogo krizisa [Global energy and environmental security in the current global economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosov Yuri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problems of the environmental impact of energy. Further reduction of this impact on the global environment can be achieved two ways. The short-term one implies the increase in energy efficiency. In the next 15—20 years, the increase in efficiency should become a priority of the energy policy of all states. The long-term one is based on the gradual expansion of renewable energy. This method is aimed to avoid further economic and energy crises. At the same time, it has an important environmental aspect. Experts claim that the new area of global energy should be less costly than the traditional ones.

  6. Global'naja jenergeticheskaja i jekologicheskaja bezopasnost' v uslovijah sovremennogo mirovogo jekonomicheskogo krizisa [Global energy and environmental security in the current global economic crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Kosov Yuri; Mallon V.

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the problems of the environmental impact of energy. Further reduction of this impact on the global environment can be achieved two ways. The short-term one implies the increase in energy efficiency. In the next 15—20 years, the increase in efficiency should become a priority of the energy policy of all states. The long-term one is based on the gradual expansion of renewable energy. This method is aimed to avoid further economic and energy crises. At the same time, it ha...

  7. Geothermal Energy: Current abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringe, A.C. (ed.)

    1988-02-01

    This bulletin announces the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. (ACR)

  8. Crisis factor oil. Disarmentation with new energy; Krisenfaktor Oel. Abruesten mit neuer Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennicke, P.; Supersberger, N. (eds.)

    2007-07-01

    Atomic controversy with Iran, troubles in Nigeria, hurricanes in the U.S.A.: New crisis increase the oil prices. And we depend on oil whether as an industrial country or as a private person. Oil is the most important support of energy: it heats up the climate, and increasingly is the crisis factor of the world. Authors from orientalism, economical science, political science, German Federal Armed Forces, and administration point out possibilities to come out from the crisis of oil. The book under consideration contains the following contributions: (a) Energy and safety trembles in the balance (Uwe Moeller); (b) Trouble proneness of our energy systems: Without system transformation the light is switched off (Nikolaus Supersberger); (c) Perspective for industrial countries: retreat from oil era? (Friedemann Mueller); (d) military strategies in order to secure support of energy? (Dieter Farwick); (e) Fair prices for oil are scarce prices: Ricardo, Marx, Hotelling (Mohssen Massarrat); (f) Stability at any price? North Africa and the Near East demand a new thinking (Henner Fuertig); (g) EUMENA - A transregional partnership under current (Franz Trieb); (h) China's politics of energy - a challenge or a chance for cooperation? (Heinrich Kreft); (i) Germany 2050 - options of a sustainable power system (Peter Hennicke); (j) Twelve theses for a sustainable power supply (Michael Mueller).

  9. Neo-Poulantzian Perspectives in IR and the Current Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ougaard, Morten

    This paper is about Poulantzas, historical materialism, international relations, and the current crisis. My purpose is to discuss how some Poulantzian theoretical contributions can be applied to the study of subject matters that are the focus of academic fields such as International Relations (IR......), International Political Economy (IPE), International Politics, World Politics and others. I deliberately abstain from singling out any of these disciplines or fields or labels and from trying to define them precisely, because one of my arguments is that historical materialism (HM) is a research program2...

  10. Climate crisis: energy solutions for BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, D. [ed.

    2000-07-01

    This report is a collection of essays which, collectively, detail the current situation of energy and climate policy in British Columbia, taking account of the full consequences of addiction to fossil fuels and the automobile. The report examines the forces at work responsible for the current situation, namely population growth, urban sprawl, low density communities in the Lower Fraser Valley, southern Vancouver Island and other parts of the province. The growing pressure on the development of agricultural land, congestion on highways and in cities, the increase in air pollution, land alienation, longer commutes to and from work, increased demand for electricity and natural gas, construction of new power plants, pipelines and gas processing facilities are just further examples of the same trend, culminating in dramatic growth in greenhouse gas emissions. The report proposes a range of conservation and renewable options in the areas of urban land use and transportation, commercial and industrial energy reduction and oil and gas production, and provides some ideas of how these recommendations could be realized by businesses, institutions and individuals. It insists on stressing that while the challenges are formidable, they could be achieved through a combination of regulation, public investment, market mechanisms and cultural change. 163 end-notes, tabs.

  11. Energy Crisis: Libya's and Nigeria's Role. Resource Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    African-American Inst., New York, NY. School Services Div.

    This resource packet contains practical suggestions and resource materials to help secondary teachers teach about Libya's and Nigeria's roles in the energy crisis. Students become acquainted with the governments and cultures of the two countries, examine their social problems, and learn how the Libyan and Nigerian governments are using money from…

  12. Energy Crisis: Libya's and Nigeria's Role. Resource Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    African-American Inst., New York, NY. School Services Div.

    This resource packet contains practical suggestions and resource materials to help secondary teachers teach about Libya's and Nigeria's roles in the energy crisis. Students become acquainted with the governments and cultures of the two countries, examine their social problems, and learn how the Libyan and Nigerian governments are using money from…

  13. CHALLENGES OF INTERNAL AUDIT IN THE CURRENT CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Adriana Florina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern economic theories reject the generalization of theories concerning the economic and financial crises. Each financial crisis is unique, a historic accident, generated by specific factors in a certain socio-economic and political set-up. According to these theories, crises cannot be anticipated so as to minimize their negative effects. In spite of the fact that economic and financial crises are not identical and do not produce identical effects, history teaches us that they are strongly correlated with the cyclic nature of economic processes. The current economic recession, which shows in all fields of activity, is determining auditors to make evaluations which are a lot more precise, based on extensive procedures, as long as the presumption of activity continuity into the future is accurate. In this context, internal audit is individualized as an managerial assistance function, which allows a correct perception of the reality of the business as a whole and/or as predefined processes. The purpose of this paper is to create an overall picture of internal audit by collecting data and information from literature and showing the dimensions and the internal audit practices internationally. Therefore, we conducted a research based on the analysis of national and international publications, various articles and studies in the financial press, on the emergence and development of the internal audit function both internationally and nationally. Later we analyzed the position of internal audit in terms of global financial crisis, all these leading to the usage of a comparative study of twelve international companies in order to highlight the specific features of the internal audit function in each organization. Our intention is to emphasize aspects of internal audit departments, relations between them and the management, their role in companies based on studies provided by Protiviti, a global consulting and internal audit services company, having

  14. Students' Sympathetic Participation in the Energy Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Paula

    This collection of lessons involves a sequence of 10 class sessions to give above average seventh-grade students an opportunity to use verbal, research, and creative skills in discussing the energy situation as it applies to their lives. The practice of English skills is emphasized in the lessons. A list of sources of free or inexpensive materials…

  15. Ensuring green growth in a time of economic crisis: the role of energy technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Despite the severity of the current financial and economic crisis, it cannot be allowed to distract us from addressing critical and strategic climate change and energy challenges. The energy sector produces 60% of global greenhouse gas emissions and so it must also be a key part of any strategy to reduce them. This paper describes the most promising low-carbon technologies, their current status and the policy framework that will be necessary to achieve their widespread deployment. It also highlights what immediate steps can be taken as part of a Clean Energy New Deal. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 1 app.

  16. The current crisis in human resources for health in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    resource and training policies, weak institutions, and inappropriate structures [1]. Dimensions of the human resource crisis: .... medical personnel are often misused for management ... redefinition of functions, reforms in the staffing standards,.

  17. A Cosmic Ray Resolution to the Superbubble Energy-Crisis

    CERN Document Server

    Butt, Yousaf M

    2008-01-01

    Superbubbles (SBs) are amongst the greatest injectors of energy into the Galaxy, and have been proposed to be the acceleration site of Galactic cosmic rays. They are thought to be powered by the fast stellar winds and powerful supernova explosions of massive stars in dense stellar clusters and associations. Observations of the SB 'DEM L192' in the neighboring Large Magellenic Cloud (LMC) galaxy show that it contains only about one-third the energy injected by its constituent stars via fast stellar winds and supernovae. It is not yet understood where the excess energy is going, thus, the so-called 'energy crisis'. We show here that it is very likely that a significant fraction of the unaccounted for energy is being taken up in accelerating cosmic rays, thus bolstering the argument for the SB origin of cosmic rays.

  18. Energy shortage: a produced crisis. Energieknappheit - die gemachte Krise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Five articles of the central organ of the KPD/ML, the Roter Morgen, and a declaration of the central committee of th KPD/ML are published here. The articles deal with: raw materials-utilization and deposits; the oil-multis - the world's greatest financial power; the energy industry of the FRG; nuclear power - the new trick of the old bosses; resisting the bulling of oil prices, securing energy supply on the basis of coal. The articles are clearly combative and against capitalism, energy concerns, and oil-multis. The energy crisis is declared to be a problem of capitalism which can only be solved by abolishing the capitalist system and its laws of profit.

  19. Contextualizing the current crisis: Post-Fordism, neoliberal restructuring, and financialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Tauss

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article argues that the current financial crisis that began unfolding in late 2007 cannot be explained merely by institutional failure, false economic theories, or human misbehavior. Instead, the crisis must be analyzed against the backdrop of the internal contradictions of capitalist accumulation and the gradual disintegration of the post-war hegemonic world order under U.S. leadership. The specifics of the crisis are inherently related to the failure of Fordism in the 1970s and the emergence of a post-Fordist, neoliberal, and finance-driven regime of accumulation that was pushed to its limits in the lead-up to the current downturn.

  20. Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Hertie School of Governance

    2010-01-01

    Crisis as an omnipresent part of our daily lives has become engrained in our mindsets. We should, however, not resort to apathy, but instead attempt to differentiate between those issues sold to us as crises. The new Schlossplatz³ issue shows how crises are managed in various examples and how they can serve as instances of learning.

  1. MONETARY POLICY UNDER THE IMPACT OF THE CURRENT GLOBAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zina Marcu (Cioran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the financial crisis draws more and more the specialists’ attention. The monetary policy has a decisive role in monitoring and reducing the inflationary phenomenon as much as possible, since it can become a real danger for an economy during a period of crisis. Inflation is a negative thing that affects the economy. It discourages the investments and the economic growth. The aim of this paper is to find the Central Bank’s economic instruments and levers that can contribute to price stability in the economy. It was found that the elaboration of a measure of monetary policy with a restrictive feature can contribute to price stability on long term, but we should take into account the macroeconomic context in which it is applied.

  2. Cuba - energy management in crisis. Kuba - Energiewirtschaft in der Krise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechuga Vilarino, R. (Hochschule fuer Technik, Wirtschaft und Sozialwesen (HTWS), Zittau/Goerlitz F-H (Germany)); Riesner, W. (Hochschule fuer Technik, Wirtschaft und Sozialwesen (HTWS), Zittau/Goerlitz F-H (Germany))

    1994-10-01

    In 1993, the drastic decline of the Cuban economy resulted in a partial revelation of socialistic economic principles. A crisis in energy supply brings big parts of agriculture and industry to a standstill caused by a lack of foreign exchange. Collapses in public traffic, daily power cut lasting hours show that the vulnerable spot of the island is exposed with the energy supply. Despite increasing own crude oil extraction (1993: 1.1 mio. t), lack in energy is drastic through dropped subsidies of the former Soviet Union as well as wanting crude oil supplies from this region (decrease of crude oil imports from previously 13 mio. t/a to 13 up to 4 mio. t/a). On the other hand, this critical situation has forced to save energy to better use national owned reserves. It is also planned to continue a nuclear power station concept blocked in 1992. In lack of an own fossil basis of ressources, the utilization of regeneration energy sources is increasingly considered with this bagasse in the centre. Nevertheless it is clear that the gap in energy coverage cannot be managed with this alone. (orig./UA)

  3. Labour Markets Trends, Financial Globalization and the current crisis in Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. van der Hoeven (Rolph)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe current wave of globalization has profound labour market effects, accentuated, in many cases, by the current financial and economic crisis. This paper reviews general labour market trends and country examples, arguing that the current globalization process makes labour’s position mor

  4. Labour Markets Trends, Financial Globalization and the current crisis in Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. van der Hoeven (Rolph)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe current wave of globalization has profound labour market effects, accentuated, in many cases, by the current financial and economic crisis. This paper reviews general labour market trends and country examples, arguing that the current globalization process makes labour’s position

  5. Energy plantation for solving the crisis of fuel and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhal, O.P.

    1985-10-01

    Concentrated efforts are required for achieving better social foresty in rural areas of India. There are a large number of tree species that can be considered for energy plantations. Some of the fuel wood plants are described: subabul, eucalyptus, agathi, babul, ber, casuarina, imli, karanji, pardeshibabul, siris, jamun, and neem. Carbohydrate plants contain sugar and starch and serve as the source of energy in the form of food and fuel. The latex of some plants can be processed as fuel oil. (Refs. 29).

  6. Employment and employment conditions in the current economic crisis in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Vukšić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to analyze developments in employment and employment characteristics during the current crisis in Croatia. The main findings can be summarized as follows: (1 The primary (aggregate mode of adjustment to the crisis was a decline in employment. There are, however, considerable differences in adjustment patterns across economic activities. (2 During the crisis, jobs were lost in the, more dynamic, private sector, while the number of jobs in the public sector (entities in state ownership slightly increased. (3 Economic activities with comparatively larger shares of women in employment have experienced fewer employment cuts and the aggregate employment share of women rose during the crisis, especially in activities with a larger share of public sector workers.(4 There has been a declining share of younger workers during the crisis, justifying policy actions to facilitate their employment. (5 Employees with comparatively lower educational attainment face severe challenges in the labor market, which is a longer term trend, not specific to the crisis period. There are indications that this group of employees enjoys a higher level of protection in the public sector. (6 Analysis also shows a rising significance of more flexible forms of employment: increasing shares of fixed term employees (during the last two observed years, and of part time workers. (7 Working hours do not exhibit any strong trends specific to the crisis, except for the diminishing number of overtime hours per worker.

  7. Cities ready for energy crisis: Building urban energy resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.; Keeffe, G.; Tillie, N.M.J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Various sources indicate that threats to modern cities lie in the availability of essential streams, among which energy. Most cities are strongly reliant on fossil fuels; not one case of a fully self-sufficient city is known. Engineering resilience is the rate at which a system returns to a single s

  8. Cities ready for energy crisis: Building urban energy resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.; Keeffe, G.; Tillie, N.M.J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Various sources indicate that threats to modern cities lie in the availability of essential streams, among which energy. Most cities are strongly reliant on fossil fuels; not one case of a fully self-sufficient city is known. Engineering resilience is the rate at which a system returns to a single

  9. On the energy crisis in noncommutative CP(1) model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sourrouille, Lucas, E-mail: sourrou@df.uba.a [Departamento de Fisica, FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pab.1, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428, Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-08-01

    We study the CP(1) system in (2+1)-dimensional noncommutative space with and without Chern-Simons term. Using the Seiberg-Witten map we convert the noncommutative CP(1) system to an action written in terms of the commutative fields. We find that this system presents the same infinite size instanton solution as the commutative Chern-Simons-CP(1) model without a potential term. Based on this result we argue that the BPS equations are compatible with the full variational equations of motion, rejecting the hypothesis of an 'energy crisis'. In addition we examine the noncommutative CP(1) system with a Chern-Simons interaction. In this case we find that when the theory is transformed by the Seiberg-Witten map it also presents the same instanton solution as the commutative Chern-Simons-CP(1) model.

  10. On the energy crisis in noncommutative CP(1) model

    CERN Document Server

    Sourrouille, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    We study the CP(1) system in (2+1)-dimensional noncommutative space with and without Chern-Simons term. Using the Seiberg-Witten map we convert the noncommutative CP(1) system to an action written in terms of the commutative fields. We find that this system presents the same infinite size intanton solution as the commutative Chern-Simons-CP(1) model without a potential term. Based in this result we argue that the BPS equations are compatible with a full variational equations of motion, rejecting the hypothesis of an "energy crisis". In addition we examine the noncommutative CP(1) system with a Chern-Siminos interaction. In this case we find that when the theory is transformed by the Seiberg-Witten map it present also the same instanton solution as the commutative Chern-Simons-CP(1) model.

  11. Impacts of the current economic crisis on Southeast Asian labour markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Walsh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis has caused most of the western world to fall into recession because of the credit crunch and the collapse of much of the under-regulated and over-confident banking industry. However, in most of Asia, especially developing Asia, the crisis has affected manufacturing and, hence, employment rather than the finance sectors, especially because the latter had already been restructured following the 1997 Asian Crisis. This paper considers the impact of the crisis on the range of labour markets across the region and assesses the ongoing relevance of the development model that is posited on low labour cost manufacturing aimed at assisting export industries. Impacts considered include migration flows of labour, the possibility of augmenting added value to existing production and the need to upgrade skills and competencies.

  12. Sleeping with the enemy? On Hayek, constructivist thought, and the current economic crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessler, Oliver

    The current economic crisis challenges the constitutive rules of global finance. Despite its various roots, dynamics, and consequences, the current reform debate is surprisingly limited in scope: it focuses on possible changes of Basle II and thus banking regulation only. This article suggests that

  13. Effects of the Current Economic Crisis on the Fiscal Variables in EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Viorel BRAŞOVEANU

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Our paper aims to capture the effects of the current economic and financial crisis on fiscal variables, the 27 EU Member States, based on macroeconomic developments until 2010 and projected for 2011. Starting from the economic recession, from the increase of unemployment and the relative stability of prices in the EU overall (macroeconomic developments that characterize the current crisis, we analyze the effects of those developments on the public revenues and expenditures, on the conventional deficit and public debt, which are macroeconomic variables that comprise the pentagon of economic macro stabilization.

  14. EVOLUTION OF THE ROMANIAN RESIDENTIAL MARKET AFTER OUTBREAK OF THE CURRENT ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şteliac Nela

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The residential market is one of the market sectors seriously affected by the current economic and financial crisis. This is mirrored both in the fall of real estate trading prices and in the decreased number of transactions and cutback of newly built constructions. This trend is applicable to the entire spectrum of the residential market (luxury properties and homes destined to average-income customers. Romania is no exception from this European and world-wide state of affairs. This paper aims to briefly outline the trends on the Romanian residential market in the aftermath of the current crisis.

  15. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS - SOLUTION OR VICTIM OF THE CURRENT ECONOMIC CRISIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MINA Laura

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available It is already a well known fact that public-private partnerships (PPPs are considered to be a solution for world wide governments facing insufficient public budgets. In the context of the current economic crisis, many voices promote public-private part

  16. Changing attitudes in tourism - a possible way to win the battle with the current economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albu, R. G.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis should be viewed as an opportunity to make the changes needed for improving the tourism industry. These changes are necessary for the tourism industry and must be undertaken considering the necessity of transforming the economy into a Green Economy based on the sustainable development principles. This approach will ensure the sustainable development for the Tourism Industry. The purpose of the paper is to highlight the importance and the necessity of change in tourism, especially in the present context of economic and financial crisis.

  17. Current work in energy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report describes the work performed at Berkeley Lab most recently. One of the Labs accomplishments is the publication of Scenarios of US Carbon Reductions, an analysis of the potential of energy technologies to reduce carbon emissions in the US. This analysis is described and played a key role in shaping the US position on climate change in the Kyoto Protocol negotiations. The Labs participation in the fundamental characterization of the climate change issue by the IPCC is described. Described also is a study of leaking electricity, which is stimulating an international campaign for a one-watt ceiling for standby electricity losses from appliances. This ceiling has the potential to save two-thirds of the 5% of US residential electricity currently expended on standby losses. The 54 vignettes contained in the report summarize results of research activities ranging in scale from calculating the efficacy of individual lamp ballasts to estimating the cost-effectiveness of the national Energy Star{reg_sign} labeling program, and ranging in location from a scoping study of energy-efficiency market transformation in California to development of an energy-efficiency project in the auto parts industry in Shandong Province, China.

  18. Biodiesel and bioethanol production: A sustainable alternative for the energy crisis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Castro Martínez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution intends to give an overview of the current -status of the energy crisis and suggest some sustainable alternatives for energy production. In first place, a brief summary of the history about resources for energy production is presented. The high dependency of fossil combustibles it is well known and has been estimated that more than 90% of the used energy comes from non-renewable resources such as oil, gas and carbon. In the same way, here, it is described that oil is, by far, the main source of energy used to date and as a consequence, this resource is, unavoidably,coming to an end and at the same time is causing and increasing environmental pollution problems. Later in this work, it is suggested that in order to achieve the energetic sustainability, the development of alternative sources that will allow the reduction of toxic greenhouse gas (GHG emissions as well as a decrease of water usage along with a decrease in the energy production costs are needed. One of the alternatives that have been proposed is the production of biofuels, such as biodiesel and bioethanol. Here, some of the main properties at the level of the employed raw materials and production systems are cited. Finally, this work suggests some solutions that are under development worldwide in order to face thiscurrent energy situation.

  19. Impact of global financial crisis on stylized facts between energy markets and stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Tan Kim; Cheong, Chin Wen; Hooi, Tan Siow

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the stylized facts is extremely important and has becomes a hot issue nowadays. However, recent global financial crisis that started from United States had spread all over the world and adversely affected the commodities and financial sectors of both developed and developing countries. This paper tends to examine the impact of crisis on stylized facts between energy and stock markets using ARCH-family models based on the experience over 2008 global financial crisis. Empirical results denote that there is long lasting, persists and positively significant the autocorrelation function of absolute returns and their squares in both markets for before and during crisis. Besides that, leverage effects are found in stock markets whereby bad news has a greater impact on volatility than good news for both before and during crisis. However, crisis does not indicate any impact on risk-return tradeoff for both energy and stock markets. For forecasting evaluations, GARCH model and FIAPARCH model indicate superior out of sample forecasts for before and during crisis respectively.

  20. EVOLUTION OF THE ROMANIAN RESIDENTIAL MARKET AFTER OUTBREAK OF THE CURRENT ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRISIS

    OpenAIRE

    Şteliac Nela

    2013-01-01

    The residential market is one of the market sectors seriously affected by the current economic and financial crisis. This is mirrored both in the fall of real estate trading prices and in the decreased number of transactions and cutback of newly built constructions. This trend is applicable to the entire spectrum of the residential market (luxury properties and homes destined to average-income customers). Romania is no exception from this European and world-wide state of affairs. This paper a...

  1. The energy crisis: some political considerations; La crisis energetica: algunas consideraciones politicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riechmann, J.

    2009-07-01

    Trends like global warming and peak oil (the end of the cheap fossil fuel age) embody an enormous potential of natural catastrophe and socio-economic upheaval. Are our affluent societies ready for the forthcoming conflicts around scarcity, when expansionist human systems collide with the biophysical limits of our finite planet? Unfortunately, we cannot exclude a revival of anti-humanist and anti-democratic political movements in XXIst century. With the global socio-ecological crisis as a background, it is worth considering the idea of Hitler as a forerunner. (Author) 34 refs.

  2. Towards a Continental Energy Market: From the Energy Crisis to the Free Trade Agreement, 1970-88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul W.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the impact the 1973 oil embargo and resulting energy crisis had on Canadian energy policies, which eventually led in 1987 to the enactment of the Free Trade Agreement between Canada and the United States. Includes excerpts of three documents which reveal much about the shift in Canadian policy toward a continental energy market. (LS)

  3. Crisis-transitions in athletes: current emphases on cognitive and contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambulova, Natalia B

    2017-08-01

    During the last decade, the field of athlete career research has seen much expansion. Researchers established the holistic lifespan and ecological approaches, introduced cultural praxis of athletes' careers paradigm, and updated the taxonomy of athletes' transitions. However, recent transition research focused mainly on the transition process and factors contributing to successful transitions, while crisis-transitions and factors contributing to ineffective coping have been largely ignored. The aim of this paper is to facilitate relevant research and practice through (1) positioning athletes' developmental crises within the context of the current transition literature, (2) introducing two new approaches (termed 'cognitive turn' and 'cultural turn') with a potential to enhance our understanding of the phenomenon, and (3) outlining crisis-coping interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The delay of investments in Romanian tourism caused by the current financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fratu, D.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union considers creating specific economic areas due to the inheritance of each country. For the south-east European area, the characteristic is the low industrial development, as a consequence of the financial crises. Nowadays, the south-east European area becomes attractive mainly because of the tourism industry, due to the industrial downturn of the last decades. EU policies regarding the tourism industry face the actual financial crisis, which is reflected in the postponing of investments in tourism. In this article, the author intends to analyze the current stage of investments made in the Romanian tourism industry with the help of the European Union. The study also aims at finding favourable solutions for continuing investments, although the crisis persists.

  5. Energy efficiency masters the crisis; Energieeffizienz meistert die Krise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knipper, Karsten [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany).

    2010-10-15

    Despite the still smouldering economic and financial crisis, the subject of sustainability continues to stand high on the agenda. The reason: climate and environmental protection as well as a responsible treatment of resources often amount to the same thing as higher efficiency and improved competitiveness. This is especially true in the whole area of mobility, the world-wide transport of goods and persons. (orig.)

  6. CURRENT STATUS AND OUTLOOK OF RENEWABLE ENERGY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over 80% of the current Nigerian primary energy consumption is met by petroleum. ... energy resources in Nigeria, namely; biomass, hydropower, solar and wind energy. ... The data presented in this paper is a crucial eye-opener for relevant ...

  7. Challenges for the Romanian Public Pensions System in the Current Economic and Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Sava

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address the challenges for the Romanian public pensions system in the current economic and financial crisis. Firstly, are presented the defining indicators of the Romanian public pension system, such as number of pensioners, the number of taxpayers, the dependency ratio pensioners/contributors, public pension expenditure as a percentage of GDP, etc. The article illustrates the challenges regarding the sustainability of the pension system to the aging population and the main predictions of specialized financial institutions on public pension expenditure for the next period. It also presents the current abuses of public pension system and the measures taken by the Romanianauthorities to reform it.

  8. Russia's energy economy between crisis and upturn; Energiewirtschaft in Russland zwischen Krise und Aufschwung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borozdina, Olga [Staatliche Univ. fuer Oekonomie und Finanzen, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2011-01-15

    Russia's energy sector is currently faced with two formidable challenges. On the one hand it must overcome the adverse effects of the global economic crisis while on the other it must create a foundation for its further development. The energy sector contributes 29.5% to the gross domestic product of the Russian Federation, thus representing an especially important branch of the domestic economy. At the same time, with an export rate of 66% it is the branch with the heaviest integration in the world economy. Its future orientation is therefore also of international significance.

  9. Russian gas and european energy security: Interdependence following the crisis with Georgia and the Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Gullo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available At the present time, gas represents one of the main energy raw materials that are used for producing electricity and other private uses. The dual political conflict between the Ukraine and the Russian Federation (winter 2005 and Christmas 2008 and 2009 has highlighted the EU’s position of structural weaknesses both in terms of the supply of its raw materials and as regards possible alternatives to Russia as an energy supplier. The European countries worst hit by Russian-Ukrainian tensions have been those with the greatest dependence on Russian gas. This crisis scenario has led governments to promote a common European energy policy with the aim of, in the future, being in a stronger position than Europe’s current one when negotiating with both Russia and all the other suppliers of energy sources. The article attempts to develop and analyse what has happened since 2005 between the two crises (also with particular references to the recent conflicts between Georgia and Russia in August 2008. The authors begin by analysing the main theoretical framework with respect to interdependence. They then go on to analyse the events, identifying and delimiting the movements of the actors so as to be able to understand both the present situation and the foreseeable consequences of same. In the last part, the authors attempt to analyse the different theoretical frameworks delimited at the beginning of the research by comparing them with the events that have taken place.

  10. Water and Energy Services in Times of War _ The Political Crisis of Yemen, 2011 - 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aklan, Musaed; de Fraiture, Charlotte; Hayde, Laszlo

    2017-04-01

    The current war in Yemen affects the lives of Yemenis, their properties, and basic needs. It has damaged many parts of fuel, electricity, water and sanitation systems. This paper investigates how this war has affected the main sources of energy and water, their availability and prices. Beside literature review and different documents collected from different related governmental sectors, a rapid assessment through field interviews was conducted to collect the primary data. The prices of petroleum products keep unstable and have increased by more than 10 times of pre-crisis costs. The water has become three to four times more expensive. The majority of families relied on the public electricity grids before the war was unleashed. At present, the public electricity and water systems serve less than 20% of urban and rural families. Solar energy has become the first energy source, whereas generators are considered to be the second main power supply. Additionally, rainwater started to be collected as a secondary water source. Many people are willing to continue using this new sources. The study verifies the importance renewable resources transition to achieve secure sustainable water and energy management. Not only in Yemen but also this lessons can be applied to other similar conditions countries in the Middle East, where Decision makers and researchers should give more attention.

  11. Renewable Energy Project Financing: Impacts of the Financial Crisis and Federal Legislation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwabe, P.; Cory, K.; Newcomb, J.

    2009-07-01

    Extraordinary financial market conditions have disrupted the flows of equity and debt investment into U.S. renewable energy (RE) projects since the fourth quarter of 2008. The pace and structure of renewable energy project finance has been reshaped by a combination of forces, including the financial crisis, global economic recession, and major changes in federal legislation affecting renewable energy finance. This report explores the impacts of these key market events on renewable energy project financing and development.

  12. [Lessons from abroad. Current and previous crisis in other countries. SESPAS report 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivadeneyra-Sicilia, Ana; Minué Lorenzo, Sergio; Artundo Purroy, Carlos; Márquez Calderón, Soledad

    2014-06-01

    The evidence available on the impact of previous crises on health reveals different patterns attributable to study designs, the characteristics of each crisis, and other factors related to the socioeconomic and political context. There is greater consensus on the mediating role of government policy responses to financial crises. These responses may magnify or mitigate the adverse effects of crises on population health. Some studies have shown a significant deterioration in some health indicators in the context of the current crisis, mainly in relation to mental health and communicable diseases. Alcohol and tobacco use have also declined in some European countries. In addition, this crisis is being used by some governments to push reforms aimed at privatizing health services, thereby restricting the right to health and healthcare. Specifically, action is being taken on the three axes that determine health system financing: the population covered, the scope of services, and the share of the costs covered. These measures are often arbitrarily implemented based on ideological decisions rather than on the available evidence and therefore adverse consequences are to be expected in terms of financial protection, efficiency, and equity. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effects of the Current Global Economic and Financial Crisis on the EU Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina DORNEAN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the main effects of the current global financial and economic crisis on the European Union budget and the measures that were taken in order to support the EU member states with the purpose of limiting and counteracting its effects. The focus will be on the budgetary expenditure and on the new Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance. For this purpose, we developed a regression model using the Least Square method with three significant variables: a dependent variable – EU budgetary expenditure and two independent variables – budgetary deficit and unemployment rate of member states. According to our analysis, the crisis determined the increase of the EU budgetary expenditure, which was due especially to the increase of the budgetary deficit and rising unemployment in the EU member states. Our findings suggested that the budgetary deficit and the unemployment rate had a highly significant influence on community expenditure growth during the crisis, while the GDP growth and the public debt did not have any significance for the community expenditure growth.

  14. CURRENT STATE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE FISHERIES SECTOR OF UKRAINE IN THE CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. Hrytsyniak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Fisheries has a strategic importance for supplying the population with food, while the sectors of the national economy with raw materials, for strengthening the country’s position in the international arena, for preserving spatial and national integrity of Ukraine, plays an important role in the restoration of natural resources and in the increase in employment. In recent years, fisheries sector of Ukraine is in a severe, protracted economic crisis. Considering its socio-economic and strategic importance for the state, there is a task for developing an effective policy for fisheries development in Ukraine that defines the relevance of the research and practical importance of its results. Thus, a compilation and analysis of the existing information on the current state and development of fisheries sector in the crisis period will allow a deeper understanding of problems in the fisheries sector in Ukraine and finding quick solutions. The main goal of the state policy in the field of fisheries in Ukraine has to be meeting the needs of the population in fish and fish products by creating conditions for effective operations and development of aquaculture and fishing enterprises. Findings. The article reviews the current state of the development of fisheries sector in Ukraine, consumption, catch, processing of fish and seafood, dynamics of fish product exports and imports, legislative and regulatory framework of fisheries sector, state of the implementation of WTO and EU requirements, as well as finding ways for the fisheries sector out from the crisis. Originality. This work is a compilation of the information on the current state of fisheries sector development in Ukraine. The information is provided in the form of a coherent presentation of information on the current state of fisheries sector in Ukraine, both in the domestic and foreign markets. Practical Value. The fact that the fisheries sector of Ukraine is still in a depressive state

  15. Impact and Limitations Deriving from Basel II within the Context of the Current Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Miruna DĂNILĂ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Banking sector risk management framework, geared towards maintaining a solid capital adequacy level, has witnessed a permanent evolution, determined by the global economic and financial reality.Basel II has brought an improvement of the risk management framework by adding minimum capital levels corresponding to market and operational risk and by the introduction of internal rating models. However the current crisis has brought forward some adverse effects as well as limitations.This paper analyses the evolution of prudential rules and regulations introduced by Basel II and their impact on the banking system together with outlining certain limitations.

  16. The impact of the financial crisis on energy investment; Finance investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birol, Fatih

    2009-07-01

    Energy investment worldwide is plunging in the face of a tougher financing environment, weakening final demand for energy and falling cash flows - the result, primarily, of the global financial crisis and the worst recession since the Second World War. Reliable data on recent trends in capital spending and demand are still coming in, but there is clear evidence that energy investment in most regions and sectors will drop sharply in 2009. (Author)

  17. Answers to energy crisis: energy efficiency, rational use of energy and renewable sources; Respostas para crise de energia eletrica: eficiencia energetica, uso racional de energia e fontes renovaveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naturesa, Jim Silva; Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEC/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo; Menezes, Taciana de V.; Perrone, Fernando Pinto Dias; Lepetitgaland, Karla Kwiatkowski [Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras S.A (ELETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This article presents the main advances in energy efficiency of Brazil, the results of the electrical energy alternatives sources incentive program until May of 2007, and examples of using energy in a reasonable way. In our point of view, these three initiatives are essentials in any energetic planning and must be considered with seriousness, mainly at moments of energy crisis. (author)

  18. Current views on risk communication and their implications for crisis and reputation management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutteling, Jan M.

    2001-01-01

    Organizations prepare for crisis communication by designing, implementing, and evaluating procedures, scenarios, and emergency measures. In addition to crisis communication, risk communication is a concern for many organizations as well. Risk communication is viewed as an interactive, multi-actor

  19. [Problems of work world and its impact on health. Current financial crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasina, Fernando

    2012-06-01

    Health and work are complex processes. Besides, they are multiple considering the forms they take. These two processes are linked to each other and they are influenced by each other. According to this, it is possible to establish that work world is extremely complex and heterogeneous. In this world, "old" or traditional risks coexist with "modern risks", derived from the new models of work organization and the incorporation of new technologies. Unemployment, work relationships precariousness and work risks outsourcing are results of neoliberal strategies. Some negative results of health-sickness process derived from transformation in work world and current global economic crisis have been noticed in current work conditions. Finally, the need for reconstructing policies focusing on this situation derived from work world is suggested.

  20. Searching For Causes Of The Current Financial Crisis: On Risk Underassessment And Ignorance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra HOROBET

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the author’s views on one underlying cause of the current financial crisis: the erroneous assessment of risk by market participants. We argue that besides othe r convincing explanations of the causes behind the recent financial tu rmoil such as loose government and central bank policies, the process of market liberalization, investors’ appetite for risk and excessive financial modeling, we need to recognize the fact that underassessment of risk by market participants and policy makers is a major cause for the current crises, as for previous ones. This underestimation of risk comes largely as a result of two realities: first, risk magnitude was not entirely known by market participants, due to an interlinking of securities, structures, and derivatives built around the subprime mortgages; second, market participants ignored these risks to a large extent, in a world were access to financial markets was as ea sy as never before.

  1. Winners or losers?: State measures in crisis management and the energy markets

    OpenAIRE

    Somosi, Sarolta

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have been made about the present global financial crisis that has affected real economy as well. We know the root causes and its consequences. However we found a sector that has not been examined comprehensively in inland studies on the ground of changing environment. It is worth examining the effects on energy sector on the basis of their stages and impacts. Among governmental responses we can find several that hit energy markets, like super-taxes, privatisation or the broade...

  2. Elements of an Alternative to Nuclear Power as a Response to the Energy-Environment Crisis in India: Development as Freedom and a Sustainable Energy Utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, Manu V.

    2009-01-01

    Even as the conventional energy system is fundamentally challenged by the "energy-environment crisis," its adherents have presented the prospect of "abundant" and purportedly "green" nuclear power as part of a strategy to address the crisis. Surveying the development of nuclear power in India, this article finds that it is predisposed to…

  3. Elements of an Alternative to Nuclear Power as a Response to the Energy-Environment Crisis in India: Development as Freedom and a Sustainable Energy Utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, Manu V.

    2009-01-01

    Even as the conventional energy system is fundamentally challenged by the "energy-environment crisis," its adherents have presented the prospect of "abundant" and purportedly "green" nuclear power as part of a strategy to address the crisis. Surveying the development of nuclear power in India, this article finds that…

  4. The Global Energy Crisis: Today and Tomorrow. Developing Proactive Action Student Awareness and Understanding About Finite Fuels and Alternative Energy Sources in a Global Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Richard O.

    Background information and a teaching strategy are provided to help students better understand the global energy crisis and learn to take action. An overview of the energy crisis includes a discussion of the unequal distribution of natural resources throughout the world, the finite nature of fossil fuels, and problems associated with the depletion…

  5. Elements of an Alternative to Nuclear Power as a Response to the Energy-Environment Crisis in India: Development as Freedom and a Sustainable Energy Utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, Manu V.

    2009-01-01

    Even as the conventional energy system is fundamentally challenged by the "energy-environment crisis," its adherents have presented the prospect of "abundant" and purportedly "green" nuclear power as part of a strategy to address the crisis. Surveying the development of nuclear power in India, this article finds that…

  6. The role of business in addressing the long-term implications of the current food crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yach Derek

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Before the onset of the current food crisis, the evidence of a severely neglected nutrition crisis was starting to receive attention. Increased food prices are having severe impacts on the nutritional status of populations. Our current food system has evolved over decades in a largely unplanned manner and without consideration for the complexity and implications of linkages between health, nutrition, agricultural, economic, trade and security issues. The underlying causes for the nutrition crisis include the above, as well as decades of neglect with regard to nutrition, and agricultural science (especially in emerging markets; a failure of governance with respect to the major players involved in nutrition, a weak response by government donors and Foundations to invest in basic nutrition (in contrast to growing support for humanitarian aspects of food aid, and a reluctance to develop private-public partnerships. The emergence of new business models that tackle social problems while remaining profitable offers promise that the long term nutrition needs of people can be met. Businesses can have greater impact acting collectively than individually. Food, retail, food service, chemical and pharmaceutical companies have expertise, distribution systems and customers insights, if well harnessed, could leapfrog progress in addressing the food and nutrition crises. While business can do lots more, its combined impact will be minimal if a range of essential government actions and policies are not addressed. Governments need to create innovative and complementary opportunities that include incentives for businesses including: setting clear nutritional guidelines for fortification and for ready-to eat products; offering agreements to endorse approved products and support their distribution to clinics and schools; eliminating duties on imported vitamins and other micronutrients; and providing tax and other incentives for industry to invest with

  7. The role of business in addressing the long-term implications of the current food crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yach, Derek

    2008-12-05

    Before the onset of the current food crisis, the evidence of a severely neglected nutrition crisis was starting to receive attention. Increased food prices are having severe impacts on the nutritional status of populations. Our current food system has evolved over decades in a largely unplanned manner and without consideration for the complexity and implications of linkages between health, nutrition, agricultural, economic, trade and security issues. The underlying causes for the nutrition crisis include the above, as well as decades of neglect with regard to nutrition, and agricultural science (especially in emerging markets); a failure of governance with respect to the major players involved in nutrition, a weak response by government donors and Foundations to invest in basic nutrition (in contrast to growing support for humanitarian aspects of food aid), and a reluctance to develop private-public partnerships. The emergence of new business models that tackle social problems while remaining profitable offers promise that the long term nutrition needs of people can be met. Businesses can have greater impact acting collectively than individually. Food, retail, food service, chemical and pharmaceutical companies have expertise, distribution systems and customers insights, if well harnessed, could leapfrog progress in addressing the food and nutrition crises. While business can do lots more, its combined impact will be minimal if a range of essential government actions and policies are not addressed. Governments need to create innovative and complementary opportunities that include incentives for businesses including: setting clear nutritional guidelines for fortification and for ready-to eat products; offering agreements to endorse approved products and support their distribution to clinics and schools; eliminating duties on imported vitamins and other micronutrients; and providing tax and other incentives for industry to invest with donors in essential nutrition

  8. Harnessing Ocean Energy by Tidal Current Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Mehmood

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The world is heavily dependent on fossil fuels since most of its energy requirements are fulfilled by conventional methods of burning these fuels. The energy demand is increasing by day with growing population. The energy production by fossil fuels is devastating the environment and survival of life on globe is endangered. The renewal energy technologies are vital to ensure future energy sustenance and environmental issues. Ocean is a vast resource of renewable energy. The technology today makes it possible to extract energy from tides. The growing interest in exploring tidal current technologies has compelling reasons such as security and diversity of supply, intermittent but predictable and limited social and environmental impacts. The purpose of this study is to present a comprehensive review of tidal current technologies to harness ocean energy. The ocean energy resources are presented. The author discusses tidal energy technologies. The tidal current turbines are discussed in detail. The author reviews today’s popular tidal current technologies. The present status of ocean energy development is also reported.

  9. Current status and future potential of energy derived from Chinese agricultural land: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Ningning; Mao, Chunlan; Feng, Yongzhong; Zhang, Tong; Xing, Zhenjie; Wang, Yanhong; Zou, Shuzhen; Yin, Dongxue; Han, Xinhui; Ren, Guangxin; Yang, Gaihe

    2015-01-01

    Energy crisis is receiving attention with regard to the global economy and environmental sustainable development. Developing new energy resources to optimize the energy supply structure has become an important measure to prevent energy shortage as well as achieving energy conservation and emission reduction in China. This study proposed the concept of energy agriculture and constructed an energy agricultural technical support system based on the analysis of energy supply and demand and China's foreign dependence on energy resources, combined with the function of agriculture in the energy field. Manufacturing technology equipment and agricultural and forestry energy, including crop or forestry plants and animal feces, were used in the system. The current status and future potential of China's marginal land resources, energy crop germplasm resources, and agricultural and forestry waste energy-oriented resources were analyzed. Developing the function of traditional agriculture in food production may promote China's social, economic, and environmental sustainable development and achieve energy saving and emission reduction.

  10. The role of renewables in the energy crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fracastoro GianVincenzo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent progress of human kind has so far been strongly related to the use of fossil fuels. Nowadays, the uncontrolled growth of their use is producing a series of threats such as local pollution, global warming, and the unbalance between their growing demand and their progressive depletion is creating serious geopolitical frictions which may put at risk our civilization. While the nuclear option is seriously questioned in the Western world, the growth of renewable energy sources (RES is creating the illusion that they may just replace fossil fuels and become a sort of panacea overcoming all aforementioned threats. Some of the shortcomings of this way of thinking are underlined in this paper. Actually, the correct answer is a combination of two factors: on one side the use of renewable energy sources, but on the other side the adoption of energy efficiency measures in order to rationalize the energy demand.

  11. Current status, crisis and conservation of coral reef ecosystems in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ShaoHong Wu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Harboring rich marine species and playing important ecological functions, coral reef ecosystems have attracted widespread concern around the world. Ecosystem diversity, conservation and management of coral reefs are becoming a hot research area. Coral reefs in China are mainly distributed in the South China Sea and Hainan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Guangdong, and Guangxi coastal waters. In recent years, due to the global climate change and the growing impact of human activities, coral reef biodiversity in China have been reducing and the ecological functions of coral reef ecosystems are severely degenerating. In this paper we summarized the current status, crisis and conservation of coral reef ecosystems in China. Some progress in coral reef research was discussed.

  12. THE CURRENT FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC CRISIS AS A NEW STAGE OF TRANSFORMATION OF THE GLOBAL ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that modern economic science failed to foresee the financial and economic crisis of 2008-2009. However it is appear that there is still a lack of understanding fundamental causes of this crush and its aftermath. The available standard forecasting models and theories for the growth of the global economy are barely able to make correct forecasts in a crisis period and treat this crisis as a cyclical one. Moreover the nature of this crisis and its long-run effect on the...

  13. Urban energy efficiency: a breakthrough vs. the global crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pagani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The environmental design and its complex multi-disciplinary consequences are central in the thinking of the responsibilities, which the Institutes of Knowledge are based on. It is no longer a battle to the forefront, just for the explorers. It is an acquired and consolidated culture, but from an operational standpoint there are many areas of innovation, development, affirmation still to develop. The article focuses on four central aspects of the new culture of energy efficiency in urban systems: the new global/local decision making, the sustainability in urban processes, the new skills for research and development, the growing interest of industries in innovative urban technologies. It provides the main trends in Europe and a vision of a possible exit from the complex socio-economic situation of today: a culture of complexity and energy innovation as factors of development.

  14. A Need for Change: The Looming Energy Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-08

    likely to become a major output source of energy because of the high capital cost 12 required for implementation. It is expected that experiments using...1 December 2005. 26. George S. Standford , “Integrated Fast Reactor: Source of Safe, Abundant, Non-Polluting Power,” December 2001; available from...Joanna Lewis and Ryan Wiser, “A Review of International Experience with Policies to Promote Wind Power Industry Development,” 10 March 2005; available

  15. Energy from streaming current and potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthuis, Wouter; Schippers, Bob; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert

    2005-01-01

    It is investigated how much energy can be delivered by a streaming current source. A streaming current and subsequent streaming potential originate when double layer charge is transported by hydrodynamic flow. Theory and a network model of such a source is presented and initial experimental results

  16. Energy Sustainability and the Army: The Current Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    States’ Oil Addiction , p. 186. 11 . “1979 Energy Crisis”, Wikipedia, p. 2-3, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1979_energy_crisis. 12 . “1980’s Oil Glut...From Sugar And Carbohydrates ”, Science News, 19 September 2008. Available From Http://Www.Sciencedaily,Com/Releases/2008/09/080918170827.Htm. Accessed

  17. The cellular energy crisis: mitochondria and cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, Nigel J

    2003-01-01

    Exploding nuclear reactors, environmental destruction, and global warming; the danger of energy production is clear. It is quite remarkable that in this modern age, where power usage is at a premium, we find that even on a cellular level, generation of large quantities of power comes at a cost. Mitochondria, which produce the majority of cellular energy in the form of ATP, have recently been shown to play an essential role in the death of a cell by a process known as apoptosis. During apoptosis, the integrity of mitochondria is compromised and various pro-apoptotic proteins are released into the cytoplasm. This results in activation of caspases, proteases that orchestrate the death of the cell. Cells in which apoptosis is inhibited upstream of mitochondria generally maintain the potential to proliferate, whereas inhibition of caspases downstream of mitochondria generally only delays cell death. Although breaches of the mitochondrial outer membrane result in the release of proteins that are important for respiration, mitochondria appear capable of maintaining at least some of their functions, including ATP production, even after this event. This has important implications both for the mechanism of outer-membrane permeabilization and the mechanism by which the cells eventually die in the absence of caspase activity. The events surrounding the breach of the mitochondrial outer membrane during apoptosis have therefore received much interest over the past few years.

