WorldWideScience

Sample records for current energy crisis

  1. Energy crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    From energy policy to the problem of public acceptance of nuclear power, problems like energy supply, energy strategies, the race of industrial countries for the short energy reserves, the West German energy demand until the year 2.000, energy conservation, and the controversy over increased use of nuclear energy are reviewed. (GL) [de

  2. Energy crisis? The likelihood of a global energy crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franssen, H.

    2001-01-01

    This paper assess global energy problems and compares the energy crises of the 1970s with current US energy problems. The reaction of the OECD countries to the oil crises of 1973/4 and 1979/80, the perception of future oil supplies, and the difficulties faced by ordinary consumers in accepting that there is an energy crisis are discussed along with the Californian electricity crisis, the falling US natural gas supplies, and the low return on investment in the US refining industry. The prospect of another oil crisis, and the need for consumers to learn to live with price volatility are considered

  3. Energy and crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.P.

    1984-01-01

    Several aspects of the Brazilian energy policy are dealt with, regarding petroleum, electric energy and the nuclear question. Regional and international aspects relating to the energy crisis are discussed, and some alternatives for this crisis are suggested. (I. de C.R.) [pt

  4. Marketing in current financial crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Mariánek, Lukáš

    2009-01-01

    The paper is describing the effects of recessions and current financial crisis on companies and their marketing. The topic covers the history of marketing throughout the world biggest recessions and describes the current marketing efforts of Czech companies under the current financial crisis. A strategical analysis with the impacts of crisis on long-term strategy planning is provided at the end of the paper.

  5. Trust During an Energy Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Eric R.A.N.; Carlisle, Juliet; Michaud, Kristy

    2003-01-01

    In every energy crisis the U.S. has faced—beginning with the first crisis in 1973—we have seen a common sequence of events, which has been labelled the “energy crisis cycle” (Smith 2002). The steps in the cycle are: (1) When the demand for energy exceeded the supply, energy prices rose sharply — starting the energy crisis cycle. (2) Along with increases in energy prices came large increases in the profits of energy producers. (3) Politicians and interest group advocates criticized the energy...

  6. Uncertainties and risks in transitions to sustainable energy, and the part 'trust' might play in managing them. A comparison with the current pension crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellaby, Paul [Institute for Social, Cultural and Policy Research, University of Salford, Salford, Greater Manchester M5 4WT (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    Transition to a sustainable energy future carries uncertainties for all stakeholders, including those who research it. History does not repeat itself in detail, yet comparison with analogous processes already completed or in train could give shape to how we project the future. The author focuses not on the technical change required, but rather on the institutional and cultural changes that would be necessary to generate the political will and the consumer demand that would drive technical change and its widespread adoption. He examines a current crisis for most developed countries - that of old age pension provision, which - though lacking a link with new technology - might have similar social dynamics to an impending crisis in energy. In the analysis of the pensions crisis, the focus is upon both how risk has been encountered and also the part played by trust/mistrust in engendering and prospectively resolving crisis: between citizens and state, between regulator and providers and between consumers and providers. Analogies are drawn from in a similar way for the impending energy crisis. A refrain throughout is the dialectic between 'market' and 'plan'. It is concluded that both the actual and the impending crisis have to be reviewed in a context of relations between states as well as relations within them. (author)

  7. Uncertainties and risks in transitions to sustainable energy, and the part 'trust' might play in managing them: a comparison with the current pension crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellaby, Paul, E-mail: p.bellaby@salford.ac.u [Institute for Social, Cultural and Policy Research, University of Salford, Salford, Greater Manchester M5 4WT (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    Transition to a sustainable energy future carries uncertainties for all stakeholders, including those who research it. History does not repeat itself in detail, yet comparison with analogous processes already completed or in train could give shape to how we project the future. The author focuses not on the technical change required, but rather on the institutional and cultural changes that would be necessary to generate the political will and the consumer demand that would drive technical change and its widespread adoption. He examines a current crisis for most developed countries-that of old age pension provision, which - though lacking a link with new technology - might have similar social dynamics to an impending crisis in energy. In the analysis of the pensions crisis, the focus is upon both how risk has been encountered and also the part played by trust/mistrust in engendering and prospectively resolving crisis: between citizens and state, between regulator and providers and between consumers and providers. Analogies are drawn from in a similar way for the impending energy crisis. A refrain throughout is the dialectic between 'market' and 'plan'. It is concluded that both the actual and the impending crisis have to be reviewed in a context of relations between states as well as relations within them.

  8. Uncertainties and risks in transitions to sustainable energy, and the part 'trust' might play in managing them: a comparison with the current pension crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellaby, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Transition to a sustainable energy future carries uncertainties for all stakeholders, including those who research it. History does not repeat itself in detail, yet comparison with analogous processes already completed or in train could give shape to how we project the future. The author focuses not on the technical change required, but rather on the institutional and cultural changes that would be necessary to generate the political will and the consumer demand that would drive technical change and its widespread adoption. He examines a current crisis for most developed countries-that of old age pension provision, which - though lacking a link with new technology - might have similar social dynamics to an impending crisis in energy. In the analysis of the pensions crisis, the focus is upon both how risk has been encountered and also the part played by trust/mistrust in engendering and prospectively resolving crisis: between citizens and state, between regulator and providers and between consumers and providers. Analogies are drawn from in a similar way for the impending energy crisis. A refrain throughout is the dialectic between 'market' and 'plan'. It is concluded that both the actual and the impending crisis have to be reviewed in a context of relations between states as well as relations within them.

  9. The Energy Crisis and Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockris, J. O'M.

    1974-01-01

    Examines the status of the energy crisis in Australia. Outlines energy alternatives for the 1990's and describes the present status of solar energy research and the economics of solar energy systems. (GS)

  10. Crisis? What Crisis? The Normality of the Current Food Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, T.

    2010-01-01

    The 2005–8 food crisis was a shock to political elites, but in some respects the situation was normal. Food policies are failing to respond adequately to the squeeze on land, people, health and environment. Strong evidence of systems failure and stress, termed here New Fundamentals, ought to reframe twenty-first century food politics and effort. Yet so far, international discourse is too often narrow and technical. The paper suggests that 2005–8 reinforced how the dominant twentieth century p...

  11. Understanding the importance of an energy crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechtenberg, Abigail Reid

    Human development and energy, in general, and electrical energy, specifically, co-exist seamlessly in high HDI countries where reliability and availability is greater than 99%. In numerous low HDI countries, there is 2-50% electric grid availability with reliability at or below 50% due to load shedding and faults. In Africa, solar, wind, biomass and hydroelectric energy production are cited to meet growing demand and increase reliability and availability; however, the capital costs are greater than the ability-to-pay for wide scale implementation. Since the 1970s, the United States has continued to argue over the new sustainable energy infrastructure solution(s); thus resulting in no new infrastructure being built for wide scale implementation. Together the world is facing the daunting task of averting an energy crisis in developed countries and facing energy crises in developing countries. This thesis explores the importance of energy crises: from the past, current, and future. The first part entails arguing that the United States is not on a pathway to prevent an energy crisis based on an analysis of 1986 and 2004 niche and status-quo manufacturing of light-duty vehicles. The second part answers the question of what an energy crisis looks like by exploring and investigating current electrical energy crises in Fort Portal, Uganda. This part used both anthropological and physics education empowerment research to co-design and build for various energy crisis situations in hospitals, schools, and businesses all from locally available materials and expertise. Finally, looking into the US light-duty vehicle's future, I design a new hybrid vehicle powertrain (called transition mode hybrid). This third part describes my new patent as a way to avert an energy crisis in the light-duty transportation sector.

  12. Energy crisis: policy response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemetz, P N [ed.

    1981-01-01

    Resource-management techniques must be applied to assess the risks, benefits, priorities, and potentials of the different energy options as prospective slowdowns in the flow of crude oil threaten recurring energy crises. The 23 contributors to this book use various managerial approaches in the formulation of energy policies. There is little agreement among the remedies put forth as to which policies will best achieve a balanced energy system. While some experts argue that Canadian energy policy should emphasize intensive development of coal, others claim that it ought to strive for greater reliance on electricity, and still others contend that the transition to soft energy paths is a preferable policy approach. The essays offer a broad range of policy responses, examining not only technical and economic possibilities, but political and institutional alternatives as well. 147 references, 18 figures, 30 tables.

  13. Energy and Economic Crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between the economy and the energy is much more complex of what looks. However, they are continued making, in some cases, absolute statements that used to listen in the past as dogmas, among those that are highly correlated in energy consumption and the Gross National Product GNP and that the countries follow the same development pattern more or less, mainly in connection with the energy consumption. Such statements are not completely misses, neither completely correct and they have behind many simplifications. Of a part, of the historical evolution analysis of several countries or groups of countries on long periods, it confirms the fact that the economic growth, induces an increment in general in the total consumption of energy and vice versa: Energy available with more speed and to smaller price it favors the economic development. Other important factors that impact in the growth of the energy consumption, besides the economic development, are, among, the population's increment, the state of technological development and the cultural customs of use

  14. The Energy Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    Chip-based electronics in 2010 consumed about 10% of the world's total electric power of ˜2 TW. We have seen throughout the book that all segments, processing, memory and communication, are expected to increase their performance or bandwidth by three orders of magnitude in the decade until 2020. If this progress would be realized, the world semiconductor revenue could grow by 50-100%, and the ICT industry by 43-66% in this decade (Fig. 6.1). Progress sustained at these levels certainly depends on investments and qualified manpower, but energy has become another roadblock almost overnight. In this chapter, we touch upon the life-cycle energy of chips by assessing the energy of Si wafer manufacturing, needed to bring the chips to life, and the power efficiencies in their respective operations. An outstanding segment of power-hungry chip operations is that of operating data centers, often called server farms. Their total operating power was ˜36 GW in 2010, and we look at their evolution under the prospect of a 1,000× growth in performance by 2020. One feasible scenario is that we succeed in improving the power efficiency of Processing 1,000×, Memory 1,000×, Communication 100×, within a decade. In this case, the total required power for the world's data centers would still increase 4× to 144 GW by 2020, equivalent to 40% of the total electrical power available in all of Europe. The power prospects for mobile/wireless as well as long-line cable/radio/satellite are equally serious. Any progression by less than the factors listed above will lead to economic growth smaller than the projections given above. This demands clearly that sustainable nanoelectronics must be minimum-energy (femtojoule) electronics.

  15. An energy crisis in Armenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutaniemi, P.

    1994-01-01

    The energy crisis in Armenia is reviewed in the article. Most of the energy generating plants in the country have come to a standstill. The only nuclear power plant in the country has been out of use since the earthquake in 1988, and power generation by the Sevan hydro power plant is limited because the level of Lake Sevan has fallen too low. At moment Armenia needs foreign aid to overcome the energy shortage. For example, the country does not have enough resources or expertise to restart the nuclear power plant

  16. THE EVOLUTION OF ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION DURING THE CURRENT GLOBAL CRISIS

    OpenAIRE

    Sabina Tuca

    2013-01-01

    The current economic crisis constitutes a serious test for the process of globalization. The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of the current global crisis on economic globalization. To assess the impact of the current crisis on economic globalization, this paper examines the KOF Index of Globalization, before and during the crisis. The findings generally support the idea that economic globalization has been, in fact, weakened, after the onset of the current crisis. However, t...

  17. Energy shortage - a produced crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Five articles of the central organ of the KPD/ML, the 'Roter Morgen', and a declaration of the central committee of th KPD/ML are published here. The articles deal with: raw materials-utilization and deposits; the oil-multis - the world's greatest financial power; the energy industry of the FRG; nuclear power - the new trick of the old bosses; resisting the bulling of oil prices, securing energy supply on the basis of coal. The articles are clearly combative and against capitalism, energy concerns and oil-multis. The energy crisis is declared to be a problem of capitalism which can only be solved by abolishing the capitalist system and its laws of profit. (HSCH) [de

  18. The current international financial crisis: how much is new?

    OpenAIRE

    Steven B. Kamin

    1999-01-01

    The paper surveys a broad array of data to compare the scope and impact of three emerging-market financial crises: the debt crisis of the 1980s, the Mexican financial crisis of 1994-95, and the current international financial crisis. While certain conventional views regarding the three episodes are supported by the data examined in this paper, we find that in several respects, the current crisis is more similar to prior emerging-market crisis episodes than is commonly believed.

  19. International Cooperation and Energy/Environment crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clo, A.

    2009-01-01

    A combination of old and new tensions led to a new energy crisis. This crisis is very difficult to solve due to the multiple interests and the global and sovranational nature of its interdependent dimensions (economic, political and environmental). In a deep global economic crisis context, the challenges posed to the modern world by energy and the environment have to be faced with the international cooperation and dialogue, as it was in the past. [it

  20. Energy crisis and uranium energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koryakin, Yu.I.

    1975-01-01

    Problems of ensuring a supply of nuclear power with fuel are reviewed. It is probable that by the year 2000 fuel requirements for nuclear power will be determined by the heat variant of its development since the fraction of fast breeders will then be very insignificant. In connection with the energy process, in western countries there has arisen the economic possibility of using more expensive uranium (more than $22 per kg U 3 O 8 ). Now there is the point of view that, in the new post-crisis conditions, nuclear power plants with light-water reactors will be competitive. It is expected that the energy crisis will give additional impetus to development of nuclear power. In some countries work is being done on extraction of uranium from sea water. In this case, in order for uranium supplies to meet nuclear energy needs for 8, 10, or 12 years, new supplies of uranium must be sought every year. For each kilogram of U 3 O 8 , supplies of uranium will cost $11-17.6 more. Annual inflation will move the recovery costs into the higher cost category. There is good reason to consider that a significant increase in the cost of nuclear power plants and a sharp rise in credit will lead to a more concrete prediction of the total nuclear power in 2000 A.D. of 2700-3200 million kW. With exhaustion of cheap supplies, uranium will be classified by politico-economic considerations. In this case the presentation concerning the competitiveness of nuclear power and conventional energy sources may change

  1. Global Economy under the Current Economic Crisis Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Voicu Ioana-Iulica; Talmaciu Iuliana

    2010-01-01

    In the current context in which countries in the world search new solutions and strategies to counteract the negative effects generated by the worst economic crisis in the last 80 years, the globalisation rises polemics and controversies regarding the causes that lead to the expansion of the crisis. May it be, the current economic crisis, a consequence of the globalisation? Beyond the contradictory answers, the globalisation must be seen in essence as a stimulating and expansion factor of the...

  2. Energy Crisis Racks South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verwijs, H.

    2008-01-01

    South Africa will struggle with energy capacity shortages until at least 2015. Giant coal-fired power plants are now being built to solve the problem - but they will not prevent the problem of climate change

  3. ENERGY CRISIS IN COMMUNIST ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pãrean Mihai - Olimpiu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available If during the interwar period Romania has managed to move from an agrarian economy to an industrial-agrarian one, after the 2nd world war in Romania, as in other communist countries, has monitored the further development of the industry. It wanted to be a true industrial revolution.Over time one can identify several types of industrial revolutions, each giving impetus to a given development cycle, which had its beneficiaries and the losers. At first it was steam power, and then use the internal combustion engine, which used oil instead of steam. While other countries developed would increase of production capacity of nuclear power, a higher stage of economic development, in Romania continued the industrial development on the same grounds as in the inter-war period. This has had very serious tracks for the Romanian economy and society, since before and during World War II, the German war machine operated within the national resources of energy. The time and manner in which each country is part of this race are defining the social welfare. Unfortunately, Romania has failed to take advantage, each time losing the start. Creation of some production capacity and the development of industries (metallurgy, chemical industry, iron and steel industry, which consumed significant energy amounts was the wrong decision for the future well-being of the country. Oil impacts which have affected the world economy, hit also Romania. The first oil shock (impact was more easily broken because of the continued use of internal resources (oil, coal, natural gas, but the second shock was catastrophic. It was too much for Romania after being forced to use those resources in the last decades (including the interwar period. Romanian leaders probably had in mind that Western countries were developed by enhancing industry of this type, but they did it in a different historical period when also the prices of such resources were much smaller and the lack of them was not a

  4. Financial Crisis and Energy Efficiency. Information paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de T' Serclaes, Philippine; Gasc, Emilien; Saussay, Aurelien

    2009-10-15

    Governments have understood the importance of financing energy efficiency now. This realisation is exemplified through the central role occupied by energy efficiency in most stimulus packages. The purpose of this memo is to identify the impact of the financial and economic crisis on the evolution of public sector investments, energy efficiency policy development, and private sector investments. The paper will first identify trends which have emerged from the implementation of IEA government stimulus packages. Most relevant case studies are then provided along with lessons and challenges.

  5. Energy Strategy of Russia in the Conditions of Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashulin Danila A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the transformation of the energy strategy of Russia in the conditions of the current economic crisis. The special attention is paid to current trends in the sphere of international relations having a decisive influence on the formation of Russia’s energy strategy. The authors point to the crisis of the modern world, the deepening of interstate contradictions, the expansion of confrontation, the revision of the uniform principles of trade, established by the World Trade Organization, the changes in the global financial system. The authors investigate the possibility of political arrangements between the leading suppliers of oil on the destabilization of the oil market in order to achieve geopolitical goals. In the article special attention is also paid to the issue of political motivation of anti-Russian sanctions directed at impeding Russia’s development and its Fuel & Energy Complex, in particular. Today, against the background of the current political situation, the energy strategy of Russia is exposed to adjustment. The country has the important task of ensuring technological independence of the energy sector on the basis of import substitution of the equipment, diversification of the directions of export of energy resources, preservation of leading positions in the world market of peaceful nuclear energy, etc. The authors conclude that the energy strategy of Russia is important part of foreign policy strategy of the country, and it is focused on practical cooperation with all countries and is aimed at protecting interests of the state.

  6. Current Energy Patents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    Current Energy Patents (CEP) provides abstracting and indexing coverage of the international patent literature, including patent applications, that concerns any aspect of energy production, conservation, and utilization

  7. Solar architecture and energy policies in France: from the oil crisis to the solar crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvin-Michel, Marion

    2013-01-01

    In 1973, the oil crisis creates a focus on energy efficiency policy. Public institutions implement studies on solar architecture and launch experiments and training campaigns to promote the solar equipment. But the presidential election of 1981 leads to a change in energy policy, plunging the solar sector in crisis, causing the disappearance of solar architecture

  8. The energy crisis and Bonn's atomic energy programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhaus, K.; Heimbrecht, J.

    1979-01-01

    What are the background and causes of the energy crisis. In whose interest and on whose back is energy policy made in our country. Will the lights go out without nuclear power. Which are the real goals and dangers of Bonn's atomic energy programme. Is coal a real alternative to nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany. What possibilities and requirements are there for a national and democratic energy policy in the Federal Republic of Germany. Which are the central problems of the protest movement against the government's atomic energy programme. These questions, which are still in the centre of political discussion, are investigated by the authors. (orig.) [de

  9. The current crisis in human resources for health in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overview. The current crisis in human resources for health in. Africa has reached a serious level in many countries. A complex set of reasons has contributed to this problem, some exogenous, such as the severe economic measures introduced by structural adjustment, which often result in cutbacks in the number of health ...

  10. The Current Global Financial Crisis 2008-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albulena Shala

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The current global financial crisis is considered as one of the biggest crises after the crisis of the years of 30’s. The global financial crisis has affected all countries including developed and developing ones. It also has affected all the industries. Population with the low-income faced the greatest consequences. The last hope for the survival of the market economy was to undertake important steps for the nationalization of bankrupted banks and companies, thereby developing policies for the preservation of jobs. Through this analysis, we have included briefly some of the development followed the period of 2008 and onwards. A summary of statistics for some important economic indicators such as employment, exporting and importing is covered in this study as well.

  11. Fossil fuels, uranium, and the energy crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Playford, P E

    1977-01-01

    Relevant data on the world energy picture are presented to indicate present energy sources and resources, especially fossil fuels and the role of uranium in energy production, with some predictions for the future. World energy is presently being derived from petroleum (some 62%), coal (31%), hydropower (6%), and nuclear (1%). The fundamental cause of the present world energy crisis is attributed to the increase in consumption of petroleum over the past 20 yr, compared with the relatively small size and unequal distribution of the world's remaining reserves. The reserves/production ratio for petroleum has fallen steadily from a general level of 60 to 80 yr from 1920 to 1955, to about 31 yr today. New oil is becoming harder and more expensive to find and produce, the size of discoveries is declining. There is no reason to believe that this trend will be substantially altered, and production is expected to begin to decline between 1985 and 1990. Gas resources also are expected to fall short after the mid-1980s. Coal reserves are enormous, but their full utilization is doubtful because of economic and environmental problems. Tar sands and oil shale resources are potentially major sources of oil, and they are expected to become more competitive with petroleum as higher oil prices occur.

  12. Current Studies on Crisis Response Communication:Focus on Crisis Communication Theories in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    平澤 敦

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have shown an increased interest in crisis communication as well as crisis management. Crisis communication became an established corporate discipline in the last 20 years. Because of the recent rash of corporate (organizational) scandals, natural disasters and so on, importance of crisis communication (management) attracts much more attention than the past.Crisis communication is used to help governments and companies organizations to respond to and recover from a crisis. Crisis ...

  13. The current economic and financial crisis: a gender perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Antonopoulos, Rania

    2009-01-01

    Widespread economic recessions and protracted financial crises have been documented as setting back gender equality and other development goals in the past. In the midst of the current global crisis--often referred to as "the Great Recession"--there is grave concern that progress made in poverty reduction and women's equality will be reversed. Indeed, for many developing countries it is particularly worrisome that, through no fault of their own, the global economic downturn has exacerbated ef...

  14. Neo-Poulantzian Perspectives in IR and the Current Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Ougaard, Morten

    2013-01-01

    This paper is about Poulantzas, historical materialism, international relations, and the current crisis. My purpose is to discuss how some Poulantzian theoretical contributions can be applied to the study of subject matters that are the focus of academic fields such as International Relations (IR), International Political Economy (IPE), International Politics, World Politics and others. I deliberately abstain from singling out any of these disciplines or fields or labels and fr...

  15. Fair Value Considerations during the Current Financial Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Banu Esra Aslanertik

    2010-01-01

    In the current economic conditions, accounting applications seem to face new and complex challenges. Especially, these challenges are on the basis of fair value. Recent crisis has highlighted the complexity and difficulty of valuing financial instruments when market information is not available or not sufficient to give better economic decisions. FASB 157 “Fair Value Accounting” became effective by January 1, 2008 for most U.S. companies and some believe that this caused the problem. Opposite...

  16. Geothermal Energy: Current abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringe, A.C. (ed.)

    1988-02-01

    This bulletin announces the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. (ACR)

  17. Stock markets and criticality in the current economic crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Roberto; Zembrzuski, Marcelo; Correa, Fabio C.; Lamb, Luis C.

    2010-12-01

    We show that the current economic crisis has led the market to exhibit a non-critical behavior. We do so by analyzing the quantitative parameters of time series from the main assets of the Brazilian Stock Market BOVESPA. By monitoring global persistence we show a deviation of power law behavior during the crisis in a strong analogy with spin systems (from where this concept was originally conceived). Such behavior is corroborated by an emergent heavy tail of absolute return distribution and also by the magnitude autocorrelation exponent. Comparisons with universal exponents obtained in the international stock markets are also performed. This suggests how a thorough analysis of suitable exponents can bring a possible way of forecasting market crises characterized by non-criticality.

  18. Climatic threat, energy crisis, and illusions of a nuclear revival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-10-01

    While considering the example of the French nuclear reactor fleet, and while indicating various data concerning energy savings, CO 2 emissions, energy consumption in France and in other European countries, and also the occurrence of incidents in nuclear plants, this publication discusses the context of a climatic crisis, energy crisis, and of a possible nuclear revival boosted by the decreasing use of fossil energies to comply with the objective of reduction of greenhouse gases. It discusses the relationship a nuclear revival would have with climate change, with energy safety and with energy transition

  19. Crisis and Policy Reformcraft: Advocacy Coalitions and Crisis-induced Change in Swedish Nuclear Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohrstedt, Daniel

    2007-04-01

    This dissertation consists of three interrelated essays examining the role of crisis events in Swedish nuclear energy policymaking. The study takes stock of the idea of 'crisis exceptionalism' raised in the literature, which postulates that crisis events provide openings for major policy change. In an effort to explain crisis-induced outcomes in Swedish nuclear energy policy, each essay explores and develops theoretical assumptions derived from the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF). The introduction discusses the ACF and other theoretical perspectives accentuating the role of crisis in policymaking and identifies three explanations for crisis-induced policy outcomes: minority coalition mobilization, learning, and strategic action. Essay 1 analyzes the nature and development of the Swedish nuclear energy subsystem. The results contradict the ACF assumption that corporatist systems nurture narrow subsystems and small advocacy coalitions, but corroborate the assumption that advocacy coalitions remain stable over time. While this analysis identifies temporary openings in policymaking venues and in the advocacy coalition structure, it is argued that these developments did not affect crisis policymaking. Essay 2 seeks to explain the decision to initiate a referendum on nuclear power following the 1979 Three Mile Island accident. Internal government documents and other historical records indicate that strategic considerations superseded learning as the primary explanation in this case. Essay 3 conducts an in-depth examination of Swedish policymaking in the aftermath of the 1986 Chernobyl accident in an effort to explain the government's decision not to accelerate the nuclear power phaseout. Recently disclosed government documents show that minority coalition mobilization was insufficient to explain this decision. In this case, rational learning and strategic action provided a better explanation. The main theoretical contribution derived from the three essays is to posit

  20. Crisis and Policy Reformcraft: Advocacy Coalitions and Crisis-induced Change in Swedish Nuclear Energy Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nohrstedt, Daniel

    2007-04-15

    This dissertation consists of three interrelated essays examining the role of crisis events in Swedish nuclear energy policymaking. The study takes stock of the idea of 'crisis exceptionalism' raised in the literature, which postulates that crisis events provide openings for major policy change. In an effort to explain crisis-induced outcomes in Swedish nuclear energy policy, each essay explores and develops theoretical assumptions derived from the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF). The introduction discusses the ACF and other theoretical perspectives accentuating the role of crisis in policymaking and identifies three explanations for crisis-induced policy outcomes: minority coalition mobilization, learning, and strategic action. Essay 1 analyzes the nature and development of the Swedish nuclear energy subsystem. The results contradict the ACF assumption that corporatist systems nurture narrow subsystems and small advocacy coalitions, but corroborate the assumption that advocacy coalitions remain stable over time. While this analysis identifies temporary openings in policymaking venues and in the advocacy coalition structure, it is argued that these developments did not affect crisis policymaking. Essay 2 seeks to explain the decision to initiate a referendum on nuclear power following the 1979 Three Mile Island accident. Internal government documents and other historical records indicate that strategic considerations superseded learning as the primary explanation in this case. Essay 3 conducts an in-depth examination of Swedish policymaking in the aftermath of the 1986 Chernobyl accident in an effort to explain the government's decision not to accelerate the nuclear power phaseout. Recently disclosed government documents show that minority coalition mobilization was insufficient to explain this decision. In this case, rational learning and strategic action provided a better explanation. The main theoretical contribution derived from the three

  1. Oil and the world energy crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Almost half of the needs for primary in the world are covered by oil. The rapid growth in oil prices because of the 1973 oil crisis caused a growth in prices for other source of energy as well, primarily coal and natural gas. The sale price of 1 m/sup 3/ of oil in 1973 equalled--$18.87, and later $31.45. In recent years, the cost of 1 m/sup 3/ of oil reached $188.69, and by the end of the century, according to forecasts, should reach $628.98. The cost of extracting 1 m/sup 3/ of oil in the Near East equals $1.57, and in the North Sea $44.03-75.48. The cost of producing 1 m/sup 3/ of synthetic oil from bitumenous sands equals $94.35-157.25, and from fuel shales $94.35-122.14. The explored oil reserves at the end of 1979 were, in million T: in the OPEC countries 58, 265, including 22, 261 in Saudi Arabia, and 25, 539 in the rest of the world. Oil extraction in 1979 was, in million T: in the OPEC countries 1574 (100%), including 510 (32.4%) in Saudi Arabia, 175 ((11.1%) in Iraq, 145 (9.2%) in Iran, 130 (8.2%) in Kuwait, 125 (7.9%) in Venezuela, 114 (7.2%) in Nigeria, 101 (6.4%) in Libya, 88 (5.6%) in the United Arab Emirates, other OPEC countries 186 (11.8%), in the other countries of the world 1550 (100%), including the United States 479 (30.9%), 108 (7.0%) in The Chinese People's Republic, 86 (5.5%) in Canada, 80 (5.2%) in Mexico, 79 (5.1%) in Great Britain, 28 (1.8%) in Arab Republic of Egypt, 18 (1.2%) in Norway, and 86 (5.5%) in other countries.

  2. Neo-Poulantzian Perspectives in IR and the Current Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ougaard, Morten

    This paper is about Poulantzas, historical materialism, international relations, and the current crisis. My purpose is to discuss how some Poulantzian theoretical contributions can be applied to the study of subject matters that are the focus of academic fields such as International Relations (IR......), International Political Economy (IPE), International Politics, World Politics and others. I deliberately abstain from singling out any of these disciplines or fields or labels and from trying to define them precisely, because one of my arguments is that historical materialism (HM) is a research program2...

  3. Residential consumer behavior during and after an energy crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragao Neto, Raymundo [International Institute for Energy Conservation, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: raragao@iiec.org; Javaroni, Mario Cesar [ECOLUZ Consultores Associados, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: javaroni@ecoluz.com.br

    2004-07-01

    Brazil faced a severe energy crisis during 2001 and 2002 that reflected in all sectors including residential, and obliged to reduce in 20 per cent consumption, considering 2000 basis. New products were largely used, and domestic customs changed. This paper evaluates how residential behaviour has changed during the crisis period, and one year later what initiatives (habits, appliances) remained, considering a survey with 240 consumers. (author)

  4. Fair Value Considerations during the Current Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Esra Aslanertik

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic conditions, accounting applications seem to face new and complex challenges. Especially, these challenges are on the basis of fair value. Recent crisis has highlighted the complexity and difficulty of valuing financial instruments when market information is not available or not sufficient to give better economic decisions. FASB 157 “Fair Value Accounting” became effective by January 1, 2008 for most U.S. companies and some believe that this caused the problem. Oppositely, a wider group of interested parties and investors believe that fair value increases transparency and give relevant information for decision making. Depending on the financial reporting framework and the going concern assumption, this paper investigates the process for determining fair value measurements and its in-depth effects in financial reports. Also, the paper will try to highlight the question: “Can fair value be really the main reason of the global financial crisis?” from the aspect of an accounting academician.

  5. Climate crisis: energy solutions for BC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, D.

    2000-01-01

    This report is a collection of essays which, collectively, detail the current situation of energy and climate policy in British Columbia, taking account of the full consequences of addiction to fossil fuels and the automobile. The report examines the forces at work responsible for the current situation, namely population growth, urban sprawl, low density communities in the Lower Fraser Valley, southern Vancouver Island and other parts of the province. The growing pressure on the development of agricultural land, congestion on highways and in cities, the increase in air pollution, land alienation, longer commutes to and from work, increased demand for electricity and natural gas, construction of new power plants, pipelines and gas processing facilities are just further examples of the same trend, culminating in dramatic growth in greenhouse gas emissions. The report proposes a range of conservation and renewable options in the areas of urban land use and transportation, commercial and industrial energy reduction and oil and gas production, and provides some ideas of how these recommendations could be realized by businesses, institutions and individuals. It insists on stressing that while the challenges are formidable, they could be achieved through a combination of regulation, public investment, market mechanisms and cultural change. 163 end-notes, tabs

  6. Climate crisis: energy solutions for BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, D. [ed.

    2000-07-01

    This report is a collection of essays which, collectively, detail the current situation of energy and climate policy in British Columbia, taking account of the full consequences of addiction to fossil fuels and the automobile. The report examines the forces at work responsible for the current situation, namely population growth, urban sprawl, low density communities in the Lower Fraser Valley, southern Vancouver Island and other parts of the province. The growing pressure on the development of agricultural land, congestion on highways and in cities, the increase in air pollution, land alienation, longer commutes to and from work, increased demand for electricity and natural gas, construction of new power plants, pipelines and gas processing facilities are just further examples of the same trend, culminating in dramatic growth in greenhouse gas emissions. The report proposes a range of conservation and renewable options in the areas of urban land use and transportation, commercial and industrial energy reduction and oil and gas production, and provides some ideas of how these recommendations could be realized by businesses, institutions and individuals. It insists on stressing that while the challenges are formidable, they could be achieved through a combination of regulation, public investment, market mechanisms and cultural change. 163 end-notes, tabs.

  7. CHALLENGES OF INTERNAL AUDIT IN THE CURRENT CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Adriana Florina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern economic theories reject the generalization of theories concerning the economic and financial crises. Each financial crisis is unique, a historic accident, generated by specific factors in a certain socio-economic and political set-up. According to these theories, crises cannot be anticipated so as to minimize their negative effects. In spite of the fact that economic and financial crises are not identical and do not produce identical effects, history teaches us that they are strongly correlated with the cyclic nature of economic processes. The current economic recession, which shows in all fields of activity, is determining auditors to make evaluations which are a lot more precise, based on extensive procedures, as long as the presumption of activity continuity into the future is accurate. In this context, internal audit is individualized as an managerial assistance function, which allows a correct perception of the reality of the business as a whole and/or as predefined processes. The purpose of this paper is to create an overall picture of internal audit by collecting data and information from literature and showing the dimensions and the internal audit practices internationally. Therefore, we conducted a research based on the analysis of national and international publications, various articles and studies in the financial press, on the emergence and development of the internal audit function both internationally and nationally. Later we analyzed the position of internal audit in terms of global financial crisis, all these leading to the usage of a comparative study of twelve international companies in order to highlight the specific features of the internal audit function in each organization. Our intention is to emphasize aspects of internal audit departments, relations between them and the management, their role in companies based on studies provided by Protiviti, a global consulting and internal audit services company, having

  8. Renewable energy: an answer to our energy crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Contrary to popular belief, renewables primarily biomass and hydropower currently supply about 20% of the world's energy. Biomass alone meets 35% of developing countries total energy needs, though often not in a manner that is renewable or sustainable in the long term. Steady advances have been made since the mid-seventies in an array of new energy technologies that will be needed if the world is to greatly increase its reliance on renewable resources. Indeed many of the machines and processes that could provide energy in a renewable energy based economy are now almost economically competitive with fossil fuels. Further cost reductions are expected in the next decade, as these technologies continue to improve through R and D efforts. After a period of neglected in the eighties, many governments are now supporting new energy technologies more effectively, which may signal the beginning of a renewable energy boom in the years ahead. (author). 8 refs

  9. An Overview of the Energy Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Edward A.; Wewerka, Eugene M.

    1975-01-01

    Concludes that coal will be the major U.S. energy source in the near future despite the significant problems associated with an increase in coal consumption. Provides advantages and disadvantages for the four major long-term energy sources: nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, geothermal sources, and solar energy. (MLH)

  10. Fission, fusion and the energy crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, S E [Aston Univ., Birmingham (UK)

    1980-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: living on capital (energy reserves and consumption forecasts); the atom and its nucleus, mass and energy; fission and the bomb; the natural uranium reactor; enriched reactors; control and safety; long-term economics (the breeder reactions and nuclear fuel reserves); short-term economics (cost per kilowatt hour); national nuclear power programmes; nuclear power and the environment (including reprocessing, radioactive waste management, public relations); renewable energy sources; the fusion programme; summary and comment.

  11. The Impact of the Current Food Crisis on the Nigerian Society ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria is currently experiencing a serious food crisis in its history. The crisis manifests itself in the inability of the nation to produce enough food to feed its population and the need to import food at exorbitant prices. Food shortage and hunger have resulted in the incidence of malnutrition and kwashiorkor among its citizens.

  12. Ontario's energy crisis brings out conflicting visions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishewitsch, S.

    2004-01-01

    Ontario's medium-term energy supply situation is discussed in light of the Ontario provincial government's insistence on phasing out coal-fired generation by 2007, and the somewhat longer term uncertainty about the aging nuclear fleet and the price tag associated with their overhauling or replacement. Centre to the discussion is the replacement of coal-fired plants by natural gas-fired generating plants, complicated by the fact is that there is already a surfeit of gas-fired plants sitting idle for lack of fuel available at an economically acceptable price. Recent statistics show that conventional gas supplies have already levelled off and unconventional sources, such as coalbed methane, and imports like LNG, are more abundant, but also significantly more expensive. The nuclear option is considered by knowledgeable insiders as a viable option for increased generation, although it is generally acknowledged as a serious public relations problem. The contributions of green power and cogeneration are also explored; the most optimistic estimates put the supply from this source at 50,000 GWh a year; less than the amount needed even in the absence of growth in demand. The overall conclusion is that Ontario's energy future can only be assured by aggressive pursuit of productivity improvements, financial and policy innovations, extensive use of cogeneration, strong development of renewables, energy conservation, efficiency, and demand management

  13. Brazil's energy industry in a crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangmeister, H.

    1988-01-01

    In volume 8/1986 of this periodical, Brazil's moving away from the program for the building and expansion of a national nuclear power industry had been reported on back of foreign currencies and urgently necessary saving measures of the public means influence not only the construction of nuclear power plants, they also decay instruments in other areas of energy industry. In the area of electric power, some nationalisations have already taken place and in petroleum supply, the need for imports is increasing again. Furthermore, there is reason to believe that some of the energy-political solutions which Brazil had chosen as answers to the petroleum price shocks of 1973/74 and 1979/80 are likely to lead to some considerable problems in the near future. In the middle of these crises in which Brazil's energy industry has been for some time now, there is nonetheless one spectacular event. Brazil's President, Mr. Jose Sarney, announced the command of the nuclear cycle by means of national technology. (orig.) [de

  14. Ensuring green growth in a time of economic crisis: the role of energy technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Despite the severity of the current financial and economic crisis, it cannot be allowed to distract us from addressing critical and strategic climate change and energy challenges. The energy sector produces 60% of global greenhouse gas emissions and so it must also be a key part of any strategy to reduce them. This paper describes the most promising low-carbon technologies, their current status and the policy framework that will be necessary to achieve their widespread deployment. It also highlights what immediate steps can be taken as part of a Clean Energy New Deal. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 1 app.

  15. The US Opioid Crisis: Current Federal and State Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soelberg, Cobin D; Brown, Raeford E; Du Vivier, Derick; Meyer, John E; Ramachandran, Banu K

    2017-11-01

    The United States is in the midst of a devastating opioid misuse epidemic leading to over 33,000 deaths per year from both prescription and illegal opioids. Roughly half of these deaths are attributable to prescription opioids. Federal and state governments have only recently begun to grasp the magnitude of this public health crisis. In 2016, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released their Guidelines for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain. While not comprehensive in scope, these guidelines attempt to control and regulate opioid prescribing. Other federal agencies involved with the federal regulatory effort include the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), and the Department of Justice. Each federal agency has a unique role in helping to stem the burgeoning opioid misuse epidemic. The DEA, working with the Department of Justice, has enforcement power to prosecute pill mills and physicians for illegal prescribing. The DEA could also implement use of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs), currently administered at the state level, and use of electronic prescribing for schedule II and III medications. The FDA has authority to approve new and safer formulations of immediate- and long-acting opioid medications. More importantly, the FDA can also ask pharmaceutical companies to cease manufacturing a drug. Additionally, state agencies play a critical role in reducing overdose deaths, protecting the public safety, and promoting the medically appropriate treatment of pain. One of the states' primary roles is the regulation of practice of medicine and the insurance industry within their borders. Utilizing this authority, states can both educate physicians about the dangers of opioids and make physician licensure dependent on registering and using PDMPs when prescribing controlled substances. Almost every state has implemented a PDMP to some degree; however, in addition to mandating their use, increased interstate

  16. US business and the energy crisis: a survey of managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kefalas, A G [Univ. of Georgia, Athens; Mehra, S

    1979-09-01

    Although there seems to be an uncomfortably clear consensus among academic and other researchers that energy availability, accessibility, and affordability can no longer be taken for granted, most governments seem to have great difficulty in devising an energy policy that will solve the energy crisis or at least clarify the energy confusion. In 1974, barely a year after the 1973 oil embargo, a survey was conducted of US executives, asking them to comment about the severity of the energy situation and its impact upon their organizations. The results were published in the September 1976 issue of Energy Policy. Last November, five years since the 1973 experience, the survey was repeated, with production and inventory control personnel. This article presents a comparison of the two surveys.

  17. Contextualizing the current crisis: Post-Fordism, neoliberal restructuring, and financialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Tauss

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article argues that the current financial crisis that began unfolding in late 2007 cannot be explained merely by institutional failure, false economic theories, or human misbehavior. Instead, the crisis must be analyzed against the backdrop of the internal contradictions of capitalist accumulation and the gradual disintegration of the post-war hegemonic world order under U.S. leadership. The specifics of the crisis are inherently related to the failure of Fordism in the 1970s and the emergence of a post-Fordist, neoliberal, and finance-driven regime of accumulation that was pushed to its limits in the lead-up to the current downturn.

  18. CHALLENGES OF INTERNAL AUDIT IN THE CURRENT CRISIS

    OpenAIRE

    Popa Adriana Florina; Breban Ludovica; Bochis Leonica

    2013-01-01

    Modern economic theories reject the generalization of theories concerning the economic and financial crises. Each financial crisis is unique, a historic accident, generated by specific factors in a certain socio-economic and political set-up. According to these theories, crises cannot be anticipated so as to minimize their negative effects. In spite of the fact that economic and financial crises are not identical and do not produce identical effects, history teaches us that they are strongly ...

  19. Is energy crisis a chance for the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beigbeder, Ch.

    2008-01-01

    The explosion of fossil fuel prices is considered as a threat for our industries, for employment and for our economic growth. But why would not it be finally a formidable opportunity to create a new growth, sustainable, respectful to the environment and to future generations? We have been frantically consuming energy for 150 years now, considering that our resources are unexhaustible. However, another way to stimulate growth, consume energy, and manage to combine security of supplies and fight against global warming as well is possible. Energy efficiency techniques, development of renewable energy sources and electric-powered vehicles, CO 2 capture and sequestration are some of the components of this new deal. Accelerated by the present day situation and stimulated by competition, each can contribute to generate growth and employment. The present day crisis leads us to count even more on inventiveness and research and to intelligently change our behaviours without diminishing our comfort. (J.S.)

  20. Energy shortage: a produced crisis. Energieknappheit - die gemachte Krise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Five articles of the central organ of the KPD/ML, the Roter Morgen, and a declaration of the central committee of th KPD/ML are published here. The articles deal with: raw materials-utilization and deposits; the oil-multis - the world's greatest financial power; the energy industry of the FRG; nuclear power - the new trick of the old bosses; resisting the bulling of oil prices, securing energy supply on the basis of coal. The articles are clearly combative and against capitalism, energy concerns, and oil-multis. The energy crisis is declared to be a problem of capitalism which can only be solved by abolishing the capitalist system and its laws of profit.

  1. Energy shortage: a produced crisis. Energieknappheit - die gemachte Krise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Five articles of the central organ of the KPD/ML, the Roter Morgen, and a declaration of the central committee of th KPD/ML are published here. The articles deal with: raw materials-utilization and deposits; the oil-multis - the world's greatest financial power; the energy industry of the FRG; nuclear power - the new trick of the old bosses; resisting the bulling of oil prices, securing energy supply on the basis of coal. The articles are clearly combative and against capitalism, energy concerns, and oil-multis. The energy crisis is declared to be a problem of capitalism which can only be solved by abolishing the capitalist system and its laws of profit.

  2. The Brazilian energy crisis and a study to support building efficiency legislation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, L.P. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). School of Engineering; Lomardo, L.L.B. [Fluminense Federal University and Researcher of COPPE, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. of Architecture

    2004-02-01

    Brazil has gone through an important electricity generation crisis in 2001, but the country does not have as yet a legislation to improve building energy efficiency. The energy efficiency of Brazilian buildings can well be improved, as it was shown during the energy-rationing period in 2001. This efficiency increase could usher in gains in quality for indoor environments, as well as lower investments in power generation facilities, including the emission of gases into the atmosphere, flooding arable land for reservoirs, etc. The current work briefly demonstrates the lack of planning that caused the electricity crisis, some results of multi-building studies and simulations of an existing office building of Rio de Janeiro. In this parametric case-study, we have simulated variations of the window-wall ratio (WWR) with different glasses and interior shade, using the natural light, aspects deemed to be of the utmost importance for a future Brazilian building energy efficiency legislation. The need of such legislation has been much increased as a result of the energy generation crisis and its consequences. To take advantage of the problems, in order to improve the quality of the Brazilians buildings, is one of our objectives. (author)

  3. Leading the Way to the Third Industrial Revolution. Addressing the Triple Threat of the Global Financial Crisis, Energy Crisis, and Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rifkin, J.; Da Graca Carvalho, M.; Consoli, A.; Bonifacio, M.

    2008-01-01

    We are at a precarious point in history. We are facing the real prospect of an economic meltdown on the scale of the Great Depression. The credit crisis is compounded by the global energy crisis and the climate change crisis, creating a potential cataclysm for civilization. There is a way out: we need to radically overhaul the way we use energy in our society

  4. Leading the Way to the Third Industrial Revolution. Addressing the Triple Threat of the Global Financial Crisis, Energy Crisis, and Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rifkin, J.; Da Graca Carvalho, M.; Consoli, A.; Bonifacio, M.

    2008-12-15

    We are at a precarious point in history. We are facing the real prospect of an economic meltdown on the scale of the Great Depression. The credit crisis is compounded by the global energy crisis and the climate change crisis, creating a potential cataclysm for civilization. There is a way out: we need to radically overhaul the way we use energy in our society.

  5. The economic and financial crisis: impacts on energy balances and prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyafil, Antoine

    2009-01-01

    The current economic crisis finds its origin in the existence of a global market for human capital, without unified prices: the development of a debt economy in Western countries can be regarded as an attempt to maintain economic growth in spite of the resulting pressure on labor wages. While the sub-prime crisis has shown the limits of such an attempt, the author believes that debt driven economic growth will continue to prevail in Western countries until price imbalances on the global market for human capital are resolved. This probably implies a substitution of public to private debt, and of private consumption to public investment with the resulting implications on public deficits, supply and demand, and relative prices. Energy prices will be sensitive to public spending's both mechanical impact on economic growth and qualitative impact on energy efficiency

  6. Labour Markets Trends, Financial Globalization and the current crisis in Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. van der Hoeven (Rolph)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe current wave of globalization has profound labour market effects, accentuated, in many cases, by the current financial and economic crisis. This paper reviews general labour market trends and country examples, arguing that the current globalization process makes labour’s position

  7. Employment and employment conditions in the current economic crisis in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Vukšić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to analyze developments in employment and employment characteristics during the current crisis in Croatia. The main findings can be summarized as follows: (1 The primary (aggregate mode of adjustment to the crisis was a decline in employment. There are, however, considerable differences in adjustment patterns across economic activities. (2 During the crisis, jobs were lost in the, more dynamic, private sector, while the number of jobs in the public sector (entities in state ownership slightly increased. (3 Economic activities with comparatively larger shares of women in employment have experienced fewer employment cuts and the aggregate employment share of women rose during the crisis, especially in activities with a larger share of public sector workers.(4 There has been a declining share of younger workers during the crisis, justifying policy actions to facilitate their employment. (5 Employees with comparatively lower educational attainment face severe challenges in the labor market, which is a longer term trend, not specific to the crisis period. There are indications that this group of employees enjoys a higher level of protection in the public sector. (6 Analysis also shows a rising significance of more flexible forms of employment: increasing shares of fixed term employees (during the last two observed years, and of part time workers. (7 Working hours do not exhibit any strong trends specific to the crisis, except for the diminishing number of overtime hours per worker.

  8. The role of nuclear energy against the background of the worldwide energy crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, A.J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The availability, consumption and conservation of energy sources like oil, coal, natural gas and uranium and the distribution of these sources are discussed. The article also discusses the possible solution to the energy crisis in the future on the short, medium and long term and the position of South Africa in this regard

  9. Cuba - energy management in crisis. Kuba - Energiewirtschaft in der Krise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechuga Vilarino, R. (Hochschule fuer Technik, Wirtschaft und Sozialwesen (HTWS), Zittau/Goerlitz F-H (Germany)); Riesner, W. (Hochschule fuer Technik, Wirtschaft und Sozialwesen (HTWS), Zittau/Goerlitz F-H (Germany))

    1994-10-01

    In 1993, the drastic decline of the Cuban economy resulted in a partial revelation of socialistic economic principles. A crisis in energy supply brings big parts of agriculture and industry to a standstill caused by a lack of foreign exchange. Collapses in public traffic, daily power cut lasting hours show that the vulnerable spot of the island is exposed with the energy supply. Despite increasing own crude oil extraction (1993: 1.1 mio. t), lack in energy is drastic through dropped subsidies of the former Soviet Union as well as wanting crude oil supplies from this region (decrease of crude oil imports from previously 13 mio. t/a to 13 up to 4 mio. t/a). On the other hand, this critical situation has forced to save energy to better use national owned reserves. It is also planned to continue a nuclear power station concept blocked in 1992. In lack of an own fossil basis of ressources, the utilization of regeneration energy sources is increasingly considered with this bagasse in the centre. Nevertheless it is clear that the gap in energy coverage cannot be managed with this alone. (orig./UA)

  10. Overcoming energy injustice? Bulgaria’s renewable energy transition in times of crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas, Jan-Justus; Burns, Charlotte Jennie; Touza-Montero, Julia Maria

    2018-01-01

    The effects of renewable energy transitions on energy costs and economic growth have led to cost concerns and a prioritisation of economic issues during the economic crisis. Bulgaria, the EU's poorest state has nevertheless already achieved its 2020 renewable energy targets. This achievement seems to challenge the widely held as- sumption that poorer countries struggle to meet environmental objectives. This paper analyses the drivers and implications of Bulgaria's renewables expansion in orde...

  11. On the energy crisis in the Io plasma torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert A.; Bagenal, Fran; Cheng, Andrew F.; Strobel, Darrell

    1988-01-01

    Recent calculations of the energy balance of the Io plasma torus show that the observed UV and EUV radiation cannot be maintained solely via energy input by the ion pickup mechanism. Current theoretical models of the torus must be modified to include non-local energy input. It is argued that the required energy may be supplied by inward diffusion of energetic heavy ions with energies less than about 20 keV.

  12. A study on the role of nuclear energy in overcoming environment and resource crisis -For the establishment of sustainable energy policy-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Pil Soon; Choi, Yung Myung; Ham, Chul Hoon; Cho, Il Hoon; Jung, Heum Soo; Lee, Tae Joon; Lee, Duk Sun

    1995-04-01

    This study is mainly composed of the analyses of the current circumstances and the future views on the global warming and the exhaustion of energy resources related to the use of energy, and the suggestion on the role of nuclear energy as the most prospective countermeasure on energy crisis. The effects of the problems of global warming and energy crisis on the 21st century are look upon and the strategies of each countries to their crises are analyzed in this study. In energy source and the characteristics of nuclear energy resource, and the necessity of the sustainable development of nuclear energy was emphasized. We suggested the enlargement of the development of nuclear energy in the aspects of the international trends, the national economic options and the deficiency of energy resources, and proposed the detail of the short - and long - term strategies on these matters. 22 figs, 39 tabs, 45 refs. (Author)

  13. EVOLUTION OF THE ROMANIAN RESIDENTIAL MARKET AFTER OUTBREAK OF THE CURRENT ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şteliac Nela

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The residential market is one of the market sectors seriously affected by the current economic and financial crisis. This is mirrored both in the fall of real estate trading prices and in the decreased number of transactions and cutback of newly built constructions. This trend is applicable to the entire spectrum of the residential market (luxury properties and homes destined to average-income customers. Romania is no exception from this European and world-wide state of affairs. This paper aims to briefly outline the trends on the Romanian residential market in the aftermath of the current crisis.

  14. On the energy crisis in noncommutative CP(1) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sourrouille, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    We study the CP(1) system in (2+1)-dimensional noncommutative space with and without Chern-Simons term. Using the Seiberg-Witten map we convert the noncommutative CP(1) system to an action written in terms of the commutative fields. We find that this system presents the same infinite size instanton solution as the commutative Chern-Simons-CP(1) model without a potential term. Based on this result we argue that the BPS equations are compatible with the full variational equations of motion, rejecting the hypothesis of an 'energy crisis'. In addition we examine the noncommutative CP(1) system with a Chern-Simons interaction. In this case we find that when the theory is transformed by the Seiberg-Witten map it also presents the same instanton solution as the commutative Chern-Simons-CP(1) model.

  15. We don't have an energy crisis - we have an energy currency crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text': Contrary to what almost everyone believes, we do not need to find new, non-carbon energy sources. We have plenty, including hydraulic, wind, solar, geothermal, tidal sources - and, most important, nuclear power. The latter holds the most promise for a substantial positive impact world-wide - but it is held back by the deeply imbedded, flawed mythology that nuclear power is dangerous and unsustainable. In order to deploy non-carbon sources at the level they are needed globally, we must build new nuclear plants and refurbish old ones. At the same time, we must, whenever reasonable, install other non-carbon sources, typically renewables like hydraulic and wind, whose attractiveness depends on venue. We will use the graphic of the energy system's architecture, shown above, as a platform to explain why our critical need is for a universal non-carbon energy currency that can allow non-carbon sources to escape the electricity ghetto and move into transportation fuels and chemical commodities. Today's proposals for deflecting climate disruption are not solutions. At best, they are band-aids. Any comprehensive solution must lead to zero CO 2 emissions from our energy system - not just reduced emissions. This requires not only non-carbon sources but also non-carbon currencies. We already have the non-carbon currency - electricity. But electricity can not fly airplanes, or push ships, and is a poor currency for road or rail. For these services, we will need the non-carbon - and renewable - currency, hydrogen. Only hydrogen can allow the energy from non-carbon sources like hydraulic, nuclear, sunlight or wind, to fly airplanes - to fly them further, safer, with larger payloads and without (in principle) the system emitting a drop of CO 2 . In short, hydrogen is the single, non-carbon fuel that can substitute for today's gasoline, diesel and jet-A. On the way to the Hydrogen Age, 'tether' hydrogen must play a vital role in harvesting Canada's heavy oil reserves

  16. We don't have an energy crisis - we have an energy currency crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, D.S. [International Association for Hydrogen Energy, Inst. for Integrated Energy Systems, Univ. of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    'Full text': Contrary to what almost everyone believes, we do not need to find new, non-carbon energy sources. We have plenty, including hydraulic, wind, solar, geothermal, tidal sources - and, most important, nuclear power. The latter holds the most promise for a substantial positive impact world-wide - but it is held back by the deeply imbedded, flawed mythology that nuclear power is dangerous and unsustainable. In order to deploy non-carbon sources at the level they are needed globally, we must build new nuclear plants and refurbish old ones. At the same time, we must, whenever reasonable, install other non-carbon sources, typically renewables like hydraulic and wind, whose attractiveness depends on venue. We will use the graphic of the energy system's architecture, shown above, as a platform to explain why our critical need is for a universal non-carbon energy currency that can allow non-carbon sources to escape the electricity ghetto and move into transportation fuels and chemical commodities. Today's proposals for deflecting climate disruption are not solutions. At best, they are band-aids. Any comprehensive solution must lead to zero CO{sub 2} emissions from our energy system - not just reduced emissions. This requires not only non-carbon sources but also non-carbon currencies. We already have the non-carbon currency - electricity. But electricity can not fly airplanes, or push ships, and is a poor currency for road or rail. For these services, we will need the non-carbon - and renewable - currency, hydrogen. Only hydrogen can allow the energy from non-carbon sources like hydraulic, nuclear, sunlight or wind, to fly airplanes - to fly them further, safer, with larger payloads and without (in principle) the system emitting a drop of CO{sub 2}. In short, hydrogen is the single, non-carbon fuel that can substitute for today's gasoline, diesel and jet-A. On the way to the Hydrogen Age, 'tether' hydrogen must play a vital role

  17. Cities ready for energy crisis : Building urban energy resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.; Keeffe, G.; Tillie, N.M.J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Various sources indicate that threats to modern cities lie in the availability of essential streams, among which energy. Most cities are strongly reliant on fossil fuels; not one case of a fully self-sufficient city is known. Engineering resilience is the rate at which a system returns to a single

  18. The Effect of Hot Money Flow on Pre-Crisis Indicators of Current Accounts and Real Sectors in Turkish Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ömer Uğur Bulut; Sadık Rıdvan Karluk

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the impact of the hot money movements on current account and real sector leading crisis indicators under VAR (Vector Autoregressive) framework using quarterly data for a long period of 1991-2014. Our findings show that hot money movements have negative impact on current account deficit and foreign trade deficit pre-crisis indicators. We further show that they lead to instability in growth and inflation pre-crisis indicators.

  19. The Effect of Hot Money Flow on Pre-Crisis Indicators of Current Accounts and Real Sectors in Turkish Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Uğur Bulut

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the impact of the hot money movements on current account and real sector leading crisis indicators under VAR (Vector Autoregressive framework using quarterly data for a long period of 1991-2014. Our findings show that hot money movements have negative impact on current account deficit and foreign trade deficit pre-crisis indicators. We further show that they lead to instability in growth and inflation pre-crisis indicators.

  20. FISCAL POLICY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE CURRENT FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTIN SAVA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal policies in the current era are the sovereign right of states to collect and administer taxes on national territory. In this respect, the European Union, which is an association of independent states, did not created an European tax - although many politicians proposing it - and within the Union is found important differences between the tax systems of member states. Due to historical and national different traditions, the EU member states have heterogeneous tax systems and revenue sharing systems because of different conceptions of public policies relative to the role of state in social and economic respective community’s life. The financing of public spending is usually considered the main function of taxation. In the original tradition following Locke1, property protection is the main functions of the state. As a result, the tax must correspond to the services rendered, that is to say, to pay the State for the protection of the rights it provides. Here we are at the origin of the doctrine of the benefit that there should be equivalence between the utility derived by the citizens of public services they consume and the "price" they pay tax.

  1. Treasury Financial Management company in the current economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLOAREA GEORGESCU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Any management decision has a direct monetary impact on the structure uses and sources of cash. Cash Management aims to permanently maintain a balance between inflows and outflows of cash and cash to predict the impact of any operational decisions that could affect these flows. The success of any business requires good management of all these flows. The principle of this approach is relatively simple: using a minimum of ores to obtain maximum performance in a given period. Cash management is an extremely complex issue, and balancing receipts and payments flow is a constant struggle for survival of firms. In It work we will focus on how they are oriented in a going concern basis, cash inflows and financing needs of current operations. Managers should understand and know the specific movements of cash within the business system, driven daily decisions on operating, investing or financing, and a variety of external circumstances which affect the company. Such decisions and events can affect the company's ability to pay its obligations to obtain credit from suppliers, banks or credit institutions and to maintain an operational level in line with the company's products and services through investments.

  2. Current work in energy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report describes the work performed at Berkeley Lab most recently. One of the Labs accomplishments is the publication of Scenarios of US Carbon Reductions, an analysis of the potential of energy technologies to reduce carbon emissions in the US. This analysis is described and played a key role in shaping the US position on climate change in the Kyoto Protocol negotiations. The Labs participation in the fundamental characterization of the climate change issue by the IPCC is described. Described also is a study of leaking electricity, which is stimulating an international campaign for a one-watt ceiling for standby electricity losses from appliances. This ceiling has the potential to save two-thirds of the 5% of US residential electricity currently expended on standby losses. The 54 vignettes contained in the report summarize results of research activities ranging in scale from calculating the efficacy of individual lamp ballasts to estimating the cost-effectiveness of the national Energy Star{reg_sign} labeling program, and ranging in location from a scoping study of energy-efficiency market transformation in California to development of an energy-efficiency project in the auto parts industry in Shandong Province, China.

  3. Research on crisis communication of nuclear and radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yali; Zhang Ying

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient public cognition of nuclear and radiation safety and absence of effective method to handle crisis lead to common crisis events of nuclear and radiation safety, which brings about unfavorable impact on the sound development of nuclear energy exploring and application of nuclear technology. This paper, based on crisis communication theory, analyzed the effect of current situation on nuclear and radiation safety crisis, discussed how to handle crisis, and tried to explore the effective strategies for nuclear and radiation safety crisis handling. (authors)

  4. The effect of current global economic crisis on Danish companies and what we can learn from it

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull; Turcan, Romeo V.

    The paper explores the effects of the current global economic crisis on small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and the responses these SMEs undertake to cope with these effects. In other words, how entrepreneurs respond to the decline in their firm’s performance that is the result of this global...... economic crisis. Two theoretical lenses are identified to guide the understanding of entrepreneurs’ behaviours under crisis decision-making settings: turnaround strategy, and escalating commitment. To explore entrepreneurs’ behaviours under crisis decision-making settings, entrepreneurs of SMEs were...

  5. China's energy consumption under the global economic crisis: Decomposition and sectoral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Fangyi; Song, Zhouying; Liu, Weidong

    2014-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that there is a strong relationship between energy consumption and economic growth. Most countries′ energy demands declined during the economic depression of 2008–2009 when a worldwide economic crisis occurred. As an export-oriented economy, China suffered a serious exports decline in the course of the crisis. However, it was found that energy consumption continued to increase. Against such a background, this paper aims to assess and explain the factors causing the growth of energy consumption in China. First, we will explain the impact of domestic final use and international trade on energy consumption by using decomposition analysis. Second, embodied energy and its variation across sectors are quantified to identify the key sectors contributing to the growth. Lastly, the policy implications for long-term energy conservation are discussed. The results show that the decline in exports was one of the driving forces for energy consumption reduction in the crisis, but that the growth of domestic demand in manufacturing and construction, largely stimulated by economic stimulus plans, had the opposite effect on energy consumption. International trade contributed to decreasing energy consumption of China during and after the crisis because the structure of exports and imports changed in this period. - Highlights: • We analyze the reasons for China's energy consumption change under the global economic crisis during 2007–2010. • Domestic final use growth, especially in construction and manufacturing of machinery and equipment, resulted in energy consumption increase. • International trade is identified as a driver of energy consumption reduction during and after the crisis. • Increasing China's share of consumption or reducing its share of investment in the GDP can reduce national energy intensity

  6. Biodiesel and bioethanol production: A sustainable alternative for the energy crisis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Castro Martínez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution intends to give an overview of the current -status of the energy crisis and suggest some sustainable alternatives for energy production. In first place, a brief summary of the history about resources for energy production is presented. The high dependency of fossil combustibles it is well known and has been estimated that more than 90% of the used energy comes from non-renewable resources such as oil, gas and carbon. In the same way, here, it is described that oil is, by far, the main source of energy used to date and as a consequence, this resource is, unavoidably,coming to an end and at the same time is causing and increasing environmental pollution problems. Later in this work, it is suggested that in order to achieve the energetic sustainability, the development of alternative sources that will allow the reduction of toxic greenhouse gas (GHG emissions as well as a decrease of water usage along with a decrease in the energy production costs are needed. One of the alternatives that have been proposed is the production of biofuels, such as biodiesel and bioethanol. Here, some of the main properties at the level of the employed raw materials and production systems are cited. Finally, this work suggests some solutions that are under development worldwide in order to face thiscurrent energy situation.

  7. Crisis-transitions in athletes: current emphases on cognitive and contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambulova, Natalia B

    2017-08-01

    During the last decade, the field of athlete career research has seen much expansion. Researchers established the holistic lifespan and ecological approaches, introduced cultural praxis of athletes' careers paradigm, and updated the taxonomy of athletes' transitions. However, recent transition research focused mainly on the transition process and factors contributing to successful transitions, while crisis-transitions and factors contributing to ineffective coping have been largely ignored. The aim of this paper is to facilitate relevant research and practice through (1) positioning athletes' developmental crises within the context of the current transition literature, (2) introducing two new approaches (termed 'cognitive turn' and 'cultural turn') with a potential to enhance our understanding of the phenomenon, and (3) outlining crisis-coping interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The delay of investments in Romanian tourism caused by the current financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fratu, D.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union considers creating specific economic areas due to the inheritance of each country. For the south-east European area, the characteristic is the low industrial development, as a consequence of the financial crises. Nowadays, the south-east European area becomes attractive mainly because of the tourism industry, due to the industrial downturn of the last decades. EU policies regarding the tourism industry face the actual financial crisis, which is reflected in the postponing of investments in tourism. In this article, the author intends to analyze the current stage of investments made in the Romanian tourism industry with the help of the European Union. The study also aims at finding favourable solutions for continuing investments, although the crisis persists.

  9. The energy crisis: some political considerations; La crisis energetica: algunas consideraciones politicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riechmann, J.

    2009-07-01

    Trends like global warming and peak oil (the end of the cheap fossil fuel age) embody an enormous potential of natural catastrophe and socio-economic upheaval. Are our affluent societies ready for the forthcoming conflicts around scarcity, when expansionist human systems collide with the biophysical limits of our finite planet? Unfortunately, we cannot exclude a revival of anti-humanist and anti-democratic political movements in XXIst century. With the global socio-ecological crisis as a background, it is worth considering the idea of Hitler as a forerunner. (Author) 34 refs.

  10. Impact of global financial crisis on stylized facts between energy markets and stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Tan Kim; Cheong, Chin Wen; Hooi, Tan Siow

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the stylized facts is extremely important and has becomes a hot issue nowadays. However, recent global financial crisis that started from United States had spread all over the world and adversely affected the commodities and financial sectors of both developed and developing countries. This paper tends to examine the impact of crisis on stylized facts between energy and stock markets using ARCH-family models based on the experience over 2008 global financial crisis. Empirical results denote that there is long lasting, persists and positively significant the autocorrelation function of absolute returns and their squares in both markets for before and during crisis. Besides that, leverage effects are found in stock markets whereby bad news has a greater impact on volatility than good news for both before and during crisis. However, crisis does not indicate any impact on risk-return tradeoff for both energy and stock markets. For forecasting evaluations, GARCH model and FIAPARCH model indicate superior out of sample forecasts for before and during crisis respectively.

  11. Current-Account Imbalances and Economic Growth During the 2008-2009 Financial Crisis: an Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossitsa Rangelova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between current-account imbalances and economic growth during the 2008-2009 financial and economic crisis for 179 countries (covered by IMF data and within the EU-27 countries (covered by Eurostat data. The countries are divided into 4 groups by GDP per capita based on PPPs, namely, low income, lower middle-income, upper middle-income and high-income countries. Empirical analysis is applied, including descriptive statistics and regression estimates. Statistical data are used, including the average of the GDP growth rate in the years prior to the crisis (2003–2007, the average of the GDP growth rate for 2008 and 2009, current account as a percentage of GDP, and the level of average inflation. It is proved that, in general, the 2008-2009 crisis affected high- and upper middle-income countries more than poorer countries. Within the EU-27 countries, however, the crisis appears to have affected lower income countries more than higher income countries. A common tendency is observed for the two country samples: countries that experienced strong growth just prior to the crisis had an increased risk of suffering after the crisis. The boom prior to the crisis led to imbalances that rendered economies more vulnerable. Additionally, surpluses that existed prior to the crisis are an important risk factor for the two groups of countries.

  12. [Lessons from abroad. Current and previous crisis in other countries. SESPAS report 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivadeneyra-Sicilia, Ana; Minué Lorenzo, Sergio; Artundo Purroy, Carlos; Márquez Calderón, Soledad

    2014-06-01

    The evidence available on the impact of previous crises on health reveals different patterns attributable to study designs, the characteristics of each crisis, and other factors related to the socioeconomic and political context. There is greater consensus on the mediating role of government policy responses to financial crises. These responses may magnify or mitigate the adverse effects of crises on population health. Some studies have shown a significant deterioration in some health indicators in the context of the current crisis, mainly in relation to mental health and communicable diseases. Alcohol and tobacco use have also declined in some European countries. In addition, this crisis is being used by some governments to push reforms aimed at privatizing health services, thereby restricting the right to health and healthcare. Specifically, action is being taken on the three axes that determine health system financing: the population covered, the scope of services, and the share of the costs covered. These measures are often arbitrarily implemented based on ideological decisions rather than on the available evidence and therefore adverse consequences are to be expected in terms of financial protection, efficiency, and equity. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Management of hypercalcaemic crisis in adults: Current role of renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentata, Yassamine; El Maghraoui, H; Benabdelhak, M; Haddiya, I

    2018-06-01

    Neoplasms and hematologic diseases are the predominant etiologies of hypercalcemic crisis in adults and the immediate treatment is mainly medical and symptomatic. The use of renal replacement therapy (RRT) is often necessary to correct the hypercalcemia, uremia and electrolyte disturbances related to Acute Kidney Injury (AKI). The aim of this work was to determine the etiologies and the place of RRT in treating patients with hypercalcaemic crisis. We conducted a retrospective study for 36months at the Nephrology Unit, University Hospital, Oujda, eastern of Morocco. We included all adult patients diagnosed with hypercalcemic crisis that was defined as corrected total serum calcium of >3.5mmol/l. 12 patients were collected. All patients were female and 5 patients were elderly (≥65years). Three patients had a serum calcium value of >4mmol/l and the highest calcium value was 5.8mmol/l. Electrocardiographic abnormalities were observed in 8 cases. AKI was observed in 8 cases. Three patients had chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. Neoplasm was noted in 9 cases. All patients received venous rehydration, glucocorticoids and biphosphonates. The use of RRT with low calcium dialysate was performed in 11 cases. Three patients died during the first 24h of hospitalization. RRT must play its full role as first line treatment of hypercalcemia crisis. Improvements in hemodialysis techniques and the use of low calcium or calcium-free dialysates currently allows this therapeutic measure to be prescribed safely, and the benefit-risk balance is positive for the great benefit provided by dialysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Towards a Continental Energy Market: From the Energy Crisis to the Free Trade Agreement, 1970-88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul W.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the impact the 1973 oil embargo and resulting energy crisis had on Canadian energy policies, which eventually led in 1987 to the enactment of the Free Trade Agreement between Canada and the United States. Includes excerpts of three documents which reveal much about the shift in Canadian policy toward a continental energy market. (LS)

  15. Blackout: coal, climate and the last energy crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinberg, R. [Post Carbon Institute in California, CA (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Coal fuels more than 30 per cent of UK electricity production, and about 50 per cent in the US, providing a significant portion of total energy output. China and India's recent ferocious economic growth has been based almost entirely on coal-generated electricity. Coal currently looks like a solution to many of our fast-growing energy problems. However, while coal advocates are urging us full steam ahead, the increasing reliance on this dirtiest of all fossil fuels has crucial implications for energy policy, pollution levels, the global climate, world economy and geopolitics. Drawbacks to a coal-based energy strategy include: Scarcity - new studies suggest that the peak of world coal production may actually be less than two decades away; Cost - the quality of produced coal is declining, while the expense of transportation is rising, leading to spiralling costs and increasing shortages; and, Climate impacts - our ability to deal with the historic challenge of climate change may hinge on reducing coal consumption in future years.

  16. It's easy to blame industry. [Question/answer sessions on energy crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blatz, L

    1977-01-01

    The energy crisis did abound before the Arab oil embargo, so says Leo Blatz, but that action did bring the crisis to the fore. This action further brought about a change in attitudes. In this interview, Mr. Blatz commented on the reasons for the crisis, wastefulness in energy consumption; cost to the U.S. to import oil; reinstatement of coal usage; renewable energy source development and the time lag in this area; reasons for the lack of understanding; profits in industry; ways to solve problems between lifestyle and energy consumption; reserving petroleum supplies for much needed petrochemicals; environmental impacts; and where the responsibility lies. He says industry is tagged as the polluter, but ''industry is nothing but a collection of human beings.'' (MCW)

  17. Anti-Crisis Solutions for Regional Energy Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Davidovich Gitelman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers anti-crisis solutions for the electricity sector that fall into the category of strategic ones. Their primary purpose is to ensure the flexibility and adaptability of the system and prevent emergencies in the future. The authors explain the need for a holistic approach to taking anti-crisis decisions in power engineering and propose ways to improve the economic mechanism of cost reduction based upon international practice and placed in the Russian context. The benefits of demand-side management in ensuring the reliability of power supplies amid crisis are shown. The paper looks at various implementation modalities for demandside management programmes and explores development prospects for distributed generation in Russia and stand-alone power supply options for manufacturing companies. Factors are assessed that affect the cost effectiveness of going off the grid. A general scheme of cost management aimed at reaching the strategic goals of the regional electricity sector is presented. The authors reveal possible applications and advantages of using predictive analytics for effective cost management. Ways of improving asset management are considered as well as the possibility of their employment in the Russian context. The key barriers to their implementations and ways of overcoming them are identified

  18. Impact and Limitations Deriving from Basel II within the Context of the Current Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Miruna DĂNILĂ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Banking sector risk management framework, geared towards maintaining a solid capital adequacy level, has witnessed a permanent evolution, determined by the global economic and financial reality.Basel II has brought an improvement of the risk management framework by adding minimum capital levels corresponding to market and operational risk and by the introduction of internal rating models. However the current crisis has brought forward some adverse effects as well as limitations.This paper analyses the evolution of prudential rules and regulations introduced by Basel II and their impact on the banking system together with outlining certain limitations.

  19. CURRENT STATE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE FISHERIES SECTOR OF UKRAINE IN THE CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. Hrytsyniak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Fisheries has a strategic importance for supplying the population with food, while the sectors of the national economy with raw materials, for strengthening the country’s position in the international arena, for preserving spatial and national integrity of Ukraine, plays an important role in the restoration of natural resources and in the increase in employment. In recent years, fisheries sector of Ukraine is in a severe, protracted economic crisis. Considering its socio-economic and strategic importance for the state, there is a task for developing an effective policy for fisheries development in Ukraine that defines the relevance of the research and practical importance of its results. Thus, a compilation and analysis of the existing information on the current state and development of fisheries sector in the crisis period will allow a deeper understanding of problems in the fisheries sector in Ukraine and finding quick solutions. The main goal of the state policy in the field of fisheries in Ukraine has to be meeting the needs of the population in fish and fish products by creating conditions for effective operations and development of aquaculture and fishing enterprises. Findings. The article reviews the current state of the development of fisheries sector in Ukraine, consumption, catch, processing of fish and seafood, dynamics of fish product exports and imports, legislative and regulatory framework of fisheries sector, state of the implementation of WTO and EU requirements, as well as finding ways for the fisheries sector out from the crisis. Originality. This work is a compilation of the information on the current state of fisheries sector development in Ukraine. The information is provided in the form of a coherent presentation of information on the current state of fisheries sector in Ukraine, both in the domestic and foreign markets. Practical Value. The fact that the fisheries sector of Ukraine is still in a depressive state

  20. How does youth cigarette use respond to weak economic periods? Implications for the current economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkes, Jeremy

    2012-03-01

    This paper examines whether youth cigarette use increases during weak economic periods (as do youth alcohol and drug use). The data come from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. With repeated measures over the 1997-2006 period, for almost 9,000 individuals, the samples include 30,000+ teenagers (15-19 years) and 30,000+ young adults (20-24 years). Logit models with state and year controls are estimated. The results indicate that teenagers and young adults increase cigarette use when the economy is weaker, implying that the current financial crisis has likely increased youth cigarette use relative to what it would have otherwise been.

  1. Fuelling the climate crisis : the continental energy plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, D.; Scott, G.; Hocking, D.; Marchildon, S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper emphasized the need for the Canadian government to address the issue of climate change. It was argued that the political will in Canada to address global warming is subordinate to the expansion of fossil fuel production and exports. Canadians are highly dependent upon the services that these carbon-based fuels provide. However, these fossil fuels are significant contributors to local air pollution and the biggest contributor to global climate change. It was argued that conservation and other sources, such as renewable energy sources, are equally technically feasible and economically available. The paper criticized the fact that while world markets for renewables are expanding, Canada's energy future is being developed by the fossil fuel industry in collaboration with U.S. political leaders, energy regulators and policy makers, and that industry and government are ignoring the obvious contradiction between the science of climate change and the policy of fossil fuel expansion. The Canadian government encourages the development of fossil fuel supply and production through subsidies and incentive programs for exploration and development along with deregulation of the oil and natural gas markets. This paper demonstrated that under current market trends, the planned growth in Canadian fossil fuel production and use will raise emissions 44 per cent above the Kyoto target by 2010. New tar sands expansion projects, increased natural gas production to meet U.S. demand and new coal-fired electricity generation will add 63.5 megatonnes of greenhouse gas emissions to Canada's projected annual total. refs., tabs., figs

  2. Water and Energy Services in Times of War _ The Political Crisis of Yemen, 2011 - 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aklan, Musaed; de Fraiture, Charlotte; Hayde, Laszlo

    2017-04-01

    The current war in Yemen affects the lives of Yemenis, their properties, and basic needs. It has damaged many parts of fuel, electricity, water and sanitation systems. This paper investigates how this war has affected the main sources of energy and water, their availability and prices. Beside literature review and different documents collected from different related governmental sectors, a rapid assessment through field interviews was conducted to collect the primary data. The prices of petroleum products keep unstable and have increased by more than 10 times of pre-crisis costs. The water has become three to four times more expensive. The majority of families relied on the public electricity grids before the war was unleashed. At present, the public electricity and water systems serve less than 20% of urban and rural families. Solar energy has become the first energy source, whereas generators are considered to be the second main power supply. Additionally, rainwater started to be collected as a secondary water source. Many people are willing to continue using this new sources. The study verifies the importance renewable resources transition to achieve secure sustainable water and energy management. Not only in Yemen but also this lessons can be applied to other similar conditions countries in the Middle East, where Decision makers and researchers should give more attention.

  3. Energy crisis management: ways to cope with disruption in oil supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanoh, T

    1981-03-10

    The causes and impacts of past oil-supply disruptions are examined in terms of the effectiveness of management strategies used to deal with the crisis. Progress is noted in the recent decline of US imports, augmented oil stockpiles, a turnaway from the spot market, oil self-sufficiency for Britain, conservation programs in France, price decontrol in Canada, and alternative energy projects in Japan. The International Energy Agency (IEA) plans to develop an emergency scheme that first seeks to minimize the chance of a crisis arising and then to minimize adverse impacts should one occur. The first part of the strategy incorporates demand management, increased energy production, cooperation between producing and consuming countries, and political stability. The emergency measures for dealing with an actual crisis will emphasize life and safety. 15 references. (DCK)

  4. Renewable Energy Project Financing: Impacts of the Financial Crisis and Federal Legislation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwabe, P.; Cory, K.; Newcomb, J.

    2009-07-01

    Extraordinary financial market conditions have disrupted the flows of equity and debt investment into U.S. renewable energy (RE) projects since the fourth quarter of 2008. The pace and structure of renewable energy project finance has been reshaped by a combination of forces, including the financial crisis, global economic recession, and major changes in federal legislation affecting renewable energy finance. This report explores the impacts of these key market events on renewable energy project financing and development.

  5. Current views on risk communication and their implications for crisis and reputation management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutteling, Jan M.

    2001-01-01

    Organizations prepare for crisis communication by designing, implementing, and evaluating procedures, scenarios, and emergency measures. In addition to crisis communication, risk communication is a concern for many organizations as well. Risk communication is viewed as an interactive, multi-actor

  6. Continued growth expected for wood energy despite turbulence of the economic crisis : wood energy markets, 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rens Hartkamp; Bengt Hillring; Warren Mabee; Olle Olsson; Kenneth Skog; Henry Spelter; Johan Vinterback; Antje Wahl

    2009-01-01

    The economic crisis has not reduced the demand for wood energy, which is expected to continue to grow. The downturn in sawmill production caused a shortage of raw material supply for wood pellet producers. With decreased demand for pulpwood-quality roundwood for wood and paper products in 2009, some pulpwood is being converted into wood energy. Economies of scale are...

  7. [Problems of work world and its impact on health. Current financial crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasina, Fernando

    2012-06-01

    Health and work are complex processes. Besides, they are multiple considering the forms they take. These two processes are linked to each other and they are influenced by each other. According to this, it is possible to establish that work world is extremely complex and heterogeneous. In this world, "old" or traditional risks coexist with "modern risks", derived from the new models of work organization and the incorporation of new technologies. Unemployment, work relationships precariousness and work risks outsourcing are results of neoliberal strategies. Some negative results of health-sickness process derived from transformation in work world and current global economic crisis have been noticed in current work conditions. Finally, the need for reconstructing policies focusing on this situation derived from work world is suggested.

  8. Prevalence and correlates of metabolic syndrome in pre-crisis Syria: call for current relief efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, H; Naja, F; Fouad, F M; Antoun, E; Jaffa, M; Chaaban, R; Haidar, M; Sibai, A M

    2016-12-12

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence, components and correlates of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults in pre-crisis Aleppo, Syrian Arab Republic. We used a population-based, 2-stage cluster sampling method in a population of 557 men and 611 women, randomly selected from 83 residential neighbourhoods including many rural settlers. Sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics, comorbidity, anthropometry and biochemical indices were measured. Prevalence of MetS was estimated at 39.6%, with comparable rates in men and women. Hypertension was the most prevalent component (56.6%), followed by central obesity (51.4%). Among women, education (12 years) was inversely associated with risk of MetS, while family history of obesity and diabetes was associated with an increased risk. The high prevalence of MetS and its components emphasizes the burden of cardiovascular diseases among adults in pre-crisis Aleppo. A system of surveillance and management for cardiovascular diseases needs to be incorporated into the current humanitarian response.

  9. Current International Crisis and Social Challenges for the Romanian Orthodox Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Nistor

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Current economic and financial crisis appears to be unprecedented in the last half century.A massive loss of confidence, both in the business sector and the consumers, both responding byrestricting spending, is in full progress. The world's financial and economic crisis is largely the resultof greed, of unjust gain, of financial speculation, of tax evasion worldwide. We live in a world wherepeople are seeking more temporary material wealth than spiritual wealth of the Faith and eternal life,and in addition to more severe material poverty, we see spiritual poverty and weakening of faith, acooling brotherly love and a decrease in good deeds and philanthropy. In this situation of economicpolicy without ethics, when everything is uncertain and unpredictable, changeable, and deceitful, weneed to close to God, the steadfast and insurmountable, just and merciful, but also an increase inalertness, attention and financial prudence. Romanian Orthodox Church is in a enough favorableposition into the Romanian society to take a proactive process of anticipating social problems thattrouble present Romanian society (poverty, social exclusion, unemployment, migration, domesticviolence, school dropout, alcoholism, drug abuse, aging, social system and poor health, lack ofmotivation and educational perspectives, youth work and family, etc., which will ultimately lead todeveloping a comprehensive plan for promotion and social involvement that will play a decisive rolein solving social and spiritual needs of Romanians, present and future.

  10. Perspective on the current realities confronting Canadian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oulton, D.

    1993-01-01

    The importance of the Canadian energy sector is indicated by the large proportion of energy investments in the economy, the significant contribution of energy exports to total exports, the major role of the energy sector in Canada's regional economies, the high per-capita energy consumption, and the high contribution of fossil fuels to Canadian greenhouse gas emissions. The history of Canadian energy policy is characterized by three relatively distinct periods: a period of strong growth and development in the energy sector starting in the late 1940s, a crisis management period starting with the oil crises in the 1970s, and a market orientation in the early 1980s which reduced the role of government in the energy sector. Energy policy has generally focused on two main themes: assuring access to competitively priced energy supplies, and ensuring maximum economic benefit from energy developments. A third theme, environmental responsibility, has emerged since the late 1980s. Current pressures on Canadian energy policies include the increasing integration of energy markets in North America, the influence of international conditions on energy prices, and environmental quality concerns relating to the costs and uncertainties of environmental assessment, climate change, and sustainable development. Further constraints and influences on energy policy come from multilateral agreements with other countries and international agencies, and the need for cooperation among the different levels of Canadian governments. Economic regulation has fallen out of favor with most governments, industry, and the public, and the increased use of regulation to pursue environmental goals in the energy sector seems likely to continue

  11. The role of business in addressing the long-term implications of the current food crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yach Derek

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Before the onset of the current food crisis, the evidence of a severely neglected nutrition crisis was starting to receive attention. Increased food prices are having severe impacts on the nutritional status of populations. Our current food system has evolved over decades in a largely unplanned manner and without consideration for the complexity and implications of linkages between health, nutrition, agricultural, economic, trade and security issues. The underlying causes for the nutrition crisis include the above, as well as decades of neglect with regard to nutrition, and agricultural science (especially in emerging markets; a failure of governance with respect to the major players involved in nutrition, a weak response by government donors and Foundations to invest in basic nutrition (in contrast to growing support for humanitarian aspects of food aid, and a reluctance to develop private-public partnerships. The emergence of new business models that tackle social problems while remaining profitable offers promise that the long term nutrition needs of people can be met. Businesses can have greater impact acting collectively than individually. Food, retail, food service, chemical and pharmaceutical companies have expertise, distribution systems and customers insights, if well harnessed, could leapfrog progress in addressing the food and nutrition crises. While business can do lots more, its combined impact will be minimal if a range of essential government actions and policies are not addressed. Governments need to create innovative and complementary opportunities that include incentives for businesses including: setting clear nutritional guidelines for fortification and for ready-to eat products; offering agreements to endorse approved products and support their distribution to clinics and schools; eliminating duties on imported vitamins and other micronutrients; and providing tax and other incentives for industry to invest with

  12. The role of business in addressing the long-term implications of the current food crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yach, Derek

    2008-12-05

    Before the onset of the current food crisis, the evidence of a severely neglected nutrition crisis was starting to receive attention. Increased food prices are having severe impacts on the nutritional status of populations. Our current food system has evolved over decades in a largely unplanned manner and without consideration for the complexity and implications of linkages between health, nutrition, agricultural, economic, trade and security issues. The underlying causes for the nutrition crisis include the above, as well as decades of neglect with regard to nutrition, and agricultural science (especially in emerging markets); a failure of governance with respect to the major players involved in nutrition, a weak response by government donors and Foundations to invest in basic nutrition (in contrast to growing support for humanitarian aspects of food aid), and a reluctance to develop private-public partnerships. The emergence of new business models that tackle social problems while remaining profitable offers promise that the long term nutrition needs of people can be met. Businesses can have greater impact acting collectively than individually. Food, retail, food service, chemical and pharmaceutical companies have expertise, distribution systems and customers insights, if well harnessed, could leapfrog progress in addressing the food and nutrition crises. While business can do lots more, its combined impact will be minimal if a range of essential government actions and policies are not addressed. Governments need to create innovative and complementary opportunities that include incentives for businesses including: setting clear nutritional guidelines for fortification and for ready-to eat products; offering agreements to endorse approved products and support their distribution to clinics and schools; eliminating duties on imported vitamins and other micronutrients; and providing tax and other incentives for industry to invest with donors in essential nutrition

  13. Fuelwood: the energy crisis that won't go away

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckholm, E; Foley, G; Barnard, G; Timberlake, L

    1984-01-01

    The book surveys the experience of the past decade concerning current international efforts to tackle the growing scarcity of wood to cook the food and warm the homes of the rural poor of the Third World. It draws a number of conclusions about firewood, soil-loss, population pressure and poverty: (1) firewood demand is not the main cause of tropical deforestation and soil erosion; (2) community forestry rarely provides fuel for the really poor, and may even make them worse off; (3) local participation is no guarantee that firewood will reach those who need it most, but without community support the woodlots will die; (4) even when fuel is scarce, people often prefer to plant trees for shade, timber, fruit or livestock fodder rather than for firewood; (5) improved cookstoves can make cooking more pleasant, healthier and safer, but they will not save forests and do not as yet save much fuel. The poor of the Third World need far more fuel than village woodlots can ever provide. Much more must be done to plant trees on farms, to get more wood from existing forests, and to promote energy alternatives, including coal and oil. It is concluded that, in the end, people are short of firewood because they are poor, and without development they will find no escape.

  14. The current state of the California biomass energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, G.P.

    1994-01-01

    During the decade of the 1980s the California biomass energy industry grew from a few isolated facilities located mostly at pulp mills into the largest biomass energy industry in the world. Currently, more than fifty biomass powered electricity generating facilities provide the state with some 850 Megawatts (MW) of generating capacity, most of it interconnected to the state's electric utility systems. Each year, more than ten million tons of wood and agricultural wastes in the state are converted into fuel, rather than being disposed of using conventional, environmentally costly methods like open burning and landfill burial. As the 1980s began, the California biomass energy industry was in a nascent state. Optimism was blooming within the wood-products and agricultural sectors of California, who foresaw an opportunity to turn costly wastes into profits. At the same time, the independent energy industry itself was being launched. Interest in biomass energy development was spreading to the engineering and construction industries and the financial community as well. A great variety of firms and individuals were engaged in the development of biomass power plants and biomass fuel sources. The second half of the 1980s saw the fruits of the developmental activity that began in the first half of the decade. Biomass energy facilities were entering construction and coming on-line in increasing numbers, and the demand for biomass fuels was increasing in step. As the decade was coming to an end, biomass fuel supplies were hard put to meet the demand, yet a huge number of new facilities entered operation in 1990. This extreme growth spurt of new generating capacity caused a fuel crisis and a shake-out in the industry just as it was entering full-scale operation. The Crisis of Success had been reached. More recently an equilibrium has been achieved in which fuel prices are at levels that produce adequate supplies, while allowing profitable operations at the power plants

  15. Medium Btu gas from coal: a possible solution to the U. S. energy crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taffe, P

    1978-03-03

    The future of coal gasification in the US, and in particular the potential of the Winkler process, are discussed. The economics and the efficiency of the Winkler process are considered. It is believed that medium Btu gas from coal is a better solution to the US energy crisis than is SNG made from coal.

  16. The impact of the crisis on the energy demand and energy intensity in Central and Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila HUGYECZ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our paper is to analyze the impact of the recent crisis on the oil and electricity demand and the energy intensity of different Central and Eastern European countries, namely the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. Furthermore, we would like to reveal whether there is a lag in the adjustment of energy consumption. In analyzing energy intensity, we use motor gasoline, diesel oil and electricity consumption data and ignore coal and natural gas data. By so doing, we avoid failures arising from changing coal/gas consumption due to changing weather conditions. Our results show that the crisis did impact energy consumption and reveal that the improvement of energy intensity halted in 2009, implying that the economic players did not immediately adjust their energy consumption according to their economic activity. The gasoline and diesel intensity, however, deteriorated (increased only in the Czech Republic and in Hungary. In Slovakia and Poland there were no significant changes.

  17. Energy prices and the post oil/energy crisis Brazilian inflation: an input-output study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara-Resende, M.deM.

    1982-01-01

    This study is an attempt to understand the implications of the OPEC-induced severalfold increase in the international price of oil for average and sectoral domestic prices in Brazil, a large oil-importing open developing economy. Rather than using a Keynesian model (focusing on the universal characteristics of an economy), the study makes use of an open-price input-output model (capturing the structural characteristics of the Brazilian economy). The first three chapters, descriptive in nature, place in perspective the following three, which detail the model and the empirical results. The main conclusion is that, despite the significant increase observed in the post-crisis period, the relative percentage contribution of primary energy to wholesale inflation in Brazil is still relatively minor. A conservative estimate suggests that, in the years of substantial acceleration (1974 and 1979), approximately 15% of the wholesale inflation was due to energy (basically crude oil and oil derivatives). Though such low estimates are partly due to the limitations and assumptions underlying input-output analysis, it seems that the acceleration of inflation is related to more than cost increases originating in energy prices. It also seems to be related to agricultural and labor prices, as well as to the government's decision to abruptly and inopportunely raise several important product prices.

  18. Influence of the financial crisis on SMEs in the energy area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass, M.; Schoder, T.; Scheller, E.

    2009-05-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents and discusses the results of an opinion survey made among small and medium-scale enterprises (SME) in Switzerland concerning the influence of the financial crisis. The methods and questionnaires used are briefly described and the enterprises questioned are characterised. Innovation activities and research and development activities are reviewed. The effects of the financial crisis on business in 2008 are reported on and present and future developments are discussed. The general framework for long-term development is discussed, as are commercial, institutional and governmental general conditions. The report is concluded with a literature list

  19. Answers to energy crisis: energy efficiency, rational use of energy and renewable sources; Respostas para crise de energia eletrica: eficiencia energetica, uso racional de energia e fontes renovaveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naturesa, Jim Silva; Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEC/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo; Menezes, Taciana de V.; Perrone, Fernando Pinto Dias; Lepetitgaland, Karla Kwiatkowski [Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras S.A (ELETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This article presents the main advances in energy efficiency of Brazil, the results of the electrical energy alternatives sources incentive program until May of 2007, and examples of using energy in a reasonable way. In our point of view, these three initiatives are essentials in any energetic planning and must be considered with seriousness, mainly at moments of energy crisis. (author)

  20. Energy and environment: the risks and the challenges of a predicted crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, B.

    2007-01-01

    The human development is closely correlated to the energies use. And the energy consumption is correlated to the environmental pollution. This book allows to understand the nature of the difficulties and their importance, and to identify actions to fight against the crisis. Bringing many data, it provides information on the different energies sources, the primary, final and use energy, the reserves, the potential of the renewable energies, the risks for the health and the environment, the constraints and the 21 century perspectives. (A.L.B.)

  1. The economic crisis and the energy efficiency programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturesa, Jim Silva; Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents some data from the Brazilian economy (2009 and 2010) and their impact on energy efficiency programs. It is also shown the main results of the National Electricity Conservation Program (PROCEL) and PROCEL INFO, which aims to gather and make available information on the rational and efficient use of energy. At the end, we present information showing that MSMEs (Micro, Small and Medium Companies) should be the main focus of the technological innovation programs aimed to energy efficiency. (author)

  2. Elements of an Alternative to Nuclear Power as a Response to the Energy-Environment Crisis in India: Development as Freedom and a Sustainable Energy Utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, Manu V.