  18. Energy sector in Ecuador: Current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez-Samaniego, M.R. [University of Cuenca (Ecuador). Faculty of Chemical Sciences; Energy Systems Planning, FEM, UNICAMP (Brazil); Garcia-Perez, M. [Monash University, Melbourne (Australia); Cortez, L.A.B. [Energy Systems Planning, FEM, UNICAMP (Brazil); Oscullo, J. [National Center for Energy Control - CENACE (Ecuador); Olmedo, G. [Polytechnic School of the Army - ESPE (Ecuador)

    2007-08-15

    This paper describes the current energy sector in Ecuador, its present structure, the oil industry, subsidies, and renewable energy, focusing on the evolution and reform of the electricity sector. Currently, 86% of the primary energy originates from nonrenewable sources. In 2005, the gross electricity generation was 15 127 GWh (45.5% hydropower, 43.11% thermal, and 11.39% imported). Ecuador is the fifth largest oil producer in South America but lacks sufficient oil refining capacity. Reserves of natural gas (NG) are small, and most of NG is produced from oil fields without energy recovery. Several projects are underway to increase the utilization of NG and renewable energies to meet Ecuador commitments to the Kyoto Protocol. (author)

  19. Energy crisis and rationing: a comparison between the argentinian and brazilian programs; Crisis energetica y racionamiento: los programas de Argentina y Brasil, una comparacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbiztondo, Santiago; Navajas, Fernando [Fundacion de Investigaciones Economicas Latinoamericanas (FIEL)(Argentina)

    2006-01-15

    Although they have been equitable compared, the energy policies taken by Brazil and Argentina as a solution to the energy crisis lived by each one of these countries in years 2001 and 2002, they have enormous differences in terms of the real problem and nature of the established measures. Firstly the central aspects of the demand rationing mechanism adopted by Brazil for the electrical crisis of 2001 are presented. Afterwards the measures adopted in Argentina during the 2004 crisis in the electricity and natural gas rationing are discussed. From this exhibition of facts, comparisons are made and conclusions extracted looking forward to clarify the important differences separating both cases, differences that as the study reveals meant for the Argentine scheme the breach of the expected objectives. In the last section the changes implemented in the Argentine scheme are reflected during year 2005 to counteract the bad results obtained, nevertheless this modifications attacked only in a partial way the original program weaknesses. [Spanish] Si bien han sido comparadas equitativamente, las politicas energeticas tomadas por Brasil y Argentina como solucion a las crisis energeticas vividas por cada uno en el 2001 y 2004 presentan enormes diferencias a nivel de problema real y naturaleza de las medidas establecidas. Primeramente son presentados los aspectos centrales del mecanismo de racionamiento de la demanda adoptados por Brasil en la crisis electrica de 2001. Luego se comentan las medidas adoptadas en Argentina durante su crisis en el ano 2004 en el racionamiento de electricidad y gas natural. A partir de esta exposicion de hechos se realizan comparaciones y se extraen conclusiones que buscan clarificar las importantes diferencias que separan a ambos casos, diferencias que, como revela el estudio, significaron para el esquema argentino el incumplimiento de los objetivos esperados. En la ultima seccion se reflejan los cambios implementados en el esquema argentino

  20. THE CURRENT FINANCIAL – ECONOMIC CRISIS – DEEP BREAK THAT CHALLENGES AND IMPOSES A NEW PARADIGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negucioiu Aurel

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The most important sign of the times we are living is certainly the global economic crisis. Far from being an illusion, even though we cannot deny the true that she generates not a few illusions; it is a reality that cannot be denied. It – the crisis – ex

  1. Current views on risk communication and their implications for crisis and reputation management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutteling, Jan M.

    2001-01-01

    Organizations prepare for crisis communication by designing, implementing, and evaluating procedures, scenarios, and emergency measures. In addition to crisis communication, risk communication is a concern for many organizations as well. Risk communication is viewed as an interactive, multi-actor de

  2. Crisi della struttura o crisi della semantica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedele Paolo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Political crisis, crisis of the science, economic crisis or crisis of the society as a whole? The concept of “Crisis” is nowadays essential to describe social phenomena. But is this a structural crisis of contemporary society or is it a crisis of the semantics or is it a conceptual heritage used to describe the current evolution of society? Starting from the recent developments of systems theory, the paper tries to investigate the developmental phase of modern society and to re-position the concept of crisis in a founded epistemologically framework.

  3. Implementing the EU climate and energy package with the economic crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerebel, C.

    2009-07-01

    flat GDP growth in 2010 (+0.04%), followed from 2011 by a growth at a slower pace than was predicted before the crisis. The aim of our study is to analyze how the economic downturn in Europe will affect the EU's greenhouse gases emissions and its ability to reach the 20% emission reductions by 2020 compared to 1990. Using the knowledge available at the end of 2009 and drawing lessons from the past emissions trends in Europe from 1990, we will assess the progress towards the 20% reduction target over the period (from 1990 to 2020). A discourse often heard at this time of recession is that the EU climate policy is now out of place: because of the crisis the fight against climate change is said to be too costly and nothing should be required from European industries already coping with a worldwide slowing down of demand for goods and products and huge financial restrictions. Another similar discourse argues that, with the downturn in economic and industrial activities, GHG emissions will automatically decrease, so no effort is required to comply with the EU-wide targets. The economic slowdown will do the trick. Our analysis aims at putting these arguments into perspective. What does the economic downturn really change in EU's emissions future profile up to 2020? The EU Climate and Energy Package is composed of four legislative acts: A Directive amending the current EU-Emission Trading Scheme (EU-ETS); A Decision on GHG Reduction Effort Sharing; A Directive on Renewable Energies; A Directive on the Geological Storage of Carbon dioxide. The main elements of the package addressing climate change are the first two pieces of legislation mentioned above, that limit GHG emissions in the EU by 2020: the directive reviewing the EU-ETS for the period 2013-20 and the decision limiting emissions in the non-ETS sectors. One important difference between these two pieces of legislation is that the target for the ETS sector is community-wide, whilst for the non-ETS sectors

  4. Tidal power harnessing energy from water currents

    CERN Document Server

    Lyatkher, Victor

    2014-01-01

    As the global supply of conventional energy sources, such as fossil fuels, dwindles and becomes more and more expensive, unconventional and renewable sources of energy, such as power generation from water sources, is becoming more and more important.  Hydropower has been around for decades, but this book suggests new methods that are more cost-effective and less intrusive to the environment for creating power sources from rivers, the tides, and other sources of water.   The energy available from water currents is potentially much greater than society's needs.  Presenting a detailed discussi

  5. Current and future industrial energy service characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.; Thomas, T.; Jackson, F.; Limaye, D.R.; Isser, S.; Karnofsky, K.; Davis, T.D.

    1980-10-01

    Current and future energy demands, end uses, and cost used to characterize typical applications and resultant services in the industrial sector of the United States and 15 selected states are examined. A review and evaluation of existing industrial energy data bases was undertaken to assess their potential for supporting SERI research on: (1) market suitability analysis, (2) market development, (3) end-use matching, (3) industrial applications case studies, and (4) identification of cost and performance goals for solar systems and typical information requirements for industrial energy end use. In reviewing existing industrial energy data bases, the level of detail, disaggregation, and primary sources of information were examined. The focus was on fuels and electric energy used for heat and power purchased by the manufacturing subsector and listed by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC, primary fuel, and end use. Projections of state level energy prices to 1990 are developed using the energy intensity approach. The effects of federal and state industrial energy conservation programs on future industrial sector demands were assessed. Future end-use energy requirements were developed for each 4-digit SIC industry and were grouped as follows: (1) hot water, (2) steam (212 to 300/sup 0/F, each 100/sup 0/F interval from 300 to 1000/sup 0/F, and greater than 1000/sup 0/F), and (3) hot air (100/sup 0/F intervals). Volume I details the activities performed in this effort.

  6. The Current Crisis in Emergency Care and the Impact on Disaster Preparedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trainer Marcia

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Homeland Security Act (HSA of 2002 provided for the designation of a critical infrastructure protection program. This ultimately led to the designation of emergency services as a targeted critical infrastructure. In the context of an evolving crisis in hospital-based emergency care, the extent to which federal funding has addressed disaster preparedness will be examined. Discussion After 9/11, federal plans, procedures and benchmarks were mandated to assure a unified, comprehensive disaster response, ranging from local to federal activation of resources. Nevertheless, insufficient federal funding has contributed to a long-standing counter-trend which has eroded emergency medical care. The causes are complex and multifactorial, but they have converged to present a severely overburdened system that regularly exceeds emergency capacity and capabilities. This constant acute overcrowding, felt in communities all across the country, indicates a nation at risk. Federal funding has not sufficiently prioritized the improvements necessary for an emergency care infrastructure that is critical for an all hazards response to disaster and terrorist emergencies. Summary Currently, the nation is unable to meet presidential preparedness mandates for emergency and disaster care. Federal funding strategies must therefore be re-prioritized and targeted in a way that reasonably and consistently follows need.

  7. The impact on chinese economic growth and energy consumption of the Global Financial Crisis: An input-output analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Chaoqing; Liu, Sifeng; Xie, Naiming [Economics and Management College, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, 210016 (China)

    2010-04-15

    The dependence on foreign trade increased sharply in China, and therefore Chinese economy is obviously export-oriented. The Global Financial Crisis will impact the Chinese economic growth violently. Chinese government has recently adopted some effective measures to fight against the Global Financial Crisis. The most important measure is the 4 trillion Yuan ($586 billion) stimulus plan which was announced on November 9, 2008. This paper discusses the influence on energy consumption and economic growth of Global Financial Crisis and the stimulus plan against it by input-output analysis. The results show that the fall of exports caused by the Global Financial Crisis will lead to a decrease of 7.33% in GDP (Gross Domestic Production) and a reduction of 9.21% in energy consumption; the stimulus plan against the Global Financial Crisis will lead to an increase of 4.43% in economic growth and an increase of 1.83% in energy consumption; In the Global Financial Crisis, energy consumption per unit GDP will fall in China. (author)

  8. Marine Hydrokinetic Energy from Western Boundary Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bane, John M.; He, Ruoying; Muglia, Michael; Lowcher, Caroline F.; Gong, Yanlin; Haines, Sara M.

    2017-01-01

    The kinetic energy in ocean currents, or marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy, is a renewable energy resource that can help meet global energy requirements. An ocean circulation model–based census shows that subtropical surface western boundary currents (WBCs) are the only nearshore, large-scale currents swift enough to drive large electricity-generating ocean turbines envisioned for future use. We review several WBCs in the context of kinetic energy extraction. The power density in the Gulf Stream off North Carolina at times reaches several thousand watts per square meter at 75 m below the surface, and the annual average power is approximately 500–1,000 W m‑2. Significant fluctuations occur with periods of 3–20 days (Gulf Stream meanders) and weeks to months (Gulf Stream path shifts). Interannual variations in annual average power occur because of year-to-year changes in these WBC motions. No large-scale turbines presently exist, and the road to establishing MHK facilities in WBCs will encounter challenges that are similar in many aspects to those associated with the development of offshore wind power.

  9. Current energy usage and sustainable energy in Kazakhstan: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatayev, Marat; Islam, Tofazzal; Salnikov, Vitaliy

    2014-05-01

    Kazakhstan has abundant natural resources. The country has enough coal to supply its energy needs for the next 150 years, and has the world's largest deposits of uranium, substantial quantities of natural gas and petroleum deposits. However, despite such energy riches, due to the size of the territory, its geography, and the country's economic structure, distribution of electricity in Kazakhstan is not uniform. As a result, Kazakhstani rural and remote areas suffer from serious electricity deficits. According to the latest estimates from the Ministry of Industry and New Technologies, about 25-30% of the Kazakhstani population lives in rural communities, where access to affordable energy (for heating, cooling, cooking, refrigeration, lighting, household as well as IT use) is limited. Furthermore, with the main electricity production infrastructure concentrated in the main urban areas, a high amount of electricity is therefore lost during transmission. Moreover, the consumption of poor quality coal as the main source of power generation creates a significant amount of environmental pollution. To illustrate this development, fuel combustion from coal has produced around 75% of carbon dioxide emissions in Kazakhstan. Thus, in order to address the country's electricity and environmental challenges, the Kazakhstani government is taking initiatives to promote renewable energy resources. However, so far, the outcome of these initiatives remains negligible. The current contribution of renewable energy to the total energy consumption is less than 1% (with 90% provided by hydropower) despite the significant potential for renewable energy in the country. As yet, no comprehensive study has been published on the energy scenario and on the potential for renewable energy resources in Kazakhstan. This comprehensive review aims to present an overview of the country's energy resources, supply and demand as the current energy scenario, while discussing the potential for renewable

  10. Peeling the Energy Pickle: Expert Perceptions on Overcoming Nepal’s Electricity Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sovacool, Benjamin; Dhakal, Saroj; Gippner, Olivia

    2013-01-01

    Underinvestment, low levels of electricity access, natural disasters, topography and hydrology make Nepal’s electricity crisis akin to ‘peeling a pickle’: difficult to pin down and hard to manage. Based primarily on the perceptions of a sample of experts, this article lays out a roadmap for how......; political instability resulting from the aftermath of the Maoist insurgency; poverty and corruption; lack of financing and investment; constrained technological and human resources; and, finally, aid dependency and political manoeuvring. We conclude by calling on Nepali policymakers to invest in distributed...... generation, transmission upgrades, seasonal hydroelectric storage and industrial energy efficiency practices, and to introduce electricity tariff reforms, among other measures....

  11. High resolution respirometry analysis of polyethylenimine-mediated mitochondrial energy crisis and cellular stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Arnaldur; Larsen, Anna Karina; Parhamifar, Ladan

    2013-01-01

    of PEI-mediated plasma membrane damage and subsequent ATP leakage to the extracellular medium. Studies with freshly isolated mouse liver mitochondria corroborated with bioenergetic findings and demonstrated parallel polycation concentration- and time-dependent changes in state 2 and state 4o oxygen flux...... and spectrophotometry analysis of cytochrome c oxidase activity we were able to identify complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) as a likely specific site of PEI mediated inhibition within the electron transport system. Unraveling the mechanisms of PEI-mediated mitochondrial energy crisis is central for combinatorial design...

  12. The World Economy in the Times of Financial Crisis and its Impact on European Energy Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Baláž

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 2007, globalization of the world economy has led to the expansion of the financial crisis. It affects the long-term international negative positions of EU members. They reacted to the new situation by carrying out structural reforms and by support of new adaptation programs. An important element of this process was the preparing of the convergence of the national energy policies in the framework of the Europe 20-20-20 program, which should remain one of the determining elements of their success in support of the international competitiveness of the EU.

  13. COMPILATION OF CURRENT HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohl, C.G.; Kelly, R.L.; Armstrong, F.E.; Horne, C.P.; Hutchinson, M.S.; Rittenberg, A.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P.; Addis, L.; Ward, C.E.W.; Baggett, N.; Goldschmidt-Clermong, Y.; Joos, P.; Gelfand, N.; Oyanagi, Y.; Grudtsin, S.N.; Ryabov, Yu.G.

    1981-05-01

    This is the fourth edition of our compilation of current high energy physics experiments. It is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and nine participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), the Institute for Nuclear Study, Tokyo (INS), KEK, Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. The compilation includes summaries of all high energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that (1) were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about April 1981, and (2) had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1977. We emphasize that only approved experiments are included.

  14. PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT – A VIABLE OPTION IN THE CURRENT CONTEXT OF POST-CRISIS ECONOMY IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile DEAC; Mihai VRÎNCUT; Paun, Oana

    2014-01-01

    The current crisis has revealed that in the “war” between suppliers and customers the power balance has finally swung towards the latter, and since companies act as both suppliers and customers to other entities apparently complicates their situation. A high performance implies minimizing the cost of “inputs” and maximizing revenues from “outputs”, which in turn requires an effective negotiation from the company both as client and supplier. While negotiation skills can give them a strategic a...

  15. MIGRATION, A CURRENT ISSUE: THE CRISIS OF TODAY, THE CHALLENGE OF TOMORROW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu PĂTRAŞCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to portray a clear perspective of the problem of immigrants, who are arriving in Europe from the Middle East conflict zones (particularly Syria and Iraq and from North Africa (mainly Libya. The causes that conducted to the development of such a phenomenon represent the motivation for choosing this theme, as well as its effects on the functionality of the EU at an institutional level and finally yet importantly the “trenchant” visions of the European public opinion, amplified by the mass media: the pros and cons of accepting the wave of refugees. The author's approach aims to put in balance both the positive effects of the phenomenon on the European continent, as well as the negative ones. Positive effects might consist in obtaining additional work force, as Europe is currently facing a demographic aging phenomenon. Furthermore, from the perspective of EU citizens, who believe in the cohesion of the European institutions, the acceptance of refugees represents a basic value for unity and further on stands for the formation of a homogenous European Union, therefore emphasising the importance of each individual. On the other hand, analysing the matter in the most realistic possible way, the risk of potential terrorist penetration in Europe is quite high and unmanageable. As a research method, we will use document analysis, referring to media articles and official documents. This phenomenon is particularly complex and the crisis result will depend on the effectiveness of the manner in which each national authority as well as the European ones will handle the issue.

  16. Current Economic and Financial Crisis – New Issues or Returning to the Old Problems? Paradigms, Causes, Effects and Solutions Adopted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix TOTIR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available At the ideological level, the current crisis, as the others in history, has triggered an intellectual debate among several applicable ideas: ultra-liberal theory of the "invisible hand" of Adam Smith, Keynes's theory of state interventionism and even neo-Marxist theories. Globalization, with all its core components, generates a chain reaction when the phenomenon occurs, either positive or negative. The origin of the current financial crisis should be sought in the effects of massive cross-border capital flows and the use of more complex derivatives. Reaching the saturation of the three engines of economic growth worldwide in the period after the collapse of the socialist bloc is another important cause of all the failures that currently exist worldwide. Acquisition of toxic assets from bank balance sheets, their recapitalization and takeover by the state, but also the reinforcement of the prudential supervision of capitalization, liquidity and risk management system, improved transparency and speed the process of evaluating or reinforcing authorities' response to risk, can be considered short or long term anti-crisis measures, as appropriate.

  17. The effect of current global economic crisis on Danish companies and what we can learn from it

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull; Turcan, Romeo V.

    economic crisis. Two theoretical lenses are identified to guide the understanding of entrepreneurs’ behaviours under crisis decision-making settings: turnaround strategy, and escalating commitment. To explore entrepreneurs’ behaviours under crisis decision-making settings, entrepreneurs of SMEs were...

  18. The impact of financial globalization and financialization on the economy in the current crisis through banking corporate governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Azkunaga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the role of governance of financial entities in the current crisis. Neoliberal economic policies, deregulation and liberalization have characterized financial globalization, giving rise to the financialization of the economy. This paper, using the analysis-synthesis method, shows that the corporate governance of entities has adapted to the new social environment under the influence of the interests of the investors. The results of this paper suggest the need to monitor the over-emphasis on the maximization of short-term shareholder value without relativizing the risk taken to achieve it, as such, the emphasis on short-term shareholder value is considered a crucial contributing factor to the present crisis.

  19. The National Bank of Romania monetary policy characteristics in addition to the current financial crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Sambotin; Andreea Bucur

    2012-01-01

    Considering the starting point for research the Central Bank key role in economic life, through the implementation of the monetary policy, by exercising prudential control and supervision of commercial banks, the present paper proposes an analysis of the National Bank of Romania monetary policy coordinates in the frame of the increased intensification harsh effects of the global economic crisis.

  20. The National Bank of Romania monetary policy characteristics in addition to the current financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Sambotin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the starting point for research the Central Bank key role in economic life, through the implementation of the monetary policy, by exercising prudential control and supervision of commercial banks, the present paper proposes an analysis of the National Bank of Romania monetary policy coordinates in the frame of the increased intensification harsh effects of the global economic crisis.

  1. Marine energies go forward despite the crisis; Energies marines tenir le cap, malgre la crise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigaud, Ch.

    2010-07-15

    Various projects have been launched in Europe to develop tidal, wave and marine current power. Some countries have set objectives to reach by 2020: 2 GW for United-Kingdom, 0.8 GW for France, 0.6 GW at least for Spain, 0.5 GW for Ireland, and 0.5 GW for Denmark. Only actual operations in real conditions can determine the best technical choices in terms of reliability and costs, important financial helps have been set to develop prototypes and demonstrators. Important progress in computerized simulation allows a better prediction of the expected performance of the plant. Synergies between wind power industry and marine power industry have to be developed in terms of network connections, maintenance, the use of equipment... A European project called 'Marina platform' aims at designing polyvalent platforms for offshore wind field and for marine power plants. The company 'Tidal energy' has planned to immerse a pilot plant of 3 current turbines (totaling 1.2 MW) off the shores of Wales by the end of 2010. This equipment has been specially designed to minimize its impact on the sea environment. (A.C.)

  2. ROMANIAN MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATIONS CLIENTS’ CONSUMPTION BEHAVIOUR WITHIN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC-FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghisan Georgeta-Madalina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper will analyze the consumption behaviour of the Orange mobile telephony company’s clients towards its services’ characteristics within the current economic financial crisis, taking into consideration the following elements: the low tariffs (for calls/ subscriptions/ other services, the quality of calls/ of sound, the network coverage within the territory, the company’s reputation, the negotiated offer, the quality and availability of the customer care service, the diversity of the auxiliary services, the range and prices of the mobile telephones, the costs that pay those who make calls towards this network, the loyalty programs, the usage of a last generation technology, the friends have subscriptions in the same network and the promotional offers. For a thorough research we will divide the operator’s clients into natural persons clients and legal persons clients, each group having its specificities. The data gathering method was the questionnaire sent by post office to all the Orange Romania branches (a total of 225 branches. We received a number of 64 responses, what means a responses rate of 28.4%, which were analyzed using the SPSS informatics program focusing on the correlation analysis and factor analysis. The main results emphasize the fact that the fight to attract clients becomes more and more powerful. The very competitive market leads to the growth of the importance of the price in choosing a provider. The operators’ short term gains from the clients that prefer low prices represent a long term risk of image. Choosing some services packages is sometimes very difficult due to the complexity of the offer. The clients expect the service to work, be simple and easy to use. They want to benefit from rapid and efficient assistance if errors occur and the operator respects the clauses of the contract. The results obtained through this study, allowed us to make an opinion on the perspective that the

  3. The last energy crisis? Is peak oil the end of the Homo Petroliensis?; De laatste energiecrisis? Betekent piekolie het begin van het einde voor de Homo Petroliensis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbanck, E. [Agentschap voor Natuur en Bos, Vlaamse Overheid, Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-11-15

    In the last decade oil prices were rising rapidly. Even in the current economic crisis, the oil price remains at a high level. Countries that are rich in soil resources are witnessing an increase in their power and are even congratulating themselves confidently. Oil dependent countries are starting to get nervous. An increasing number of energy experts is painting a grim picture of the future and warns of oil shortage. What is going on?. [Dutch] Het voorbije decennium zaten de olieprijzen fors in de lift. Zelfs in de huidige economische crisis blijft de olieprijs op een hoog niveau. Landen met bodemrijkdommen zien hun macht toenemen en kloppen zich zelfzeker op de borst. Olieafhankelijke landen worden zenuwachtig. Een toenemend aantal energiespecialisten schetst een grimmig toekomstbeeld en waarschuwt voor olietekorten. Wat is er aan de hand?.

  4. Consequences of the Budget Deficit in the Current Crisis in Romania. Implications on the Labor Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela MOLĂNESCU

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic activity conditions, in which the need of financial resources is usually higher than the existing funds, the elaborations of budgets at any level is one of the primary issues, particularly as regards the principle of budgetary balance. Approaches regarding sizing budgets deficits, means of financing and particularly sizing public debt get a series of touches of precise nature for different economies. Actual economic, financial, social and administrative conditions put up a series of problems which impose an extremely serious approach of the potential adverse impact by sizing of budget deficits and public debt over the real possibilities of noninflationary financing. In Romania, in the highly complex framework in which the economic activity takes place, in the attempt to show the place held by the budget deficit, a special role is assigned to determine the share of public financial deficit in the consolidated budget revenue and expenditure. Currently, knowledge and concern for reducing the budget deficit are still of great importance, especially as Romania is facing great difficulties in economic development. Amid deepening structural crisis phenomena, increasing budget deficits financed over a non-inflationary limits comes as an additional factor that contributes to imbalances of the economy. In addition, where budgetary expenditures are targeted to satisfy, primary, the redistribution function and to state subsidies, because of the lack of a real multiplier coefficient, the state budget deficit worsens. Influences such as introducing economic disturbance in the mechanisms which cause them to increase budget deficits can be summarized and grouped into two broad categories: economic influences and psychological influences. Regarding economic influences, we can say that they act strongly and strictly determined by how meanings used to cover budget deficit. The modalities used are subject to an analysis by direct or indirect

  5. Trust and management-to-employee communication in Slovenian companies: Some evidence from the current economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Makovec Brenčič

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the importance of trust and management-to-employee communication among top Slovenian employers from the Golden Thread Survey. The paper analyzes the changes and impact of the deteriorating external economic situation on (a company-employee relational trust, and on the (b perceived importance of “trust and long-term relationships with the company in the eyes of the customer” by respondent managers. Furthermore, our analysis also looks at the impact of management-to-employee communication on both trust perspectives. The results show a stable level of company-employee relational trust in the face of the current economic crisis, despite a high level of perceived organizational process changes and a sharp decline in financial performance. On the other hand, the perceived importance of “trust and long-term relationships with the company in the eyes of the customer” has increased substantially as the crisis has deepened, supporting our claim that relationships and the external relationship orientation gain importance in the time of crisis. There is also a strong link between the degree of open and frequent management-to-employee communication, and both perspectives of measured trust among top Slovenian employers.

  6. Central Banks’ Response to the Current Financial Crisis – Between Costs and Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Cristina Barbu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study is inserted in the thematic area dedicated, during recent years, to the research on central banks’ response to financial crisis. The global financial crisis has outlined a series of weaknesses located at regulatory and supervisory activities’ level, causing major central banks to face a new operating environment, in which traditional monetary policy tools are ineffective (key interest rate close to zero in restoring the financial markets’ proper functioning. The unconventional monetary policy measures, the dramatic fall of the key interest rate, the balance sheet structure modification and extension of collateral accepted by central banks are the main issues on which we focused our attention, to highlight the costs and benefits recorded by these institutions. All major central banks have implemented highly innovative, flexible facilities and the main beneficiaries have been the banking systems in their entirety.

  7. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE SOLUTIONS REGARDING THE CURRENT GLOBAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADINA DORNEAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze comparatively and critically the solutions adopted on international level by the European Union and also by different countries. In the first part, the paper aims at emphasizing the causes of the global economic and financial crisis and its features, including the contagion effect which manifested. In the second part, we consider the main implications of the global financial turmoil in order to emphasize the serious effects of the crisis. Finally, we analyze the solutions outlined in hard-hit countries in order to limit and counteract its effects, the solutions adopted on international level and also the domestic remedies. For this purpose, we compare the fiscal, monetary and budgetary solutions developed and implemented in countries such as USA, UK, Japan, EU countries and, of course, Romania.

  8. Multilateral Development Banks and Their Role in Supporting European SMEs during the Current Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Gabriel Anton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the ongoing financial crisis on the availability of finance to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs represents an important topic nowadays. The access to finance for SMEs is a major barrier for their growth, especially during severe conditions such as the global financial crisis. Financing the SMEs represents a priority for the most of the multilateral development banks. The aim of the paper is to analyze the activity of European multilateral development banks - European Investment Bank Group and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development - in the support of SMEs. We found that SMEs financing increased during the period 2008-2011 and the international financial institutions took several measures in order to improve the SMEs access to finance.

  9. Impacts of the current economic crisis on Southeast Asian labour markets

    OpenAIRE

    John Walsh

    2010-01-01

    Southeast Asian labour markets are characterized by the diversity of the countries of which they are part and by the historical antecedents of colonialism that have largely given them their nature. Most have adopted a form of the export-oriented, import-substituting low labour cost manufacturing paradigm of economic development known as the East Asian Economic Model (EAEM). Having already passed through the Asian Financial Crisis of 1997 and its disruptive effects, workers in the region are f...

  10. Historical Roots of the Energy Crisis: A Basic Bibliography of Energy History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Eugene S.

    1982-01-01

    Intended for nonspecialists, discusses various aspects of energy in historical terms. Areas addressed include brevity of the cheap energy era, exponential growth, and ideology/controversey (suggesting relationships between power plants and economic power). Examines general literature providing a framework for qualitative thinking about energy and…

  11. Beyond prometheus and Bakasura: Elements of an alternative to nuclear power in India's response to the energy-environment crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, Manu Verghese

    In India, as elsewhere, modern energy-society relations and economic development, metaphorically, Prometheus and the insatiable demon Bakasura, respectively, have produced unprecedented economic growth even as they have ushered in the "energy-environment crisis." Government efforts interpret the crisis as insufficiently advanced modernity. Resulting efforts to redress this crisis reaffirm more economic growth through modern energy-society relations and economic development. The civilian nuclear power renaissance in India, amidst rapidly accelerating economic growth and global climate change, is indicative. It presents the prospect of producing "abundant energy" and being "green" at the same time. This confidence in civilian nuclear power is questioned. It is investigated as proceeding from the modern discourse of "Cornucopianism" and its institutionalization as "modern megamachine organization of society." It is found that civilian nuclear power as energy policy is based on a presumption of overabundance as imperative for viable social and economic development; is predisposed to centralization and secrecy; its institutionalization limits deliberation on energy-society relations to technocratic terms; such deliberation is restrained to venues accessible only to the highest political office and technocratic elite; it fails to redress entrenched "energy injustice;" it embodies "modern technique" fostering the "displaced person" while eclipsing the "complete human personality." Overall, despite its green rhetoric, civilian nuclear power reaffirms the "politics of commodification" and refutes social and political arrangements for sustainability and equity. Alternatives are surveyed as strategies for resistance. They include the DEFENDUS approach for energy planning, the "Human Development and Capability Approach" and the "Sustainable Energy Utility." These alternatives and the synergy between them are offered as avenues to resist nuclear power as a response to the

  12. 25. anniversary of the 1973 oil embargo: Energy trends since the first major U.S. energy crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this publication is not to assess the causes of the 1973 energy crisis or the measures that were adopted to resolve it. The intent is to present some data on which such analyses can be based. Many of the trends presented here fall into two distinct periods. From 1973 to the mid-1980`s, prices continued at very high levels, in part because of a second oil shock in 1979--80. During this period, rapid progress was made in raising American oil production, reducing dependence on oil imports, and improving end-use efficiency. After the oil price collapse of the mid-1980`s, however, prices retreated to more moderate levels, the pace of efficiency gains slowed, American oil production fell, and the share of imports rose. 30 figs.

  13. Energy Crisis in Astrophysics (Black Holes vs. N-Body Metrics)

    CERN Document Server

    Alley, C O; Mizobuchi, Y; Yilmaz, H; Alley, Carroll O; Leiter, Darryl L; Mizobuchi, Yutaka; Yilmaz, Huseyin

    1999-01-01

    The recent observation of the gamma ray burster GRB 990123, requiring at least two solar masses of energy in gamma radiation alone, created an energy crisis in astrophysics (Schilling 1999). We discuss a theorem which states that, of all four-dimensional curved spacetime theories of gravity viable with respect to the four classical weak field tests, only one unique case, the Yilmaz theory, has interactive N-body (multiparticle) solutions and this unique case has no event horizons. The theorem provides strong theoretical support for Robertson's explanation of the large energy output of the gamma ray burster GRB 990123 (Robertson 1999b). This explanation requires a switch from black holes (a 1-body solution with horizon) to the case of horizon-free interactive N-body solutions. In addition to the good news that the long sought N-body solutions are found, this unique case enjoys further strong support from other areas of gravitational physics. This development does not rule out GRB models with beaming, which can...

  14. Current Renewable Energy Technologies and Future Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Stephen W [ORNL; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Ward, Christina D [ORNL; Smith, Barton [ORNL; Grubb, Kimberly R [ORNL; Lee, Russell [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    The generally acknowledged sources of renewable energy are wind, geothermal, biomass, solar, hydropower, and hydrogen. Renewable energy technologies are crucial to the production and utilization of energy from these regenerative and virtually inexhaustible sources. Furthermore, renewable energy technologies provide benefits beyond the establishment of sustainable energy resources. For example, these technologies produce negligible amounts of greenhouse gases and other pollutants in providing energy, and they exploit domestically available energy sources, thereby reducing our dependence on both the importation of fossil fuels and the use of nuclear fuels. The market price of renewable energy technologies does not reflect the economic value of these added benefits.

  15. Current Status and Future Potential of Energy Derived from Chinese Agricultural Land: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningning Zhai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy crisis is receiving attention with regard to the global economy and environmental sustainable development. Developing new energy resources to optimize the energy supply structure has become an important measure to prevent energy shortage as well as achieving energy conservation and emission reduction in China. This study proposed the concept of energy agriculture and constructed an energy agricultural technical support system based on the analysis of energy supply and demand and China’s foreign dependence on energy resources, combined with the function of agriculture in the energy field. Manufacturing technology equipment and agricultural and forestry energy, including crop or forestry plants and animal feces, were used in the system. The current status and future potential of China’s marginal land resources, energy crop germplasm resources, and agricultural and forestry waste energy-oriented resources were analyzed. Developing the function of traditional agriculture in food production may promote China’s social, economic, and environmental sustainable development and achieve energy saving and emission reduction.

  16. The Euro crisis. Causes and Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph S. Weber

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Euro crisis is mainly a consequence of the international financial crisis of 2008. Thereby, the term Euro crisis is misleading as there is no currency crisis. First, the article shows some of the birth defects of the Euro. Second, it shows that the increase in public debt was caused by rescue measures for banks and anti-cyclical fiscal policy. Third, we argue that the Euro crisis is not just one crisis (a sovereign debt crisis but it is a combination of several macroeconomic crises including a growth crisis, a labour market crisis, a public debt crisis, and a current account crisis.

  17. Transforming shortcomings into opportunities: Can market incentives solve Lebanon's energy crisis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruble, Isabella, E-mail: economics.ir@gmail.co [American University of Beirut, Department of Economics, P.O.Box 11-0236, Riad El-Solh/Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Nader, Pamela [American University of Beirut, Department of Economics, P.O.Box 11-0236, Riad El-Solh/Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon)

    2011-05-15

    Over the past decades Lebanon's energy sector has been largely ignored and this has led to high economic and environmental costs. The sector is characterized by electricity poverty, an expanding and mainly unregulated transport sector and a lack of energy savings spanning through all sectors of the economy. Recently, the Government of Lebanon has committed to increase the share of renewable energy to 10% of the total energy supply by 2013 and to 12% by the year 2020; it also aims at reducing energy consumption by 6% by the year 2013. This paper aims at contributing to the formulation of a more comprehensive energy strategy for Lebanon by analyzing the recent changes in policy direction and by recommending legal, regulatory and policy measures in order to transform current shortcomings into opportunities allowing the country to become a regional 'success story' in the deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency. - Research highlights: {yields} This paper reviews the current situation of Lebanon's energy sector. {yields} We analyze the recent development of the markets for renewable energy and energy efficiency. {yields} Policy recommendations that will allow for a sustainable energy future are made.

  18. The Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident crisis and its influence on energy policy in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Shunsuke; Naitoh, Masanori; Okada, Hidetoshi; Suzuki, Hiroaki [Institute of Applied Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    Fossil fuel power plants (FPPs) and nuclear power plants (NPPs) along the northern Pacific coast of Japan experienced a mega earthquake and resulting tsunamis on March 11, 2011, which resulted in serious damage. More than half of the FPPs have returned to supplying electricity, while all NPPs are still shut down. In particular, Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) of the Tokyo Electric Power Co. experienced a nuclear accident crisis unprecedented in both scale and timeframe. This paper gives a brief overview of the events and their propagation based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) report and the authors' studies on accident analysis, and offers considerations on root causes of the propagation, e.g., problems in hardware, software and accident management, by comparing the responses of Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP with those of other reactors at the Fukushima Dai-ni, Tokai, Onagawa and Higashidori NPPs, where cold shutdowns were successfully maintained even though they had also been affected by the earthquake and tsunamis. Future technical subjects for safe NPP operation and the influence of the events on Japanese energy policy are presented. (orig.)

  19. Flexibility and the energy police: the 'alcohol crisis' case; Flexibilidade e politica energetica: o caso da 'crise do alcool'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto Junior, Helder Queiroz; Bicalho, Ronaldo

    2007-07-01

    The present rising in the alcohol prices and the Govern intervention trying to avoid the crisis brought to discussion the energy policy for the liquid fuel in Brazil. After a optimism period the present crisis introduce a perspective of a redimension in the expectations to more realistic levels. This article analyses some aspects of the 'crisis' under a more extend vision of the energy policy in a such way to avoid the prevalence of a short term perspective, aborting a short term energy solution more interesting to the country.

  20. Considerations on Preventing and Combating the Illegal Trafficking of Minors under the Current Economic and Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tache BOCĂNIALĂ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This work highlights the economic crisis problem that affects most states of the world, the crime problem that the society is facing, namely the human trafficking and in particular the child trafficking. This theme is particularly important in the context of amplifying the organized crime, it increasingly concerns the modern society and implicitly the specialists engaged in research of the phenomenon and for preventing and combating it. This paper is an analysis of the current financial crisis impact on human trafficking and the level of response that the society is ready to give through the regulatory framework, specialized institutions and their staff. The analysis concluded that Romania, as a result of its alignment with the acquis communautaire, is now a modern legislative and institutional system in preventing and combating trafficking in human beings. However, there is a need for legislative amendments in order to have a greater effectiveness in prevention and control measures, which represents a milestone in addressing other related issues. This study is also a warning for specialists to deepen their research for improving the prevention and combating trafficking in human beings which tends to grow.

  1. Living through the crisis: Some reflections on the current crisis in which South African Christians are living, in the light of the life and thought of Dietrich Bonheoffer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Godsell

    1978-03-01

    Full Text Available Are we in South Africa really living in a crisis? There are many in our land, our Prime Minister amongst them, who think not. After all, they say, we live today in inflationary times — not only money, but also word inflation. Everything is a crisis. Yesterday’s crisis, to adapt an adage, wraps today’s fish and chips. And, when we point to Soweto, they remind us that many people have very short memories. Yes — the Soweto riots rocked the country. But 16 years ago we experienced Sharpeville. The country was placed in a state of emergency ... hundreds, if not thousands of whites left our fair shores, convinced the end was indeed nigh ... foreign funds disappeared overnight ... the world raised loud and angry voices ... exiled leaders made appointments with the press “I’ll see you in Pretoria” they said “in a couple of years’ time”.

  2. Failures in the energy policy result in electricity revolts. Bulgaria - energy crisis and government crisis; Versaeumnisse in der Energiepolitik fuehren zu Stromrevolten. Bulgarien - Energie- und Regierungskrise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stier, Frank

    2013-03-25

    Electricity bills may oust the government from power as it has happened in Bulgaria: Since the beginning of February 2013, the citizens of the capital city Sofia and from other cities of the Balkan Country demonstrated against the electricity bills being excessive in their opinion. Once it came to a bloody confrontation between the demonstrators and the police at the Eagle's Bridge in Sofia at 19th February, 2013, the Prime Minister Boiko Borissov and his right-wing cabinet had decided to resign. Thus, Borissov led his country into a political instability and the Bulgarian energy industry into an uncertainty on its future development.

  3. Energy-conserving development regulations: current practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    Almost every aspect of land development has an effect on energy use, from minute architectural details to broad considerations of urban density. Energy-efficiency depends in part on how development is planned and carried out. Conventional development regulations, such as zoning ordinances and subdivision regulations, can be adapted in many ways to promote energy conservation at the community level. This report is about energy-efficient site and neighborhood design. It examines recent experiences of local governments that have adopted new development regulations or amended existing ones to promote energy conservation, more efficient generation and distribution, or a switch to alternative, renewable sources. Although much has been written in recent years about saving energy through community design, actual experience in applying these new ideas is still limited. To date, most communities have focused their efforts on studying the problem, documenting consumption patterns, and writing reports and plans. Only a handful have amended their land-use controls for the express purpose of saving energy. This study identifies 13 of these pioneering communities, after undertaking a survey of over 1400 local, regional, and state planning agencies. It takes a look at their experiences, to learn what has been done, how well it has worked, and what problems have been encountered.

  4. Singapore in Its Worst Recession for Years. The Effects of the Current Economic Crisis on the City-State’s Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Jordan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the current economic downturn, Singapore has experienced one of its most severe recessions since independence. The financial crisis, which caused a fall in prices at most of the world’s leading stock exchanges and a sharp decline in industrial production, has also had a negative impact on the city-state’s export-dependent economy. The analysis outlines the economic downturn and the decline of Singapore’s export economy since the beginning of the crisis in late 2008. Central to the analysis are questions regarding the social consequences of the current economic crisis and the amount of losses Singapore’s state-owned holding companies, Temasek and GIC, experienced when some of the world’s biggest investment banks, such as Merrill Lynch, went into bankruptcy.

  5. Crise financeira, energia e sustentabilidade no Brasil Financial crisis, energy and sustainability in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Lucon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A recente crise financeira global traz consigo efeitos como a redução da atividade econômica e, consequentemente, do consumo de energia. Essa pode ser uma importante oportunidade para reorganizar o sistema energético em bases mais sólidas e sustentáveis: a eficiência, a maior participação das fontes renováveis e a descentralização da produção de energia. O Brasil e outros países em desenvolvimento podem aproveitar a experiência dos países desenvolvidos em eficiência energética, complementando com um programa vigoroso em energias renováveis, particularmente as "modernas" (eólica, solar, biomassa e pequenas hidrelétricas. Entretanto, preocupa o cenário inercial nacional, baseado num aumento da participação das fontes fósseis de energia na matriz, na priorização dos recursos à exploração de petróleo e gás natural e na manutenção de padrões insustentáveis de produção e consumo.The recent global financial crisis brings about effects such as a reduction in the economic activity and consequently in energy consumption. This may be an important opportunity to reorganize the energy system under more solid and sustainable foundations: efficiency, higher share of renewables and decentralized energy production. Brazil and other developing countries can leapfrog the experience acquired by developed nations in energy efficiency, complementing with a vigorous program in renewables, particularly the "modern" (wind, solar, biomass and small hydros. However, there is a concern about the inertial Brazilian scenario, based on an increasing share of fossil fuels in the matrix, in prioritizing resources to oil and gas exploration and in the continuing unsustainable patterns of production and consumption.

  6. Can Tidal Current Energy Provide Base Load?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Giorgi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tidal energy belongs to the class of intermittent but predictable renewable energy sources. In this paper, we consider a compact set of geographically diverse locations, which have been assessed to have significant tidal stream energy, and attempt to find the degree to which the resource in each location should be exploited so that the aggregate power from all locations has a low variance. An important characteristic of the locations chosen is that there is a good spread in the peak tidal flow times, though the geographical spread is relatively small. We assume that the locations, all on the island of Ireland, can be connected together and also assume a modular set of tidal turbines. We employ multi-objective optimisation to simultaneously minimise variance, maximise mean power and maximise minimum power. A Pareto front of optimal solutions in the form of a set of coefficients determining the degree of tidal energy penetration in each location is generated using a genetic algorithm. While for the example chosen the total mean power generated is not great (circa 100 MW, the case study demonstrated a methodology that can be applied to other location sets that exhibit similar delays between peak tidal flow times.

  7. Current status of geothermal energy in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carella, R.

    Italy has been one of the first countries to develop applications or its geothermal energy resources. As a resource it is both abundant and available in the high temperature range. A world premiere was the electricity production in Tuscany (Western Italy) output 56 which at present is 3200 GWh/y from 624 MW of operating capacity. In the low-enthalpy field Italy has enjoyed widespread development of spas, both for therapeutic and heating purposes. The latter's output has now attained presently 127,000 TOE/y. District and other residential heating amount to about 37,000 TOE/y and include two recent very significant projects in the Po Valley (Ferrara and Vicenza). Some large-size greenhouse complexes are heated by geothermal fluids (M. Amiata in Tuscany and Pantani in Latium) as well as fish farms on the Tyrrhenian coast. Agricultural applications account for 19,000 TOE/y. While the outlook is bright for electricity production which is due to increase substantially in the next decade, the short-term future is uncertain for low enthalpy resources, especially in view of low energy prices. Given the abundance of the resources and their environmental benefits, longer term prospects should be good, particularly if energy prices firm up. 1 fig.

  8. Crisis, What Crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Responding to the recent work of Andrew Gamble, the article discusses the extent to which the British situation can be described in terms of crisis. It suggests that an essential element of crisis is that of political and social contestation, and explores the terms on which contestation is taking shape in and around British education.

  9. Crisis and Crisis Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Øjvind

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of Nordicum-Mediterraneum contains select proceedings from the third meeting of the Nordic Summer University research circle called “Crisis and Crisis Scenarios: Normativity, Possibilities and Dilemmas”, held April 9th — 12th, 2015 at the Lysebu Conference Centre in Oslo, Norway...

  10. Fast fitting-in of wind energy? Short-term effects of wind energy because of the Crisis and Recovery Act; Windenergie sneller ingepast? Korte termijn effecten windenergie door CHW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-15

    This report describes the results of a study on the effects of the Crisis and Recovery Act on the realization of wind energy projects by provincial implementation plans in the Netherlands. [Dutch] Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten van een onderzoek naar de effecten van de Crisis- en herstelwet (CHW) op de realisatie van windenergieprojecten via provinciale inpassingsplannen.

  11. Consequences of the Budget Deficit in the Current Crisis in Romania. Implications on the Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Molănescu, Gabriela; Mirela Ionela ACELEANU

    2011-01-01

    In the current economic activity conditions, in which the need of financial resources is usually higher than the existing funds, the elaborations of budgets at any level is one of the primary issues, particularly as regards the principle of budgetary balance.     Approaches regarding sizing budgets deficits, means of financing and particularly sizing public debt get a series of touches of precise nature for different economies. Actual economic, financial, social...

  12. Improved Energy-Momentum Currents in Metric-Affine Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Hecht, R D; McCrea, J D; Mielke, E W; Ne'eman, Yuval; Hecht, Ralf; Hehl, Friedrich W.; Mielke, Eckehard W.; Ne'eman, Yuval

    1992-01-01

    In Minkowski spacetime it is well-known that the canonical energy-momentum current is involved in the construction of the globally conserved currents of energy-momentum and total angular momentum. For the construction of conserved currents corresponding to (approximate) scale and proper conformal symmetries, however, an improved energy-momentum current is needed. By extending the Minkowskian framework to a genuine metric-affine spacetime, we find that the affine Noether identities and the conformal Killing equations enforce this improvement in a rather natural way. So far, no gravitational dynamics is involved in our construction. The resulting dilation and proper conformal currents are conserved provided the trace of the energy-momentum current satisfies a (mild) scaling relation or even vanishes.

  13. Crisis and Crisis Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Øjvind

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of Nordicum-Mediterraneum contains select proceedings from the third meeting of the Nordic Summer University research circle called “Crisis and Crisis Scenarios: Normativity, Possibilities and Dilemmas”, held April 9th — 12th, 2015 at the Lysebu Conference Centre in Oslo, Norway....... The circle’s research program runs from 2014 to 2016 and is aimed at examining the concept of crisis as it is used today in academia and public discussion. In this collection of papers from the symposium we present some of the different ways in which the topic of the study group was addressed....

  14. SOME CONSIDERATIONS ON LOCAL FINANCIAL AUTONOMY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE CURRENT FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vezure Oana Sabina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Financing of local authorities is currently at the Centre of the political discourse is a daily concern. Romania faces, usually with an attempt to offset the need for control and reduction of public spending with greater financial autonomy of local authorities. At the time, it was searched and searches for a path, a means to achieve a fair distribution of financial resources between the various levels of administration, budget reductions to all of them. If strengthening democracy means to strengthen local autonomy, then it means you have created a system for financing local authorities to be efficient, fair and pointing towards the economic needs of States. In other words, decentralization and local financing and the principle of subsidiarity are mutually dependent. Rightly, the decentralisation of financial management is considered to be the "backbone" of the administrative system of decentralisation, the financial resources being those which are operational link between the needs of local communities and the rules necessary to satisfy them. Thus, the lack of financial resources of the local self-government can result in failure to meet the needs of its members, which at the same time failure of administrative decentralization. The decentralisation of financial management can also be seen as the Government of some specific functions on the line of management authority and the tax revenue to the local public authorities.