    2009-01-01

    Even as the conventional energy system is fundamentally challenged by the "energy-environment crisis," its adherents have presented the prospect of "abundant" and purportedly "green" nuclear power as part of a strategy to address the crisis. Surveying the development of nuclear power in India, this article finds that…

  3. The role of renewables in the energy crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fracastoro GianVincenzo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent progress of human kind has so far been strongly related to the use of fossil fuels. Nowadays, the uncontrolled growth of their use is producing a series of threats such as local pollution, global warming, and the unbalance between their growing demand and their progressive depletion is creating serious geopolitical frictions which may put at risk our civilization. While the nuclear option is seriously questioned in the Western world, the growth of renewable energy sources (RES is creating the illusion that they may just replace fossil fuels and become a sort of panacea overcoming all aforementioned threats. Some of the shortcomings of this way of thinking are underlined in this paper. Actually, the correct answer is a combination of two factors: on one side the use of renewable energy sources, but on the other side the adoption of energy efficiency measures in order to rationalize the energy demand.

  4. Impacts of the financial crisis on climate and energy policy. Memo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    By request of the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment, the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB) and the Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) have mapped the main effects of the credit crisis on Dutch climate and energy policy. This memo describes the effects of the credit crisis on the economy (question 1) and more particularly the effect on realizing the Dutch targets for 2020 for climate and energy policy as established in the policy program 'Clean and Efficient' (question 2). A distinction should be made between the short term effects (during the recession) and the longer term effects (the years after)(question 5). Moreover, the realization of the Kyoto target for 2008-2012 is addressed (question 3) as well as the question if the Dutch government can incentivise investments in climate and energy that can contribute to economic recovery in the short term (question 4) [mk] [nl

  5. Current Crisis in Science Education? Women in Science and Problems for the Behavioral Scientists. Some Perspectives of a Physicist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Mildred S.

    A number of problems exist in society which require the cooperation of physical and social scientists. One of these problems is the current crisis in science education. There are several aspects to this problem, including the declining interest of students in math and science at a time when functioning in our society requires more, not less,…

  6. Implementing the EU climate and energy package with the economic crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerebel, C.

    2009-01-01

    (+0.04%), followed from 2011 by a growth at a slower pace than was predicted before the crisis. The aim of our study is to analyze how the economic downturn in Europe will affect the EU's greenhouse gases emissions and its ability to reach the 20% emission reductions by 2020 compared to 1990. Using the knowledge available at the end of 2009 and drawing lessons from the past emissions trends in Europe from 1990, we will assess the progress towards the 20% reduction target over the period (from 1990 to 2020). A discourse often heard at this time of recession is that the EU climate policy is now out of place: because of the crisis the fight against climate change is said to be too costly and nothing should be required from European industries already coping with a worldwide slowing down of demand for goods and products and huge financial restrictions. Another similar discourse argues that, with the downturn in economic and industrial activities, GHG emissions will automatically decrease, so no effort is required to comply with the EU-wide targets. The economic slowdown will do the trick. Our analysis aims at putting these arguments into perspective. What does the economic downturn really change in EU's emissions future profile up to 2020? The EU Climate and Energy Package is composed of four legislative acts: A Directive amending the current EU-Emission Trading Scheme (EU-ETS); A Decision on GHG Reduction Effort Sharing; A Directive on Renewable Energies; A Directive on the Geological Storage of Carbon dioxide. The main elements of the package addressing climate change are the first two pieces of legislation mentioned above, that limit GHG emissions in the EU by 2020: the directive reviewing the EU-ETS for the period 2013-20 and the decision limiting emissions in the non-ETS sectors. One important difference between these two pieces of legislation is that the target for the ETS sector is community-wide, whilst for the non-ETS sectors separate national targets have been

  7. Computing and the Crisis: The Significant Role of New Information Technologies in the Current Socio-economic Meltdown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hakken

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available There is good reason to be concerned about the long-term implications of the current crisis for the reproduction of contemporary social formations. Thus there is an urgent need to understand it character, especially its distinctive features. This article identifies profound ambiguities in valuing assets as new and key economic features of this crisis, ambiguities traceable to the dominant, “computationalist” computing used to develop new financial instruments. After some preliminaries, the article identifies four specific ways in which computerization of finance is generative of crisis. It then demonstrates how computationalist computing is linked to other efforts to extend commodification based on the ideology of so-called “intellectual property” (IP. Several other accounts for the crisis are considered and then demonstrated to have less explanatory value. After considering how some commons-oriented (e.g., Free/Libre and/or Opening Source Software development projects forms of computing also undermine the IP project, the article concludes with a brief discussion of what research on Socially Robust and Enduring Computing might contribute to fostering alternative, non-crisis generative ways to compute.

  8. Energy from streaming current and potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthuis, Wouter; Schippers, Bob; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert

    2005-01-01

    It is investigated how much energy can be delivered by a streaming current source. A streaming current and subsequent streaming potential originate when double layer charge is transported by hydrodynamic flow. Theory and a network model of such a source is presented and initial experimental results

  9. Energy 2010: behind the effects of the crisis, the new world map is taking shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Amouroux, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    We now know the worldwide energy balance for 2009. For the first time in a quarter of a century, primary consumption fell (1.1 %) under the effect of a contraction of all the big sources of primary energy, except coal. The effects of the economic crisis were o course involved, but behind them, the changes are more of a long term nature. The movement of the centre of gravity for energy has been, since 2000, coming from the acceleration of the importance of Asia, and from the one of coal, its fuel of choice. (author)

  10. Energy sector in Ecuador: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelaez-Samaniego, M.R.; Garcia-Perez, M.; Cortez, L.A.B.; Oscullo, J.; Olmedo, G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the current energy sector in Ecuador, its present structure, the oil industry, subsidies, and renewable energy, focusing on the evolution and reform of the electricity sector. Currently, 86% of the primary energy originates from nonrenewable sources. In 2005, the gross electricity generation was 15 127 GWh (45.5% hydropower, 43.11% thermal, and 11.39% imported). Ecuador is the fifth largest oil producer in South America but lacks sufficient oil refining capacity. Reserves of natural gas (NG) are small, and most of NG is produced from oil fields without energy recovery. Several projects are underway to increase the utilization of NG and renewable energies to meet Ecuador commitments to the Kyoto Protocol

  11. After the Gulf crisis: A new energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flavin, C.

    1992-01-01

    As we entered 1992, the world oil market was already balanced on a knife edge the author explains, by the mid-1990s, the world is likely to need at least 4 to 6 million barrels of additional Middle Eastern oil each day. In an area where political events, not economic rationality, rule the day, the odd complacency that has marked the post-Gulf War period may be less the calm after Desert Storm than the calm before the next oil storm he theorizes. He also takes issue with the National Energy Strategy's projection of sharply increased domestic oil production, to be achieved primarily through enhanced recovery from existing fields and drilling in pristine wilderness areas. But he saves his most scathing criticism for conservation. The strategy's claim to save 3.8 million barrels of oil daily is a fiction, he charges. Not only does the administration propose only token conservation measures, ignoring the potential to improve automobile fuel economy, it brazenly takes credit for efficiency gains that are occurring anyway. By following the policies laid out in the administration;s energy strategy, Flavin concludes, the US would end up with rising oil imports, a declining economy, and a more-polluted environment

  12. Biodiesel Production From Algae to Overcome the Energy Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliman Khan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of energy sources has reached at the level that whole world is relying on it. Being the major source of energy, fuels are considered the most important. The fear of diminishing the available sources thirst towards biofuel production has increased during last decades. Considering the food problems, algae gain the most attention to be used as biofuel producers. The use of crop and food-producing plants will never be a best fit into the priorities for biofuel production as they will disturb the food needs. Different types of algae having the different production abilities. Normally algae have 20%–80% oil contents that could be converted into different types of fuels such as kerosene oil and biodiesel. The diesel production from algae is economical and easy. Different species such as tribonema, ulothrix and euglena have good potential for biodiesel production. Gene technology can be used to enhance the production of oil and biodiesel contents and stability of algae. By increasing the genetic expressions, we can find the ways to achieve the required biofuel amounts easily and continuously to overcome the fuels deficiency. The present review article focusses on the role of algae as a possible substitute for fossil fuel as an ideal biofuel reactant.

  13. Will Britain go the way of the Incas. [Suggestions for alleviating energy crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clancy, J.

    The author states that the rise in oil prices at the end of 1973 was presented to the British public by the Government as a temporary crisis solvable by political means, if the people would restrain their use of energy temporarily until the balance of payments could be righted and North Sea oil arrived. Instead, it is a real crisis, and a type of crisis not encountered before, because fossil fuels (petroleum and natural gas) will be exhausted in the not-too-distant future. It is recommended that the Government be honest in presenting the problem by re-examining the direction society is taking, fostering conservation, instituting long-term planning, making information available on energy-using goods, etc. Otherwise, it is predicted that more oil-type and other material crises will develop and unless people have been prepared, unrest and social chaos--certainly unemployment--will develop. But so far, neither the Government nor industry exhibits a real commitment to conservation (in Britain fuel industries continue in open competition with each other and all but one are State undertakings). Examples are given of what government should be planning and fostering. A question is raised about overconfidence in nuclear energy (which may lead to corner cutting and lower safety) and lack of funding in other areas (geothermal, winds, tides, fusion). (LTN)

  14. Energy crisis and rationing: a comparison between the argentinian and brazilian programs; Crisis energetica y racionamiento: los programas de Argentina y Brasil, una comparacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbiztondo, Santiago; Navajas, Fernando [Fundacion de Investigaciones Economicas Latinoamericanas (FIEL)(Argentina)

    2006-01-15

    Although they have been equitable compared, the energy policies taken by Brazil and Argentina as a solution to the energy crisis lived by each one of these countries in years 2001 and 2002, they have enormous differences in terms of the real problem and nature of the established measures. Firstly the central aspects of the demand rationing mechanism adopted by Brazil for the electrical crisis of 2001 are presented. Afterwards the measures adopted in Argentina during the 2004 crisis in the electricity and natural gas rationing are discussed. From this exhibition of facts, comparisons are made and conclusions extracted looking forward to clarify the important differences separating both cases, differences that as the study reveals meant for the Argentine scheme the breach of the expected objectives. In the last section the changes implemented in the Argentine scheme are reflected during year 2005 to counteract the bad results obtained, nevertheless this modifications attacked only in a partial way the original program weaknesses. [Spanish] Si bien han sido comparadas equitativamente, las politicas energeticas tomadas por Brasil y Argentina como solucion a las crisis energeticas vividas por cada uno en el 2001 y 2004 presentan enormes diferencias a nivel de problema real y naturaleza de las medidas establecidas. Primeramente son presentados los aspectos centrales del mecanismo de racionamiento de la demanda adoptados por Brasil en la crisis electrica de 2001. Luego se comentan las medidas adoptadas en Argentina durante su crisis en el ano 2004 en el racionamiento de electricidad y gas natural. A partir de esta exposicion de hechos se realizan comparaciones y se extraen conclusiones que buscan clarificar las importantes diferencias que separan a ambos casos, diferencias que, como revela el estudio, significaron para el esquema argentino el incumplimiento de los objetivos esperados. En la ultima seccion se reflejan los cambios implementados en el esquema argentino

  15. Energy-Climate Scenarios: An Adjustment after the Economic Crisis, Fukushima, Durban and... Shale Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criqui, Patrick; Mima, Silvana; Peytral, Pierre-Olivier; Simon, Jean-Christophe

    2012-01-01

    In an article published in these pages in 2011 (no. 373), Patrick Criqui presented a series of scenarios on possible energy and climate trends, taking note of the agreement on climate change signed in late 2009 at the Copenhagen Conference. He pointed out that a paradigm shift was on the cards, which would mean less use of the top-down approach - with national objectives set as a function of international objectives formulated at major conferences - and greater implementation of a bottom-up logic based on national policies put in place in the energy field and as part of the battle against global warming. On the basis of this latter logic, the authors were able to elaborate scenarios at a world level. A few days before the publication of that article, the Fukushima accident occurred in japan, lending fresh impetus to the energy debate in most of the countries using nuclear power. Does that event, combined with the persistence of the debt crisis, the increased extraction of unconventional hydrocarbons (shale oil and gas ) and the fact that international negotiations on climate change (Durban) have merely marked time, modify the projected scenarios -and, if so, to what extent ? Patrick Criqui, Silvana Mima, Pierre-Olivier Peytral and jean-Christophe Simon consider this question in detail here. They begin by examining the impact of these recent events and developments on the current energy and climate situation. Then, after reminding us of the four world energy scenarios (to a time-horizon of 2030-2050) that were developed in 2009 (together with two 'discontinuity scenarios'), they propose an updating that takes account of the perceived consequences of the change of context, stressing two crucial scenarios in particular: the probable (leading to warming in the order of 4 deg. C) and the desirable (limiting warming to 2 deg. C). Lastly, they propose various levers aimed at 'making the desirable trajectory possible' (technological agreements, economic instruments

  16. Current status of low energy EB machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshiro Nishikimi; Shuichi Taniguchi; Kenichi Mizusawa

    1999-01-01

    Electron beam processing systems have been in use in a variety of applications such as curing of paints and printing inks, crosslinking of PE products, treating of rubber tire and so on. Low energy electron processing systems have become popular as self-shielded machines, which are compact and easy to use and do not require special facility as an irradiation room. This manuscript introduces the status of low energy EB (electron beam) machine through Nissin's products current

  17. Tidal power harnessing energy from water currents

    CERN Document Server

    Lyatkher, Victor

    2014-01-01

    As the global supply of conventional energy sources, such as fossil fuels, dwindles and becomes more and more expensive, unconventional and renewable sources of energy, such as power generation from water sources, is becoming more and more important.  Hydropower has been around for decades, but this book suggests new methods that are more cost-effective and less intrusive to the environment for creating power sources from rivers, the tides, and other sources of water.   The energy available from water currents is potentially much greater than society's needs.  Presenting a detailed discussi

  18. Energy access. Current situation, challenges and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    Globally over 1.3 billion people do not have access to electricity and 2.6 billion people rely on the traditional use of biomass for cooking. Energy access is one of the major challenges of the 21. century as it is a lever for both economic and human development, at individual and national level. Moreover, energy access represents a high-potential market and offers a lot of opportunities for private companies and industrials. In this publication, ENEA lays out the current situation of energy access (actors, actual and future needs, existing technological solutions, markets). The publication addresses the main issues energy access has to face: energy price, equipment financing, distribution, scale-up, and environmental performances

  19. Current and future industrial energy service characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.; Thomas, T.; Jackson, F.; Limaye, D.R.; Isser, S.; Karnofsky, K.; Davis, T.D.

    1980-10-01

    Current and future energy demands, end uses, and cost used to characterize typical applications and resultant services in the industrial sector of the United States and 15 selected states are examined. A review and evaluation of existing industrial energy data bases was undertaken to assess their potential for supporting SERI research on: (1) market suitability analysis, (2) market development, (3) end-use matching, (3) industrial applications case studies, and (4) identification of cost and performance goals for solar systems and typical information requirements for industrial energy end use. In reviewing existing industrial energy data bases, the level of detail, disaggregation, and primary sources of information were examined. The focus was on fuels and electric energy used for heat and power purchased by the manufacturing subsector and listed by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC, primary fuel, and end use. Projections of state level energy prices to 1990 are developed using the energy intensity approach. The effects of federal and state industrial energy conservation programs on future industrial sector demands were assessed. Future end-use energy requirements were developed for each 4-digit SIC industry and were grouped as follows: (1) hot water, (2) steam (212 to 300/sup 0/F, each 100/sup 0/F interval from 300 to 1000/sup 0/F, and greater than 1000/sup 0/F), and (3) hot air (100/sup 0/F intervals). Volume I details the activities performed in this effort.

  20. From oil crisis to climate crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langseth, Bjarne

    2000-01-01

    The oil crisis in the 1970s led to the shift from oil to hydro- and nuclear power. An almost similar shift might soon come as a ''climate crisis''. A climate crisis may imply a renaissance for hydropower and nuclear power and natural gas will be used on a large scale. In Europe, natural gas is currently considered environmentally friendly. Although there is at present growing opposition to nuclear power in Sweden and Germany, this attitude may change as the result of increased focus on the costs of the alternatives. A forced phase-out of nuclear power in Europe simultaneously with a climate crisis with reduced energy production from fossil fuels is likely to entail significantly increased prices of electricity. In Norway, 98% of the country's electric power production is based on hydro power, which means that much more heating can be based on electricity than in countries in which electricity is produced by combustion of fossil fuels. Much research is in progress to find technologies that will make it possible to shift from fossil fuel energy to energy from renewable sources like solar, water, wind, biomass and geothermal energy

  1. MIGRATION, A CURRENT ISSUE: THE CRISIS OF TODAY, THE CHALLENGE OF TOMORROW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu PĂTRAŞCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to portray a clear perspective of the problem of immigrants, who are arriving in Europe from the Middle East conflict zones (particularly Syria and Iraq and from North Africa (mainly Libya. The causes that conducted to the development of such a phenomenon represent the motivation for choosing this theme, as well as its effects on the functionality of the EU at an institutional level and finally yet importantly the “trenchant” visions of the European public opinion, amplified by the mass media: the pros and cons of accepting the wave of refugees. The author's approach aims to put in balance both the positive effects of the phenomenon on the European continent, as well as the negative ones. Positive effects might consist in obtaining additional work force, as Europe is currently facing a demographic aging phenomenon. Furthermore, from the perspective of EU citizens, who believe in the cohesion of the European institutions, the acceptance of refugees represents a basic value for unity and further on stands for the formation of a homogenous European Union, therefore emphasising the importance of each individual. On the other hand, analysing the matter in the most realistic possible way, the risk of potential terrorist penetration in Europe is quite high and unmanageable. As a research method, we will use document analysis, referring to media articles and official documents. This phenomenon is particularly complex and the crisis result will depend on the effectiveness of the manner in which each national authority as well as the European ones will handle the issue.

  2. Charged current weak interactions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, D.

    1977-01-01

    We review high energy neutrino and antineutrino charged current interactions. An overview of the experimental data is given, including a discussion of the experimental status of the y anomaly. Locality tests, μ-e universality and charge symmetry invariance tests are discussed. Charm production is discussed. The experimental status of trimuon events and possible phenomenological models for these events are presented. (orig.) [de

  3. Implementing the EU climate and energy package with the economic crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerebel, C.

    2009-07-01

    flat GDP growth in 2010 (+0.04%), followed from 2011 by a growth at a slower pace than was predicted before the crisis. The aim of our study is to analyze how the economic downturn in Europe will affect the EU's greenhouse gases emissions and its ability to reach the 20% emission reductions by 2020 compared to 1990. Using the knowledge available at the end of 2009 and drawing lessons from the past emissions trends in Europe from 1990, we will assess the progress towards the 20% reduction target over the period (from 1990 to 2020). A discourse often heard at this time of recession is that the EU climate policy is now out of place: because of the crisis the fight against climate change is said to be too costly and nothing should be required from European industries already coping with a worldwide slowing down of demand for goods and products and huge financial restrictions. Another similar discourse argues that, with the downturn in economic and industrial activities, GHG emissions will automatically decrease, so no effort is required to comply with the EU-wide targets. The economic slowdown will do the trick. Our analysis aims at putting these arguments into perspective. What does the economic downturn really change in EU's emissions future profile up to 2020? The EU Climate and Energy Package is composed of four legislative acts: A Directive amending the current EU-Emission Trading Scheme (EU-ETS); A Decision on GHG Reduction Effort Sharing; A Directive on Renewable Energies; A Directive on the Geological Storage of Carbon dioxide. The main elements of the package addressing climate change are the first two pieces of legislation mentioned above, that limit GHG emissions in the EU by 2020: the directive reviewing the EU-ETS for the period 2013-20 and the decision limiting emissions in the non-ETS sectors. One important difference between these two pieces of legislation is that the target for the ETS sector is community-wide, whilst for the non-ETS sectors

  4. Energy Crisis in Europe. Report of a researcher on his duty in Paris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-12-01

    On December 6 and 7, 1990, at Brussels in Belgium, a conference was held on changes brought into Europe's energy environment by the Persian Gulf crisis and on the future prospects. The plenary session was attended by officials in charge of energy matters with the governments of the 12 EC (European Community) member countries and employees of electric power companies and gas suppliers of these countries. EC members' reports involved efforts to stabilize energy supply in the EC region, improvement on energy efficiency, promotion of energy conservation and alternative energy development, proposition for a comprehensive program SAVE (Specific Actions for Vigorous Energy Efficiency) for energy efficiency improvement, stable supply of energy, crude oil evaluation and consideration of taxation from the viewpoint of environmental protection, and suppression of energy consumption and planned consumption of stockpile (in coordination with International Energy Agency) in case of emergency, etc. Concerning the development of alternative energy and energy conservation technology, it was agreed that both long-term development efforts and accelerated development of environmentally-friendly technologies would be necessary in principle. Furthermore, discussion was made on supporting East Europe countries including Russia. (NEDO)

  5. Energy Crisis in Europe. Report of a researcher on his duty in Paris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-12-01

    On December 6 and 7, 1990, at Brussels in Belgium, a conference was held on changes brought into Europe's energy environment by the Persian Gulf crisis and on the future prospects. The plenary session was attended by officials in charge of energy matters with the governments of the 12 EC (European Community) member countries and employees of electric power companies and gas suppliers of these countries. EC members' reports involved efforts to stabilize energy supply in the EC region, improvement on energy efficiency, promotion of energy conservation and alternative energy development, proposition for a comprehensive program SAVE (Specific Actions for Vigorous Energy Efficiency) for energy efficiency improvement, stable supply of energy, crude oil evaluation and consideration of taxation from the viewpoint of environmental protection, and suppression of energy consumption and planned consumption of stockpile (in coordination with International Energy Agency) in case of emergency, etc. Concerning the development of alternative energy and energy conservation technology, it was agreed that both long-term development efforts and accelerated development of environmentally-friendly technologies would be necessary in principle. Furthermore, discussion was made on supporting East Europe countries including Russia. (NEDO)

  6. Influence of geometry of the impenetrable electrodes on processes of formation of the current crisis in the plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, A.N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the numerical studies of the axisymmetric flows in the plasma accelerators with the impenetrable equipotential electrodes of the various geometries. The calculations were performed using the two-dimensional two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic model taking into account the Hall effect and the conductivity tensor of the medium. The numerical experiments have allowed to reveal the influence of the electrode form on effect of occurrence of the current crisis.

  7. Current Economic and Financial Crisis – New Issues or Returning to the Old Problems? Paradigms, Causes, Effects and Solutions Adopted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix TOTIR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available At the ideological level, the current crisis, as the others in history, has triggered an intellectual debate among several applicable ideas: ultra-liberal theory of the "invisible hand" of Adam Smith, Keynes's theory of state interventionism and even neo-Marxist theories. Globalization, with all its core components, generates a chain reaction when the phenomenon occurs, either positive or negative. The origin of the current financial crisis should be sought in the effects of massive cross-border capital flows and the use of more complex derivatives. Reaching the saturation of the three engines of economic growth worldwide in the period after the collapse of the socialist bloc is another important cause of all the failures that currently exist worldwide. Acquisition of toxic assets from bank balance sheets, their recapitalization and takeover by the state, but also the reinforcement of the prudential supervision of capitalization, liquidity and risk management system, improved transparency and speed the process of evaluating or reinforcing authorities' response to risk, can be considered short or long term anti-crisis measures, as appropriate.

  8. Interdependence and Diversification. A View at Current EU-Russian Energy Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Beniczky, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The thesis is aimed at exploring the implications of energy interdependence for political relations between the European Union and the Russian Federation under current circumstances determined by the crisis in Ukraine. In this context, relying on the interdependence model of international relations theory, asymmetries in sensitivity and vulnerability of the sides were established and linked to their respective diversification strategies as part of the political power play between the EU and R...

  9. The impact on chinese economic growth and energy consumption of the Global Financial Crisis: An input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Chaoqing; Liu, Sifeng; Xie, Naiming

    2010-01-01

    The dependence on foreign trade increased sharply in China, and therefore Chinese economy is obviously export-oriented. The Global Financial Crisis will impact the Chinese economic growth violently. Chinese government has recently adopted some effective measures to fight against the Global Financial Crisis. The most important measure is the 4 trillion Yuan ($586 billion) stimulus plan which was announced on November 9, 2008. This paper discusses the influence on energy consumption and economic growth of Global Financial Crisis and the stimulus plan against it by input-output analysis. The results show that the fall of exports caused by the Global Financial Crisis will lead to a decrease of 7.33% in GDP (Gross Domestic Production) and a reduction of 9.21% in energy consumption; the stimulus plan against the Global Financial Crisis will lead to an increase of 4.43% in economic growth and an increase of 1.83% in energy consumption; In the Global Financial Crisis, energy consumption per unit GDP will fall in China. (author)

  10. Current energy usage and sustainable energy in Kazakhstan: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatayev, Marat; Islam, Tofazzal; Salnikov, Vitaliy

    2014-05-01

    Kazakhstan has abundant natural resources. The country has enough coal to supply its energy needs for the next 150 years, and has the world's largest deposits of uranium, substantial quantities of natural gas and petroleum deposits. However, despite such energy riches, due to the size of the territory, its geography, and the country's economic structure, distribution of electricity in Kazakhstan is not uniform. As a result, Kazakhstani rural and remote areas suffer from serious electricity deficits. According to the latest estimates from the Ministry of Industry and New Technologies, about 25-30% of the Kazakhstani population lives in rural communities, where access to affordable energy (for heating, cooling, cooking, refrigeration, lighting, household as well as IT use) is limited. Furthermore, with the main electricity production infrastructure concentrated in the main urban areas, a high amount of electricity is therefore lost during transmission. Moreover, the consumption of poor quality coal as the main source of power generation creates a significant amount of environmental pollution. To illustrate this development, fuel combustion from coal has produced around 75% of carbon dioxide emissions in Kazakhstan. Thus, in order to address the country's electricity and environmental challenges, the Kazakhstani government is taking initiatives to promote renewable energy resources. However, so far, the outcome of these initiatives remains negligible. The current contribution of renewable energy to the total energy consumption is less than 1% (with 90% provided by hydropower) despite the significant potential for renewable energy in the country. As yet, no comprehensive study has been published on the energy scenario and on the potential for renewable energy resources in Kazakhstan. This comprehensive review aims to present an overview of the country's energy resources, supply and demand as the current energy scenario, while discussing the potential for renewable

  11. Effects of Current Forward Market Intervention in the Korean Currency Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woosik Moon

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of the exchange market interventions of the Bank of Korea on the exchange rate of Korean won vis-a-vis US dollar during the 1997 currency crisis. In particular, this paper tests the effects of spot and forward market interventions, using daily intervention data of the Bank of Korea. During the 1997 period, Korea faced two series of crisis in January-March and September-November. It turns out that the spot market intervention was effective in stabilizing the spot market exchange rate at least during the first crisis period. In contrast, there seemed no effect of the forward market intervention. Forward market intervention was rather destabilizing through forward exchange rate during the second crisis period. This implies that even though the forward and sterilized spot market interventions are equivalent in their effect on exchange rate, these two instruments can widely diverge from each other under the circumstances of exchange rate volatility and speculation.

  12. Coping with the energy crisis: Impact assessment and potentials of non-traditional renewable energy in rural Kyrgyzstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Melisande F.M.; Pistorius, Till

    2012-01-01

    The Kyrgyz energy sector is characterised by a dramatic energy crisis that has deprived a substantial part of the population from access to energy. Non-traditional renewable energy sources have emerged as a promising alternative in providing basic energy services to the rural poor. Based on qualitative interview data from local households and project planners, this study sets out to assess impacts, limitations and barriers of non-traditional renewable energy projects in rural areas in Kyrgyzstan. This study argues that recent renewable energy efforts from multilateral international agencies, the private sector, and nongovernmental organisations exhibit great potential in creating tangible benefits and improving basic energy services, but have so far been inefficient in establishing and replicating sustainable and long-term energy solutions. Existing practices need to be improved by attaching greater importance to the capacities and real needs of the rural poor. The guidance of integrated programmes and policies along with alternative financing schemes and awareness-raising are urgently needed to leverage local success stories and to facilitate a sustainable energy development in rural Kyrgyzstan. - Highlights: ► We examine 11 rural households and 5 project planners in rural Kyrgyzstan. ► We assess impacts of non-traditional renewable energies compared with conventional fuels. ► Renewable energies exhibit a range of tangible benefits for rural users. ► Limitations concern performance, durability, repair, acceptance, finance and policy. ► Renewable energy is a promising alternative for rural households in Kyrgyzstan.

  13. Low energy current accumulator for high-energy proton rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Month, M.

    1977-01-01

    Building current in high-energy p-p colliding beam machines is most appropriately done in a low-energy (small circumference) current accumulator. Three significant factors favor such a procedure: First, large rings tend to be susceptible to unstable longitudinal density oscillations. These can be avoided by pumping up the beam in the accumulator. When the current stack is injected into the storage ring, potentially harmful instability is essentially neutralized. Second, high-field magnets characteristic of future high energy proton rings are designed with superconducting coils within the iron magnetic shield. This means coil construction and placement errors propagate rapidly within the beam aperture. An intermediate ''stacking ring'' allows the minimum use of the superconducting ring aperture. Finally, the coils are vulnerable to radiation heating and possible magnet quenching. By minimizing beam manipulaion in the superconducting environment and using only the central portion of the beam aperture, coil vulnerability can be put at a minimum

  14. The impact of financial globalization and financialization on the economy in the current crisis through banking corporate governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Azkunaga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the role of governance of financial entities in the current crisis. Neoliberal economic policies, deregulation and liberalization have characterized financial globalization, giving rise to the financialization of the economy. This paper, using the analysis-synthesis method, shows that the corporate governance of entities has adapted to the new social environment under the influence of the interests of the investors. The results of this paper suggest the need to monitor the over-emphasis on the maximization of short-term shareholder value without relativizing the risk taken to achieve it, as such, the emphasis on short-term shareholder value is considered a crucial contributing factor to the present crisis.

  15. ROMANIAN MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATIONS CLIENTS’ CONSUMPTION BEHAVIOUR WITHIN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC-FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghisan Georgeta-Madalina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper will analyze the consumption behaviour of the Orange mobile telephony company’s clients towards its services’ characteristics within the current economic financial crisis, taking into consideration the following elements: the low tariffs (for calls/ subscriptions/ other services, the quality of calls/ of sound, the network coverage within the territory, the company’s reputation, the negotiated offer, the quality and availability of the customer care service, the diversity of the auxiliary services, the range and prices of the mobile telephones, the costs that pay those who make calls towards this network, the loyalty programs, the usage of a last generation technology, the friends have subscriptions in the same network and the promotional offers. For a thorough research we will divide the operator’s clients into natural persons clients and legal persons clients, each group having its specificities. The data gathering method was the questionnaire sent by post office to all the Orange Romania branches (a total of 225 branches. We received a number of 64 responses, what means a responses rate of 28.4%, which were analyzed using the SPSS informatics program focusing on the correlation analysis and factor analysis. The main results emphasize the fact that the fight to attract clients becomes more and more powerful. The very competitive market leads to the growth of the importance of the price in choosing a provider. The operators’ short term gains from the clients that prefer low prices represent a long term risk of image. Choosing some services packages is sometimes very difficult due to the complexity of the offer. The clients expect the service to work, be simple and easy to use. They want to benefit from rapid and efficient assistance if errors occur and the operator respects the clauses of the contract. The results obtained through this study, allowed us to make an opinion on the perspective that the

  16. Dynamical dark energy: Current constraints and forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhye, Amol; Ishak, Mustapha; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2005-09-01

    We consider how well the dark energy equation of state w as a function of redshift z will be measured using current and anticipated experiments. We use a procedure which takes fair account of the uncertainties in the functional dependence of w on z, as well as the parameter degeneracies, and avoids the use of strong prior constraints. We apply the procedure to current data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the supernova searches, and obtain results that are consistent with other analyses using different combinations of data sets. The effects of systematic experimental errors and variations in the analysis technique are discussed. Next, we use the same procedure to forecast the dark energy constraints achievable by the end of the decade, assuming 8 years of Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data and realistic projections for ground-based measurements of supernovae and weak lensing. We find the 2σ constraints on the current value of w to be Δw0(2σ)=0.20, and on dw/dz (between z=0 and z=1) to be Δw1(2σ)=0.37. Finally, we compare these limits to other projections in the literature. Most show only a modest improvement; others show a more substantial improvement, but there are serious concerns about systematics. The remaining uncertainty still allows a significant span of competing dark energy models. Most likely, new kinds of measurements, or experiments more sophisticated than those currently planned, are needed to reveal the true nature of dark energy.

  17. The World Economy in the Times of Financial Crisis and its Impact on European Energy Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Baláž; Juraj Bayer

    2015-01-01

    Since 2007, globalization of the world economy has led to the expansion of the financial crisis. It affects the long-term international negative positions of EU members. They reacted to the new situation by carrying out structural reforms and by support of new adaptation programs. An important element of this process was the preparing of the convergence of the national energy policies in the framework of the Europe 20-20-20 program, which should remain one of the determining elements of their...

  18. The World Economy in the Times of Financial Crisis and its Impact on European Energy Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Baláž

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 2007, globalization of the world economy has led to the expansion of the financial crisis. It affects the long-term international negative positions of EU members. They reacted to the new situation by carrying out structural reforms and by support of new adaptation programs. An important element of this process was the preparing of the convergence of the national energy policies in the framework of the Europe 20-20-20 program, which should remain one of the determining elements of their success in support of the international competitiveness of the EU.

  19. Consequences of the Budget Deficit in the Current Crisis in Romania. Implications on the Labor Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela MOLĂNESCU

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic activity conditions, in which the need of financial resources is usually higher than the existing funds, the elaborations of budgets at any level is one of the primary issues, particularly as regards the principle of budgetary balance. Approaches regarding sizing budgets deficits, means of financing and particularly sizing public debt get a series of touches of precise nature for different economies. Actual economic, financial, social and administrative conditions put up a series of problems which impose an extremely serious approach of the potential adverse impact by sizing of budget deficits and public debt over the real possibilities of noninflationary financing. In Romania, in the highly complex framework in which the economic activity takes place, in the attempt to show the place held by the budget deficit, a special role is assigned to determine the share of public financial deficit in the consolidated budget revenue and expenditure. Currently, knowledge and concern for reducing the budget deficit are still of great importance, especially as Romania is facing great difficulties in economic development. Amid deepening structural crisis phenomena, increasing budget deficits financed over a non-inflationary limits comes as an additional factor that contributes to imbalances of the economy. In addition, where budgetary expenditures are targeted to satisfy, primary, the redistribution function and to state subsidies, because of the lack of a real multiplier coefficient, the state budget deficit worsens. Influences such as introducing economic disturbance in the mechanisms which cause them to increase budget deficits can be summarized and grouped into two broad categories: economic influences and psychological influences. Regarding economic influences, we can say that they act strongly and strictly determined by how meanings used to cover budget deficit. The modalities used are subject to an analysis by direct or indirect

  20. Multilateral Development Banks and Their Role in Supporting European SMEs during the Current Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Gabriel Anton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the ongoing financial crisis on the availability of finance to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs represents an important topic nowadays. The access to finance for SMEs is a major barrier for their growth, especially during severe conditions such as the global financial crisis. Financing the SMEs represents a priority for the most of the multilateral development banks. The aim of the paper is to analyze the activity of European multilateral development banks - European Investment Bank Group and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development - in the support of SMEs. We found that SMEs financing increased during the period 2008-2011 and the international financial institutions took several measures in order to improve the SMEs access to finance.

  1. Summary address by Dr. Ulf Lantzke, Executive Director of the International Energy Agency, to a meeting of the Nikkei Center, Tokyo on 10th April, 1978. [Will there be an energy crisis in 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantzke, Ulf

    1978-05-01

    Five key points were made: (1) Energy is a major element underlying current problems besetting the world economy. Uncertainty about energy policy is contributing to trade problems, persistent inflation, and lagging economic activity. Stronger energy policies are needed in all of the industrial countries. (2) The current oil market surplus is only a temporary phenomenon and should not be a cause for slackening efforts to strengthen energy policies immediately. Current slack conditions in the world oil market do not alter the underlying long-term trend of rising oil consumption which still threatens to bring about a major energy crisis. Because of growing lead times for energy policy action to take effect, the necessary policies need to be set in place immediately. (3) Oil is not the only problem in energy policy. The lack of energy consciousness among the public is a major obstacle to conservation efforts. Lengthy judicial and regulatory procedures are hampering efforts to expand nuclear power. Large-scale substitution of oil by coal will require major investments in mining, transportation infrastructure and coal-burning facilities. (4) Existing policy efforts of IEA Member countries will be inadequate to achieve the objective of holding IEA oil imports to 26m b/d by 1985. It would be a mistake to assume that another energy crisis or large real price increases in energy is inevitable. (DLC)

  2. Trust and management-to-employee communication in Slovenian companies: Some evidence from the current economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Makovec Brenčič

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the importance of trust and management-to-employee communication among top Slovenian employers from the Golden Thread Survey. The paper analyzes the changes and impact of the deteriorating external economic situation on (a company-employee relational trust, and on the (b perceived importance of “trust and long-term relationships with the company in the eyes of the customer” by respondent managers. Furthermore, our analysis also looks at the impact of management-to-employee communication on both trust perspectives. The results show a stable level of company-employee relational trust in the face of the current economic crisis, despite a high level of perceived organizational process changes and a sharp decline in financial performance. On the other hand, the perceived importance of “trust and long-term relationships with the company in the eyes of the customer” has increased substantially as the crisis has deepened, supporting our claim that relationships and the external relationship orientation gain importance in the time of crisis. There is also a strong link between the degree of open and frequent management-to-employee communication, and both perspectives of measured trust among top Slovenian employers.

  3. Electric energy production and environmental licensing: citizenship in Brazil in time of ecological crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettencourt, Marcia Pires da Luz

    2017-01-01

    The choices of energy sources gain relevance in the face of the ecological crisis which has a central questioning on the modes of production and consumption and that stems from a system which changes everything into merchandise. On one hand, brazilian electricity generation has the advantage of using clean energy in great part of its composition, at least in discourse. On the other hand, though, there are high social and environmental costs, especially for communities living near the regions where projects for the electricity sector are built. This research aimed to identify and analyse different modes society takes part in the process of choosing energy sources for electricity generation in Brazil. It discusses the links between the ecological crisis and the production of electrical energy; how the institutional mechanisms for social participation on issues related to the production of electric power in Brazil work; and, how civil society participates in environmental licensing in the National Environment Council (CONAMA). A set of related approaches to the nature of the ecological crisis and the forms of social participation was adopted in the theoretical framework and an analysis of the electric sector panorama in Brazil has been drawn up. In order to investigate the forms society participates in issues related to the composition of the brazilian electricity matrix, the methodology comprised a documentary analysis and a case study. They included three categories of actors: (1) CONAMA's councilors, (2) experts from the Field; and (3) actors involved in the diagnosis study, planning and management of the electricity sector. The research identified inconsistencies, ambiguities and other relevant issues about the participation of society in the production of electrical energy. Such issues are related to: deficiencies in the mechanisms for information access; lack of transparency and patterns in internal documents; lack of social participation in the elaboration of

  4. The current wind energy programme in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, G.; Foli, U.; Sesto, E.; Vigotti, R.

    1991-01-01

    In Italy, the main activities in the field of wind energy are carried out by two state-owned organizations, ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) and ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board), and two major wind turbine generator manufacturers, Alenia/WEST and Riva Calzoni, within the framework of a national programme which is supervized by the Ministry of Industry and Commerce. The work currently under way concerns both wind power plant siting and the development and testing of Italian-made wind turbine generators ranging from 5 to 1500 kW in power. In addition, programmes aimed at constructing wind-farms made up of medium-sized machines (200-400 kW) have recently been launched

  5. Compilation of current high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    This compilation of current high-energy physics experiments is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and the nine participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), KEK, Rutherford (RHEL), Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. Nominally, the compilation includes summaries of all high-energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about June 1978, and had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1975. The experimental summaries are supplemented with three indexes to the compilation, several vocabulary lists giving names or abbreviations used, and a short summary of the beams at each of the laboratories (except Rutherford). The summaries themselves are included on microfiche

  6. TRANSATLANTIC COMMERCIAL RELATIONSHIP IN THE CONTEXT OF THE CURRENT FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Elena Gentimir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes an analysis of the commercial and financial relationship between EU27 and United States of America. Traditionally, USA and EU27 are the most powerful forces in the world. Today, the relationship between these two partners continues to dominate and to influence globally. The transatlantic relation consists, mainly, of the commercial exchanges and the investment flows. The objective of this paper is to highlight the evolution and the changes occurred in the commercial exchanges and the investment flows between this two powers in the context of the economic crisis constraints.

  7. Fuelwood: The energy crisis that won't go away. Braende - en vedvarende energikrise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckholm, E; Foley, G; Barnard, G; Timberlake, L

    1987-01-01

    The fuelwood crisis has seriously increased in gravity since the 1979s. In many developing countries firewood contributes to 90% of the total energy consumption. By the year 2000, 2.4 milliard people will be using firewood more quickly than the trees can grow to supply it. It is people stricken with poverty that will suffer most under this situation. Although since 1978-80, 500 million US dollars have been spent on community forest projects, many of them have not been succesful, and it is only recently that connections between the firewood crisis and deforestation, between supply and demand, have become clear. In most countries the forests disappear because the people need arable land to grow food from. Different methods of supporting tree planting projects are described, as well as ways of helping communal forestry to function satisfacorily. Ovens where much less fuel wood is needed to produce the correct heat temperatures, have been introduced in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Yet many of these ovens break down. When planning for the future, village tree plantations, the possibility of planting more trees on private gorunds, the more rationalised use of manure and farm wastes as fertilizers for trees, stricter price control and social reform, should all be kept in mind. (SM).

  8. Current constraints on interacting holographic dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qiang; Gong Yungui; Wang Anzhong; Alcaniz, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Although there is mounting observational evidence that the cosmic expansion is undergoing a late-time acceleration, the physical mechanism behind such a phenomenon is yet unknown. In this Letter, we investigate a holographic dark energy (HDE) model with interaction between the components of the dark sector in the light of current cosmological observations. We use both the new gold sample of 182 type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and the 192 SNe Ia ESSENCE data, the baryon acoustic oscillation measurement from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the shift parameter from the three-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data. In agreement with previous results, we show that these observations suggest a very weak coupling or even a noninteracting HDE. The phantom crossing behavior in the context of these scenarios is also briefly discussed

  9. Social inequality in morbidity, framed within the current economic crisis in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata Moya, A R; Buffel, V; Navarro Yáñez, C J; Bracke, P

    2015-11-14

    Inspired by the 'Fundamental Cause Theory (FCT)' we explore social inequalities in preventable versus relatively less-preventable illnesses in Spain. The focus is on the education-health gradient, as education is one of the most important components of an individual's socioeconomic status (SES). Framed in the context of the recent economic crisis, we investigate the education gradient in depression, diabetes, and myocardial infarction (relatively highly preventable illnesses) and malignant tumors (less preventable), and whether this educational gradient varies across the regional-economic context and changes therein. We use data from three waves of the Spanish National Health Survey (2003-2004, 2006-2007, and 2011-2012), and from the 2009-2010 wave of the European Health Survey in Spain, which results in a repeated cross-sectional design. Logistic multilevel regressions are performed with depression, diabetes, myocardial infarction, and malignant tumors as dependent variables. The multilevel design has three levels (the individual, period-regional, and regional level), which allows us to estimate both longitudinal and cross-sectional macro effects. The regional-economic context and changes therein are assessed using the real GDP growth rate and the low work intensity indicator. Education gradients in more-preventable illness are observed, while this is far less the case in our less-preventable disease group. Regional economic conditions seem to have a direct impact on depression among Spanish men (y-stand. OR = 1.04 [95 % CI: 1.01-1.07]). Diabetes is associated with cross-regional differences in low work intensity among men (y-stand. OR = 1.02 [95 % CI: 1.00-1.05]) and women (y-stand. OR = 1.04 [95 % CI: 1.01-1.06]). Economic contraction increases the likelihood of having diabetes among men (y-stand. OR = 1.04 [95 % CI: 1.01-1.06]), and smaller decreases in the real GDP growth rate are associated with lower likelihood of myocardial infarction among

  10. Present Scenario of Renewable Energy in Bangladesh and a Proposed Hybrid System to Minimize Power Crisis in Remote Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Nahid -UR-Rahman; Reza, Syed Enam; Nitol, Tofaeel Ahamed; Mahabub, Abd-Al-Fattah IBNE

    2016-01-01

    Abstract- Bangladesh is a densely populated country located at the South-East corner of Asia. Only 48.5% of people here have access to the grid electricity. This paper provides a comprehensive study of the contemporary renewable energy scenario in Bangladesh in terms of distribution, research and infrastructural development in the country. Renewable energy is the smartest solution of increasing energy crisis caused by using fossil fuels. But sometimes it faces question of reliability which ca...

  11. High resolution respirometry analysis of polyethylenimine-mediated mitochondrial energy crisis and cellular stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Arnaldur; Larsen, Anna Karina; Parhamifar, Ladan

    2013-01-01

    and spectrophotometry analysis of cytochrome c oxidase activity we were able to identify complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) as a likely specific site of PEI mediated inhibition within the electron transport system. Unraveling the mechanisms of PEI-mediated mitochondrial energy crisis is central for combinatorial design...... of PEI-mediated plasma membrane damage and subsequent ATP leakage to the extracellular medium. Studies with freshly isolated mouse liver mitochondria corroborated with bioenergetic findings and demonstrated parallel polycation concentration- and time-dependent changes in state 2 and state 4o oxygen flux...... as well as lowered ADP phosphorylation (state 3) and mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Polycation-mediated reduction of electron transport system activity was further demonstrated in 'broken mitochondria' (freeze-thawed mitochondrial preparations). Moreover, by using both high-resolution respirometry...

  12. California's crisis: An exploratory analysis of lifestyle, energy use, and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossard, Marcia Hill

    Electricity is one of the most serious issues of the 21st century. Modern human societies have become completely dependent upon energy to power modern life---resulting in unwanted environmental effects. Although electricity itself is invisible, many of the most conspicuous household items consume the most electricity. The 2001 energy crisis in California provides a unique opportunity to study how people negotiated their lives during a time of perceived resource scarcity, increased electricity prices, and threats of blackouts. Combining cultural and environmental literatures, I argued that changes in resource availability (perceived or real) led to unsettled lives in which beliefs, rituals and ways of behaving began to be questioned---resulting in new patterns of action organized around lifestyle. As a conceptual framework, lifestyle can be useful for understanding the patterns of people's everyday lives, the objects they consume, and the degrees to which those lifestyles affect the environment. Using data from the California Residential Electricity Conservation Study (CRECS), this research explores the ways households navigated and used different conservation strategies during the summers of 2001 and 2002. Analysis of Behavioral Conservation Strategies (BCS) that require ongoing effort and attention by household residents in order to achieve successful conservation outcomes (e.g., turning off lights or regulating indoor temperature), and Consumer Investment Strategies (CIS) that are one-time purchases improving efficiency (e.g., purchase of an appliance or fixture) reveal different strategies of action over the two years. Wealth indicators and time constraints were less important for predicting conservation, while cultural differences and household composition were better predictors of conservation efforts. In addition, despite assumptions that people are unwilling to change their lifestyle in order to conserve electricity, households employed more strategies that

  13. Energy crisis? The continuing need for a national energy policy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felmy, J.

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses the impact of the terrorist attack on the World Trade Centre on the 11th September 2001 on the price of crude oil and petroleum products and the ensuing concentration on security measures in the oil and gas industries. The reasons for the need of a comprehensive energy policy are listed and include ensuring the physical security of energy supplies, helping to diversify oil supplies and reducing the effects of market disruptions, benefiting from additional efforts to increase energy efficiency, promoting conservation, encouraging the use of renewable energy sources, investing in the energy delivery infrastructure, and increasing domestic energy supplies

  14. Energy crisis and changes in the structure of the chemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedov, A G

    1980-01-01

    The effect of the energy crisis together with higher prices and inflation on the chemical industry is reviewed. One effect has been the search for more energy-efficient processes and more widely available raw materials. Measures taken by the industry have included the control of expenses and losses, utilization of secondary materials and energy resources and the development of new technological growth of the industry and has shifted emphasis to small-scale rather than large-scale chemical production. Capital has also been used more for modernizing existing equipment and facilities than for new construction, and industrialized countries have invested more heavily in developing countries. Trade relations between socialist and western countries have also improved. Improvements have been made in the production of aromatic hydrocarbons by extraction with the use of more efficient solvents, in catalytic and thermic hydrodealkylation of toluene, in the chlorine and nitrogen industries, in phosphorus and phosphoric acid production and in benzene and butadiene production. A new scheme for hydroxylamine production and a new technology for styrene and methanol production have been developed. Direct hydration of propylene has been introduced into the production of isopropanol and propylene ammonolysis has been used to obtain acrylonitrile. Changes in the chemical industry have reduced energy consumption per production unit by 14.2% in the U.S.A. in 1977 in comparison with 1972 and by 14.0% in Common Market countries during 1970-1976.

  15. Agro-energy - A solution for climate or a crisis exit for capital?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houtart, F.

    2009-01-01

    Intensive advertisement has presented agro-energy as a solution to the global warming and to the energy crisis. But how will it be possible to replace fossil fuels? It would be surprising that an economic system like capitalism does not try to supply some remedies to a situation that paralyzes it and threatens its own survivor-ship. But are these measures favorable to humanity and susceptible to warrant the future of the Earth? Are we trying to save the mankind and its vital capacities or to preserve capitalism? This book examines the role of energy in the development of humanity and then the degradation of climate and the way that capitalism has treated the problem. It deals with the real conditions of biofuels development, reveals the ecological and social conditions of their production, and denounces the social and natural catastrophes they are leading to. The book ends with a thinking about the economical function of biofuels and on the solutions offered by renewable energy sources. It proposes some changes that reveal the core of the problem: changing our development model. (J.S.)

  16. Current Renewable Energy Technologies and Future Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Stephen W [ORNL; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Ward, Christina D [ORNL; Smith, Barton [ORNL; Grubb, Kimberly R [ORNL; Lee, Russell [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    The generally acknowledged sources of renewable energy are wind, geothermal, biomass, solar, hydropower, and hydrogen. Renewable energy technologies are crucial to the production and utilization of energy from these regenerative and virtually inexhaustible sources. Furthermore, renewable energy technologies provide benefits beyond the establishment of sustainable energy resources. For example, these technologies produce negligible amounts of greenhouse gases and other pollutants in providing energy, and they exploit domestically available energy sources, thereby reducing our dependence on both the importation of fossil fuels and the use of nuclear fuels. The market price of renewable energy technologies does not reflect the economic value of these added benefits.

  17. Considerations on Preventing and Combating the Illegal Trafficking of Minors under the Current Economic and Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tache BOCĂNIALĂ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This work highlights the economic crisis problem that affects most states of the world, the crime problem that the society is facing, namely the human trafficking and in particular the child trafficking. This theme is particularly important in the context of amplifying the organized crime, it increasingly concerns the modern society and implicitly the specialists engaged in research of the phenomenon and for preventing and combating it. This paper is an analysis of the current financial crisis impact on human trafficking and the level of response that the society is ready to give through the regulatory framework, specialized institutions and their staff. The analysis concluded that Romania, as a result of its alignment with the acquis communautaire, is now a modern legislative and institutional system in preventing and combating trafficking in human beings. However, there is a need for legislative amendments in order to have a greater effectiveness in prevention and control measures, which represents a milestone in addressing other related issues. This study is also a warning for specialists to deepen their research for improving the prevention and combating trafficking in human beings which tends to grow.

  18. Heavy rare earths, permanent magnets, and renewable energies: An imminent crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith Stegen, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This article sounds the alarm that a significant build-out of efficient lighting and renewable energy technologies may be endangered by shortages of rare earths and rare earth permanent magnets. At the moment, China is the predominant supplier of both and its recent rare earth industrial policies combined with its own growing demand for rare earths have caused widespread concern. To diversify supplies, new mining—outside of China—is needed. But what many observers of the “rare earth problem” overlook is that China also dominates in (1) the processing of rare earths, particularly the less abundant heavy rare earths, and (2) the supply chains for permanent magnets. Heavy rare earths and permanent magnets are critical for many renewable energy technologies, and it will require decades to develop new non-Chinese deposits, processing capacity, and supply chains. This article clarifies several misconceptions, evaluates frequently proposed solutions, and urges policy makers outside of China to undertake measures to avert a crisis, such as greater support for research and development and for the cultivation of intellectual capital. - Highlights: • Rare earths are needed for many efficient lighting and renewable energy technologies. • The industries for rare earths and permanent magnets are dominated by China. • China's reliability is compromised, necessitating non-Chinese mining and processing. • Recycling, substitution and reducing rare earth content are long-term solutions only. • Policy makers should support development of supply chains and intellectual capital

  19. Current Status and Future Potential of Energy Derived from Chinese Agricultural Land: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningning Zhai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy crisis is receiving attention with regard to the global economy and environmental sustainable development. Developing new energy resources to optimize the energy supply structure has become an important measure to prevent energy shortage as well as achieving energy conservation and emission reduction in China. This study proposed the concept of energy agriculture and constructed an energy agricultural technical support system based on the analysis of energy supply and demand and China’s foreign dependence on energy resources, combined with the function of agriculture in the energy field. Manufacturing technology equipment and agricultural and forestry energy, including crop or forestry plants and animal feces, were used in the system. The current status and future potential of China’s marginal land resources, energy crop germplasm resources, and agricultural and forestry waste energy-oriented resources were analyzed. Developing the function of traditional agriculture in food production may promote China’s social, economic, and environmental sustainable development and achieve energy saving and emission reduction.

  20. A review study of the current research on energy hub for energy positive neighborhoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, S.W.W.; Labeodan, T.; Maassen, W.H.; Zeiler, W.

    2017-01-01

    Energy positive neighborhoods and cities are emerging concepts aimed at addressing the current energy and environmental sustainability challenges. In this paper, the concept and current research on energy hubs relating to energy positive neighborhoods are presented. In addition to discussing

  1. Cultural aspects of the policies of the European Union countries towards immigrants: The current migrant crisis challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prnjat Dejana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history of mankind, as a result of migration, different cultures came in contact and influenced each other, with different outcomes. In recent years, as a result of more frequent armed conflicts in the world, the influx of migrants to Europe has increased significantly. Even the European Union countries that had traditionally been considered as emigrant, Italy, for example, are becoming immigrant. New situation has influenced the change in attitude of many governments of countries wherein the migrants arrived, and while some still prefer multiculturalism, there is a growing number of those who do not share this position. The aim of this paper is to analyze the cultural aspects of the policies of the European Union countries towards immigrants which evolved as a result of the current migrant crisis.

  2. Transforming shortcomings into opportunities: Can market incentives solve Lebanon's energy crisis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruble, Isabella; Nader, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decades Lebanon's energy sector has been largely ignored and this has led to high economic and environmental costs. The sector is characterized by electricity poverty, an expanding and mainly unregulated transport sector and a lack of energy savings spanning through all sectors of the economy. Recently, the Government of Lebanon has committed to increase the share of renewable energy to 10% of the total energy supply by 2013 and to 12% by the year 2020; it also aims at reducing energy consumption by 6% by the year 2013. This paper aims at contributing to the formulation of a more comprehensive energy strategy for Lebanon by analyzing the recent changes in policy direction and by recommending legal, regulatory and policy measures in order to transform current shortcomings into opportunities allowing the country to become a regional 'success story' in the deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency. - Research highlights: → This paper reviews the current situation of Lebanon's energy sector. → We analyze the recent development of the markets for renewable energy and energy efficiency. → Policy recommendations that will allow for a sustainable energy future are made.

  3. Current challenges of the European security caused by the refugee crisis. The EU's fight against terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Florentina NICOLESCU

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this research is to identify the evolution of the terrorist attacks that appeared in Europe lately. In the article are mentioned the main causes that led to the terrorist attacks from France and Germany, emphasizing their effects over the 2 countries. The article brings forward the main types of attacks used by terrorists but also the number of injured persons or deaths. An essential aspect that was highlighted in the article refers to the results obtained after applying the EU – Turkey Statement but also to those regarding the transfer and relocation of the migrants in different countries. In this way, the analysis implied the selection of EU member states which received Syrian refugees by relocation together with the highlighting of the numeric situation of the persons returned from Greece to Turkey. A last part of this study assumes the identification of the personal categories who have been brought by Frontex and EASO in Greece in order to handle efficiently the crisis, which provide the expertise in the migration field. The primary question of this research is: “Is EU capable to administer the changes regarding migration, assuring in the same time its safety?”. To answer this question, I identified first the costs of EU securitizing its states. I consider that the approach of this matter has a high importance since it shows the necessity of some changes meant to help European states to face the events linked to migration and, implicitly, security from the last years.

  4. The Euro crisis. Causes and Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph S. Weber

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Euro crisis is mainly a consequence of the international financial crisis of 2008. Thereby, the term Euro crisis is misleading as there is no currency crisis. First, the article shows some of the birth defects of the Euro. Second, it shows that the increase in public debt was caused by rescue measures for banks and anti-cyclical fiscal policy. Third, we argue that the Euro crisis is not just one crisis (a sovereign debt crisis but it is a combination of several macroeconomic crises including a growth crisis, a labour market crisis, a public debt crisis, and a current account crisis.

  5. Marine renewable energy in China: Current status and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Yong-liang Zhang; Zheng Lin; Qiu-lin Liu

    2014-01-01

    Based on a general review of marine renewable energy in China, an assessment of the development status and amount of various marine renewable energy resources, including tidal energy, tidal current energy, wave energy, ocean thermal energy, and salinity gradient energy in China's coastal seas, such as the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea, and the South China Sea, is presented. We have found that these kinds of marine renewable energy resources will play an important role in meeti...

  6. Soviet energy: current problems and future options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, J B

    1981-12-01

    The connection between Soviet oil and energy resources, their efficient and timely utilization, and politico-military opportunities in the Persian Gulf region offer an inescapable link for analysis. Worsening trends in economic growth, factor productivity, social unrest, and energy production/distribution offset optimistic trends in Soviet military procurement and deployment. A conjunction of geologic, geographic, and systemic factors all point to a mid-1980s energy imbalance which in turn will pose hard questions for the Moscow leadership. 28 references.

  7. Good to the last drop : the first petroleum crisis sent researchers on a trail in search of new energy solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeau, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    The energy crisis of the 1970s provided an incentive to look for alternative energy sources. At the time, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) declared that the era of cheap oil was over. In addition to quadrupling oil prices, OPEC reduced production and placed total embargoes on some countries. With high oil demand and limited supply, lifestyles and habits that were founded on the oil market began to change. The energy crisis was also a catalyst to develop innovative conservation measures. Progressive trendsetters back in 1975 turned to solar and wind energy for their power needs. The author argued that had it not been for the energy crisis, developments such as the Athabasca oil sands, Hydro-Quebec's high-head electric power plants or nuclear power may never have occurred. This article then presented a brief history of the petroleum industry. Drilling technology in 1859 permitted drilling to a level of only 23 metres. In 1928 only 7 companies in the United States controlled the world oil market, notably, Exxon, Texaco, British Petroleum, Shell, Gulf, Standard Oil and Mobil Oil. OPEC was created in 1960, and by 1970 it controlled 40 per cent of the world oil market. According to the Association for the Study of Peak Oil, 1970 also marked the year when oil production began to decline. This article also summarized offshore operations in Atlantic Canada and the advent of enhanced recovery techniques, including the development of carbon sequestration. 6 figs

  8. Singapore in Its Worst Recession for Years. The Effects of the Current Economic Crisis on the City-State’s Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Jordan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the current economic downturn, Singapore has experienced one of its most severe recessions since independence. The financial crisis, which caused a fall in prices at most of the world’s leading stock exchanges and a sharp decline in industrial production, has also had a negative impact on the city-state’s export-dependent economy. The analysis outlines the economic downturn and the decline of Singapore’s export economy since the beginning of the crisis in late 2008. Central to the analysis are questions regarding the social consequences of the current economic crisis and the amount of losses Singapore’s state-owned holding companies, Temasek and GIC, experienced when some of the world’s biggest investment banks, such as Merrill Lynch, went into bankruptcy.

  9. Resources of Greenland and the possibilities of a joint Danish/Greenland exploitation of specially the energy resources in a period of economic crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taagholt, J.

    1983-01-01

    As Greenland is very dependent on imported articles and fuels, mainly petroleum, economic crisis or just an energy crisis will affect Greenland very much. To evaluate Greenlands situation in a crisis an account is given of the climatic conditions, of the present economic situation, and of planned development projects, The Greenland Area has Denmarks largest potential energy reserves of known coal deposits, of partially surveyed uranium deposits, of partially surveyed potential hydroelectric power reserves, and of petroleum and natural gas deposits not yet pointed out. An analysis is made of the utilization of the Greenland energy resources today, and the plans of future extended utilization. (LN)

  10. Is energy-rich Alberta about to face an energy crisis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, D.

    2009-01-01

    Alberta's growing economy may be hindered by rapidly increasing natural gas and electricity prices. The provincial government has recently removed programs designed to protect consumers from rising prices. The programs consisted of rebates on natural gas as well as a monthly regulated electricity rate. Several companies have recently moved away from the province as a result of higher electricity prices. Currently, the province's electricity market only provides an accurate number for electricity prices for the last hour, and consumers are not aware of the actual prices until after the power has been used. A lack of new transmission may also cause future blackouts to the electric power system. It was concluded that changes to the current billing system are also required in order to protect Alberta's consumers. 1 fig.

  11. Crise financeira, energia e sustentabilidade no Brasil Financial crisis, energy and sustainability in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Lucon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A recente crise financeira global traz consigo efeitos como a redução da atividade econômica e, consequentemente, do consumo de energia. Essa pode ser uma importante oportunidade para reorganizar o sistema energético em bases mais sólidas e sustentáveis: a eficiência, a maior participação das fontes renováveis e a descentralização da produção de energia. O Brasil e outros países em desenvolvimento podem aproveitar a experiência dos países desenvolvidos em eficiência energética, complementando com um programa vigoroso em energias renováveis, particularmente as "modernas" (eólica, solar, biomassa e pequenas hidrelétricas. Entretanto, preocupa o cenário inercial nacional, baseado num aumento da participação das fontes fósseis de energia na matriz, na priorização dos recursos à exploração de petróleo e gás natural e na manutenção de padrões insustentáveis de produção e consumo.The recent global financial crisis brings about effects such as a reduction in the economic activity and consequently in energy consumption. This may be an important opportunity to reorganize the energy system under more solid and sustainable foundations: efficiency, higher share of renewables and decentralized energy production. Brazil and other developing countries can leapfrog the experience acquired by developed nations in energy efficiency, complementing with a vigorous program in renewables, particularly the "modern" (wind, solar, biomass and small hydros. However, there is a concern about the inertial Brazilian scenario, based on an increasing share of fossil fuels in the matrix, in prioritizing resources to oil and gas exploration and in the continuing unsustainable patterns of production and consumption.

  12. Energy. Against the current; Energie. Gegen den Strom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stellpflug, Juergen (comp.)

    2008-07-01

    This is a special issue 'Oeko-Test Spezial Energie' of Oeko-Test journal of 15 December 2008. It contains information on the following subjects: Builder-owners over 50: Passive buildings, the best way to prepare for old age; Floor heating systems: Floors that give you a good feeling; CO2 check: How to check a home from the basement to the roof; Insulating materials; Energy certificates - none is perfect; Energy consulting: detecting leaks; Energy saving with thermal insulation; Heating with wood; Radiators and radiator design; Internal thermal insulation: Better than nothing; Tiled stoves for thermal comfort; Combined heat and power generation for energy autonomy; New laws and ordinances: Energy conservation becomes obligatory; Solar energy: Big is beautiful; Solar energy: Public funding: Solar energy technology; Solar power generation: High yields but impending obstacles; Wall heating systems: Thermal comfort out of the wall; Integrated thermal insulation systems: Nothing to fear from the cold; Heat pumps: Getting heat into the house; Thermal engineering: High efficiency is advantageous. (orig.)

  13. current status and outlook of renewable energy development in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a critical review of the available renewable energy resources in Nigeria, namely; biomass, hydropower, solar and wind energy. It examines the current energy situation in the country and equally discusses the various energy policy documents developed by the government. Using the scenario-based ...

  14. Tidal current energy resource assessment in Ireland: Current status and future update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rourke, Fergal; Boyle, Fergal; Reynolds, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Interest in renewable energy in Ireland has increased continually over the past decade. This interest is due primarily to security of supply issues and the effects of climate change. Ireland imports over 90% of its primary energy consumption, mostly in the form of fossil fuels. The exploitation of Ireland's vast indigenous renewable energy resources is required in order to reduce this over-dependence on fossil fuel imports to meet energy demand. Various targets have been set by the Irish government to incorporate renewable energy technologies into Ireland's energy market. As a result of these targets, the development in wind energy has increased substantially over the past decade; however this method of energy extraction is intermittent and unpredictable. Ireland has an excellent tidal current energy resource and the use of this resource will assist in the development of a sustainable energy future. Energy extraction using tidal current energy technologies offers a vast and predictable energy resource. This paper reviews the currently accepted tidal current energy resource assessment for Ireland. This assessment was compiled by Sustainable Energy Ireland in a report in 2004. The assessment employed a 2-dimensional numerical model of the tidal current velocities around Ireland, and from this numerical model the theoretical tidal current energy resource was identified. With the introduction of constraints and limitations, the technical, practical, accessible and viable tidal current energy resources were obtained. The paper discusses why the assessment needs updating including the effect on the assessment of the current stage of development of tidal current turbines and their deployment technology. (author)

  15. The struggle for energy. How the growing need for oil and gas will cause a world crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Op het Veld, R.

    2008-07-01

    Due to the rapid and continued economic growth of China and India, energy demand is increasing rapidly. At the same time, the Western world is facing decreasing oil and gas reserves. As a result, it becomes increasingly dependent on the Middle East and countries such as Russia and Venezuela. Shell and ExxonMobil, who were once dominant oil giants, are losing territory to state energy companies such as Saudi Aramco and Gazprom. The author analyses all these developments, also based on a series of interviews with various experts from trade and industry and the government in the Netherlands and abroad. The author states that the only solution for the energy issue and the climate issue is the development of alternative energy sources. However, for the present this will not suffice to meet growing demand. The battle for energy ultimately paints a picture that is not rosy, involving a crisis and an increasing international rat race for energy. [mk] [nl

  16. SOME CONSIDERATIONS ON LOCAL FINANCIAL AUTONOMY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE CURRENT FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vezure Oana Sabina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Financing of local authorities is currently at the Centre of the political discourse is a daily concern. Romania faces, usually with an attempt to offset the need for control and reduction of public spending with greater financial autonomy of local authorities. At the time, it was searched and searches for a path, a means to achieve a fair distribution of financial resources between the various levels of administration, budget reductions to all of them. If strengthening democracy means to strengthen local autonomy, then it means you have created a system for financing local authorities to be efficient, fair and pointing towards the economic needs of States. In other words, decentralization and local financing and the principle of subsidiarity are mutually dependent. Rightly, the decentralisation of financial management is considered to be the "backbone" of the administrative system of decentralisation, the financial resources being those which are operational link between the needs of local communities and the rules necessary to satisfy them. Thus, the lack of financial resources of the local self-government can result in failure to meet the needs of its members, which at the same time failure of administrative decentralization. The decentralisation of financial management can also be seen as the Government of some specific functions on the line of management authority and the tax revenue to the local public authorities.

  17. A reading of the crisis of prevention activities: current paradoxes and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia Vilela

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The activity of occupational health and safety professionals is in a paradoxical situation considering, among other aspects, the productivity context, which gives low priority to safety and health, the limitation imposed by the hegemonic conceptual references in the field, the limitation of these professionals’ power to act and the highly conflicting and complex character of the occupational world. Objective: In essay form, the article, in dialog with the literature of the field, proposes to reflect on the impasses and challenges of the prevention field. Method: The reflections are based on the experience of the authors both in the practical area as also in research, teaching and extension activities in the field of health surveillance and workers’ safety. Results: Even though this field of activity has been recognized as a specialized and legal area for more than 40 years in the country, the magnitude of the data concerning occupational and industrial accidents reveals the limitations and difficulties that these professionals face, and justifies the importance of the analysis of current practices in order to understand the contradictions that lie at the root of the difficulties to achieve prevention. Conclusion: Citizens could pressure corporations to improve their safety practices and concepts. State can also be pressured to create new safety policies.

  18. Energy crisis in Nigeria: The nuclear option and the necessary regulatory framework for its success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faru, T.A.; Abubakar, M.B.; Sulaiman, S.

    2007-01-01

    Limited access or inappropriate planning and utilization of modern energy remain one of the major constrains to socio-economic development of Nigeria. The total installed electricity generation including that from all other sources based on PHCN estimates is about 6,603 MW and total exploitable hydro potential is currently at 12,220 MW. The electricity demand projection for a 10% annual growth of the GDP was given as 16,000 MW, 30,000 MW and 192,000 MW for the years 2010, 2015 and 2030 respectively. The electricity as currently generated is therefore grossly inadequate to meet our Domestic Demands, National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) and the Millennium Development Goals. This work is the study in the energy requirements for sustainable development. The study has also looked at the potential contributions of various energy resources for meeting this demand. It has identified the limitations of these sources in satisfying the National Energy Requirement and has highlighted the suitability of Nuclear Energy the option in meeting the projected energy demand and the necessary framework for its success

  19. Nuclear energy in Ukraine in the conditions of political-economical crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuharchuk, N. P.; Kosharnaya, O. P.; Siora, A. A.; Reshetitskij, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    From the point of view of energy security, nuclear industry in Ukraine has quite a lot of potential: availability of own raw uranium resources, domestic production of equipment for nuclear power plants, monitoring and control systems for nuclear power plants, design and construction organizations, energy engineering; availability of human resources, personnel training, experience with NPP, the infrastructure to support the operation of nuclear power plants; preservation of low CO 2 emissions. The Ukrainian government considers the priority development of nuclear industry as one of the most urgent tasks at the current stage of development Ukrainian fuel and energy complex, which will be enshrined in the Energy Strategy of Ukraine until 2035, which is in the stage of adoption

  20. Marine current energy devices: Current status and possible future applications in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rourke, Fergal O.; Boyle, Fergal; Reynolds, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing demand for the use of renewable energy technologies to generate electricity due to concerns over climate change. The oceans provide a huge potential resource of energy. Energy extraction using marine current energy devices (MCEDs) offers a sustainable alternative to conventional sources and a predictable alternative to other renewable energy technologies. A MCED utilises the kinetic energy of the tides as opposed to the potential energy which is utilised by a tidal barrage. Over the past decade MCEDs have become an increasingly popular method of energy extraction. However, marine current energy technology is still not economically viable on a large scale due to its current stage of development. Ireland has an excellent marine current energy resource as it is an island nation and experiences excellent marine current flows. This paper reviews marine current energy devices, including a detailed up-to-date description of the current status of development. Issues such as network integration, economics, and environmental implications are addressed as well as the application and costs of MCEDs in Ireland. (author)

  1. Crisis and Crisis Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Øjvind

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of Nordicum-Mediterraneum contains select proceedings from the third meeting of the Nordic Summer University research circle called “Crisis and Crisis Scenarios: Normativity, Possibilities and Dilemmas”, held April 9th — 12th, 2015 at the Lysebu Conference Centre in Oslo, Norway....... The circle’s research program runs from 2014 to 2016 and is aimed at examining the concept of crisis as it is used today in academia and public discussion. In this collection of papers from the symposium we present some of the different ways in which the topic of the study group was addressed....

  2. Wind energy - current status in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindley, D.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty two windfarms are operational or are under construction in the U.K. They have a total installed capacity of approximately 140 MW and will generate about 360 GWh in a full year and provide the electricity needs of about 250 000 individuals and save the emission of about 400 000 tonnes of CO 2 each year. Developments so far have required an investment of about Pound 140 million provided mostly by banks and large corporate investors. Financing these projects has broken new ground for renewable technologies and established a framework for the financing of windfarms built using future NFFO contracts. Obtaining planning consents for these windfarms has involved thirteen public inquiries, eight of which have been successful. Four of these remain unused and the result of another is awaited. Statutory and other bodies have responded to the rapid deployment of windfarms by issuing guidelines and these together with Public Inquiry documentation now provide invaluable guidance for the industry. The U.K. market is arguably the most 'open' in Europe and Danish Wind Turbine manufacturers have gained over 50 per cent of the total market. A Japanese manufacturer has gained 25 per cent whilst the major U.K. turbine supplier has gained 17 per cent market share. There are still over thirty manufacturers worldwide and signs that a combination of innovation and market pressures are continuing to reduce the costs of wind energy. (author)

  3. Marine renewable energy in China: Current status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-liang Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a general review of marine renewable energy in China, an assessment of the development status and amount of various marine renewable energy resources, including tidal energy, tidal current energy, wave energy, ocean thermal energy, and salinity gradient energy in China's coastal seas, such as the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea, and the South China Sea, is presented. We have found that these kinds of marine renewable energy resources will play an important role in meeting China's future energy needs. Additionally, considering the uneven distribution of China's marine renewable energy and the influences of its exploitation on the environment, we have suggested several sites with great potential for each kind of marine energy. Furthermore, perspectives on and challenges related with marine renewable energy in China are addressed.

  4. Energy considerations concerning current loops and magnetic objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fluitman, J.H.J.

    1980-01-01

    In the thermodynamics of compound magnetic systems there is an ambiguity in defining the free energies connected to the constituent parts or subsystems. It is argued that the choice, usually made in defining the energy of a magnetized body, leads to an expression for the energy of a current loop or

  5. High-current pulses from inductive energy stores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wipf, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    Superconducting inductive energy stores can be used for high power pulse supplies if a suitable current multiplication scheme is used. The concept of an inductive Marx generator is superior to a transformer. A third scheme, a variable flux linkage device, is suggested; in multiplying current it also compresses energy. Its function is in many ways analogous to that of a horsewhip. Superconductor limits indicate that peak power levels of TW can be reached for stored energies above 1 MJ

  6. REDISCOVERING MISES-HAYEK MONETARY AND BUSINESS CYCLE THEORY IN LIGHT OF THE CURRENT CRISIS: CREDIT EXPANSION AS A SOURCE OF ECONOMIC BOOM AND BUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Mrowiec

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article starts with a brief description of Mises’ monetary theory, with emphasis on the Misesian differentiation of two kinds of credit: commodity and circulation credit, and with the description of the impact of circulation credit expansion on the business cycle. Further on it is described how Mises’ insights constituted the kernel of Austrian Business Cycle Theory, and how the same observations on the nature of credit constituted the kernel of the Chicago Plan (though Mises’ views on the nature of credit led him to different conculsions than it led the authors of the Chicago Plan, and how this plan is being “rediscovered” now. The following sections deal with observations of one of the preeminent current macroeconomic researches, Mr. Claudio Borio, on the elasticity of credit as the source of the current crisis, and on the importance of the financial cycle in analysing the current economic crisis. The author of this text demonstrates that Austrian Business Cycle Theory gave the same answer regarding the sources of economic crises that now modern macroeconomic theory seems to be approaching, and that the postulates for successful financial cycle modeling are already included in the ABCT. Finally, some observations on the current crisis, as well as proposals of avenues of further research are proposed.

  7. A small-world methodology of analysis of interchange energy-networks: The European behaviour in the economical crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dassisti, M.; Carnimeo, L.

    2013-01-01

    European energy policy pursues the objective of a sustainable, competitive and reliable supply of energy. In 2007, the European Commission adopted a proper energy policy for Europe supported by several documents and included an action plan to meet the major energy challenges Europe has to face. A farsighted diversified yearly mix of energies was suggested to countries, aiming at increasing security of supply and efficiency, but a wide and systemic view of energy interchanges between states was missing. In this paper, a Small-World methodology of analysis of Interchange Energy-Networks (IENs) is presented, with the aim of providing a useful tool for planning sustainable energy policies. A proof case is presented to validate the methodology by considering the European IEN behaviour in the period of economical crisis. This network is approached as a Small World Net from a modelling point of view, by supposing that connections between States are characterised by a probability value depending on economic/political relations between countries. - Highlights: • Different view of the imports and exports of electric energy flows between European for potential use in ruling exchanges. • Panel data from 1996 to 2010 as part of a network of exchanges was considered from Eurostat official database. • The European import/export energy flows modelled as a network with Small World phenomena, interpreting the evolution over the years. • Interesting systemic tool for ruling and governing energy flows between countries

  8. The Japanese energy sector: Current situation, and future paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Kae; Suzuki, Tatsujiro

    2011-01-01

    As the world's third leading economy and a major importer of fuels, the choice of future energy paths and policies that Japan makes in the next few years will have a significant influence on the energy security of the world as a whole, and of the Northeast Asia region in particular. In this article we describe the current status of and recent trends in the Japanese energy sector, including energy demand and supply by fuel and by sector. We then discuss the current energy policy situation in Japan, focusing on policies related to climate change targets, renewable energy development and deployment, liberalization of energy markets, and the evolution of the Japanese nuclear power sector. The final section of the article presents the structure of the Japan LEAP (long-range energy alternatives planning software system) dataset, describes several alternative energy paths for Japan - with an emphasis on alternative paths for nuclear power development and GHG emission abatement - and touches upon key current issues of energy policy facing Japan, as reflected in the modeling inputs and results.

  9. The Japanese energy sector: Current situation, and future paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takase, Kae, E-mail: kae@gdl.jp [Governance Design Laboratory, Inc., 2301 City Tower Bashamichi 5-71 Onoe-cho, Naka-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 231-0015 (Japan); Suzuki, Tatsujiro [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Public Policy, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0081 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    As the world's third leading economy and a major importer of fuels, the choice of future energy paths and policies that Japan makes in the next few years will have a significant influence on the energy security of the world as a whole, and of the Northeast Asia region in particular. In this article we describe the current status of and recent trends in the Japanese energy sector, including energy demand and supply by fuel and by sector. We then discuss the current energy policy situation in Japan, focusing on policies related to climate change targets, renewable energy development and deployment, liberalization of energy markets, and the evolution of the Japanese nuclear power sector. The final section of the article presents the structure of the Japan LEAP (long-range energy alternatives planning software system) dataset, describes several alternative energy paths for Japan - with an emphasis on alternative paths for nuclear power development and GHG emission abatement - and touches upon key current issues of energy policy facing Japan, as reflected in the modeling inputs and results.

  10. Current status and some aspects of the future energy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antic, D. P.; Sokcic-Kostic, M. S. . E-mail address of corresponding author: dragon@vin.bg.ac.yu; Antic, D.)

    2005-01-01

    Current status of the energy production and of the energy sources in the world, European Union, Serbia and Montenegro and the Balkan states is analyzed. Some trends in the energy consumption and productions in some European states are analyzed. Some problems of the Serbia and Montenegro energy production system are compared with situation in neighbor states, Germany, and European Union. At present, anywhere in the world, the nuclear power in on the defensive. In some countries it has been even outlawed. Some parameters show that nuclear power, on the global scale and during this century at least, is absolutely essential and reasons for revival of nuclear energy are realistic. (author)

  11. Is the Crisis in Science Education Continuing? Current Senior Secondary Science Enrolment and Tertiary Entrance Trends in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venville, Grady

    2008-01-01

    In May 2007 an issue of the "Australian Education Review" was released reporting on the state of science education in Australia. The report argued that we are in the advanced stages of a crisis in school science that threatens the future of Australia as a technologically advanced nation, and we need to change the way we think about the…

  12. Energy researchers - 1. Energy efficiency: Energy efficiency is driving innovation; No economic crisis for energy efficiency; How can we change our energy habits?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minster, Jean-Francois; Appert, Olivier; Moisan, Francois; Salha, Bernard; Tardieu, Bernard; Ghidaglia, Jean-Michel; Viterbo, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    A first article comments how the race to achieve energy efficiency is driving the emergence of new technologies in transportation and construction (hybrid cars, phase change material, digital mock-ups, and so on). The example of the AGV is evoked, a new version of the TGV developed by Alstom which will run faster and consume less energy. A second article outlines that, due to the support from public authorities and to an increased awareness of energy costs and environmental challenges, the energy savings market is booming. Then, in an interview, a sociologist of the ADEME comments the difficulty of changing habits in terms of energy savings

  13. Energy of magnetic moment of superconducting current in magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurtovoi, V.L.; Nikulov, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Quantization effects observed in superconducting loops are considered. • The energy of magnetic moment in magnetic field can not be deduced from Hamiltonian. • This energy is deduced from a history of the current state in the classical case. • It can not be deduced directly in the quantum case. • Taking this energy into account demolishes agreement between theory and experiment. - Abstract: The energy of magnetic moment of the persistent current circulating in superconducting loop in an externally produced magnetic field is not taken into account in the theory of quantization effects because of identification of the Hamiltonian with the energy. This identification misleads if, in accordance with the conservation law, the energy of a state is the energy expended for its creation. The energy of magnetic moment is deduced from a creation history of the current state in magnetic field both in the classical and quantum case. But taking this energy into account demolishes the agreement between theory and experiment. Impartial consideration of this problem discovers the contradiction both in theory and experiment

  14. The 2011-2012 eruption of Cordón Caulle volcano (Southern Andes): Evolution, crisis management and current hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Parejas, C.; Lara, L. E.; Bertin, D.; Amigo, A.; Orozco, G.

    2012-04-01

    A new kind of integrated approach was for first time achieved during the eruptive crisis of Cordón Caulle volcano (Southern Andes, 40.59°S, 72.12°W) in Chile. The monitoring network of SERNAGEOMIN around the volcano detected the increasing precursory seismicity, alerting the imminence of an eruption about 5 hours before its onset, on June 4, 2011. In addition, SERNAGEOMIN generated daily forecasts of tephra dispersal and fall (ASHFALL advection-diffusion model), and prepared simulations of areas affected by the possible occurrence of lahars and pyroclastic flows. Models were improved with observed effects on the field and satellite imagery, resulting in a good correlation. The information was timely supplied to the authorities as well as recommendations in order to better precise the vulnerable areas. Eruption has initially occurred from a couple of overlapped cones located along the eastern fault scarp of the Pleistocene-Holocene extensional graben of Cordón Caulle. Eruptive products have virtually the same bulk composition as those of the historical 1921 and 1960 eruptions, corresponding to phenocryst-poor rhyodacites (67-70 % SiO2). During the first eruptive stage, a ca. 15-km strong Plinian column lasting 27 hours emitted 0.2-0.4 km3 of magma (DRE). Thick tephra deposits have been accumulated in Chile and Argentina, whereas fine particles and aerosols dispersion disrupted air navigation across the Southern Hemisphere. The second ongoing eruptive stage, which started in mid-June, has been characterized by lava emission already covering a total area comparable to the 1960 lava flows with a total estimated volume Argentina until the end of the year. Main current hazards at Cordón Caulle volcano are fine tephra fallout, secondary lahars, minor explosions and lava flow front collapse. Even if this case can be considered successful from the point of view of eruption forecast and hazard assessment, a new protocol of volcanic alerts has been recently signed

  15. Dissipation of magnetic energy during disruptive current termination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Schmidt, G.L.

    1983-09-01

    The magnetic coupling during a disruption between the plasma and the various coil systems on the PDX tokamak has been modeled. Using measured coil currents, the model indicates that dissipation of magnetic energy in the plasma equal to 75 % of the energy stored in the poloidal field of the plasma current does occur and that coupling between the plasma and the coil systems can reduce such dissipation. In the case of PDX ohmic discharges, bolometric measurements of radiation and charge exchange, integrated over a disruption, account for 90 % of the calculated energy dissipation. (author)

  16. Peeling the Energy Pickle: Expert Perceptions on Overcoming Nepal’s Electricity Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sovacool, Benjamin; Dhakal, Saroj; Gippner, Olivia

    2013-01-01

    Underinvestment, low levels of electricity access, natural disasters, topography and hydrology make Nepal’s electricity crisis akin to ‘peeling a pickle’: difficult to pin down and hard to manage. Based primarily on the perceptions of a sample of experts, this article lays out a roadmap for how......; political instability resulting from the aftermath of the Maoist insurgency; poverty and corruption; lack of financing and investment; constrained technological and human resources; and, finally, aid dependency and political manoeuvring. We conclude by calling on Nepali policymakers to invest in distributed...

  17. The Current Situation of Wind Energy in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raşit Ata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy applications and turbine installations at different scales have increased since the beginning of this century. As wind energy is an alternative clean energy source compared to the fossil fuels that pollute the atmosphere, systems that convert wind energy to electricity have developed rapidly. Turkey’s domestic fossil fuel resources are extremely limited. In addition, Turkey’s geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of wind power. In this context, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Among the renewable sources, Turkey has very high wind energy potential. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD Turkey theoretically has 166 TWh a year of wind potential. However the installed wind power capacity is approximately 14% of total economical wind potential. In this study, Turkey’s installed electric power capacity and electric energy production are investigated and also the current situation of wind energy in Turkey is examined. The wind data used in this study were taken from Turkish Wind Energy Association (TUREB for the year 2012. This paper reviews the assessment of wind energy in Turkey as of the end of July 2012 including wind energy applications.

  18. THE CURRENT INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL CRISIS AND THE FINANCIAL SUPERVISION INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS EFFECTIVENESS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    STOICA Ovidiu; CAPRARU Bogdan

    2012-01-01

    The international financial turmoil rise challenges in evaluating and choosing the optimal financial supervision institutional arrangements in many countries. Our study focuses on the financial supervision institutional architecture and its effectiveness in the European Union during the international financial crisis.We evaluated the effectiveness of the financial supervisory framework by groups of countries, categorised according to the supervisory model. Our analysis demonstrates that the p...

  19. Rotating gravity currents. Part 1. Energy loss theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. R.; Lane-Serff, G. F.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive energy loss theory for gravity currents in rotating rectangular channels is presented. The model is an extension of the non-rotating energy loss theory of Benjamin (J. Fluid Mech. vol. 31, 1968, p. 209) and the steady-state dissipationless theory of rotating gravity currents of Hacker (PhD thesis, 1996). The theory assumes the fluid is inviscid, there is no shear within the current, and the Boussinesq approximation is made. Dissipation is introduced using a simple method. A head loss term is introduced into the Bernoulli equation and it is assumed that the energy loss is uniform across the stream. Conservation of momentum, volume flux and potential vorticity between upstream and downstream locations is then considered. By allowing for energy dissipation, results are obtained for channels of arbitrary depth and width (relative to the current). The results match those from earlier workers in the two limits of (i) zero rotation (but including dissipation) and (ii) zero dissipation (but including rotation). Three types of flow are identified as the effect of rotation increases, characterized in terms of the location of the outcropping interface between the gravity current and the ambient fluid on the channel boundaries. The parameters for transitions between these cases are quantified, as is the detailed behaviour of the flow in all cases. In particular, the speed of the current can be predicted for any given channel depth and width. As the channel depth increases, the predicted Froude number tends to surd 2, as for non-rotating flows.

  20. Energy Security of Russia and the EU: Current Legal Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seliverstov, S.

    2009-07-01

    Security of energy supply is a cornerstone of European energy policy. It receives specific mention both in the Constitution Treaty and in the Lisbon Treaty. Of course, energy and energy-generated revenues are vital for Russia as well. It is a common understanding that Russia and the EU are extremely interdependent in terms of energy. On the one hand, Russia is the strategic energy supplier to the EU as a whole; for some member states Russian supplies represent the only source of the external energy flows. On the other hand, the revenues generated from the west-bound supplies of oil and gas constitute a significant share of the overall export income and of the budget of Russian Federation. Taking the interdependency as a point of departure the present article answers the following questions: What are the differences and the similarities in the European and the Russian approaches towards security of energy supply? Is their understanding of energy security so different? What are the current legal instruments guiding interaction in this sphere? What are the actual trends that could give some indication of how the situation may develop in the future? - While the concepts of 'security of energy supplies' or of 'energy security' are theoretical in nature, the ways the concepts are understood and the legal framework for them directly influences the way they are applied in practice. (author)

  1. Energy Security of Russia and the EU: Current Legal Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seliverstov, S.

    2009-01-01

    Security of energy supply is a cornerstone of European energy policy. It receives specific mention both in the Constitution Treaty and in the Lisbon Treaty. Of course, energy and energy-generated revenues are vital for Russia as well. It is a common understanding that Russia and the EU are extremely interdependent in terms of energy. On the one hand, Russia is the strategic energy supplier to the EU as a whole; for some member states Russian supplies represent the only source of the external energy flows. On the other hand, the revenues generated from the west-bound supplies of oil and gas constitute a significant share of the overall export income and of the budget of Russian Federation. Taking the interdependency as a point of departure the present article answers the following questions: What are the differences and the similarities in the European and the Russian approaches towards security of energy supply? Is their understanding of energy security so different? What are the current legal instruments guiding interaction in this sphere? What are the actual trends that could give some indication of how the situation may develop in the future? - While the concepts of 'security of energy supplies' or of 'energy security' are theoretical in nature, the ways the concepts are understood and the legal framework for them directly influences the way they are applied in practice. (author)

  2. Current and potential utilisation of biomass energy in Fiji

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, S.

    1990-01-01

    Energy from biomass accounts for an average of 43% of the primary energy used in developing countries, with some countries totally dependent on biomass for all their energy needs. The most common use for biomass for energy is the provision of heat for cooking and heating; other uses include steam and electricity generation and crop and food drying. Fiji, a developing country, uses energy from wood and coconut wastes for cooking and copra drying. Bagasse from sugar mills is used to generate process steam as well as some 15 MW of electricity, for mill consumption and for sale to the national grid. Other, relatively small scale uses for biomass include the generation of steam and electricity for industry. This paper attempts to quantify the amount of biomass, in its various forms, available in Fiji and assesses the current potential utilisation of biomass for energy in Fiji. (author)

  3. Renewable energy sources in Bulgaria: Current state and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolev, K.

    The over-dependency of Bulgaria on imported fuel stressed the importance of developing a new energy strategy based on energy saving which includes also using renewable energy sources (RES). The target is the substitution of at least 2 percent of the real primary energy consumption with RES by 2010. The author gives a generalized analysis of the available RES in Bulgaria -solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and mini-hydraulic. The potentialities of each source for its usage as a suitable energy supply are pointed out, as well as the current status of research and implementation work, problems connected with legislation, financing and production of particular facilities. The governmental policy concerning RES is considered briefly. A description is given to the project 'Technical and Economical Assessment of Possibilities for Expansion of the RES-part in the Energy Balance of the Country' developed and started in 1994 in the framework of the PHARE program.

  4. 2030 the ecological crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferone, G.

    2008-01-01

    The ecological crisis will happen on 2030. A combination of climatic change, energy problems, increase in population, will mix up. The author debates about true questions on the economy: how to get quickly towards renewable energies use, how much will it cost, must we generalize the carbon tax, what about economic giant as India and China, what about the technology development to solve the crisis? (A.L.B.)

  5. External costs due to congestion, accidents, energy consumption and emissions before and into the economic crisis: Pilot study along selected roadways of Thessaloniki, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiriou Matina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior to the economic crisis, forecasts indicated a continuous increase of traffic in European cities, highlighting the need of a policy to alleviate the external impacts of transport. The crisis, however, generated pressures on all sectors of activity, with transport being an indicative example. The reduction of income and employment, the increased vehicle maintenance and renewal costs and the transport related taxation seem to affect the transport system and its external impacts. Thus, taking for granted that Europe will eventually achieve “sustainable recovery” from the crisis, the current period presents an opportunity for promoting sustainable mobility policies and interventions in the most affected by the crisis European cities. Towards this goal, it is essential to capitalise on contemporary techniques for the monitoring of changes in transport external costs. The purpose of the paper is the development of a methodology for the estimation of external costs due to congestion, air pollution, climate change and accidents, based on road traffic data. The methodology is applied along road arteries in Thessaloniki for the period “before and after” the emergence of the crisis. As a result, an overall decrease in external costs is observed, creating an unforeseen “surplus” for the society during the crisis.

  6. Method and device for current driven electric energy conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Device comprising an electric power converter circuit for converting electric energy. The converter circuit comprises a switch arrangement with two or more controllable electric switches connected in a switching configuration and controlled so as to provide a current drive of electric energy from...... configurations such as half bridge buck, full bridge buck, half bridge boost, or full bridge boost. A current driven conversion is advantageous for high efficient energy conversion from current sources such as solar cells or where a voltage source is connected through long cables, e.g. powerline cables for long...... an associated electric source connected to a set of input terminals. This is obtained by the two or more electric swiches being connected and controlled to short-circuit the input terminals during a part of a switching period. Further, a low pass filter with a capacitor and an inductor are provided to low pass...

  7. Thermal energy and charge currents in multi-terminal nanorings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Tobias [Novel Materials Group, Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum für Informationstechnik Berlin, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Kreisbeck, Christoph; Riha, Christian, E-mail: riha@physik.hu-berlin.de; Chiatti, Olivio; Buchholz, Sven S.; Fischer, Saskia F. [Novel Materials Group, Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Wieck, Andreas D. [Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Reuter, Dirk [Optoelektronische Materialien und Bauelemente, Universität Paderborn, 33098 Paderborn (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    We study in experiment and theory thermal energy and charge transfer close to the quantum limit in a ballistic nanodevice, consisting of multiply connected one-dimensional electron waveguides. The fabricated device is based on an AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure and is covered by a global top-gate to steer the thermal energy and charge transfer in the presence of a temperature gradient, which is established by a heating current. The estimate of the heat transfer by means of thermal noise measurements shows the device acting as a switch for charge and thermal energy transfer. The wave-packet simulations are based on the multi-terminal Landauer-Büttiker approach and confirm the experimental finding of a mode-dependent redistribution of the thermal energy current, if a scatterer breaks the device symmetry.