  15. The dark matter crisis: falsification of the current standard model of cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Kroupa, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    The current standard model of cosmology (SMoC) requires The Dual Dwarf Galaxy Theorem to be true. According to this theorem two types of dwarf galaxies must exist: primordial dark-matter (DM) dominated (type A) dwarf galaxies, and tidal-dwarf and ram-pressure-dwarf (type B) galaxies void of DM. In the model, type A dwarfs are distributed approximately spherically following the shape of the host galaxy DM halo, while type B dwarfs are typically correlated in phase-space. Type B dwarfs must exist in any cosmological theory in which galaxies interact. Only one type of dwarf galaxy is observed to exist on the baryonic Tully-Fisher plot and in the radius-mass plane. The Milky Way satellite system forms a vast phase-space-correlated structure that includes globular clusters and stellar and gaseous streams. Similar arguments apply to Andromeda. Other galaxies also have phase-space correlated satellite systems. Therefore, The Dual Galaxy Theorem is falsified by observation and dynamically relevant cold or warm DM on ...

  16. A Revised Iranian Model of Organ Donation as an Answer to the Current Organ Shortage Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidian Jahromi, Alireza; Fry-Revere, Sigrid; Bastani, Bahar

    2015-09-01

    Kidney transplantation has become the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage renal disease. Six decades of success in the field of transplantation have made it possible to save thousands of lives every year. Unfortunately, in recent years success has been overshadowed by an ever-growing shortage of organs. In the United States, there are currently more than 100 000 patients waiting for kidneys. However, the supply of kidneys (combined cadaveric and live donations) has stagnated around 17 000 per year. The ever-widening gap between demand and supply has resulted in an illegal black market and unethical transplant tourism of global proportions. While we believe there is much room to improve the Iranian model of regulated incentivized live kidney donation, with some significant revisions, the Iranian Model could serve as an example for how other countries could make significant strides to lessening their own organ shortage crises.

  17. Entanglement in the XX Spin Chain with Energy Current

    CERN Document Server

    Eisler, V

    2004-01-01

    We consider the ground state of the XX chain which is constrained to carry a current of energy. The von Neumann entropy of a block of $L$ neighboring spins, describing entanglement of the block with the rest of the chain, is computed. Recent calculations have revealed that the entropy in the XX model diverges logarithmically with the size of the subsystem. We show that the presence of the energy current increases the prefactor of the logarithmic growth. This result indicates that the emergence of the energy current gives rise to an increase of entanglement.

  18. Education and the energy crisis: policies and actions for the Department of Energy. [Options and alternatives, DOE Education Programs Div

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-22

    This report is the result of a study carried out to determine options and alternatives for the Education Programs Division (EPD) of the Department of Energy. In the conduct of this study, numerous individuals from various concerned institutions were interviewed. While the project scope clearly precluded contact with every involved or potentially involved party, a concerted effort was made to obtain a representative sampling of the opinions and views of relevant government, academic and private sector agencies and organizations. A listing of those contacted, excluding the Department of Energy, is provided. In addition to interviews, an extensive range of literature was drawn upon including memoranda, brochures, program statements, school-enrollment data, speeches and the like. It was determined during this study that a wide range of public and private institutions are actively involved in the energy-education field. Oil companies, utilities, public interest groups, schools, agencies at every level of government, and others are formulating and delivering education which is enormously varied. It was concluded, however, that the public is not being reached, partially because current efforts are unfocused and partially because the public has become inured to problems and resistant to many of the traditional means of education. The study found that within this crowded and varied energy education field the Department of Energy is well placed to begin to provide direction and focus to the widespread activity now occurring.

  19. REDISCOVERING MISES-HAYEK MONETARY AND BUSINESS CYCLE THEORY IN LIGHT OF THE CURRENT CRISIS: CREDIT EXPANSION AS A SOURCE OF ECONOMIC BOOM AND BUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Mrowiec

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article starts with a brief description of Mises’ monetary theory, with emphasis on the Misesian differentiation of two kinds of credit: commodity and circulation credit, and with the description of the impact of circulation credit expansion on the business cycle. Further on it is described how Mises’ insights constituted the kernel of Austrian Business Cycle Theory, and how the same observations on the nature of credit constituted the kernel of the Chicago Plan (though Mises’ views on the nature of credit led him to different conculsions than it led the authors of the Chicago Plan, and how this plan is being “rediscovered” now. The following sections deal with observations of one of the preeminent current macroeconomic researches, Mr. Claudio Borio, on the elasticity of credit as the source of the current crisis, and on the importance of the financial cycle in analysing the current economic crisis. The author of this text demonstrates that Austrian Business Cycle Theory gave the same answer regarding the sources of economic crises that now modern macroeconomic theory seems to be approaching, and that the postulates for successful financial cycle modeling are already included in the ABCT. Finally, some observations on the current crisis, as well as proposals of avenues of further research are proposed.

  20. L’Italia: una crisi nella crisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo D'ippoliti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The article synthesises the large and extending literature on the financial and economic crisis from a Post-Keynesian point of view. The authors take on the position that the international and internal real imbalances are serious and worrying, but yet they are not the cause of the crisis or of its tremendous dimension. The flawed and insufficient regulation of finance is the prime cause of the crisis, as well as it is one of the main hindrances to expansionary macroeconomic policies that may less painfully drive developed countries out of the crisis. It then examines the most recent developments in the euro-area, claiming that we are not facing a sovereign debt crisis but rather a speculative attack on the euro. Finally, the article considers specifically the situation of Italy, currently at the hearth of such an attack, and suggests that the country was already facing critical developments before the 2007/2008 crisis. Thus, the policy measures so far suggested to exit the current stressful situation, in so far as they ignore this fact, seriously run the risk of proving insufficient or altogether noxious.  JEL Codes: B50; E12; G01Keywords: crisis, euro, sovereign, Italy, credit default swaps

  1. High-Current Energy-Recovering Electron Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolitsa Merminga; David Douglas; Geoffrey Krafft

    2003-12-01

    The use of energy recovery provides a potentially powerful new paradigm for generation of the charged particle beams used in synchrotron radiation sources, high-energy electron cooling devices, electron-ion colliders, and other applications in photon science and nuclear and high-energy physics. Energy-recovering electron linear accelerators (called energy-recovering linacs, or ERLs) share many characteristics with ordinary linacs, as their six-dimensional beam phase space is largely determined by electron source properties. However, in common with classic storage rings, ERLs possess a high average-current-carrying capability enabled by the energy recovery process, and thus promise similar efficiencies. The authors discuss the concept of energy recovery and its technical challenges and describe the Jefferson Lab (JLab) Infrared Demonstration Free-Electron Laser (IR Demo FEL), originally driven by a 3548-MeV, 5-mA superconducting radiofrequency (srf) ERL, which provided the most substantial demonstration of energy recovery to date: a beam of 250 kW average power. They present an overview of envisioned ERL applications and a development path to achieving the required performance. They use experimental data obtained at the JLab IR Demo FEL and recent experimental results from CEBAF-ERL GeV-scale, comparatively low-current energy-recovery demonstration at JLab to evaluate the feasibility of the new applications of high-current ERLs, as well as ERLs' limitations and ultimate performance.

  2. Crisis! what crisis?

    OpenAIRE

    Bednar, Peter; Welch, Christine

    2010-01-01

    There is a crisis discussed in the discipline of Information Systems. Those who perceive such a crisis to exist are by no means agreed, as to its nature and origins. Our inquiry shows that there are a three distinct ‘crises’ being debated. The first of these relates to the substance and boundaries of the discipline itself and if it is even a discipline at all. Another ‘crisis’ relates to higher education and a fall in demand for IS courses from new students. Commentators perceive this to thre...

  3. The Current Situation of Wind Energy in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raşit Ata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy applications and turbine installations at different scales have increased since the beginning of this century. As wind energy is an alternative clean energy source compared to the fossil fuels that pollute the atmosphere, systems that convert wind energy to electricity have developed rapidly. Turkey’s domestic fossil fuel resources are extremely limited. In addition, Turkey’s geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of wind power. In this context, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Among the renewable sources, Turkey has very high wind energy potential. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD Turkey theoretically has 166 TWh a year of wind potential. However the installed wind power capacity is approximately 14% of total economical wind potential. In this study, Turkey’s installed electric power capacity and electric energy production are investigated and also the current situation of wind energy in Turkey is examined. The wind data used in this study were taken from Turkish Wind Energy Association (TUREB for the year 2012. This paper reviews the assessment of wind energy in Turkey as of the end of July 2012 including wind energy applications.

  4. External costs due to congestion, accidents, energy consumption and emissions before and into the economic crisis: Pilot study along selected roadways of Thessaloniki, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiriou Matina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior to the economic crisis, forecasts indicated a continuous increase of traffic in European cities, highlighting the need of a policy to alleviate the external impacts of transport. The crisis, however, generated pressures on all sectors of activity, with transport being an indicative example. The reduction of income and employment, the increased vehicle maintenance and renewal costs and the transport related taxation seem to affect the transport system and its external impacts. Thus, taking for granted that Europe will eventually achieve “sustainable recovery” from the crisis, the current period presents an opportunity for promoting sustainable mobility policies and interventions in the most affected by the crisis European cities. Towards this goal, it is essential to capitalise on contemporary techniques for the monitoring of changes in transport external costs. The purpose of the paper is the development of a methodology for the estimation of external costs due to congestion, air pollution, climate change and accidents, based on road traffic data. The methodology is applied along road arteries in Thessaloniki for the period “before and after” the emergence of the crisis. As a result, an overall decrease in external costs is observed, creating an unforeseen “surplus” for the society during the crisis.

  5. Tar sands. Fuelling the climate crisis, undermining EU energy security and damaging development objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wykes, S.; Heywood, S.; Urbaniak, D. (ed.); De Clerck, P. (ed.)

    2010-05-15

    Tar sands - bitumen that is extracted and upgraded to produce synthetic crude - has been heavily criticised for its poor environmental and social outcomes, locally and globally. Tar sands generates on average 3 to 5 times more greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than conventional oil, representing a huge threat to climate protection. Canada is currently the only major centre of production but investment is expanding, including by European oil companies such as BP, Shell, Total and ENI. The second part of this report shows which oil companies are increasing their investments in tar sands and oil shale, and where. In Canada, tar sands development is the fastest growing source of GHG emissions and is undermining the country's Kyoto commitments. Tar sands projects are also extremely costly and capital intensive - to the point where investors and analysts have raised concerns about their longer-term financial viability in a world where the introduction of low-carbon regulation and reduced demand for expensive fossil fuels are increasingly likely. A more strategic approach to energy policy would encourage redirection of the hundreds of billions to be invested over the next decade in tar sands production in Canada alone into development of renewable fuel technologies and energy efficiency measures.

  6. An Appraisal on the Earlier Euro Adoption by the New Member States in the Frame of the Current Global Economic and Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floarea Iordache

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The pathway of the new member states towards the euro area was stopped, but not modified by the current world economic crisis. Their inflation declined but the fiscal status suffered. On the verge of thefinancial crisis, the European Central Bank overruled the Central and Eastern European member states’ intentions for an earlier adoption of the euro, requiring compliance with the Maastricht criteria. The objective of this paper is to analyze the main proposed solutions and to draw attention on the most suitable ones in keeping with the particular features of these countries. Our conclusion is that fast results on the euro adoption will definitely depend on the fiscal consolidation, the soundness of global economic rehabilitation, the capital availability, and the domestic policies. The nature of the approached problems and the authors’ experience recommend this study, both for researchers and practitioners.

  7. Energy from Ocean Waves, River Currents, and Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Shyamal

    2006-05-01

    The earth we live in is surrounded by fluids, which are in perpetual motion. There is air in the atmosphere, water in lakes, oceans and rivers. The air and water around us form our natural environment. Much of the fluid medium is in constant motion. The kinetic energy of this moving fluid is astronomical in magnitude. Over the years, I considered methods of converting a fraction of the vast reserve of this kinetic energy into electro-mechanical energy. I conceived a few schemes of such conversion. The fluids whose kinetic energy can be converted into electro-mechanical energy are: ocean waters, river current and atmospheric air. In a book to be published in 2006, I have described different techniques of energy conversion. In the APS meeting, I plan to discuss some of these techniques.

  8. False Dawn of a Solar Age: A History of Solar Heating and Power During the Energy Crisis, 1973-1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavo, Jordan Michael

    The unfolding of the energy crisis in the early 1970s brought solar to the fore as a topic for national discussion. National dialogues about solar power and national energy policy were one way that Americans interpreted their present and envisioned their nation's future. Yet, policy makers and the general public considered alternative energies, including solar, largely based on the economic conditions of their eras, considerations that, at least until the Reagan era, often transcended political ideologies and parties. Energy prices and the emerging political expediency of replacing fossil fuels were the primary drivers in shaping federal energy policies and public interest during this era. Enthusiasm for solar power often corresponded to the market price of petroleum. By the late 1970s, a lot of people believed the same. Amid growing public enthusiasm, President Carter eventually came out strongly in favor of solar energy, mounting solar panels on the White House and unveiling a plan to procure 20% of the nation's energy from the sun by the year 2000. During the 1960s and 1970s, Americans changed their energy values in response to concerns over environmentalism and the antinuclear movement. Pollution, environmental disasters, and energy crises during the 1960s and 1970s brought terms like "clean energy" and "renewable energy" into the national lexicon, and solar often served as the most prominent symbol of those ideas. At the same time, advocates presented solar as a stark contrast to nuclear: solar energy made life on earth possible; nuclear energy made it perilous. Science fiction and futurism shaped the American popular imagination through its presentation of solar technology. Each genre suffused the other and ingrained in the American national consciousness a sense of grandiose wonderment about the potential for solar energy, a potential that often did not match the contemporary applications for solar technology. The emergence of solar industries alarmed oil

  9. Method and device for current driven electric energy conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    configurations such as half bridge buck, full bridge buck, half bridge boost, or full bridge boost. A current driven conversion is advantageous for high efficient energy conversion from current sources such as solar cells or where a voltage source is connected through long cables, e.g. powerline cables for long......Device comprising an electric power converter circuit for converting electric energy. The converter circuit comprises a switch arrangement with two or more controllable electric switches connected in a switching configuration and controlled so as to provide a current drive of electric energy from...... the output from the switch arrangement and designed such that a high impedance at a frequency range below the switching frequency is obtained, seen from the output terminals. Switches implemented by normally-on-devices are preferred, e.g. in the form of a JFET. The converter circuit may be in different...

  10. Return currents and energy transport in the solar flaring atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Codispoti, Anna; Piana, Michele; Pinamonti, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    According to a standard ohmic perspective, the injection of accelerated electrons into the flaring region violates local charge equilibrium and therefore, in response, return currents are driven by an electric field to equilibrate such charge violation. In this framework, the energy loss rate associated to these local currents has an ohmic nature and significantly shortens the acceleration electron path. In the present paper we adopt a different viewpoint and, specifically, we study the impact of the background drift velocity on the energy loss rate of accelerated electrons in solar flares. We first utilize the Rutherford cross-section to derive the formula of the energy loss rate when the collisional target has a finite temperature and the background instantaneously and coherently moves up to equilibrate the electron injection. We then use the continuity equation for electrons and imaging spectroscopy data provided by RHESSI to validate this model. Specifically, we show that this new formula for the energy l...

  11. Geothermal Energy Technology: a current-awareness bulletin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, L.B. (ed.)

    1983-01-15

    This bulletin announces on a semimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technology required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use either directly or for production of electric power. The subject content encompasses: resource status and assessment, geology and hydrology of geothermal systems, geothermal exploration, legal and institutional aspects, economic and final aspects, environmental aspects and waste disposal, by-products, geothermal power plants, geothermal engineering, direct energy utilization, and geothermal data and theory.

  12. Current situation of wind energy in the world and Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alper Kaplan, Yusuf; San, Ismail [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Anadolu University (Turkey)], email: yakaplan@anadolu.edu.tr, email: isan@anadolu.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    This paper gives an overview of the current situation of wind power in Turkey and in the world by evaluating installed wind power using current data. It also looks at the political conditions of Turkey in relation to the current installed wind energy power in Turkey compared with that of certain developed countries. The problems encountered are also illustrated as a basis for proposing solutions. Turkey's wind energy potential is 48,000 MW but installed wind power was only 1,329 MW as of 2011. Wind energy is at present one of the most cost-competitive renewable energy technologies in the world when technical, geographical and social issues are taken into consideration. Economic sources should be researched. The development of current potential and the market entry of renewable energy resources requires a legal and regulatory framework that support suitable mechanisms. Local support is recommended together with tax exemptions. Long-term fixed-price guarantees should also be considered by government.

  13. L’Italia: una crisi nella crisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Roncaglia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article synthesises the large and extending literature on the financial and economic crisis from a Post-Keynesian point of view. The authors take on the position that the international and internal real imbalances are serious and worrying, but yet they are not the cause of the crisis or of its tremendous dimension. The flawed and insufficient regulation of finance is the prime cause of the crisis, as well as it is one of the main hindrances to expansionary macroeconomic policies that may less painfully drive developed countries out of the crisis. It then examines the most recent developments in the euro-area, claiming that we are not facing a sovereign debt crisis but rather a speculative attack on the euro. Finally, the article considers specifically the situation of Italy, currently at the hearth of such an attack, and suggests that the country was already facing critical developments before the 2007/2008 crisis. Thus, the policy measures so far suggested to exit the current stressful situation, in so far as they ignore this fact, seriously run the risk of proving insufficient or altogether noxious.

  14. Global panorama of energy access: Current situation, challenges and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galichon, Ines; Lacroix, Olivier; Wiedmer, Damien

    2014-07-15

    Globally 1.3 billion people do not have access to electricity. If this figure is projected to decline 1 billion by 2030, the global population who relies on the traditional use of biomass for cooking is expected to substantially increase, from 2.6 billion to 2.7 billion people. In its commitment to energy access, ENEA published a synthesis on the current situation and the further development perspectives of energy access worldwide, a crucial issue of human and economic development and an opportunity for the private sector. This synthesis present the ecosystem of the actors involved in the improvement of energy access and the technical solutions that serve the needs of this high-potential market. The five main challenges energy access has to address are presented in this publication: energy prices, equipment financing, distribution, change of scale and environmental performances.

  15. Efficiency of pulse high-current generator energy transfer into plasma liner energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreshkin, V. I.

    2013-08-01

    The efficiency of capacitor-bank energy transfer from a high-current pulse generator into kinetic energy of a plasma liner has been analyzed. The analysis was performed using a model including the circuit equations and equations of the cylindrical shell motion. High efficiency of the energy transfer into kinetic energy of the liner is shown to be achieved only by a low-inductance generator. We considered an "ideal" liner load in which the load current is close to zero in the final of the shell compression. This load provides a high (up to 80%) efficiency of energy transfer and higher stability when compressing the liner.

  16. Influence of the financial crisis on SMEs in the energy area; Einfluss der Finanzkrise auf KMU im Energiebereich: Ergebnisse einer Unternehmensbefragung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grass, M.; Schoder, T.; Scheller, E.

    2009-05-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents and discusses the results of an opinion survey made among small and medium-scale enterprises (SME) in Switzerland concerning the influence of the financial crisis. The methods and questionnaires used are briefly described and the enterprises questioned are characterised. Innovation activities and research and development activities are reviewed. The effects of the financial crisis on business in 2008 are reported on and present and future developments are discussed. The general framework for long-term development is discussed, as are commercial, institutional and governmental general conditions. The report is concluded with a literature list

  17. Hypertensive Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Hypertensive Crisis: When You Should Call 9-1-1 for ... 18,2017 Know the two types of HBP crisis to watch for A hypertensive ( high blood pressure ) ...

  18. Strategic spatial planning in the era of crisis: Current trends and evidence from the metropolitan area of Thessaloniki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoidou Elisavet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic spatial planning has enjoyed widespread implementation since the 1990s, especially in urban and metropolitan areas, having its focus on promoting their competitiveness and sustainability. Nowadays, the effects of economic crisis, together with growing environmental and technological risks, trigger the vulnerability of these areas and stress the need for resilience. This paper examines the role of strategic spatial planning in promoting metropolitan resilience in the era of crisis. It is argued that this type of planning is capable of supporting the adaptation of territorial systems to crisis-induced risks, as is, for instance, the case of planning for climate change. This is further analyzed in light of four of the key aspects of the new strategic spatial planning, namely its principles, content, process, and utilization of resources. The paper draws evidence from the case of Greece and examines the abovementioned aspects of the recently prepared new Regulatory Plan for the Thessaloniki greater area. The first results of this examination show that, provided there is political will which allows for necessary adjustments, the Plan has the potential to incorporate the dimension of resilience. The elaboration and exploitation of the strategic nature of the Plan and of its sustainable development principle constitute key elements of a resilience-oriented approach.

  19. Streaming current of a rotary atomizer for energy harvesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Trieu; de Boer, Hans L.; Tran, T.; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Zengerle, R.

    2013-01-01

    We present the experimental results of an energy conversion system based on a rotary atomizer and the streaming current phenomenon. The advantage of using a rotary atomizer instead of a channel or membrane micropore as in conventional pressure-driven approached is that the centrifugal force exerted

  20. Streaming current of a rotary atomizer for energy harvesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Trieu; Boer, de H.; Tran, T.; Berg, van den A.; Eijkel, J.C.T.; Zengerle, R.

    2013-01-01

    We present the experimental results of an energy conversion system based on a rotary atomizer and the streaming current phenomenon. The advantage of using a rotary atomizer instead of a channel or membrane micropore as in conventional pressure-driven approached is that the centrifugal force exerted

  1. Crisis Thought

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Edwin Kent

    2016-01-01

    Crisis thought is an idea that gives a name to and accounts for some of the problematics of the sign crisis in political, social, cultural, and economic discourse. Specifically, crisis thought is a discursive formation, a concept used loosely here to refer to an assemblage of signs such as anxiety or fear that evoke or invoke similar, but inaccurate connotations as crisis in political and everyday usage. The general question this study grapples with is why political, social, cultural, and eco...

  2. Energy current loss instability model on a computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edighoffer, John A.

    1995-04-01

    The computer program called Energy Stability in a Recirculating Accelerator (ESRA) Free Electron Laser (FEL) has been written to model bunches of particles in longitudinal phase space transversing a recirculating accelerator and the associated rf changes and aperture current losses. This energy-current loss instability was first seen by Los Alamos's FEL group in their energy recovery experiments. This code addresses these stability issues and determines the transport, noise, feedback and other parameters for which these FEL systems are stable or unstable. Two representative systems are modeled, one for the Novosibirisk high power FEL racetrack microtron for photochemical research, the other is the CEBAF proposed UV FEL system. Both of these systems are stable with prudent choices of parameters.

  3. Fluid Dynamical Consequences of Current and Stress-Energy Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Dillon; Huq, Pablo

    The dynamical consequences of fluid current conservation combined with the conservation of fluid stress-energy are used to develop the geometrodynamical theory of fluid flow (GTF). In the derivation of the GTF, we highlight the fact the continuity equation, equivalently the conservation of current density, implies the existence of the fluid dynamical vortex field. The vortex field transports part of the stress-energy; the other part of the stress-energy is transported by the fluid inertia field. Two channels of energy dissipation are determined by the GTF. One is an analog of the Joule heating found in electrodynamics. This follows from the conservation of stress-energy. The other dissipation channel arises from mechanisms leading to complex-valued constitutive parameters described in the electrodynamical analogy as due to a lossy medium. The dynamical consequences of the continuity equation, combined with the conservation of total stress-energy, then lead to a causal, covariant, theory of fluid flow, consistent with thermodynamics for all physically possible flow rates.

  4. Myasthenic Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell, Linda C.; Levine, Joshua M.

    2011-01-01

    Myasthenic crisis is a complication of myasthenia gravis characterized by worsening of muscle weakness, resulting in respiratory failure that requires intubation and mechanical ventilation. Advances in critical care have improved the mortality rate associated with myasthenic crisis. This article reviews the epidemiology of myasthenic crisis and discusses patient evaluation. Therapeutic options including mechanical ventilation and pharmacological and surgical treatments are also discussed. PMID:23983833

  5. Dirac Field in FRW Spacetime: Current and Energy Momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Dhungel, P R

    2011-01-01

    The behaviour of the Dirac field in FRW space-time is investigated. The relevant equations are solved to determine the particle and energy distribution. The angular and radial parts are solved in terms of Jacobi polynomials. The time dependence of the massive field is solved in terms of known function only for the radiation filled flat space. WKB method is used for approximate solution in general Friedmann-Le Maitre space. The negative energy solution is found decay in time as the Universe expands, while the positive energy solution grows. This could be the source of the local particle current. The behaviour of the particle number and energy density are also investigated. It is found that the particles arrange themselves in a number and density distribution pattern that produces a constant Newtonian potential as required for the flat rotation curves of galaxies. Further, density contrast is found to grow with the expansion.

  6. Current perspectives on energy and mass fluxes in volcanic arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, William; Davidson, Jon; Fischer, Tobias; Grunder, Anita; Reagan, Mark; Streck, Martin

    Volcanoes of the Pacific Ring of Fire and other convergent margins worldwide are familiar manifestations of nature's energy, account for about 25% of global volcanic outputs, dominate volcanic gas emissions to the atmosphere, and pose significant physical threats to a large human population. Yet the processes behind this prolific activity remain poorly understood.An international “State of the Arc” (SOTA) conference was held in August on the slopes of Mt. Hood, Oregon, to address current views on the energy and mass fluxes in volcanic arcs. This meeting brought together some 90 leading experts and students of subduction zones and their related magmatism.

  7. Compilation of current high-energy-physics experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohl, C.G.; Kelly, R.L.; Armstrong, F.E.

    1980-04-01

    This is the third edition of a compilation of current high energy physics experiments. It is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and ten participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), the Institute for Nuclear Study, Tokyo (INS), KEK, Rutherford (RHEL), Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. The compilation includes summaries of all high energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that (1) were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about January 1980, and (2) had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1976.

  8. THE MOTOR ACTIVITY IN THE SECONDARY SCHOOL IN OUR COUNTRY NOT AFFECTED BY THE CURRENT GLOBAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lecturer MARCONI ROBERTO GABRIEL, Phd

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this period of global crisis the motor activity at the level of the secondary school from our country did not stagnate, on the contrary it achieved a special development due to an increase in the number of stu- dents (pupils eager to practice the motor activity, as a result of the improvement of the material equipment with more than 40 simple and complex stadiums of various gymnastics, judo and karate courts, equipped with minifootball, handball, basketball and volleyabll courts. But the most important thing is to provide professionals belonging to the field of physical education within the Universities of Arad up to the present and also in the future.

  9. Intermediate energy semileptonic probes of the hadronic neutral current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musolf, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)]|[Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[CEBAF Theory Group, Newport News, VA (United States); Donnelly, T.W. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Dubach, J. [Massachusetts Univ., Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Pollock, S.J. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Inst. for Nuclear Theory]|[Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica (NIKHEF), Amsterdam (Netherlands). Sectie K; Kowalski, S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Beise, E.J. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). W.K. Kellogg Radiation Lab.]|[Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1993-06-01

    The present status and future prospects of intermediate-energy semileptonic neutral current studies are reviewed. Possibilities for using parity-violating electron scattering from nucleons and nuclei to study hadron structure and nuclear dynamics are emphasized, with particular attention paid to probes of strangeness content in the nucleon. Connections are drawn between such studies and tests of the electroweak gauge theory using electron or neutrino scattering. Outstanding theoretical issues in the interpretation of semileptonic neutral current measurements are highlighted and the prospects for undertaking parity-violating electron or neutrino scattering experiments in the near future are surveyed.

  10. Energy Crisis in the Superbubble DEM L 192 (N 51D)

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, R L; Chu, Y H; Chen, C H R; Dunne, B C

    2004-01-01

    Superbubbles surrounding OB associations provide ideal laboratories to study the stellar energy feedback problem because the stellar energy input can be estimated from the observed stellar content of the OB associations and the interstellar thermal and kinetic energies of superbubbles are well-defined and easy to observe. We have used DEM L 192, also known as N 51D, to carry out a detailed case study of the energy budget in a superbubble, and we find that the expected amount of stellar mechanical energy injected into the ISM, (18+-5)x10^51 ergs, exceeds the amount of thermal and kinetic energies stored in the superbubble, (6+-2)x10^51 ergs. Clearly, a significant fraction of the stellar mechanical energy must have been converted to other forms of energy. The X-ray spectrum of the diffuse emission from DEM L 192 requires a power-law component to explain the featureless emission at 1.0-3.0 keV. The origin of this power-law component is unclear, but it may be responsible for the discrepancy between the stellar e...

  11. Ampere Average Current Photoinjector and Energy Recovery Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Calaga, R; Cameron, P; Chang, X; Gassner, D M; Hahn, H; Hershcovitch, A; Hseuh, H C; Johnson, P; Kayran, D; Kewisch, J; Lambiase, R F; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; McIntyre, G; Nicoletti, A; Rank, J; Roser, T; Scaduto, J; Smith, K; Srinivasan-Rao, T; Wu, K C; Zaltsman, A; Zhao, Y

    2004-01-01

    High-power Free-Electron Lasers were made possible by advances in superconducting linac operated in an energy-recovery mode, as demonstrated by the spectacular success of the Jefferson Laboratory IR-Demo. In order to get to much higher power levels, say a fraction of a megawatt average power, many technological barriers are yet to be broken. BNL’s Collider-Accelerator Department is pursuing some of these technologies for a different application, that of electron cooling of high-energy hadron beams. I will describe work on CW, high-current and high-brightness electron beams. This will include a description of a superconducting, laser-photocathode RF gun employing a new secondary-emission multiplying cathode and an accelerator cavity, both capable of producing of the order of one ampere average current.

  12. The age of alternative energies: the current status of new energy technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Y.

    1986-01-01

    This paper outlines Japan's Sunshine Project and presents the current status of the principal research and development programs involved. These are as follows: 1) solar energy (solar photovoltaic power generation, solar energy systems for industrial use); 2) geothermal energy (technology for geothermal exploration and excavation, hydrothermal power generation, discovery of high-temperature rock); 3) coal energy (coal liquefaction and gasification technology); 4) hydrogen energy (technology for production, transport, storage and utilization of hydrogen); 5) others (wind power and ocean thermal power generation). 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Current status of high energy nucleon-meson transport code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Hiroshi; Sasa, Toshinobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of design code of accelerator (NMTC/JAERI code), outline of physical model and evaluation of accuracy of code were reported. To evaluate the nuclear performance of accelerator and strong spallation neutron origin, the nuclear reaction between high energy proton and target nuclide and behaviors of various produced particles are necessary. The nuclear design of spallation neutron system used a calculation code system connected the high energy nucleon{center_dot}meson transport code and the neutron{center_dot}photon transport code. NMTC/JAERI is described by the particle evaporation process under consideration of competition reaction of intranuclear cascade and fission process. Particle transport calculation was carried out for proton, neutron, {pi}- and {mu}-meson. To verify and improve accuracy of high energy nucleon-meson transport code, data of spallation and spallation neutron fragment by the integral experiment were collected. (S.Y.)

  14. The dependence of Germany on Russian gas: analysis and prospects in the context of the current Ukrainian crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Solera Ureña

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Germany and Russia share a strong economic interdependence, Germany being presently the largest importer of Russian gas. At the time of writing, the on-going conflict between Ukraine and Russia, compounded with economic sanctions imposed on Russia by the European Union, has raised concerns about Russia as a reliable gas supplier. This article analyses Germany’s dependence on Russian gas within the present economic and political contexts and assesses a the most plausible course of action of German energy policy, taking into account Germany’s current role as a gas transit country; and b the impact of the present context on the shaping of Germany’s foreign policy towards Russia. It is concluded that energy policy measures will not enable drastic reductions in Germany’s dependence on Russian gas in the short term and, moreover, that no abrupt change of direction in German foreign policy towards Russia is to be expected.

  15. Extremely High Current, High-Brightness Energy Recovery Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Beavis, Dana; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bluem, Hans; Brennan, Joseph M; Burger, Al; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Cole, Michael; Connolly, Roger; Delayen, Jean R; Favale, Anthony; Gassner, David M; Grimes, Jacob T; Hahn, Harald; Hershcovitch, Ady; Holmes, Douglas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Johnson, Peter; Kayran, Dmitry; Kewisch, Jorg; Kneisel, Peter; Lambiase, Robert; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; McIntyre, Gary; Meng, Wuzheng; Nehring, Thomas; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Pate, David; Phillips, Larry; Preble, Joseph P; Rank, Jim; Rao, Triveni; Rathke, John; Roser, Thomas; Russo, Thomas; Scaduto, Joseph; Schultheiss, Tom; Segalov, Zvi; Smith, Kevin T; Todd, Alan M M; Warren-Funk, L; Williams, Neville; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Yip, Kin; Zaltsman, Alex; Zhao, Yongxiang

    2005-01-01

    Next generation ERL light-sources, high-energy electron coolers, high-power Free-Electron Lasers, powerful Compton X-ray sources and many other accelerators were made possible by the emerging technology of high-power, high-brightness electron beams. In order to get the anticipated performance level of ampere-class currents, many technological barriers are yet to be broken. BNL's Collider-Accelerator Department is pursuing some of these technologies for its electron cooling of RHIC application, as well as a possible future electron-hadron collider. We will describe work on CW, high-current and high-brightness electron beams. This will include a description of a superconducting, laser-photocathode RF gun and an accelerator cavity capable of producing low emittance (about 1 micron rms normalized) one nano-Coulomb bunches at currents of the order of one ampere average.

  16. Output Current Ripple Reduction Algorithms for Home Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hyuk Park

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an output current ripple reduction algorithm using a proportional-integral (PI controller for an energy storage system (ESS. In single-phase systems, the DC/AC inverter has a second-order harmonic at twice the grid frequency of a DC-link voltage caused by pulsation of the DC-link voltage. The output current of a DC/DC converter has a ripple component because of the ripple of the DC-link voltage. The second-order harmonic adversely affects the battery lifetime. The proposed algorithm has an advantage of reducing the second-order harmonic of the output current in the variable frequency system. The proposed algorithm is verified from the PSIM simulation and experiment with the 3 kW ESS model.

  17. Easing the natural gas crisis: Reducing natural gas prices through increased deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; St. Clair, Matt

    2004-12-21

    Heightened natural gas prices have emerged as a key energy-policy challenge for at least the early part of the 21st century. With the recent run-up in gas prices and the expected continuation of volatile and high prices in the near future, a growing number of voices are calling for increased diversification of energy supplies. Proponents of renewable energy and energy efficiency identify these clean energy sources as an important part of the solution. Increased deployment of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) can hedge natural gas price risk in more than one way, but this paper touches on just one potential benefit: displacement of gas-fired electricity generation, which reduces natural gas demand and thus puts downward pressure on gas prices. Many recent modeling studies of increased RE and EE deployment have demonstrated that this ''secondary'' effect of lowering natural gas prices could be significant; as a result, this effect is increasingly cited as justification for policies promoting RE and EE. This paper summarizes recent studies that have evaluated the gas-price-reduction effect of RE and EE deployment, analyzes the results of these studies in light of economic theory and other research, reviews the reasonableness of the effect as portrayed in modeling studies, and develops a simple tool that can be used to evaluate the impact of RE and EE on gas prices without relying on a complex national energy model. Key findings are summarized.

  18. Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Canada, Britain, and Spain. We found that the energy industry is not in crisis ; however, U.S. government policies, laws, dollars, and even public...CEIMAT (Centro de Investagaciones Energeticas , Medioambeintales y Tecnologicas) Research and development Page 3 of 28ENERGY 8/10/04http://www.ndu.edu...meet an emerging national crisis (war), emergency (natural disaster), or major impact event (Y2K). Certain resources are generally critical to the

  19. Canada ocean energy atlas phase 1 : potential tidal current energy resources analysis background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarbotton, M.; Larson, M. [Triton Consultants Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-05-15

    This report was prepared as a background document for a preliminary tidal current resource inventory for Canadian waters. Energy calculations in the study were based on preliminary estimates of known tidal flows. The inventory was based on nautical charts, Canadian sailing directions, tide and tidal current constituent data, and numerical tidal modelling data. A finite element harmonic tidal model tool was used to provide tidal height and current velocities data for a varying number of tidal constituents. The study identified several major tidal current power resources throughout Canada. It was concluded that modelling studies should concentrate on Minas Basin in Nova Scotia; Georgia and Johnstone Straits in British Columbia; and Hudson's Strait and Ungava Bay. Modelling studies should provide estimates of extractable energy as well as provide initial assessments of the environmental impacts of tidal energy extraction in all 3 regions. 3 refs., 8 tabs., 16 figs.

  20. An energy-efficient, adiabatic electrode stimulator with inductive energy recycling and feedback current regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfin, Scott K; Sarpeshkar, Rahul

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we present a novel energy-efficient electrode stimulator. Our stimulator uses inductive storage and recycling of energy in a dynamic power supply. This supply drives an electrode in an adiabatic fashion such that energy consumption is minimized. It also utilizes a shunt current-sensor to monitor and regulate the current through the electrode via feedback, thus enabling flexible and safe stimulation. Since there are no explicit current sources or current limiters, wasteful energy dissipation across such elements is naturally avoided. The dynamic power supply allows efficient transfer of energy both to and from the electrode and is based on a DC-DC converter topology that we use in a bidirectional fashion in forward-buck or reverse-boost modes. In an exemplary electrode implementation intended for neural stimulation, we show how the stimulator combines the efficiency of voltage control and the safety and accuracy of current control in a single low-power integrated-circuit built in a standard .35 μm CMOS process. This stimulator achieves a 2x-3x reduction in energy consumption as compared to a conventional current-source-based stimulator operating from a fixed power supply. We perform a theoretical analysis of the energy efficiency that is in accord with experimental measurements. This theoretical analysis reveals that further improvements in energy efficiency may be achievable with better implementations in the future. Our electrode stimulator could be widely useful for neural, cardiac, retinal, cochlear, muscular and other biomedical implants where low power operation is important.

  1. Gridless, very low energy, high-current, gaseous ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vizir, A. V.; Oks, E. M. [High Current Electronics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Shandrikov, M. V.; Yushkov, G. Yu. [High Current Electronics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2010-02-15

    We have made and tested a very low energy gaseous ion source in which the plasma is established by a gaseous discharge with electron injection in an axially diverging magnetic field. A constricted arc with hidden cathode spot is used as the electron emitter (first stage of the discharge). The electron flux so formed is filtered by a judiciously shaped electrode to remove macroparticles (cathode debris from the cathode spot) from the cathode material as well as atoms and ions. The anode of the emitter discharge is a mesh, which also serves as cathode of the second stage of the discharge, providing a high electron current that is injected into the magnetic field region where the operating gas is efficiently ionized. In this discharge configuration, an electric field is formed in the ion generation region, accelerating gas ions to energy of several eV in a direction away from the source, without the use of a gridded acceleration system. Our measurements indicate that an argon ion beam is formed with an energy of several eV and current up to 2.5 A. The discharge voltage is kept at less than 20 V, to keep below ion sputtering threshold for cathode material, a feature which along with filtering of the injected electron flow, results in extremely low contamination of the generated ion flow.

  2. Campus Crisis Response at Viberg College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaker, Rachel; Viars, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    This fictional case study examines crisis response in higher education settings. Information about current crisis response procedures, plans, and trends was gathered from informational interviews, current crisis management literature, and multiple college and university websites. The information was synthesized into a fictional case study using…

  3. Campus Crisis Response at Viberg College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaker, Rachel; Viars, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    This fictional case study examines crisis response in higher education settings. Information about current crisis response procedures, plans, and trends was gathered from informational interviews, current crisis management literature, and multiple college and university websites. The information was synthesized into a fictional case study using…

  4. Compilation of current high energy physics experiments - Sept. 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addis, L.; Odian, A.; Row, G. M.; Ward, C. E. W.; Wanderer, P.; Armenteros, R.; Joos, P.; Groves, T. H.; Oyanagi, Y.; Arnison, G. T. J.; Antipov, Yu; Barinov, N.

    1978-09-01

    This compilation of current high-energy physics experiments is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and the nine participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), KEK, Rutherford (RHEL), Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. Nominally, the compilation includes summaries of all high-energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about June 1978, and had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1975. The experimental summaries are supplemented with three indexes to the compilation, several vocabulary lists giving names or abbreviations used, and a short summary of the beams at each of the laboratories (except Rutherford). The summaries themselves are included on microfiche. (RWR)

  5. Policing the Global Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William I. Robinson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of my research for a book manuscript on the crisis of global capitalism I recently finished writing (Robinson forthcoming, I decided to re-read the classic 1978 study conducted by the noted socialist and cultural theorist Stuart Hall and several of his colleagues, Policing the Crisis. The authors show in that book how the restructuring of capitalism as a response to the crisis of the 1970s - which was the last major crisis of world capitalism until the current one hit in 2008 -led in the United Kingdom and elsewhere to an "exceptional state," by which they meant a situation in which there was an ongoing breakdown of consensual mechanisms of social control and a growing authoritarianism.

  6. Redesigning the auto: key to alleviating the nation's energy crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallaire, G.

    1979-11-01

    The automobile is a tremendous consumer of energy. The entire transport sector uses 26% of the energy and half the oil in the USA. In fact, the American auto alone consumes one-ninth of all the oil used in the world today. Since our present land use patterns lock us into intensive auto use the best approach is to redesign the auto for vastly better fuel economy. By 1985, auto makers will have to have cars that average 27.5 mpg. And beyond that, the Federal DOT wants to produce autos that average 50 mpg. Among things the auto industry is developing: cars to run on new fuels, e.g., gasohol, methanol, ethanol, and liquid fuels derived from coal and oil shale; new auto engines that are vastly more efficient and can burn a variety of fuels, e.g., the Stirling engine and the gas turbine; the electric auto and the hybrid auto (combination electric and engine powered vehicle); the flywheel as a means of storing energy normally wasted in braking; lighter cars using weight-saving materials such as high-strength steels, fiber-reinforced plastics, aluminum, etc.

  7. Dalla crisi finanziaria alla crisi reale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLO D’ADDA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis of 2008 is put in relation with two bubbles, financial and housing. Easy credit is at the origin of both bubbles. Risky bonds were issued to mobilize mortgages originated in the housing market, and bad bonds entered a fantastic number of institutional and private portfolios all over the world without any perception of the their risk. Unfortunately, bank credit to speculators was abundant and fed the final growth of the bubbles. When fears started to spread, the fall was immediate and expectations impaired very rapidly. The main aggregate demand components were severely curtailed and production fell as well. This is the crisis of the real economy. Fortunately, as opposed to what happened in 1929, the interventions of central banks and governments have been of an unprecedented size. The bail out of insolvent banks in particular has been providential. The exit from the current crisis, however, will surely be slow.

  8. Vietnam's energy sector: A review of current energy policies and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien Minh Do, E-mail: tmdo@eng.uts.edu.au [Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST), 1 Dai Co Viet Street, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Sharma, Deepak [University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), Broadway, Ultimo, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    Since the introduction of market-oriented economy in 1986, Vietnam has made noticeable socio-economic progress. In this progress, the energy sector has played a vital role. This role is likely to deepen in the years to come as Vietnam strives to achieve even higher levels in economic progress. Such deepening in the role of energy, this paper argues, will heighten concerns about the security of energy supply, and economic, environmental, social and political consequences. In order to address these issues, Vietnam has over the last decade, developed a suite of energy policies. A deeper review of these policies suggests that they are typified by economic-growth orientation, exclusive focus on a single-sector or single issue, and largely neglect the significance of cross-sectoral and cross-thematic issues arising from the interdependencies between energy, economy, and the polity at large. The existing energy policy settings are, therefore, unlikely to be able to provide a satisfactory redress to the challenges noted above. This paper provides an overview of the current energy policies with a view to identify areas where further policy effort is needed in order to facilitate a sustainable development of the Vietnamese energy sector. - Highlights: > Identifying challenges faced by the Vietnamese energy sector. > Analyzing limitations of the existing energy policy settings (policies, strategies and institutions) in addressing these challenges. > Developing recommendations on improving the existing energy policy settings to provide a satisfactory redress for the challenges noted above.

  9. The Russian-Ukrainian Crisis and Behind, Energy Policy in the Mirror of Eurasian Game of Geopolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Bertalan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Russian-Ukrainian crisis is one of the most important issues of the beginning of the 21st century, from regional and global aspects as well. This paper analyses the crisis from geopolitical aspects, and tries to concentrate on the reasons behind the events and the global perspectives. The study reveals why the Ukrainian question is in the focus of Russian interest, and what led to the crisis. Concerning geopolitics, starting from the point of view of Sir Halford John Mackinder, placing the theory of the Heartland to the 21st century, the study gives a complete picture about the situation of the Eurasian chessboard in terms of Ukraine and Russia. The authors attempt to provide comprehensive analysis of the crisis, keeping in mind the spheres of interests of Russia, Ukraine, the U.S. and the European Union.

  10. Current and future industrial energy service characterizations. Volume II. Energy data on the US manufacturing subsector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.; Thomas, T.; Jackson, F.; Limaye, D.R.; Isser, S.; Karnofsky, K.; Davis, T.D.

    1980-10-01

    In order to characterize industrial energy service, current energy demand, its end uses, and cost of typical energy applications and resultant services in the industrial sector were examined and a projection of state industrial energy demands and prices to 1990 was developed. Volume II presents in Section 2 data on the US manufacturing subsector energy demand, intensity, growth rates, and cost for 1971, 1974, and 1976. These energy data are disaggregated not only by fuel type but also by user classifications, including the 2-digit SIC industry groups, 3-digit subgroups, and 4-digit SIC individual industries. These data characterize typical energy applications and the resultant services in this subsector. The quantities of fuel and electric energy purchased by the US manufacturing subsector were converted to British thermal units and reported in billions of Btu. The conversion factors are presented in Table 4-1 of Volume I. To facilitate the descriptive analysis, all energy cost and intensity data were expressed in constant 1976 dollars. The specific US industrial energy service characteristics developed and used in the descriptive analysis are presented in Volume I. Section 3 presents the computer program used to produce the tabulated data.

  11. Amid crisis,growth cannot be slackened

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金碚

    2009-01-01

    Resource-intensive industries are among the hardest hit in China in the current global economic crisis, which has already seriously dented the country’s exports. Sectors of energy and raw materials such as coal,electric power,iron and steel and metallurgy are suffering slower growth rates,low prices and rampant losses.Growth rates have become negative in resource-intensive provinces like Shanxi.It suddenly occurred to us that the industry’s

  12. The Current Energetics of Earth's Interior: A Gravitational Energy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jason; Rüpke, Lars; White, William

    2016-05-01

    The Earth's mantle convects to lose heat (Holmes, 1931); doing so drives plate tectonics (Turcotte and Oxburgh, 1967). Significant gravitational energy is created by the cooling of oceanic lithosphere atop hotter, less dense mantle. When slabs subduct, this gravitational energy is mostly (~86% for whole mantle flow in a PREM-like mantle) transformed into heat by viscous dissipation. Using this perspective, we reassess the energetics of Earth's mantle. We also reconsider the terrestrial abundances of heat producing elements U, Th, and K, and argue they are lower than previously considered and that consequently the heat produced by radioactive decay within the mantle is comparable to the present-day potential gravitational energy release by subducting slabs — both are roughly ~10-12 TW. We reassess possible core heat flow into the base of the mantle, and determine that the core may be still losing a significant amount of heat from its original formation, potentially more than the radioactive heat generation within the mantle. These factors are all likely to be important for Earth's current energetics, and argue that strong plume-driven upwelling is likely to exist within the convecting mantle.