  8. Farmers' current attitudes to energy forestry in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranter, R.B.; Carruthers, S.P.; Jones, P.J.; Miller, F.A.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the project were twofold: first, to assess the current level of interest in energy coppice among farmers in GB and, hence, its present potential as a farm enterprise; and, second, to gauge the effects of any changes in the agricultural situation and in the 'state-of-the-art' of energy coppice that have occurred since a similar study was carried out some five years ago. (Author)

  9. ULTRAHIGH ENERGY COSMIC RAYS: REVIEW OF THE CURRENT SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Stanev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the current situation of the data on the highest energy particles in the Universe – the ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. The new results in the field come from the Telescope Array experiment in Utah, U.S.A. For this reason we concentrate on the results from these experiments and compare them to the measurements of the other two recent experiments, the High Resolution Fly’sEye and the Southern Auger Observatory.

  10. Current situation of wind energy in the world and Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alper Kaplan, Yusuf; San, Ismail [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Anadolu University (Turkey)], email: yakaplan@anadolu.edu.tr, email: isan@anadolu.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    This paper gives an overview of the current situation of wind power in Turkey and in the world by evaluating installed wind power using current data. It also looks at the political conditions of Turkey in relation to the current installed wind energy power in Turkey compared with that of certain developed countries. The problems encountered are also illustrated as a basis for proposing solutions. Turkey's wind energy potential is 48,000 MW but installed wind power was only 1,329 MW as of 2011. Wind energy is at present one of the most cost-competitive renewable energy technologies in the world when technical, geographical and social issues are taken into consideration. Economic sources should be researched. The development of current potential and the market entry of renewable energy resources requires a legal and regulatory framework that support suitable mechanisms. Local support is recommended together with tax exemptions. Long-term fixed-price guarantees should also be considered by government.

  11. Energy confinement in JT-60 lower hybrid current driven plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushigusa, K.; Imai, T.; Naito, O.; Ikeda, Y.; Tsuji, S.; Uehara, K.

    1990-01-01

    The energy confinement in high power lower hybrid current driven (LHCD) plasmas has been studied in the JT-60 tokamak. At a plasma current of 1 MA, the diamagnetically estimated energy confinement time in LHCD plasmas has almost the same value as the confinement time in ohmically heated plasmas at n-bar e ∼ 1.0x10 19 m -3 . The confinement time of high power LHCD plasmas (P LH E varies as to P LH α n e β I p 0 with α + β ∼ -0.3. (author). Letter-to-the-editor. 12 refs, 5 figs

  12. L’Italia: una crisi nella crisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Roncaglia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article synthesises the large and extending literature on the financial and economic crisis from a Post-Keynesian point of view. The authors take on the position that the international and internal real imbalances are serious and worrying, but yet they are not the cause of the crisis or of its tremendous dimension. The flawed and insufficient regulation of finance is the prime cause of the crisis, as well as it is one of the main hindrances to expansionary macroeconomic policies that may less painfully drive developed countries out of the crisis. It then examines the most recent developments in the euro-area, claiming that we are not facing a sovereign debt crisis but rather a speculative attack on the euro. Finally, the article considers specifically the situation of Italy, currently at the hearth of such an attack, and suggests that the country was already facing critical developments before the 2007/2008 crisis. Thus, the policy measures so far suggested to exit the current stressful situation, in so far as they ignore this fact, seriously run the risk of proving insufficient or altogether noxious.

  13. False Dawn of a Solar Age: A History of Solar Heating and Power During the Energy Crisis, 1973-1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavo, Jordan Michael

    The unfolding of the energy crisis in the early 1970s brought solar to the fore as a topic for national discussion. National dialogues about solar power and national energy policy were one way that Americans interpreted their present and envisioned their nation's future. Yet, policy makers and the general public considered alternative energies, including solar, largely based on the economic conditions of their eras, considerations that, at least until the Reagan era, often transcended political ideologies and parties. Energy prices and the emerging political expediency of replacing fossil fuels were the primary drivers in shaping federal energy policies and public interest during this era. Enthusiasm for solar power often corresponded to the market price of petroleum. By the late 1970s, a lot of people believed the same. Amid growing public enthusiasm, President Carter eventually came out strongly in favor of solar energy, mounting solar panels on the White House and unveiling a plan to procure 20% of the nation's energy from the sun by the year 2000. During the 1960s and 1970s, Americans changed their energy values in response to concerns over environmentalism and the antinuclear movement. Pollution, environmental disasters, and energy crises during the 1960s and 1970s brought terms like "clean energy" and "renewable energy" into the national lexicon, and solar often served as the most prominent symbol of those ideas. At the same time, advocates presented solar as a stark contrast to nuclear: solar energy made life on earth possible; nuclear energy made it perilous. Science fiction and futurism shaped the American popular imagination through its presentation of solar technology. Each genre suffused the other and ingrained in the American national consciousness a sense of grandiose wonderment about the potential for solar energy, a potential that often did not match the contemporary applications for solar technology. The emergence of solar industries alarmed oil

  14. Hypertensive Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Hypertensive Crisis: When You Should Call 9-1-1 for ... Nov 13,2017 A hypertensive ( high blood pressure ) crisis is when blood pressure rises quickly and severely ...

  15. Hemolytic crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003270.htm Hemolytic crisis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hemolytic crisis occurs when large numbers of red blood cells ...

  16. Low-energy hadronic interactions beyond the current algebra approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.N.; Troitskaya, N.I.; Nagy, M.

    1993-06-01

    The new low-energy AP 3 -interaction, which is produced by convergent box-constituent-quark-loop diagrams, is obtained within chiral perturbation theory at the quark level (CHPT) q with linear realization of chiral U(3) x U(3) symmetry. Its contributions to processes of low-energy interactions of low-lying mesons are investigated. The new interaction goes beyond the framework of the low-energy current algebra approach and of the effective chiral Lagrangians with linear realization of chiral symmetry, constructed at the hadronic level. (author). 17 refs, 3 figs

  17. Crisis Thought

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Edwin Kent

    2016-01-01

    Crisis thought is an idea that gives a name to and accounts for some of the problematics of the sign crisis in political, social, cultural, and economic discourse. Specifically, crisis thought is a discursive formation, a concept used loosely here to refer to an assemblage of signs such as anxiety or fear that evoke or invoke similar, but inaccurate connotations as crisis in political and everyday usage. The general question this study grapples with is why political, social, cultural, and eco...

  18. The current state of wind energy development in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainkwa, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Wind Energy is one of the renewable power sources that is currently used in a commercial scale for various end-uses such as pumping water deep wells and electricity generation. A precise knowledge of wind speed characteristics is an essential for the efficient planning and implementation of any wind energy project. In Tanzania the use of wind energy in generating electricity has not yet taken place due to lack of knowledge on prospective sites with high wind energy potential. The main objective of this paper is to review some attempts that have been made to explore the wind energy potential in Tanzania and the corresponding prospective sites that have been earmarked so far. (author)

  19. Global panorama of energy access: Current situation, challenges and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galichon, Ines; Lacroix, Olivier; Wiedmer, Damien

    2014-07-15

    Globally 1.3 billion people do not have access to electricity. If this figure is projected to decline 1 billion by 2030, the global population who relies on the traditional use of biomass for cooking is expected to substantially increase, from 2.6 billion to 2.7 billion people. In its commitment to energy access, ENEA published a synthesis on the current situation and the further development perspectives of energy access worldwide, a crucial issue of human and economic development and an opportunity for the private sector. This synthesis present the ecosystem of the actors involved in the improvement of energy access and the technical solutions that serve the needs of this high-potential market. The five main challenges energy access has to address are presented in this publication: energy prices, equipment financing, distribution, change of scale and environmental performances.

  20. Did the financial crisis lead to changes in private equity investor preferences regarding renewable energy and climate policies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, Daan M.; Huisman, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    examined the preferences of 60 clean-tech venture capital and private equity investors regarding renewable energy and climate policies in 2007. This paper presents the results of a research project that examined whether these investor preferences changed due to the financial crisis. We re-conducted that part of survey that focuses on the preferences for 12 market-pull policies. Comparing our results with those from 2007, we found that the popularity of 11 out of 12 policies decreased. The decrease was significant for those policies that involve subsidies and trade related schemes such as CO 2 emissions and green certificates trading. The decrease in the popularity of the policies was mainly the result of changes in the preferences of European investors, whereas the preferences of North American investors did not change noteworthy. - Highlights: ► We re-conducted a survey among clean-tech private equity and venture capital investors. ► We compare their preference for renewable energy and climate market-pull policies with survey results from 2006. ► We found a significant decrease in popularity for those policies such as subsidies and trade related schemes. ► Especially the preferences for renewable energy policies of European investors declined. ► The financial crises lead to a reduced preference for renewable energy policies.

  1. Crisis, What Crisis? The Media: Business and Journalism in Times of Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario de Mateo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The global financial and economic crisis is often used to justify a crisis of media and journalism: lower advertising, collapses in the share price, falls in consumption, more unemployment. But is this just a business crisis, or is it also a crisis in journalism and its role in democratic societies? In this case, is the journalism crisis attributable to the economic crisis or, rather, was it forged during the years of high profitability and high salaries in the mass media? These two sides of the crisis, in media industry and in journalism, are addressed in this article, which explores the evolution of mainly Spanish media in the years before the crisis. However, in order to understand how they reached the current situation, political and economic transformations in what has been called the Information Society and neoliberal globalization must be addressed.

  2. Streaming current of a rotary atomizer for energy harvesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Trieu; de Boer, Hans L.; Tran, T.; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Zengerle, R.

    2013-01-01

    We present the experimental results of an energy conversion system based on a rotary atomizer and the streaming current phenomenon. The advantage of using a rotary atomizer instead of a channel or membrane micropore as in conventional pressure-driven approached is that the centrifugal force exerted

  3. Low-energy neutral current phenomenology and grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Aguila, F.; Mendez, A.

    1981-01-01

    We derive necessary and sufficient conditions to be satisfied by any expanded electroweak gauge model in order to reproduce the standard model low-energy neutral current predictions. These conditions imply several constraints on the neutral gauge boson masses and the quantum number assignments for the ordinary fermions. Using these conditions, we prove that the popular grand unified theories based on the gauge groups SO(10) and E6 can only accommodate trivial extensions of the standard model. As a consequence, if any of these grand unified models works at some energy scale, present low-energy neutral current phenomenology implies that the Z-boson must be produced with the expected mass and couplings to the ordinary fermions. Any additional neutral gauge boson (with the possible exception of very heavy ones) could only be produced in hadronic collisions and it would not decay in e + e - . (orig.)

  4. The dependence of Germany on Russian gas: analysis and prospects in the context of the current Ukrainian crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Solera Ureña

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Germany and Russia share a strong economic interdependence, Germany being presently the largest importer of Russian gas. At the time of writing, the on-going conflict between Ukraine and Russia, compounded with economic sanctions imposed on Russia by the European Union, has raised concerns about Russia as a reliable gas supplier. This article analyses Germany’s dependence on Russian gas within the present economic and political contexts and assesses a the most plausible course of action of German energy policy, taking into account Germany’s current role as a gas transit country; and b the impact of the present context on the shaping of Germany’s foreign policy towards Russia. It is concluded that energy policy measures will not enable drastic reductions in Germany’s dependence on Russian gas in the short term and, moreover, that no abrupt change of direction in German foreign policy towards Russia is to be expected.

  5. Influence of the financial crisis on SMEs in the energy area; Einfluss der Finanzkrise auf KMU im Energiebereich: Ergebnisse einer Unternehmensbefragung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grass, M.; Schoder, T.; Scheller, E.

    2009-05-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents and discusses the results of an opinion survey made among small and medium-scale enterprises (SME) in Switzerland concerning the influence of the financial crisis. The methods and questionnaires used are briefly described and the enterprises questioned are characterised. Innovation activities and research and development activities are reviewed. The effects of the financial crisis on business in 2008 are reported on and present and future developments are discussed. The general framework for long-term development is discussed, as are commercial, institutional and governmental general conditions. The report is concluded with a literature list

  6. Compilation of current high-energy-physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohl, C.G.; Kelly, R.L.; Armstrong, F.E.

    1980-04-01

    This is the third edition of a compilation of current high energy physics experiments. It is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and ten participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), the Institute for Nuclear Study, Tokyo (INS), KEK, Rutherford (RHEL), Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. The compilation includes summaries of all high energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that (1) were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about January 1980, and (2) had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1976

  7. Forestry and agriculture in an energy crisis. The flow of energy in Swedish forestry and agriculture in 1956 and 1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renborg, U; Uhlin, H E

    1975-01-01

    A report issued by the Energy Committee of the Kungl Skogsoch Landbruksakademi under the chairmanship of U. Renborg (published as Meddelanden Nos. 64 and 65, Institut fur Ekonomi och Statistik, Landburkshogskolan, 1975) is summarized. The flow of resources in both years of comparison is described separately for agriculture and forestry in physical, monetary, and energy terms. Energy input is subdivided into solar energy, direct auxiliary energy (in forestry, chiefly fossil fuel) and indirect auxiliary energy (e.g., fertilizers). Forestry is considered to be still very energy extensive (at 1972 prices, the cost per ha of auxiliary energy was 10% of proceeds vs 18% in agriculture (or 14 vs 384 dr/ha in money terms). Recommendations are made for increasing the input of auxiliary energy (e.g., mechanization and greater use of fertilizers) and for research into its more economic use.

  8. Intermediate energy semileptonic probes of the hadronic neutral current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musolf, M.J.; Donnelly, T.W.; Dubach, J.; Beise, E.J.; Maryland Univ., College Park, MD

    1993-06-01

    The present status and future prospects of intermediate-energy semileptonic neutral current studies are reviewed. Possibilities for using parity-violating electron scattering from nucleons and nuclei to study hadron structure and nuclear dynamics are emphasized, with particular attention paid to probes of strangeness content in the nucleon. Connections are drawn between such studies and tests of the electroweak gauge theory using electron or neutrino scattering. Outstanding theoretical issues in the interpretation of semileptonic neutral current measurements are highlighted and the prospects for undertaking parity-violating electron or neutrino scattering experiments in the near future are surveyed

  9. Current status of high energy nucleon-meson transport code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Hiroshi; Sasa, Toshinobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of design code of accelerator (NMTC/JAERI code), outline of physical model and evaluation of accuracy of code were reported. To evaluate the nuclear performance of accelerator and strong spallation neutron origin, the nuclear reaction between high energy proton and target nuclide and behaviors of various produced particles are necessary. The nuclear design of spallation neutron system used a calculation code system connected the high energy nucleon{center_dot}meson transport code and the neutron{center_dot}photon transport code. NMTC/JAERI is described by the particle evaporation process under consideration of competition reaction of intranuclear cascade and fission process. Particle transport calculation was carried out for proton, neutron, {pi}- and {mu}-meson. To verify and improve accuracy of high energy nucleon-meson transport code, data of spallation and spallation neutron fragment by the integral experiment were collected. (S.Y.)

  10. International Trade Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Popa Diana

    2011-01-01

    This article captures a brief history of the negotiations of the Doha Development Agenda (DDA), analyzes its deadlock and offers some suggestions for a successful Doha deal. First, this study shows that the nearly decade-long negotiation stalemate is caused by the opposite perceptions between industrialized countries and developing ones on agriculture, as well as by the influences of economic crisis on the world trade. Subsequently, some proposals are presented to solve the current crisis fro...

  11. Crisis, routine, consolidation: the politics of the Mediterranean migration crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeandesboz, J.; Pallister-Wilkins, P.

    2016-01-01

    The current ‘migration crisis’ is framed as a moment of reckoning in the EU’s dealings with its Mediterranean neighbourhood. Yet to what extent is crisis the most useful tool to account for migration and European border control practices in the current context? An exclusive focus on crisis, we

  12. Output Current Ripple Reduction Algorithms for Home Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hyuk Park

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an output current ripple reduction algorithm using a proportional-integral (PI controller for an energy storage system (ESS. In single-phase systems, the DC/AC inverter has a second-order harmonic at twice the grid frequency of a DC-link voltage caused by pulsation of the DC-link voltage. The output current of a DC/DC converter has a ripple component because of the ripple of the DC-link voltage. The second-order harmonic adversely affects the battery lifetime. The proposed algorithm has an advantage of reducing the second-order harmonic of the output current in the variable frequency system. The proposed algorithm is verified from the PSIM simulation and experiment with the 3 kW ESS model.

  13. Managing crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Bakacsi, Gyula

    2010-01-01

    The traditional approach to crisis management suggest autocratic leadership, that has risks anyway (leader is the bottle-neck of problem solving, single-loop learning, crisis management is a matter of efficiency). However, managing nowadays crisis is rather effectiveness issue, and requires double-loop learning (second-order change) and leadership role in the sense of Kotter’s theory. Paper discusses the top-management’s leadership responsibilities, and their special tasks in the problem solv...

  14. About Crisis. A Short and Joyless Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Pohoata

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Crisis clearly distinguishes itself from the large mass of economic phenomena through its provocative force, which fuels theoretical discourse. The more harmful, the more generous the energies it deploys and consumes for explanatory and obstacle overcoming purposes. The result is that every crisis teaches us a lesson. What interests us is who writes and who learns from this lesson, and if they do. Then we try to find why serious crises, like the current one, occur once or twice in a century. What is the role that big world market players have in crisis "preparation", onset and resorption? Do solutions originate in the state's support or in the market? Does globalization erase national borders in such situations? How and to what extent real economy may penalize a guilty party that constantly comes from nominal economy? What are the problems raised by such an outcome for the strategy to follow and for economic sciences in general, etc.?

  15. Supporting Current Energy Conversion Projects through Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S. C.; Roberts, J.

    2016-02-01

    The primary goals of current energy conversion (CEC) technology being developed today are to optimize energy output and minimize environmental impact. CEC turbines generate energy from tidal and current systems and create wakes that interact with turbines located downstream of a device. The placement of devices can greatly influence power generation and structural reliability. CECs can also alter the environment surrounding the turbines, such as flow regimes, sediment dynamics, and water quality. These alterations pose potential stressors to numerous environmental receptors. Software is needed to investigate specific CEC sites to simulate power generation and hydrodynamic responses of a flow through a CEC turbine array so that these potential impacts can be evaluated. Moreover, this software can be used to optimize array layouts that yield the least changes to the environmental (i.e., hydrodynamics, sediment dynamics, and water quality). Through model calibration exercises, simulated wake profiles and turbulence intensities compare favorably to the experimental data and demonstrate the utility and accuracy of a fast-running tool for future siting and analysis of CEC arrays in complex domains. The Delft3D modeling tool facilitates siting of CEC projects through optimization of array layouts and evaluation of potential environmental effect all while provide a common "language" for academics, industry, and regulators to be able to discuss the implications of marine renewable energy projects. Given the enormity of any full-scale marine renewable energy project, it necessarily falls to modeling to evaluate how array operations must be addressed in an environmental impact statement in a way that engenders confidence in the assessment of the CEC array to minimize environmental effects.

  16. Energy infrastructure modeling for the oil sands industry: Current situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzaroni, Edoardo Filippo; Elsholkami, Mohamed; Arbiv, Itai; Martelli, Emanuele; Elkamel, Ali; Fowler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A simulation-based modelling of energy demands of oil sands operations is proposed. • Aspen simulations used to simulate delayed coking-based upgrading of bitumen. • The energy infrastructure is simulated using Aspen Plus achieving self-sufficiency. • Various scenarios affecting energy demand intensities are investigated. • Energy and CO_2 emission intensities of integrated SAGD/upgrading are estimated. - Abstract: In this study, the total energy requirements associated with the production of bitumen from oil sands and its upgrading to synthetic crude oil (SCO) are modeled and quantified. The production scheme considered is based on the commercially applied steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) for bitumen extraction and delayed coking for bitumen upgrading. In addition, the model quantifies the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the production of energy required for these operations from technologies utilized in the currently existing oil sands energy infrastructure. The model is based on fundamental engineering principles, and Aspen HYSYS and Aspen Plus simulations. The energy demand results are expressed in terms of heat, power, hydrogen, and process fuel consumption rates for SAGD extraction and bitumen upgrading. Based on the model’s output, a range of overall energy and emission intensity factors are estimated for a bitumen production rate of 112,500 BPD (or 93,272 BPD of SCO), which were determined to be 262.5–368.5 MJ/GJ_S_C_O and 14.17–19.84 gCO_2/MJ_S_C_O, respectively. The results of the model indicate that the majority of GHG emissions are generated during SAGD extraction (up to 60% of total emissions) due to the combustion of natural gas for steam production, and the steam-to-oil ratio is a major parameter affecting total GHG emissions. The developed model can be utilized as a tool to predict the energy demand requirements for integrated SAGD/upgrading projects under different operating conditions, and

  17. Study of high-energy neutrino neutral-current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aderholz, M.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Akbari, H.; Allport, P.P.; Badyal, S.K.; Ballagh, H.C.; Barth, M.; Baton, J.P.; Bingham, H.H.; Brucker, E.B.; Burnstein, R.A.; Campbell, J.R.; Cence, R.J.; Chatterjee, T.K.; Clayton, E.F.; Corrigan, G.; Coutures, C.; DeProspo, D.; Devanand; De Wolf, E.A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Foeth, H.; Fretter, W.B.; Gupta, V.K.; Hanlon, J.; Harigel, G.; Harris, F.A.; Jabiol, M.A.; Jacques, P.; Jain, V.; Jones, G.T.; Jones, M.D.; Kafka, T.; Kalelkar, M.; Kasper, P.; Kohli, J.M.; Koller, E.L.; Krawiec, R.J.; Lauko, M.; Lys, J.E.; Marage, P.; Milburn, R.H.; Miller, D.B.; Mittra, I.S.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Moreels, J.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Myatt, G.; Nailor, P.; Naon, R.; Napier, A.; Neveu, M.; Passmore, D.; Peters, M.W.; Peterson, V.Z.; Plano, R.; Rao, N.K.; Rubin, H.A.; Sacton, J.; Sambyal, S.S.; Schmitz, N.; Schneps, J.; Singh, J.B.; Smart, W.; Stamer, P.; Varvell, K.E.; Verluyten, L.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wainstein, S.; Willocq, S.; Yost, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    From an exposure of the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber to the Tevatron quadrupole triplet neutrino beam, we have determined the ratio of neutral-current (NC) to charged-current (CC) interactions to be 0.288±0.032 for events with visible hadron momentum above 10 GeV/c. The mean ν(bar ν) event energy is 150 (110) GeV, which is higher than that for any previous beam. This result agrees with those from previous experiments at lower energies. The NC/CC ratio is derived for a combined sample of ν and bar ν events. A value of 0.274±0.038 is obtained for the dominant ν component assuming bar ν NC/CC=0.39±0.08. For events with visible hadron momentum above 25 GeV/c, where the neutral hadron contamination remaining in the NC sample is assumed to be negligible, the combined NC/CC is 0.323±0.025 and the K 0 production rates are 0.375±0.064 per CC and 0.322±0.073 per NC event. The corresponding Λ rates are 0.161±0.030 per CC and 0.113±0.030 per NC event. The K 0 and Λ distributions of the fractional hadron energy variable z in NC events are consistent with those in CC events

  18. Study of high-energy neutrino neutral-current interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderholz, M.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Akbari, H.; Allport, P. P.; Badyal, S. K.; Ballagh, H. C.; Barth, M.; Baton, J. P.; Bingham, H. H.; Brucker, E. B.; Burnstein, R. A.; Campbell, J. R.; Cence, R. J.; Chatterjee, T. K.; Clayton, E. F.; Corrigan, G.; Coutures, C.; Deprospo, D.; Devanand; de Wolf, E. A.; Faulkner, P. J.; Foeth, H.; Fretter, W. B.; Gupta, V. K.; Hanlon, J.; Harigel, G.; Harris, F. A.; Jabiol, M. A.; Jacques, P.; Jain, V.; Jones, G. T.; Jones, M. D.; Kafka, T.; Kalelkar, M.; Kasper, P.; Kohli, J. M.; Koller, E. L.; Krawiec, R. J.; Lauko, M.; Lys, J. E.; Marage, P.; Milburn, R. H.; Miller, D. B.; Mittra, I. S.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Moreels, J.; Morrison, D. R.; Myatt, G.; Nailor, P.; Naon, R.; Napier, A.; Neveu, M.; Passmore, D.; Peters, M. W.; Peterson, V. Z.; Plano, R.; Rao, N. K.; Rubin, H. A.; Sacton, J.; Sambyal, S. S.; Schmitz, N.; Schneps, J.; Singh, J. B.; Smart, W.; Stamer, P.; Varvell, K. E.; Verluyten, L.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wainstein, S.; Willocq, S.; Yost, G. P.

    1992-04-01

    From an exposure of the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber to the Tevatron quadrupole triplet neutrino beam, we have determined the ratio of neutral-current (NC) to charged-current (CC) interactions to be 0.288+/-0.032 for events with visible hadron momentum above 10 GeV/c. The mean ν(ν¯) event energy is 150 (110) GeV, which is higher than that for any previous beam. This result agrees with those from previous experiments at lower energies. The NC/CC ratio is derived for a combined sample of ν and ν¯ events. A value of 0.274+/-0.038 is obtained for the dominant ν component assuming ν¯ NC/CC=0.39+/-0.08. For events with visible hadron momentum above 25 GeV/c, where the neutral hadron contamination remaining in the NC sample is assumed to be negligible, the combined NC/CC is 0.323+/-0.025 and the K0 production rates are 0.375+/-0.064 per CC and 0.322+/-0.073 per NC event. The corresponding Λ rates are 0.161+/-0.030 per CC and 0.113+/-0.030 per NC event. The K0 and Λ distributions of the fractional hadron energy variable z in NC events are consistent with those in CC events.

  19. Easing the natural gas crisis: Reducing natural gas prices through increased deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; St. Clair, Matt

    2004-12-21

    Heightened natural gas prices have emerged as a key energy-policy challenge for at least the early part of the 21st century. With the recent run-up in gas prices and the expected continuation of volatile and high prices in the near future, a growing number of voices are calling for increased diversification of energy supplies. Proponents of renewable energy and energy efficiency identify these clean energy sources as an important part of the solution. Increased deployment of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) can hedge natural gas price risk in more than one way, but this paper touches on just one potential benefit: displacement of gas-fired electricity generation, which reduces natural gas demand and thus puts downward pressure on gas prices. Many recent modeling studies of increased RE and EE deployment have demonstrated that this ''secondary'' effect of lowering natural gas prices could be significant; as a result, this effect is increasingly cited as justification for policies promoting RE and EE. This paper summarizes recent studies that have evaluated the gas-price-reduction effect of RE and EE deployment, analyzes the results of these studies in light of economic theory and other research, reviews the reasonableness of the effect as portrayed in modeling studies, and develops a simple tool that can be used to evaluate the impact of RE and EE on gas prices without relying on a complex national energy model. Key findings are summarized.

  20. Dalla crisi finanziaria alla crisi reale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLO D’ADDA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis of 2008 is put in relation with two bubbles, financial and housing. Easy credit is at the origin of both bubbles. Risky bonds were issued to mobilize mortgages originated in the housing market, and bad bonds entered a fantastic number of institutional and private portfolios all over the world without any perception of the their risk. Unfortunately, bank credit to speculators was abundant and fed the final growth of the bubbles. When fears started to spread, the fall was immediate and expectations impaired very rapidly. The main aggregate demand components were severely curtailed and production fell as well. This is the crisis of the real economy. Fortunately, as opposed to what happened in 1929, the interventions of central banks and governments have been of an unprecedented size. The bail out of insolvent banks in particular has been providential. The exit from the current crisis, however, will surely be slow.

  1. Beyond the energy crisis - opportunity and challenge. Vols. 1, 2, 3, and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazzolare, R A; Smith, C B [eds.

    1981-01-01

    A wide range of topics were covered by the conference, including: international policies and strategies; models, analysis, assessment; ecology and the environment; new energy technologies; industrial productivity and development; community systems and buildings; agriculture and rural development; transportation and economics and changing life styles. 13 papers have been abstracted separately.

  2. Wind energy in China. Current scenario and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changliang, Xia; Zhanfeng, Song

    2009-01-01

    Wind power in China registered a record level of expansion recently, and has doubled its total capacity every year since 2004. Many experts believe that China will be central to the future of the global wind energy market. Consequently, the growth pattern of wind power in China may be crucial to the further development of the global wind market. This paper firstly presented an overview of wind energy potential in China and reviewed the national wind power development course in detail. Based on the installed wind capacity in China over the past 18 years and the technical potential of wind energy resources, the growth pattern was modeled in this study for the purpose of prospect analysis, in order to obtain projections concerning the development potential. The future perspectives of wind energy development in China are predicted and analyzed. This study provides a comprehensive overview of the current status of wind power in China and some insights into the prospects of China's wind power market, which is emerging as a new superpower in the global wind industry. (author)

  3. Compilation of current high energy physics experiments - Sept. 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addis, L.; Odian, A.; Row, G. M.; Ward, C. E. W.; Wanderer, P.; Armenteros, R.; Joos, P.; Groves, T. H.; Oyanagi, Y.; Arnison, G. T. J.; Antipov, Yu; Barinov, N.

    1978-09-01

    This compilation of current high-energy physics experiments is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and the nine participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), KEK, Rutherford (RHEL), Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. Nominally, the compilation includes summaries of all high-energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about June 1978, and had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1975. The experimental summaries are supplemented with three indexes to the compilation, several vocabulary lists giving names or abbreviations used, and a short summary of the beams at each of the laboratories (except Rutherford). The summaries themselves are included on microfiche. (RWR)

  4. Policing the Global Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William I. Robinson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of my research for a book manuscript on the crisis of global capitalism I recently finished writing (Robinson forthcoming, I decided to re-read the classic 1978 study conducted by the noted socialist and cultural theorist Stuart Hall and several of his colleagues, Policing the Crisis. The authors show in that book how the restructuring of capitalism as a response to the crisis of the 1970s - which was the last major crisis of world capitalism until the current one hit in 2008 -led in the United Kingdom and elsewhere to an "exceptional state," by which they meant a situation in which there was an ongoing breakdown of consensual mechanisms of social control and a growing authoritarianism.

  5. L’Italia: una crisi nella crisi.(Italy: A Crisis within the Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo D'ippoliti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The article synthesises the large and extending literature on the financial and economic crisis from a Post-Keynesian point of view. The authors take on the position that the international and internal real imbalances are serious and worrying, but yet they are not the cause of the crisis or of its tremendous dimension. The flawed and insufficient regulation of finance is the prime cause of the crisis, as well as it is one of the main hindrances to expansionary macroeconomic policies that may less painfully drive developed countries out of the crisis. It then examines the most recent developments in the euro-area, claiming that we are not facing a sovereign debt crisis but rather a speculative attack on the euro. Finally, the article considers specifically the situation of Italy, currently at the hearth of such an attack, and suggests that the country was already facing critical developments before the 2007/2008 crisis. Thus, the policy measures so far suggested to exit the current stressful situation, in so far as they ignore this fact, seriously run the risk of proving insufficient or altogether noxious.JEL: B50; E12; G01  

  6. An energy-efficient, adiabatic electrode stimulator with inductive energy recycling and feedback current regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfin, Scott K; Sarpeshkar, Rahul

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we present a novel energy-efficient electrode stimulator. Our stimulator uses inductive storage and recycling of energy in a dynamic power supply. This supply drives an electrode in an adiabatic fashion such that energy consumption is minimized. It also utilizes a shunt current-sensor to monitor and regulate the current through the electrode via feedback, thus enabling flexible and safe stimulation. Since there are no explicit current sources or current limiters, wasteful energy dissipation across such elements is naturally avoided. The dynamic power supply allows efficient transfer of energy both to and from the electrode and is based on a DC-DC converter topology that we use in a bidirectional fashion in forward-buck or reverse-boost modes. In an exemplary electrode implementation intended for neural stimulation, we show how the stimulator combines the efficiency of voltage control and the safety and accuracy of current control in a single low-power integrated-circuit built in a standard .35 μm CMOS process. This stimulator achieves a 2x-3x reduction in energy consumption as compared to a conventional current-source-based stimulator operating from a fixed power supply. We perform a theoretical analysis of the energy efficiency that is in accord with experimental measurements. This theoretical analysis reveals that further improvements in energy efficiency may be achievable with better implementations in the future. Our electrode stimulator could be widely useful for neural, cardiac, retinal, cochlear, muscular and other biomedical implants where low power operation is important.

  7. Energy confinement in a high-current reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Z.G.; Lee, G.S.; Diamond, P.H.

    1985-07-01

    The ion temperature gradient driven (eta/sub i/) mode is proposed as a candidate for the cause of anomalous transport in high current reversed field pinches. A 'four-field' fluid model is derived to describe the coupled nonlinear evolution of resistive interchange and eta/sub i/ modes. A renormalized theory is discussed, and the saturation level of the fluctuations is analytically estimated. Transport scalings are obtained, and their implications discussed. In particular, these results indicate that pellet injection is a potentially viable mechanism for improving energy confinement in a high temperature RFP

  8. Campus Crisis Response at Viberg College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaker, Rachel; Viars, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    This fictional case study examines crisis response in higher education settings. Information about current crisis response procedures, plans, and trends was gathered from informational interviews, current crisis management literature, and multiple college and university websites. The information was synthesized into a fictional case study using…

  9. Iran's energy policy current dilemmas and perspective for a sustainable energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massarrat, M.

    2005-01-01

    Iran is facing large challenges in the area of energy policy. In order to illuminate these challenges and the problems and possibilities they present, first I will analyze the current energy consumption patterns in Iran as well as the energy policy of the Iranian government-Including its atomic energy programs. Based on this analysis, I will then formulate alternative concepts for Iran's future energy and national security policy. The increase in energy usage in Iran is distinctly out of proportion with the development of economic productivity. Negative structural characteristics of this system are: first, an above-average energy intensity; second, an increase in energy consumption in the traffic sector; third, a high growth rate in the use of electrical energy; and lastly, an above-average amount of stress to the environment. Traditionally, Iran's energy policy has focused on satisfying the growing demand for energy by oil and, in the last fifteen years, by successively expanding natural gas. However, the further development of the natural gas supply only makes sense within the context of a holistic energy policy, which takes into account the principles of sustainable development. In the short term, such a policy would take advantage of both considerable energy-saving techniques, as well as potential renewable energy sources. In the long term, such a policy would strive for the complete transfer to renewable energy sources and technology. The atomic energy program is not a good answer to the future energy needs of Iran, and better solutions should be envisaged for Iran's legitimate security concerns

  10. Quantum dot as spin current generator and energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szukiewicz, Barbara; Wysokiński, Karol I.

    2015-05-01

    The thermoelectric transport in the device composed of a central nanoscopic system in contact with two electrodes and subject to the external magnetic field of Zeeman type has been studied. The device can support pure spin current in the electrodes and may serve as a source of the temperature induced spin currents with possible applications in spintronics. The system may also be used as an energy harvester. We calculate its thermodynamic efficiency η and the power output P. The maximal efficiency of the device reaches the Carnot value when the device works reversibly but with the vanishing power. The interactions between carriers diminish the maximal efficiency of the device, which under the constant load drops well below the Carnot limit but may exceed the Curzon-Ahlborn limit. While the effect of intradot Coulomb repulsion on η depends on the parameters, the interdot/interlevel interaction strongly diminishes the device efficiency.

  11. Crisis Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Jarmila Guţă

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the manner in which the crisis of different types can disturb the normal activity of an organization and also the modalities by which the communication in this situation can solve or attenuate the negative effects of a crisis.

  12. World energy use in 2010: over 5% growth. Energy markets have combined crisis recovery and strong industry dynamism. Enerdata analyses the trends in energy demand, based on its 2010 data for G20 countries. May 5, 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Energy markets have combined crisis recovery and strong industry dynamism. Analysis of the energy consumption in 2010 of major countries by Enerdata, based on our global energy database. Energy consumption in the G20 soared by more than 5% in 2010, after the slight decrease of 2009. This strong increase is the result of two converging trends. On the one-hand, industrialized countries, which experienced sharp decreases in energy demand in 2009, recovered firmly in 2010, almost coming back to historical trends. Oil, gas, coal, and electricity markets followed the same trend. On the other hand, China and India, which showed no signs of slowing down in 2009, continued their intense demand for all forms of energy. (authors)

  13. Financial crisis and the nuclear energy rebirth in South-Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirica, T.; Lucaciu, G.

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Continues improvement through international cooperation, sharing experience, good practices and lessons learned is a major driver for increasing performance, including economic competitiveness; Through ‘stress tests’ the industry has to address lessons learned from Fukushima - safety evaluation of NPPs is not started from zero; Regarding SEE region, the sharing equity risk and power user investment looks to be a proper model, by attracting strong local energy-intensive industries and local, national or multi-national utilities, who will take the output of the plant at cost. Municipalities participation, an option not enough explored! To increase the local utility participation, different tools may be considered, including debt financing, IPO, bonds, equity investment and in-kind contribution, if the case may be. If loan guarantees instruments, will be available, and PPA will be acceptable, the ‘national’ share in the project will be more significant, with a positive impact over the security of energy supply of the respective country

  14. Microbial bio-fuels: a solution to carbon emissions and energy crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Kaushal, Sumit; Saraf, Shubhini A; Singh, Jay Shankar

    2018-06-01

    Increasing energy demand, limited fossil fuel resources and climate change have prompted development of alternative sustainable and economical fuel resources such as crop-based bio-ethanol and bio-diesel. However, there is concern over use of arable land that is used for food agriculture for creation of biofuel. Thus, there is a renewed interest in the use of microbes particularly microalgae for bio-fuel production. Microbes such as micro-algae and cyanobacteria that are used for biofuel production also produce other bioactive compounds under stressed conditions. Microbial agents used for biofuel production also produce bioactive compounds with antimicrobial, antiviral, anticoagulant, antioxidant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity. Because of importance of such high-value compounds in aquaculture and bioremediation, and the potential to reduce carbon emissions and energy security, the biofuels produced by microbial biotechnology might substitute the crop-based bio-ethanol and bio-diesel production.

  15. Utilization of tidal power in Russia in overcoming the global energy and ecological crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernshtein, L.B.; Usachev, I.N.

    1997-01-01

    The 30 years of the exploitation of the TPP Rance in France and Kyslogubskaya TPP in Russia had proved the energy expedience economical and ecological effectiveness and a high performance of the tidal energy. The possibility of such utilizing could be proved thanks to the application of the theoretical cycles of Gibrat, of the bulb units and the russian model of the tidal utilizing and application of the floating methods of creating the TPP. The investigations at TPP Kislaya Guba helped to solve the row of problems of marine power building with the high exploitation performance and ecological safety. Thus the TPP of Mezen with a capacity of 17 million kW can transfer to the united power system of Europe 50 TWh/year and the Tugur TPP with a capacity 8 million kW can produce 20 TWh/year of energy for the power system of seaside of Russian and Japan. Penzinskaya TPP with the capacity of 87 million kW can be promoted in 21. century in connection to the advanced in USA proposition of construction of the combining transport-power tunnel across the Bering Strait. (authors)

  16. Current status of wind energy and wind energy policy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaniktepe, B.; Savrun, M.M.; Koroglu, T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Present installations of wind power in the world. • Focus on the current state, potential, and development of Turkey’s wind energy. • Explain the institutional framework and support/incentive mechanisms in Turkey. • Investigate and give information about the new Turkish Renewable Energy Law. - Abstract: Over the past decades, the importance of renewable and sustainable energy resources has increased in the world due to both the rapid increase in energy demand and disadvantages of the fossil fuels. Many countries, such as Turkey, aim to increase the use of renewable and sustainable energy sources with different incentive mechanisms. In parallel with these incentive methods being implemented, wind energy capacity in Turkey has a remarkable increase in the growing rates of renewable energy sources according to installed wind power. Up to now, several wind power projects have been developed at different regions of Turkey. This paper aims to analyze the potential and development of wind energy systems in Turkey. Besides, the current usage and development of wind power installations have been explored for the World and Turkey in detail at the end of the 2011. Furthermore, this study also presents tax exemption, support, and incentive mechanisms to develop new wind energy investments in Turkey

  17. Will the energy crisis put an end to development of automatic gearboxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, D

    1979-12-13

    The power absorbing automatic gearbox may disappear with advancing fuel costs. Electronic controls will be at the center of improvements being developed for possible acceptable small car automatic gearboxes. A total engine management package being developed by Lucas involves extending the microprocessor which with current technology can control both the fuel injection system and the electronic ignition of a car engine to control the automatic gearbox.

  18. Development of high current low energy H+ ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, A.T.; Crow, J.T.; Goebel, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this work is the development of an ion source suitable for double charge exchange of D + ions to D - ions in cesium or other vapor. Since the fraction of the D + which changes to D - may be as high as 0.35 in the energy below one keV, the process appears very favorable. What is desired is a source of several hundred cm 2 area, with a D + current density greater than, say 0.2A/cm 2 . Small angular spread is essential with up to about 0.1 radian being acceptable. A simple approach to this problem appears to be through fine mesh extraction electrodes. In this system a single grid facing the ion source plasma constitutes the entire extraction electrode system. If the potential difference between the grid and the source plasma is large compared to the ion energy at the plasma boundary, then the distance s 0 is just the Child-Langmuir distance corresponding to the ion current density J and the potential difference V 0 between the plasma and the grid

  19. Vietnam's energy sector: A review of current energy policies and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tien Minh Do; Sharma, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of market-oriented economy in 1986, Vietnam has made noticeable socio-economic progress. In this progress, the energy sector has played a vital role. This role is likely to deepen in the years to come as Vietnam strives to achieve even higher levels in economic progress. Such deepening in the role of energy, this paper argues, will heighten concerns about the security of energy supply, and economic, environmental, social and political consequences. In order to address these issues, Vietnam has over the last decade, developed a suite of energy policies. A deeper review of these policies suggests that they are typified by economic-growth orientation, exclusive focus on a single-sector or single issue, and largely neglect the significance of cross-sectoral and cross-thematic issues arising from the interdependencies between energy, economy, and the polity at large. The existing energy policy settings are, therefore, unlikely to be able to provide a satisfactory redress to the challenges noted above. This paper provides an overview of the current energy policies with a view to identify areas where further policy effort is needed in order to facilitate a sustainable development of the Vietnamese energy sector. - Highlights: → Identifying challenges faced by the Vietnamese energy sector. → Analyzing limitations of the existing energy policy settings (policies, strategies and institutions) in addressing these challenges. → Developing recommendations on improving the existing energy policy settings to provide a satisfactory redress for the challenges noted above.

  20. Vietnam's energy sector: A review of current energy policies and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien Minh Do, E-mail: tmdo@eng.uts.edu.au [Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST), 1 Dai Co Viet Street, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Sharma, Deepak [University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), Broadway, Ultimo, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    Since the introduction of market-oriented economy in 1986, Vietnam has made noticeable socio-economic progress. In this progress, the energy sector has played a vital role. This role is likely to deepen in the years to come as Vietnam strives to achieve even higher levels in economic progress. Such deepening in the role of energy, this paper argues, will heighten concerns about the security of energy supply, and economic, environmental, social and political consequences. In order to address these issues, Vietnam has over the last decade, developed a suite of energy policies. A deeper review of these policies suggests that they are typified by economic-growth orientation, exclusive focus on a single-sector or single issue, and largely neglect the significance of cross-sectoral and cross-thematic issues arising from the interdependencies between energy, economy, and the polity at large. The existing energy policy settings are, therefore, unlikely to be able to provide a satisfactory redress to the challenges noted above. This paper provides an overview of the current energy policies with a view to identify areas where further policy effort is needed in order to facilitate a sustainable development of the Vietnamese energy sector. - Highlights: > Identifying challenges faced by the Vietnamese energy sector. > Analyzing limitations of the existing energy policy settings (policies, strategies and institutions) in addressing these challenges. > Developing recommendations on improving the existing energy policy settings to provide a satisfactory redress for the challenges noted above.

  1. Energy Consumption of Lactating Mothers: Current Situation and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fikawati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations on the adequacy of nutrient intake indicate that lactating mothers have higher nutritional needs than do pregnant mothers. High nutrient intake is necessary to help mothers recover after childbirth, produce milk, and maintain the quantity and quality of breast milk. It also prevents maternal malnutrition. Research has shown, however, that the dietary energy consumption of mothers during lactation was significantly lower than that during pregnancy. The current study explored the factors associated with decreased nutritional intake during maternal lactation. The study was conducted in March–April 2013, and the subjects were mothers with infants aged >6 months. Results revealed that the factors causing low dietary energy consumption among breastfeeding mothers were poor nutritional knowledge and attitude toward high energy intake requirements during lactation, lack of time to cook and eat because of infant care, reduced consumption of milk and supplements, dietary restrictions and prohibitions, and suboptimal advice from midwives/health personnel. Beginning from the antenatal care visit, health personnel should conduct effective counseling on the importance of nutrient intake during lactation. Advice should be provided not only to mothers, but also to their families to enable them to thoroughly support the mothers as they breastfeed their infants.

  2. Energy Current Cumulants in One-Dimensional Systems in Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Abhishek; Saito, Keiji; Roy, Anjan

    2018-06-01

    A recent theory based on fluctuating hydrodynamics predicts that one-dimensional interacting systems with particle, momentum, and energy conservation exhibit anomalous transport that falls into two main universality classes. The classification is based on behavior of equilibrium dynamical correlations of the conserved quantities. One class is characterized by sound modes with Kardar-Parisi-Zhang scaling, while the second class has diffusive sound modes. The heat mode follows Lévy statistics, with different exponents for the two classes. Here we consider heat current fluctuations in two specific systems, which are expected to be in the above two universality classes, namely, a hard particle gas with Hamiltonian dynamics and a harmonic chain with momentum conserving stochastic dynamics. Numerical simulations show completely different system-size dependence of current cumulants in these two systems. We explain this numerical observation using a phenomenological model of Lévy walkers with inputs from fluctuating hydrodynamics. This consistently explains the system-size dependence of heat current fluctuations. For the latter system, we derive the cumulant-generating function from a more microscopic theory, which also gives the same system-size dependence of cumulants.

  3. Biomass production in willows. What did we know before the energy crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perttu, K L [ed.