  13. Energy crisis precedes global metabolic failure in a novel Caenorhabditis elegans Alzheimer Disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Sheng; Teo, Emelyne; Ng, Li Fang; Chen, Ce-Belle; Lakshmanan, Lakshmi Narayanan; Tsoi, Sau Yee; Moore, Philip Keith; Inoue, Takao; Halliwell, Barry; Gruber, Jan

    2016-09-22

    Alzheimer Disease (AD) is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by the deposition of amyloid beta (Aβ), predominantly the Aβ1-42 form, in the brain. Mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired energy metabolism are important components of AD pathogenesis. However, the causal and temporal relationships between them and AD pathology remain unclear. Using a novel C. elegans AD strain with constitutive neuronal Aβ1-42 expression that displays neuromuscular defects and age-dependent behavioural dysfunction reminiscent of AD, we have shown that mitochondrial bioenergetic deficit is an early event in AD pathogenesis, preceding dysfunction of mitochondrial electron transfer chain (ETC) complexes and the onset of global metabolic failure. These results are consistent with an emerging view that AD may be a metabolic neurodegenerative disease, and also confirm that Aβ-driven metabolic and mitochondrial effects can be reproduced in organisms separated by large evolutionary distances.

  14. Energy crisis precedes global metabolic failure in a novel Caenorhabditis elegans Alzheimer Disease model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Sheng; Teo, Emelyne; Ng, Li Fang; Chen, Ce-Belle; Lakshmanan, Lakshmi Narayanan; Tsoi, Sau Yee; Moore, Philip Keith; Inoue, Takao; Halliwell, Barry; Gruber, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer Disease (AD) is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by the deposition of amyloid beta (Aβ), predominantly the Aβ1–42 form, in the brain. Mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired energy metabolism are important components of AD pathogenesis. However, the causal and temporal relationships between them and AD pathology remain unclear. Using a novel C. elegans AD strain with constitutive neuronal Aβ1–42 expression that displays neuromuscular defects and age-dependent behavioural dysfunction reminiscent of AD, we have shown that mitochondrial bioenergetic deficit is an early event in AD pathogenesis, preceding dysfunction of mitochondrial electron transfer chain (ETC) complexes and the onset of global metabolic failure. These results are consistent with an emerging view that AD may be a metabolic neurodegenerative disease, and also confirm that Aβ-driven metabolic and mitochondrial effects can be reproduced in organisms separated by large evolutionary distances. PMID:27653553

  15. Get Current: Switch on Clean Energy Activity Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-06-01

    Switching on clean energy technologies means strengthening the economy while protecting the environment. This activity book for all ages promotes energy awareness, with facts on different types of energy and a variety of puzzles in an energy theme.

  16. CURRENT TRENDS IN THE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanya Zhivkova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy represents the amount of solar radiation per unit time on unit area. Solar energy is used to obtain thermal energy through solar, and electrical energy through exist for solar energy: passive and active. The utilization of solar energy is essential for the development of human civilization.

  17. Current Source Converter Based Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samir Kouro; Jing-ya DAI; Bin WU

    2011-01-01

    The increase in the installed capacity of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) has triggered the development of more demanding grid codes and additional requirements on performance.In order to meet these requirements the industry trend has shifted to full-scale power converter interfaces in modern multi-megawatt WECS.As consequence,a wide variety of new power converter topologies and WECS configurations have been introduced in recent years.Among them,current source converter(CSC) based configurations have attracted attention due to a series of advantages like:simple structure,grid friendly waveforms,controllable power factor,and reliable grid short-circuit protection.This paper presents the latest developments in CSC interfaces for WECS and related technologies such as modulation methods,control schemes and grid code compatibility.

  18. Nuclear energy: current situation and prospects to 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Sue

    2007-04-15

    For close to half a century nuclear fission has been providing reliable supplies of electricity to the UK, with virtually no emissions of carbon dioxide. Over that period, the UK nuclear industry has avoided the emission of over one and a half billion tonnes of CO2. Yet no nuclear plant has been built in the UK for over two decades even though many of the stations in our current fleet are now within a decade or so of the end of their lifetime. Without new plants being ordered soon, the UK's nuclear capacity will decline dramatically, from 23% today to 3% post-2020--just as considerations of supply security and climate change are becoming increasingly important. Elsewhere in the world, many countries such as China, India, Japan, South Korea, Finland and France are building new stations. Other countries such as the USA, South Africa, and some nations that currently do not have nuclear stations (such as Indonesia and Poland) are making preparations for future nuclear stations. Globally capacity factors for nuclear plants are higher than they have ever been, averaging around 85% and with the best stations achieving well over 90%. Lifetime can be 60 years. That the economics of such stations compete well with other technologies is well founded and easily verifiable--especially in the face of rising fossil fuel prices and the pricing in of costs for CO2 emissions--both of which stand to improve the economics of nuclear energy still further. Waste volumes arising from modern plants are just a fraction of those of some earlier stations, and the technologies are in place to deal with them safely and effectively. Following recent reviews and international developments, there is growing confidence that internationally available competitive designs of nuclear plant will provide part of the solution to the UK's long-term energy needs.

  19. Biomass energy utilization in rural areas may contribute to alleviating energy crisis and global warming: A case study in a typical agro-village of Shandong, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Y.H. [State Key Laboratory of Quantitative Vegetation Ecology, Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20 Nanxincun, Xiangshan, Beijing 100093 (China); Li, Z.F. [State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Agronomy, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong 271018 (China); Taishan Academy of Science and Technology, Tai' an, Shandong 271000 (China); Feng, S.F.; Wu, G.L.; Li, Y.; Li, C.H. [State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Agronomy, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong 271018 (China); Lucas, M. [Rheinisch-Westfalisch Technische Hochschule, Aachen University, Aachen 52070 (Germany); Jiang, G.M. [State Key Laboratory of Quantitative Vegetation Ecology, Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20 Nanxincun, Xiangshan, Beijing 100093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Agronomy, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong 271018 (China)

    2010-12-15

    A biomass energy exploration experiment was conducted in Jiangjiazhuang, a typical agro-village in Shandong, China from 2005 to 2009. The route of this study was designed as an agricultural circulation as: crops {yields} crop residues {yields} ''Bread'' forage {yields} cattle {yields} cattle dung {yields} biogas digester {yields} biogas/digester residues {yields} green fertilizers {yields} crops. About 738.8 tons of crop residues are produced in this village each year. In 2005, only two cattle were fed in this village and 1.1% of the crop residues were used as forage. About 38.5% crop residues were used for livelihood energy, 24.5% were discarded and 29.7% were directly burned in the field. Not more than three biogas digesters were built and merely 2250 m{sup 3} biogas was produced a year relative to saving 1.6 tons standard coal and equivalent to reducing 4.3 tons CO{sub 2} emission. A total of US$ 4491 profits were obtained from cattle benefit, reducing fossil energies/chemical fertilizer application and increasing crop yield. After 5 years experiment, cattle capita had raised gradually up to 146 and some 62.3% crop residues were used as forage. The percentages used as livelihood energy, discarded and burned in the field decreased to 16.3%, 9.2% and 9.8%, respectively. Biogas digesters increased to 123 and 92,250 m{sup 3} biogas was fermented equal to saving 65.9 tons standard coal and reducing 177.9 tons CO{sub 2} emission. In total US$ 60,710 profits were obtained in 2009. In addition, about 989.9 tons green fertilizers were produced from biogas digesters and applied in croplands. The results suggested that livestock and biogas projects were promising strategies to consume the redundant agricultural residues, offer livelihood energy and increase the villagers' incomes. Biogas production and utilization could effectively alleviate energy crisis and CO{sub 2} emission, which might be a great contribution to reach the affirmatory carbon

  20. Photon emission in neutral current interactions at intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, E; Nieves, J

    2014-01-01

    Neutral current photon emission reactions with nucleons and nuclei are studied. These processes are important backgrounds for nu_mu to nu_e (bar(nu)_mu to bar(nu)_e) appearance oscillation experiments where electromagnetic showers instigated by electrons (positrons) and photons are not distinguishable. At intermediate energies, these reactions are dominated by the weak excitation of the Delta(1232) resonance and its subsequent decay into Ngamma There are also non-resonant contributions that, close to threshold, are fully determined by the effective chiral Lagrangian of strong interactions. In addition, we have also included mechanisms mediated by nucleon excitations (N*) from the second resonance region above the Delta(1232). From these states, the contribution of the D13 N*(1520) turns out to be sizable for (anti)neutrino energies above 1.5 GeV. We have extended the model to nuclear targets taking, into account Pauli blocking, Fermi motion and the in-medium Delta resonance broadening. We present our predicti...

  1. CURRENT WAYS TO HARVEST ENERGY USING A COMPUTER MOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantisek Horvat

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the idea of an energy harvesting (EH system that uses the mechanical energy from finger presses on the buttons of a computer mouse by means of a piezomaterial (PVF2. The piezomaterial is placed in the mouse at the interface between the button and the body. This paper reviews the parameters of the PVF2 piezomaterial and tests their possible implementation into EH systems utilizing these types of mechanical interactions. The paper tests the viability of two EH concepts: a battery management system, and a semi-autonomous system. A statistical estimate of the button operations is performed for various computer activities, showing that an average of up to 3300 mouse clicks per hour was produced for gaming applications, representing a tip frequency of 0.91 Hz on the PVF2 member. This frequency is tested on the PVF2 system, and an assessment of the two EH systems is reviewed. The results show that fully autonomous systems are not suitable for capturing low-frequency mechanical interactions, due to the parameters of current piezomaterials, and the resulting very long startup phase. However, a hybrid EH system which uses available power to initiate the circuit and eliminate the startup phase may be explored for future studies.

  2. Twisted Savonius turbine based marine current energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Md. Imtiaj

    The Ocean Network Seafloor Instrumentation (ONSFI) Project is a multidisciplinary research and development project that aims to design, fabricate and validate a proof-of-concept seafloor array of wireless marine sensors for use in monitoring seabed processes. The sensor pods, known as Seaformatics, will be powered by ocean bottom currents and will be able to communicate with each other and to the Internet through surface master units to facilitate observation of the ocean floor from the shore. This thesis explores the use of the twisted Savonius turbine as a means of converting the kinetic energy of the free flowing water into electrical energy for the pods. This will eliminate the need for battery replacement. A physical model of the turbine was constructed and tested in the Water Flume at the Marine Institute of Memorial University and in the Wind Tunnel in the Engineering Building at Memorial University. A mathematical model of the turbine was constructed in SolidWorks. This was tested in the Computational Fluid Dynamics or CFD software FLOW-3D. Experimental results were compared with CFD results and the agreement was reasonable. A twisted Savonius turbine emulator was developed to test a dc-dc boost converter. A low cost microcontroller based MPPT algorithm was developed to obtain maximum power from the turbine. Overall the thesis shows that the twisted Savonius turbine can provide the power needed by the sensor pods. It also shows that CFD is a viable way to study the performance of the Savonius type of turbine.

  3. Crisis Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    East Asian countries consider a financial alliance tostabilize the regional economy East Asian financial cooperation has come under the spotlight once again amid the spiraling global financial crisis originated in the

  4. Crisis communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewenhous, Daria; Sterling, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Whether healthcare security is directly or indirectly involved in a crisis that will involve the media, it will pay to better familiarize yourself with the kind of planned responses discussed in this article to mitigate negative outcomes.

  5. Dalla crisi finanziaria alla crisi reale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo D'Adda

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available  The financial crisis of 2008 is put in relation with two bubbles, financial and housing. Easy credit is at the origin of both bubbles. Risky bonds were issued to mobilize mortgages originated in the housing market, and bad bonds entered a fantastic number of institutional and private portfolios all over the world without any perception of the their risk. Unfortunately, bank credit to speculators was abundant and fed the final growth of the bubbles. When fears started to spread, the fall was immediate and expectations impaired very rapidly. The main aggregate demand components were severely curtailed and production fell as well. This is the crisis of the real economy. Fortunately, as opposed to what happened in 1929, the interventions of central banks and governments have been of an unprecedented size. The bail out of insolvent banks in particular has been providential. The exit from the current crisis, however, will surely be slow. JEL Code: E44, G01, G10Keywords: Cultura economica, Crisi finanziaria, Regole  

  6. Financial Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄骅

    2012-01-01

      Financial crisis started from America and soon spread all over the world. How did this happen? What government has done to rescue the economy and what should we do to help? Is financial crisis inevitable? These questions have bothered me for a long time. However, if we use a macroeconomist eye to view the world, all the questions seemed clear and crystal.

  7. Preparing for a crisis: crisis team development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calarco, C

    1999-02-01

    Emergency preparedness in the school setting necessitates the formation and development of a Crisis Team that will be prepared to assume critical roles in the event of a crisis. This paper discusses the school Crisis Team, including member identification and responsibilities, and the relationship of the Crisis Team to the school crisis plan and policies.

  8. Review of the current wind energy technologies and global market

    OpenAIRE

    Komarov, Dragan; Stupar, Slobodan; Posteljnik, Zorana

    2011-01-01

    The modern wind energy technologies and recent global wind energy market trends are reviewed in the paper. Basic principles of conversion of wind energy to electricity are described with brief overview of the state-of-the-art technologies for subassemblies such as wind turbine blades and drive trains. Global wind energy market was reviewed in order to attain notion of wind power market developments in the future. The most developed countries in terms of wind energy utilization such as Denmark...

  9. Nuclear aspects of neutrino energy reconstruction in current oscillation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, Tina; Buss, Oliver; Mosel, Ulrich [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Alvarez-Ruso, Luis [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Universidad de Valencia - CSIC (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    There is an extensive experimental effort aiming at a precise determination of neutrino oscillation parameters. A critical quantity is the neutrino energy which can not be measured directly but has to be reconstructed from observables. A good knowledge of neutrino-nucleus interactions is thus necessary to minimize the systematic uncertainties in neutrino fluxes, backgrounds and detector responses. A reliable reconstruction has to account for in-medium modifications. We find that in particular final-state interactions inside the target nucleus modify considerably the distributions through rescattering, charge-exchange and absorption. These effects can be simulated with our coupled channel GiBUU transport model where the neutrino first interacts with a bound nucleon producing secondary particles which are then transported out of the nucleus. We consider, besides Fermi motion and Pauli blocking, full in-medium kinematics, mean-field potentials and in-medium spectral functions. In this contribution, we compare the reconstructed quantities obtained within our model to the ones obtained by the current experiments like MiniBooNE, which mostly rely on simple two-body kinematics. We then discuss how these uncertainties influence not only the cross section measurements but also the oscillation results.

  10. Unpacking the Global Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juego, Bonn; Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper hopes to contribute to a reading of the political economy of the current global crisis with a focus on four interrelated themes. First, we discuss the constitutive role and functional character of crises in the evolution of neo-liberalism in particular and in capitalist reproduction in ...

  11. Energy Crises in Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John C.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses some long-range aspects of energy resources and consumption, including the history of current energy crisis, resource and reserve estimates, and future of the energy industry. Indicates that the United States of American has enough fossil and nuclear fuel to last, respectively, for 500 years and a million years. (CC)

  12. The Energy Films Index. An Educator's Guide to Current Energy Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherner, Sharon; And Others

    This guide cites and describes 241 films on energy. The categories are: general films on energy, conservation of energy, history of energy development, coal, electricity, food and energy, geothermal, natural gas, nuclear energy, oil/petroleum, oil shale, solar energy, tar sands, tidal energy, wind, impacts of energy, and future of energy. For each…

  13. Re-Envisioning Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snaith, Holly; Rosamond, Ben

    2015-01-01

    of EU integration – namely the 1970s oil shocks and the more recent global financial crisis – in order to determine the extent to which these events have been contemporarily defined as providing opportunities to act, or simply challenges to the existing order. The paper provides an analysis of the way....... The comparative nature of the findings helps to contextualise current discourses around the global financial crisis, in order to evaluate the EU’s previous efforts at global repositioning, and the significance of crisis discourse to these efforts....... in which EU actors have mobilised the idea of ‘crisis’ in order to (a) exert control over endogenous and exogenous destabilising forces, (b) (re)define the EU as an object of both political engagement and academic study, and finally (c) make the case for further expansion and integration (particularly...

  14. Re-Envisioning Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snaith, Holly; Rosamond, Ben

    2015-01-01

    of EU integration – namely the 1970s oil shocks and the more recent global financial crisis – in order to determine the extent to which these events have been contemporarily defined as providing opportunities to act, or simply challenges to the existing order. The paper provides an analysis of the way...... in which EU actors have mobilised the idea of ‘crisis’ in order to (a) exert control over endogenous and exogenous destabilising forces, (b) (re)define the EU as an object of both political engagement and academic study, and finally (c) make the case for further expansion and integration (particularly....... The comparative nature of the findings helps to contextualise current discourses around the global financial crisis, in order to evaluate the EU’s previous efforts at global repositioning, and the significance of crisis discourse to these efforts....

  15. Current Work in Energy Analysis (Energy Analysis Program -1996 Annual Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy Analysis Program

    1998-03-01

    This report describes the work that Environmental Energy Technologies Division of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been doing most recently. One of our proudest accomplishments is the publication of Scenarios of U.S. Carbon Reductions, an analysis of the potential of energy technologies to reduce carbon emissions in the U.S. This analysis played a key role in shaping the U.S. position on climate change in the Kyoto Protocol negotiations. Our participation in the fundamental characterization of the climate change issue by the IPCC is described. We are also especially proud of our study of ''leaking electricity,'' which is stimulating an international campaign for a one-watt ceiling for standby electricity losses from appliances. This ceiling has the potential to save two-thirds of the 5% of U.S. residential electricity currently expended on standby losses. The 54 vignettes contained in the following pages summarize results of research. activities ranging in scale from calculating the efficacy of individual lamp ballasts to estimating the cost-effectiveness of the national ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} labeling program, and ranging in location from a scoping study of energy-efficiency market transformation in California to development of an energy-efficiency project in the auto parts industry in Shandong Province, China. These are the intellectual endeavors of a talented team of researchers dedicated to public service.

  16. Prospective energy sources and their comparison with current supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitsekhovskii, B. V.

    1980-10-01

    The comparative physical-technical and economic characteristics of renewable energy sources are analyzed. The significant advantages of wind energy for future use over oil, gas, and coal are demonstrated. Costs of wind electrical energy are compared in the U.S., Denmark, and the U.S.S.R.

  17. 78 FR 72874 - Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection for the Energy Efficiency and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection for the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block... information and reporting guidance concerning the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG...: ``Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) Program Status Report''; (3) Type of...

  18. Wind Plant Preconstruction Energy Estimates. Current Practice and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fields, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-19

    Understanding the amount of energy that will be harvested by a wind power plant each year and the variability of that energy is essential to assessing and potentially improving the financial viability of that power plant. The preconstruction energy estimate process predicts the amount of energy--with uncertainty estimates--that a wind power plant will deliver to the point of revenue. This report describes the preconstruction energy estimate process from a technical perspective and seeks to provide insight into the financial implications associated with each step.

  19. The sea surface currents as a potential factor in the estimation and monitoring of wave energy potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodiatis, George; Galanis, George; Nikolaidis, Andreas; Stylianoy, Stavros; Liakatas, Aristotelis

    2015-04-01

    The use of wave energy as an alternative renewable is receiving attention the last years under the shadow of the economic crisis in Europe and in the light of the promising corresponding potential especially for countries with extended coastline. Monitoring and studying the corresponding resources is further supported by a number of critical advantages of wave energy compared to other renewable forms, like the reduced variability and the easier adaptation to the general grid, especially when is jointly approached with wind power. Within the framework, a number of countries worldwide have launched research and development projects and a significant number of corresponding studies have been presented the last decades. However, in most of them the impact of wave-sea surface currents interaction on the wave energy potential has not been taken into account neglecting in this way a factor of potential importance. The present work aims at filling this gap for a sea area with increased scientific and economic interest, the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Based on a combination of high resolution numerical modeling approach with advanced statistical tools, a detailed analysis is proposed for the quantification of the impact of sea surface currents, which produced from downscaling the MyOcean-FO regional data, to wave energy potential. The results although spatially sensitive, as expected, prove beyond any doubt that the wave- sea surface currents interaction should be taken into account for similar resource analysis and site selection approaches since the percentage of impact to the available wave power may reach or even exceed 20% at selected areas.

  20. Current Status and Prospects of Biomass Energy Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    At present biomass energy industry is in its infancy in China and it has a bright future. Biomass energy production used grain as raw materials has entered industrialization phase.Some key technologies of biomass energy industry are coming to mature.China has issued relevant industrial standards laws and regulations,and has provided support in finance,loan,tax,etc.But China's biomass energy industry is faced with many problems which need to be solved.For example,taking grain as raw materials is unsustain...

  1. Risk Factors of Young Graduates in the Competitive E.U. Labour Market at the End of the Current Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacerova Eliska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern development trends in the labour market have been an increasingly important political and economic issue not only domestically but also on the European level. It proves the fact that in The Europe 2020 strategy, one of the main five points is the aim to increase the employment rate of the population (age: 20–64 from the current 69% to at least 75%. Various risk groups of job candidates emerge among the unemployed. The economic crisis in 2007 made the situation in the labour markets worse. The demand for labour decreased while the number of candidates increased. In recent years, fresh graduates under the age of 25 have been regarded as a high risk group sometimes nicknamed “the lost generation” or Generation Y. This generation is well accustomed to modern technologies which they use for their own benefit and they are willing and able to work from anywhere. On the contrary, those over the age of 35, who are sometimes referred to as Generation X, have different attitudes and requirements for the labour market. Despite the increasing level of education among young people, their unemployment has been worsening since the economic crisis began. The aim of this article was to ascertain how future university graduates (491 final-year students from 5 faculties at Tomas Bata University in Zlín, Czech Republic perceive individual risk factors influencing the success of today’s graduate of Generation Y in the competitive labour market. The target group, future university graduates, evaluated 13 risk areas on a five-point scale. These 13 risk areas were identified based on primary research among 1.059 employers in the Czech Republic, which is a part of a complete two-year research project IGA/FaME/2013/030. This article focuses on only two areas which closely analysed the perception of graduates as drifters, and their demands for high starting salaries. These two risk areas were mentioned by employers as the areas with the highest risk and

  2. La crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Greenspan, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Este artículo revisa las causas de la crisis, explora la naturaleza de la intermediación financiera, presenta un conjunto de reformas para superar las deficiencias de la estructura reguladora y examina el papel de la política monetaria en la crisis actual. Concluye que es primordial aumentar los requerimientos regulatorios de capital y de liquidez de los bancos e incrementar en forma significativa las garantías obligatorias de los productos financieros que se negocian globalmente.

  3. La crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Greenspan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo revisa las causas de la crisis, explora la naturaleza de la intermediación financiera, presenta un conjunto de reformas para superar las deficiencias de la estructura reguladora y examina el papel de la política monetaria en la crisis actual. Concluye que es primordial aumentar los requerimientos regulatorios de capital y de liquidez de los bancos e incrementar en forma significativa las garantías obligatorias de los productos financieros que se negocian globalmente.

  4. Current perspective of the renewable energy development in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Salsabila [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Electrical System Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02000 Kuala Perlis, Perlis (Malaysia); Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin Ab [Alternative and Renewable Energy Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Shafie, Suhaidi [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    It is estimated that oil reserves will not last very much longer; thus, a switch to alternative energy solutions is crucial. The Malaysian government has already prepared to face the situation decades before. Many policies have been implemented, as well as programmes and initiative. Now, Malaysia is waiting for the ultimate solutions, the Malaysian Fit-in Tariff (FiT), which is scheduled to be implemented second quarter of 2011. This paper presents the main sources of alternative renewable energy in Malaysia and its potential as well as the main reasons Malaysia is turning to alternative energy solutions; to fully utilize its renewable energy (RE) resources, fulfill the energy demand in the future and to reduce carbon emissions. This paper also discusses the steps taken by the government in preparation for FiT and overcoming the barriers in RE development. (author)

  5. Implementation of wind energy in relation with the Crisis and Recovery Law and the Electricity Law 1998. Annex 4 to 'Fast fitting-in of wind energy?'; Uitvoering windenergie in relatie tot Crisis- en herstelwet en Elektriciteitswet 1998. Bijlage 4 bij 'Windenergie sneller ingepast?'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    For the Dutch provinces of Groningen, Drenthe, Friesland, Overijssel, Gelderland, Utrecht, Flevoland, Noord Brabant, Limburg, Zeeland, Zuid Holland and Noord Holland it is described how the Provincial States of the provinces apply the implementation of Article 9 of the 1998 Electricity Law with respect to wind energy. It is also described what the constraints are, what the conclusion is and what recommendations are given in order to stimulate the implementation in the spirit of the Crisis and Recovery Act. [Dutch] In dit rapport wordt voor de provincies Groningen, Drenthe, Friesland, Overijssel, Gelderland, Utrecht, Flevoland, Noord Brabant, Limburg, Zeeland, Zuid Holland, en Noord Holland beschreven hoe de Provinciale Staten van de provincies toepassing geven aan de uitvoering van artikel 9e van de Elektriciteitswet voor het onderdeel windenergie. Ook wordt beschreven welke belemmeringen er zijn, wat de conclusie is en welke aanbevelingen zijn gegeven om de toepassing in de geest van de Crisis- en Herstel Wet te bevorderen.

  6. Current Status and Challenges in Wind Energy Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Badger, Jake; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2014-01-01

    Here we discuss the status and challenges in the development of atlases for the assessment of the regional and global wind resources. The text more specifically describes a methodology that is under development at DTU Wind Energy in Denmark. As the wind assessment is based on mesoscale modelling,......, some of the specific challenges in mesoscale modelling for wind energy purposes are discussed such as wind profiles and long-term statistics of the wind speed time series. Solutions to these challenges will help secure an economic and effective deployment of wind energy....

  7. Crisis meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      To all CERN staff: your rights are at risk ! We invite you to come to a crisis meeting on Wednesday 2nd April at 10:30 a.m., Auditorium, Main Building, Meyrin site. Your presence is crucial, we are ALL concerned !

  8. Crisis Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents summaries of four articles relevant to school crisis response. The first article, "Peritraumatic Dissociation Predicts Posttraumatic Stress in Youth Following Accidents" summarized by Jim Matthews, suggests that peritraumatic dissociation is a powerful predictor of PTSD symptoms among youth who have been in a car…

  9. Crisis meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    To all CERN staff: your rights are at risk! We invite you to come to a crisis meeting on Thursday 7th May 2015 at 9 a.m., Auditorium, Main Building, Meyrin site. Your presence is crucial, we are ALL concerned!

  10. Crisi internazionale e crisi nazionale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ferrari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the situation of Italy in the wake of the international financial and economic crisis. It is in particular stressed that Italy was already in a critical position before 2007-2008, mainly due to insufficient economic growth. The main reason for the country's low performance is identified in the insufficient expenditure on research and development, which caused innovation to slow down.   JEL Codes: O31, G01, O40Keywords: Italy, growth, crisis, innovation

  11. Meson exchange currents in pion double charge exchange at high energies

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Ruso, L

    1995-01-01

    In this letter we study the high energy behavior of the forward differential cross section for the O(18)(pi+,pi-)Ne(18) double charge exchange reaction. We have evaluated the sequential and the meson exchange current mechanisms. The meson exchange current contribution shows a very weak energy dependence and becomes dominant at incident pion kinetic energies above 600 MeV.

  12. Defining the crisis and crisis management

    OpenAIRE

    Racaj, Muhamet

    2016-01-01

    The crisis can now be played with little or no warning, anywhere, anytime. But it is not necessarily badnews. I tisa reality. The ability to manage changing situation and to bring sober decision - which is just another way of perceiving the crisis management - is vital to achieving success in the critical milestones in life, politics, the world in general. In the new circumstances arise new opportunities for successful early crisis management. What is the crisis? What is crisis manag...

  13. Survey on utility technology of a tidal and ocean current energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Manabu; Kadoyu, Masataka; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi

    1987-06-01

    A study is made to show the current technological levels in Japan and other nations regarding the conversion of tidal current or ocean current energy to electric power and to determine the latent energy quantities and energy-related characteristics of tidal and ocean currents. In Japan, relatively large-scale experiments made so far mostly used one of the following three types of devices: Savonius-wheel type, Darrieus-wheel type, and cross-flow-wheel type. Field experiments of tidal energy conversion have been performed at the Naruto and Kurushima Straits. The energy in the Kuroshio current is estimated at about 170 billion kWh per year. Ocean current energy does not undergo large seasonal variations. The total energy in major straits and channels in the Inland Sea and other sea areas to the west is estimated at about 124 billion kWh per year. Tidal current energy shows large seasonal variations, but it is possible to predict the changes. A survey is made to determine energy-related characteristics of a tidal current at Chichino-seto, Kagoshima Prefecture. At Chichino-seto, the flow velocity ranges from 0 to 2.2m/s, with a latent tidal current energy of about 70 kW, of which about 20 kW can actually be utilized.

  14. Energy Generation Potential of West African Ocean Current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2015-12-01

    Dec 1, 2015 ... Department of Marine Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Federal University of Petroleum Resources, P.M.B. 1221 ... West Africa in a streamed regular supply. ... system; Design of ocean current generating system whose efficiency relies .... Offloading Liquefied Natural Gas Facility for Offshore West Africa.

  15. Gran Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Verdu Maciá, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    La extensión y la duración de esta Gran Crisis ha adquirido tanta envergadura que sería inocente creer que tras ella las cosas seguirán siendo más o menos como antes. No sabemos con exactitud cómo será el porvenir, pero sin duda diferirá sustantivamente de este presente. Universidad de Málaga. Campus de Excelencia Internacional Andalucía Tech.

  16. Information Crisis

    CERN Document Server

    Losavio, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Information Crisis discusses the scope and types of information available online and teaches readers how to critically assess it and analyze potentially dangerous information, especially when teachers, editors, or other information gatekeepers are not available to assess the information for them. Chapters and topics include:. The Internet as an information tool. Critical analysis. Legal issues, traps, and tricks. Protecting personal safety and identity. Types of online information.

  17. Current State of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Market (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2013-09-01

    This presentation highlights the status of the voluntary green power market in 2012. The voluntary green power market totaled more than 48 million MWh in 2012, with about 1.9 million customers participating. The supply continues to be dominated by wind, though solar is increasing its share of utility green pricing programs. Prices for voluntary renewable energy certificates (RECs) increased to above $1/MWh.

  18. Ground-state entanglement in a three-spin transverse Ising model with energy current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yong; Liu Dan; Long Gui-Lu

    2007-01-01

    The ground-state entanglement associated with a three-spin transverse Ising model is studied. By introducing an energy current into the system, a quantum phase transition to energy-current phase may be presented with the variation of external magnetic field; and the ground-state entanglement varies suddenly at the critical point of quantum phase transition. In our model, the introduction of energy current makes the entanglement between any two qubits become maximally robust.

  19. The current status of wind energy in Turkey and in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilkilic, Cumali [Department of Automotive, Faculty of Technical Education, Firat University, Elazig 23119 (Turkey); Aydin, Hueseyin; Behcet, Rasim [Department of Automotive, Faculty of Technical Education, Batman University, Batman 72060 (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    The rapid increase in world energy demand, the depletion of conventional energy sources and the pollution caused by conventional fuels have increased the importance of developing new and renewable energy sources. Additionally, technological developments have resulted in increased energy demand for the entire world, including Turkey, especially for electrical energy. At present, wind energy is receiving considerable attention. This report focuses on the current status of wind energy in Turkey and in the world. An overview of wind energy in Turkey is presented, and its current status, application, support mechanisms and associated legislation in Turkey are described. Wind energy and its status in the world are also addressed. It can be concluded from this analysis that wind energy utilization in Turkey and throughout world has sharply increased. Turkey has an abundance of wind energy sources. (author)

  20. Neutral current neutrino-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Leitner, T; Mosel, U

    2006-01-01

    We have extended our model for charged current neutrino-nucleus interactions to neutral current reactions. For the elementary neutrino-nucleon interaction, we take into account quasielastic scattering, Delta excitation and the excitation of the resonances in the second resonance region. Our model for the neutrino-nucleus collisions includes in-medium effects such as Fermi motion, Pauli blocking, nuclear binding, and final-state interactions. They are implemented by means of the Giessen Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (GiBUU) coupled-channel transport model. This allows us to study exclusive channels, namely pion production and nucleon knockout. We find that final-state interactions modify considerably the distributions through rescattering, charge-exchange and absorption. Side-feeding induced by charge-exchange scattering is important in both cases. In the case of pions, there is a strong absorption associated with the in-medium pionless decay modes of the Delta, while nucleon knockout exhibits a considerable enh...

  1. Biowaste energy potential in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nzila, C.; DeWulf, J.; Spanjers, H.; Kiriamiti, H.; Langenhove, H.

    2010-01-01

    Energy affects all aspects of national development. Hence the current global energy crisis demands greater attention to new initiatives on alternative energy sources that are renewable, economically feasible and sustainable. The agriculture-dependent developing countries in Africa can mitigate the e

  2. Managing Current Complexity: Critical Energy Infrastructure Failures in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin MacDonald

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper applies the competing theories of High Reliability Organizations (HRO and Normal Accidents Theory (NAT, two competing views of risk management in highly-complex and tightly-coupled systems, in analyzing the 1998 Ice Storm and the 2003 Blackout to examine vulnerabilities in North America’s critical energy infrastructure (CEI. Inferences are then made by highlighting the similarities and differences in the two cases, which are then used to draw lessons for public managers regarding the protection of CEIs.

     

    As CEIs are highly-complex and tightly-coupled systems, failures stemming from complex and uncertain risks are inevitable. There is an increasingly low tolerance for failure in energy infrastructure because society’s critical infrastructures have become increasingly interdependent. Public managers must regulate CEIs in order to ensure an emphasis is placed on safety and security while also finding ways to reduce unnecessary complexities. It is through the adoption of such measures that public managers will aid in minimizing the cascading effects of inevitable failures.

     

  3. Current-driven plasma acceleration versus current-driven energy dissipation. I - Wave stability theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, A. J.; Jahn, R. G.; Choueiri, E. Y.

    1990-01-01

    The dominant unstable electrostatic wave modes of an electromagnetically accelerated plasma are investigated. The study is the first part of a three-phase program aimed at characterizing the current-driven turbulent dissipation degrading the efficiency of Lorentz force plasma accelerators such as the MPD thruster. The analysis uses a kinetic theory that includes magnetic and thermal effects as well as those of an electron current transverse to the magnetic field and collisions, thus combining all the features of previous models. Analytical and numerical solutions allow a detailed description of threshold criteria, finite growth behavior, destabilization mechanisms and maximized-growth characteristics of the dominant unstable modes. The lower hybrid current-driven instability is implicated as dominant and was found to preserve its character in the collisional plasma regime.

  4. Agro-energy - A solution for climate or a crisis exit for capital?; L'agroenergie - Solution pour le climat ou sortie de crise pour le capital?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houtart, F. [CETRI, Louvain La Neuve (Belgium)

    2009-07-01

    Intensive advertisement has presented agro-energy as a solution to the global warming and to the energy crisis. But how will it be possible to replace fossil fuels? It would be surprising that an economic system like capitalism does not try to supply some remedies to a situation that paralyzes it and threatens its own survivor-ship. But are these measures favorable to humanity and susceptible to warrant the future of the Earth? Are we trying to save the mankind and its vital capacities or to preserve capitalism? This book examines the role of energy in the development of humanity and then the degradation of climate and the way that capitalism has treated the problem. It deals with the real conditions of biofuels development, reveals the ecological and social conditions of their production, and denounces the social and natural catastrophes they are leading to. The book ends with a thinking about the economical function of biofuels and on the solutions offered by renewable energy sources. It proposes some changes that reveal the core of the problem: changing our development model. (J.S.)

  5. Electrical energy generation in Europe the current and future role of conventional energy sources in the regional generation of electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the current use of conventional energy sources (such as fossil fuels) in the generation of electricity in the European region, this book addresses several key issues including: potential ways European countries could expand their energy sector in the coming years; the impact on the climate, the level of energy reserves, different efficiency measures that could be adopted to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels in the generation of electricity, and current and future energy production and consumption trends, amongst other topics.   Covering both how the use

  6. Crisis Communication Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utz, Sonja; Schultz, Friederike; Glocka, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    in the newspaper condition than in the social media conditions because people consider traditional media as more credible. We also found higher levels of anger in the intentional crisis condition than in the victim crisis condition. Anger in turn was related to reputation, secondary crisis communication......Social media play in today's societies a fundamental role for the negotiation and dynamics of crises. However, classical crisis communication theories neglect the role of the medium and focus mainly on the interplay between crisis type and crisis communication strategy. Building on the recently...... the effects of crisis type. Crisis communication via social media resulted in a higher reputation and less secondary crisis reactions such as boycotting the company than crisis communication in the newspaper. However, secondary crisis communication, e.g. talking about the crisis communication, was higher...

  7. Charged Current Neutrino Nucleus Interactions at Intermediate Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Leitner, T; Mosel, U

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a model to describe the interactions of neutrinos with nucleons and nuclei, focusing on the region of the quasielastic and Delta(1232) peaks. We describe neutrino nucleon collisions with a fully relativistic formalism which incorporates state-of-the-art parametrizations of the form factors for both the nucleon and the N-Delta transition. The model has then been extended to finite nuclei, taking into account nuclear effects such as Fermi motion, Pauli blocking (both within the local density approximation), nuclear binding and final state interactions. The in-medium modification of the Delta resonance due to Pauli blocking and collisional broadening have also been included. Final state interactions are implemented by means of the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) coupled-channel transport model. Results for charged current inclusive cross sections and exclusive channels as pion production and nucleon knockout are presented and discussed.

  8. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Kevin A. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2013-10-03

    Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States.

  9. The current perspectives of nuclear energy and non-proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilinsky, Victor

    2012-07-01

    The main reason given nowadays for supporting nuclear plant construction around the world is that the plants do not produce CO{sub 2}. The negative aspects are costs so high as to require subsidies, the possible connection with proliferation, and since the Fukushima accident, a renewed concern about nuclear safety. To make a dent on global climate, we would need many power reactors, perhaps a thousand worldwide, perhaps more. Such a scale-up is not likely in view of nuclear power's high cost. Fukushima demonstrated that LWRs are capable of large accidental releases of radioactivity, roughly comparable to that at Chernobyl. While effective evacuation can protect people, the evacuates may never be able to return. The half- life of cesium 137, the main contaminant, is about 30 years, and it may take several half-lives to make an area acceptable for rehabilitation. In Fukushima about 100,000 persons were evacuated from an area of about 1000 square kilometer. When it comes to proliferation, there are strong arguments over whether we can have nuclear power without nuclear weapons. The 1946 US Acheson-Lilienthal Report argued that gaining nuclear energy's benefits without proliferation required strict international control. Inspection alone couldn't afford any reasonable security against the diversion of such materials to the purposes of war. The authors view is that the connection between technologies for nuclear power and nuclear weapons is still so close that you can't get the benefits of power without increasing the risks of weapons spread. Up to now we have allowed our interest in nuclear power to trump our bomb worries. It is time to rethink the proliferation risk of a large increase in nuclear power capacity.

  10. Research on Current Situation of Crisis Early Warning in China Based on Bibliometric Analysis%基于文献计量的国内危机预警研究现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚花萍; 王英

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Significance] The paper aims to explore related hot topics and frontier fields, find out the current situation of crisis early warning research, and provide reference for crisis early warning research and practice. [ Methods/Process] By choosing research liter-ature of core journals about crisis early warning from 2001 to 2015 in CNKI database as the sample data, through the use of statistics tools Excel and literature statistics tools CiteSpace, the paper made quantitative analysis on the literature data and plotted charts. [ Result/Con-clusion] Finally, it concludes that major hot spots of the crisis early warning include enterprise competitive intelligence, the government public crisis management, financial crisis, crisis public relations and prevention and processing, the college students psychology crisis early warning mechanism, and network public opinion early warning, among which frontier fields are competitive intelligence, psychological crisis and network public opinion research. But all the research studies are still lack of innovation and practice. Qualities are uneven in vari-ous fields of study, research results do not match reality demand well. For this reason, we put forward the related research recommenda-tions.%[目的/意义]为探索危机预警研究的主题热点和前沿领域,揭示国内危机预警研究现状,为危机预警研究与实践提供参考。[方法/过程]以CNKI中文数据库核心期刊收录的2001-2015年间国内危机预警研究文献作为主要数据样本,借助统计工具Excel与文献统计工具CiteSpace软件进行计量分析,绘制图表。[结果/结论]分析得出危机预警研究的主要热点领域有企业竞争情报、政府公共危机管理、金融危机、危机公关与危机预防处理、大学生心理危机预警机制、网络舆情预警等,其中前沿热点包括竞争情报、心理危机和网络舆情研究。但研究普遍还存在创新

  11. 78 FR 49736 - Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection for the Energy Efficiency and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection for the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block... information and reporting guidance concerning the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG... information collection request contains: (1) 1910-5150; (2) ``Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block...

  12. High-energy tritium beams as current drivers in tokamak reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, D.R.; Grisham, L.R.

    1983-04-01

    The effect on neutral-beam design and reactor performance of using high-energy (approx. 3-10 MeV) tritium neutral beams to drive steady-state tokamak reactors is considered. The lower current of such beams leads to several advantages over lower-energy neutral beams. The major disadvantage is the reduction of the reactor output caused by the lower current-drive efficiency of the high-energy beams.

  13. Energy extraction from ocean currents and waves: Mapping the most promising locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez, A.; Hamlington, P.; Fox-Kemper, B.

    2012-12-01

    Concerns about fossil fuel supplies and an ever-increasing demand for energy have prompted the search for alternative power sources. One option is the ocean, a power-dense and renewable source of energy, but its capacity to meet human energy demands is poorly understood. Although raw wave energy resources have been investigated at many scales, there is still substantial uncertainty regarding how much useful power can be extracted. Even less is known about the energy available in ocean currents, especially on a global scale. Moreover, no studies have attempted to examine wave and current energy simultaneously while at the same time taking into account geographical, environmental, and technical factors that can substantially limit the amount of extractable energy. In this study, we use high fidelity oceanographic model data to assess the availability, recoverability, and value of energy in ocean wind waves and currents. Global wave energy transport, coastal wave energy flux, and current energy are calculated and mapped using the model data. These maps are then incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) in order to assess the U.S. recoverable ocean energy resource. In the GIS, the amount of recoverable energy is estimated by combining the power output from realistic wave and current energy farms with physical and ecological data such as bathymetry and environmentally protected areas. This holistic approach is then used to examine the distribution and value of extractable wave and current energy along the U.S. coast. The results support previous studies that show that the U.S. West Coast has large potential for wave energy extraction and that the Florida Strait has high potential for current energy extraction. We also show that, at any particular location, the amount of available ocean energy is only one factor of many that determines the ultimate feasibility and value of the energy. We outline ways in which the GIS framework used in this assessment can be

  14. New Concept for Assessment of Tidal Current Energy in Jiangsu Coast, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Sheng Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tidal current energy has attracted more and more attentions of coastal engineers in recent years, mainly due to its advantages of low environmental impact, long-term predictability, and large energy potential. In this study, a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model is applied to predict the distribution of mean density of tidal current energy and to determine a suitable site for energy exploitation in Jiangsu Coast. The simulation results including water elevation and tidal current (speed and direction were validated with measured data, showing a reasonable agreement. Then, the model was used to evaluate the distribution of mean density of tidal current energy during springtide and neap tide in Jiangsu Coast. Considering the discontinuous performance of tidal current turbine, a new concept for assessing tidal current energy is introduced with three parameters: total operating time, dispersion of operating time, and mean operating time of tidal current turbine. The operating efficiency of tidal current turbine at three locations around radial submarine sand ridges was taken as examples for comparison, determining suitable sites for development of tidal current farm.

  15. Leadership in a (permanent) crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heifetz, Ronald; Grashow, Alexander; Linsky, Marty

    2009-01-01

    The current economic crisis is not just another rough spell. Today's mix of urgency, high stakes, and uncertainty will continue even after the recession ends. The immediate crisis--which we will get through with policy makers' expert technical adjustments--sets the stage for a sustained, or even permanent, crisis, a relentless series of challenges no one has encountered before. Instead of hunkering down and relying on their familiar expertise to deal with the sustained crisis, people in positions of authority--whether they are CEOs or managers heading up a company initiative--must practice what the authors call adaptive leadership. They must, of course, tackle the underlying causes of the crisis, but they must also simultaneously make the changes that will allow their organizations to thrive in turbulent environments. Adaptive leadership is an improvisational and experimental art, requiring some new practices. Like Julie Gilbert, who overcame internal resistance to reorient Best Buy toward female purchasers, adaptive leaders get things done to meet today's challenges and then modify those things to thrive in tomorrow's world. They also embrace disequilibrium, using turbulence as an opportunity to build crucial new capacities, as Paul Levy did to rescue Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center from a profound financial crisis. Finally, adaptive leaders, such as Egon Zehnder, the founder of an executive search firm, draw out the leadership skills that reside deep in the organization, recognizing the interdependence of all employees and mobilizing everyone to generate solutions.

  16. The economic crisis and the energy efficiency programs; A crise economica e os programas de eficiencia energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naturesa, Jim Silva; Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (GPESE/FEC/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Grupo de Planejamento Energetico e Sistemas Eletricos; Gomes, Marcio H. de Avelar [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), Gama, DF (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents some data from the Brazilian economy (2009 and 2010) and their impact on energy efficiency programs. It is also shown the main results of the National Electricity Conservation Program (PROCEL) and PROCEL INFO, which aims to gather and make available information on the rational and efficient use of energy. At the end, we present information showing that MSMEs (Micro, Small and Medium Companies) should be the main focus of the technological innovation programs aimed to energy efficiency. (author)

  17. Network centric operations in crisis management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, J. van de; Rijk, R. van; Essens, P.; Frinking, E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the approach to implement network centric operations (NCO) in the Dutch crisis management domain. NCO resolves a number of important shortcomings related to the supply and flow of information experienced in current verbal communication-based crisis management. First, we provide

  18. Nuclear safety in crisis regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ustohalova, Veronika; Englert, Matthias

    2017-04-12

    The use of nuclear energy demands extensive institutional and material infrastructure upon a foundation of stable intrastate conditions and interstate relations. Conflicts can result in catastrophic accidents, either deliberately or unintentionally. If there are nuclear facilities located in a crisis region, the risk of a nuclear disaster is markedly heightened. This can be explained not only in terms of the strategic relevance of the energy supply in military conflicts, but also the increased accident risks and hazards arising from collateral damage, as well as the erosion of the safety culture and institutional control in crisis regions with a nuclear infrastructure. Even just the escalation of a political dispute or the persistence of low intensity conflicts can make it generally more difficult and complex to maintain nuclear safety, if intrastate safety mechanisms come under strain or even fail as a result. So far no instance of military escalation, past or present, has led to an accident in a civil nuclear facility. Nevertheless, questions are clearly raised about the vulnerability of nuclear facilities in crisis regions and the risks associated with this vulnerability. Despite the potentially far-reaching consequences, too little attention is currently being paid to the linkage between intra- and interstate conflicts and the safety of nuclear facilities in crisis regions. The aim of the research presented here was to explore this theme and, after laying the groundwork in this manner, to raise awareness among policy-makers and the wider public. In this context the escalation of conflicts in the Ukraine is a particular focus. The first part of the report begins with a systematic look at the link between crisis regions and/or conflicts and nuclear safety. The various impact pathways relating to nuclear facility safety and the associated risks are described in relation to potential hazards induced by crises and wars. A nuclear facility can itself become a theatre

  19. How Should the Financial Crisis Change How We Teach Economics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiller, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Student dissatisfaction with teaching of economics--particularly with macroeconomics--during the current financial crisis mirrors dissatisfaction that was expressed during the last big crisis, the Great Depression. Then and now, a good number of students have felt that their lectures bear little relation to the economic crisis raging outside the…

  20. How Should the Financial Crisis Change How We Teach Economics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiller, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Student dissatisfaction with teaching of economics--particularly with macroeconomics--during the current financial crisis mirrors dissatisfaction that was expressed during the last big crisis, the Great Depression. Then and now, a good number of students have felt that their lectures bear little relation to the economic crisis raging outside the…

  1. The Global Crisis and the Assault on Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juego, Bonn; Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper argues that the current global capitalist crisis entails an assault on democracy. Since crisis connotes danger and opportunity, the recent crisis appears to be a danger to democracy but an opportunity to its antithetical ideals. At the international level, multilateral institutions have...

  2. The effect of pulse current on energy saving during Electrochemical Chloride Extraction (ECE) in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tian R.; Geiker, Mette R.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption is a factor influencing the cost of Electrochemical Chloride Extraction (ECE) in concrete. The aims of this work were to investigate the possibility for energy saving when using a pulsed electric field during ECE and the effect of the pulsed current on removal of chloride. Four...... experiments with artificially polluted concrete under same charge transfer were conducted. Results showed that the energy consumption was decreased 15% by pulse current in experiments with 0.2 mA/cm2 current density, which was higher than that of 0.1 mA/cm2 experiments with a decrease of 9.6%. When comparing...... the voltage drop at different parts of the experimental cells, it was found that the voltage drop of the area across the concrete was the major contributor to energy consumption, and results indicated that the pulse current could decrease the voltage drop of this part by re-distribution of ions in pore fluid...

  3. Addressing the world water crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The world is facing an impinging crisis on water as population growth continues, energy use increases, and affluence (standard of living) increases all requiring more water. Agriculture must find ways to use water more productively while improving the impact of agriculture on the environment. Agri...

  4. FINANCIAL CRISIS FROM THE MACROECONOMIC LEVEL TO THE MICROECONOMIC LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDA GHEORGHE GABRIEL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The current economic and financial crisis, beyond the problems it generates both at micro and macro level, should determine an adaptation of the mechanisms, institutions and monetary / financial policies to the real economy we are facing. The issue of financial crises is extremely complex, including a series of quantitative and qualitative factors, financial, economic, social, ethical, technological and human, which can intervene and influence the financial operations in a country or several countries simultaneously. We believe that it is difficult to appreciate that a traditional model might explain a financial crisis, given that every context of occurrence, conditions of development and crisis settlement programs are unique and unrepeatable. Every crisis has in its structure certain issues that may be capitalized and can lead to success. Perhaps more obvious are the ways that can lead to total failure of the organization. Finding and capitalizing the potential success is the essence of the crisis management. The essence of the mismanagement of the crisis is to worse situation. The successful management of a crisis involves admitting that you are facing a crisis, taking reasonable measures to remedy the situation, to be seen taking them and heard saying the right words. The issue at this stage of crisis management is that perception becomes true reality. Crisis management is a set of factors designed to combat the crisis and reduce the damage caused by the crisis. In other words, crisis management attempts to prevent or reduce the negative effects of the crisis and protect the organization, the public involved and the specific field by the possible damages. The effective management of the crisis includes crisis communication. This is an essential component through which the organization faced with the difficult situation can rehabilitate it’s publicly image or even to improve it. The crisis communication occurs between the organization and

  5. Energy distributions of the large-scale horizontal currents caused by wind in the baroclinic ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Lei; TIAN; Jiwei; WANG; Dongxiao

    2005-01-01

    Ocean current data for nearly 3 months in the South China Sea (SCS), combined with the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis wind data, are analyzed. The results indicate that the wind energy enters the upper mixed layer in a wide continuous frequency band. In addition, the interaction between the low-frequency wind anomaly and the low-frequency current anomaly is the most ‘effective’ way for the energy input from the wind to the upper ocean. However, only the inertial and the near inertial energy propagate downwards through the upper mixed layer. The downward-propagating energy is distributed into the barotropic currents, the baroclinic currents and each mode of the baroclinic currents following the normal distributions. The energy change ratios between the barotropic motion to the baroclinic motion induced by the wind present a normal distribution of N (0.0242, 0.3947). The energy change ratios of the first 4 baroclinic modes to the whole baroclinic currents also follow the normal distributions. The first baroclinic mode follows N (0.2628, 0.1872), the second N (0.1979, 0.1504), the third N (0.1331, 0.1633), and the fourth N (0.0650, 0.1540), respectively.

  6. Japan Returns to Atom. Current Status and Prospects of the Japanese Nuclear Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Tolak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a year and a half after the events of March 2011, Japan excluded all their nuclear reactors, returning to fossil fuels as a basis in the energy field. The shock associated with nuclear disaster seemed to indicate an ultimate end of Japanese adventure with the atom. The situation has, however, significantly changed during the last several months, and the first nuclear reactor connected again to the electric network, is a proof of the change of the energy policy. The article aims to identify the current state of knowledge on the future of nuclear energy in the Japanese energy sector and adjustments proposed in the future energy mix. At the same time, it is an attempt to analyze the reasons that led the current Government of Prime Minister Abe to take very unpopular decisions to return to nuclear energy.

  7. CRISIS AWARENESS OF THE MUNICIPAL DISTRICT RESIDENTS: IMPLICATION FOR CRISIS MANAGEMENT AT THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Tej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This main aim of the study is to examine the crisis (emergency awareness of the population (forming an integral part of overall crisis preparedness and its role in crisis management. Frequency and impact of emergencies and disasters in recent years induce the need for effective crisis management. Although it is impossible to prevent disasters from happening, it is possible to have control over prevention and local actors' preparedness.Methodology/Approach: Primary data collection was carried out on the basis of a questionnaire survey which monitors the overall crisis awareness among the population of Kosice district, specifically awareness of concepts related to crisis management and actions within collective protection of the population. For the analysis have been chosen three areas related to crisis management processes in terms of collective protection at the discretion of local self-governments, namely evacuation, hygiene, and communication.Findings: The results showed relatively good but still not sufficient level of population awareness about concepts related to crisis management and public (civil protection activities. In response to the survey results are conceived proposals and recommendations.Research Limitation/implication: In Slovakia, the issue of crisis management is most elaborated in the business area, the area of public administration lags behind. Examination of crisis (emergency preparedness is not the current practice in our country.Originality/Value of paper: The originality and value of the study lies in the fact that it conceptually develops a theoretical framework for monitoring and assessment of residents' crisis awareness and evaluating effectiveness of crisis communication within self-government. The study represents one of the rare attempts to find out how residents of large cities (with increased population density currently perceive the necessity of knowledge in the field of crisis management.

  8. A Survey on Renewable Energy Development in Malaysia: Current Status, Problems and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Syed Shah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy demand in Malaysia is increasing over seven per cent a year, while forty per cent of the energy is supplied from conventional fossil fuel. However, a number of social barriers have mired the social acceptance of renewable energy among the users. This study investigates the current status of renewable energy, problems and future outlook of renewable energy in Malaysia. A total of 200 respondents were surveyed from Klang Valley in Malaysia. Majority of the respondents use energy to generate electricity. Although some respondents reported using solar energy, there is lack of retail availability for solar energy. The findings show that limited information on renewable energy technologies, lack of awareness, and limited private sector engagement emerged as major barriers to sustainable renewable energy development. In addition, the respondents suggest for increasing policy support from the government to make information more accessible to mass users, provide economic incentives to investors and users, and promote small-community based renewable energy projects. The study suggests that the government begin small scale projects to build awareness on renewable energy, while academically, higher learning institutions include renewable energy syllabus in their academic curriculum. The study concluded that to have sustainable renewable energy development, government’s initiative, private sector engagement and users awareness must be given priority.

  9. A Survey on Renewable Energy Development in Malaysia: Current Status, Problems and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Syed Shah; Nor, Nor Fariza Mohd; Ahmad, Maisarah; Hashim, Nik Hazrul Nik

    2016-05-01

    Energy demand in Malaysia is increasing over seven per cent a year, while forty per cent of the energy is supplied from conventional fossil fuel. However, a number of social barriers have mired the social acceptance of renewable energy among the users. This study investigates the current status of renewable energy, problems and future outlook of renewable energy in Malaysia. A total of 200 respondents were surveyed from Klang Valley in Malaysia. Majority of the respondents use energy to generate electricity. Although some respondents reported using solar energy, there is lack of retail availability for solar energy. The findings show that limited information on renewable energy technologies, lack of awareness, and limited private sector engagement emerged as major barriers to sustainable renewable energy development. In addition, the respondents suggest for increasing policy support from the government to make information more accessible to mass users, provide economic incentives to investors and users, and promote small-community based renewable energy projects. The study suggests that the government begin small scale projects to build awareness on renewable energy, while academically, higher learning institutions include renewable energy syllabus in their academic curriculum. The study concluded that to have sustainable renewable energy development, government's initiative, private sector engagement and users awareness must be given priority.

  10. Powering the future. How we will (eventually) solve the energy crisis and fuel the civilization of tomorrow; Der Letzte macht das Licht aus. Die Zukunft der Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, Robert B. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    When it gets dark, we turn on the light. When it gets cold, we heat. When we need energy for the global industry and technology, we make use of the energy. Every time. But soon the earth fuels such as coal, gas, oil and uranium are irrevocably depleted. And then? The Nobel laureate Robert B. Laughlin reports on the future of our energy supply.

  11. Assessment of Current Practice for Tank Testing of Small Marine Energy Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter

    Discussion Report. Equitable Testing and Evaluation of Marine Energy Extraction Devices in terms of Performance, Cost and Environmental Impact. The report is a contribution by Aalborg University (AAU) to the deliverable on Assessment of current practice for tank testing of small marine energy...

  12. Preliminary determination of the energy potential of ocean currents along the southern coast of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Andrea; Beluco, Alexandre; de Almeida, Luiz Emilio B. [Inst. Pesquisas Hidraulicas, Univ. Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The ocean can be a strategic alternative for obtaining energy supplies, both from ocean waves as from sea currents and tides. Among these features, the power generation projects based on ocean currents are still under development. Generating energy from ocean can have great impact on the Brazilian energy grid, since Brazil has a vast coastline, with more than 9,000 km long, with potential for generating energy from ocean currents not fully estimated. This article presents a preliminary determination of the energy potential for power generation from ocean currents along the coast of Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil, and also presents notes that contribute to the characterization of the system of ocean currents in the region. The data used were obtained in two areas near Tramandai, allowing the determination of velocities and directions of the currents on a seasonal basis. The maximum speeds obtained rarely exceed 0.750 m/s, while the average speeds do not exceed 0.200 m/s. A relationship with the prevailing winds in the region was identified. Unfortunately, the results do not allow optimism about the power generation from ocean currents on the southern coast of Brazil, at least over the continental shelf.

  13. Prototypes of Self-Powered Radiation Detectors Employing Intrinsic High-Energy Current (HEC) (POSTPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    external circuit is the electric current that constitutes the signal in the device. In the case of nonvacuum media high-energy leakage electrons from the...of spatial coordinate were computed and compared to experimental measurements. Net current is the arithmetic difference between the forward and the

  14. Increase of energy efficiency of testing of traction electric machines of direct and pulsating current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Afanasov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of the analysis of the effect of the load current of traction electric machines when tested for heating on the total electricity consumption for the test are presented. It is shown that increase of load current at the heating test permits to significantly reduce the consumption of electrical energy, and reduce the testing time without reducing its quality.

  15. The Growing Global Threat of Cyber-crime given the Current Economic Crisis: A Study regarding Internet Malicious Activities in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Tuluc

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Computer crime, also referred as cyber-crime, is considered today one of the main leadingproblems in the ongoing global economic crisis and an impediment in the development of manycountries. Objectives of this work are: to determine the evolution of cyber-crime during the currenteconomic crisis, to emphasize the severity of this problem and the urgent need to limit its impactworldwide, to determine consumers perceptions regarding this phenomenon in Romania. Prior Workrelated to this issue was conducted by the Computer Security Institute in United States, InternationalComputer Protection Agency, Symantec and Ponemon Institute. In their studies, these institutionshave revealed many of cyber-crime features and proposed valuable solutions for decreasing itsimpact. The Approach used in this paper was a survey among Romanian consumers regarding cybercrime.A total number of 110 respondents participated in this survey. Results showed that almost80% of respondents were victims of cyber-crime at least once and more than 87% of respondentsnever reported these crimes to the police. As regards Implications, the study can offer support tospecialized institutions, while academics can use these findings for further research. The Value of thispaper consists of relevant findings regarding cyber-crime issue in Romania.

  16. Paroxysmal dome explosion during the Merapi 2010 eruption: Processes and facies relationships of associated high-energy pyroclastic density currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komorowski, Jean-Christophe; Jenkins, Susanna; Baxter, Peter J.; Picquout, Adrien; Lavigne, Franck; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Gertisser, Ralf; Preece, Katie; Cholik, Noer; Budi-Santoso, Agus; Surono

    2013-07-01

    An 11-minute sequence of laterally-directed explosions and retrogressive collapses on 5 November 2010 at Merapi (Indonesia) destroyed a rapidly-growing dome and generated high-energy pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) spreading over 22 km2 with a runout of 8.4 km while contemporaneous co-genetic valley-confined PDCs reached 15.5 km. This event formed Stage 4 of the multi-stage 2010 eruption, the most intense eruptive episode at Merapi since 1872. The deposits and the widespread devastating impact of associated high-energy PDCs on trees and buildings show striking similarities with those from historical volcanic blasts (Montagne Pelée, Martinique, Bezymianny, Russia, Mount St. Helens, USA, Soufrière Hills, Montserrat). We provide data from stratigraphic and sedimentologic analyses of 62 sections of the first unequivocal blast-like deposits in Merapi's recent history. We used high resolution satellite imagery to map eruptive units and flow direction from the pattern of extensive tree blowdown. The stratigraphy of Stage 4 consists of three depositional units (U0, U1, U2) that we correlate to the second, third and fourth explosions of the seismic record. Both U1 and U2 show a bi-partite layer stratigraphy consisting each of a lower L1 layer and an upper L2 layer. The lower L1 layer is typically very coarse-grained, fines-poor, poorly-sorted and massive, and was deposited by the erosive waxing flow head. The overlying L2 layer is much finer grained, fines-rich, moderately to well-sorted, with laminar to wavy stratification. L2 was deposited from the waning upper part and wake of the PDC. Field observations indicate that PDC height reached ~ 330 m with an internal velocity of ~ 100 m s- 1 within 3 km from the source. The summit's geometry and the terrain morphology formed by a major transversal ridge and a funneling deep canyon strongly focused PDC mass towards a major constriction, thereby limiting the loss of kinetic energy. This favored elevated PDC velocities and

  17. Evolution of Wave Energy Deposition Profile in HT-7 Lower Hybrid Current Drive Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方瑜德; 石跃江; 匡光力; 刘岳修; 沈慰慈; 丁伯江

    2001-01-01

    Lower hybrid waves (LHWs) with a selected n‖ spectrum have been used to control the energy deposition profiles, and then the wave driven current profiles effectively in tokamak discharges. In our lower hybrid current drive experiment in the HT-7 tokamak, it was found that the set-up of the wave energy deposition profile is a graduation process. In the beginning phase of the wave injection duration, the waves (with different n‖ spectra)deposit almost all their energy in the central region of the plasma column, even if their n‖ are very different. Up to around one hundred milliseconds, the wave energy deposition profiles can only take their corresponding shapes according to the n‖ spectra of LHWs. It also shown that this evolution process is affected obviously by the LHW driven current profile, which has been formed early.

  18. Analysis of Discharge Spark Energy in Buck Converter of a Continuous Mode of Inductive Current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Bao-chun; CHENG Hong; WANG Cong; LU Huan-yu; SHI Yun

    2006-01-01

    The basic idea of intrinsically safe circuit and the discharge spark in the Buck converter in the explosive atmospheres were introduced. The Buck converter is the main topological structure of the switch type of intrinsically safe circuit, which has two working modes: continuous inductive current (CCM - continuous conduction mode) and discrete inductance current (DCM - discontinuous conduction mode). The operating state of the continuous inductive current mode is analyzed in detail and the energy of discharge spark in various operating modes is discussed. The total energy will decrease with the increase of switch frequency, in a switching cycle; the discharge spark energy has a maximum and a minimum value. Therefore, the Buck converter has smaller discharge spark energy than the linear power circuit and the switch type of intrinsically safe circuit can enhance the output power and the conversion efficiency of the intrinsically safe power.

  19. Transfer of Energy, Potential, and Current by Alfv\\'en Waves in Solar Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Melrose, D B

    2013-01-01

    Alfv\\'en waves play three related roles in the impulsive phase of a solar flare: they transport energy from a generator region to an acceleration region; they map the cross-field potential (associated with the driven energy release) from the generator region onto the acceleration region; and within the acceleration region they damp by setting up a parallel electric field that accelerates electrons and transfers the wave energy to them. The Alfv\\'en waves may also be regarded as setting up new closed current loops, with field-aligned currents that close across field lines at boundaries. A model is developed for large-amplitude Alfv\\'en waves that shows how Alfv\\'en waves play these roles in solar flares. A picket-fence structure for the current flow is incorporated into the model to account for the "number problem" and the energy of the accelerated electrons.

  20. Leakage current and induced electrical energy dissipation in nonlinear oscillation of dielectric elastomer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junshi; Chen, Hualing; Li, Dichen

    2017-09-01

    Subject to a high voltage, leakage current and induced electrical energy dissipation inevitably occur during the actuation of dielectric elastomers (DEs). In this article, a theoretical model is developed to investigate the dissipative performance of DEs in dynamic actuation. Effects of three different actuation conditions, including DE materials’ viscoelasticity intensity, amplitude of applied voltage, and mechanical tensile force, are considered. Numerical calculations are employed to detect the dynamic dissipative performance of DEs including leakage current, electrical power density, and electrical energy density in certain vibrational periods. Leakage current and induced electrical energy dissipation are enhanced with the enlargement of amplitude of applied voltage and mechanical force, and are suppressed as the intensity of DEs’ viscoelastic creep increases. The electrical energy for dissipation and actuation is also analyzed and compared.

  1. [Crisis and future of humanity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellver Capella, Vicente

    2012-09-01

    We live in troubling times. The economic crisis fills us with anxiety. Young, unemployed and throes to finish living worse fear that their parents are not able to take charge of the situation. What has happened to that Spain and Europe, less than four years ago seemed to land of opportunities for native and foreign, have become hostile territories? The economic crisis does not explain everything; It is only a symptom that the basis on which we were building the future were not as firm. It is true that the crisis has brought to bare the obscenity of speculative financial capitalism. It is also true that this crisis can be the great opportunity to build the world on a human and sustainable economic basis, i.e.,just the opposite of the current submission to the dictatorship of the financial markets. But the contemporary crisis has deep and extensive roots. I will refer to other crises, as important or more than the economic one, because to glimpse the future it is essential to carefully track the present and discover the "weak signals" the latent opportunities that await we become them realities.

  2. Hypercalcemic crisis: a clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shazia; Kuraganti, Gayatri; Steenkamp, Devin

    2015-03-01

    Hypercalcemia is a common metabolic perturbation. However, hypercalcemic crisis is an unusual endocrine emergency, with little clinical scientific data to support therapeutic strategy. We review the relevant scientific English literature on the topic and review current management strategies after conducting a PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar search for articles published between 1930 and June 2014 using specific keywords: "hypercalcemic crisis," "hyperparathyroid crisis," "parathyroid storm," "severe primary hyperparathyroidism," "acute hyperparathyroidism," and "severe hypercalcemia" for articles pertaining to the diagnosis, epidemiology, clinical presentation, and treatment strategies. Despite extensive clinical experience, large and well-designed clinical studies to direct appropriate clinical care are lacking. Nonetheless, morbidity and mortality rates have substantially decreased since early series reported almost universal fatality. Improved outcomes can be attributed to modern diagnostic capabilities, leading to earlier diagnosis, along with the recognition that primary hyperparathyroidism is the most common etiology for hypercalcemic crisis. Hypercalcemic crisis is an unusual endocrine emergency that portends excellent outcomes if rapid diagnosis, medical treatment, and definitive surgical treatment are expedited. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Bezafibrate upregulates carnitine palmitoyltransferase II expression and promotes mitochondrial energy crisis dissipation in fibroblasts of patients with influenza-associated encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Min; Yao, Dengbin; Yamaguchi, Miyoko; Chida, Junji; Yao, Dengfu; Kido, Hiroshi

    2011-11-01

    Influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE) is characterized by persistently high fever, febrile convulsions, severe brain edema and high mortality. We reported previously that a large proportion of patients with disabling or fatal IAE exhibit a thermolabile phenotype of compound variants for [1055T>G/F352C] and [1102G>A/V368I] of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) and mitochondrial energy crisis during high fever. In the present study, we studied the effect of bezafibrate, a hypolipidemic pan-agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), on CPT II expression and mitochondrial energy metabolism in fibroblasts of IAE patients and wild type (WT) fibroblasts from a healthy volunteer at 37°C and 41°C. Although heat stress markedly upregulated CPT II, CPT IA and PPAR-δ mRNA expression levels, CPT II activity, β-oxidation and ATP levels in WT and IAE fibroblasts at 41°C were paradoxically downregulated probably due to the thermal instability of the corresponding enzymes. Bezafibrate significantly enhanced the expression levels of the above mRNAs and cellular functions of these enzymes in fibroblasts at 37°C. Bezafibrate-induced increase in CPT II activity also tended to restore the downregulated ATP levels, though moderately, and improved mitochondrial membrane potential even at 41°C to the levels at 37°C in fibroblasts of IAE patients. L-carnitine, a substrate of CPT II, boosted the effects of bezafibrate on cellular ATP levels in WT and IAE fibroblasts, even in severe IAE fibroblasts with thermolabile compound variations of F352C+V368I at 37°C and 41°C. The results suggest the potential usefulness of bezafibrate for the treatment of IAE. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. High energy, low inductance, high current fiberglass energy storage capacitor for the Atlas Machine Marx modules

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, R A; Ennis, J B; Cochrane, J C; Reass, W A; Parsons, W M

    1999-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory's Atlas Marx design team envisioned a double ended plastic case 60 kV, 15 nH, 650 kA, energy storage capacitor. A design specification was established and submitted to various vendors. Maxwell Energy Products drew from its development of large fiberglass case, high voltage, low inductance "FASTCAP" capacitors manufactured for Maxwell Technologies' ACE II, ACE III and ACE IV machines. This paper discusses the LANL specification and Maxwell Energy Products' successful design, Model No. 39232, 34.1 mu F, 60 kV, 13*29*27", the only capacitor qualified by LANL for the 23 Mega Joule Atlas application. Maxwell's past experience in this type of capacitor is covered. The performance data is reviewed and the life test data compared to the original calculated design life. Challenges included Maxwell's "keep it simple " design goal which was maintained to minimize the effort required to create and manufacture a nearly 600 pound capacitor. (1 refs).

  5. [Suicide crisis, psychological suffering and advanced age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazif-Thomas, Cyril; Bordage, Catherine; Cornec, Gwenole; Berrouiguet, Sofian; Walter, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Bound to the idea of a crisis and the brutal intrusion of psychological suffering, the suicide drama rarely lends itself to a direct analysis which can highlight the different stages of its process. Taking into account increasing quantities of scientific data from current research and the spirit of crisis interventions is fundamental for allowing hopes of effective prevention. Speaking the same language by using the same conceptual basis, that of the suicide crisis, is a prerequisite in pedagogical terms for the current care management of suicidal patients.

  6. Current Status and Future Scenarios of Residential Building Energy Consumption in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Nishida, Masaru; Gao, Weijun

    2008-12-01

    China's rapid economic expansion has propelled it into the ranks of the largest energy consuming nation in the world, with energy demand growth continuing at a pace commensurate with its economic growth. Even though the rapid growth is largely attributable to heavy industry, this in turn is driven by rapid urbanization process, by construction materials and equipment produced for use in buildings. Residential energy is mostly used in urban areas, where rising incomes have allowed acquisition of home appliances, as well as increased use of heating in southern China. The urban population is expected to grow by 20 million every year, accompanied by construction of 2 billion square meters of buildings every year through 2020. Thus residential energy use is very likely to continue its very rapid growth. Understanding the underlying drivers of this growth helps to identify the key areas to analyze energy efficiency potential, appropriate policies to reduce energy use, as well as to understand future energy in the building sector. This paper provides a detailed, bottom-up analysis of residential building energy consumption in China using data from a wide variety of sources and a modeling effort that relies on a very detailed characterization of China's energy demand. It assesses the current energy situation with consideration of end use, intensity, and efficiency etc, and forecast the future outlook for the critical period extending to 2020, based on assumptions of likely patterns of economic activity, availability of energy services, technology improvement and energy intensities.

  7. External costs due to congestion, accidents, energy consumption and emissions before and into the economic crisis: Pilot study along selected roadways of Thessaloniki, Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Sotiriou Matina; Gavanas Nikolaos; Pitsiava-Latinopoulou Magda

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the economic crisis, forecasts indicated a continuous increase of traffic in European cities, highlighting the need of a policy to alleviate the external impacts of transport. The crisis, however, generated pressures on all sectors of activity, with transport being an indicative example. The reduction of income and employment, the increased vehicle maintenance and renewal costs and the transport related taxation seem to affect the transport system ...

  8. Current Events in Basic Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hook, Barry L.

    1974-01-01

    The author suggests the use of current events to stimulate student interest in basic business courses. Suggested topics described are monetary devaluation, interest rate adjustments, Illinois no-fault automobile insurance, labor-management disputes, Dow-Jones average, Picasso's death, energy crisis, sale of surplus wheat, local consumer assistance…

  9. The effects of exchange rate on balance trade and on monetary aggregates of macedonia and the impact of the current world crisis in its economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Sc. Kadishe Limani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Macedonia is a country that is close related to the European Union countries where the majority of the Macedonian foreign trade is with the European Union countries (52%. So the Macedonian economy is in a high level dependency of Euro.  Since Denar is connected closely to Euro, and the level of its usage in everyday economic activity is close to the usage of Denar, it is obvious to be discussed as a dilemma whether Macedonia should have Euro as its currency. However, the problem lies in that whether it is the right time for such action as the best solution for Macedonian economy, keeping in mind the fact that in the international arena there is present a second crisis that is the crisis of Euro-Zone. Based on various sources and on our econometric results, in this paper is argued and supported the main hypothesis that the fix exchange rate for Macedonia is a more optimal choice in comparison with the unilateral euroisation and flexible exchange rate. Thus, during the research we found out some arguments that support the existing regime, such as: under a flexible regime an eventual devaluation of the Denar is more possible, which can lead to more negative effects on the economy than benefits. Thus, devaluation of the Denar will have no significant effects on the balance trade (export and imports and GDP. This means that the competitiveness of a country relies on the other factors. In addition an eventual devaluation of the Denar, it will not have significant effects on monetary aggregates (M2 and M4 due to the asset substitution from Denar deposits to foreign deposits and vice-versa.

  10. Juridica; Crisis en herstel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistenkas, F.H.

    2010-01-01

    Het geruchtmakende wetsontwerp voor een Crisis- en Herstelwet wordt ook in de juridische kring nogal bekritiseerd en zelfs afgedaan als haastige gelegenheidswetgeving en politieke symboolwetgeving. Door de Crisis en Herstelwet worden ook enkele bepalingen van de Natuurbeschermingswet (Nbw) gewijzigd

  11. Guidelines for Crisis Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimberley, Lloyd

    1985-01-01

    The article offers guidelines for crisis prediction, preplanning, support team development, and post-crisis management that can handle aggressive behavior and convey to the child the existence of a legitimate system for enhancing positive self control. (CL)

  12. Analyzing the EU Refugee Crisis: Humanity, Heritage and Responsibility to Protect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Hadfield

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available 2015 has shaken the EU to its core. Hard upon the heels of geopolitical upheavals in Ukraine, as well as internal battles to define both Eurozone and energy governance, the refugee crisis has prompted a sober reckoning of the EU’s competence and its humanity. With an increasing number of articles and Special Issues in Politics and Governance focusing upon key aspects of the EU as both a political actor, and a source of governance, our autumn 2015 editorial looks briefly at the significance of the refugee crisis in the context of the EU’s current response and future options.

  13. Current diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment of pulmonary hypertensive crisis%肺动脉高压危象的诊断、发病机制与治疗现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕾; 周达新; 管丽华; 潘文志; 张晓春

    2015-01-01

    肺动脉高压危象是肺动脉高压患者的主要死亡和病残原因,目前对其的预防和管理主要是使用针对前列环素、内皮素和一氧化氮信号传导通路的多种药物治疗,从而改善患者的心、肺功能。本文简要介绍肺动脉高压危象的诊断、发病机制及治疗现状,以期提高临床医师对此疾病的重视程度、改善这类患者的预后。%Pulmonary hypertension crisis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. At present, various drug therapies targeting prostacyclin, endothelin and nitric oxide signaling pathways within the pulmonary circulation are used for its prevention and management so as to improve the cardiopulmonary function of patients. The current diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment status for pulmonary hypertension crisis are briefly introduced in this article in order to improve the degree of attention of the practitioner to this disease and the prognosis of the patients.

  14. Proceedings of a workshop, held in Constanta, Romania on 22 May 2014, on Oral Health of Children in the Central and Eastern European Countries in the context of the current economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysi, Dorjan; Eaton, Kenneth A; Tsakos, George; Vassallo, Paula; Amariei, Corneliu

    2016-07-25

    This report presents the proceedings of a workshop held in Constanta, Romania on 22 May 2014. During the workshop, representatives from 18 Central and Eastern European countries gave oral presentations on the current oral health of children and young adults aged 16 years and younger. The aim of the workshop was to collect and present data relating to the oral health of children from Central and Eastern European countries and to discuss them in the context of the political changes that have taken place over the last two decades and the recent economic crisis.The presenters had previously completed a series of questions on oral epidemiological studies, prevention of oral disease, treatment and payment, dental personnel, uptake of oral health care and other considerations and structured their presentations on these topics plus the influence of the economic crisis on oral health. It should be remembered that this paper is a report of the proceedings of a workshop and not a study. Ethics approval is not required for workshops.After the 18 oral presentations a 90 min discussion took place during which further points were raised. The presentations, the discussion and the conclusions which were reached are reported in this manuscript.

  15. Effects of pulse current on energy consumption and removal of heavy metals during electrodialytic soil remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tian R.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2012-01-01

    exchange membrane was the major contributor of energy consumption, and the pulse current could decrease the voltage drop of this part effectively. The overall removal of heavy metals in soil 1 (6–54%) was much higher than soil 2 (1–17%) due to the different acidification process and chemical speciation......The aims of this paper were to investigate the possibility for energy saving when using a pulsed electric field during electrodialytic soil remediation (EDR) and the effect of the pulsed current on removal of heavy metals. Eight experiments with constant and pulse current in the different...... industrially polluted soils were performed. At a current density of 0.1mA/cm2 in soil 1 and 0.2mA/cm2 in soil 2, there was no difference on energy consumption and removal of heavy metals between pulse current and constant current experiments, but at higher current experiments (i.e., 0.2mA/cm2 in soil 1 and 0...

  16. Studies of the energy and power of current commercial prismatic and cylindrical Li-ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Kevin; Li, P. K. C.; Ip, C. W.; Li, C. W.; Wan, Levin; Lam, Y. F.; Lai, P. Y.; Fan, Jiang; Magnuson, Doug

    We studied the specific energy, energy density, specific power, and power density of current commercial 18650 cylindrical and 103450 prismatic Li-ion cells. It was found that the specific energy, energy density, specific power, and power density have been increased dramatically since 1999. The highest specific energy obtained in this study is 193 Wh/kg, which is 90% more than that reported in 1999 and is only 5% lower than 200 Wh/kg, the long-term DOE goal [The International Energy Agency Implementing Agreement for Electric Vehicle Technologies and Programs, Annex V, Outlook Document, 1996-1997, p. 16.]. The cell energy density has also doubled since 1999 and is as much as about 70% more than 300 Wh/l, the long-term DOE goal. The cells studied here can deliver over 80% of their designed energy at the specific power 200 W/kg while the 18650 cell studied previously could only deliver 10% of their designed energy at the same specific power. Various kinds of the factors in the cell-specific energy and energy density were studied. It seems that the geometric difference can cause as much as a 9% difference in the specific energy and a 12% difference in the energy density between 18650 cylindrical and 103450 prismatic cells. Use of an aluminum can seems to lead to about a 16% improvement in the specific energy of 103450 cells compared with steel can. The decrease in the cell discharge voltage can cause as much as a 9% decrease in the cell energy at the 2 C rate while it has a relatively small effect on the cell energy or specific energy at the 0.2 C rate. Compared with what has been obtained at room temperature, there are 17-35% at -20 °C, 43-76% at -30 °C, and 78-100% decreases at -40 °C, respectively, in the cell discharge energy and specific energy depending on the cell manufacturer. The decrease in the cell average discharge voltage during the cycling test can contribute as much as a 6% decrease in the cell energy at the 1 C rate after 300 cycles, which is 21% of

  17. Crisis Management: Research Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Dorman, Sally; Anderson, Luke; McNair, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This article presents summaries of three studies relevant to school crisis response. The first report, "A Framework for International Crisis Intervention" (Sally Dorman), is a review of how existing crisis intervention models (including the NASP PREPaRE model) have been adapted for international use. The second article, "Responding…

  18. Crisis Management: Research Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Dorman, Sally; Anderson, Luke; McNair, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This article presents summaries of three studies relevant to school crisis response. The first report, "A Framework for International Crisis Intervention" (Sally Dorman), is a review of how existing crisis intervention models (including the NASP PREPaRE model) have been adapted for international use. The second article, "Responding…

  19. Feasibility of Tidal and Ocean Current Energy in False Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Bruce Albert [Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association, Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States)

    2014-05-07

    The Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association was awarded a U.S. Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program grant (DE-EE0005624) for the Feasibility of Tidal and Ocean Current Energy in False Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (Project). The goal of the Project was to perform a feasibility study to determine if a tidal energy project would be a viable means to generate electricity and heat to meet long-term fossil fuel use reduction goals, specifically to produce at least 30% of the electrical and heating needs of the tribally-owned buildings in False Pass. The Project Team included the Aleut Region organizations comprised of the Aleutian Pribilof Island Association (APIA), and Aleutian Pribilof Island Community Development Association (APICDA); the University of Alaska Anchorage, ORPC Alaska a wholly-owned subsidiary of Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), City of False Pass, Benthic GeoScience, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The following Project objectives were completed: collected existing bathymetric, tidal, and ocean current data to develop a basic model of current circulation at False Pass, measured current velocities at two sites for a full lunar cycle to establish the viability of the current resource, collected data on transmission infrastructure, electrical loads, and electrical generation at False Pass, performed economic analysis based on current costs of energy and amount of energy anticipated from and costs associated with the tidal energy project conceptual design and scoped environmental issues. Utilizing circulation modeling, the Project Team identified two target sites with strong potential for robust tidal energy resources in Isanotski Strait and another nearer the City of False Pass. In addition, the Project Team completed a survey of the electrical infrastructure, which identified likely sites of interconnection and clarified required transmission distances from the tidal energy resources. Based on resource and electrical data

  20. Maxwell–Dirac stress–energy tensor in terms of Fierz bilinear currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inglis, Shaun, E-mail: sminglis@utas.edu.au; Jarvis, Peter, E-mail: Peter.Jarvis@utas.edu.au

    2016-03-15

    We analyse the stress–energy tensor for the self-coupled Maxwell–Dirac system in the bilinear current formalism, using two independent approaches. The first method used is that attributed to Belinfante: starting from the spinor form of the action, the well-known canonical stress–energy tensor is augmented, by extending the Noether symmetry current to include contributions from the Lorentz group, to a manifestly symmetric form. This form admits a transcription to bilinear current form. The second method used is the variational derivation based on the covariant coupling to general relativity. The starting point here at the outset is the transcription of the action using, as independent field variables, both the bilinear currents, together with a gauge invariant vector field (a proxy for the electromagnetic vector potential). A central feature of the two constructions is that they both involve the mapping of the Dirac contribution to the stress–energy from the spinor fields to the equivalent set of bilinear tensor currents, through the use of appropriate Fierz identities. Although this mapping is done at quite different stages, nonetheless we find that the two forms of the bilinear stress–energy tensor agree. Finally, as an application, we consider the reduction of the obtained stress–energy tensor in bilinear form, under the assumption of spherical symmetry. -- Highlights: •Maxwell–Dirac stress–energy tensor derived in manifestly gauge invariant bilinear form. •Dirac spinor Belinfante tensor transcribed to bilinear fields via Fierz mapping. •Variational stress–energy obtained via bilinearized action, in contrast to Belinfante case. •Independent derivations via the Belinfante and variational methods agree, as required. •Spherical symmetry reduction given as a working example for wider applications.

  1. Energy Resolution of Large Area Current-mode Si-PIN Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU; Dan; ZHANG; Guo-guang; WANG; Guo-bao

    2013-01-01

    Large area current-mode Si-PIN detector is fabricated by adopting planar technology.Diameter are ?20 mm,?50 mm,?60 mm,and thickness is 300μm.Energy resolution and peak position of 226Ra-αparticles are measured in the vacuum chamber.The peak energy of the 226Ra-αparticle is 4 784.4,5 304.5,

  2. Energy-dependent evolution of the ring current during the magnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporin, Ayako; Ebihara, Yusuke; Fritz, Theodore A.

    The ring current is known to mainly consist of two components of ions; one having energy from keV to tens of keV (low-energy), and the other having energy from 100keV to several hundreds keV(high-energy) in the quiet time. According to the past observations, the low-energy component increases during the storm main phase, and decreases during the storm recovery phase. However, the behavior of the high-energy component and the relationship between the two components are less known. For the purpose of understanding the behavior of the ring current in detail, we use data from the ion mass spectrometer called MICS and the magnetometer called MFE aboard the Polar satellite. We focus on the differential flux of protons with 31-80keV (as a proxy of the low-energy component) and those with 125-173keV (as a proxy of the high-energy component) at a pitch angle of 90 degrees when the Polar satellite crossed the magnetic equatorial plane. Pre-storm condition (t1), intense phase of magnetic storm (t2), and decline phase (t3) are identified based on the Dst index. We selected 27 subsets from January 1997 to March 2000 and from April 2001 to April 2002. We obtained the following major results. (1) In the low-energy component, the proton flux tends to increase during the intense phase, and decrease during the decline phase with an exception in the pre-noon sector. (2) In the high-energy component, the proton flux tends to be stationary during the intense phase. During the decline phase, the flux tends to increase, and occasionally, exceeds that in the pre-storm condition. (3) The magnetic field tends to decrease during the intense phase, and increase during the decline phase. The anti-correlation between the low-energy component and the magnetic field may indicate a diamagnetic response. The weak correlation between the high-energy component and the magnetic field during the decline phase may indicate an adiabatic variation of high-energy component. It is suggested that the high-energy

  3. Final synthesis report and resolutions: Agadir international conference 'The integration of sustainable agriculture, rural development, and ecosystems in the context of climate change, the energy crisis and food insecurity'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahid, S.A.; D' Silva, J.; Bennion, P.; Behnassi, M.

    2009-07-01

    The three days of deliberations of the Agadir International Conference focused on the high level topic of sustainable agriculture, rural development and ecosystems in the context of climate change, the energy crisis, the rise in global population and food insecurity. This conference came at a time of increasing international concern with the climate change, energy shortage and global hunger challenges. More than a hundred scientists, experts and governmental officials from 40 countries provided their perspectives on these critical issues from an interdisciplinary view. The key points from the five plenary sessions and fourteen panels are given.

  4. Optimum Peak Current Hysteresis Control for Energy Recovering Converter in CDI Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto M. Pernía

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Capacitive De-Ionization (CDI is becoming a suitable alternative for desalination. The low cost of the materials required and its reduced energy consumption can be critical factors for developing this technique. CDI technology does not require a high-pressure system and the energy storage capability of CDI cells allows it to be reused in other CDI cells, thus minimizing consumption. The goal of the power stage responsible of the energy recovery is transferring the stored energy from one cell to another with the maximum possible efficiency, thus allowing the desalination process to continue. Assuming hysteresis current control is implemented at the DC/DC (direct current converter, this paper aims to determine the optimum peak current through the inductor in each switching period with a view to maximizing overall efficiency. The geometrical parameters of the desalination cell and the NaCl concentration modify the cell electrical properties. The peak current control of the power stage should be adapted to the cell characteristics so that the efficiency behavior of the whole CDI system can be improved. The mathematical model defined in this paper allows the CDI plant automation using the peak inductor current as control variable, adapting its value to the salt concentration during the desalination process.

  5. Identity Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraw, Leonard J.

    2012-01-01

    The article presents a simple and highly engaging activity for students involving DNA fingerprints, DNA bands, genotypes, phenotypes, and DNA morphology. The science of DNA fingerprinting, currently done by electrophoresis, extends to all living organisms containing DNA. (Contains 4 figures.)

  6. A Cryogenic Current Comparator for the Low Energy Antiproton Facilities at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, M; Welsch, CP

    2014-01-01

    Several laboratories have shown the potential of using Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometers together with superconductor magnetic shields to measure beam current intensities in the submicro-Ampere regime. CERN, in collaboration with GSI, Jena university and Helmholtz Institute Jena, is currently working on developing an improved version of such a current monitor for the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) and Extra Low ENergy Antiproton (ELENA) rings at CERN, aiming for better current resolution and overall system availability. This contribution will present the current design, including theoretical estimation of the current resolution; stability limits of SQUID systems and adaptation of the coupling circuit to the AD beam parameters; the analysis of thermal and mechanical cryostat modes.

  7. Computation of reduced energy input current stimuli for neuron phase models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyalebechi, Jason; Koelling, Melinda E; Miller, Damon A

    2014-01-01

    A regularly spiking neuron can be studied using a phase model. The effect of an input stimulus current on the phase time derivative is captured by a phase response curve. This paper adapts a technique that was previously applied to conductance-based models to discover optimal input stimulus currents for phase models. First, the neuron phase response θ(t) due to an input stimulus current i(t) is computed using a phase model. The resulting θ(t) is taken to be a reference phase r(t). Second, an optimal input stimulus current i(*)(t) is computed to minimize a weighted sum of the square-integral `energy' of i(*)(t) and the tracking error between the reference phase r(t) and the phase response due to i(*)(t). The balance between the conflicting requirements of energy and tracking error minimization is controlled by a single parameter. The generated optimal current i(*)t) is then compared to the input current i(t) which was used to generate the reference phase r(t). This technique was applied to two neuron phase models; in each case, the current i(*)(t) generates a phase response similar to the reference phase r(t), and the optimal current i(*)(t) has a lower `energy' than the square-integral of i(t). For constant i(t), the optimal current i(*)(t) need not be constant in time. In fact, i(*)(t) is large (possibly even larger than i(t)) for regions where the phase response curve indicates a stronger sensitivity to the input stimulus current, and smaller in regions of reduced sensitivity.

  8. Exploratory study of a crisis commander’s perspectives on the role and value of public relations in crisis management

    OpenAIRE

    Mat Tazin Saidathul Nizah; Kaur Kiranjit

    2017-01-01

    This is an exploratory study into understanding the dominant coalition perspectives on role and values of public relations in crisis management in an energy company in Malaysia. In this study, the senior public relations of the energy company reports directly to the crisis commander (CC) in times of crisis thus, the CC was chosen as a sample where an in-depth interview was conducted. Notably, the CC perceptions represents the dominant coalition with the power to shape organisation policies an...

  9. Understanding the response of commercial and institutional organizations to the California energy crisis. A report to the California Energy Commission - Sylvia Bender, Project Manager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutzenhiser, Loren; Janda, Kathryn; Kunkle, Rick; Payne, Christopher

    2002-07-24

    Beginning in the summer of 2000, California experienced serious energy supply problems, sharp increases in wholesale (and retail) electricity and natural gas prices, and isolated blackouts. In response to the rapidly worsening electricity situation in California in late 2000, the state set, as an initial goal, the reduction of the state's peak demand for the summer of 2001 by 5,000 megawatts. To meet this goal, the governor and legislature took a variety of steps to enhance supply, encourage rapid voluntary reductions in demand, and provide incentives for actions that would result in load reductions. Three bills-Assembly Bill 970, Senate Bill X1 5 and Assembly Bill X1 29-allocated roughly $950 million for consumption and demand reduction programs. The governor also enacted a variety of additional measures, including the ''Flex Your Power'' (media awareness and direct business involvement) campaign, requirements for retail sector outdoor lighting reductions, and toughening of energy efficiency building codes. There were, in fact, significant reductions in electricity demand in California during the summer of 2001 and the large number of expected supply disruptions was avoided. To understand the nature of these demand reductions and the motivations for consumer response, Washington State University (WSU) undertook a study for the California Energy Commission (CEC) focusing on conservation behavior in the residential, commercial, and agricultural sectors. The research presented in this report represents an exploration of the response of commercial and institutional organizations to the California energy situation and the unique set of influences that existed during this time. These influences included informational messages and media attention, program interventions, price changes, and external triggering events (e.g., blackouts). To better understand the effects of these influences on organizational response to the energy situation, we

  10. Las nuevas violencias en la crisis global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Tortosa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo parte de la constatación de la complejidad que aqueja al fenómeno de las violencias, sea por sus muy diversos actores como por la heterogeneidad de los factores que inciden en ella, para pasar a describir someramente el conjunto de crisis (económica, medioambiental, alimentaria y energética que atraviesan al sistema mundial en la actualidad. A esto se añade la crisis de hegemonía de parte de Estados Unidos en dicho sistema. A partir de ello, se especula sobre el impacto que la combinación de ambos fenómenos puede tener en las violencias. El artículo termina con algunas observaciones sobre la fascinación con la violencia directa, sospechosa si tiene como función manifiesta o latente el ocultar la violencia estructural y la criminalidad de “guante blanco”.This article begins by confirming the complex nature of the various forms of violence that exist, due to the diversity of actors as well as the heterogeneous factors involved, and then goes on to describe the set of crises (economic, environmental, food and energy experienced by the current global system. To this must be added the crisis of hegemony on the part of the United States in said system. Based on this analysis, we speculate about the impact that the combination of these phenomena might have on forms of violence. The article ends with observations on the fascination with direct violence, a suspicious occurrence if its manifest or latent purpose is to conceal structural violence and white collar crime.

  11. 充分利用可再生能源中国不会有能源危机%No energy crisis in China if renewable energy to be used sufficiently

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢强

    2011-01-01

    中国蕴藏着丰富的自然资源,包括水能、煤、煤层气、风能等,但是目前这些资源的利用情况还不尽如人意.例如,我国水利资源利用率只有23%,远低于发达国家水平;煤炭纯度不够高导致了煤电效率不高;风电装机容量实际利用率较低,不到20%.对于中国这样一个经济快速发展的人口大国,要想解决用电问题一定要统筹规划,尤其在可再生能源的利用方面,要做到在提高传统煤电效率的基础上,大力或者适度发展各种可再生能源,如水电、风电以及农家电,同时发展安全核电,做到各种能源的有机结合,相互配合,从而有效解决中国的能源问题.%China contains abundant natural resources, such as hydroenergy, coal mines, coal bed methane, wind energy and etc., however the utilization of these natural resources are not satisfactory. For instance, on average 23% of hydroenergy is being converted into electricity, which is much lower in comparison with the level of developed countries. Coal is being converted into electricity inefficiently due to relatively low purity. The actual utilization rate of installed capacity of wind energy generators is less than 20%. It's really important for a highly populated country with fast-growth economy like China, to plan all sorts of energies as a whole, especially on the utilization of sustainable energy to prevent itself from experiencing any potential energy crisis. China has to improve the working efficiency of traditional coal power generation, stimulate the development of sustainable energies properly, including hydroenergy, wind energy and even biological energy, and develop safe nuclear power meanwhile. Last bul not least, all the natural resources should be working together closely and cooperatively, in this case, definitely, China does not need to wony about its future of energy consumption.