    1984-12-01

    The biological foundations of biomass with willows originate in the experiences from basket willow husbandry. This was an established discipline in Europe in the 18th century. Problems concerning site preparation, selection of clones, planting as cuttings, spacing, weed control, rotation time, harvesting and coppicing vigour with respect to the longevity of the stand, were practically solved at the research level and already in practice. The yield potential of basket willow and willows for hoop production as well as yield figures from field experiments were quite high also according to present-day biomass willow experiments. An explanation of this could be the much higher stand densities than has been customary in current willow experiments. Although many practical questions got their answers in basket willow husbandry, open questions still remain. The basket willow era gave only little experience on willow production in peatlands; actually peatsoils were almost avoided. Knowledge of nutrient require ments and fertilization was also rather elementary. These aspects must therefore be established for biomass production. Control of weeds in the establishment phase of the willow husbandry was solved by manual work. Since this is a labour intensive method which is no longer possible, a more modern weed control needs to be developed for current husbandry. As a whole it is a task for related research to attach proper optimization of cultural techniques to suitable willow clones in order to attain and maintain as high a production level as was the case in the old basket willow husbandry. With 25 refs.

  4. Solution of energy crisis in rural areas lies in farm forestry. [India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sing, R V

    1978-01-01

    It is estimated (data for 1962) that fuelwood meets about 60% of the energy requirements of rural communities in India. In view of cost and availability problems associated with other fuels, demand for fuelwood is expected to increase. If fuelwood replaced all the dung cake burnt, it is estimated that the annual requirement would be about 135 million tons (t). Annual production of fuelwood (1975 estimate) is only about 70 million t. To make up the difference, about 16.25 million hectares of fuelwood plantations would have to be established annually. Problems in the establishment and management of such plantations, and also of transport and sale of fuelwood to scattered rural populations are discussed. It is suggested that farm forestry may be a more practical means of solving the problem.

  5. Solution of energy crisis in rural areas lies in farm forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, R V

    1978-01-01

    It is estimated (data for 1962) that fuelwood meets about 60% of the energy requirements of rural communities in India. In view of cost and availability problems associated with other fuels, demand for fuelwood is expected to increase. If fuelwood replaced all the dung cake burnt, it is estimated that the annual requirement would be about 135 million ton. Annual production of fuelwood (1975 estimate) is only about 70 million ton. To make up the difference, about 16.25 million hectare of fuelwood plantations would have to be established annually. Problems in the establishment and management of such plantations, and also of transport and sale of fuelwood to scattered rural populations are discussed. It is suggested that farm forestry may be a more practical means of solving the problem. 19 references.

  6. Preventing Smog Crisis: New Thinking for Energy Policy-Making in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Dong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    environmental-friendly guidance, financial support and drafted strict regulations to guide the recycling of straw. However, many farmers in China still chose the cheapest and crudest way to dispose of straw, burning it rather than recycling for sustainable use, e.g. power generation, bioethanol production...... and biogas production, because compared with burning, straw recycling is more expensive and labour intensive. Subsidies from the local governments exist, but they far from sufficient, even if the bioenergy companies are ready to purchase agricultural waste. It is also difficult for the local governments...... to give enough financial support to the farmers for straw recycling due to the limited fiscal budget. What is more, the farmers will also suffer from declining soil fertility without burning straw. Therefore, the policies for promoting biomass to energy face a bottleneck and innovative policies design...

  7. Current situation of energy conservation in high energy-consuming industries in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, D.Y.-L.; Yang, K.-H.; Hsu, C.-H.; Chien, M.-H.; Hong, G.-B.

    2007-01-01

    Growing concern in Taiwan has arisen about energy consumption and its adverse environmental impact. The current situation of energy conservation in high energy-consuming industries in Taiwan, including the iron and steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, textiles and electric/electrical industries has been presented. Since the energy consumption of the top 100 energy users (T100) comprised over 50% of total industry energy consumption, focusing energy consumption reduction efforts on T100 energy users can achieve significant results. This study conducted on-site energy audits of 314 firms in Taiwan during 2000-2004, and identified potential electricity savings of 1,022,656 MWH, fuel oil savings of 174,643 kiloliters (KL), steam coal savings of 98,620 ton, and natural gas (NG) savings of 10,430 kilo cubic meters. The total potential energy saving thus was 489,505 KL of crude oil equivalent (KLOE), representing a reduction of 1,447,841 ton in the carbon dioxide emissions, equivalent to the annual carbon dioxide absorption capacity of a 39,131-ha plantation forest

  8. The Little-Known Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckholm, Erik P.

    1975-01-01

    For one-third of the world's people, the energy crisis means the daily scramble to find the wood they need to cook. The accelerating destruction of forests throughout Africa, Asia and Latin America and the utilization of manure as a firewood substitute may produce the most profound ecological crisis of this century. (BT)

  9. CURRENT TRENDS IN THE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanya Zhivkova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy represents the amount of solar radiation per unit time on unit area. Solar energy is used to obtain thermal energy through solar, and electrical energy through exist for solar energy: passive and active. The utilization of solar energy is essential for the development of human civilization.

  10. CURRENT TRENDS IN THE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY

    OpenAIRE

    Vanya Zhivkova

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy represents the amount of solar radiation per unit time on unit area. Solar energy is used to obtain thermal energy through solar, and electrical energy through exist for solar energy: passive and active. The utilization of solar energy is essential for the development of human civilization.

  11. Kant Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H Carter

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available • ISSUE 2-1, 2011 • 68 KANT CRISIS This study approaches the last days of Immanuel Kant through the lens of his contemporary biographers and other correspondents. Among the latter, Kant’s brother and, subsequently, his brother’s family provide a symptomatic reflection upon Kant’s management of his genealogy and his legacy. Yet behind this body of work is another corpus, one which embodies maternal and paternal legacies that are not readily subsumed by Oedipus or Kant’s philosophy. This work (of art is Kant’s own body or corpus, which he painstakingly maintained and which provided a case study for his refelctions on preventive medicine in The Conflict of the Faculties. William H. Carter studied at the University of Virginia, the University of Heidelberg, and earned his Ph.D. at the University of California, Santa Barbara. He taught German for three years at Tulane University and recently returned to the Department of World Languages and Cultures at Iowa State University, where he began his teaching career. His current book project is titled “Devilish Details: Goethe’s Public Service and Political Economy.” Julian Fickler attends the Academy of Fine Arts Karlsruhe, class of Helmut Dorner. He is the recipient of a prestigious fellowship award bestowed by the Künstlerförderung des Cusanuswerks Bonn. He has exhibited solo locally and in group at venues in Berlin and Hamburg.

  12. Nuclear energy: current situation and prospects to 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Sue

    2007-04-15

    For close to half a century nuclear fission has been providing reliable supplies of electricity to the UK, with virtually no emissions of carbon dioxide. Over that period, the UK nuclear industry has avoided the emission of over one and a half billion tonnes of CO2. Yet no nuclear plant has been built in the UK for over two decades even though many of the stations in our current fleet are now within a decade or so of the end of their lifetime. Without new plants being ordered soon, the UK's nuclear capacity will decline dramatically, from 23% today to 3% post-2020--just as considerations of supply security and climate change are becoming increasingly important. Elsewhere in the world, many countries such as China, India, Japan, South Korea, Finland and France are building new stations. Other countries such as the USA, South Africa, and some nations that currently do not have nuclear stations (such as Indonesia and Poland) are making preparations for future nuclear stations. Globally capacity factors for nuclear plants are higher than they have ever been, averaging around 85% and with the best stations achieving well over 90%. Lifetime can be 60 years. That the economics of such stations compete well with other technologies is well founded and easily verifiable--especially in the face of rising fossil fuel prices and the pricing in of costs for CO2 emissions--both of which stand to improve the economics of nuclear energy still further. Waste volumes arising from modern plants are just a fraction of those of some earlier stations, and the technologies are in place to deal with them safely and effectively. Following recent reviews and international developments, there is growing confidence that internationally available competitive designs of nuclear plant will provide part of the solution to the UK's long-term energy needs.

  13. The Impact of the Current Economic Crisis on the Demand for Higher Education: An Analysis of Spanish Distance Education Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina-Paz, María Dolores; Rodríguez-Oromendía, Ainhoa; Sevilla-Sevilla, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Spain is currently experiencing a difficult economic situation, and in recent years a significant change has been observed in the behavior of the demand for educational programs as a result of this situation. Recent studies reveal a change in student demand that does not have the same effect on all academic institutions. Bearing this behavior in…

  14. Waste of paper or useful tool? The potential of the temporary protection directive in the current "Refugee crisis"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gluns, Danielle; Wessels, Janna

    2017-01-01

    The Council Directive 2001/55/EC on temporary protection in the event of a "mass influx" of displaced persons provides for a mechanism that shall lead to collaborative efforts of the European Union Member States in dealing with persons seeking protection in Europe. In spite of the current "refugee

  15. Thermal energy and bootstrap current in fusion reactor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.

    1993-01-01

    For DT fusion reactors with prescribed alpha particle heating power P α , plasma volume V and burn temperature i > ∼ 10 keV specific relations for the thermal energy content, bootstrap current, central plasma pressure and other quantities are derived. It is shown that imposing P α and V makes these relations independent of the magnitudes of the density and temperature, i.e. they only depend on P α , V and shape factors or profile parameters. For model density and temperature profiles analytic expressions for these shape factors and for the factor C bs in the bootstrap current formula I bs ∼ C bs (a/R) 1/2 β p I p are given. In the design of next-step devices and fusion reactors, the fusion power is a fixed quantity. Prescription of the alpha particle heating power and plasma volume results in specific relations which can be helpful for interpreting computer simulations and for the design of fusion reactors. (author) 5 refs

  16. The Effects Of Global Economic Crisis of 2008 to Financial Statements and Liquidity Ratios Which Companies are Settled In BIST Energy Sector (2005-2013 Term Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Kendirli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim of this study is to compare and analyze whether the 2008 global economic crisis affected the balance of the energy companies which are listed in the İstanbul Stock Exchange and have shown continuity in 2005-2013 period by using a variety of analyzing methods. Companies that demonstrate continuity between the years 2005-2013 were not assessed in this study. Horizontal and vertical analyses were made on the financial statements of the companies which are evaluated and liquidity ratios were assessed. As a result of the analysis the companies have been found to be affected to different degrees by the crisis.

  17. Biomass energy utilization in rural areas may contribute to alleviating energy crisis and global warming: A case study in a typical agro-village of Shandong, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Y.H.; Li, Z.F.; Feng, S.F.; Wu, G.L.; Li, Y.; Li, C.H.; Lucas, M.; Jiang, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    A biomass energy exploration experiment was conducted in Jiangjiazhuang, a typical agro-village in Shandong, China from 2005 to 2009. The route of this study was designed as an agricultural circulation as: crops → crop residues → ''Bread'' forage → cattle → cattle dung → biogas digester → biogas/digester residues → green fertilizers → crops. About 738.8 tons of crop residues are produced in this village each year. In 2005, only two cattle were fed in this village and 1.1% of the crop residues were used as forage. About 38.5% crop residues were used for livelihood energy, 24.5% were discarded and 29.7% were directly burned in the field. Not more than three biogas digesters were built and merely 2250 m 3 biogas was produced a year relative to saving 1.6 tons standard coal and equivalent to reducing 4.3 tons CO 2 emission. A total of US$ 4491 profits were obtained from cattle benefit, reducing fossil energies/chemical fertilizer application and increasing crop yield. After 5 years experiment, cattle capita had raised gradually up to 146 and some 62.3% crop residues were used as forage. The percentages used as livelihood energy, discarded and burned in the field decreased to 16.3%, 9.2% and 9.8%, respectively. Biogas digesters increased to 123 and 92,250 m 3 biogas was fermented equal to saving 65.9 tons standard coal and reducing 177.9 tons CO 2 emission. In total US$ 60,710 profits were obtained in 2009. In addition, about 989.9 tons green fertilizers were produced from biogas digesters and applied in croplands. The results suggested that livestock and biogas projects were promising strategies to consume the redundant agricultural residues, offer livelihood energy and increase the villagers' incomes. Biogas production and utilization could effectively alleviate energy crisis and CO 2 emission, which might be a great contribution to reach the affirmatory carbon emission goal of the Chinese government on Climate Conference in Copenhagen in 2009. (author)

  18. Biomass energy utilization in rural areas may contribute to alleviating energy crisis and global warming: A case study in a typical agro-village of Shandong, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Y.H. [State Key Laboratory of Quantitative Vegetation Ecology, Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20 Nanxincun, Xiangshan, Beijing 100093 (China); Li, Z.F. [State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Agronomy, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong 271018 (China); Taishan Academy of Science and Technology, Tai' an, Shandong 271000 (China); Feng, S.F.; Wu, G.L.; Li, Y.; Li, C.H. [State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Agronomy, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong 271018 (China); Lucas, M. [Rheinisch-Westfalisch Technische Hochschule, Aachen University, Aachen 52070 (Germany); Jiang, G.M. [State Key Laboratory of Quantitative Vegetation Ecology, Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20 Nanxincun, Xiangshan, Beijing 100093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Agronomy, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong 271018 (China)

    2010-12-15

    A biomass energy exploration experiment was conducted in Jiangjiazhuang, a typical agro-village in Shandong, China from 2005 to 2009. The route of this study was designed as an agricultural circulation as: crops {yields} crop residues {yields} ''Bread'' forage {yields} cattle {yields} cattle dung {yields} biogas digester {yields} biogas/digester residues {yields} green fertilizers {yields} crops. About 738.8 tons of crop residues are produced in this village each year. In 2005, only two cattle were fed in this village and 1.1% of the crop residues were used as forage. About 38.5% crop residues were used for livelihood energy, 24.5% were discarded and 29.7% were directly burned in the field. Not more than three biogas digesters were built and merely 2250 m{sup 3} biogas was produced a year relative to saving 1.6 tons standard coal and equivalent to reducing 4.3 tons CO{sub 2} emission. A total of US$ 4491 profits were obtained from cattle benefit, reducing fossil energies/chemical fertilizer application and increasing crop yield. After 5 years experiment, cattle capita had raised gradually up to 146 and some 62.3% crop residues were used as forage. The percentages used as livelihood energy, discarded and burned in the field decreased to 16.3%, 9.2% and 9.8%, respectively. Biogas digesters increased to 123 and 92,250 m{sup 3} biogas was fermented equal to saving 65.9 tons standard coal and reducing 177.9 tons CO{sub 2} emission. In total US$ 60,710 profits were obtained in 2009. In addition, about 989.9 tons green fertilizers were produced from biogas digesters and applied in croplands. The results suggested that livestock and biogas projects were promising strategies to consume the redundant agricultural residues, offer livelihood energy and increase the villagers' incomes. Biogas production and utilization could effectively alleviate energy crisis and CO{sub 2} emission, which might be a great contribution to reach the affirmatory carbon

  19. Waiting for the energy crisis: Europe and the United States on the eve of the first oil shock

    OpenAIRE

    Madureira, Nuno Luis

    2014-01-01

    WOS:000343528000004 (Nº de Acesso Web of Science) A global economic crisis is the most difficult kind of event to predict. This article asks a straightforward question: did anyone come close to anticipating the oil crisis of 1973/74, which represented a new type of historical sequence? Was the likelihood of an oil shock self-evident at the time? To answer this, I examine the degree of awareness in Europe and the United States of the three possible triggering factors: Egypt’s disposition to...

  20. Energy Crisis In Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    huge shortfall in gas supplies will be unavoidable. In an effort to mitigate this looming threat, the materialization of transnational gas pipeline ...original financing terms, to kick-start the TAPI gas pipeline project. Despite reaching a consensus, the consortium leader’s selection is still pending...is testimony of the government’s institutional, political, and policy inefficiency. Materialization of IPI and TAPI gas pipeline projects will add

  1. Risk Factors of Young Graduates in the Competitive E.U. Labour Market at the End of the Current Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacerova Eliska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern development trends in the labour market have been an increasingly important political and economic issue not only domestically but also on the European level. It proves the fact that in The Europe 2020 strategy, one of the main five points is the aim to increase the employment rate of the population (age: 20–64 from the current 69% to at least 75%. Various risk groups of job candidates emerge among the unemployed. The economic crisis in 2007 made the situation in the labour markets worse. The demand for labour decreased while the number of candidates increased. In recent years, fresh graduates under the age of 25 have been regarded as a high risk group sometimes nicknamed “the lost generation” or Generation Y. This generation is well accustomed to modern technologies which they use for their own benefit and they are willing and able to work from anywhere. On the contrary, those over the age of 35, who are sometimes referred to as Generation X, have different attitudes and requirements for the labour market. Despite the increasing level of education among young people, their unemployment has been worsening since the economic crisis began. The aim of this article was to ascertain how future university graduates (491 final-year students from 5 faculties at Tomas Bata University in Zlín, Czech Republic perceive individual risk factors influencing the success of today’s graduate of Generation Y in the competitive labour market. The target group, future university graduates, evaluated 13 risk areas on a five-point scale. These 13 risk areas were identified based on primary research among 1.059 employers in the Czech Republic, which is a part of a complete two-year research project IGA/FaME/2013/030. This article focuses on only two areas which closely analysed the perception of graduates as drifters, and their demands for high starting salaries. These two risk areas were mentioned by employers as the areas with the highest risk and

  2. Unpacking the Global Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juego, Bonn; Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper hopes to contribute to a reading of the political economy of the current global crisis with a focus on four interrelated themes. First, we discuss the constitutive role and functional character of crises in the evolution of neo-liberalism in particular and in capitalist reproduction...... opposing crisis responses—from multilaterals to regional organisations to global civil society—and realise that responses from either pro-neoliberal or anti-neoliberal forces are fundamentally the same through the years, simply re-articulating analyses and programmes that they have respectively...... pursued and advocated long before the global crisis. And fourth, in the context of East and Southeast Asia, we examine the tendencies of the global crisis vis-à-vis the strengthening and even acceleration of emergent authoritarian liberalism in the region despite and because of the global crisis....

  3. Re-Envisioning Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snaith, Holly; Rosamond, Ben

    2015-01-01

    of EU integration – namely the 1970s oil shocks and the more recent global financial crisis – in order to determine the extent to which these events have been contemporarily defined as providing opportunities to act, or simply challenges to the existing order. The paper provides an analysis of the way...... in which EU actors have mobilised the idea of ‘crisis’ in order to (a) exert control over endogenous and exogenous destabilising forces, (b) (re)define the EU as an object of both political engagement and academic study, and finally (c) make the case for further expansion and integration (particularly....... The comparative nature of the findings helps to contextualise current discourses around the global financial crisis, in order to evaluate the EU’s previous efforts at global repositioning, and the significance of crisis discourse to these efforts....

  4. Dalla crisi finanziaria alla crisi reale. ( Financial and real crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo D'Adda

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available  The financial crisis of 2008 is put in relation with two bubbles, financial and housing. Easy credit is at the origin of both bubbles. Risky bonds were issued to mobilize mortgages originated in the housing market, and bad bonds entered a fantastic number of institutional and private portfolios all over the world without any perception of the their risk. Unfortunately, bank credit to speculators was abundant and fed the final growth of the bubbles. When fears started to spread, the fall was immediate and expectations impaired very rapidly. The main aggregate demand components were severely curtailed and production fell as well. This is the crisis of the real economy. Fortunately, as opposed to what happened in 1929, the interventions of central banks and governments have been of an unprecedented size. The bail out of insolvent banks in particular has been providential. The exit from the current crisis, however, will surely be slow.  JEL: E44, G01, G10

  5. Wind Plant Preconstruction Energy Estimates. Current Practice and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fields, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-19

    Understanding the amount of energy that will be harvested by a wind power plant each year and the variability of that energy is essential to assessing and potentially improving the financial viability of that power plant. The preconstruction energy estimate process predicts the amount of energy--with uncertainty estimates--that a wind power plant will deliver to the point of revenue. This report describes the preconstruction energy estimate process from a technical perspective and seeks to provide insight into the financial implications associated with each step.

  6. Narratives of crisis: identity crisis or crisis of meaning?!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Araújo Barros Costa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is about a review of a broader research on the understanding of the professional development of Mathematics teachers, especially the results of the analysis of one of the selected categories, the projectors and the crisis narratives. This analysis was theoretically supported by Larrosa (2002. To carry out the research, we adopted the qualitative research, with a narrative focus, based on semi-structured interviews about the life history of a teacher who teaches mathematics in Basic Education. Based on a concept of professional development taken from a continuous perspective, idealized in a broader context of teaching work, permeating crises and conflicts, the analysis shows that the teacher's crisis reports are related to factors such as: low salaries, conflicts in her current institution Lack of social prestige and insecurity. His reports reveal that initial training did nothing to address the "new" changes in education. It shows that their lack of enthusiasm is associated with the emptying of the useful meaning of their formation, which results from the overvaluation of their exchange value. However, a crisis narrative can construct the present as a critical moment in the double sense of the word as a decisive moment and, at the same time, as a moment in which the subject critically recovers his own history, appropriates himself critically To find out where it is and to decide its own movement (LARRROSA, 2002. The individual, by critically restoring his history, can rethink the past, think the present, and (reconstruct his own future. The teacher, in her crisis narratives, shows that, by critically recovering her story, by putting out all her "revolt", she opens a "door" that will possibly show a new path to be taken. This seeks new challenges for their professional development

  7. Current Work in Energy Analysis (Energy Analysis Program -1996 Annual Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy Analysis Program

    1998-03-01

    This report describes the work that Environmental Energy Technologies Division of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been doing most recently. One of our proudest accomplishments is the publication of Scenarios of U.S. Carbon Reductions, an analysis of the potential of energy technologies to reduce carbon emissions in the U.S. This analysis played a key role in shaping the U.S. position on climate change in the Kyoto Protocol negotiations. Our participation in the fundamental characterization of the climate change issue by the IPCC is described. We are also especially proud of our study of ''leaking electricity,'' which is stimulating an international campaign for a one-watt ceiling for standby electricity losses from appliances. This ceiling has the potential to save two-thirds of the 5% of U.S. residential electricity currently expended on standby losses. The 54 vignettes contained in the following pages summarize results of research. activities ranging in scale from calculating the efficacy of individual lamp ballasts to estimating the cost-effectiveness of the national ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} labeling program, and ranging in location from a scoping study of energy-efficiency market transformation in California to development of an energy-efficiency project in the auto parts industry in Shandong Province, China. These are the intellectual endeavors of a talented team of researchers dedicated to public service.

  8. Reducing consumption of electric current and energy carriers. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppo, A.S.; Gruzdev, Yu.M.

    1985-01-01

    Evaluates the energy conservation program developed by the Giproshakht research institute is evaluated. The program was used in the Afanas'evo hydraulic mine in the Tulaugol association (with annual coal output of 2.1 Mt). Energy conservation program consisted of 2 groups of tasks: reducing energy consumption of the mine, and reducing energy consumption during the maximum demand hours in the morning and evening. The following methods were used: reducing idle running of chain and belt conveyors, separate draining of mine water free of dust and rock particles (reducing range of water cleaning), use of automatic control systems for mine blowers, automatic control of the system for coal drying, more efficient use of coal and materials transport in the mine. Energy demand of the mine during peak demand hours was reduced by adjusting fluctuations of energy consumption of the mine to fluctuations of energy demand in the power system of the area, e.g. by reducing mine draining in the morning and evening and operating at full capacity during the time of reduced energy demand. Using the energy conservation measures economized 4,324,300 kWh electric energy annually.

  9. Second Ripple Current Suppression by Two Bandpass Filters and Current Sharing Method for Energy Storage Converters in DC Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Ling; Chen, Yandong; Luo, An

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing of AC loads injected into DC microgird (MG) through the inverters, the second ripple current (SRC) in the front-end energy storage converter (ESC) and circulating current among the ESCs in DC MG become more and more serious. In this paper, the SRC suppression method by introdu......With the increasing of AC loads injected into DC microgird (MG) through the inverters, the second ripple current (SRC) in the front-end energy storage converter (ESC) and circulating current among the ESCs in DC MG become more and more serious. In this paper, the SRC suppression method...

  10. China vs. USA: energy consumption of the two giants markets in 2010. Very strong growth in energy consumption in China and USA in 2010 which is well beyond the pre-crisis trend; this allows anticipation of a very strong global growth in 2010; China surpasses 10% of U.S.A's Energy consumption in 2010 - March 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapillonne, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Enerdata compares 2010 energy consumption between China and USA: China surpasses 10% of U.S.A's Energy consumption in 2010; Very strong growth in energy consumption in China and USA in 2010 which is well beyond the pre-crisis trend; this allows anticipation of a very strong global growth in 2010. (authors)

  11. Resource Assessment of Tidal Current Energy in Hangzhou Bay Based on Long Term Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Dai, Chun-Ni; Xu, Xue-Feng; Wang, Chuan-Kun; Ye, Qin

    2017-05-01

    Compared with other marine renewable energy, tidal current energy benefits a lot in high energy density and good predictability. Based on the measured tidal current data in Hangzhou Bay from Nov 2012 to Oct 2012, this paper analysed temporal and spatial changes of tidal current energy in the site. It is the first time measured data of such long time been taken in tidal current energy analysis. Occurrence frequency and duration of the current of different speed are given out in the paper. According to the analysis results, monthly average power density changed a lot in different month, and installation orientation of tidal current turbine significantly affected energy acquisition. Finally, the annual average power density of tidal current energy with coefficient Cp in the site was calculated, and final output of a tidal current plant was also estimated.

  12. Overview of current energy-efficiency policies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Nan; Levine, Mark D.; Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    From 1970 to 2001, China was able to significantly limit energy demand growth through aggressive energy-efficiency programs. Energy use per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) declined by approximately 5% per year during this period. However, the period 2002-2005 saw energy use per unit of GDP increase an average of 3.8% per year. To stem this out-of-control growth in energy demand, in November 2005 the Chinese government enunciated a mandatory goal of 20% reduction of energy intensity between 2006 and 2010. The National People's Congress passed legislation identifying the National Reform and Development Commission as the lead agency to design and carry out programs in support of this goal. These policies and programs, created after almost a decade of decline of the energy-efficiency policy apparatus, have had considerable impact. Although initial efforts have not been sufficient to meet the annual declines required to reach the ambitious 20% energy intensity target, the latest reports indicate that China may now be on track to meet this goal. The paper provides an assessment of these policies and programs to begin to understand issues that will play a critical role in China's energy and economic future. Activities undertaken in China will have a significant influence on the global effort to reduce the growth, and later the absolute quantity, of greenhouse gas emissions.

  13. The sea surface currents as a potential factor in the estimation and monitoring of wave energy potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodiatis, George; Galanis, George; Nikolaidis, Andreas; Stylianoy, Stavros; Liakatas, Aristotelis

    2015-04-01

    The use of wave energy as an alternative renewable is receiving attention the last years under the shadow of the economic crisis in Europe and in the light of the promising corresponding potential especially for countries with extended coastline. Monitoring and studying the corresponding resources is further supported by a number of critical advantages of wave energy compared to other renewable forms, like the reduced variability and the easier adaptation to the general grid, especially when is jointly approached with wind power. Within the framework, a number of countries worldwide have launched research and development projects and a significant number of corresponding studies have been presented the last decades. However, in most of them the impact of wave-sea surface currents interaction on the wave energy potential has not been taken into account neglecting in this way a factor of potential importance. The present work aims at filling this gap for a sea area with increased scientific and economic interest, the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Based on a combination of high resolution numerical modeling approach with advanced statistical tools, a detailed analysis is proposed for the quantification of the impact of sea surface currents, which produced from downscaling the MyOcean-FO regional data, to wave energy potential. The results although spatially sensitive, as expected, prove beyond any doubt that the wave- sea surface currents interaction should be taken into account for similar resource analysis and site selection approaches since the percentage of impact to the available wave power may reach or even exceed 20% at selected areas.

  14. Crisis Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents summaries of four articles relevant to school crisis response. The first article, "Peritraumatic Dissociation Predicts Posttraumatic Stress in Youth Following Accidents" summarized by Jim Matthews, suggests that peritraumatic dissociation is a powerful predictor of PTSD symptoms among youth who have been in a car…

  15. Crisis meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      To all CERN staff: your rights are at risk ! We invite you to come to a crisis meeting on Wednesday 2nd April at 10:30 a.m., Auditorium, Main Building, Meyrin site. Your presence is crucial, we are ALL concerned !

  16. Crisis meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    To all CERN staff: your rights are at risk! We invite you to come to a crisis meeting on Thursday 7th May 2015 at 9 a.m., Auditorium, Main Building, Meyrin site. Your presence is crucial, we are ALL concerned!

  17. Current issues in energy: a selection of papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, C

    1979-01-01

    From this collection of papers by Dr. Starr one can possibly see the emergence of a new science of energy and society. The papers analyze problems underlying energy and its uses, the connections between energy and production processes and between economic output, and the effect of energy on present and future national/global welfare. The book questions and examines various energy options, their consequences and opportunities, and the role of energy efficiency in an industrialized society. The three major book divisions cover: (1) risk/benefit: analysis, disclosure, and acceptance; (2) energy technology; solar power generation, nuclear power and weapons proliferation, future technological options, and technical innovation; and (3) energy analysis and planning. Dr. Starr implies that, given the problems of our world - particularly its population growth and its inexorable demand for resources - technology offers the principal means to their solution. Further, he asserts that technology may be the only remaining unlimited resource available to man and to the kind of society he has evolved.

  18. Potential energy savings by using direct current for residential applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz, Enrique Rodriguez; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    improvement in the power converter units. However, for residential applications, the efficiency is not always improved. A grid connected residential microgrid, with renewable energy sources (RES), energy storage systems (ESS) and local loads, is presented in this work. The microgrid has been modelled...

  19. Current energy situation affecting national economy, security, and psyche

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blundell, H.; Culbreath, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear energy should be perceived by Americans as the energy option that can fill the gap left by petroleum shortages. Opposition to nuclear power symbolizes a drive to slow economic growth and return to a decentralized society, but it overlooks the implications that not going nuclear will have for the economy and national security. The General Accounting Office plotted the consequences for three scenarios and concluded that only nuclear power can provide enough domestic energy to meet projected electrical needs. The impact of higher energy prices that will follow energy-supply shortages will result in social change and in a decline in national security. The issues of import dependence, proliferation, economic competition, and morality are not valid reasons to forego nuclear development because the connections are not valid

  20. Current perspective of the renewable energy development in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Salsabila; Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin Ab; Shafie, Suhaidi

    2011-01-01

    It is estimated that oil reserves will not last very much longer; thus, a switch to alternative energy solutions is crucial. The Malaysian government has already prepared to face the situation decades before. Many policies have been implemented, as well as programmes and initiative. Now, Malaysia is waiting for the ultimate solutions, the Malaysian Fit-in Tariff (FiT), which is scheduled to be implemented second quarter of 2011. This paper presents the main sources of alternative renewable energy in Malaysia and its potential as well as the main reasons Malaysia is turning to alternative energy solutions; to fully utilize its renewable energy (RE) resources, fulfill the energy demand in the future and to reduce carbon emissions. This paper also discusses the steps taken by the government in preparation for FiT and overcoming the barriers in RE development. (author)

  1. Energy confinement of tokamak plasma with consideration of bootstrap current effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Ying; Gao Qingdi

    1992-01-01

    Based on the η i -mode induced anomalous transport model of Lee et al., the energy confinement of tokamak plasmas with auxiliary heating is investigated with consideration of bootstrap current effect. The results indicate that energy confinement time increases with plasma current and tokamak major radius, and decreases with heating power, toroidal field and minor radius. This is in reasonable agreement with the Kaye-Goldston empirical scaling law. Bootstrap current always leads to an improvement of energy confinement and the contraction of inversion radius. When γ, the ratio between bootstrap current and total plasma current, is small, the part of energy confinement time contributed from bootstrap current will be about γ/2

  2. Current Status and Challenges in Wind Energy Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Badger, Jake; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2014-01-01

    Here we discuss the status and challenges in the development of atlases for the assessment of the regional and global wind resources. The text more specifically describes a methodology that is under development at DTU Wind Energy in Denmark. As the wind assessment is based on mesoscale modelling,......, some of the specific challenges in mesoscale modelling for wind energy purposes are discussed such as wind profiles and long-term statistics of the wind speed time series. Solutions to these challenges will help secure an economic and effective deployment of wind energy....

  3. The Current Status and Implications of Nuclear Energy Cultural Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Won

    2006-01-01

    The Korean nuclear energy community paid a high price in terms of the tremendous social costs incurred in the process of securing a site for mid-to-low radioactive waste disposal facility, indicating that interest in the technical danger of nuclear energy has spread to the realm of people's daily lives. Under the circumstances it is important to raise rational public awareness of nuclear science as a foundation of everyday life through nuclear cultural activities. This study examines the various types of public relations activities of the Korea Nuclear Energy Foundation, an organization in charge of promoting nuclear energy, and explores what activities are required to ensure efficient promotion in accordance with development of nuclear culture

  4. THE ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF COMPANY CRISIS DIAGNOSIS IN ANTI-CRISIS MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Klodane, Alona

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, under a free market, crises at companies are a frequent phenomenon; however, anti-crisis management and related aspects are currently a little researched problem in Latvia. The research aim is to examine the nature of company crisis diagnosis and its role and importance in the anti-crisis management system. The research general tasks are: to describe the nature of company crisis diagnosis and review the scope, purpose and tasks of performing a diagnosis; to examine the role and impo...

  5. Currency Crisis Revisited: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuta Ismaili Muharremi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper elaborates on currency crisis, focusing on the main factors causing the currency crisis. After a brief overview of the main factors driving currency crisis, the paper provides a literature review highlighting that the history of the global economy experienced a number of currency crisis whereas as relates to the triggers of the currency crisis there are three generations of models that have been used to explain currency crisis during the last four decades. Underscoring the role of the government in financial market, in particular the evolution of this role as a result of the recent global financial crisis and highlighting other factors that trigger such crisis, the paper concludes that the potential financial crisis can be addressed using early warning system, which consists of indicators proven to be beneficial in anticipation of the currency crisis, and using the advanced empirical models of currency crisis. In this context the paper reveals that currency crisis are associated with all factors impacting them such as inflation, real exchange rate, import growth, US interest rates, public debt/GDP, and current account/GDP – all with a slightly different time lag.

  6. Global Energy-saving Map of Strong Ocean Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Current (SEC) current, which extends from the surface to about 100 m depth, approaches the Brazilian coast. The SEC splits into two branches near 10°S...19477–19498. FAO (2012). The state of world fisheries and Aquaculture 2012, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. ISBN 978-92-5...World Bank and FAO. (2009). The sunken billions. The economic justification for fisheries reform. Washington, DC, Agriculture and Rural Development

  7. The Current State of Additive Manufacturing in Wind Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Margaret [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palmer, Sierra [Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI), , Worcester, MA (United States); Lee, Dominic [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Remo, Timothy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jenne, Dale Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richardson, Bradley S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Love, Lonnie J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Post, Brian K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Wind power is an inexhaustible form of energy that is being captured throughout the U.S. to power the engine of our economy. A robust, domestic wind industry promises to increase U.S. industry growth and competitiveness, strengthen U.S. energy security independence, and promote domestic manufacturing nationwide. As of 2016, ~82GW of wind capacity had been installed, and wind power now provides more than 5.5% of the nation’s electricity and supports more than 100,000 domestic jobs, including 500 manufacturing facilities in 43 States. To reach the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) 2015 Wind Vision study scenario of wind power serving 35% of the nation's end-use demand by 2050, significant advances are necessary in all areas of wind technologies and market. An area that can greatly impact the cost and rate of innovation in wind technologies is the use of advanced manufacturing, with one of the most promising areas being additive manufacturing (AM). Considering the tremendous promise offered by advanced manufacturing, it is the purpose of this report to identify the use of AM in the production and operation of wind energy systems. The report has been produced as a collaborative effort for the DOE Wind Energy Technology Office (WETO), between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

  8. Energy Harvesting from Aerodynamic Instabilities: Current prospect and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, M.; Rajendran, P.; Khan, S. A.

    2018-01-01

    This paper evaluates the layout and advancement of energy harvesting based on aerodynamic instabilities of an aircraft. Vibration and thermoelectric energy harvesters are substantiated as most suitable alternative low-power sources for aerospace applications. Furthermore, the facility associated with the aircraft applications in harvesting the mechanical vibrations and converting it to electric energy has fascinated the researchers. These devices are designed as an alternative to a battery-based solution especially for small aircrafts, wireless structural health monitoring for aircraft systems, and harvester plates employed in UAVs to enhance the endurance and operational flight missions. We will emphasize on various sources of energy harvesting that are designed to come from aerodynamic flow-induced vibrations, specific attention is then given at those technologies that may offer, today or in the near future, a potential benefit to reduce both the cost and emissions of the aviation industry. The advancements achieved in the energy harvesting based on aerodynamic instabilities show very good scope for many piezoelectric harvesters in the field of aerospace, specifically green aviation technology in the future.

  9. Vacuum energies due to delta-like currents: multipole interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barone, F.A.; Borges, K.; Flores-Hidalgo, G.

    2009-01-01

    Full text. This work is devoted to a study about the quantum description of multipoles distributions by the use of external static currents concentrated along specific regions of space. For this task we consider models of bosonic quantum fields (scalar and electromagnetic fields) interacting with external currents which simulate the presence of charges, dipoles and quadrupoles distributions along D-dimensional static branes. Along the work we consider models in d+D+1 dimensions described by a quantum field coupled with an external current composed by two parts: the first one concentrated along a D-brane and the other one concentrated at a given point of space. This last part represents a point-like test-charge which is used to investigate the force field produced by the former one. Specifically, we consider models for the scalar field, with and without mass, coupled to currents describing distributions of charges, dipoles and quadrupoles currents along D-branes. These currents are given, respectively, by a Dirac's delta function, a directional derivative of a Dirac's delta function and the second derivative of a Dirac's delta function (coupled with a second rank tensor). We also extend the previous results for the electromagnetic case in order to bring them to more realistic contexts. We show that, as expected, there is an overall minus sing in comparing the results obtained for the scalar and electromagnetic fields. (author)

  10. Challenge - oil crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogler, O.

    1981-01-01

    After a short survey on recent developments of energy supply the risks of future energy supply and its effects are discussed. The parameters of dependence on oil-producing countries are studied and an evaluation is given on the measures which have to be taken by the Western industrialized countries in response to the dependence on oil. Further subjects are: mechanism of oil distribution in case of crisis, long-term cooperation of producer countries, measures on international level in the USA and Japan, and the energy-importing countries in the conflict area between OPEC- and industrialized countries. (UA) [de

  11. Information Crisis

    CERN Document Server

    Losavio, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Information Crisis discusses the scope and types of information available online and teaches readers how to critically assess it and analyze potentially dangerous information, especially when teachers, editors, or other information gatekeepers are not available to assess the information for them. Chapters and topics include:. The Internet as an information tool. Critical analysis. Legal issues, traps, and tricks. Protecting personal safety and identity. Types of online information.

  12. Current Status of Non-Electric Applications of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Young Joon; Lee, Jun; Lee, Tae Hoon

    2009-05-01

    IAEA Technical Meeting(I3-TM-37394) on 'Non-Electric Applications of Nuclear Energy' has been successfully held from March 3 to 6 in 2009 at KAERI/INTEC. The 24 experts from 12 countries participated in this meeting and provided 17 presentations and their opinions and comments in desalination, hydrogen production, and heat application sessions. All of the participants from 12 countries agreed that nuclear power should be the potential carbon-free energy source to replace crude oil and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the fields of non-electric applications such as desalination, hydrogen production, district heating, and industrial processes applications

  13. Teaching Method in Situational Crisis Communication Theory: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Proud Arunrangsiwed

    2016-01-01

    Crisis management strategies could be found in various curriculums, not only in schools of business, but also schools of communication. Young students, such as freshmen and sophomores of undergraduate schools, may not care about learning crisis management strategies. Moreover, crisis management strategies are not a topic art students are familiar with. The current paper discusses a way to adapt entertainment media into a crisis management lesson, and the importance of learning crisis manageme...

  14. World energy tendencies: social and environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichs, Ramon

    2007-01-01

    The current world energy situation is the result of the combination of diverse economic, political, technological, social and environmental tendencies that conform a crisis panorama for the high price of the hydrocarbons and especially in the petroleum. Under the current conditions the necessity of a global energy restructuring is imposed that changes the current patterns of generation and energy consumption significantly

  15. Current trend of atomic energy development in Japan - 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, M.; Yang, M. H.; Yun, S. W.

    1999-01-01

    The atomic energy power generation is recognized to be important to solve the problems of the competitive relations among the Asian developing countries due to the increasing dependency on the crude oil produced in the Middle East and the insecurity of transport route of the oil. The reorganization and inauguration of JNC(former PNC) has been carried out for the development of liquid metal reactor and related fuel cycle technology as the national development project to prevent the global green house effect and to continue the economic development. The construction of light water reactor, the utilization of plutonium in light water reactor and the enrichment and reprocessing of spent fuel of light water reactor are classified as proven technologies which will be covered by the industry. The government will lead to the environment favorable for introduction of the atomic energy and will monitor the situation. The specifics of atomic energy development project and the development system for the 21th century will be contained in the long term atomic energy development plan which will be completed by 2000 and the reorganization operation has been initiated. (author). 41 refs., 5 tabs., 30 figs

  16. Crisis will impact investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    of supply deterioration. While today's world economic crisis should reduce energy demand, decrease CO 2 emissions and decrease electricity and gas prices, the credit crunch will likely delay the needed investments in infrastructure to replace aging plants or to build new plants, electrical lines and gas pipelines. Also, governments will have less tax revenues and will have to limit their spending, analysts said. They might be tempted to reduce financial subsidies to renewable energies, as did the Spanish government in October 2008, limiting its incentives to solar development. Analysts said such decisions could jeopardize the growth of renewable energies, especially wind and solar, which need subsidies to be financially competitive. Governments could also impose new taxes on certain utilities; for example, windfall profits linked to CO 2 certificates obtained for free and incorporated in the wholesale prices at their market price. Also, many governments may want to protect their citizens' purchasing power by taking measures such as capping electricity prices (as announced by the Belgian minister of Energy in October 2008) or imposing special measures to protect vulnerable customers (as per discussions currently taking place in the U.K.). During the first half of 2008, some long-awaited mergers and acquisitions were closed, in turn triggering acquisitions of the divested assets following these transactions. The crisis should trigger an increased market consolidation, the acquirers being those with solid balance sheets and cash. Analysts said young companies and new entrants with weak balance sheets could be acquired by stronger ones, thus decreasing market competition. Utilities have to quickly adapt to the new landscape by thriving toward operational excellence, analysts said. This means they will have to streamline their internal processes, simplify their organizations and increase their reactivity while continuously benchmarking their results with the 'best in

  17. The role of crisis in family crisis intervention: do crisis experience and crisis change matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al, C.M.W.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; van der Laan, P.H.; Asscher, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation studies of crisis intervention have focused on prevention of out-of-home placement of children or family functioning, but largely neglected the aspect of crisis. The present study examined crisis in 183 families receiving Family Crisis Intervention (FCI), addressing crisis characteristics

  18. Survey on utility technology of a tidal and ocean current energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Manabu; Kadoyu, Masataka; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi

    1987-06-01

    A study is made to show the current technological levels in Japan and other nations regarding the conversion of tidal current or ocean current energy to electric power and to determine the latent energy quantities and energy-related characteristics of tidal and ocean currents. In Japan, relatively large-scale experiments made so far mostly used one of the following three types of devices: Savonius-wheel type, Darrieus-wheel type, and cross-flow-wheel type. Field experiments of tidal energy conversion have been performed at the Naruto and Kurushima Straits. The energy in the Kuroshio current is estimated at about 170 billion kWh per year. Ocean current energy does not undergo large seasonal variations. The total energy in major straits and channels in the Inland Sea and other sea areas to the west is estimated at about 124 billion kWh per year. Tidal current energy shows large seasonal variations, but it is possible to predict the changes. A survey is made to determine energy-related characteristics of a tidal current at Chichino-seto, Kagoshima Prefecture. At Chichino-seto, the flow velocity ranges from 0 to 2.2m/s, with a latent tidal current energy of about 70 kW, of which about 20 kW can actually be utilized.

  19. Current Solutions: Recent Experience in Interconnecting Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.

    2003-09-01

    This report catalogues selected real-world technical experiences of utilities and customers that have interconnected distributed energy assets with the electric grid. This study was initiated to assess the actual technical practices for interconnecting distributed generation and had a particular focus on the technical issues covered under the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1547(TM) Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems.

  20. Current State of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Market (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2013-09-01

    This presentation highlights the status of the voluntary green power market in 2012. The voluntary green power market totaled more than 48 million MWh in 2012, with about 1.9 million customers participating. The supply continues to be dominated by wind, though solar is increasing its share of utility green pricing programs. Prices for voluntary renewable energy certificates (RECs) increased to above $1/MWh.

  1. Current radiation protection activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program of the Radiation Safety Section is described in this paper. The Section has two main components: (1) the development of consensus safety documentation and (2) the use of that documentation as the basis for assisting countries to deal safely with their applications of radiation and radioactivity. Main activities of the section are listed for each of these components. Activities include documentation, coordinated research programs, and assistance to developing countries. 14 tabs

  2. Current R and D needs in wind energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maribo Pedersen, B.

    1995-01-01

    The meeting, hosted by NOVEM, the Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment, was attended by 22 people. The purpose of the meeting was to get an impression of how far the efforts spent until now on worldwide research and development have brought the general understanding of, and possibly solutions to, the various problems within wind energy technology - thereby providing some guidance as to where to go from now. In 1994 it was estimated that more than 100 million U.S. dollars was spent on R, D and D by those OECD countries which have a wind energy program, and that since 1974 at least 1000 mil. U.S. dollars must have been spent. The necessity of continued basic research within certain areas was recognized, and it was emphasized that the size of the research teams should always be greater than 'the critical mass'. There seemed to be consensus among all participants that the areas for continued research were the following: aerodynamics, aeroelasticity and load calculations, aeroacoustics (verification of fatigue calculation procedures for 3D stress distribution, establishing a data base of material properties), lightning protection measures, offshore installations (combined wind/wave loading, dynamics of support structures, wind and turbulence over the open sea), power conversion and wind turbine - grid interaction. (EG)

  3. A Survey on Renewable Energy Development in Malaysia: Current Status, Problems and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Alam Syed Shah; Nor Nor Fariza Mohd; Ahmad Maisarah; Hashim Nik Hazrul Nik

    2016-01-01

    Energy demand in Malaysia is increasing over seven per cent a year, while forty per cent of the energy is supplied from conventional fossil fuel. However, a number of social barriers have mired the social acceptance of renewable energy among the users. This study investigates the current status of renewable energy, problems and future outlook of renewable energy in Malaysia. A total of 200 respondents were surveyed from Klang Valley in Malaysia. Majority of the respondents use energy to gener...

  4. Ukraine National Energy Current State and Modelling its Long-Term Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shulzhenko, S.

    2016-01-01

    Structure of Ukrainian energy sector, its current challenges, drivers of its development and possible long-term pathways, and methodological approaches and methods of mathematical modelling of long-term national energy development.(author).

  5. Harnessing the Ocean's Power : Energy from Waves and Currents (Part I)

    OpenAIRE

    Yukihisa, Washio; Japan Marine Science and Technology Center

    1985-01-01

    The oceans are a potential source of renewable and pollution-free energy of particular importance to Japan. In this Issue we look at current development work to harness wave energy for power generation.