  12. [Crisis and nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Riera, José Ramón

    2012-02-01

    Nobody can escape that we are in crisis. Already are responsible every day media, risk agencies and abstract but crucial markets reminded us. In this crisis, deep, prolonged and distressing health systems have been in the spotlight of national Governments and corporations, as key elements of building and resolution of the crisis. Generation because it interprets its inefficiency is responsible for much of the crisis. Resolution because it is understood that actions that envelope the same are carried out they shall foster the output. So then we have two key elements: crisis and health systems, which combine very differently but which inevitably and unfortunately have been associated on a permanent basis. To understand this symbiosis and try to analyze it I operate the simple formula of semantically understanding what is crisis and what health crisis.

  13. Non-Destructive Current Sensing for Energy Efficiency Monitoring in Buildings with Environmental Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Lia Toledo Moreira; Mota, Alexandre de Assis; Coiado, Lorenzo Campos

    2015-07-10

    Nowadays, buildings environmental certifications encourage the implementation of initiatives aiming to increase energy efficiency in buildings. In these certification systems, increased energy efficiency arising from such initiatives must be demonstrated. Thus, a challenge to be faced is how to check the increase in energy efficiency related to each of the employed initiatives without a considerable building retrofit. In this context, this work presents a non-destructive method for electric current sensing to assess implemented initiatives to increase energy efficiency in buildings with environmental certification. This method proposes the use of a sensor that can be installed directly in the low voltage electrical circuit conductors that are powering the initiative under evaluation, without the need for reforms that result in significant costs, repair, and maintenance. The proposed sensor consists of three elements: an air-core transformer current sensor, an amplifying/filtering stage, and a microprocessor. A prototype of the proposed sensor was developed and tests were performed to validate this sensor. Based on laboratory tests, it was possible to characterize the proposed current sensor with respect to the number of turns and cross-sectional area of the primary and secondary coils. Furthermore, using the Least Squares Method, it was possible to determine the efficiency of the air core transformer current sensor (the best efficiency found, considering different test conditions, was 2%), which leads to a linear output response.

  14. Low energy high current pulsed electron beam treatment for improving surface microstructure and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J; Allain-Bonasso, N; Zhang, X D; Hao, S Z; Grosdider, T; Dong, C [Laboratoire d' Etude des Textures et Applications aux Materiaux (LETAM, UMR-CNRS 3143), Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz (France); Zou, J X, E-mail: jiang.wu@univ-metz.fr, E-mail: thierry.grosdidier@univ-metz.fr [National Engineering Research Center of Light Alloy Net Forming, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Low energy high current pulsed electron beam (LEHCPEB) is a fairly new technique for surface modifications authorizing improvement in wear and corrosion properties as well as texture changes and hardening. This contribution highlights some microstructure modifications encountered at the surface of HCPEB treated steels and bulk metallic glasses taking into account the effects of surface melting and the effects of the induced stress.

  15. Stored Energy of Coupled Electric and Magnetic Currents and the Lower Bound on Q

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2015-01-01

    —New expressions for the stored energy and radiated power of an arbitrary combination of electric and magnetic currents in free space are presented. These expressions enable the calculation of the fundamental lower bound on Q for arbitraryshaped electrically small antennas of finite size....

  16. Exact Dragging of Inertial Axes by Cosmic Energy-Currents on the Past Light-Cone

    CERN Document Server

    Schmid, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    We prove exact rotational dragging of local inertial axes (= spin axes of gyroscopes) by arbitrary cosmic energy-currents on the past light-cone of the gyroscope for linear perturbations of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies. Hence the principle formulated by Mach holds for arbitrary linear cosmological perturbations.

  17. Integration of Renewable Energy for the Harmonic Current and Reactive Power Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouresmaeil, Edris; Shaker, Hamid Reza; Mehrasa, Majid;

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with a control technique for multilevel converter topologies base on Direct Lyapunov Control Method (DLCM) for integration of Renewable Energy Resources (RER) into the power grid. The compensation of variations in reference current components is considered properly in this control...

  18. Non-Destructive Current Sensing for Energy Efficiency Monitoring in Buildings with Environmental Certification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Toledo Moreira Mota

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, buildings environmental certifications encourage the implementation of initiatives aiming to increase energy efficiency in buildings. In these certification systems, increased energy efficiency arising from such initiatives must be demonstrated. Thus, a challenge to be faced is how to check the increase in energy efficiency related to each of the employed initiatives without a considerable building retrofit. In this context, this work presents a non-destructive method for electric current sensing to assess implemented initiatives to increase energy efficiency in buildings with environmental certification. This method proposes the use of a sensor that can be installed directly in the low voltage electrical circuit conductors that are powering the initiative under evaluation, without the need for reforms that result in significant costs, repair, and maintenance. The proposed sensor consists of three elements: an air-core transformer current sensor, an amplifying/filtering stage, and a microprocessor. A prototype of the proposed sensor was developed and tests were performed to validate this sensor. Based on laboratory tests, it was possible to characterize the proposed current sensor with respect to the number of turns and cross-sectional area of the primary and secondary coils. Furthermore, using the Least Squares Method, it was possible to determine the efficiency of the air core transformer current sensor (the best efficiency found, considering different test conditions, was 2%, which leads to a linear output response.

  19. Slow electron energy balance for hybrid models of direct-current glow discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliseev, S. I.; Bogdanov, E. A.; Kudryavtsev, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we present the formulation of slow electron energy balance for hybrid models of direct current (DC) glow discharge. Electrons originating from non-local ionization (secondary) contribute significantly to the energy balance of slow electrons. An approach towards calculating effective energy brought by a secondary electron to the group of slow electrons by means of Coulomb collisions is suggested. The value of effective energy shows a considerable dependence on external parameters of a discharge, such as gas pressure, type, and geometric parameters. The slow electron energy balance was implemented into a simple hybrid model that uses analytical formulation for the description of non-local ionization by fast electrons. Simulations of short (without positive column) DC glow discharge in argon are carried out for a range of gas pressures. Comparison with experimental data showed generally good agreement in terms of current-voltage characteristics, electron density, and electron temperature. Simulations also capture the trend of increasing electron density with decreasing pressure observed in the experiment. Analysis shows that for considered conditions, the product of maximum electron density ne and electron temperature Te in negative glow is independent of gas pressure and depends on the gas type, cathode material, and discharge current. Decreasing gas pressure reduces the heating rate of slow electrons during Coulomb collisions with secondary electrons, which leads to lower values of Te and, in turn, higher maximum ne.

  20. Wave-current interactions at the FloWave Ocean Energy Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Donald; Davey, Thomas; Steynor, Jeffrey; Bruce, Tom; Smith, Helen; Kaklis, Panagiotis

    2015-04-01

    Physical scale model testing is an important part of the marine renewable energy development process, allowing the study of forces and device behaviour in a controlled environment prior to deployment at sea. FloWave is a new state-of-the-art ocean energy research facility, designed to provide large scale physical modelling services to the tidal and wave sector. It has the unique ability to provide complex multi-directional waves that can be combined with currents from any direction in the 25m diameter circular tank. The facility is optimised for waves around 2s period and 0.4m height, and is capable of generating currents upwards of 1.6m/s. This offers the ability to model metocean conditions suitable for most renewable energy devices at a typical scale of between 1:10 and 1:40. The test section is 2m deep, which can be classed as intermediate-depth for most waves of interest, thus the full dispersion equation must be solved as the asymptotic simplifications do not apply. The interaction between waves and currents has been studied in the tank. This has involved producing in the tank sets of regular waves, focussed wave groups, and random sea spectra including multi-directional sea states. These waves have been both inline-with and opposing the current, as well as investigating waves at arbitrary angles to the current. Changes in wave height and wavelength have been measured, and compared with theoretical results. Using theoretical wave-current interaction models, methods have been explored to "correct" the wave height in the central test area of the tank when combined with a steady current. This allows the wave height with current to be set equal to that without a current. Thus permitting, for example, direct comparison of device motion response between tests with and without current. Alternatively, this would also permit a specific wave height and current combination to be produced in the tank, reproducing recorded conditions at a particular site of interest. The

  1. Leave no hour of sunshine unexploited. Free of energy costs and crisis proofed - energy sulf-sufficient buildings; Keine Sonnenstunde ungenutzt lassen. Energiekostenfrei und krisensicher - energieautarke Haeuser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leukefeld, Timo [Helma Eigenheimbau AG, Lehrte (Germany). Projektgruppe ' das EnergieAutarke Haus' ; Firma Timo Leukefeld - Energie verbindet, Freiberg in Sachsen (Germany).; Prutti, Corina [das komm.buero, Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Living, heating and mobility provide the biggest expenses in the budget for the most people. Furthermore, the salaries from pension funds and retirement funds decrease. The purchasing power of older people decreases. Houses that largely are energetically self-sufficient as for example the energy self-sufficient house are a solution of this problem. The biggest costs just fall away for residents of these houses. These residents are independent from costs for fuel oil, gas and electricity.

  2. Current-induced changes of migration energy barriers in graphene and carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Obodo, Tobechukwu Joshua

    2016-04-29

    An electron current can move atoms in a nanoscale device with important consequences for the device operation and breakdown. We perform first principles calculations aimed at evaluating the possibility of changing the energy barriers for atom migration in carbon-based systems. In particular, we consider the migration of adatoms and defects in graphene and carbon nanotubes. Although the current-induced forces are large for both the systems, in graphene the force component along the migration path is small and therefore the barrier height is little affected by the current flow. In contrast, the same barrier is significantly reduced in carbon nanotubes as the current increases. Our work also provides a real-system numerical demonstration that current-induced forces within density functional theory are non-conservative. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. Current Source Converter Based Multi-terminal DC Wind Energy Conversion System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shixiong FAN; Guangyi LIU; Zhanyong YANG; Weiwei MA; Barry W.WILLIAMS

    2013-01-01

    A current source converter based multi-terminal direct current (DC) wind energy conversion system (WECS) is proposed.The current source DC/DC converter is adopted to connect a wind turbine to an inverter with maximum power point control.Each turbine is associated with a DC source by parallel-connected to a common DC link.After DC power collection,a current source inverter (CSI) using gate turn-off components is used for the grid connection due to its flexible reactive power control and short circuit protection capabilities.For such a parallel connection configuration,the CSI operates in an input voltage control mode,which maintains the DC link voltage constant.The dynamic responses of combined mechanical and electrical systems are investigated with three different operation cases.Simulation and experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and stability of the current source DC/DC converter based multi-terminal DC WECS.

  4. Energy and materials conservation: applying pioneering research and techniques to current non-energy materials conservation issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Bruce

    2013-03-13

    The research of the Energy Research Group (ERG) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign through the 1970s and early 1980s has recurring bouts of popularity. That research traced the flow of various energy types from nature to the final product or service, using modified economic input-output analysis. That information allowed for a comparison of alternative uses of products and services that delivered the same demand. The goal of the study was to identify the energy-conserving potential of the alternatives. Interest in that research has risen and fallen with the price of energy through three cycles now, with the current interest also encompassing materials conservation. Although the specific numerical results of this work are dated, the process by which the analysis was conducted creates, at least, a suggestion for future analysis in the arena of materials research. A review of the ERG history, including techniques pioneered for investigating the potential for energy conservation and some of the ancillary lessons learned along the way, may be of some use to those working on issues of materials conservation today. In the coming years, the most relevant research will include assessment of the socio-economic-ecological impact of technological materials conservation policies.

  5. Current and future industrial energy service characterizations. Volume III. Energy data on 15 selected states' manufacturing subsector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.; Thomas, T.; Jackson, F.; Limaye, D.R.; Isser, S.; Karnofsky, K.; Davis, T.D.

    1980-11-01

    An examination is made of the current and future energy demands, and uses, and cost to characterize typical applications and resulting services in the US and industrial sectors of 15 selected states. Volume III presents tables containing data on selected states' manufacturing subsector energy consumption, functional uses, and cost in 1974 and 1976. Alabama, California, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, West Virginia, and Wisconsin were chosen as having the greatest potential for replacing conventional fuel with solar energy. Basic data on the quantities, cost, and types of fuel and electric energy purchased by industr for heat and power were obtained from the 1974 and 1976 Annual Survey of Manufacturers. The specific indutrial energy servic cracteristics developed for each selected state include. 1974 and 1976 manufacturing subsector fuels and electricity consumption by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC and primary fuel (quantity and relative share); 1974 and 1976 manufacturing subsector fuel consumption by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC and primary fuel (quantity and relative share); 1974 and 1976 manufacturing subsector average cost of purchsed fuels and electricity per million Btu by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC and primary fuel (in 1976 dollars); 1974 and 1976 manufacturing subsector fuels and electric energy intensity by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC and primary fuel (in 1976 dollars); manufacturing subsector average annual growth rates of (1) fuels and electricity consumption, (2) fuels and electric energy intensity, and (3) average cost of purchased fuels and electricity (1974 to 1976). Data are compiled on purchased fuels, distillate fuel oil, residual ful oil, coal, coal, and breeze, and natural gas. (MCW)

  6. On the structure of the energy-momentum and the spin currents in Dirac's electron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hehl, F W; Mielke, E W; Obukhov, Yu N; Obukhov, Yu.N.

    1997-01-01

    We consider a classical Dirac field in flat Minkowski spacetime. We perform a Gordon decomposition of its canonical energy-momentum and spin currents, respectively. Thereby we find for each of these currents a convective and a polarization piece. The polarization pieces can be expressed as exterior covariant derivatives of the two-forms $\\check M_\\alpha$ and $M_{\\alpha\\beta}=-M_{\\beta\\alpha}$, respectively. In analogy to the magnetic moment in electrodynamics, we identify these two-forms as gravitational moments connected with the translation group and the Lorentz group, respectively. We point out the relation between the Gordon decomposition of the energy-momentum current and its Belinfante-Rosenfeld symmetrization. In the non-relativistic limit, the translational gravitational moment of the Dirac field is found to be proportional to the spin covector of the electron.

  7. Ion energy spread and current measurements of the rf-driven multicusp ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.; Gough, R.A.; Kunkel, W.B.; Leung, K.N.; Perkins, L.T.; Pickard, D.S.; Sun, L.; Vujic, J.; Williams, M.D.; Wutte, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Axial energy spread and useful beam current of positive ion beams have been carried out using a radio frequency (rf)-driven multicusp ion source. Operating the source with a 13.56 MHz induction discharge, the axial energy spread is found to be approximately 3.2 eV. The extractable beam current of the rf-driven source is found to be comparable to that of filament-discharge sources. With a 0.6 mm diameter extraction aperture, a positive hydrogen ion beam current density of 80 mA/cm{sup 2} can be obtained at a rf input power of 2.5 kW. The expected source lifetime is much longer than that of filament discharges. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Ion energy spread and current measurements of the rf-driven multicusp ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y.; Gough, R. A.; Kunkel, W. B.; Leung, K. N.; Perkins, L. T.; Pickard, D. S.; Sun, L.; Vujic, J.; Williams, M. D.; Wutte, D.

    1997-03-01

    Axial energy spread and useful beam current of positive ion beams have been carried out using a radio frequency (rf)-driven multicusp ion source. Operating the source with a 13.56 MHz induction discharge, the axial energy spread is found to be approximately 3.2 eV. The extractable beam current of the rf-driven source is found to be comparable to that of filament-discharge sources. With a 0.6 mm diameter extraction aperture, a positive hydrogen ion beam current density of 80 mA/cm2 can be obtained at a rf input power of 2.5 kW. The expected source lifetime is much longer than that of filament discharges.

  9. Energy transfer, orbital angular momentum, and discrete current in a double-ring fiber array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexeyev, C. N.; Volyar, A. V. [Taurida National V.I. Vernadsky University, Vernadsky Prospekt, 4, Simferopol, 95007, Crimea (Ukraine); Yavorsky, M. A. [Taurida National V.I. Vernadsky University, Vernadsky Prospekt, 4, Simferopol, 95007, Crimea (Ukraine); Universite Bordeaux and CNRS, LOMA, UMR 5798, FR-33400 Talence (France)

    2011-12-15

    We study energy transfer and orbital angular momentum of supermodes in a double-ring array of evanescently coupled monomode optical fibers. The structure of supermodes and the spectra of their propagation constants are obtained. The geometrical parameters of the array, at which the energy is mostly confined within the layers, are determined. The developed method for finding the supermodes of concentric arrays is generalized for the case of multiring arrays. The orbital angular momentum carried by a supermode of a double-ring array is calculated. The discrete lattice current is introduced. It is shown that the sum of discrete currents over the array is a conserved quantity. The connection of the total discrete current with orbital angular momentum of discrete optical vortices is made.

  10. Supply and demand situation analysis of chinese energy after world-wide financial crisis%世界金融危机后中国能源供需形势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代涛; 于汶加; 沈镭

    2011-01-01

    世界金融危机给我国经济发展带来巨大波动,作为经济社会发展基础原材料的能源受到的冲击尤为突出.本文从世界金融危机对我国能源供需形势的角度出发,选择与国民经济息息相关的关键常规能源资源为研究对象,包括煤炭、石油和天然气三种,对金融危机中我国能源供需情况进行分析,并对危机后我国的能源供需形势进行预测,为制定符合我国国情和矿情的资源管理政策提供参考依据.%The world financial crisis has caused large fluctuations to China's economy, especially causing great impacts to energy-the basic raw materials of the economic development and social development. This paper selects three kinds of the crucial conventional energy resources , coal, oil and natural gas, which are closely related to the national economy, to analyze the supply and demand for energy in China during the financial crisis. Then the authors predict the trends of China' s supply and demand for energy after the financial crisis, so as to provide intelligence references for the government to develop the management policy consistent with our national conditions and development of mineral resources.

  11. Crédito, capital fictício, fragilidade financeira e crises: discussões teóricas, origens e formas de enfrentamento da crise atual Credit, fictitious capital, financial fragility and crises: theoretical discussions, origins and ways of addressing the current financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Rollemberg Mollo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute a crise atual, comparando concepções marxista e pós-keynesiana. A primeira seção examina as razões teóricas para a inerência das crises no capitalismo conforme as duas visões. A segunda mostra como e por que o neoliberalismo agravou a crise, ainda que inerente ao capitalismo. A terceira examina criticamente os limites das políticas atuais de enfrentamento da crise.The article discusses the current crisis, comparing Marxian and Post-Keynesian views. The first section examines the theoretical reasons why crises are inherent in the functioning of capitalism, according to each theory. The second shows why and how neoliberalism has caused the crisis to worsen, even though it is inherent to capitalism. The third section critically examines the limits of the current policies in addressing the crisis.

  12. Learning Crisis Unit through Post-Crisis: Characteristics and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebbi, Hela; Pündrich, Aline Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify the characteristics that a crisis unit should have to achieve effective learning after crisis. Literature has identified many relations between learning organizations and crisis; yet, there is a dearth of research on specific studies about crisis units and their post-crisis learning features. Thus, this paper…

  13. Learning Crisis Unit through Post-Crisis: Characteristics and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebbi, Hela; Pündrich, Aline Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify the characteristics that a crisis unit should have to achieve effective learning after crisis. Literature has identified many relations between learning organizations and crisis; yet, there is a dearth of research on specific studies about crisis units and their post-crisis learning features. Thus, this paper…

  14. Diferentes teorias marxistas de crise e diferentes interpretações da crise atual Different Marxist theories of crises and different interpretations of the current crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Paulo Cipolla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta criticamente diferentes interpretações da crise atual. Orientaram a seleção das várias contribuições a representatividade das teorias marxistas clássicas de crise e a importância das novas abordagens correspondentes aos novos fenômenos em desenvolvimento no capitalismo atual. O exame crítico dessas contribuições revela uma linha divisória entre aqueles que concebem a crise como tendo sido causada pelo afluxo dos lucros da produção para as finanças (Husson e Foster /Magdoff e aqueles para os quais o aumento do crédito de consumo foi resultado de uma reestruturação dos fluxos de crédito das empresas, cada vez mais autônomas no mercado de dinheiro, às famílias assalariadas, cada vez mais dependentes do financiamento bancário. Essa linha divisória reflete a importância que o primeiro grupo adjudica à diminuição do ritmo de crescimento vis-à-vis os teóricos da School of Oriental and African Studies. A análise revela também que a atrofia da economia política leva a um abandono precoce da teoria bancária e financeira de Marx em favor dos instrumentos teóricos pós-keynesianos imediatamente disponíveis para o uso.This article is a critical survey of different interpretations of the 2007-2008 financial crises. They were chosen either because they represented classical Marxian views on crisis, such as the underconsumption or over-accumulation theories, or else because they were newly developed interpretations based on recent newly economic developments, as it is the case of the financial expropriation theory. The analysis reveals three main points of view. The first is that the cause of crisis is the stagnation of the economy and the ensuing transfer of profits from production to finance, process that caused the housing-financial bubble (Husson and Foster/Magdoff. The second view argues that it was the structural change in financial markets which led banks to increasingly rely on consumer credit

  15. Asian capitalism and the financial crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ajit

    1998-01-01

    With the economic crisis in East Asia and a continuing boom in the US, American triumphialism is in the air. The latter is perhaps not unexpected and probably does no harm. But what is more questionable is the view held in the highest circles in the US Government and international financial organisations in Washington which causally links the so-called Asian model of capitalism to the economic and financial crisis which is currently engulfing the hitherto highly successful economies o...

  16. A Current Mode Energy-Resolved CT Using Several Kinds of Scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, Takumi; Kanno, Ikuo; Hotta, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Masaaki; Adachi, Ryuji

    For computed tomography (CT) with the energy information of X-rays (energy-resolved CT), the authors have been developed a new detector system, "transXend" detector. The transXend detector measures X-rays as electric current and gives energy distribution after analysis. To apply the principle of the transXend detector for the use of fan or cone beam X-rays, the authors have reported two-dimensional transXend detector using stripe metal absorbers and a flat panel detector (FPD). In this paper, the energy-resolved CT is demonstrated using a FPD with different kinds of scintillator plates. Next, the possibility of using a scintillator plate which consists of various stripe scintillators instead of stripe metal absorbers for a two-dimensional transXend detector is shown.

  17. Energy extraction from ocean currents using straight bladed cross-flow hydrokinetic turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Dudhgaonkar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting marine renewable energy remains to be a prime focus of researchers across the globe both in environmental and in commercial perspectives. India is blessed with a long coastline, and the seas around Indian peninsula offer ample potential to tap various ocean energy forms. National Institute of Ocean Technology carries out research and various ocean energy technologies, out of which harnessing kinetic energy in seawater currents is one. This article presents the open sea trials recently carried out on National Institute of Ocean Technology’s cross-flow hydrokinetic ocean current turbine in South Andaman. The turbine was designed to generate 100 W electricity at 1.2 m/s current speed and was built in-house. The turbine was initially tested in a seawater channel and then was deployed in Macpherson Strait in Andaman. It was fitted below a floating platform designed especially for this purpose, and the performance of the turbine was continuously logged inside an on-board data acquisition system. The trials were successful and in line with computations.

  18. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Kevin

    2013-09-15

    Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States. This project created a national database of ocean current energy resources to help advance awareness and market penetration in ocean current energy resource assessment. The database, consisting of joint velocity magnitude and direction probability histograms, was created from data created by seven years of numerical model simulations. The accuracy of the database was evaluated by ORNL?s independent validation effort documented in a separate report. Estimates of the total theoretical power resource contained in the ocean currents were calculated utilizing two separate approaches. Firstly, the theoretical energy balance in the Gulf Stream system was examined using the two-dimensional ocean circulation equations based on the assumptions of the Stommel model for subtropical gyres with the quasi-geostrophic balance between pressure gradient, Coriolis force, wind stress and friction driving the circulation. Parameters including water depth, natural dissipation rate and wind stress are calibrated in the model so that the model can reproduce reasonable flow properties including volume flux and energy flux. To represent flow dissipation due to turbines additional turbine drag coefficient is formulated and included in the model. Secondly, to determine the reasonableness of the total power

  19. Municipal solid waste (MSW) as a renewable source of energy: current and future practices in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan

    2010-06-01

    With rapid economic growth and massive urbanization, China faces the problem of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal and the pressing need for development of alternative energy. Waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration, which recovers energy from discarded MSW and produces electricity and/or steam for heating, is recognized as a renewable source of energy and is playing an increasingly important role in MSW management in China. This article provides an overview of the WTE industry, discusses the major challenges in expanding WTE incineration in China, namely, high capital and operational costs, equipment corrosion, air pollutant emissions, and fly ash disposal. A perspective on MSW as a renewable energy source in China is also presented. Currently, only approximately 13% of MSW generated in China is disposed in WTE facilities. With the significant benefits of environmental quality, the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and government policies and financial incentives as a renewable energy source, WTE incineration industry is expected to experience significant growth in the coming decade and make greater contribution to supplying renewable energy in China. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The current status of the development of renewable energy sources worldwide and in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortov, V. E.; Popel', O. S.

    2014-06-01

    Resorting to renewable energy sources (RESs) as one of the bases of the promising world energy industry has become a logical result of the historical development and the recognition that is necessary to diversify primary energy sources being used, with the aim of enhancing both energy and ecological security of countries, regions, and concrete energy consumers. The review of the development of new technologies used for conversion of RESs, the progress of which can be characterized by the fact that by the year 2013 the total generating capacity of RES-based power plants now in operation has amounted to 500 GW—by a factor of 1.5 more than the total generating capacity of all nuclear power stations in the world. The paper presents an analysis of the current status of RESs and problems that restrain their development in Russia. It is noted that the peculiarities of the energy situation in Russia impose the specific requirements upon drawing up the programs of the development of RESs. Along with the use of RESs as part of systems of centralized energy supply, which is a priority for most industrially developed countries and promises the most large-scale introduction of RESs in Russia, it is necessary, first of all, to give attention to the development and creation of systems for independent supply of consumers with power and heat and the development of distributed powergenerating systems using RESs.

  1. Enhancing crisis leadership in public health emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitchman, Scott

    2013-10-01

    Reviews of public health emergency responses have identified a need for crisis leadership skills in health leaders, but these skills are not routinely taught in public health curricula. To develop criteria for crisis leadership in public health, published sources were reviewed to identify attributes of successful crisis leadership in aviation, public safety, military operations, and mining. These sources were abstracted to identify crisis leadership attributes associated with those disciplines and compare those attributes with crisis leadership challenges in public health. Based on this review, the following attributes are proposed for crisis leadership in public health: competence in public health science; decisiveness with flexibility; ability to maintain situational awareness and provide situational assessment; ability to coordinate diverse participants across very different disciplines; communication skills; and the ability to inspire trust. Of these attributes, only competence in public health science is currently a goal of public health education. Strategies to teach the other proposed attributes of crisis leadership will better prepare public health leaders to meet the challenges of public health crises.

  2. Sickle Cell Crisis (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Sickle Cell Crisis (Pain Crisis) KidsHealth > For Teens > Sickle Cell ... Crisis drepanocíticas (Crisis de dolor) What Is a Sickle Cell Crisis? Sickle cell disease changes the shape of ...

  3. Energy-rich Plant Research in China: Overview and Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Guojiang; LIU Jie; LOU Zhiping; KANG Le

    2006-01-01

    @@ The energy crisis is an enormous challenge to the human race.Consequently, the technology development and utilization of biomass energy have become a new "hot spot"in the international arena.This article gives an overview on the current status of the research on energy plants and puts forward several suggestions on how to reasonably develop them in China.

  4. Numerical experiments on the detailed energy conversion and spectrum studies in a corona current sheet

    CERN Document Server

    Ni, Lei; Mei, Zhixing; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the energy conversion and spectra in a corona current sheet by 2.5-dimensional MHD numerical simulations. Numerical results show that many Petschek-like fine structures with slow-mode shocks mediated by plasmoid instabilities develop during the magnetic reconnection process. The termination shocks can also be formed above the primary magnetic island and at the head of secondary islands. These shocks play important roles in generating thermal energy in a corona current sheet. For a numerical simulation with initial conditions close to the solar corona environment, the ratio of the generated thermal energy to the total dissipated magnetic energy is around $1/5$ before secondary islands appear. After secondary islands appear, the generated thermal energy starts to increase sharply and this ratio can reach a value about $3/5$. In an environment with a relatively lower plasma density and plasma $\\beta$, the plasma can be heated to a much higher temperature. After secondary islands appear, t...

  5. An eddy current-induced magnetic plucking for piezoelectric energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Nam Ho; Baek, Yoon Su

    2016-04-01

    Frequency up-conversion is a very efficient method of energy harvesting in order to overcome low, non-periodic, or altered ambient vibration. In order to perform frequency up-conversion and transference of mechanical energy without contact, an eddy current-induced magnetic drag force is used. In this paper, we present a novel configuration of eddy current-induced magnetic plucking for piezoelectric energy harvesting. Our method consists of two permanent magnets, a piezoelectric beam, and a copper disk piece. We design our harvesting method to achieve loading, sudden release, and free vibration using the actuation of the piezoelectric beam through the magnetic mutual coupling between the magnet and copper disk piece. We present the principle of magnetic drag force-generation, characterize the energy harvesting performance of our harvesting method, and demonstrate our harvesting method’s capability of frequency up-conversion and transference of mechanical energy without contact under low, non-periodic, or altered ambient vibration. To that end, we describe the calculation of magnetic drag force with various geometric dimensions and material properties, model of the piezoelectric cantilever beam, comparison between estimation response and measured experiment response, and the measured voltage and power responses.

  6. Ocean Current Energy Conversion System in Wallacea Region Using Variable Speed Control Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Sukma Nugraha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean Current Energy Conversion System (OCECS is a promising green energy resource in this globe. The Thermohaline circulation data indicates that the Wallacea region has the potential of ocean current energy resources. This paper is aimed to propose research and development of OCECSs to be implemented in the Wallacea region. Firstly, four types of green energy conversion systems extracted from ocean are reviewed. Their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Secondly, the potential of OCECS in the Wallacea region is described. Third, many types of turbines used for OCECS are reviewed and the turbine type for OCECS is selected to be implemented in the Wallacea region. Fourth, control strategy is proposed.From the work reported in this paper it is concluded that it is appropriate to implement OCECSs using axial flow water turbines in the Wallacea region, and that to maximize energy conversion variable speed control approach is selected together with control of mechanism to move the turbine vertically as well as to rotate the turbine in yaw direction. 

  7. Food waste-to-energy conversion technologies: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thi Phuong Thuy; Kaushik, Rajni; Parshetti, Ganesh K; Mahmood, Russell; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2015-04-01

    Food waste represents a significantly fraction of municipal solid waste. Proper management and recycling of huge volumes of food waste are required to reduce its environmental burdens and to minimize risks to human health. Food waste is indeed an untapped resource with great potential for energy production. Utilization of food waste for energy conversion currently represents a challenge due to various reasons. These include its inherent heterogeneously variable compositions, high moisture contents and low calorific value, which constitute an impediment for the development of robust, large scale, and efficient industrial processes. Although a considerable amount of research has been carried out on the conversion of food waste to renewable energy, there is a lack of comprehensive and systematic reviews of the published literature. The present review synthesizes the current knowledge available in the use of technologies for food-waste-to-energy conversion involving biological (e.g. anaerobic digestion and fermentation), thermal and thermochemical technologies (e.g. incineration, pyrolysis, gasification and hydrothermal oxidation). The competitive advantages of these technologies as well as the challenges associated with them are discussed. In addition, the future directions for more effective utilization of food waste for renewable energy generation are suggested from an interdisciplinary perspective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Current Harmonics Compensation in Microgrids Exploiting the Power Electronics Interfaces of Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Bouloumpasis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a method of current harmonic reduction in a distorted distribution system. In order to evaluate the proposed method a grid with high-order current harmonics is assumed. The reduction of current distortion is feasible due to the pulse modulation of an active filter, which consists of a buck-boost converter connected back-to-back to a polarity swapping inverter. For a practical application, this system would be the power electronic interface of a Renewable Energy Source (RES and therefore it changes a source of harmonics to a damping harmonics system. Using the proposed method, the current Total Harmonic Distortion (THD of the grid is reduced below the acceptable limits and thus the general power quality of the system is improved. Simulations in the MATLAB/SIMULINK platform and experiments have been performed in order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Systemic crisis and financial regulation

    OpenAIRE

    ULGEN, Faruk

    2010-01-01

    One of the privileged explanations of the current crisis is the sophistication and the weak transparency of financial markets which would have allowed speculative behavior to elude authorities’ supervision. This article develops a different view by putting the emphasis on the model of organization of financial systems. This is established on the predominance of micro-prudential supervision schemes following the hypothesis of free market efficiency. From 1980-90, prudential mechanisms have wor...

  10. Assessment of Current State of Mooring Design in the Danish Wave Energy Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jonas Bjerg; Ferri, Francesco; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2015-01-01

    The mooring system is a vital part of any floating wave energy converter, both in terms of ensuring station keeping but also as it constitutes a significant share of the total cost. Motivatedby the considerable amount of failures due to insufficient mooring and the cost of mooring today......, the present study outlines the design procedure recommended by design standards and provides considerations on choice of tools for analysis. This is compared to the procedure used by four wave energy converter developers, to illustrate the state of their current mooring design. The study shows a clear...

  11. Eddy Current Analysis and Optimization for Superconducting Magnetic Bearing of Flywheel Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Yuuki; Yamashita, Tomohisa; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Matsuoka, Taro; Kaimori, Hiroyuki; Ishihara, Terumasa

    Levitation and guidance force is electromagnetic generated between a superconducting coil and zero field cooled bulk superconductors used in our flywheel energy storage system (FESS). Because the magnetic field depends on the configuration of the coil and the bulks, the eccentricity and the vibration of a rotor cause fluctuation in the magnetic field which induces eddy current and consequent Joule heat on electric conductors such as cooling plates. Heat generation in the cryogenic region critically reduces the efficiency of the FESS. In this paper, we will report the result of the electromagnetic analysis of the SMB and propose an optimal divided cooling plate for reducing the eddy current and Joule heat.

  12. On current ambiguity in the interpretation of fission at intermediate excitation energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, C., E-mail: schmitt@ganil.fr [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds, CEA/DSM–CNRS/IN2P3, 14076 Caen (France); Mazurek, K. [The Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics – PAN, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); Nadtochy, P.N. [Omsk State University, Department of Theoretical Physics, 644077 Omsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-07

    Various approaches are currently used to interpret experimental data on fission. We critically examine a wide set of observables measured for fission of {sup 206,210}Po nuclei at medium excitation energy, and illustrate the ambiguity in current analysis. Dynamical calculations based on the four-dimensional Langevin equation using a macroscopic potential energy landscape are performed, and found to consistently describe available measurements. This observation calls into question the robustness of recent analysis based on statistical-model calculations and concluding, on the contrary, to substantial shell effects at the fission saddle point in {sup 206,210}Po. The inconsistency in interpretation reached by the two approaches shows that, depending on the system, the conclusion can be strongly model-dependent. Although this may not be surprising, it emphasizes the today still limited reliability of firmly extracting fundamental nuclear properties from customary analysis.

  13. On current ambiguity in the interpretation of fission at intermediate excitation energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Schmitt

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Various approaches are currently used to interpret experimental data on fission. We critically examine a wide set of observables measured for fission of Po206,210 nuclei at medium excitation energy, and illustrate the ambiguity in current analysis. Dynamical calculations based on the four-dimensional Langevin equation using a macroscopic potential energy landscape are performed, and found to consistently describe available measurements. This observation calls into question the robustness of recent analysis based on statistical-model calculations and concluding, on the contrary, to substantial shell effects at the fission saddle point in Po206,210. The inconsistency in interpretation reached by the two approaches shows that, depending on the system, the conclusion can be strongly model-dependent. Although this may not be surprising, it emphasizes the today still limited reliability of firmly extracting fundamental nuclear properties from customary analysis.

  14. Current redistribution and generation of kinetic energy in the stagnated Z pinch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V V; Anderson, A A; Papp, D; Astanovitskiy, A L; Talbot, B R; Chittenden, J P; Niasse, N

    2013-07-01

    The structure of magnetic fields was investigated in stagnated wire-array Z pinches using a Faraday rotation diagnostic at the wavelength of 266 nm. The distribution of current in the pinch and trailing material was reconstructed. A significant part of current can switch from the main pinch to the trailing plasma preheated by x-ray radiation of the pinch. Secondary implosions of trailing plasma generate kinetic energy and provide enhanced heating and radiation of plasma at stagnation. Hot spots in wire-array Z pinches also provide enhanced radiation of the Z pinch. A collapse of a single hot spot radiates 1%-3% of x-ray energy of the Z pinch with a total contribution of hot spots of 10%-30%.

  15. Good to the last drop : the first petroleum crisis sent researchers on a trail in search of new energy solutions; Bon jusqu'a la derniere goutte : le premier choc petrolier a lance les chercheurs sur la piste de nouvelles solutions en matiere d'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadeau, J.B.

    2008-05-15

    The energy crisis of the 1970s provided an incentive to look for alternative energy sources. At the time, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) declared that the era of cheap oil was over. In addition to quadrupling oil prices, OPEC reduced production and placed total embargoes on some countries. With high oil demand and limited supply, lifestyles and habits that were founded on the oil market began to change. The energy crisis was also a catalyst to develop innovative conservation measures. Progressive trendsetters back in 1975 turned to solar and wind energy for their power needs. The author argued that had it not been for the energy crisis, developments such as the Athabasca oil sands, Hydro-Quebec's high-head electric power plants or nuclear power may never have occurred. This article then presented a brief history of the petroleum industry. Drilling technology in 1859 permitted drilling to a level of only 23 metres. In 1928 only 7 companies in the United States controlled the world oil market, notably, Exxon, Texaco, British Petroleum, Shell, Gulf, Standard Oil and Mobil Oil. OPEC was created in 1960, and by 1970 it controlled 40 per cent of the world oil market. According to the Association for the Study of Peak Oil, 1970 also marked the year when oil production began to decline. This article also summarized offshore operations in Atlantic Canada and the advent of enhanced recovery techniques, including the development of carbon sequestration. 6 figs.

  16. Benefits and legacy of the water crisis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo dos Santos Targa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this editorial, we reflect on the benefits and legacy of the water crisis in Brazil between 2013 and 2014, which affected the water supply in many regions and especially in the southeast region, with emphasis on the conflict between the states of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro over the right to use the water of the Paraíba do Sul River Basin. We analyze the current state of water resource management, the integrated use of water and energy and possible solutions to expand the availability of fresh water.

  17. Current non-conservation effects in ultra-high energy neutrino interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Fiore, R

    2010-01-01

    The overall hardness scale of the ultra-high energy neutrino-nucleon interactions is usually estimated as $Q^2\\sim m_W^2$. The effect of non-conservation of weak currents pushes this scale up to the top quark mass squared and changes dynamics of the scattering process. The Double Leading Log Approximation provides simple and numerically accurate formula for the top-bottom contribution to the total cross section $\\sigma^{\

  18. Current status of free radicals and electronically excited metastable species as high energy propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, G.

    1973-01-01

    A survey is presented of free radicals and electronically excited metastable species as high energy propellants for rocket engines. Nascent or atomic forms of diatomic gases are considered free radicals as well as the highly reactive diatomic triatomic molecules that posess unpaired electrons. Manufacturing and storage problems are described, and a review of current experimental work related to the manufacture of atomic hydrogen propellants is presented.

  19. LVRT SCHEME OF WIND ENERGY SYSTEM USING PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR AND HYSTERESIS CURRENT CONTROLLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.RAJENDRAN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper provided the information about low-voltage ride-through (LVRT scheme for the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG, and wind energy conversion system. The dc-link voltage is uncomfortable by the generator side converter instead of the grid-side converter (GSC. Considering the nonlinear correlation between the generator speed (ωm and the dc-link voltage (Vdc, a dc-link Voltage controller is anticipated using a hysteresis current controller. Among all, low-voltage ride-through has been fundamental in the field, which is one of the most important challenges for wind energy conversion system. It is essential to design an included controller to protect the converter from overvoltage/overcurrent and to support the grid voltage during faults and recoveries. A unified dc-link voltage control scheme and hysteresis current controller based wind energy conversion system is proposed. The controllers for grid-side converters are coordinated to provide fault ride-through capability. The generator side is forced by space vector modulationand grid side implemented hysteresis current controller. The Grid Side Controller controls the grid active power and maximum power deliver to the grid. The ability of this control algorithm has been confirmed by simulation results.

  20. Observations of Thin Current Sheets in the Solar Wind and Their Role in Magnetic Energy Dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, S.; Goldstein, M. L.; Dorelli, J.; Sahraoui, F.; Gurgiolo, C. A.; Karimabadi, H.; Mozer, F.; Wendel, D. E.; TenBarge, J.; Roytershteyn, V.

    2013-12-01

    A recent analysis of 450 vec/s resolution data from the STAFF search-coil magnetometer on board Cluster has revealed, for the first time, the presence of thin current sheets and discontinuities from the proton Larmor scale down to the electron Larmor scale in the solar wind. This is in the range of scales where a cascade of energy consistent with highly oblique kinetic Alfvénic fluctuations (KAW), eventually dissipated by electron Landau damping, has been detected. The current sheets have been found to have a size between 20-200 km, indicating that they are very localized. We will compare the observations with results coming from 2D Hall MHD, Gyrokinetic, and full Particle-in-Cell turbulence simulations. Preliminary work has highlighted promising qualitative agreement between the properties of the structures observed in the Cluster data and the current sheets generated in the simulations. With the aim of investigating the role played by those structures in dissipating the magnetic energy in the solar wind, E●J has been computed within each magnetic discontinuity. This has been made possible via a combined analysis of both STAFF-SC magnetic field data and the electric field data from the Electric Fields and Wave instrument (EFW). We describe procedures used to reduce the noise in the EFW data. The results obtained represent an effort to clarify the processes involved in the dissipation of magnetic energy in the solar wind.

  1. Electricity sector in Mexico. Current status. Contribution of renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancino-Solorzano, Yoreley [Departamento de Ing. Electrica-Electronica, Instituto Tecnologico de Veracruz, Calzada Miguel A. de Quevedo 2779, 91860 Veracruz (Mexico); Villicana-Ortiz, Eunice; Gutierrez-Trashorras, Antonio J.; Xiberta-Bernat, Jorge [Departamento de Energia, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas, Universidad de Oviedo, C/Independencia, 13, 2a Planta, 33004 Oviedo (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    The challenge facing the world electricity sector is the cost incurred in maintaining the system and seeing to the environmental effects it causes. In Mexico the grid is supplied by thermal plants fed by oil products. Its great potential of renewable energies clearly shown in studies by national and international scholars has led the government to become more committed to take advantage of these energies. The goal is to reduce dependence on fossil fuels to generate electricity and to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. In this article we analyse the current state of renewable energies, the conditions needed to foster them and the legislative changes already introduced to promote their greater part in the national electricity grid. (author)

  2. An Identity Crisis of Architectural Critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostas Tsiambaos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last three years Greece has been facing one of its worst crises since the 1950s, a crisis which most understand to be a financial one. The word crisis (from the Greek κρίσις has a double meaning in the Greek language. Its first meaning indicates a radical — usually negative — change in the sum of conditions or flow of events, while its second refers to an opinion, a theory, a personal judgment or point of view towards a specific subject. I will argue that the current crisis is not just financial, but deeply cultural. An examination of the history of architectural discourse in Greece will help us better understand the cultural identity of the recent crisis by illuminating its core: the ambivalent relationship between Greece and Europe, from the establishment of the Greek state until today.

  3. CORPORATIONS CRISIS - BEYOND THE FRONTIERS OF MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu NEAMTU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis registered on international markets can be seen simply as corporate crisis as a result of that crash is the effect of large financial institutions and companies in the field of goods and services. Corporate crisis is a process that develops in nearly 10 years on the international market falling to the level of maximum development and producing her effects for 10 years hence. The paper tries to follow the stages of evolution of this crisis together with factors such as management and the economic environment characterized current economy. Also the relationship between companies management and "macroeconomic management" that generates these developments should be defined so that for future periods to be offered the best solutions to balance the market domestically and internationally

  4. The Refugee Crisis as a European Democratic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chryssoula Kapartziani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The institutional European Union is facing two types of crisis. On the one hand, it needs to manage the current refugee’s influx efficiently and on the other hand it needs to deal with the democratic deficit that emerged by Europe’s incapacity to make the required decisions and gain the justification of its actions from its own people. This article aims firstly to highlight the legal framework (rule of law that governs the asylum and migration procedures as well as the democratic gap that these provisions created in the different member states, as a crystal clear example of how a national competence became supranational. Furthermore, it illustrates the refugee profile, as a human being with acquired human rights through the theories of H. Arendt and the U. Beck. Lastly, the cosmopolitan approach is suggested in order to overcome the refugee crisis but a well-established integration should be the long term goal of Europe.

  5. [The crisis of medicine or the antimedicine crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, M

    1976-01-01

    In this lecture, Professor Michel Foucault makes an in-depth study of the problems currently afflicting medical institutions and the medical practice. He deals with the thesis set forth by Ivan Illich in his book Medical Nemesis--The expropriation of Health, as well as the 1942 Beveridge Plan, but goes even further back in history to discover the origin of the medical crisis common throughout the world--back to the XVIII century roots of the social practice of medicine. He also describes the phases through which medical activity has passed from then until now and deals with what he calls the political economy of medicine. Finally, he reaches the conclusion that what matters is not so much the present crisis of medicine, which he considers to be a false concept, but the discipline's historical model dating from the XVIII century and serving to determine to what extent it can be modified.

  6. Effectiveness of current policing-related mental health interventions in England and Wales and Crisis Intervention Teams as a future potential model: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Eddie; Evans, Emily; Shokraneh, Farhad

    2017-04-17

    Experiencing mental ill health adds a layer of complexity for individuals in touch with the justice system and for those responsible for working in the justice service with these individuals, such as frontline police officers. In England and Wales, there are three commonly used but not necessarily commonly designed or operated, mental health interventions associated with policing, Liaison and Diversion, Street Triage and specialist staff embedded in Police Contact Control Rooms. A fourth US designed model, Crisis Intervention Teams (CITs), is now attracting some interest in England and Wales, and these four are to be considered in this review. A fifth intervention, Mental Health Courts, was trialed but has now been abandoned in England and Wales and so has been excluded, but remains in use elsewhere. In recent years, there has been an increase in the level of investment related to these intervention options. This has largely been without an evidence base being available to aid design, structure, and consistency of approach. The review will address this gap and provide a systematic review of each of these options. This will provide a baseline of research evidence for those who commission and provide services for individuals experiencing mental ill health and who are in contact with the justice system. Twenty-nine relevant databases and sources have been selected which will be systematically searched to locate relevant studies. These studies have to meet the set inclusion criteria which require them to report an objective outcome measure(s) in respect of offending or mental health outcomes and to have an experimental or quasi-experimental design including a comparator group(s) or a pre/post comparison. The review will exclude PhD theses, papers in non-English languages and papers published prior to 1980. Keywords have been collected through canvassing experts' opinion, literature review, controlled vocabulary and reviewing the results of a primary scoping review

  7. Good neighborhood in a crisis? Germans and French in search of a common energy policy (1973 - 1980); Stoerfall fuer die gute Nachbarschaft? Deutsche und Franzosen auf der Suche nach einer gemeinsamen Energiepolitik (1973-1980)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauer, Sandra

    2012-11-01

    The oil crisis of autumn 1973 was a turning point of the seventies. Citizens of industrialized countries were brought to realize their dependence on Arab imported oil the hard way. Using the example of German-French relations, the author investigates if there were instances of cooperation in energy policy, and in what concrete manner. Using historical primary energy sources, she starts by investigating the actions and political strategies of the German and French governments and also describes the search for multilateral solutions. Examples are presented to show how civil society is affected. This first systematic analysis of German-French relations shows that energy policy had great importance for the bilateral relation even though results of German-French cooperation were few and far between.