  6. Current On-Campus Attitudes toward Energy Usage, Efficiency, and Emerging Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennon, Liz [Manhattan College NY, NY 10471; Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken, NJ 07030; Manhattan College NY, NY 10471; Sintov, Nicole [USC Information Sciences Institute Marina del Rey, CA 90292; Orosz, Michael [USC Information Sciences Institute Marina del Rey, CA 90292

    2016-10-01

    Context & Background for Energy Survey Methods & Survey Overview Respondent Demographics Results Demand Response Current Environmental Comfort Perceptions Smart Meters Perceived Smart Meter Benefits Motivators of Energy Efficient Practices Summary & Implications

  7. Marine current turbine design for zero emission renewable energy producing a sailing boat

    OpenAIRE

    EKİNCİ, Serkan; ALVAR, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years, rapid increase in theoretical studies and applications on electrical power generation from renewable sources, such as wind, sun, marine or tidal currents, can be encountered in the literature. Among these, marine current turbines, produce energy by taking the advantage of alternating motion of water, and have the ability to produce energy even at low flow rates, and are operated in oceans and seas as a renewable energy source. In this study, design of marine current turbi...

  8. Isotensor electromagnetic current in low energy pion photoproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aznauryan, I.G.; Nagorskaya, I.A.; Zaslavskij, A.N.

    1974-01-01

    Recent experimental data on single pion photoproduction in the Δ (1236) resonance region are discussed. The role of the high energy contributions into the dispersion integrals are analyzed. Estimates for the magnitude of the isotensor contributions are obtained in the dispersion approach using the experimental data of various groups. In spite of the great number of the experiments the estimate is ambiguous yet since there are direct discrepancies between the data of various groups, besides, certain available data are incomplete. The data of some groups are compatible with 10% isotensor contribution

  9. Chinese Crisis Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gudgel, Andy

    2004-01-01

    .... China's crisis management strategy is geared towards obtaining the maximum political advantage for China, as opposed to resolving the crisis. China tries to define the crisis on its terms in order to shape the resolution favorably.

  10. Crisis Communication Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utz, Sonja; Schultz, Friederike; Glocka, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Social media play in today's societies a fundamental role for the negotiation and dynamics of crises. However, classical crisis communication theories neglect the role of the medium and focus mainly on the interplay between crisis type and crisis communication strategy. Building on the recently...... developed “networked crisis communication model” we contrast effects of medium (Facebook vs. Twitter vs. online newspaper) and crisis type (intentional vs. victim) in an online experiment. Using the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster as crisis scenario, we show that medium effects are stronger than...... the effects of crisis type. Crisis communication via social media resulted in a higher reputation and less secondary crisis reactions such as boycotting the company than crisis communication in the newspaper. However, secondary crisis communication, e.g. talking about the crisis communication, was higher...

  11. KANT CRISIS

    OpenAIRE

    William H Carter

    2011-01-01

    • ISSUE 2-1, 2011 • 68 KANT CRISIS This study approaches the last days of Immanuel Kant through the lens of his contemporary biographers and other correspondents. Among the latter, Kant’s brother and, subsequently, his brother’s family provide a symptomatic reflection upon Kant’s management of his genealogy and his legacy. Yet behind this body of work is another corpus, one which embodies maternal and paternal legacies that are not readily subsumed by Oedipus or Kant’s philosophy. This work (...

  12. CURRENT SHEET ENERGETICS, FLARE EMISSIONS, AND ENERGY PARTITION IN A SIMULATED SOLAR ERUPTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, Katharine K.; Linker, Jon A.; Mikic, Zoran; Forbes, Terry G.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate coronal energy flow during a simulated coronal mass ejection (CME). We model the CME in the context of the global corona using a 2.5D numerical MHD code in spherical coordinates that includes coronal heating, thermal conduction, and radiative cooling in the energy equation. The simulation domain extends from 1 to 20 R s . To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to apply detailed energy diagnostics in a flare/CME simulation when these important terms are considered in the context of the MHD equations. We find that the energy conservation properties of the code are quite good, conserving energy to within 4% for the entire simulation (more than 6 days of real time). We examine the energy release in the current sheet as the eruption takes place, and find, as expected, that the Poynting flux is the dominant carrier of energy into the current sheet. However, there is a significant flow of energy out of the sides of the current sheet into the upstream region due to thermal conduction along field lines and viscous drag. This energy outflow is spatially partitioned into three separate components, namely, the energy flux flowing out the sides of the current sheet, the energy flowing out the lower tip of the current sheet, and the energy flowing out the upper tip of the current sheet. The energy flow through the lower tip of the current sheet is the energy available for heating of the flare loops. We examine the simulated flare emissions and energetics due to the modeled CME and find reasonable agreement with flare loop morphologies and energy partitioning in observed solar eruptions. The simulation also provides an explanation for coronal dimming during eruptions and predicts that the structures surrounding the current sheet are visible in X-ray observations.

  13. Current trend of atomic energy development in Japan- I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Manne; Yang, M. H.; Yoon, S. W.; Choi, M. J.; Kim, S. M.; Choi, Y. M

    1998-01-01

    After hundreds of meeting including the round table meeting on the atomic energy development policy, their conclusions were as follows: 1. The competitive nuclear fuel cycle should be completed. 2. In order to achieve above objective, the development of fast breeder reactor must be continued, and the utilization of JOYO and MONJU, and the international cooperation are highly recommended. 3. The PNC should focus on the development of the fast breeder reactor and the related fuel cycle and the management of high level radioactive waste. PNC, which had been working on too many projects, must be reformed to a slim and more efficient organization. Although there was a regret that the proposals were prepared in a short time to meet the due date for the budget bill of 1988, the Japanese government will seriously consider their proposal and take several administrative measures such as the revision of the related laws for the realization of their proposals. (author).

  14. Conversion of magnetic energy to runaway kinetic energy during the termination of runaway current on the J-TEXT tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, A. J.; Chen, Z. Y.; Huang, D. W.; Tong, R. H.; Zhang, J.; Wei, Y. N.; Ma, T. K.; Wang, X. L.; Yang, H. Y.; Gao, H. L.; Pan, Y.; the J-TEXT Team

    2018-05-01

    A large number of runaway electrons (REs) with energies as high as several tens of mega-electron volt (MeV) may be generated during disruptions on a large-scale tokamak. The kinetic energy carried by REs is eventually deposited on the plasma-facing components, causing damage and posing a threat on the operation of the tokamak. The remaining magnetic energy following a thermal quench is significant on a large-scale tokamak. The conversion of magnetic energy to runaway kinetic energy will increase the threat of runaway electrons on the first wall. The magnetic energy dissipated inside the vacuum vessel (VV) equals the decrease of initial magnetic energy inside the VV plus the magnetic energy flowing into the VV during a disruption. Based on the estimated magnetic energy, the evolution of magnetic-kinetic energy conversion are analyzed through three periods in disruptions with a runaway current plateau.

  15. No. 3425 National Assembly. No. 56 Senate, report on the contributions of the science and the technology to the sustainable development Tome 1: the climatic changes and the energy transition: over the crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-11-01

    Energy crisis can be avoided by the use of anticipation policies. After an examination of the technologies, concerning the energy production and more particularly the electricity, the energy conservation, the new transport modes and the new houses architecture, the authors noted that these policies exist, but need time to implement. In this framework this report aims to defines the situation and bring some recommendations and answers to implement a real policy. (A.L.B.)

  16. Crisis in the French nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nectoux, F.

    1991-02-01

    This report discusses the economics of the French nuclear power industry. It considers the dominant position of nuclear power in the French energy system, stresses the scale and causes of the current (1990) economic crisis and dispels the popular misconceptions on the cost efficiency of the French programme. The evidence is based on widely available French documents and articles. The report begins by looking at the background of nuclear power in France then discusses the problem of overcapacity, the technical problems and fall in load factors, generating costs and electricity prices and finally, strategic issues are considered. (UK)

  17. Nuclear energy over the last 20 years and current developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The round-table debate was chaired by Jose Maria Fernandez-Rua, who began with a presentation of the current situation in the nuclear sector, namely the permanent shutdown of Lemoniz, Valdecaballeros and Trillo nuclear power plants, and continued with the introduction of the participants: Javier de Pinedo, Director of Generation for Iberdrola; Alberto Lopez, General Manager of Enresa; Guillermo Velarde, Director of the Institute of Nuclear Fusion of the ETSIIM; Adolfo Garcia Rodriguez, General Manager of Empresarios Agrupados; Enrique Garcia Alvarez, technical Director of the Endesa Group; Rafael Caro, Member of the Nuclear Safety Council; Juan Velarde Fuentes; Professor of Economics at the Universidad Complutense in Madrid, and Agustin Alonso, Professor of Nuclear Technology at ETSIIM (Author)

  18. Development and the environmental impact analysis of tidal current energy turbines in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuxin; Ma, Changlei; Jiang, Bo

    2018-02-01

    Chinese government pays more attentions to renewable energies (RE) in the context of increasing energy demand and climate change problems. As a promising RE, the utilization of marine renewable energy (MRE) is engaging in the world, including the wave energy and tidal current energy mainly. At the same time, the tidal current energy resources in China are abundant. Thus, the utilization of tidal current energy becomes an inevitable choice for China to meet the challenge of global climate change. The Renewable Energy Law (amendment) and “Twelfth Five-Year” Plan of Renewable Energy Development (2011-2015) were released in recent years in China, the tidal current energy are successfully implemented in China, including the R&D and pilot projects. After the summary of the status of tidal current energy converters in recent years in China, especially the devices being in the open sea test. The environmental impact study in China is also introduced in order to offer reference for the environmental impact assessment of tidal current power generation.

  19. Overpopulation crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C; Russell Wms

    1984-01-01

    This article reviews field research on the violent response on the part of animals to conditions of crowding. Monkey species in zoos have consistently been noted to be more quarrelsome and violent than their counterparts in the wild. Up to a certain critical population density various animal species form cooperative social units; however, a surplus population upsets this balance. In addition, under conditions of intense crowding, mammal's care and protection of the young is transformed into indifference, neglect, competition, domination, and ultimately murder. The reversal of social behavior under crowded conditions can be understood as a means of response to a population crisis, in which population is in danger of outrunning resources. In the absence of confinement, tensions among monkeys lead to war between bands. A community weakened by crowding also is more likely to succumb to certain stress diseases and to have less resilience against parasites. Under various special conditions, tolerance may evolve to permit temporary compression without violence; on the other hand, when a violent response is suppressed, the response tends to be explosive when it does occur. If population reduction is delayed too long, the result may be violence, famine, and permanent damage to the environment from overgrazing. In human society there has generally been a lag in the full development of the violent response to crowding. Given the power of modern military technology, it is imperative that human populations avert a population crisis response by substituting voluntary fertility control for involuntary mortality control.

  20. Agro-energy - A solution for climate or a crisis exit for capital?; L'agroenergie - Solution pour le climat ou sortie de crise pour le capital?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houtart, F. [CETRI, Louvain La Neuve (Belgium)

    2009-07-01

    Intensive advertisement has presented agro-energy as a solution to the global warming and to the energy crisis. But how will it be possible to replace fossil fuels? It would be surprising that an economic system like capitalism does not try to supply some remedies to a situation that paralyzes it and threatens its own survivor-ship. But are these measures favorable to humanity and susceptible to warrant the future of the Earth? Are we trying to save the mankind and its vital capacities or to preserve capitalism? This book examines the role of energy in the development of humanity and then the degradation of climate and the way that capitalism has treated the problem. It deals with the real conditions of biofuels development, reveals the ecological and social conditions of their production, and denounces the social and natural catastrophes they are leading to. The book ends with a thinking about the economical function of biofuels and on the solutions offered by renewable energy sources. It proposes some changes that reveal the core of the problem: changing our development model. (J.S.)

  1. The evolution of ring current ion energy density and energy content during geomagnetic storms based on Van Allen Probes measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, H.; University of Colorado, Boulder, CO; Li, X.; University of Colorado, Boulder, CO; Baker, D. N.

    2015-01-01

    Enabled by the comprehensive measurements from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS), Helium Oxygen Proton Electron mass spectrometer (HOPE), and Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instruments onboard Van Allen Probes in the heart of the radiation belt, the relative contributions of ions with different energies and species to the ring current energy density and their dependence on the phases of geomagnetic storms are quantified. The results show that lower energy (<50 keV) protons enhance much more often and also decay much faster than higher-energy protons. During the storm main phase, ions with energies <50 keV contribute more significantly to the ring current than those with higher energies; while the higher-energy protons dominate during the recovery phase and quiet times. The enhancements of higher-energy proton fluxes as well as energy content generally occur later than those of lower energy protons, which could be due to the inward radial diffusion. For the 29 March 2013 storm we investigated in detail that the contribution from O + is ~25% of the ring current energy content during the main phase and the majority of that comes from <50 keV O + . This indicates that even during moderate geomagnetic storms the ionosphere is still an important contributor to the ring current ions. Using the Dessler-Parker-Sckopke relation, the contributions of ring current particles to the magnetic field depression during this geomagnetic storm are also calculated. In conclusion, the results show that the measured ring current ions contribute about half of the Dst depression.

  2. Measurements of the reverse current of highly irradiated silicon sensors to determine the effective energy and current related damage rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiehe, Moritz; Wonsak, S.; Kuehn, S.; Parzefall, U.; Casse, G.

    2018-01-01

    The reverse current of irradiated silicon sensors leads to self heating of the sensor and degrades the signal to noise ratio of a detector. Precise knowledge of the expected reverse current during detector operation is crucial for planning and running experiments in High Energy Physics. The dependence of the reverse current on sensor temperature and irradiation fluence is parametrized by the effective energy and the current related damage rate, respectively. In this study 18 n-in-p mini silicon strip sensors from companies Hamamatsu Photonics and Micron Semiconductor Ltd. were deployed. Measurements of the reverse current for different bias voltages were performed at temperatures of -32 ° C, -27 ° C and -23 ° C. The sensors were irradiated with reactor neutrons in Ljubljana to fluences ranging from 2 × 1014neq /cm2 to 2 × 1016neq /cm2. The measurements were performed directly after irradiation and after 10 and 30 days of room temperature annealing. The aim of the study presented in this paper is to investigate the reverse current of silicon sensors for high fluences of up to 2 × 1016neq /cm2 and compare the measurements to the parametrization models.

  3. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Kevin A. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2013-10-03

    Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States.

  4. Crisis management and crisis prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallensteen, P.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports that many proposals have come forth to ease the tension between East and West. Some focus on arms developments, others take up diplomatic issues. In addition, some have raised the question of crisis management and crisis prevention. Can crises be prevented even before they have taken place? The Palme Commission on Disarmament and Security suggested, in its 1982 report, ways of restraining superpower involvement in Third World conflicts. Such conflicts, it was argued, could escalate and ultimately result in nuclear confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union. Certainly, the commission also paid attention to conflicts over issues in Europe and to problems in Eastern or in Western Europe. However, the commission raised a question that lately has received increasing attention: the dangers of superpower confrontation over Third World issues. In his statement to the United Nations on 24 October 1985, President Regan pointed to the need for settling regional conflicts as they play a large role in building suspicions and tensions. Regan's initiative explicitly concerned Afghanistan, Cambodia, Ethiopia, Angola and Nicaragua. It included negotiations with the Soviet Union over Afghanistan, and, at a later stage, also over other issues. The goal, he the, was not to force a settlement on the parties. The initiative concerned issues that have for the American public, justified armaments and reduced Soviet credibility

  5. High-energy tritium beams as current drivers in tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, D.R.; Grisham, L.R.

    1983-04-01

    The effect on neutral-beam design and reactor performance of using high-energy (approx. 3-10 MeV) tritium neutral beams to drive steady-state tokamak reactors is considered. The lower current of such beams leads to several advantages over lower-energy neutral beams. The major disadvantage is the reduction of the reactor output caused by the lower current-drive efficiency of the high-energy beams

  6. High-energy manifestations of heavy quarks in axial-vector neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizukuri, Y.; Ohba, I.; Okano, K.; Yamanaka, Y.

    1981-01-01

    A recent work by Collins, Wilczek, and Zee has attempted to manifest the incompleteness of the decoupling theorem in the axial-vector neutral currents at low energies. In the spirit of their work, we calculate corrections of the axial-vector neutral currents by virtual-heavy-quark exchange in the high-energy e + e - processes and estimate some observable quantities sensitive to virtual-heavy-quark masses which may be compared with experimental data at LEP energies

  7. Crisis Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkle, M.K.

    1989-01-01

    The author discusses how one of the strongest examples of how destructive poor crisis communications can be the Three Mile Island accident of March 1979. This was an event that was minimal in its physical effects on the public and environment beyond the walls of that nuclear power plant. However, the emotional trauma on the local public, the economic impact on area businesses and property owners, and the long term impact on the entire nuclear utility industry were great. Approximately 80,000 people as far as 15 miles from the plant evacuated over a weekend. There have been no new orders for nuclear plants and many cancellations since the event 10 years ago. This paper presents an analysis of the accident at Three Mile Island

  8. A current controlled matrix converter for wind energy conversion systems based on permanent magnet synchronous generator

    OpenAIRE

    Naggar H. Saad; Ahmed A. El-Sattar; Mohamed I. Marei

    2016-01-01

    The main challenges of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) are to maximize the energy capture from the wind and injecting reactive power during the fault. This paper presents a current controlled matrix converter to interface Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators (PMSG) based WECS with the grid. To achieve fast dynamic response with reduced current ripples, a hysteresis current control is utilized. The proposed control system decouples the active and reactive components of the PMSG curren...

  9. Economic crisis and oil market balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duquesnoy, S.; Rozenberg, J.; Hourcade, J.Ch.

    2011-01-01

    One might intuitively think that an economic crisis would at least relieve the pressure on oil supply since it slows energy demand. From the model of the oil market DYSMO, we show that an economic crisis may on the contrary increase tension, as it postpones investment in oil supply. (authors)

  10. Leadership in a (permanent) crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heifetz, Ronald; Grashow, Alexander; Linsky, Marty

    2009-01-01

    The current economic crisis is not just another rough spell. Today's mix of urgency, high stakes, and uncertainty will continue even after the recession ends. The immediate crisis--which we will get through with policy makers' expert technical adjustments--sets the stage for a sustained, or even permanent, crisis, a relentless series of challenges no one has encountered before. Instead of hunkering down and relying on their familiar expertise to deal with the sustained crisis, people in positions of authority--whether they are CEOs or managers heading up a company initiative--must practice what the authors call adaptive leadership. They must, of course, tackle the underlying causes of the crisis, but they must also simultaneously make the changes that will allow their organizations to thrive in turbulent environments. Adaptive leadership is an improvisational and experimental art, requiring some new practices. Like Julie Gilbert, who overcame internal resistance to reorient Best Buy toward female purchasers, adaptive leaders get things done to meet today's challenges and then modify those things to thrive in tomorrow's world. They also embrace disequilibrium, using turbulence as an opportunity to build crucial new capacities, as Paul Levy did to rescue Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center from a profound financial crisis. Finally, adaptive leaders, such as Egon Zehnder, the founder of an executive search firm, draw out the leadership skills that reside deep in the organization, recognizing the interdependence of all employees and mobilizing everyone to generate solutions.

  11. New Concept for Assessment of Tidal Current Energy in Jiangsu Coast, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Sheng Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tidal current energy has attracted more and more attentions of coastal engineers in recent years, mainly due to its advantages of low environmental impact, long-term predictability, and large energy potential. In this study, a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model is applied to predict the distribution of mean density of tidal current energy and to determine a suitable site for energy exploitation in Jiangsu Coast. The simulation results including water elevation and tidal current (speed and direction were validated with measured data, showing a reasonable agreement. Then, the model was used to evaluate the distribution of mean density of tidal current energy during springtide and neap tide in Jiangsu Coast. Considering the discontinuous performance of tidal current turbine, a new concept for assessing tidal current energy is introduced with three parameters: total operating time, dispersion of operating time, and mean operating time of tidal current turbine. The operating efficiency of tidal current turbine at three locations around radial submarine sand ridges was taken as examples for comparison, determining suitable sites for development of tidal current farm.

  12. Iran, the crisis situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gere, Francois

    2010-01-01

    This book is an updated edition of a previous book by the same author: 'Iran and the nuclear: the Persian torments'. The author addresses the Iranian nuclear crisis within an historic perspective, and states that this crisis has its roots in the recent Iranian history, but has deeper origins before the Islamic Revolution of 1979. In a first part, he draws a portrait of Iran by opposing current myths and realities like Persia and an actual ethnic diversity, an oil-based wealth in a context of under-development, tyranny and an actual political complexity. He also analyses the Iranian geo-strategy and its recent evolutions, the relationships and attitudes towards the three Satans (USA, France and Israel), and describes the main evolutions of the Iranian defence, notably after 9/11. The second part describes the long evolution of the Iranian nuclear programme, from its beginning at the time of the Shah, until now (projects, programmes and realities of the Iranian electronuclear industry), and recalls the different steps of the nuclear crisis between 2002 and 2006. The third part is a prospective one. The author discusses several aspects of the conflict (power balance, rumours and threats, sanctions and military scenarios, Iranian retaliation capacities) and discusses what a nuclear Iran would be (its capacities, its objectives, geo-strategic consequences of a nuclear Iran, and remaining opportunities for negotiations)

  13. An integrated model for estimating energy cost of a tidal current turbine farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ye; Lence, Barbara J.; Calisal, Sander M.

    2011-01-01

    A tidal current turbine is a device for harnessing energy from tidal currents and functions in a manner similar to a wind turbine. A tidal current turbine farm consists of a group of tidal current turbines distributed in a site where high-speed current is available. The accurate prediction of energy cost of a tidal current turbine farm is important to the justification of planning and constructing such a farm. However, the existing approaches used to predict energy cost of tidal current turbine farms oversimplify the hydrodynamic interactions between turbines in energy prediction and oversimplify the operation and maintenance strategies involved in cost estimation as well as related fees. In this paper, we develop a model, which integrates a marine hydrodynamic model with high accuracy for predicting energy output and a comprehensive cost-effective operation and maintenance model for estimating the cost that may be incurred in producing the energy, to predict energy cost from a tidal current turbine farm. This model is expected to be able to simulate more complicated cases and generate more accurate results than existing models. As there is no real tidal current turbine farm, we validate this model with offshore wind studies. Finally, case studies about Vancouver are conducted with a scenario-based analysis. We minimize the energy cost by minimizing the total cost and maximizing the total power output under constraints related to the local conditions (e.g., geological and labor information) and the turbine specifications. The results suggest that tidal current energy is about ready to penetrate the electricity market in some major cities in North America if learning curve for the operational and maintenance is minimum. (author)

  14. Biowaste energy potential in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nzila, C.; DeWulf, J.; Spanjers, H.; Kiriamiti, H.; Langenhove, H.

    2010-01-01

    Energy affects all aspects of national development. Hence the current global energy crisis demands greater attention to new initiatives on alternative energy sources that are renewable, economically feasible and sustainable. The agriculture-dependent developing countries in Africa can mitigate the

  15. The economic crisis and the energy efficiency programs; A crise economica e os programas de eficiencia energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naturesa, Jim Silva; Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (GPESE/FEC/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Grupo de Planejamento Energetico e Sistemas Eletricos; Gomes, Marcio H. de Avelar [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), Gama, DF (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents some data from the Brazilian economy (2009 and 2010) and their impact on energy efficiency programs. It is also shown the main results of the National Electricity Conservation Program (PROCEL) and PROCEL INFO, which aims to gather and make available information on the rational and efficient use of energy. At the end, we present information showing that MSMEs (Micro, Small and Medium Companies) should be the main focus of the technological innovation programs aimed to energy efficiency. (author)

  16. The current status of wind energy in Turkey and in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilkilic, Cumali; Aydin, Hueseyin; Behcet, Rasim

    2011-01-01

    The rapid increase in world energy demand, the depletion of conventional energy sources and the pollution caused by conventional fuels have increased the importance of developing new and renewable energy sources. Additionally, technological developments have resulted in increased energy demand for the entire world, including Turkey, especially for electrical energy. At present, wind energy is receiving considerable attention. This report focuses on the current status of wind energy in Turkey and in the world. An overview of wind energy in Turkey is presented, and its current status, application, support mechanisms and associated legislation in Turkey are described. Wind energy and its status in the world are also addressed. It can be concluded from this analysis that wind energy utilization in Turkey and throughout world has sharply increased. Turkey has an abundance of wind energy sources. - Research highlights: →The importance of wind energy utilization. →Wind energy status, potential, applications, legislations and supports in Turkey. →An overview of wind energy the world.

  17. Nuclear safety in crisis regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustohalova, Veronika; Englert, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    The use of nuclear energy demands extensive institutional and material infrastructure upon a foundation of stable intrastate conditions and interstate relations. Conflicts can result in catastrophic accidents, either deliberately or unintentionally. If there are nuclear facilities located in a crisis region, the risk of a nuclear disaster is markedly heightened. This can be explained not only in terms of the strategic relevance of the energy supply in military conflicts, but also the increased accident risks and hazards arising from collateral damage, as well as the erosion of the safety culture and institutional control in crisis regions with a nuclear infrastructure. Even just the escalation of a political dispute or the persistence of low intensity conflicts can make it generally more difficult and complex to maintain nuclear safety, if intrastate safety mechanisms come under strain or even fail as a result. So far no instance of military escalation, past or present, has led to an accident in a civil nuclear facility. Nevertheless, questions are clearly raised about the vulnerability of nuclear facilities in crisis regions and the risks associated with this vulnerability. Despite the potentially far-reaching consequences, too little attention is currently being paid to the linkage between intra- and interstate conflicts and the safety of nuclear facilities in crisis regions. The aim of the research presented here was to explore this theme and, after laying the groundwork in this manner, to raise awareness among policy-makers and the wider public. In this context the escalation of conflicts in the Ukraine is a particular focus. The first part of the report begins with a systematic look at the link between crisis regions and/or conflicts and nuclear safety. The various impact pathways relating to nuclear facility safety and the associated risks are described in relation to potential hazards induced by crises and wars. A nuclear facility can itself become a theatre

  18. Nuclear safety in crisis regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ustohalova, Veronika; Englert, Matthias

    2017-04-12

    The use of nuclear energy demands extensive institutional and material infrastructure upon a foundation of stable intrastate conditions and interstate relations. Conflicts can result in catastrophic accidents, either deliberately or unintentionally. If there are nuclear facilities located in a crisis region, the risk of a nuclear disaster is markedly heightened. This can be explained not only in terms of the strategic relevance of the energy supply in military conflicts, but also the increased accident risks and hazards arising from collateral damage, as well as the erosion of the safety culture and institutional control in crisis regions with a nuclear infrastructure. Even just the escalation of a political dispute or the persistence of low intensity conflicts can make it generally more difficult and complex to maintain nuclear safety, if intrastate safety mechanisms come under strain or even fail as a result. So far no instance of military escalation, past or present, has led to an accident in a civil nuclear facility. Nevertheless, questions are clearly raised about the vulnerability of nuclear facilities in crisis regions and the risks associated with this vulnerability. Despite the potentially far-reaching consequences, too little attention is currently being paid to the linkage between intra- and interstate conflicts and the safety of nuclear facilities in crisis regions. The aim of the research presented here was to explore this theme and, after laying the groundwork in this manner, to raise awareness among policy-makers and the wider public. In this context the escalation of conflicts in the Ukraine is a particular focus. The first part of the report begins with a systematic look at the link between crisis regions and/or conflicts and nuclear safety. The various impact pathways relating to nuclear facility safety and the associated risks are described in relation to potential hazards induced by crises and wars. A nuclear facility can itself become a theatre

  19. The Growing Global Threat of Cyber-crime given the Current Economic Crisis: A Study regarding Internet Malicious Activities in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Tuluc

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Computer crime, also referred as cyber-crime, is considered today one of the main leadingproblems in the ongoing global economic crisis and an impediment in the development of manycountries. Objectives of this work are: to determine the evolution of cyber-crime during the currenteconomic crisis, to emphasize the severity of this problem and the urgent need to limit its impactworldwide, to determine consumers perceptions regarding this phenomenon in Romania. Prior Workrelated to this issue was conducted by the Computer Security Institute in United States, InternationalComputer Protection Agency, Symantec and Ponemon Institute. In their studies, these institutionshave revealed many of cyber-crime features and proposed valuable solutions for decreasing itsimpact. The Approach used in this paper was a survey among Romanian consumers regarding cybercrime.A total number of 110 respondents participated in this survey. Results showed that almost80% of respondents were victims of cyber-crime at least once and more than 87% of respondentsnever reported these crimes to the police. As regards Implications, the study can offer support tospecialized institutions, while academics can use these findings for further research. The Value of thispaper consists of relevant findings regarding cyber-crime issue in Romania.

  20. The US Department of Energy Nuclear Data and Low Energy Physics Programs: Aspects of current operational status and future direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whetstone, S.L.; Meyer, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Nuclear Data and Low-Energy Programs are operated within the Division of Nuclear Physics of the US Department of Energy. The data program supports a range of activities including large scale data measurements, nuclear cross section modelling, and nuclear data compilation and dissemination. The US nuclear data needs and prospects for the future of this effort are currently being addressed and its present status is reviewed. Possibilities for the next generation nuclear data accessibility will be discussed and examples presented. The Low-Energy Nuclear Physics Program supports investigations into low-energy nuclear structure and neutrino physics. Among examples of the latter that are covered is the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

  1. Conversion of the energy of a high-current REB into electromagnetic wave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurilko, V.I.; Kharchenko, I.F.

    2000-01-01

    Results are presented from a theoretical investigation and quantitative analysis of the physical processes that govern the efficiency of a coaxial device aimed at converting the energy of a relativistic electron beam into the energy of a TEM wave (a wave in a circular cylindrical coaxial waveguide). The key diffractional problem is solved exactly using a simplified theoretical model, which makes it possible to understand the mechanisms for the formation of a TEM wave and determine how the beam parameters and the design parameters of the converter affect the relative fractions of the kinetic energy of a relativistic electron beam and the energy of its own magnetic and electric fields that are transferred into the energy of the TEM wave field. The results obtained are analyzed quantitatively, and prospects for further theoretical and experimental research in this area are outlined

  2. Mapping the ocean current strength and persistence in the Agulhas to inform marine energy development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meyer, I

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available sensing - Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler - Natal pulses U N C O R R EC TE D PR O O F 1 Mapping the Ocean Current Strength 2 and Persistence in the Agulhas to Inform 3 Marine Energy Development 4 I. Meyer, L. Braby, M. Krug and B. Backeberg 5... International Publishing AG 2017 Z. Yang and A. Copping (eds.), Marine Renewable Energy, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-53536-4_8 1 A u th o r P ro o f U N C O R R EC TE D PR O O F 16 Current. Western boundary ocean currents have become an area of focus (Duerr and 17...

  3. Ring current energy injection rate and solar wind-magnetosphere energy coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.C.; Kan, J.R.; Akasofu, S.-I.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to (i) formulate the ring current injection rate Usub(R) in terms of phisub(CT) (cross-tail potential drop) by assuming that the ring current formation is a direct consequence of an enhanced convection, (ii) examine the relationship between the injection rate Usub(R) and the power transferred from the solar wind to the magnetosphere and (iii) demonstrate that an enhanced convection indeed leads to the formation of the ring current. (author)

  4. How Should the Financial Crisis Change How We Teach Economics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiller, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Student dissatisfaction with teaching of economics--particularly with macroeconomics--during the current financial crisis mirrors dissatisfaction that was expressed during the last big crisis, the Great Depression. Then and now, a good number of students have felt that their lectures bear little relation to the economic crisis raging outside the…

  5. The effect of pulse current on energy saving during Electrochemical Chloride Extraction (ECE) in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tian R.; Geiker, Mette R.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption is a factor influencing the cost of Electrochemical Chloride Extraction (ECE) in concrete. The aims of this work were to investigate the possibility for energy saving when using a pulsed electric field during ECE and the effect of the pulsed current on removal of chloride. Four...... experiments with artificially polluted concrete under same charge transfer were conducted. Results showed that the energy consumption was decreased 15% by pulse current in experiments with 0.2 mA/cm2 current density, which was higher than that of 0.1 mA/cm2 experiments with a decrease of 9.6%. When comparing...... the voltage drop at different parts of the experimental cells, it was found that the voltage drop of the area across the concrete was the major contributor to energy consumption, and results indicated that the pulse current could decrease the voltage drop of this part by re-distribution of ions in pore fluid...

  6. Total kinetic energy in four global eddying ocean circulation models and over 5000 current meter records

    KAUST Repository

    Scott, Robert B.; Arbic, Brian K.; Chassignet, Eric P.; Coward, Andrew C.; Maltrud, Mathew; Merryfield, William J.; Srinivasan, Ashwanth; Varghese, Anson

    2010-01-01

    We compare the total kinetic energy (TKE) in four global eddying ocean circulation simulations with a global dataset of over 5000, quality controlled, moored current meter records. At individual mooring sites, there was considerable scatter between

  7. Seasonal variability in the vertical current structure and kinetic energy in the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, V.S.N.; Savin, M.; RameshBabu, V.; Suryanarayana, A.

    apart, indicates the existence of anticyclonic gyral circulation. The depth variation of kinetic energy (KE) emphasises the bottom intensification of currents with minimum KE at deeper depths followed by relatively higher KE at abyssal depths...

  8. The Venezuelan oil crisis; La crisis del petroleo venezolano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billig, Michelle [Council on Foreign Relations (United States)

    2004-10-15

    The last year, Washington was taken aback by the crisis in Caracas. Such crisis caused the crude oil prices were shot up and it exposed the United States' weak points with regard to both the forecast and the management of the possible threats to their energy supply. Both the government and the industry should do better for the next time. [Spanish] Washington fue tomado por sorpresa cuando se desato la crisis del ano pasado en Caracas, hecho que causo que se dispararan los precios del petroleo y expuso las fallas en la capacidad de Estados Unidos de pronosticar y poder manejar las amenazas a su suministro energetico. Tanto el gobierno como la industria deben hacerlo mejor la proxima vez.

  9. IFREMER-ADEME colloquium 'Offshore renewable energies: offshore wind energy - sea currents and waves. Collection of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    This document contains programme and abstracts of contributions presented during a colloquium. These contributions first addresses the context, and regulatory and economic aspects of offshore wind and sea energy: specificities related to the Public Maritime Domain for the implantation of offshore wind turbines, economy of sea energies within a perspective of de-carbonation of the world energy sector, case of offshore wind turbines and assessment of economic impacts of the implantation of sea renewable energy production units, financing stakes for offshore wind energy projects. A second set of contribution addresses the state-of -the-art and feedbacks for offshore wind energy installations. The third set addresses the assessment of resource potential, measurements, models and production prediction for offshore wind energy: case of French coasts, use of radar for remote sensing, wind climatology modelling, data acquisition for wind farm and data processing. The fourth set of contributions addresses the state-of-the-art, feedback, and R and D for sea current energy, while the fifth one addressed the same aspects for sea wave energy. Technology, installations, maintenance and storage in the field of wind energy are then addressed, and the last set deals with environmental and social-economical impacts of sea renewable energies

  10. A scoping study for an environmental impact field programme in tidal current energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study to identify the environmental impacts of tidal current energy with the aim of prioritising research. The background to the study is traced, and the interaction between tidal current energy technology and the marine environment, the modeling of the consequences of the environmental interactions, the quantification of the environmental impacts of key environmental interactions, and the formulation of a programme of research are discussed. Recommendations are given and research needs are highlighted.

  11. Duality of the magnetic flux tube and electric current descriptions magnetospheric plasma and energy flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, G.

    1981-01-01

    The duality between electric current and magnetic flux tubes is outlined for the magnetosphere. Magnetic flux tubes are regarded as fluid elements subjected to various stresses. Current closure then becomes the dual of stress balance, and Poynting vector energy flow a dual of J x E dissipation. The stresses acting on a flux tube are magnetic stresses, which correspond to currents at a distance, and plasma stresses, which correspond to local currents. The duality between current and stress is traced for ionospheric ion drag forces, solar wind stresses at the magnetopause, inertial effects, and the effects of energetic plasma on flux tubes. The stress balance and dual current systems are outlined for idealized magnetospheres of increasing complexity. For a simple magnetosphere with no convective flow, the balance stresses are solar wind pressure and neutral sheet plasma pressure. The corresponding current systems are the Chapman-Ferraro magnetopause currents and the magetotail current system. The introduction of convective flow introduces further stresses: ionospheric ion drag. Alfven layer shielding, and an imbalance in day-night magnetic stresses due to transport of flux tubes to the nightside by the solar wind. These stresses balance, and hence the corresponding additional currents (the ionospheric Pedersen current and the electrojets, the partial ring current, and two other current systems from the magnetopause and tail) must form a closed current system and do so by the region I and II field-aligned currents of Iijima and Potemra. The energy flow in the above models is described in terms of both Poynting vectors and the above current systems. Temporal variations examined are (1) an increase in dayside merging and/or nightside reconnection, (2) an increase in the energy density of plasma in the plasma sheet, (3) an increase in ionospheric conductivity, and (4) an increase in solar wind pressure

  12. The effects of exchange rate on balance trade and on monetary aggregates of macedonia and the impact of the current world crisis in its economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Sc. Kadishe Limani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Macedonia is a country that is close related to the European Union countries where the majority of the Macedonian foreign trade is with the European Union countries (52%. So the Macedonian economy is in a high level dependency of Euro.  Since Denar is connected closely to Euro, and the level of its usage in everyday economic activity is close to the usage of Denar, it is obvious to be discussed as a dilemma whether Macedonia should have Euro as its currency. However, the problem lies in that whether it is the right time for such action as the best solution for Macedonian economy, keeping in mind the fact that in the international arena there is present a second crisis that is the crisis of Euro-Zone. Based on various sources and on our econometric results, in this paper is argued and supported the main hypothesis that the fix exchange rate for Macedonia is a more optimal choice in comparison with the unilateral euroisation and flexible exchange rate. Thus, during the research we found out some arguments that support the existing regime, such as: under a flexible regime an eventual devaluation of the Denar is more possible, which can lead to more negative effects on the economy than benefits. Thus, devaluation of the Denar will have no significant effects on the balance trade (export and imports and GDP. This means that the competitiveness of a country relies on the other factors. In addition an eventual devaluation of the Denar, it will not have significant effects on monetary aggregates (M2 and M4 due to the asset substitution from Denar deposits to foreign deposits and vice-versa.

  13. A Survey on Renewable Energy Development in Malaysia: Current Status, Problems and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Syed Shah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy demand in Malaysia is increasing over seven per cent a year, while forty per cent of the energy is supplied from conventional fossil fuel. However, a number of social barriers have mired the social acceptance of renewable energy among the users. This study investigates the current status of renewable energy, problems and future outlook of renewable energy in Malaysia. A total of 200 respondents were surveyed from Klang Valley in Malaysia. Majority of the respondents use energy to generate electricity. Although some respondents reported using solar energy, there is lack of retail availability for solar energy. The findings show that limited information on renewable energy technologies, lack of awareness, and limited private sector engagement emerged as major barriers to sustainable renewable energy development. In addition, the respondents suggest for increasing policy support from the government to make information more accessible to mass users, provide economic incentives to investors and users, and promote small-community based renewable energy projects. The study suggests that the government begin small scale projects to build awareness on renewable energy, while academically, higher learning institutions include renewable energy syllabus in their academic curriculum. The study concluded that to have sustainable renewable energy development, government’s initiative, private sector engagement and users awareness must be given priority.

  14. A Survey on Renewable Energy Development in Malaysia: Current Status, Problems and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Syed Shah; Nor, Nor Fariza Mohd; Ahmad, Maisarah; Hashim, Nik Hazrul Nik

    2016-05-01

    Energy demand in Malaysia is increasing over seven per cent a year, while forty per cent of the energy is supplied from conventional fossil fuel. However, a number of social barriers have mired the social acceptance of renewable energy among the users. This study investigates the current status of renewable energy, problems and future outlook of renewable energy in Malaysia. A total of 200 respondents were surveyed from Klang Valley in Malaysia. Majority of the respondents use energy to generate electricity. Although some respondents reported using solar energy, there is lack of retail availability for solar energy. The findings show that limited information on renewable energy technologies, lack of awareness, and limited private sector engagement emerged as major barriers to sustainable renewable energy development. In addition, the respondents suggest for increasing policy support from the government to make information more accessible to mass users, provide economic incentives to investors and users, and promote small-community based renewable energy projects. The study suggests that the government begin small scale projects to build awareness on renewable energy, while academically, higher learning institutions include renewable energy syllabus in their academic curriculum. The study concluded that to have sustainable renewable energy development, government's initiative, private sector engagement and users awareness must be given priority.

  15. Renewable energy sector development in the Caribbean: Current trends and lessons from history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, Rebekah; Kammen, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Island regions and isolated communities represent an understudied area of not only clean energy development but also of innovation. Caribbean states have for some time shown interest in developing a regional sustainable energy policy and in implementing measures which could help to protect its member states from volatile oil markets while promoting reliance on local resources. Here we examine four case studies of renewable energy advancements being made by public utility companies and independent energy companies in the Caribbean. We attempt to locate renewable energy advances in a broader historical framework of energy sector development, indicating a few policy lessons. We find that different degrees of regulatory and legislative sophistication have evolved in different islands. Islands should have specialized policy focus, contrasting the ad-hoc nature of current regional energy policy discussion. We also conduct a cost benefit analysis which shows that these early, innovative alternative energy projects show themselves to be both profitable and significant sources of emissions reduction and job creation. This lends support to the potential benefits of regional energy policy. - Highlights: ► We examine relationships between energy sector players in the Caribbean. ► We conduct a cost benefit analysis of four Caribbean renewable energy projects. ► Results show early, innovative alternative energy projects provide numerous benefits. ► Islands differ greatly in energy industry scale, utility ownership and government involvement. ► We provide subsequent considerations for an enabling regional energy policy framework

  16. Assessment of Current Practice for Tank Testing of Small Marine Energy Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter

    Discussion Report. Equitable Testing and Evaluation of Marine Energy Extraction Devices in terms of Performance, Cost and Environmental Impact. The report is a contribution by Aalborg University (AAU) to the deliverable on Assessment of current practice for tank testing of small marine energy...

  17. Preliminary determination of the energy potential of ocean currents along the southern coast of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Andrea; Beluco, Alexandre; de Almeida, Luiz Emilio B. [Inst. Pesquisas Hidraulicas, Univ. Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The ocean can be a strategic alternative for obtaining energy supplies, both from ocean waves as from sea currents and tides. Among these features, the power generation projects based on ocean currents are still under development. Generating energy from ocean can have great impact on the Brazilian energy grid, since Brazil has a vast coastline, with more than 9,000 km long, with potential for generating energy from ocean currents not fully estimated. This article presents a preliminary determination of the energy potential for power generation from ocean currents along the coast of Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil, and also presents notes that contribute to the characterization of the system of ocean currents in the region. The data used were obtained in two areas near Tramandai, allowing the determination of velocities and directions of the currents on a seasonal basis. The maximum speeds obtained rarely exceed 0.750 m/s, while the average speeds do not exceed 0.200 m/s. A relationship with the prevailing winds in the region was identified. Unfortunately, the results do not allow optimism about the power generation from ocean currents on the southern coast of Brazil, at least over the continental shelf.

  18. Crisis or not, renewable energy is hot. To reap the rewards, governments and companies should act now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-03-01

    2009 brings us new and difficult challenges. But it also offers real opportunities to change the course of our economies and the impact of the environmental footprint we will leave behind. As the European Union's 2020 environmental targets - 20% less CO2, 20% more energy efficiency, and an overall energy mix comprising 20% renewables - loom nearer, data suggests we are not yet on course to meet these ambitious targets. Despite the economic downturn, now is the time for action. The investments required in renewables could contribute to reverse the economic downtrend. To provide a sound basis for that action, PwC recently examined Europe's future renewable energy marketplace through the lens of progress towards the 2020 goals. This PwC study considers the market's potential, compares approaches in various countries, and puts forth some high-level recommendations for how governments and companies can reap the rewards. Making renewable energy 20% of total energy consumption in the 27 countries of the EU will require an investment of 1.8 to 7.3 trillion euros over the next decade depending on the type of renewable technology. In practical terms, that will mean building more than a million windmills or installing enough solar panels to cover an area twice the size of Belgium. A formidable challenge, no doubt. The opportunities, however, are proportionate to that challenge. The take-away from this study is really quite simple: The renewable market is set to become a major part of the energy sector - and the time to act is now

  19. Energy-minimum sub-threshold self-timed circuits using current-sensing completion detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akgun, O. C.; Rodrigues, J. N.; Sparsø, Jens

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the design of self-timed energy-minimum circuits, operating in the sub-VT domain and a generic implementation template using bundled-data circuitry and current sensing completion detection (CSCD). Furthermore, a fully decoupled latch controller was developed, which integrates......V. Spice simulations indicate a gain of 52.58% in throughput because of asynchronous operation. By trading the throughput improvement, energy dissipation is reduced by 16.8% at the energy-minimum supply voltage....

  20. FINANCIAL CRISIS FROM THE MACROECONOMIC LEVEL TO THE MICROECONOMIC LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDA GHEORGHE GABRIEL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The current economic and financial crisis, beyond the problems it generates both at micro and macro level, should determine an adaptation of the mechanisms, institutions and monetary / financial policies to the real economy we are facing. The issue of financial crises is extremely complex, including a series of quantitative and qualitative factors, financial, economic, social, ethical, technological and human, which can intervene and influence the financial operations in a country or several countries simultaneously. We believe that it is difficult to appreciate that a traditional model might explain a financial crisis, given that every context of occurrence, conditions of development and crisis settlement programs are unique and unrepeatable. Every crisis has in its structure certain issues that may be capitalized and can lead to success. Perhaps more obvious are the ways that can lead to total failure of the organization. Finding and capitalizing the potential success is the essence of the crisis management. The essence of the mismanagement of the crisis is to worse situation. The successful management of a crisis involves admitting that you are facing a crisis, taking reasonable measures to remedy the situation, to be seen taking them and heard saying the right words. The issue at this stage of crisis management is that perception becomes true reality. Crisis management is a set of factors designed to combat the crisis and reduce the damage caused by the crisis. In other words, crisis management attempts to prevent or reduce the negative effects of the crisis and protect the organization, the public involved and the specific field by the possible damages. The effective management of the crisis includes crisis communication. This is an essential component through which the organization faced with the difficult situation can rehabilitate it’s publicly image or even to improve it. The crisis communication occurs between the organization and

  1. Study on the current status of biomass energy development; Bio mass energy no kaihatsu jokyo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A survey was conducted on the present status of biomass energy in Japan and abroad and the developmental trend of the latest biomass energy technology. Brazil and the U.S. are most advancing in the biomass energy utilization. Brazil uses sugar cane which is plenty in supply as a raw material, and the U.S. does corn which is the surplus crop. Both countries use the conventional ethanol fermentation technology and produce the petroleum substitution liquid fuel which is in greatest need. As to the technology to convert biomass resource into energy, attention has so far been paid to the development of the production process of the liquid fuel. The latest technology for ethanol fermentation using saccharin and starch as raw materials has already been established in Japan, and the energy-saving type alcohol recovery technology has also reached the stage of practical application. Moreover, as to the ethanol conversion technology with cellulose substrate, the development of the saccharification process will be needed in future. 15 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. Theoretical relation between halo current-plasma energy displacement/deformation in EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahab Ud-Din; Khan, Salah Ud-Din; Song, Yuntao; Dalong, Chen

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, theoretical model for calculating halo current has been developed. This work attained novelty as no theoretical calculations for halo current has been reported so far. This is the first time to use theoretical approach. The research started by calculating points for plasma energy in terms of poloidal and toroidal magnetic field orientations. While calculating these points, it was extended to calculate halo current and to developed theoretical model. Two cases were considered for analyzing the plasma energy when flows down/upward to the diverter. Poloidal as well as toroidal movement of plasma energy was investigated and mathematical formulations were designed as well. Two conducting points with respect to (R, Z) were calculated for halo current calculations and derivations. However, at first, halo current was established on the outer plate in clockwise direction. The maximum generation of halo current was estimated to be about 0.4 times of the plasma current. A Matlab program has been developed to calculate halo current and plasma energy calculation points. The main objective of the research was to establish theoretical relation with experimental results so as to precautionary evaluate the plasma behavior in any Tokamak.