  8. Installed Base Registration of Decentralised Solar Panels with Applications in Crisis Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarsen, R.; Janssen, M.; Ramkisoen, M.; Biljecki, F.; Quak, W.; Verbree, E.

    2015-08-01

    In case of a calamity in the Netherlands - e.g. a dike breach - parts of the nationwide electric network can fall out. In these occasions it would be useful if decentralised energy sources of the Smart Grid would contribute to balance out the fluctuations of the energy network. Decentralised energy sources include: solar energy, wind energy, combined heat and power, and biogas. In this manner, parts of the built environment - e.g. hospitals - that are in need of a continuous power flow, could be secured of this power. When a calamity happens, information about the Smart Grid is necessary to control the crisis and to ensure a shared view on the energy networks for both the crisis managers and network operators. The current situation of publishing, storing and sharing data of solar energy has been shown a lack of reliability about the current number, physical location, and capacity of installed decentralised photovoltaic (PV) panels in the Netherlands. This study focuses on decentralised solar energy in the form of electricity via PV panels in the Netherlands and addresses this challenge by proposing a new, reliable and up-to-date database. The study reveals the requirements for a registration of the installed base of PV panels in the Netherlands. This new database should serve as a replenishment for the current national voluntary registration, called Production Installation Register of Energy Data Services Netherland (EDSN-PIR), of installed decentralised PV panel installations in the Smart Grid, and provide important information in case of a calamity.

  9. USA between the Greatest Economic Crisis and Current Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Liana Camarda

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available American business system might be defined trough its decentralized character, a capitalist one, based on private property and free will. Federalauthorities’ intercession to economy exhibits throughout budgetary and monetary policies strategy. Meantime federal budget gets a constituent referring toinvestment in cereals. American economic legislation acknowledges government involvement in business practice control, American Government acting aseconomical increase supervisor.

  10. GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS – AN ACCOUNTING LITERATURE REVIEW AND OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Toman Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Reflecting the magnitude of “financial crisis” in 2008, some academics started examining causal relationships between accounting and the crisis. The purpose of this article is to review the current state of academic research articles related to the global financial crisis that are published in ScienceDirect, Springerlink, Emerald and SSRN databases, in order to identify the trends and researchers’ contributions and to analyze the interplay between the global financial crisis and the accountin...

  11. Innovativeness and Adoption of Innovation under Crisis Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Florea Dorian-Lauren?iu

    2011-01-01

    Innovativeness is the engine of human progress and wealthness, and thus, our way out of this economic crisis. However, economic crises can drive different trends to the innovation propensity of both firms and consumers. This article focuses on the factors that influence innovativeness and on the assess of innovativeness trend during the current economic crisis. The article sets that global innovativeness has a positive trend under crisis circumstances and that consumers kept propensity for ad...

  12. Sustainable Energy for All

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Energy crisis is one of the most pressing issues of our century. The world currently invests more than $1 trillion per year in energy, much of it going toward the energy systems of the past instead of building the clean energy economies of the future. Effectively, the provision of energy should b...... resources, as well as the transfer of advanced technology to developing countries and countries with economies in transition for providing efficient and wider use of new and renewable sources of energy.......Energy crisis is one of the most pressing issues of our century. The world currently invests more than $1 trillion per year in energy, much of it going toward the energy systems of the past instead of building the clean energy economies of the future. Effectively, the provision of energy should...... be such that it meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Investment in sustainable energy is a smart strategy for growing markets, improving competitiveness, and providing greater equity and opportunity. Sustainable energy has two key elements...

  13. Energy-minimum sub-threshold self-timed circuits using current-sensing completion detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akgun, O. C.; Rodrigues, J. N.; Sparsø, Jens

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the design of self-timed energy-minimum circuits, operating in the sub-VT domain and a generic implementation template using bundled-data circuitry and current sensing completion detection (CSCD). Furthermore, a fully decoupled latch controller was developed, which integrates...... with the current-sensing circuitry. Different configurations that utilise the proposed latch controller are highlighted. A contemporary synchronous electronic design automation tools-based design flow, which transforms a synchronous design into a corresponding self-timed circuit, is outlined. Different use cases...... of the CSCD system are examined. The design flow and the current-sensing technique are validated by the implementation of a self-timed version of a wavelet-based event detector for cardiac pacemaker applications in a standard 65 nm CMOS process. The chip was fabricated and verified to operate down to 250 m...

  14. Political crisis poses problems for nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitev, Lubomir [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-11-15

    The political crisis in Ukraine has given rise to several problematic issues for the nuclear industry, including the country's obvious dependence on Russia for nuclear fuel supplies and the transport of nuclear material. A 2013 report by the Polish Institute of International Affairs (PIIA) concluded that Ukraine will lean towards the development of ''intensive cooperation'' with Western nuclear regulators and companies as it seeks to increase its control over the sector and reduce its dependency on Russia. The PIIA report said the gas crises of 2006 and 2009, and especially the current destabilisation of the country, have highlighted Ukraine's ''excessive and problematic dependence'' on energy supply from Russia. The 'Energy Strategy of Ukraine Until 2030' assumes that the share of nuclear energy will remain the same in 2030 as it was in 2005 - about 50 % of the energy mix. To achieve its goals, Ukraine's strategy envisages several priority actions. Firstly, work should begin on identification of three or four sites for new nuclear stations. Secondly, the plan says that Khmelnistki-3 and -4 should be completed by 2016. Thirdly, the plan envisages six gigawatts of new nuclear capacity becoming operational between 2019 and 2021. Finally, lifetime extensions are planned for South Ukraine units 1 to 3, Zaporozhye units 1 to 6, Rovno units 2 and 3 and Khmelnitski-1.

  15. Extensive expertise in endocrinology. Adrenal crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allolio, Bruno

    2015-03-01

    Adrenal crisis is a life-threatening emergency contributing to the excess mortality of patients with adrenal insufficiency. Studies in patients on chronic replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency have revealed an incidence of 5-10 adrenal crises/100 patient years and suggested a mortality rate from adrenal crisis of 0.5/100 patient years. Patients with adrenal crisis typically present with profoundly impaired well-being, hypotension, nausea and vomiting, and fever responding well to parenteral hydrocortisone administration. Infections are the major precipitating causes of adrenal crisis. Lack of increased cortisol concentrations during infection enhances pro-inflammatory cytokine release and sensitivity to the toxic effects of these cytokines (e.g. tumour necrosis factor alpha). Furthermore, pro-inflammatory cytokines may impair glucocorticoid receptor function aggravating glucocorticoid deficiency. Treatment of adrenal crisis is simple and highly effective consisting of i.v. hydrocortisone (initial bolus of 100  mg followed by 200  mg over 24  h as continuous infusion) and 0.9% saline (1000  ml within the first hour). Prevention of adrenal crisis requires appropriate hydrocortisone dose adjustments to stressful medical procedures (e.g. major surgery) and other stressful events (e.g. infection). Patient education is a key for such dose adjustments but current education concepts are not sufficiently effective. Thus, improved education strategies are needed. Every patient should carry an emergency card and should be provided with an emergency kit for parenteral hydrocortisone self-administration. A hydrocortisone pen would hold a great potential to lower the current barriers to hydrocortisone self-injection. Improved patient education and measures to facilitate parenteral hydrocortisone self-administration in impending crisis are expected to significantly reduce morbidity and mortality from adrenal crisis. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  16. Consumer experience of formal crisis-response services and preferred methods of crisis intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscarato, Kara; Lee, Stuart; Kroschel, Jon; Hollander, Yitzchak; Brennan, Alice; Warren, Narelle

    2014-08-01

    The manner in which people with mental illness are supported in a crisis is crucial to their recovery. The current study explored mental health consumers' experiences with formal crisis services (i.e. police and crisis assessment and treatment (CAT) teams), preferred crisis supports, and opinions of four collaborative interagency response models. Eleven consumers completed one-on-one, semistructured interviews. The results revealed that the perceived quality of previous formal crisis interventions varied greatly. Most participants preferred family members or friends to intervene. However, where a formal response was required, general practitioners and mental health case managers were preferred; no participant wanted a police response, and only one indicated a preference for CAT team assistance. Most participants welcomed collaborative crisis interventions. Of four collaborative interagency response models currently being trialled internationally, participants most strongly supported the Ride-Along Model, which enables a police officer and a mental health clinician to jointly respond to distressed consumers in the community. The findings highlight the potential for an interagency response model to deliver a crisis response aligned with consumers' preferences.

  17. A self-powered thin-film radiation detector using intrinsic high-energy current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zygmanski, Piotr, E-mail: pzygmanski@LROC.HARVARD.EDU, E-mail: Erno-Sajo@uml.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Sajo, Erno, E-mail: pzygmanski@LROC.HARVARD.EDU, E-mail: Erno-Sajo@uml.edu [Department of Physics and Applied Physics, Medical Physics Program, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, Massachusetts 01854 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: The authors introduce a radiation detection method that relies on high-energy current (HEC) formed by secondary charged particles in the detector material, which induces conduction current in an external readout circuit. Direct energy conversion of the incident radiation powers the signal formation without the need for external bias voltage or amplification. The detector the authors consider is a thin-film multilayer device, composed of alternating disparate electrically conductive and insulating layers. The optimal design of HEC detectors consists of microscopic or nanoscopic structures. Methods: Theoretical and computational developments are presented to illustrate the salient properties of the HEC detector and to demonstrate its feasibility. In this work, the authors examine single-sandwiched and periodic layers of Cu and Al, and Au and Al, ranging in thickness from 100 nm to 300 μm and separated by similarly sized dielectric gaps, exposed to 120 kVp x-ray beam (half-value thickness of 4.1 mm of Al). The energy deposition characteristics and the high-energy current were determined using radiation transport computations. Results: The authors found that in a dual-layer configuration, the signal is in the measurable range. For a defined total detector thickness in a multilayer structure, the signal sharply increases with decreasing thickness of the high-Z conductive layers. This paper focuses on the computational results while a companion paper reports the experimental findings. Conclusions: Significant advantages of the device are that it does not require external power supply and amplification to create a measurable signal; it can be made in any size and geometry, including very thin (sub-millimeter to submicron) flexible curvilinear forms, and it is inexpensive. Potential applications include medical dosimetry (both in vivo and external), radiation protection, and other settings where one or more of the above qualities are desired.

  18. The Economic Crisis and Several Effects on Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina BRAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main mechanism of profit making is not production according to the outcomes of several analyses of the current economic crisis. This mechanism is circulation and exchange. Starting with this observation the paper goes through a number of aspects regarding the relation between crisis and economy at global level. These aspects consist in the recent financial turmoil; who pays for the crisis; stabilizing the financial sector; recession and the financial crisis; the internationalization of the crisis; commodities and the ecological crisis; an end to neo-liberalism; what should socialists demand. We notice and comment on how important current development in the wake of the banking crisis is for the transmission of that crisis to the rest of the economy and its interaction with the more general economic crisis now emerging. It was concluded that there are good chances that the current economic order to be broken. The future shape of the order will depend more on vision of managers than on the influence of the so called objective factors.

  19. FINANCIAL RENT, DEBT AND CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Ahmet UĞUR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial crises have some common features even if they come into being in different areas and countries with different income level. Especially due to the financial liberalization and entegration of world economies, they affect many countries with a domino effect. Internationalization of capital stregthens particularly financial markets in developed countries and leads to speculative opportunities and possibilities of very high profit rates. Ambition for higher profit, from time to time, gives rise to fictitious structures, eliminating rational market behaviors. Problems of higher indebtedness and current account deficit in large economies such as the US lead to speculative bubles supported by financial derivatives, making nonproductive short term portfolio investments profitable. Before crisis, it is observed that this type of financial structures become common and real estate prices rise. And following crisis it is observed that public finance discipline deteriorate.

  20. Current demographics suggest future energy supplies will be inadequate to slow human population growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P DeLong

    Full Text Available Influential demographic projections suggest that the global human population will stabilize at about 9-10 billion people by mid-century. These projections rest on two fundamental assumptions. The first is that the energy needed to fuel development and the associated decline in fertility will keep pace with energy demand far into the future. The second is that the demographic transition is irreversible such that once countries start down the path to lower fertility they cannot reverse to higher fertility. Both of these assumptions are problematic and may have an effect on population projections. Here we examine these assumptions explicitly. Specifically, given the theoretical and empirical relation between energy-use and population growth rates, we ask how the availability of energy is likely to affect population growth through 2050. Using a cross-country data set, we show that human population growth rates are negatively related to per-capita energy consumption, with zero growth occurring at ∼13 kW, suggesting that the global human population will stop growing only if individuals have access to this amount of power. Further, we find that current projected future energy supply rates are far below the supply needed to fuel a global demographic transition to zero growth, suggesting that the predicted leveling-off of the global population by mid-century is unlikely to occur, in the absence of a transition to an alternative energy source. Direct consideration of the energetic constraints underlying the demographic transition results in a qualitatively different population projection than produced when the energetic constraints are ignored. We suggest that energetic constraints be incorporated into future population projections.

  1. Energy Game in Ukraine Crisis in the International Political Context%国际政治背景下乌克兰危机中的能源博弈

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐彦林; 韩佶; 亢晋军

    2015-01-01

    The conflict between Russia and Ukraine in 2014 is different from the natural gas disputes in 2006 and 2009 be-tween the two nations. This conflict has aroused wide concern in the international community,behind which is the intense“game”among the United States,Russia and the European Union relating to geopolitics and energy. To the west of Ukraine is European Union,and to the east,Russia. Oil and gas imported to EU countries from Russia must go through its territory, which gives Ukraine a strategic position of great geopolitical importance. Thus,energy plays critical roles in Ukraine crisis. In the Russia-Ukraine crisis in 2014,Russia diversified its oil and gas export strategies to reduce its dependence on Ukraine;the EU accelerated the pace of diversification of energy imports;the United States attempted to take away Russia’s share of the energy market in Europe by using energy as a bargaining chip in its intervention on Ukraine crisis. A study on the energy game in the Ukraine crisis offers an angle for better understanding the game among nations involved and the prospect of the Ukraine crisis.%2014的俄乌冲突与2006年和2009年的两次天然气纠纷大不相同。此次冲突引起国际社会广泛的关注,背后隐藏着美国、俄罗斯、欧盟各国围绕地缘政治和能源展开的激烈博弈。由于乌克兰西连欧盟,东连俄罗斯,是欧盟各国从俄罗斯进口油气资源的必经之地,在地缘政治上具有十分重要的战略地位,能源在乌克兰危机中更凸显出重要的筹码作用。在此次危机中,俄罗斯采取油气出口多元化战略,减少对乌克兰的过境依赖;欧盟加快能源进口多样化步伐;美国也试图以能源为武器,增加干预乌克兰危机的筹码,挤占俄罗斯在欧洲的能源市场份额。通过乌克兰危机中的能源博弈,可以从一个侧面更好地理解和分析乌克兰危机中的大国博弈和未来走向。

  2. Energy Service Companies - ESCOs: international situation and in Brazil; Empresas de Servico de Conservacao de Energia - ESCOS: situacao internacional e no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragao Neto, Raymundo Moniz de [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The creation of ESCOs (Energy Service Company) occurred from the oil crisis of 1970. The article examines the creation and role of these companies in Brazil and worldwide, conceptualizing and presenting them in the current market situation.

  3. Wind Energy Potential: Current representation and projections for the European domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Richard; Gnatiuk, Natalia; Bobylev, Leonid; Pettersson, Lasse

    2016-04-01

    We have used the publically available CORDEX datasets to quantify the ability of a current regional climate model (SMHI-RCA4) to simulate the wind energy potential in the Black sea region using 5 different global climate models for the boundary conditions. The regional climate model results are compared to the ERA-Interim reanalyses over a common period, 1979-2005, and we use Taylor plots to demonstrate the effect of different global climate models on the regional climate simulations. Wind energy potential is calculated from the daily hub-height (120 m) wind speeds by extrapolating the available 10 m wind speeds using a power-law wind profile approximation. In general we find that the regional climate model produces stronger surface winds over the Black Sea region as compared to the ERA-Interim reanalysis, which we relate to the difference in model resolution. We also assess the projected changes to the wind energy potential in the CORDEX EUR-11 region from the current period to the near future (2021-2050), and to the late 21st century (2061-2090). We use a single model ensemble approach to assess the robustness of the projected changes, depending upon the choice of global climate model used for the boundary conditions. To understand the context of the changes in wind energy potential in the region, we include the changing climatology of the upper level (850 hPa) winds over these periods. This work was supported by the EU FP7 Project, Grant agreement No.: 287844. "Towards COast to COast NETworks of marine protected areas (from the shore to the high and deep sea), coupled with sea-based wind energy potential (CoCoNet)".

  4. Crisis redt ruimtelijke ordening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Janssen-Jansen

    2011-01-01

    Wie buiten om zich heen kijkt, ziet een enorm overschot aan vastgoed variërend van leegstaande kantoren en winkels en eindeloos te koop staande woningen tot stilliggende bouwprojecten. In de vakwereld en media krijgt de fi nanciële crisis de schuld. Maar is de crisis wel de schuldige? Of juist de re

  5. Opportunity From Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Africa can benefit from the global financial crisis by developing and chartering its own economic course by Zhong Weiyun THE global economic development is like a sports competition.A loss by one competitor creates the chance for another to win.The financial crisis has seen major economies in Europe and America struggling under the burden of sluggish markets,while developing

  6. ABOUT THE ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tartavulea Ramona Iulia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis that the global economy is facing nowadays has started with the financial crisis of the U.S financial system. We are talking about an unprecedented speculative boom at global level which has overcome the previous booms created by the d

  7. Crisis Management Research Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    In this column, Crisis Management in the Schools Interest Group members summarize recent crisis management publications. The first article summarized was a meta-analysis of the risk factors associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among adults. The second study looked at the presence of life stressors among students who were expelled…

  8. From Liquidity Crisis to Sovereign Debt Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona VINEREAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the results of empirical research on European Union s evolution in terms of macroeconomic stability in a period in which member countries crossed from a liquidity crisis to a sovereign debt crisis. So, the evolution of the EU member countries is analyzed as the sovereign debt crisis has worsened and has become increasingly dangerous for the stability of the European economy. The research that is the subject of this paper aims to segment the EU member countries according to the degree of macroeconomic stability. Also, this segmentation process is performed according to two indicators that are highly important for macroeconomic stability, namely the sovereign debt, expressed as public debt to GDP, and fiscal and budgetary discipline, expressed by the ratio of budget balance to GDP.

  9. Future of the animal health industry at a time of food crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, William C; Conder, George A; Marchiondo, Alan A

    2009-08-07

    It is popular in some quarters to say that there is no food crisis; that there is food aplenty; and that the problem is one of distribution or other over-arching technical difficulty. To the starving, however, there is a food crisis; and it neither speaks well nor bodes well for humanity if we dismiss their plight so glibly. The United Nations has called for a large and rapid increase in food production. Veterinary parasitologists and industry leaders can contribute to the production of healthier livestock and the expansion of aquaculture, but enhanced production and better delivery of plant foods may provide faster relief. Although livestock farming is not the most energy-efficient way of producing food, meat will remain a significant component of the global diet for the foreseeable future. New measures for parasite control will be needed, and we must improve our methods of inventing them. They need not act directly against the parasite. In the distant future lie other threats to the inhabitants of planet Earth, and here we must acknowledge the cogency of the no-food-crisis argument. In the long term, the production of animal foods and animal feeds will be revamped in ways that depend on how (or whether) we solve the energy crisis, the environmental crisis, the increasingly dire regional population crises, and the current world financial crisis. Throughout the 20th century, the animal health industry had to adapt to industrialization and expansive agribusiness. It will have to adapt to even greater changes in the 21st century and beyond.

  10. A Small Potassium Current in AgRP/NPY Neurons Regulates Feeding Behavior and Energy Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlin He

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurons that co-express agouti-related peptide (AgRP and neuropeptide Y (NPY are indispensable for normal feeding behavior. Firing activities of AgRP/NPY neurons are dynamically regulated by energy status and coordinate appropriate feeding behavior to meet nutritional demands. However, intrinsic mechanisms that regulate AgRP/NPY neural activities during the fed-to-fasted transition are not fully understood. We found that AgRP/NPY neurons in satiated mice express high levels of the small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel 3 (SK3 and are inhibited by SK3-mediated potassium currents; on the other hand, food deprivation suppresses SK3 expression in AgRP/NPY neurons, and the decreased SK3-mediated currents contribute to fasting-induced activation of these neurons. Genetic mutation of SK3 specifically in AgRP/NPY neurons leads to increased sensitivity to diet-induced obesity, associated with chronic hyperphagia and decreased energy expenditure. Our results identify SK3 as a key intrinsic mediator that coordinates nutritional status with AgRP/NPY neural activities and animals’ feeding behavior and energy metabolism.

  11. Hypertensive crisis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandar, Jayanthi; Zilleruelo, Gastón

    2012-05-01

    Hypertensive crisis is rare in children and is usually secondary to an underlying disease. There is strong evidence that the renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the genesis of hypertensive crisis. An important principle in the management of children with hypertensive crisis is to determine if severe hypertension is chronic, acute, or acute-on-chronic. When it is associated with signs of end-organ damage such as encephalopathy, congestive cardiac failure or renal failure, there is an emergent need to lower blood pressures to 25-30% of the original value and then accomplish a gradual reduction in blood pressure. Precipitous drops in blood pressure can result in impairment of perfusion of vital organs. Medications commonly used to treat hypertensive crisis in children are nicardipine, labetalol and sodium nitroprusside. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and recent developments in management of hypertensive crisis in children.

  12. IMPORTANCE AND ROLE OF COST ACCOUNTING IN COMPANY CRISIS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja Todorović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Company crisis could be defined asa process in a period of time that unexpectedlythreatesn the realization of the mission and goals ofthe company. As such, it has been present forseveral years both in highly developed countries ofthe world and in our country. The causes of thecrisis can be numerous, and the current crisis inour business is in many ways specific, and requiresa large extent and greater involvement ofmanagement structures in the detection andelimination of consequences caused by the crisis. Inthis regard, the management structure must focusattention to high-quality accounting - informationsupport, which results from adequately establishedconcept of managing accounting. Appropriate,timely and relevant information on economicperformance are necessary for its success, which atthe same time assume the role of control and/ordispositive crisis management instruments in thecompany. The information derived from managingaccounting as a quality base for decision makingshould enable recognition of symptoms and causesof the crisis, as well as crisis prevention andassessment. The paper recalls the specific and mostcommon causes of the crisis in the company, as oneof the important issues, especially in the globaleconomic crisis. In addition, the paper will pointout the importance of setting realistic goals andpossibilities to prevent the crisis. Finally, wehighlight the importance of cost accounting inorder to overcome the effects of the crisis.

  13. Current EU-27 technical potential of organic waste streams for biogas and energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Helge; Fischer, Peter; Schumacher, Britt; Adler, Philipp

    2013-11-01

    Anaerobic digestion of organic waste generated by households, businesses, agriculture, and industry is an important approach as method of waste treatment - especially with regard to its potential as an alternative energy source and its cost-effectiveness. Separate collection of biowaste from households or vegetal waste from public green spaces is already established in some EU-27 countries. The material recovery in composting plants is common for biowaste and vegetal waste. Brewery waste fractions generated by beer production are often used for animal feeding after a suitable preparation. Waste streams from paper industry generated by pulp and paper production such as black liquor or paper sludge are often highly contaminated with toxic substances. Recovery of chemicals and the use in thermal processes like incineration, pyrolysis, and gasification are typical utilization paths. The current utilization of organic waste from households and institutions (without agricultural waste) was investigated for EU-27 countries with Germany as an in-depth example. Besides of biowaste little is known about the suitability of waste streams from brewery and paper industry for anaerobic digestion. Therefore, an evaluation of the most important biogas process parameters for different substrates was carried out, in order to calculate the biogas utilization potential of these waste quantities. Furthermore, a calculation of biogas energy potentials was carried out for defined waste fractions which are most suitable for anaerobic digestion. Up to 1% of the primary energy demand can be covered by the calculated total biogas energy potential. By using a "best-practice-scenario" for separately collected biowaste, the coverage of primary energy demand may be increased above 2% for several countries. By using sector-specific waste streams, for example the German paper industry could cover up to 4.7% and the German brewery industry up to 71.2% of its total energy demand.

  14. Crisis Communication and Management: Surviving a Public Relations Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eramo, Eric M.

    2009-01-01

    Crisis management, or crisis communication, is never a good thing for a business to experience. It is, however, a public relations' professional moment to shine and put their honed skills to good use. A good crisis management plan is not only action during the crisis but preparation and reflection. Hiring a PR firm that deals with crisis…

  15. Energy content of stormtime ring current from phase space mapping simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Margaret W.; Schulz, Michael; Lyons, Larry R.

    1993-01-01

    We perform a phase space mapping study to estimate the enhancement in energy content that results from stormtime particle transport in the equatorial magnetosphere. Our pre-storm phase space distribution is based on a steady-state transport model. Using results from guiding-center simulations of ion transport during model storms having main phases of 3 hr, 6 hr, and 12 hr, we map phase space distributions of ring current protons from the pre-storm distribution in accordance with Liouville's theorem. We find that transport can account for the entire ten to twenty-fold increase in magnetospheric particle energy content typical of a major storm if a realistic stormtime enhancement of the phase space density f is imposed at the nightside tail plasma sheet (represented by an enhancement of f at the neutral line in our model).

  16. Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Array Effects on Wave Current and Sediment Circulation: Monterey Bay CA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Jones, Craig; Magalen, Jason

    2014-09-01

    The goal s of this study were to develop tools to quantitatively characterize environments where wave energy converter ( WEC ) devices may be installed and to assess e ffects on hydrodynamics and lo cal sediment transport. A large hypothetical WEC array was investigated using wave, hydrodynamic, and sediment transport models and site - specific average and storm conditions as input. The results indicated that there were significant changes in sediment s izes adjacent to and in the lee of the WEC array due to reduced wave energy. The circulation in the lee of the array was also altered; more intense onshore currents were generated in the lee of the WECs . In general, the storm case and the average case show ed the same qualitative patterns suggesting that these trends would be maintained throughout the year. The framework developed here can be used to design more efficient arrays while minimizing impacts on nearshore environmen ts.

  17. Acceleration and transport of ions in turbulent current sheets: formation of non-maxwelian energy distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Artemyev

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to particle acceleration in turbulent current sheet (CS. Our results show that the mechanism of CS particle interaction with electromagnetic turbulence can explain the formation of power law energy distributions. We study the ratio between adiabatic acceleration of particles in electric field in the presence of stationary turbulence and acceleration due to electric field in the case of dynamic turbulence. The correlation between average energy gained by particles and average particle residence time in the vicinity of the neutral sheet is discussed. It is also demonstrated that particle velocity distributions formed by particle-turbulence interaction are similar in essence to the ones observed near the far reconnection region in the Earth's magnetotail.

  18. Current-induced energy barrier suppression for electromigration from first principles

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ruoxing

    2011-08-01

    We present an efficient method for evaluating current-induced forces in nanoscale junctions, which naturally integrates into the nonequilibrium Green\\'s function formalism implemented within density functional theory. This allows us to perform dynamic atomic relaxation in the presence of an electric current while evaluating the current-voltage characteristics. The central idea consists of expressing the system energy density matrix in terms of Green\\'s functions. To validate our implementation, we perform a series of benchmark calculations, both at zero and at finite bias. First we evaluate the current-induced forces acting over an Al nanowire and compare them with previously published results for fixed geometries. Then we perform structural relaxation of the same wires under bias and determine the critical voltage at which they break. We find that although a perfectly straight wire does not break at any of the voltages considered, a zigzag wire is more fragile and snaps at 1.4 V, with the Al atoms moving against the electron flow. The critical current density for the rupture is estimated to be 9.6 × 1010 A/cm2, in good agreement with the experimentally measured value of 5 × 1010 A/cm2. Finally, we demonstrate the capability of our scheme to tackle the electromigration problem by studying the current-induced motion of a single Si atom covalently attached to the sidewall of a (4,4) armchair single-walled carbon nanotube. Our calculations indicate that if Si is attached along the current path, then current-induced forces can induce migration. In contrast, if the bonding site is away from the current path, then the adatom remains stable regardless of the voltage. An analysis based on decomposing the total force into a wind and an electrostatic component, as well as on a detailed evaluation of the bond currents, shows that this remarkable electromigration phenomenon is due solely to the position-dependent wind force. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  19. ECONOMIC CRISIS AND ECONOMIC DISPARITIES IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica CRUDU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the economic and financial crisis is still being felt. It started as an acute crisis of the banking system, but then quickly affected the real economy, causing a substantial slump in business investment, household demand and output. The current economic crisis has affected almost all European countries but the countries of the European south and the former eastern socialist republics have suffered the most. The objective in this paper is to quantify economic disparities as expressed by several growth indicators, such as GDP per capita, employment/unemployment rates, labour productivity rates and use them to compare the economic performances before and after the crisis. EU took several measures to recover from the economic crisis. Nevertheless, its ability to adjust to widely diverse national and local contexts that have been impacted differently by the effects of the crisis, and to support the different patterns of economic growth that will result from it, is yet to be seen.

  20. Neutral current interactions of low-energy neutrinos in dense neutron matter

    CERN Document Server

    Lovato, Alessandro; Gandolfi, Stefano; Losa, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of a calculation of the response of cold neutron matter to neutral-current interactions with low energy neutrinos, carried out using an effective interaction and effective operators consistently derived within the formalism of Correlated Basis Functions. The neutrino mean free path obtained from the calculated responses turns out to be strongly affected by both short and long range correlations, leading to a sizable increase with respect to the prediction of the Fermi gas model. The consistency between the proposed approach and Landau theory of normal Fermi liquids also has been investigated, using a set of Landau parameters obtained from the matrix elements of the effective interaction.

  1. Lowering district heating temperatures – Impact to system performance in current and future Danish energy scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    CHP (Combined heat and power) production in connection with DH (district heating) systems has previously demonstrated a significant reduction in primary energy consumption. With extended installation of intermittent sustainable sources, such as eg. wind turbines rather than thermal units....... Utility plants and demand curves corresponded to the current and future scenarios for the DH system of Greater Copenhagen. Performance curves from typical CHP-plant technologies were used to represent the changed operation of power and heat production for changed DH temperatures. The results show...

  2. Municipal Waste-to-Energy plants in Poland – current projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyranka Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions show why in the current situation development of Polish WtE infrastructure is right, i.e. operation of aforementioned plants that will ensure benefits associated with energy production, reduction of landfilling and informing public opinion regarding modern waste management models. Additionally, the article draws attention on the high responsibility that will be put on WtE plants operators and that experience gained during WtE implementation can be used to improve even further for future Polish Waste Management Systems.

  3. Experimental study on hydrodynamic characteristics of vertical-axis floating tidal current energy power generation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yong; Li, Teng-fei; Zhang, Liang; Sheng, Qi-hu; Zhang, Xue-wei; Jiang, Jin

    2016-10-01

    To study the characteristics of attenuation, hydrostatic towage and wave response of the vertical-axis floating tidal current energy power generation device (VAFTCEPGD), a prototype is designed and experiment is carried out in the towing tank. Free decay is conducted to obtain attenuation characteristics of the VAFTCEPGD, and characteristics of mooring forces and motion response, floating condition, especially the lateral displacement of the VAFTCEPGD are obtained from the towing in still water. Tension response of the #1 mooring line and vibration characteristics of the VAFTCEPGD in regular waves as well as in level 4 irregular wave sea state with the current velocity of 0.6 m/s. The results can be reference for theoretical study and engineering applications related to VAFTCEPGD.

  4. Evaluation of Switch Currents in Nine-Switch Energy Conversion Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, Poh Chiang; Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Qin, Zian;

    2013-01-01

    Converters with reduced switch counts usually face some performance tradeoffs, which make them suitable for some applications but not others. The same applies to the nine-switch converter, which is a reduced-switch version of the back-to-back twelve-switch converter. The nine-switch converter has...... since been shown to experience a higher voltage stress, which can be lowered in some cases. A corresponding evaluation of its current stress is however lacking, and is hence addressed now by computing its switch currents when used for ac-ac, ac-dc, dc-ac and dc-dc energy conversions. Relevant...... expressions, application requirements and simulation results are presented for identifying cases, where the nine-switch converter can have an improvement in performance despite its reduced switch count....

  5. Global economic crisis the state and foreign policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davut Ateş

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The crisis that began in mortgage credits in the middle of 2007 in the United States triggered a financial crisis starting from the middle of 2008 in the U.S. and Europe. At the end of 2008 real sector all over the world began to be negatively affected from the crisis. Current crisis is compared with Great Depression that had begun in 1929 and become one of steps going to the Second World War. It is known that many changes occured in domestic and external behaviours of states in the time of Depression. It is very usual to expect that current crisi will have some influences on states too. Taking into account that crisis is a temporary period, in this essay it is debated how domestic and external behaviours of states will change in the time of crisis. Moreover, it is explained that influences of crisis may change from country to country, and continuation of crisis in the form of recession or depression will create different impacts as well.

  6. Filtering and Control of High Speed Motor Current in a Flywheel Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Barbara H.; Santiago, Walter

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been developing technology to enable the use of high speed flywheel energy storage units in future spacecraft for the last several years. An integral part of the flywheel unit is the three phase motor/generator that is used to accelerate and decelerate the flywheel. The motor/generator voltage is supplied from a pulse width modulated (PWM) inverter operating from a fixed DC voltage supply. The motor current is regulated through a closed loop current control that commands the necessary voltage from the inverter to achieve the desired current. The current regulation loop is the innermost control loop of the overall flywheel system and, as a result, must be fast and accurate over the entire operating speed range (20,000 to 60,000 rpm) of the flywheel. The voltage applied to the motor is a high frequency PWM version of the DC bus voltage that results in the commanded fundamental value plus higher order harmonics. Most of the harmonic content is at the switching frequency and above. The higher order harmonics cause a rapid change in voltage to be applied to the motor that can result in large voltage stresses across the motor windings. In addition, the high frequency content in the motor causes sensor noise in the magnetic bearings that leads to disturbances for the bearing control. To alleviate these problems, a filter is used to present a more sinusoidal voltage to the motor/generator. However, the filter adds additional dynamics and phase lag to the motor system that can interfere with the performance of the current regulator. This paper will discuss the tuning methodology and results for the motor/generator current regulator and the impact of the filter on the control. Results at speeds up to 50,000 rpm are presented.

  7. Global, Energy-Dependent Ring Current Response During Two Large Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, J.; Angelopoulos, V.; Burch, J. L.; De Pascuale, S.; Fuselier, S. A.; Genestreti, K. J.; Kurth, W. S.; LLera, K.; McComas, D. J.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.; Valek, P. W.

    2015-12-01

    Two recent large (~200 nT) geomagnetic storms occurred during 17--18 March 2015 and 22--23 June 2015. The global, energy-dependent ring current response to these two extreme events is investigated using both global imaging and multi-point in situ observations. Energetic neutral atom (ENA) imaging by the Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS) mission provides a global view of ring current ions. Local measurements are provided by two multi-spacecraft missions. The two Van Allen Probes measure in situ plasma (including ion composition) and fields at ring current and plasmaspheric L values. The recently launched Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) comprises four spacecraft that have just begun to measure particles (including ion composition) and fields at outer magnetospheric L-values. We analyze the timing and energetics of the stormtime evolution of ring current ions, both trapped and precipitating, using TWINS ENA images and in situ data by the Van Allen Probes and MMS.

  8. Modeling interbank relations during the international financial crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Christos S. Savva

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of the current financial crisis on the correlations of four international banking stocks. We find that in the beginning of the crisis banks generally show a transition to a higher correlation followed by a dramatic decline towards the end of 2008. These findings are consistent with both traditional contagion theory and the more recent network theory of contagion.

  9. Development of a Distributed Simulation Environment for Crisis Management Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vullings, H.J.L.M.; Kleermaeker, S. de; Vermeulen, C.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Disasters happen; you simply cannot prevent them. So you need to be adequately trained for managing a crisis when it occurs. Most crisis management professionals, however, do not have sufficient time to train regularly, as they often have demanding regular jobs too. In addition, most current-day tra

  10. Improving Aftermath Crisis Management in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollmer, M.; Hamrin, M.; Pastuszka, H.M.; Missoweit, M.; Stolk, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale incidents (man-made or natural) inside and outside the European Union (EU) require a coordinated response from crisis managers and first responders across Europe and with resources from all levels of government. Currently, crisis management (CM) in the EU can be regarded as a highly

  11. The Opioid Crisis | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current issue contents The Opioid Crisis Follow us The Opioid Crisis Photo: AdobeStock BY THE NUMBERS - Opioid misuse and addiction is a major ... drug. They include strong prescription pain relievers and the illegal drug heroin. Millions of Americans suffer from ...

  12. Husserl's Crisis as a crisis of psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feest, Uljana

    2012-06-01

    This paper places Husserl's mature work, The Crisis of the European Sciences, in the context of his engagement with--and critique of--experimental psychology at the time. I begin by showing (a) that Husserl accorded psychology a crucial role in his philosophy, i.e., that of providing a scientific analysis of subjectivity, and (b) that he viewed contemporary psychology--due to its naturalism--as having failed to pursue this goal in the appropriate manner. I then provide an analysis of Husserl's views about naturalism and scientific philosophy. Some central themes of the Crisis are traced back to Husserl's earlier work and to his relationship with his teacher, Franz Brentano, with whom he disagreed about the status of "inner perception" as the proper scientific method for a phenomenological analysis. The paper then shows that Husserl was well aware of at least one publication about the crisis of psychology (Bühler's 1927 book), and it teases out some aspects of the complicated relationship between Husserl and members of the Würzburg School of thought psychology: The latter had drawn on Husserl's writings, but Husserl felt that they had misunderstood his central thesis. I conclude by placing Husserl's work in the wider context of scientific, cultural, and political crisis-discourses at the time.

  13. Water Shortage Crisis in Energy and Chemical Bases of Ningxia, Inner Mongolia and Shaanxi Province%宁蒙陕能源化工基地水资源危机研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安玉洁; 毕黎明

    2014-01-01

    Energy and Chemical Bases of Ningxia, Inner Mongolia and Shaanxi Province play the important position of energy security strategy. With the remarkable development energy and chemical ener-gy industry, water shortage has become the most important factor re-stricting the energy bases of economic and social development. Accord-ing to the investigation of water quantity and quality, analy the main water resources crisis of Energy and Chemical Bases.%宁蒙陕能源化工基地是我国重要的能源、重化工基地,近年来,在煤炭资源开发和煤化工产业高速增长的带动下,区域经济发展迅猛,但由于干旱少雨,水资源匮乏,缺水问题已成为制约经济社会发展的最重要因素之一。通过基地水资源水量水质现状调查,分析存在的主要问题和危机。

  14. Marine Benthic Habitats and Seabed Suitability Mapping for Potential Ocean Current Energy Siting Offshore Southeast Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Mulcan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the legal framework for ocean current energy policy and regulation to develop a metric for assessing the biological and geological characteristics of a seabed area with respect to the siting of OCE devices, a framework of criteria by which to assess seabed suitability (seabed suitability framework that can facilitate the siting, and implementation of ocean current energy (OCE projects. Seafloor geology and benthic biological data were analyzed in conjunction with seafloor core sample geostatistical interpolation to locate suitable substrates for OCE anchoring. Existing submarine cable pathways were considered to determine pathways for power transmission cables that circumvent biologically sensitive areas. Suitability analysis indicates that areas east of the Miami Terrace and north of recently identified deep-sea coral mounds are the most appropriate for OCE siting due to abundance of sand/sediment substrate, existing underwater cable route access, and minimal biological presence (i.e., little to no benthic communities. Further reconnaissance requires higher resolution maps of geological substrate and benthic community locations to identify specific OCE development locations, classify benthic conditions, and minimize potentially negative OCE environmental impacts.

  15. Energy transfer between energetic ring current H(+) and O(+) by electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Richard M.; Horne, Richard B.

    1994-01-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in the frequency range below the helium gyrofrequency can be excited in the equatorial region of the outer magnetosphere by cyclotron resonant instability with anisotropic ring current H(+) ions. As the unducted waves propagate to higher latitudes, the wave normal should become highly inclined to the ambient magnetic field. Under such conditions, wave energy can be absorbed by cyclotron resonant interactions with ambient O(+), leading to ion heating perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. Resonant wave absorption peaks in the vicinity of the bi-ion frequency and the second harmonic of the O(+) gyrofrequrency. This absorption should mainly occur at latitudes between 10 deg and 30 deg along auroral field lines (L is greater than or equal to 7) in the postnoon sector. The concomitant ion heating perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field can contribute to the isotropization and geomagnetic trapping of collapsed O(+) ion conics (or beams) that originate from a low-altitude ionospheric source region. During geomagnetic storms when the O(+) content of the magnetosphere is significantly enhanced, the absorption of EMIC waves should become more efficient, and it may contribute to the observed acceleration of O(+) ions of ionospheric origin up to ring current energies.

  16. Growth in a Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG HOU

    2010-01-01

    @@ In the first half of 2010, the Greek sovereign debt crisis hit Europe severely,casting a shadow over the region's slow economic recovery. Although the crisis has been gradually curbed across Europe, thanks largely to major financial stability measures by the EU and its member states, it still poses grave challenges to the long-term economic growth of Europe. Faced with serious structural problems brought to light by the crisis, Europe must carry out substantial measures to regain vitality and ensure lasting growth.

  17. Trust vs. Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Mogensen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The three social phenomena -- norms, trust, and crisis -- are in this paper combined into one model that illustrates their function and relationship. Crisis is seen as a reaction to serious violations of expectations that leave people disoriented, insecure about situational norms, and unable to judge whom to trust. One logical solution to a crisis is to rebuild a shared understanding of the norms involved in any given context. Banking is used as a case. Central concepts are borrowed from Niklas Luhmann Trust (1968, Alf Ross Directives and Norms (1967, and Arthur G. Neal National Trauma & Collective Memory (1998.

  18. Crisis intervention for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Emily

    2013-06-01

    Cancer diagnoses and treatments can be crisis-causing events that overwhelm the usual coping abilities of patients and their families. Oncology nurses constantly are observing and attending to patients' diverse needs, ranging from biomedical to emotional, social, and psychological. Nurses have the chance to be first responders in times of patient crises, as they are in the position to recognize the crisis, respond effectively, and transform the crisis into a pivotal learning experience. This article discusses a way to think about patient and family crises that empowers nurses to respond in a manner appropriate to the cultural context and respectful of the individual space of the patient.

  19. Egypt & Financial Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Financial crisis that occurred in August 2008 was unforeseen, sudden, sharp, and had a great impact on the global financial market. Egypt is one of the countries was affected by this financial crisis as a market economy country, and WTO member. in this paper I will try to study the implication of such crisis on the Egyptian economy in the fields of tourism, Suez canal, oil field, and GDP, not only the economy factor were effected, but also the Egyptian market represented in its compon...

  20. The NASA's Long-Term Global Solar Energy Resource: Current Solar Resource Variability and Future Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, P. W.; Cox, S. J.; Zhang, T.; Chandler, W.; Westberg, D.; Hoell, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Considering the likelihood of global climate change and the global competition for energy resources, there is an increasing need to provide improved global Earth surface solar resource information. The improved long-term records are needed to better understand and quantify potential shifts in the solar resource with anticipated changes in climatic weather patterns. As part of the World Climate Research Programme's (WCRP) Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX), NASA has an active Surface Radiation Budget project that has produced long-term global gridded estimates of the surface solar fluxes. These fluxes have been processed and made available to the solar energy community over the years through NASA's Surface meteorology and Solar Energy web site (SSE). This web site provides solar resource and accompanying meteorological variables specifically tailored to the renewable energy community spanning a 22 year period. The web application has been improved over time with usage growing nearly exponentially over the last few years. This paper presents the global and regional variability of the solar resource from the current data available at the SSE web application. The variability is compared for large different spatial scales and compared to other data sets where appropriate. We assess the interannual variability compared against surface sites and other satellite based data sets. These comparisons quantify the limits of usefulness of this data set. For instance, we find long-term linear trends that are dominated by satellite based artifacts in some areas, but agree well with surface measurements in others. Nevertheless, the extremes of solar variability are quantified and show agreement with surface observations good enough for most feasibility studies of solar energy systems. This presentation also contains a description of work currently on going to replace the current solar resource information available on SSE with a completely reprocessed version. The

  1. Prototypes of self-powered radiation detectors employing intrinsic high-energy current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zygmanski, Piotr, E-mail: pzygmanski@LROC.HARVARD.EDU; Briovio, Davide [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Shrestha, Suman; Karellas, Andrew [Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655 (United States); Sajo, Erno [Department of Physics and Applied Physics, Medical Physics Program, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, Massachusetts 01854 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: The authors experimentally investigate the effect of direct energy conversion of x-rays via selfpowered Auger- and photocurrent, potentially suitable to practical radiation detection and dosimetry in medical applications. Experimental results are compared to computational predictions. The detector the authors consider is a thin-film multilayer device, composed of alternating disparate electrically conductive and insulating layers. This paper focuses on the experiments while a companion paper introduces the fundamental concepts of high-energy current (HEC) detectors. Methods: The energy of ionizing radiation is directly converted to detector signal via electric current induced by high-energy secondary electrons generated in the detector material by the incident primary radiation. The HEC electrons also ionize the dielectric and the resultant charge carriers are selfcollected due to the contact potential of the disparate electrodes. Thus, an electric current is induced in the conductors in two different ways without the need for externally applied bias voltage or amplification. Thus, generated signal in turn is digitized by a data acquisition system. To determine the fundamental properties of the HEC detector and to demonstrate its feasibility for medical applications, the authors used a planar geometry composed of multilayer microstructures. Various detectors with up to seven conducting layers with different combinations of materials (250 μm Al, 35 μm Cu, 100 μm Pb) and air gaps (100 μm) were exposed to nearly plane-parallel 60–120 kVp x-ray beams. For the experimental design and verification, the authors performed coupled electron–photon radiation transport computations. The detector signal was measured using a commercial data acquisition system with 24 bits dynamic range, 0.4 fC sensitivity, and 0.9 ms sampling time. Results: Measured signals for the prototype detector varied depending on the number of layers, material type, and incident photon

  2. Crisis Management for Secondary Education: A Survey of Secondary Education Directors in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelides, Socrates; Mihiotis, Athanassios; Koutsoukis, Nikitas-Spiros

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The Greek secondary education system lacks a formal crisis management system. The purpose of this paper is to address this problem as follows: elicit current crisis management practices, outline features for designing a formal crisis management system in Greece. Design/methodology/approach: The research is based on a survey conducted with…

  3. Crisis Management for Secondary Education: A Survey of Secondary Education Directors in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelides, Socrates; Mihiotis, Athanassios; Koutsoukis, Nikitas-Spiros

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The Greek secondary education system lacks a formal crisis management system. The purpose of this paper is to address this problem as follows: elicit current crisis management practices, outline features for designing a formal crisis management system in Greece. Design/methodology/approach: The research is based on a survey conducted with…

  4. Crisis Preparedness in Schools: Evaluating Staff Perspectives and Providing Recommendations for Best Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olinger Steeves, Rachel M.; Metallo, Sarah A.; Byrd, Shelby M.; Erickson, Megan R.; Gresham, Frank M.

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the content of school crisis plans and perceptions of crisis preparedness among school staff in six public elementary schools. Surveys were administered to 72 teachers, administrators, and other school staff members measuring their perceptions of crisis preparedness and performance of activities related to crisis…

  5. Heterogeneity in Firm Performance During Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bruni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available What happens to firms during periods of deep economic crisis? Did different types of firms perform differently under the economic crisis? With the aid of a rich database and focusing on the literature regarding the growth of firms, this paper investigates the relative profitability performance of Italian firms during the current economic crisis, exploring those factors, which help certain firms to do relatively better even in the slowdown period. Some preliminary results show that the Italian firms that are relatively young in age, with relatively better current liquidity and more focused on domestic market have performed better than other firms. Furthermore, firms operating in high-tech and in highly concentrated sectors have enjoyed a better performance in this period.

  6. The intellectual crisis of psychiatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Giovanni A

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine the intellectual crisis and the potential sources of reveille in clinical research in psychiatry. Current prevailing conceptual models in psychiatry are critically examined, with particular reference to neurobiology, clinical psychopharmacology, assessment, and the therapeutic process. Biological reductionism, neglect of individual responses to treatment, massive propaganda from the pharmaceutical industry, misleading effects of psychometric theory on clinical assessment, and lack of consideration of multiple therapeutic ingredients and of the role of psychological well-being are identified as major sources of an intellectual crisis in psychiatric research. The conceptual crisis of psychiatry is shared by other areas of clinical medicine and stems from a narrow concept of science that neglects clinical observation, the basic method of medicine. A unified concept of health and disease may yield new clinical insights in psychiatric disorders, and may result in therapeutic efforts of more enduring quality than current strategies.

  7. Energy dynamics and current sheet structure in fluid and kinetic simulations of decaying magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Makwana, K D; Li, H; Daughton, W; Cattaneo, F

    2014-01-01

    Simulations of decaying magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence are performed with a fluid and a kinetic code. The initial condition is an ensemble of long-wavelength, counter-propagating, shear-Alfv\\'{e}n waves, which interfere and rapidly generate strong MHD turbulence. The total energy is conserved and the rate of turbulent energy decay is very similar in both codes, although the fluid code has numerical dissipation whereas the kinetic code has kinetic dissipation. The inertial range power spectrum index is similar in both the codes. The fluid code shows a perpendicular wavenumber spectral slope of $k_{\\perp}^{-1.3}$. The kinetic code shows a spectral slope of $k_{\\perp}^{-1.5}$ for smaller simulation domain, and $k_{\\perp}^{-1.3}$ for larger domain. We estimate that collisionless damping mechanisms in the kinetic code can account for the dissipation of the observed nonlinear energy cascade. Current sheets are geometrically characterized. Their lengths and widths are in good agreement between the two codes. T...

  8. A Comparative Study of Dark Energy Constraints from Current Observational Data

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yun; Mukherjee, Pia

    2012-01-01

    We examine how dark energy constraints from current observational data depend on the analysis methods used: the analysis of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), and that of galaxy clustering data. We generalize the flux-averaging analysis method of SNe Ia to allow correlated errors of SNe Ia, in order to reduce the systematic bias due to weak lensing of SNe Ia. We find that flux-averaging leads to larger errors on dark energy and cosmological parameters if only SN Ia data are used. When SN Ia data (the latest compilation by the SNLS team) are combined with WMAP 7 year results (in terms of our Gaussian fits to the probability distributions of the CMB shift parameters), the latest Hubble constant (H_0) measurement using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and gamma ray burst (GRB) data, flux-averaging of SNe Ia increases the concordance with other data, and leads to significantly tighter constraints on the dark energy density at z=1, and the cosmic curvature \\Omega_k. The galaxy clustering measurements of H(z=0.35)r_s(z_...

  9. Energy service companies in European countries: Current status and a strategy to foster their development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoldi, Paolo [European Commission, DG JRC, TP 450, I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy)]. E-mail: paolo.bertoldi@cec.eu.int; Rezessy, Silvia [Department of Environmental Sciences and Policy, Central European University, Nador u. 9, H-1051 Budapest (Hungary)]. E-mail: ephlas01@phd.ceu.hu; Vine, Edward [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Building 90-4000, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)]. E-mail: elvine@lbl.gov

    2006-09-15

    Although the European Commission and the Member States of the European Union (EU) have promoted a number of policy initiatives to foster the Energy Services Company (ESCO) industry, a recent survey of ESCO businesses in Europe has indicated that major differences exist in the development of the ESCO business among the various countries. In some countries a large number of ESCOs have been successfully operating for a number of years, while in other countries only a few ESCOs have recently started to operate. This difference could be explained by several factors, such as different levels of support offered to ESCOs by national and regional energy authorities, local market structures and rules, and variation in the definitions, roles and activities of ESCOs. This paper reviews and analyses the development and the current status of ESCO industries in the EU and the New Accession Countries. Based on the review and the analysis, a long-term strategy to foster the development of ESCOs in Europe is formulated. The strategic actions recommended build on successful experience in Europe and are proposed with an eye to existing and planned legislative measures, such as the proposed Energy Service Directive and the deployment of the Kyoto flexible mechanisms.

  10. Ensemble forecasting for renewable energy applications - status and current challenges for their generation and verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The operational management of renewable energy generation in power systems and electricity markets requires forecasts in various forms, e.g., deterministic or probabilistic, continuous or categorical, depending upon the decision process at hand. Besides, such forecasts may also be necessary at various spatial and temporal scales, from high temporal resolutions (in the order of minutes) and very localized for an offshore wind farm, to coarser temporal resolutions (hours) and covering a whole country for day-ahead power scheduling problems. As of today, weather predictions are a common input to forecasting methodologies for renewable energy generation. Since for most decision processes, optimal decisions can only be made if accounting for forecast uncertainties, ensemble predictions and density forecasts are increasingly seen as the product of choice. After discussing some of the basic approaches to obtaining ensemble forecasts of renewable power generation, it will be argued that space-time trajectories of renewable power production may or may not be necessitate post-processing ensemble forecasts for relevant weather variables. Example approaches and test case applications will be covered, e.g., looking at the Horns Rev offshore wind farm in Denmark, or gridded forecasts for the whole continental Europe. Eventually, we will illustrate some of the limitations of current frameworks to forecast verification, which actually make it difficult to fully assess the quality of post-processing approaches to obtain renewable energy predictions.

  11. 后金融危机时代中国对东盟能源投资的障碍及对策%Research on the energy investment obstacles and countermeasures from China to ASEAN after the financial crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志雄

    2013-01-01

    The energy resources are limited in China, it needs to strengthen energy investment on ASEAN. We found that, in terms of energy investment field or from the energy investment scale, it pays more and more attention to the ASEAN energy investment for China. However,there are many obstacles in energy investment from China to ASEAN after the financial crisis. Such as, the political mutual trust is not enough,the traditional energy decrease in the quantity for ASEAN,technical level is not high and the energy investment field is relatively narrow. Therefore, it needs to strengthen political mutual trust; strengthen traditional energy investment in ASEAN; strengthen technical research and development to promote the technical level;strengthen the new energy investments in ASEAN, expand the area of investment, so as to solve the obstacles.%中国的能源资源有限,需要加强对东盟能源的投资.研究发现,无论从能源投资领域还是从能源投资规模来看,中国越来越注重对东盟能源的投资.然而,在后金融危机时代中国对东盟能源投资仍然存在障碍,如政治互信不够、东盟传统能源数量在减少、技术水平不高以及能源投资领域相对狭窄.因此,需要加强政治互信;加强对东盟传统能源的投资;加强技术研发,提升技术水平;加强对东盟新能源领域的投资,拓宽投资领域,从而解决障碍.

  12. Globalisering, forbrugskultur og energi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rüdiger, Mogens

    2004-01-01

    of regional integration, and as a part of the global debate on climate and sustainable development. The Califormian energy crisis 2000-2001 is brought in to illustrate how the current consumer culture affected the crisis, and it underlines that globalisation is a process with immanent conflicts.......In the first part of the article, John Tomlinson's and Mike Featherstone's theoretical discussion of the concepts of homogenisation, de-territorialisation, consumer culture and lifestyle are presented. In order to capture omportant aspects of a consumer culture based on large scale consumption...... of energy, two terms, the "well-being individual" and the "20 degree culture", are then introduced and related to these concepts. The second part of the article discusses the globalisation of the energy sector on three levels: as a process based on liberalisation and de-regulation, as a consequence...

  13. Total kinetic energy in four global eddying ocean circulation models and over 5000 current meter records

    KAUST Repository

    Scott, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    We compare the total kinetic energy (TKE) in four global eddying ocean circulation simulations with a global dataset of over 5000, quality controlled, moored current meter records. At individual mooring sites, there was considerable scatter between models and observations that was greater than estimated statistical uncertainty. Averaging over all current meter records in various depth ranges, all four models had mean TKE within a factor of two of observations above 3500. m, and within a factor of three below 3500. m. With the exception of observations between 20 and 100. m, the models tended to straddle the observations. However, individual models had clear biases. The free running (no data assimilation) model biases were largest below 2000. m. Idealized simulations revealed that the parameterized bottom boundary layer tidal currents were not likely the source of the problem, but that reducing quadratic bottom drag coefficient may improve the fit with deep observations. Data assimilation clearly improved the model-observation comparison, especially below 2000. m, despite assimilated data existing mostly above this depth and only south of 47°N. Different diagnostics revealed different aspects of the comparison, though in general the models appeared to be in an eddying-regime with TKE that compared reasonably well with observations. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Ultra-fast and energy-efficient sintering of ceramics by electric current concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Solvas, E; Gómez-García, D; Domínguez-Rodríguez, A; Todd, R I

    2015-02-17

    Electric current activated/assisted sintering (ECAS) techniques, such as electrical discharge sintering (EDS) or resistive sintering (RS), have been intensively investigated for longer than 50 years. In this work, a novel system including an electrically insulated graphite die for Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) is described, which allows the sintering of any refractory ceramic material in less than 1 minute starting from room temperature with heating rates higher than 2000°C/min and an energy consumption up to 100 times lower than with SPS. The system alternates or combines direct resistive sintering (DRS) and indirect resistive sintering (IRS). Electrical insulation of the die has been achieved through the insertion of a film made of alumina fibers between the graphite die and the graphite punches, which are protected from the alumina fiber film by a graphite foil. This system localized the electric current directly through the sample (conductive materials) as in DRS and EDS, or through the thin graphite foil (non-conductive materials) as in IRS, and is the first system capable of being used under EDS or RS conditions independently combining current concentration/localization phenomena.

  15. The crucial role of habits in energy consumption: an evolutionary approach on changing current patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marechal, Kevin (Centre for Economic and Social Studies on the Environment (CESSE), Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Univ. d' Europe (Belgium)). e-mail: kevin.marechal@ulb.ac.be

    2009-07-01

    A substantial body of literature has shown that our behaviour is often guided by habits. The existence of habits - not fully conscious forms of behaviour - is important as it contradicts rational choice theory. Their presence thus calls for the setting of new instruments as they make it unlikely that consumers be capable of exercising control over their energy consumption in reaction to given incentives. This is further increased in the evolutionary perspective where the current carbon-based Socio-Technical System constraints and shapes consumers' choices through structural forces. Habits being potentially 'counterintentional', they may explain the 'efficiency paradox' in energy as well as the continued increase of energy consumption despite the rising environmental awareness among the population. Policies aiming at reducing energy consumption should thus specifically address the performance context of habits. For instance, targeting new residents has proven to be more effective given that their preceding habits have been disturbed. The results of our empirical analysis confirm this idea by showing how a change of context makes people more receptive to a proposed measure. Our analysis of the role played by habits also suggests that individuals do not consider the need to change existing habits as an obstacle even though this is contradicted implicitly in the answers they provided to open questions. This 'unconsciousness' is one of the most delicate features of habits and it should thus be accounted for when designing measures. Given the other characteristics of habits, the joint use of feedbacks and commitment strategies appears promising.

  16. Averting a Future Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The world has left the worst of the financial crisis behind, but memories of the meltdown have barely faded. But what made the world’s economy so vulnerable, and what kinds of lessons can we draw from it?

  17. Veterans Crisis Line

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The caring responders at the Veterans Crisis Line are specially trained and experienced in helping Veterans of all ages and circumstances. Some of the responders are...

  18. Migrants caught in crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Kelly

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of new initiatives point to ways in which the internationalcommunity – particularly governments – could help reduce the vulnerabilities of migrant workers during conflict and crisis situations.

  19. Modelli formali della crisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Gandolfo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a distinction is made between the immediate technical-financial causes that unleashed the crisis in the United States, and its macroeconomic causes, which also explain its international transmission. Two formal paradigmatic models are considered. The first is Li’s formula on default correlation (“The Formula that Killed Wall Street”, whose misuse gave rise to the crisis. The second is the international financial multiplier set forth by Paul Krugman. After examining these two models, the paper concludes that, contrary to widespread opinion, the crisis was indeed foreseen by some economists, who, coming from the non-mainstream side of the profession, were largely ignored.   JEL Codes: G01, F3, E44Keywords: Cultura economica, Crisi finanziaria, Regole

  20. Crisis-Driven Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Not hit as badly as the West, East Asian and Southeast Asian countries grapple with the financial crisis from a long-term perspective Although Thailand postponed at the last minute the annual summits of East Asian and Southeast Asian leaders scheduled on April 11-12, regional cooperation will continue to forge ahead with full vigor, even more so in the context of the global financial crisis, said Chinese international studies experts.

  1. Current status and future tasks of the Sunshine Project. (Development of new energy technology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, T.

    1983-01-01

    Since its inception in 1974, the Sunshine Project has involved advances in new energy technology in many areas. The present report covers the principal areas of activity in 1980, examining the development status of solar energy, goethermal energy, coal liquefaction and gasification, hydrogen energy, wind power, ocean thermal energy conversion, etc. Future trends and tasks of new energy technology development are discussed. (In Japanese)

  2. Electrical energy generation in Europe the current situation and perspectives in the use of renewable energy sources and nuclear power for regional electricity generation

    CERN Document Server

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The present book maximizes reader insights into the current and future roles to be played by different types of renewable energy sources and nuclear energy for the purpose of electricity generation in the European region as a whole and in a select group of European countries specifically. This book includes detailed analysis of the different types of renewable energy sources available in different European countries; the pros and cons of the use of the different types of renewables and nuclear energy for electricity generation; which energy options are available in the different European coun

  3. Crisis management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Maria C; Politis-Norton, Helen

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the different facets of crisis as experienced within the pharmaceutical industry but which are also prevalent throughout other industries. It highlights the importance of early identification and management of crises and issues, which in return are strongly intertwined with a fundamental positive internal corporate climate. A corporate philosophy should always embrace crisis management with the attitude of 'when' and not 'if'; therefore, a company should act today and not tomorrow once a crisis is on its doorstep. Preparation is of utmost importance and there are several items that can be addressed even before a crisis has arisen. Further, this paper also provides guidance on how to deal with the media, what to do and what not to do, and how to appoint the appropriate spokesperson. In this era of fast exchange of information, crisis, which previously may have stayed behind corporate doors, may not do so any longer. Image is very important and should therefore not be risked. Crisis and issue management should therefore be integrated in every company's philosophy and standard operating procedures.

  4. CRISIS COMMUNICATION IN UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan MADRAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Institutions should implement effective crisis communication strategies to manage their reputations in crisis situations. Thus, the negative perceptions that may occur because of crisis can be reduced and eliminated by continuously informing stakeholders. Therefore, various researches are needed in the area of crisis communication management. The aim of the study is to determine the types of crises that often occur in universities and evaluate the crisis communication efforts in higher education institutions. Crises and crisis communication efforts were evaluated within the framework of media reflections in this study. Content analysis was applied in the classification of crises and responses provided for crises. As a result, the types of crises in Turkish universities were determined as campus safety, actions, protests, loss of confidential information, loss of financial opportunities, loss of key managers and personnel, staff problems, increase of accidents, slander and gossip, unnecessary explanations, rumors, damage to organization and employee reputation, terrorism, workplace violence, corruption, fire and epidemic. It is seen that universities don’t make any communicational effort regarding campus safety, staff problems, increase of accidents, corruption or fire.

  5. Quale crisi, quale sociologia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Wieviorka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Nel 1929 gli studi sociologici che hanno preso in esame la crisi in atto nel momento stesso in cui questa si dispiegava sono stati molto limitati e, fino ad oggi, questa tendenza sembra confermarsi anche con riferimento alla crisi attuale. Per contro si registra una notevole diffusione di contributi di analisi del fenomeno da parte degli economisti che rivelano, in particolare, due tipi di ragionamenti: uno che limita l’analisi al breve periodo, l’altro che invece legge la crisi inquadrandola nei mutamenti dell’ultimo trentennio. La sociologia non è in crisi ma è necessario che rifletta nuovamente sugli strumenti teorici di cui dispone per analizzare la crisi contemporanea. Lo spazio dell’analisi sociologica è quello in cui si coniugano le letture dell’avvenimento attuale e le analisi di lungo periodo, lo spazio in cui può trovare adeguata considerazione la soggettività degli individui. È in questo senso che la sociologia può dare il proprio contributo, anche attraverso la collaborazione con le scienze «dure», nel tracciare degli itinerari di uscita dalla crisi.

  6. Report on current status of petroleum substituting energy development in the USA in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (sekiyu daitai energy kaihatsu no genjo (Beikoku))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the last twenty-five years, the level of social recognition for the importance of energy conservation grew progressively from a total nonexistence of concern to the driving force that ensures the future environmental health of the nation and the world. Executive Order 12003, relating to energy policy and conservation, was signed by President Jimmy Carter and dated July 20, 1977. In 1992, President Clinton issued Executive Order 12759 - federal Energy Management. Each agency will prescribe policies under which its industrial facilities in the aggregate increase energy efficiency by at least 20% in fiscal 2000 in comparison to fiscal 1985. Current Federal programs for building efficiency are estimated to result in 31.5 billion dollars in annual energy saving for consumers by 2010. Future trends attract attention. The major programs currently in force to implement these policies and directives include Rebuild America, Million Solar Roofs Initiative, Home Energy Rating Systems, and Weatherization Assistance Program. 37 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  7. Model of convection mass transfer in titanium alloy at low energy high current electron beam action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarychev, V. D.; Granovskii, A. Yu; Nevskii, S. A.; Konovalov, S. V.; Gromov, V. E.

    2017-01-01

    The convection mixing model is proposed for low-energy high-current electron beam treatment of titanium alloys, pre-processed by heterogeneous plasma flows generated via explosion of carbon tape and powder TiB2. The model is based on the assumption vortices in the molten layer are formed due to the treatment by concentrated energy flows. These vortices evolve as the result of thermocapillary convection, arising because of the temperature gradient. The calculation of temperature gradient and penetration depth required solution of the heat problem with taking into account the surface evaporation. However, instead of the direct heat source the boundary conditions in phase transitions were changed in the thermal conductivity equation, assuming the evaporated material takes part in the heat exchange. The data on the penetration depth and temperature distribution are used for the thermocapillary model. The thermocapillary model embraces Navier-Stocks and convection heat transfer equations, as well as the boundary conditions with the outflow of evaporated material included. The solution of these equations by finite elements methods pointed at formation of a multi-vortices structure when electron-beam treatment and its expansion over new zones of material. As the result, strengthening particles are found at the depth exceeding manifold their penetration depth in terms of the diffusion mechanism.

  8. Field Measurements at River and Tidal Current Sites for Hydrokinetic Energy Development: Best Practices Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neary, Vincent S [ORNL; Gunawan, Budi [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2011-09-01

    In this report, existing data collection techniques and protocols for characterizing open channel flows are reviewed and refined to further address the needs of the MHK industry. The report provides an overview of the hydrodynamics of river and tidal channels, and the working principles of modern acoustic instrumentation, including best practices in remote sensing methods that can be applied to hydrokinetic energy site characterization. Emphasis is placed upon acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) and acoustic-Doppler current profiler (ADCP) instruments, as these represent the most practical and economical tools for use in the MHK industry. Incorporating the best practices as found in the literature, including the parameters to be measured, the instruments to be deployed, the instrument deployment strategy, and data post-processing techniques. The data collected from this procedure aims to inform the hydro-mechanical design of MHK systems with respect to energy generation and structural loading, as well as provide reference hydrodynamics for environmental impact studies. The standard metrics and protocols defined herein can be utilized to guide field experiments with MHK systems.

  9. Curriculum Reform: The Crisis in Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Edith

    1984-01-01

    Education currently faces a crisis in curriculum reform which presents a danger to pedagogical programs. Changes in teacher education programs should be based on research and should be accomplished by a reflective and rational process. Methods of reform are explored. (DF)

  10. Why the Economic Crisis Was Not Anticipated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    An article in the October 11 "New York Times" attributed the almost universal failure to anticipate the current economic crisis to "insanity"--more precisely, to a psychological inability to give proper weight to past events, so that if there is prosperity today people assume that it will last forever, even though they know that in the past booms…

  11. Curriculum Reform: The Crisis in Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Edith

    1984-01-01

    Education currently faces a crisis in curriculum reform which presents a danger to pedagogical programs. Changes in teacher education programs should be based on research and should be accomplished by a reflective and rational process. Methods of reform are explored. (DF)

  12. Wrong assumptions in the financial crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to show how some of the assumptions about the current financial crisis are wrong because they misunderstand what takes place in the mortgage market. Design/methodology/approach - The paper discusses four wrong assumptions: one related to regulation, one to leve

  13. Optimization of solenoid based low energy beam transport line for high current H+ beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, R.; Singh, P.; Rao, S. V. L. S.; Roy, S.; Krishnagopal, S.

    2015-02-01

    A 20 MeV, 30 mA CW proton linac is being developed at BARC, Mumbai. This linac will consist of an ECR ion source followed by a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and Drift tube Linac (DTL). The low energy beam transport (LEBT) line is used to match the beam from the ion source to the RFQ with minimum beam loss and increase in emittance. The LEBT is also used to eliminate the unwanted ions like H2+ and H3+ from entering the RFQ. In addition, space charge compensation is required for transportation of such high beam currents. All this requires careful design and optimization. Detailed beam dynamics simulations have been done to optimize the design of the LEBT using the Particle-in-cell code TRACEWIN. We find that with careful optimization it is possible to transport a 30 mA CW proton beam through the LEBT with 100% transmission and minimal emittance blow up, while at the same time suppressing unwanted species H2+ and H3+ to less than 3.3% of the total beam current.

  14. The Economic Crisis and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Sidel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The current global economic crisis seriously threatens the health of the public. Challenges include increases in malnutrition; homelessness and inadequate housing; unemployment; substance abuse, depression, and other mental health problems; mortality; child health problems; violence; environmental and occupational health problems; and social injustice and violation of human rights; as well as decreased availability, accessibility, and affordability of quality medical and dental care. Health professionals can respond by promoting surveillance and documentation of human needs, reassessing public health priorities, educating the public and policymakers about health problems worsened by the economic crisis, advocating for sound policies and programs to address these problems, and directly providing necessary programs and services.

  15. National Energy Plan II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    This volume contains the Administration's second National Energy Plan, as required by section 801 of the Department of Energy Organization Act (Public Law 95-91). A second volume will contain an assessment of the environmental trends associated with the energy futures reported here. Detailed appendices to the Plan will be published separately. The eight chapters and their subtitles are: Crisis and Uncertainty in the World Energy Future (The Immediate Crisis and the Continuing Problem, The Emergence of the Energy Problem, The Uncertainties of the World Energy Future, World Oil Prices, Consequences for the U.S.); The U.S. Energy Future: The Implications for Policy (The Near-, Mid-, and Long-Term, The Strategy in Perspective); Conservation (Historical Changes in Energy Use, Post-Embargo Changes - In Detail, Conservation Policies and Programs, The Role of Conservation); Oil and Gas (Oil, Natural Gas); Coal and Nuclear (Coal, Nuclear, Policy for Coal and Nuclear Power); Solar and Other Inexhaustible Energy Sources (Solar Energy, Geothermal, Fusion, A Strategy for Inexhaustible Resources); Making Decisions Promptly and Fairly (Managing Future Energy Crises: Emergency Planning, Managing the Current Shortfall: The Iranian Response Plan, Managing the Long-Term Energy Problem: The Institutional Framework, Fairness in Energy Policy, Public Participation in the Development of Energy Policy); and NEP-II and the Future (The Second National Energy Plan and the Nation's Energy Future, The Second National Energy Plan and the Economy, Employment and Energy Policy, The Second National Energy Plan and Individuals, The Second National Energy Plan and Capital Markets, and The Second National Energy Plan and the Environment). (ERA citation 04:041097)

  16. INDIVIDUAL CAREER IN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Alexandru LUCA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human resources represent the creative, active and coordinating element of the organisational activity, having a strong influence on the efficiency of the use of material, financial and information resources. The description of people as ”resources” highlights their importance and shows that their management requires high levels of genuine care and attention to people and professionalism. 2010 and 2011 are very difficult years for those who want to find a job. Flexibility and a decent salary are the reference words. The economy in a turbulent situation does not guarantee the safety of the jobs. The university graduates must make efforts and prove to have communication skills in order to obtain or keep the desired position. Our paper focusses on the aspects of career development for the young university graduates, thus treating a subject of wide interest these days.

  17. RESTRUCTURING COMPANIES UNDER CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezi Aviram SHAYB

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nobody is planning to fail, but many companies are failing because of lack of planning. Real business experience showed during the years that crisis can be prevented, avoided or limited. If detected in time, the risks associated with the crisis can be mitigated and the effects can be diminished, with the condition that the actions required are done fast, in a sharp and accurate manner. When it comes, a crisis brings an intense level of pressure and under these conditions there is no time or room for mistakes. Delays, losing focus and lack of planning will bring a company one step away from failure. The right way to deal with crisis, if required measures are not done in time, is to minimize the losses and reposition in the best way possible. Analysing the success stories of some of the biggest and strongest companies in the world, led to an important conclusion: the majority of these companies were in the situation to face huge crises which threatened their ability to survive in certain moments, on their way to success. With the right planning and by setting a proper organisational structure, the negative aspects of the crisis can be turned into benefits and opportunities for the company. The most critical challenge for management is to assess the level of exposure to risk of the company and identify the key points to focus on in order to overcome the crisis and create value. In order to set up a strong plan in dealing with crisis, a business organisation needs reliable, efficient and effective tools and this is what this article is all about.

  18. RESTRUCTURING COMPANIES UNDER CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezi Aviram SHAYB

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nobody is planning to fail, but many companies are failing because of lack of planning. Real business experience showed during the years that crisis can be prevented, avoided or limited. If detected in time, the risks associated with the crisis can be mitigated and the effects can be diminished, with the condition that the actions required are done fast, in a sharp and accurate manner. When it comes, a crisis brings an intense level of pressure and under these conditions there is no time or room for mistakes. Delays, losing focus and lack of planning will bring a company one step away from failure. The right way to deal with crisis, if required measures are not done in time, is to minimize the losses and reposition in the best way possible. Analysing the success stories of some of the biggest and strongest companies in the world, led to an important conclusion: the majority of these companies were in the situation to face huge crises which threatened their ability to survive in certain moments, on their way to success. With the right planning and by setting a proper organisational structure, the negative aspects of the crisis can be turned into benefits and opportunities for the company. The most critical challenge for management is to assess the level of exposure to risk of the company and identify the key points to focus on in order to overcome the crisis and create value. In order to set up a strong plan in dealing with crisis, a business organisation needs reliable, efficient and effective tools and this is what this article is all about.

  19. Cominciamo a parlare della prossima crisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tonveronachi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The drive towards radical reforms of financial regulation is weakening as financial firms seem to be returning to calmer waters. The proposals that now appear to be having a higher probability of adoption leave the financial structure and its regulation substantially unchanged. An analysis of the systemic crises, or potential ones, that, starting from the 1970s, have interested countries at every stage of development, suggests that the current crisis is the last manifestation of an evolution that has produced an endogenous push to increasing financial fragility. A more radical approach to regulatory reforms is then required if we want to lessen the probability of a new major crisis within the next ten years, a period that will find the official authorities with depleted ammunition to fight it.  JEL Codes: E44, G1, G18, G28Keywords: Cultura economica, Crisi finanziaria, Regole

  20. Crisis as Discourse and Narrative. Educational Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mendel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose to analyse the situation of social crises in ritual and linguistic terms, as suspension of narratives concerning social processes which leads to uncontrollable, rhizomatic proliferation of meanings (in Deleuze’s and Guattari’s sense. Overcoming crisis is possible on the condition that pre-critical discursive structures of articulation of social symbols and demands are reinvented so that new narrative trajectories can be built. This can be done by subjecting rhizomatic structures conceived in liminal conditions of the crisis to the logic of hegemony (in Laclau’s terms. This ontological structure is used to analyse the pedagogical reception of Jacques Rancière’s, though as an attempt to rearticulating the meaning of education. Those theoretical attempts have the potential to change the narratives of (inequality and create perspectives for re-thinking education beyond the current crisis of public schooling and educational theory.

  1. Economic crisis, world economy, economics and economic policy.

    OpenAIRE

    Sherstnev, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes the current discussions on the the state of economics with special focus on the interreletionships between key ideas of economic theories and real actions of economic policy in the course of the global economic crisis.

  2. Bridging the Gap between Crisis Response Operations and Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Khalil, Khaled M; Nazmy, Taymour T; Salem, Abdel-Badeeh M

    2009-01-01

    There exist huge problems in the current practice of crisis response operations. Response problems are projected as a combination of failure in communication, failure in technology, failure in methodology, failure of management, and finally failure of observation. In this paper we compare eight crisis response systems namely: DrillSim [2, 13], DEFACTO [12, 17], ALADDIN [1, 6], RoboCup Rescue [11, 15], FireGrid [3, 8, 18], WIPER [16], D-AESOP [4], and PLAN C [14]. Comparison results will disclose the cause of failure of current crisis response operations (the response gap). Based on comparison results; we provide recommendations for bridging this gap between response operations and systems.

  3. Crisis and Corporate Social Responsibility: Threat or Opportunity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Fernández-Feijóo Souto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to reflect on the consequences of the current economic and financial crisis on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR, a concept of great importance nowadays. The core approach is the possible link between CSR and the crisis, if both elements can be combined. After an introduction to the current economic and financial situation, some conceptualizations about CSR are made to clarify the perspective used for this complex and incompletely defined concept. The last part of the paper presents an approach to the combination of both concepts, concluding with the idea that CSR in crisis periods can be converted from being a threat to an opportunity.

  4. Organizational crisis management - crisis communication when IT fails

    OpenAIRE

    Glad, Jutta

    2009-01-01

    HELSINKI SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS ABSTRACT International Business, Master’s Thesis Jutta Glad 08.05.2009 ORGANIZATIONAL CRISIS MANAGEMENT – CRISIS COMMUNICATION WHEN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FAILS Objectives of the thesis The objective of this study is to find out what different factors an organization should consider when responding to an organizational crisis that has been caused by an information technology failure. The study also tries to find out whether crisis communicat...

  5. Leadership during Crisis: Threat Identifcation and Solution Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Mazánek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: In the current dynamic market environment, companies are vulnerable to many problems of different character, which could result into a real business crisis. The submitted study summarizes possible approaches to leading through crisis situation. Therefore proposal of solutions which tools leader could use during crisis was made. Purpose of this study is to create theoretical background for the future research, in the field of application right leadership concept during crisis. Methodology/methods: For the purpose of the illustration possible threats which can lead to a business crisis was chosen the Ishikawa diagram. Next up review of scientific publication focused on leadership during crisis was made. With emphasis especially on research studies published in last 10 years in the Leadership Quarterly Journal. These results was precisely analyzed and then the most useful informations synthesized into proposed solutions. Scientific aim: The aim of this study, is to identify possible threats which could be a source of corporate crises. Subsequently propose solutions within the competence of corporate leader, how to prevent those threats or lower the intensity of crisis which already occur Findings: Proposed solutions was found in the field of HR leadership, crisis communication, leader´s behavior connected with leadership style used during crisis and increasing effectivity of leading crisis team. The application of mentioned approaches, contribute to preparedness on the possible negative future development and reduce the intensity of crisis, which has already af-fected the corporation. Conclusions: The contribution of this study is creation of synoptic overview of corporate threats and proposal of corresponding solutions of those. The implication is to summarize results from previous empirical studies to create enough theoretic foundation for the future research.

  6. Storm- Time Dynamics of Ring Current Protons: Implications for the Long-Term Energy Budget in the Inner Magnetosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkioulidou, M.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Mitchell, D. G.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    2015-12-01

    The ring current energy budget plays a key role in the global electrodynamics of Earth's space environment. Pressure gradients developed in the inner magnetosphere can shield the near-Earth region from solar wind-induced electric fields. The distortion of Earth's magnetic field due to the ring current affects the dynamics of particles contributing both to the ring current and radiation belts. Therefore, understanding the long-term evolution of the inner magnetosphere energy content is essential. We have investigated the evolution of ring current proton pressure (7 - 600 keV) in the inner magnetosphere based on data from the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instrument aboard Van Allen Probe B throughout the year 2013. We find that although the low-energy component of the protons (governed by convective timescales and is very well correlated with the Dst index, the high-energy component (>100 keV) varies on much longer timescales and shows either no or anti-correlation with the Dst index. Interestingly, the contributions of the high- and low-energy protons to the total energy content are comparable. Our results indicate that the proton dynamics, and as a consequence the total energy budget in the inner magnetosphere (inside geosynchronous orbit), is not strictly controlled by storm-time timescales as those are defined by the Dst index.

  7. ROMANIA MEASURES UNDERTAKEN TO OVERCOME THE CRISIS MACROECONOMIC POLICIES THROUGH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNGIU-PUPĂZAN MARIANA CLAUDIA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This research paper is intended to be an analysis of the measures taken by the Romanian economic recoverythrough levers it has at hand, namely macroeconomic policies. Current financial and economic crisis appears to beunprecedented in the last half century. Whether it's a financial crisis or an economic one, we can talk about theeconomy installing a pronounced instability, uncertainty and insecurity about the future. There is a significantdecrease in the volume of transactions on the stock exchange, lack of trust in the financial system, a disturbance ofmarket mechanisms.The crisis has caused and continues to cause effects in various sectors of the economy, includingjob losses. Following the severe global economic problems, the crisis has spread rapidly in all areas.States have beenthe subject of theoretical dispute for decades, and these arguments have been rekindled with interventions bygovernments of countries affected by the recent crisis.

  8. Development of a “Current Energy Mix Scenario” and a “Electricity as Main Energy Source Scenario” for electricity demand up to 2100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário J. S. Brito

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we develop a model to forecast world electricity production up to 2100. We analyze historical data for electricity production, population and GDP per Capita for the period 1900–2008. We show that electricity production follows general trends. First, there is an electricity intensity target of 0.20-0.25 kWh per unit of GDP (US$2012 as economies mature, except in countries traditionally relying heavily on renewable electricity (hydroelectricity, for whom this target ranges between 0.50 to 0.80 kWh per unit GDP. Also, countries that belong to the same region tend to follow the evolution of electricity production and GDP/Capita of a regional “modelcountry”. Equations that describe the behavior of these model countries are used to forecast electricity production per capita up to 2100 under a low and a high scenario for the evolution of GDP per Capita. For electricity production two main scenarios were set: “Current Energy MixScenario” and “Electricity as Main Energy Source Scenario”, with two additional sub scenarios considering slightly different electric intensities. Forecasts up to 2100 yield a demand forelectricity production 3.5 to 5 times higher than the current production for the “Current EnergyMix Scenario” and about 9 to 14 times for the “Electricity as Main Energy Source Scenario”. Forecasts for the “Current Energy Mix Scenario” matched well with forecasts from IEA/EIA (International Energy Agency/ Energy Information Administration while the forecasts for the“Electricity as the Main Energy Source Scenario” are much higher than current predictions.

  9. Current Status, Challenges, and Future Sustainable Development Strategies for China Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文颖; 吴宗鑫

    2004-01-01

    China's rapid economic growth,high-energy-intensitive industrial and product structure,coal- dominated energy structure,and low-energy efficiency result in China being the second largest energy consumer as well as the second largest CO2 emission country in the world.The Markal model,an integrated energy,environment,and economic model,was used to analyze China's energy development scenarios from 1995 through 2050 for policy study of long-term energy strategies.The results show that diversified,reliable,and environmentally sound energy development strategies should be adopted for China to solve the challenges of the increasing energy demand,the enlarging gap between the oil demand and supply,and growing concerns over local as well as global environmental issues.Coal-derived synthetic transportation fuels through coal liquefaction,hydrogen making,and advanced coal-based poly-generation technologies should be developed to solve energy security issues.

  10. Fighting the Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned to show how the Danish political elite interpreted and responded to the consequences of the 2008 financial crisis for the Danish economy. In particular, the paper describes how this interpretive construction focused primarily on three features of the Danish context...... to the exclusion of other perspectives; the first was an emphasis on the problems of the financial sector, of interest rates and state finances; the second was that Danish productivity increases were falling behind other comparable countries and part of the solution required new strategies towards labour...... and unemployment benefits; thirdly, the adverse effects of the crisis were causing an increase in government expenditure and a decline in government revenues which was rapidly becoming unsustainable. As a consequence, the Danish elite fell into the broader interpretation of the crisis embedded in the dominant view...

  11. Framing the Newspaper Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruggemann, Michael; Humprecht, Edda; Kleis, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that discourses of a newspaper crisis should not be regarded simply as descriptions of the actual state of the press but also as a means by which strategic actors frame the situation. The emerging frames can have substantial consequences for media policy making. The study...... identifies four key frames used to portray the newspaper crisis and discusses their relevance for public debates in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom and the United States. Similarities and differences are examined through 59 in-depth interviews with policymakers and industry executives...... as well as a qualitative analysis of policy documents and relevant media coverage. The study demonstrates that debates on the newspaper crisis are only partly influenced by (1) economic realities and (2) media policy traditions in the six countries but also reflect (3) the strategic motives of powerful...

  12. Aspects of Global Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Turtureanu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The author aims to explore Germany, known as one of the most developed Europeaneconomy, based mainly on exports, which until 2010 was the number-one leading exporter. Also,Poland, who managed to surprise us by its economic growth of 1.2% during the most recent globaleconomic crisis, and Romania, which manages to surprise us every day in comparison with othercountries such as France or Italy. The global economic crisis is one of the most important events inrecent years has brought about tremendous losses and increases levels of unemployment well abovethe expectations of many analysts. He started as a tornado in the U.S. savings and was felt all over theworld. It is practically a state of disorder in the world economy, in which countries economy suddenlygoing to lower its labor, usually fall brought the financial crisis.

  13. Modelli formali della crisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIANCARLO GANDOLFO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a distinction is made between the immediate technical-financial causes that unleashed the crisis in the United States, and its macroeconomic causes, which also explain its international transmission. Two formal paradigmatic models are considered. The first is Li’s formula on default correlation (“The Formula that Killed Wall Streetâ€, whose misuse gave rise to the crisis. The second is the international financial multiplier set forth by Paul Krugman. After examining these two models, the paper concludes that, contrary to widespread opinion, the crisis was indeed foreseen by some economists, who, coming from the non-mainstream side of the profession, were largely ignored.

  14. Energy+ pumps - Technology procurement for very energy efficient circulation pumps, first results of the current IEE-project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthel, Claus; Thomas, Stefan [Wuppertal Inst. for Climate, Environment, Energy (Germany); Benke, Georg; Schaeppi, Bernd [Austrian Energy Agency A.E.A (Austria); Forfori, Fabio [Politecnico di Milano, Dept. di Energetica (Italy); Guisson, Ruben [Flemisch Inst. for technological research (Vito) (Belgium); Papamikrouli, Louiza [Centre for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES) (Greece); Puente, Margarita [ESCAN, S.A. (Spain); Spirek, Tomas [SEVEn, Stredisko pro efektivni vyuzivani energie, o.p.s. (Czech Republic); Rautiainen, Kimmo [Motiva Oy (Finland); Koehl, Joerg [Deutsche Energie-Agentur GmbH (Germany); Anglade, Alain [ADEME (France); Nipkow, Juerg [ARENA (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    About 2 % of the overall electricity consumption of the EU is caused by circulators in single or double family homes and flats. A new technology of pumps with electronically commutated (EC) motor pumps is available now; it is one possible way to achieve a reduction in circulator annual electricity use by 60 % or more.The project's objective is a market transformation towards this new very energy-efficient pump technologies - Energy+ pumps - for circulators in heating systems, both stand alone and integrated in boilers. Only few manufacturers have so far introduced the new pump technology to the market for single or double family homes and flats.To bring more products to the market from all major manufacturers, the project will adapt and apply the technology procurement methodology as it was very successfully tested in the European Energy+ project on energy-efficient cold appliances [5] [6]. Large buyers will be aggregated, to activate the pump and boiler manufacturers. Sales and training materials and a sizing spreadsheet software for installation contractors will be developed and applied. A competition both for energy-efficient products and marketing campaigns will be organised and the information on the Energy+ pumps will be disseminated widely through website, newsletter, media, and fairs.This paper gives a short overview of this project and presents the results of the first project phases: a European wide market study on circulators and heating systems, and the first Energy+ lists for circulators, buyers and supporters.

  15. Evaluating the ability of current energy use assessment methods to study contrasting livestock production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigne, Mathieu; Vayssières, Jonathan; Lecomte, Philippe; Peyraud, Jean-Louis

    2012-12-15

    Environmental impact assessment of agriculture has received increased attention over recent decades, leading to development of numerous methods. Among them, three deal with energy use: Energy Analysis (EA), Ecological Footprint (EF) and Emergy synthesis (Em). Based on a review of 197 references applying them to a variety of agricultural systems, this paper evaluates their ability to assess energy use. While EF assesses energy use as land use via a global accounting approach in which energy is only one component of the assessment, EA and Em are energy-focused and appear more appropriate to highlight ways to increase energy-use efficiency. EA presents a clear methodology via fossil energy use and its associated impacts but does not consider all energy sources. With inclusion of natural and renewable resources, Em focuses on other energy resources, such as solar radiation and energy from labour, but does not present impact indicators nor establish a clear link between activities and their environmental impacts. Improvements of the EA and Em methods could increase their ability to perform realistic and unbiased energy analysis or the diversity of livestock systems encountered in the world. First, to consider all energy sources, as Em does, EA could include solar radiation received by farm surfaces and energy expenditure by humans and animals to accomplish farm operations. Second, boundaries of the studied system in EA and Em must include draft animals, humans and communal grazing lands. Third, special attention should be given to update and locally adapt energy coefficients and transformities.

  16. Una crisis financiera estructural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Salama

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor sostiene que la crisis económica que estalló a mediados del 2008 en los países industrializa-dos y que rápidamente contagió a todas las economías del mundo, no tiene un origen exclusivo en las desregulaciones del mercado financiero. Aunque estas sin duda han precipitado y amplificado la crisis, es fundamental considerar la globalización financiera y comercial que ha marcado los regíme-nes de crecimiento económico. Es esta globalización la que ha provocada la deslocalización de la producción –a favor de China– y una consecuente pérdida de empleos y atonía de los salarios. Des-de esta perspectiva terminar la crisis requerirá más que una restructuración de la arquitectura financiera, será necesario modificar la desregularización financiera y comercial.The author maintains that the economic crisis that broke out in mid-2008 in industrialized countries and quickly spread to economies throughout the world does not have its origins solely in deregula-tion of the financial market. Though this clearly precipitated and has broadened the crisis, it is essential to consider the financial and commercial globalization that has marked regimes of economic growth. This is the globalization that has provoked the dislocation of production – in favor of China – and the consequent loss of jobs and stagnation of salaries. From this perspective, an end to the crisis will require more than a restructuring of financial architecture; what will be needed is change in financial and commercial deregulation.

  17. Financial crisis: theory and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Sarrió, Dídac; Ceballos Hornero, David; Rodriguez, Martha; Cortez, Klender; Cantarero Prieto, David; CASTILLO, Jorge; Fuenzalida, Darcy; Garcia, Heriberto; Mongrut, Samuel; Nash, Mauricio; Rosales, Luis Francisco; Torres, Gabriela; Treviño, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    In the last 50 years, we have had approximately 40 events with characteristics related to financial crisis. The most severe crisis was in 1929, when the financial markets plummet and the US gross domestic product decline in more than 30 percent. Recently some years ago, a new crisis developed in the United States, but instantly caused consequences and effects in the rest of the world. This new economic and financial crisis has increased the interest and motivation for the academic communit...

  18. Energy release in high latitudes during the dissipation of ionospheric currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faermark, D.S.; Levitin, A.E.; Fel' dshtejn, Ya.I.; Belov, B.A.; Gajdukov, V.Yu.; Afonina, R.G.; Demidova, Yu.Z.

    Space-time distributions of Joule heating in the ionosphere for both summer and equinox seasons at different parameters of the interplanetary medium are obtained. It is shown, that in high latitudes there is a continuous Joule dissipation on which additional sources of energy release (qsub(j)) are superimposed. These sources are controlled by the Bsub(z) and Bsub(y) components of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) vector. In the region of high latitudes (PHI > or approximately 60 deg) there is a continuous Joule dissipation of ionospheric currents. Near the aurora borealis oval the maxima of qsub(j) (Bsub(z)=Bsub(y)=0) in the evening and morning sectors constitute: in summer season approximately 1-2 mW/mS; in the equinox season approximately 4-8 mW/mS. In the polar cap region, a continuous Joule dissipation with high values qsub(j) (Bsub(z)=Bsub(y)=0) is observed in the morning sector. Constantly existing Joule dissipation ensures a heat influx of approximately (2 - 4) x 10 W to the high-latitude ionosphere irrespectively of a year season.

  19. Communication of Energy Efficiency Information to Remodelers: Lessons From Current Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaukus, C.

    2012-10-01

    The effective communication of energy efficiency and building science information to remodeling contractors is achieved through varying formats, timelines, and modes depending on who is delivering the information, who is intended to receive it, and what technical, intellectual,and time resources the recipients have at their disposal. Determining what type of communication is effective does not lend itself to a clearly quantifiable test but rather a qualitative one. That qualitative judgment can be supported by the research of current practices deemed effective for one or more of the following reasons: it has led to the successful completion of a certifying test or other evaluation, it has been widely used for the remodeling industry, it has been considered effective by a sampling of remodeling contractors, and/or it has proven effective in the field for the BARA team. These criteria were used to create a select list of communications to be further analyzed to determine why they are effective and how less successful formats or strategies can be revised for greater effectiveness.

  20. Current-Temperature Scaling for a Schottky Interface with Nonparabolic Energy Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Y. S.; Ang, L. K.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we study the Schottky transport in a narrow-gap semiconductor and few-layer graphene in which the energy dispersions are highly nonparabolic. We propose that the contrasting current-temperature scaling relation of J ∝T2 in the conventional Schottky interface and J ∝T3 in graphene-based Schottky interface can be reconciled under Kane's k .p nonparabolic band model for narrow-gap semiconductors. Our model suggests a more general form of J ∝(T2+γ kBT3) , where the nonparabolicty parameter γ provides a smooth transition from T2 to T3 scaling. For few-layer graphene, we find that N -layer graphene with A B C stacking follows J ∝T2 /N +1 , while A B A stacking follows a universal form of J ∝T3 regardless of the number of layers. Intriguingly, the Richardson constant extracted from the Arrhenius plot using an incorrect scaling relation disagrees with the actual value by 2 orders of magnitude, suggesting that correct models must be used in order to extract important properties for many Schottky devices.