  3. Increase of energy efficiency of testing of traction electric machines of direct and pulsating current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Afanasov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of the analysis of the effect of the load current of traction electric machines when tested for heating on the total electricity consumption for the test are presented. It is shown that increase of load current at the heating test permits to significantly reduce the consumption of electrical energy, and reduce the testing time without reducing its quality.

  4. Measurement of the neutral-current interactions of high-energy neutrinos and antineutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanderer, P.; Benvenuti, A.; Cline, D.; Imlay, R.; Reeder, D.D.; Stefanski, R.; Rubbia, C.; Sulak, L.; Messing, F.; Ford, W.T.; Ling, T.Y.; Mann, A.K.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of the ν and nu-bar weak hadronic neutral-current total cross sections and hadron energy distributions are consistent with a V - A form for this current. They are three standard deviations from pure V, pure A, or a pure T form and unambiguously exclude V + A and any linear combination of S and P

  5. A Communicatively Constituted Online Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara; Romenti, Stefania; Kruckeberg, Dean

    2017-01-01

    into specific public crisis perceptions. Drawing from a communicative constitution perspective, the authors argue that if crises are perceptions or experiences of difficult situations that exceed a person’s current resources and coping mechanisms, and if perceptions and experiences in social media are typically...... by offering suggestions on how to study online critical conversations through the lens of a communicative constitution perspective that could inform how critical issues eventually transform and become crises and how crisis perceptions evolve and are discursively shaped by communicative practices occurring...

  6. Minimizing the magnetohydrodynamic potential energy for the current hole region in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, M.S.; Parks, P.B.

    2004-01-01

    The current hole region in the tokamak has been observed to arise naturally during the development of internal transport barriers. The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) potential energy in the current hole region is shown to be determined completely in terms of the displacements at the edge of the current hole. For modes with finite toroidal mode number n≠0, the minimized potential energy is the same as if the current hole region were a vacuum region. For modes with toroidal mode number n=0, the displacement is a superposition of three types of independent displacements: a vertical displacement or displacements that compress only the plasma, or the toroidal field uniformly. Thus for ideal MHD perturbations of plasma with a current hole, the plasma behaves as if it were bordered by an extra ''internal vacuum region.'' The relevance of the present work to computer simulations of plasma with a current hole region is also discussed

  7. MINIMIZING THE MHD POTENTIAL ENERGY FOR THE CURRENT HOLE REGION IN TOKAMAKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHU, M.S; PARKS, P.B

    2004-01-01

    The current hole region in the tokamak has been observed to arise naturally during the development of internal transport barriers. The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) potential energy in the current hole region is shown to be determined completely in terms of the displacements at the edge of the current hole. For modes with finite toroidal mode number n ≠ 0, the minimized potential energy is the same as if the current hole region were a vacuum region. For modes with toroidal mode number n = 0, the displacement is a superposition of three types of independent displacements: a vertical displacement or displacements that compress only the plasma or the toroidal field uniformly. Thus for ideal MHD perturbations of plasma with a current hole, the plasma behaves as if it were bordered by an extra ''internal vacuum region''. The relevance of the present work to computer simulations of plasma with a current hole region is also discussed

  8. Electron current generated in a toroidal plasma on injection of high-energy neutrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesnichenko, Ya.I.; Reznik, S.N.

    1981-01-01

    Problem of generation of electron current in toroidal plasma with a high-energy ion beam produced during neutral injection has been considered. The analysis was performed on the assumption that plasma is in the regime of rare collisions (banana regime) and ion beam velocity is considerably lower than thermal velocity of plasma ions. Formulae establishing the relation between beam current and electron current have been derived. It follows from them that toroidal affect considerably plasma current generated with the beam and under certain conditions result in changing this current direction in an area remoted from magne-- tic axis [ru

  9. Generation and transportation of low-energy, high-current electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozur, G.E.; Proskurovskij, D.I.; Nazarov, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental data on the production of low-energy, high-current electron beams in a plasma-filled diode are presented. The highest beam energy density achieved is about 40 J/cm 2 , which makes it possible to treat materials in the mode of intense evaporation of the surface layer. It was shown that the use of a hollow cathode improves the beam homogeneity. The feasibility was demonstrated of the production of low-energy high-current electron beams in a gun with plasma anode based on the use of a reflective discharge. (author). 6 figs., 6 refs

  10. Generation and transportation of low-energy, high-current electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozur, G E; Proskurovskij, D I; Nazarov, D S [Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation). Institute of High Current Electronics

    1997-12-31

    Experimental data on the production of low-energy, high-current electron beams in a plasma-filled diode are presented. The highest beam energy density achieved is about 40 J/cm{sup 2}, which makes it possible to treat materials in the mode of intense evaporation of the surface layer. It was shown that the use of a hollow cathode improves the beam homogeneity. The feasibility was demonstrated of the production of low-energy high-current electron beams in a gun with plasma anode based on the use of a reflective discharge. (author). 6 figs., 6 refs.

  11. Powering the future. How we will (eventually) solve the energy crisis and fuel the civilization of tomorrow; Der Letzte macht das Licht aus. Die Zukunft der Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, Robert B. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    When it gets dark, we turn on the light. When it gets cold, we heat. When we need energy for the global industry and technology, we make use of the energy. Every time. But soon the earth fuels such as coal, gas, oil and uranium are irrevocably depleted. And then? The Nobel laureate Robert B. Laughlin reports on the future of our energy supply.

  12. Tidal Current Energy Resource Assessment Around Buton Island, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Ribal, Agustinus; Amir, Amir Kamal; Toaha, Syamsuddin; Kusuma, Jeffry; Khaeruddin

    2017-01-01

    International Journal bereputasi An early stage of assessing tidal current energy resources is carried out in this present work. Tidal current power is estimated around Buton Island, Southeast Sulawesi province, Indonesia. Two-dimensional, depth-integrated of Advanced Circulation (ADCIRC) model has been used to simulate tidal elevation and barotropic tidal current around the island. Green???s function approach has been used to improve eight tidal constituents on the open boundary condition...

  13. [Crisis and future of humanity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellver Capella, Vicente

    2012-09-01

    We live in troubling times. The economic crisis fills us with anxiety. Young, unemployed and throes to finish living worse fear that their parents are not able to take charge of the situation. What has happened to that Spain and Europe, less than four years ago seemed to land of opportunities for native and foreign, have become hostile territories? The economic crisis does not explain everything; It is only a symptom that the basis on which we were building the future were not as firm. It is true that the crisis has brought to bare the obscenity of speculative financial capitalism. It is also true that this crisis can be the great opportunity to build the world on a human and sustainable economic basis, i.e.,just the opposite of the current submission to the dictatorship of the financial markets. But the contemporary crisis has deep and extensive roots. I will refer to other crises, as important or more than the economic one, because to glimpse the future it is essential to carefully track the present and discover the "weak signals" the latent opportunities that await we become them realities.

  14. The financial crisis and securitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Szabłowska

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Securitization means the change of non-liquid assets into securities. This topic has become more popular, mainly due to the U.S. subprime mortgage crisis. In this article, an analysis is given of the current situation in financial markets and the changes, which were implemented from the first days of subprime crisis. Also mentioned is the impact the crisis has had on securitization development. Part of the article is devoted to the situation on the Polish financial market. It is quite a new market and it is susceptible to such crises. The Article presents the part played by securitization in the Polish financial market and the circumstances for its growth in the near future. It also covers the latest information related to financial market regulations, which could have direct or indirect impact on the quantity and value of securitization transactions.

  15. Method for controlling low-energy high current density electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.N.; Oswald, R.B. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A method and an apparatus for controlling the angle of incidence of low-energy, high current density electron beams are disclosed. The apparatus includes a current generating diode arrangement with a mesh anode for producing a drifting electron beam. An auxiliary grounded screen electrode is placed between the anode and a target for controlling the average angle of incidence of electrons in the drifting electron beam. According to the method of the present invention, movement of the auxiliary screen electrode relative to the target and the anode permits reliable and reproducible adjustment of the average angle of incidence of the electrons in low energy, high current density relativistic electron beams

  16. Understanding energy loss in parallelly connected microbial fuel cells: Non-Faradaic current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Junyeong; Sim, Junyoung; Feng, Yujie; Lee, Hyung-Sool

    2016-03-01

    In this work, the mechanisms of energy loss in parallel connection of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is explored using two MFC units producing different open circuit voltage (OCV) and current. In open circuit mode, non-Faradaic current flows in low OCV unit, implying energy loss caused by different OCVs in parallelly stacked MFCs. In a stacked MFC in parallel under close circuit mode, it is confirmed that energy loss occurs until the working voltage in high OCV unit becomes identical to the other unit having low OCV. This result indicates that different voltage between individual MFC units can cause energy loss due to both non-Faradic and Faradaic current that flow from high voltage unit to low voltage unit even in parallelly stacked MFCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Primary power supply of repetitive pulsed intense current accelerator charged by capacitance of energy store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jun; Yang Jianhua; Shu Ting; Zhang Jiande; Zhou Xiang; Wen Jianchun

    2008-01-01

    The primary power supply of repetitive pulsed intense current accelerator charged by capacitance of energy store is studied. The principle of primary power supply circuit and its time diagram of switches are presented. The circuit is analyzed and some expressions are got, especially, the usable voltage scope of capacitance of energy store, and the correlation between the parameters of circuit and time delay, which is between the turn-on of the charging circuit of capacitance of energy store and the circuit of recuperation. The time delay of 256 x 256 lookup table is made with the instruction of theory and the simulation of the actual parameters of circuits. The table is used by the control program to control the repetitive operating of the actual pulsed intense current accelerator. Finally, some conclusions of the primary power supply of repetitive pulsed intense current accelerator charged by capacitance of energy store are got. (authors)

  18. Globally optimal superconducting magnets part I: minimum stored energy (MSE) current density map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieng, Quang M; Vegh, Viktor; Brereton, Ian M

    2009-01-01

    An optimal current density map is crucial in magnet design to provide the initial values within search spaces in an optimization process for determining the final coil arrangement of the magnet. A strategy for obtaining globally optimal current density maps for the purpose of designing magnets with coaxial cylindrical coils in which the stored energy is minimized within a constrained domain is outlined. The current density maps obtained utilising the proposed method suggests that peak current densities occur around the perimeter of the magnet domain, where the adjacent peaks have alternating current directions for the most compact designs. As the dimensions of the domain are increased, the current density maps yield traditional magnet designs of positive current alone. These unique current density maps are obtained by minimizing the stored magnetic energy cost function and therefore suggest magnet coil designs of minimal system energy. Current density maps are provided for a number of different domain arrangements to illustrate the flexibility of the method and the quality of the achievable designs.

  19. Current problems of the Bulgarian energy industry against the background of global short-term energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batov, S.

    1999-01-01

    The energy demand during the next century due first of all to the expected growth of population necessitates more efficient technologies and huge investments. The production of nuclear energy requires higher safety as well as reduction of costs. A new form of partnership between the developed and developing countries is needed for transferring capital and technologies at special framework terms in order to avoid errors in the process of transition. The Energy Forum'99 highlights the current problems of Bulgarian energy branch and the projects for its future including better utilization of the existing energy resources, for development of new or renewable energy sources, not well utilized at present, and to harmonize the sector with better environmental protection. The most important problems discussed are: 1. Structure and restructuring strategy of the energy sector. Prices and tariffs. Privatization aspects. Construction of new replacement generating capacities; 2. Thermal power plants; 3. Nuclear power plants; 4. District heating and natural gas supply; 5. Efficient energy utilization; 6. Renewable energy sources; 7. Environmental protection and 8. Education

  20. Cuba: The Next Unanticipated Anticipated Strategic Crisis?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gorrell, Tim

    2005-01-01

    ...; and the current Bush administration with the global war on terrorism (GWOT). Cuba, specifically post-Castro Cuba, could very well trigger the next unanticipated crisis even though the writing is on the...

  1. The present global financial and economic crisis and the oil crises of the 1970s. Opposite turning points in the development of economic growth, energy supply, and the role of nuclear power?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    After decades of extensive economic growth, the oil crises in the 1970s enforced the transition to intensive growth in a manner conserving resources, combined with a fundamental turnaround in the development of global energy supply and the role of nuclear power. Meanwhile, the world has changed considerably as a result of population growth, technical progress, and globalization - and it is in the throes of another crisis. The contribution shows, on the basis of empirical indicators, that higher commodity prices halted the period of intense growth already in late 2007. The following global financial and economic crisis can be interpreted plausibly as a return to extensive economic growth worldwide. This is likely to have far-reaching consequences for the future development of global energy supply and the role of nuclear power. (orig.)

  2. Biomass energy success stories: a portfolio illustrating current economic uses of renewable biomass energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-03-01

    This second edition of the Biomass Energy Success Stories covers a wide range of examples of organizations which have experienced economic benefits by substituting renewable biomass energy for non-renewable fossil fuels. In addition to the broader spectrum of industry seen to be pursuing this approach, the cases illustrate a move towards innovative and technologically more sophisticated approaches. For example, the Quebec Community's thermal accumulator acts as a buffer to accommodate the variable fuel value of boiler fuel consisting of unpredictable residues of variable moisture content. By this innovative approach, the quality of steam to its year-round customer can be held within the contractual limits. Another unique development appears in the use of the LAMB-CARGATE wet cell burner which is able to cope with wood residue fuels containing up to 70% moisture. Two of the more interesting and promising developments in the race to substitute renewable energy for fossil fuels are Fluidized Bed and Fuel-alcohol on-farm distilleries. For this reason appendices are included giving some useful insights concerning them.

  3. High energy, low inductance, high current fiberglass energy storage capacitor for the Atlas Machine Marx modules

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, R A; Ennis, J B; Cochrane, J C; Reass, W A; Parsons, W M

    1999-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory's Atlas Marx design team envisioned a double ended plastic case 60 kV, 15 nH, 650 kA, energy storage capacitor. A design specification was established and submitted to various vendors. Maxwell Energy Products drew from its development of large fiberglass case, high voltage, low inductance "FASTCAP" capacitors manufactured for Maxwell Technologies' ACE II, ACE III and ACE IV machines. This paper discusses the LANL specification and Maxwell Energy Products' successful design, Model No. 39232, 34.1 mu F, 60 kV, 13*29*27", the only capacitor qualified by LANL for the 23 Mega Joule Atlas application. Maxwell's past experience in this type of capacitor is covered. The performance data is reviewed and the life test data compared to the original calculated design life. Challenges included Maxwell's "keep it simple " design goal which was maintained to minimize the effort required to create and manufacture a nearly 600 pound capacitor. (1 refs).

  4. Identity Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraw, Leonard J.

    2012-01-01

    The article presents a simple and highly engaging activity for students involving DNA fingerprints, DNA bands, genotypes, phenotypes, and DNA morphology. The science of DNA fingerprinting, currently done by electrophoresis, extends to all living organisms containing DNA. (Contains 4 figures.)

  5. From ‘Post-Industrial’ to ‘Network Society’ and Beyond: The Political Conjunctures and Current Crisis of Information Society Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Ampuja

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article critically discusses the intellectual and conceptual shifts that have occurred in information society theories (and also policies in the previous four decades. We will examine the topic by focusing on the work of Daniel Bell and Manuel Castells, arguably two of the most important information society theorists. A key element in the academic shift from “post-industrial” (Bell thinking to the discourse on “network society” (Castells is that it has brought forward a different way of understanding the role of the state vis-a-vis the development of new information and communication technologies, as well as a new assessment of the role of the state in the economy and society at large. Against the Keynesian undertones of Bell’s ideas, Castells’ network society theory represents a neoliberally restructured version of “information society” that is associated with the rise of flexibility, individuality and a new culture of innovation. We argue that these changing discourses on the information society have served a definite hegemonic function for political elites, offering useful ideals and conceptions for forming politics and political compromises in different historical conjunctures. We conclude the article by looking at how the on-going global economic crisis and neoliberalism’s weakening hegemonic potential and turn to austerity and authoritarian solutions challenges existing information society theories.

  6. Current situation of energy consumption and measures taken for energy saving in the iron and steel industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Z.C.; Fu, Z.X.

    2010-01-01

    A survey of the key issues associated with the development in the Chinese iron and steel industry and current situations of energy consumption are described in this paper. The apparent production of crude steel in China expanded to 418.78 million tonnes in 2006, which was about 34% share of the world steel production. The iron and steel industry in China is still one of the major high energy consumption and high pollution industries, which accounts for the consumption of about 15.2% of the national total energy, and generation of 14% of the national total wastewater and waste gas and 6% of the total solid waste materials. The average energy consumption per unit of steel is about 20% higher than that of other advanced countries due to its low energy utilization efficiency. However, the energy efficiency of the iron and steel industry in China has made significant improvement in the past few years and significant energy savings will be achieved in the future by optimizing end-use energy utilization. Finally, some measures for the industry in terms of the economic policy of China's 11th five-year plan are also presented.

  7. Crisis Management: Research Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Dorman, Sally; Anderson, Luke; McNair, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This article presents summaries of three studies relevant to school crisis response. The first report, "A Framework for International Crisis Intervention" (Sally Dorman), is a review of how existing crisis intervention models (including the NASP PREPaRE model) have been adapted for international use. The second article, "Responding…

  8. A Power Supply System with ZVS and Current-Doubler Features for Hybrid Renewable Energy Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jye-Chau Su

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a power supply system for hybrid renewable energy conversion is proposed, which can process PV (photovoltaic power and wind-turbine energy simultaneously for step-down voltage and high current applications. It is a dual-input converter and mainly contains a PV energy source, a wind turbine energy source, a zero-voltage-switching (ZVS forward converter, and a current-doubler rectifier. The proposed power supply system has the following advantages: (1 PV-arrays and wind-energy sources can alternatively deliver power to the load during climate or season alteration; (2 maximum power point tracking (MPPT can be accomplished for both different kinds of renewable-energy sources; (3 ZVS and synchronous rectification techniques for the active switches of the forward converter are embedded so as to reduce switching and conducting losses; and (4 electricity isolation is naturally obtained. To achieve an optimally dynamic response and to increase control flexibility, a digital signal processor (DSP is investigated and presented to implement MPPT algorithm and power regulating scheme. Finally, a 240 W prototype power supply system with ZVS and current-doubler features to deal with PV power and wind energy is built and implemented. Experimental results are presented to verify the performance and the feasibility of the proposed power supply system.

  9. Expert assessment of the current state of the energy management system in the company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnullina, Anna; Abdrazakov, Rais

    2017-10-01

    The authors’ expert assessment of the current state of the energy management system in the company is proposed in the article. The experts are invited to assess the status of the energy management system in the following categories: energy policy, organizational structure, training, motivation, control, communication, investment, and energy consumption culture. For the purposes of interpretation of the results of the expert evaluation obtained, a gradation based on a possible range of values is proposed. The expert evaluation allows representing the status of the energy management system in general and at each of its individual levels, which makes it possible to identify the problem areas more accurately. To confirm the applied nature of the proposed methodology, the authors assessed the opinions of 8 experts, employed by the road construction company of the Tyumen Region and related in one way or another to the process of energy consumption in the company due to the nature of their activities.

  10. Current status of development on superconducting magnetic energy storage systems and magnetic refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Naoki

    2010-01-01

    Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems have excellent characteristics as energy-storage equipment in power systems such as high efficiency, quick response, and no deterioration in repetitive operations. There are many projects to develop SMES throughout the world. Since 1991, a national project by the Agency for Natural Resources and Energy Japan has been working to develop an SMES system to control power in power systems. Moreover, SMES has been developed to compensate for momentary voltage dips since 2003. To reduce energy consumption due to prolonged operating times, we developed energy-conserving electrical equipment incorporating refrigerating aggregates such as air conditioners. We conduced R and D to convert magnetic refrigeration and highly-efficient, energy-conserving/environmentally friendly technologies, to practical applications. The current status in the development of SMES to control power systems, bridging to deal with instantaneous voltage dips, and magnetic refrigeration technology will be explained in this paper. (author)

  11. Energy Flow Exciting Field-Aligned Current at Substorm Expansion Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebihara, Y.; Tanaka, T.

    2017-12-01

    At substorm expansion onset, upward field-aligned currents (FACs) increase abruptly, and a large amount of electromagnetic energy starts to consume in the polar ionosphere. A question arises as to where the energy comes from. Based on the results obtained by the global magnetohydrodynamics simulation, we present energy flow and energy conversion associated with the upward FACs that manifest the onset. Our simulations show that the cusp/mantle region transmits electromagnetic energy to almost the entire region of the magnetosphere when the interplanetary magnetic field is southward. Integral curve of the Poynting flux shows a spiral moving toward the ionosphere, probably suggesting the pathway of electromagnetic energy from the cusp/mantle dynamo to the ionosphere. The near-Earth reconnection initiates three-dimensional redistribution of the magnetosphere. Flow shear in the near-Earth region results in the generation of the near-Earth dynamo and the onset FACs. The onset FACs are responsible to transport the electromagnetic energy toward the Earth. In the near-Earth region, the electromagnetic energy coming from the cusp/mantle dynamo is converted to the kinetic energy (known as bursty bulk flow) and the thermal energy (associated with high-pressure region in the inner magnetosphere). Then, they are converted to the electromagnetic energy associated with the onset FACs. A part of electromagnetic energy is stored in the lobe region during the growth phase. The release of the stored energy, together with the continuously supplied energy from the cusp/mantle dynamo, contributes to the energy supply to the ionosphere during the expansion phase.

  12. Effects of pulse current on energy consumption and removal of heavy metals during electrodialytic soil remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tian R.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2012-01-01

    industrially polluted soils were performed. At a current density of 0.1mA/cm2 in soil 1 and 0.2mA/cm2 in soil 2, there was no difference on energy consumption and removal of heavy metals between pulse current and constant current experiments, but at higher current experiments (i.e., 0.2mA/cm2 in soil 1 and 0......The aims of this paper were to investigate the possibility for energy saving when using a pulsed electric field during electrodialytic soil remediation (EDR) and the effect of the pulsed current on removal of heavy metals. Eight experiments with constant and pulse current in the different.......8mA/cm2 in soil 2) the energy was saved 67% and 60% and the removal of heavy metals was increased 17–76% and 31–51% by pulse current in soil 1 and soil 2, respectively. When comparing the voltage drop at different parts of EDR cells, it was found that the voltage drop of the area across cation...

  13. Structure of the neutral current coupling in high energy neutrino--nucleon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merritt, F.S.

    1977-01-01

    The primary objective of this experiment was to determine the Lorentz structure of the neutral current coupling--that is, to determine what combination of V-A and V+A (or possibly S, P, and T) components make up the neutral coupling. The experiment used the Fermilab narrow band neutrino beam to provide separated neutrino and antineutrino fluxes, each consisting of two energy bands at approximately equal to 55 and approximately equal to 150 GeV. Deep inelastic inclusive neutrino-nucleon interactions of the form ν(anti ν) + N = μ - (μ + ) + hadrons (CC event) ν(anti ν) + N = ν(anti ν) + hadrons (NC event) were observed in an instrumented steel target-calorimeter, which measured the total energy of the hadrons produced in each event. The neutral current coupling was determined by comparing the hadron energy distributions of neutrino and antineutrino neutral current events. An analysis of the charged-current data was carried out in order to determine the background of charged-current events with unobserved muons, and to provide a normalization for the neutral current data. Various parameterizations of the CC interaction were tested, and their effects on the neutral current analysis were studied in detail. The neutral current analysis indicates that, if only vector and axial-vector components exist, then the neutral current coupling lies between V and V-A. A pure scalar coupling is excluded. The data were compared to the Weinberg--Salam theory (extended to semileptonic interactions), and are in very good agreement with its predictions. Comparison of these data to the low energy Gargamelle data indicates consistency with a scaling hypothesis

  14. Generation of Low-Energy High-Current Electron Beams in Plasma-Anode Electron Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozur, G. E.; Proskurovsky, D. I.

    2018-01-01

    This paper is a review of studies on the generation of low-energy high-current electron beams in electron guns with a plasma anode and an explosive-emission cathode. The problems related to the initiation of explosive electron emission under plasma and the formation and transport of high-current electron beams in plasma-filled systems are discussed consecutively. Considerable attention is given to the nonstationary effects that occur in the space charge layers of plasma. Emphasis is also placed on the problem of providing a uniform energy density distribution over the beam cross section, which is of critical importance in using electron beams of this type for surface treatment of materials. Examples of facilities based on low-energy high-current electron beam sources are presented and their applications in materials science and practice are discussed.

  15. Maximizing direct current power delivery from bistable vibration energy harvesting beams subjected to realistic base excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Quanqi; Harne, Ryan L.

    2017-04-01

    Effective development of vibration energy harvesters is required to convert ambient kinetic energy into useful electrical energy as power supply for sensors, for example in structural health monitoring applications. Energy harvesting structures exhibiting bistable nonlinearities have previously been shown to generate large alternating current (AC) power when excited so as to undergo snap-through responses between stable equilibria. Yet, most microelectronics in sensors require rectified voltages and hence direct current (DC) power. While researchers have studied DC power generation from bistable energy harvesters subjected to harmonic excitations, there remain important questions as to the promise of such harvester platforms when the excitations are more realistic and include both harmonic and random components. To close this knowledge gap, this research computationally and experimentally studies the DC power delivery from bistable energy harvesters subjected to such realistic excitation combinations as those found in practice. Based on the results, it is found that the ability for bistable energy harvesters to generate peak DC power is significantly reduced by introducing sufficient amount of stochastic excitations into an otherwise harmonic input. On the other hand, the elimination of a low amplitude, coexistent response regime by way of the additive noise promotes power delivery if the device was not originally excited to snap-through. The outcomes of this research indicate the necessity for comprehensive studies about the sensitivities of DC power generation from bistable energy harvester to practical excitation scenarios prior to their optimal deployment in applications.

  16. Energy. The countdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montbrial, T. de.

    1979-01-01

    The subject is treated under the following heads: the past -the politics of energy - the oil and nuclear power crisis (the great oil adventure; the oil crisis and international relations since October 1973; the nuclear energy crisis (why the opposition to nuclear energy, the proliferation of nuclear weapons); geopolitics and energy policy); the future - the energy crisis (the nature of the energy problem; global energy demand; toward an imbalanced oil market; natural gas, coal, nuclear and other energy sources; anticipating the second energy crisis to try to avoid it; future evolution of the price of energy; the economic effects of a massive increase in the price of oil. (UK)

  17. Feasibility of Tidal and Ocean Current Energy in False Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Bruce Albert [Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association, Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States)

    2014-05-07

    The Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association was awarded a U.S. Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program grant (DE-EE0005624) for the Feasibility of Tidal and Ocean Current Energy in False Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (Project). The goal of the Project was to perform a feasibility study to determine if a tidal energy project would be a viable means to generate electricity and heat to meet long-term fossil fuel use reduction goals, specifically to produce at least 30% of the electrical and heating needs of the tribally-owned buildings in False Pass. The Project Team included the Aleut Region organizations comprised of the Aleutian Pribilof Island Association (APIA), and Aleutian Pribilof Island Community Development Association (APICDA); the University of Alaska Anchorage, ORPC Alaska a wholly-owned subsidiary of Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), City of False Pass, Benthic GeoScience, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The following Project objectives were completed: collected existing bathymetric, tidal, and ocean current data to develop a basic model of current circulation at False Pass, measured current velocities at two sites for a full lunar cycle to establish the viability of the current resource, collected data on transmission infrastructure, electrical loads, and electrical generation at False Pass, performed economic analysis based on current costs of energy and amount of energy anticipated from and costs associated with the tidal energy project conceptual design and scoped environmental issues. Utilizing circulation modeling, the Project Team identified two target sites with strong potential for robust tidal energy resources in Isanotski Strait and another nearer the City of False Pass. In addition, the Project Team completed a survey of the electrical infrastructure, which identified likely sites of interconnection and clarified required transmission distances from the tidal energy resources. Based on resource and electrical data

  18. Diferentes teorias marxistas de crise e diferentes interpretações da crise atual Different Marxist theories of crises and different interpretations of the current crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Paulo Cipolla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta criticamente diferentes interpretações da crise atual. Orientaram a seleção das várias contribuições a representatividade das teorias marxistas clássicas de crise e a importância das novas abordagens correspondentes aos novos fenômenos em desenvolvimento no capitalismo atual. O exame crítico dessas contribuições revela uma linha divisória entre aqueles que concebem a crise como tendo sido causada pelo afluxo dos lucros da produção para as finanças (Husson e Foster /Magdoff e aqueles para os quais o aumento do crédito de consumo foi resultado de uma reestruturação dos fluxos de crédito das empresas, cada vez mais autônomas no mercado de dinheiro, às famílias assalariadas, cada vez mais dependentes do financiamento bancário. Essa linha divisória reflete a importância que o primeiro grupo adjudica à diminuição do ritmo de crescimento vis-à-vis os teóricos da School of Oriental and African Studies. A análise revela também que a atrofia da economia política leva a um abandono precoce da teoria bancária e financeira de Marx em favor dos instrumentos teóricos pós-keynesianos imediatamente disponíveis para o uso.This article is a critical survey of different interpretations of the 2007-2008 financial crises. They were chosen either because they represented classical Marxian views on crisis, such as the underconsumption or over-accumulation theories, or else because they were newly developed interpretations based on recent newly economic developments, as it is the case of the financial expropriation theory. The analysis reveals three main points of view. The first is that the cause of crisis is the stagnation of the economy and the ensuing transfer of profits from production to finance, process that caused the housing-financial bubble (Husson and Foster/Magdoff. The second view argues that it was the structural change in financial markets which led banks to increasingly rely on consumer credit

  19. Ethiopia's emerging domestic biogas sector : Current status, bottlenecks and drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, L.M.; Bermúdez Forn, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    Ethiopia experiences an energy and environmental crisis due to the sustained reliance on woody biomass to satisfy its energy needs. This situation could be improved by using biogas. This paper analyses the current status of the domestic biogas sector in Ethiopia and identifies barriers and

  20. Effect of current profile evolution on plasma-limiter interaction and the energy confinement time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawryluk, R.J.; Bol, K.; Bretz, N.

    1979-04-01

    Experiments conducted on the PLT tokamak have shown that both plasma-limiter interaction and the gross energy confinement time are functions of the gas influx during the discharge. By suitably controlling the gas influx, it is possible to contract the current channel, decrease impurity radiation from the core of the discharge, and increase the gross energy confinement time, whether the aperture limiters were of tungsten, stainless steel or carbon

  1. Arrays of Synthetic Atoms: Nanocapacitor Batteries with Large Energy Density and Small Leak Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-28

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2017-0169 TR-2017-0169 ARRAYS OF SYNTHETIC ATOMS: NANOCAPACITOR BATTERIES WITH LARGE ENERGY DENSITY AND SMALL LEAK...1-0247 Arrays of Synthetic Atoms: Nanocapacitor Batteries with Large Energy Density and Small Leak Currents 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...large dielectric strength to a nanoscale rechargeable battery . We fabricated arrays of one-, two- and three-dimensional synthetic atoms and comparison

  2. Energy content of stormtime ring current from phase space mapping simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.W.; Schulz, M.; Lyons, L.R.

    1993-01-01

    The authors perform a model study to account for the increase in energy content of the trapped-particle population which occurs during the main phase of major geomagnetic storms. They consider stormtime particle transport in the equatorial region of the magnetosphere. They start with a phase space distribution of the ring current before the storm, created by a steady state transport model. They then use a previously developed guiding center particle simulation to map the stormtime ring current phase space, following Liouville's theorem. This model is able to account for the ten to twenty fold increase in energy content of magnetospheric ions during the storm

  3. The persistent current and energy spectrum on a driven mesoscopic LC-circuit with Josephson junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlavanias, Hassan

    2018-03-01

    The quantum theory for a mesoscopic electric circuit including a Josephson junction with charge discreteness is studied. By considering coupling energy of the mesoscopic capacitor in Josephson junction device, a Hamiltonian describing the dynamics of a quantum mesoscopic electric LC-circuit with charge discreteness is introduced. We first calculate the persistent current on a quantum driven ring including Josephson junction. Then we obtain the persistent current and energy spectrum of a quantum mesoscopic electrical circuit which includes capacitor, inductor, time-dependent external source and Josephson junction.

  4. A current controlled matrix converter for wind energy conversion systems based on permanent magnet synchronous generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naggar H. Saad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main challenges of wind energy conversion systems (WECS are to maximize the energy capture from the wind and injecting reactive power during the fault. This paper presents a current controlled matrix converter to interface Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators (PMSG based WECS with the grid. To achieve fast dynamic response with reduced current ripples, a hysteresis current control is utilized. The proposed control system decouples the active and reactive components of the PMSG current to extract the maximum power from the wind at a given wind velocity and to inject reactive power to the grid. Reactive power injection during the fault satisfying the grid-codes requirement. The proposed WECS has been modeled and simulated using PSCAD/EMTDC software package.

  5. A Cryogenic Current Comparator for the Low Energy Antiproton Facilities at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, M; Welsch, CP

    2014-01-01

    Several laboratories have shown the potential of using Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometers together with superconductor magnetic shields to measure beam current intensities in the submicro-Ampere regime. CERN, in collaboration with GSI, Jena university and Helmholtz Institute Jena, is currently working on developing an improved version of such a current monitor for the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) and Extra Low ENergy Antiproton (ELENA) rings at CERN, aiming for better current resolution and overall system availability. This contribution will present the current design, including theoretical estimation of the current resolution; stability limits of SQUID systems and adaptation of the coupling circuit to the AD beam parameters; the analysis of thermal and mechanical cryostat modes.

  6. Optimum Peak Current Hysteresis Control for Energy Recovering Converter in CDI Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto M. Pernía

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Capacitive De-Ionization (CDI is becoming a suitable alternative for desalination. The low cost of the materials required and its reduced energy consumption can be critical factors for developing this technique. CDI technology does not require a high-pressure system and the energy storage capability of CDI cells allows it to be reused in other CDI cells, thus minimizing consumption. The goal of the power stage responsible of the energy recovery is transferring the stored energy from one cell to another with the maximum possible efficiency, thus allowing the desalination process to continue. Assuming hysteresis current control is implemented at the DC/DC (direct current converter, this paper aims to determine the optimum peak current through the inductor in each switching period with a view to maximizing overall efficiency. The geometrical parameters of the desalination cell and the NaCl concentration modify the cell electrical properties. The peak current control of the power stage should be adapted to the cell characteristics so that the efficiency behavior of the whole CDI system can be improved. The mathematical model defined in this paper allows the CDI plant automation using the peak inductor current as control variable, adapting its value to the salt concentration during the desalination process.

  7. The trend of the research and development for the upgrade of the high current energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The high current energy technology ranges from a basic technology of the electric power field to a state-of-the-art technology and has been used extremely variously. In addition, as the energy technology advances, the expansion of applied field, such as the nuclear fusion and the exhaust thing processing, etc., requires a further upgrade of the large current technology. In this report, the trend of the research and development for the upgrade of the high current energy technology are summarized. In the following, the elemental technology including arc/plasma phenomena and the pulse power system is described in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3, the trend of the research and development for the upgrade of various equipments and devices such as the nuclear fusion development, the superconducting applications of SMES and the maglev transportation system, and the arc application of the exhaust processing for a medical waste, the radio active waste and a detrimental gas and the next generation lithography system. In Chapter 4, the analysis and the measurement technology of the arc phenomenon and the standardization of current shunt, etc are described. We hope this research report can contribute to the promotion of technical exchanges in different fields, and offer guidelines for future development in this high current energy technology. (author)

  8. Electron Energy Confinement for HHFW Heating and Current Drive Phasing on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosea, J.C.; Bernabei, S.; Biewer, T.; LeBlanc, B.; Phillips, C.K.; Wilson, J.R.; Stutman, D.; Ryan, P.; Swain, D.W.

    2005-01-01

    Thomson scattering laser pulses are synchronized relative to modulated HHFW power to permit evaluation of the electron energy confinement time during and following HHFW pulses for both heating and current drive antenna phasing. Profile changes resulting from instabilities require that the total electron stored energy, evaluated by integrating the midplane electron pressure P(sub)e(R) over the magnetic surfaces prescribed by EFIT analysis, be used to derive the electron energy confinement time. Core confinement is reduced during a sawtooth instability but, although the electron energy is distributed outward by the sawtooth, the bulk electron energy confinement time is essentially unaffected. The radial deposition of energy into the electrons is noticeably more peaked for current drive phasing (longer wavelength excitation) relative to that for heating phasing (shorter wavelength excitation) as is expected theoretically. However, the power delivered to the core plasma is reduced consider ably for the current drive phasing, indicating that surface/peripheral damping processes play a more important role for this case

  9. Radiation of transient high-current arcs: energy measurements in the optical range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauchire, J M; Hong, D; Rabat, H; Riquel, G

    2012-01-01

    When no protection is used, the radiation emitted by a high-power electric arc can be dangerous for the eyes and the skin of a person. To ensure effective protection, it is first necessary to know the energy emitted by such arcs. The aim of our work was to experimentally determine the energy emitted by high-current (from 4 to 40 kA) transient arcs, for two different (10 cm and 2 m) lengths and for electrodes in copper or steel. These experiments enabled the radiative energy of the arcs to be quantified and also showed the influence of metal vapors in the spectral distribution of the radiation.

  10. Assessment of current Dutch energy transition policy instruments for the existing housing stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tambach, Milly; Hasselaar, Evert; Itard, Laure

    2010-01-01

    This research assesses to what extent current Dutch energy transition policy instruments for the existing housing stock can fulfil local executive actors' needs and instigate adoption of energy efficiency measures by them. This is done by studying energy policy instruments for the existing housing stock in the Netherlands and in other European countries, and by an empirical research, which analyses barriers and needs of local executive actors. We found that, despite current Dutch energy transition policy instruments for the existing housing stock seem to fulfil local executive actors' needs to a large extent, complementary policy instruments are needed to stimulate and pressure the incumbent renovation regime. A long-term oriented financial rewarding system is needed to build up a structural market for the deployment of renewables, to increase the number of specialist jobs in the building sector, and to stimulate the development of integrated, standardized, building components. Furthermore, a long-term oriented financial rewarding system for energy efficiency investments in housing renovation projects, and a low VAT rate applied to energy efficient renovation measures, are needed. Finally, enforcement possibilities and sanctions (fines) should become an integrative part of Dutch energy certification regulation to make the certificate become part of a value chain.

  11. Gas crisis in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The gas crisis in Europe is getting more evident. Basing his discussion on BP's annual statistical review of world energy, 2002, the author concludes that an increasing number of the major European consumers of natural gas may acquire a supply- and safety problem and become more dependent on imported gas for operating power stations. This is going to be most dramatic for France, Germany and Italy. Great Britain have gas reserves that will last for about seven years. Spain is an interesting ''phenomenon'' in the European gas market; they have trebled their gas consumption during the last decade. Europe's dependence on a high production rate on the Norwegian Shelf has become stronger from year to year

  12. Exploratory study of a crisis commander’s perspectives on the role and value of public relations in crisis management

    OpenAIRE

    Mat Tazin Saidathul Nizah; Kaur Kiranjit

    2017-01-01

    This is an exploratory study into understanding the dominant coalition perspectives on role and values of public relations in crisis management in an energy company in Malaysia. In this study, the senior public relations of the energy company reports directly to the crisis commander (CC) in times of crisis thus, the CC was chosen as a sample where an in-depth interview was conducted. Notably, the CC perceptions represents the dominant coalition with the power to shape organisation policies an...

  13. Las nuevas violencias en la crisis global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Tortosa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo parte de la constatación de la complejidad que aqueja al fenómeno de las violencias, sea por sus muy diversos actores como por la heterogeneidad de los factores que inciden en ella, para pasar a describir someramente el conjunto de crisis (económica, medioambiental, alimentaria y energética que atraviesan al sistema mundial en la actualidad. A esto se añade la crisis de hegemonía de parte de Estados Unidos en dicho sistema. A partir de ello, se especula sobre el impacto que la combinación de ambos fenómenos puede tener en las violencias. El artículo termina con algunas observaciones sobre la fascinación con la violencia directa, sospechosa si tiene como función manifiesta o latente el ocultar la violencia estructural y la criminalidad de “guante blanco”.This article begins by confirming the complex nature of the various forms of violence that exist, due to the diversity of actors as well as the heterogeneous factors involved, and then goes on to describe the set of crises (economic, environmental, food and energy experienced by the current global system. To this must be added the crisis of hegemony on the part of the United States in said system. Based on this analysis, we speculate about the impact that the combination of these phenomena might have on forms of violence. The article ends with observations on the fascination with direct violence, a suspicious occurrence if its manifest or latent purpose is to conceal structural violence and white collar crime.

  14. Primary energy use for heating in the Swedish building sector-Current trends and proposed target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, P.; Nylander, A.; Johnsson, F.

    2007-01-01

    One goal of the Swedish energy policy is to reduce the amount of electricity used for heating in the building sector. This means to reduce the primary energy used for heating which in this paper is analyzed in the context of various heating technologies and CO 2 emissions. The analysis is applied to a region in Sweden (southern Sweden) for which detailed information on the energy infrastructure (the capital stock of the buildings and heating systems together with geographical variations in heat intensity) is available from a previous work [Johansson, P., Nylander, A., Johnsson, F., 2005. Electricity dependency and CO 2 emissions from heating in the Swedish building sector-current trends in conflict with governmental policy? Energy policy] and which is large enough to be assumed representative for Sweden as a whole. The detailed mapping of the energy infrastructure allows a good estimate on the rate at which the energy system can be expected to be replaced with respect to economical lifetime of the capital stock (the year 2025 in this case). Two scenarios are investigated; a target scenario for which energy savings are employed (e.g. improving climate shell in buildings) and oil and most of the electricity used for heating purposes are phased out and a second for which the current trend in the heating market continues. In the target scenario it is shown that although only applying commercially competitive heating technologies, it is possible to achieve a 47% reduction in primary energy use for heating with a 34% decrease in heat demand together with significant reduction in CO 2 emissions. However, the scenario which continues the current trends on the heating market instead yields an increase (of about 10%) in primary energy use (reduction in conversion efficiency) of the heating system of the region over the period studied, in spite of a slight decrease in heat demand (9%, mainly due to energy efficiency measures) as well as in CO 2 emissions. In light of the

  15. Intervention among Suicidal Men: Future Directions for Telephone Crisis Support Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Tara; Wilson, Coralie J; Woodward, Alan; Caputi, Peter; Wilson, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Telephone crisis support is a confidential, accessible, and immediate service that is uniquely set up to reduce male suicide deaths through crisis intervention. However, research focusing on telephone crisis support with suicidal men is currently limited. To highlight the need to address service delivery for men experiencing suicidal crisis, this perspective article identifies key challenges facing current telephone crisis support research and proposes that understanding of the role of telephone crisis helplines in supporting suicidal men may be strengthened by careful examination of the context of telephone crisis support, together with the impact this has on help-provision for male suicidal callers. In particular, the impact of the time- and information-poor context of telephone crisis support on crisis-line staff's identification of, and response to, male callers with thoughts of suicide is examined. Future directions for research in the provision of telephone crisis support for suicidal men are discussed.

  16. Thin Film Energy Storage Device with Spray‐Coated Sliver Paste Current Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Man Yoon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper challenges the fabrication of a thin film energy storage device on a flexible polymer substrate specifically by replacing most commonly used metal foil current collectors with coated current collectors. Mass‐manufacturable spray‐coating technology enables the fabrication of two different half‐cell electric double layer capacitors (EDLC with a spray‐coated silver paste current collector and a Ni foil current collector. The larger specific capacitances of the half‐cell EDLC with the spray‐coated silver current collector are obtained as 103.86 F/g and 76.8 F/g for scan rates of 10 mV/s and 500 mV/s, respectively. Further, even though the half‐cell EDLC with the spray‐coated current collector is heavier than that with the Ni foil current collector, smaller Warburg impedance and contact resistance are characterized from Nyquist plots. For the applied voltages ranging from −0.5 V to 0.5 V, the spray‐coated thin film energy storage device exhibits a better performance.

  17. Low-energy moments of non-diagonal quark current correlators at four loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, A.

    2015-06-01

    We complete the leading four physical terms in the low-energy expansions of heavy-light quark current correlators at four-loop order. As a by-product we reproduce the corresponding top-induced non-singlet correction to the electroweak ρ parameter.

  18. On the energy release rate in a turbulent current sheet on the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardakov, V.M.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that turbulent current sheets on the Sun, realizing in the form of the Parker - Sweet flow, are in quasilinear regime of turbulence (or in the regime of instability threshold). The energy release rate in such sheets does not exceed 10 26 erg/s for typical plasma parameters in active regions

  19. Stored Energy of Coupled Electric and Magnetic Currents and the Lower Bound on Q

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2015-01-01

    —New expressions for the stored energy and radiated power of an arbitrary combination of electric and magnetic currents in free space are presented. These expressions enable the calculation of the fundamental lower bound on Q for arbitraryshaped electrically small antennas of finite size....

  20. Non-Destructive Current Sensing for Energy Efficiency Monitoring in Buildings with Environmental Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Lia Toledo Moreira; Mota, Alexandre de Assis; Coiado, Lorenzo Campos

    2015-07-10

    Nowadays, buildings environmental certifications encourage the implementation of initiatives aiming to increase energy efficiency in buildings. In these certification systems, increased energy efficiency arising from such initiatives must be demonstrated. Thus, a challenge to be faced is how to check the increase in energy efficiency related to each of the employed initiatives without a considerable building retrofit. In this context, this work presents a non-destructive method for electric current sensing to assess implemented initiatives to increase energy efficiency in buildings with environmental certification. This method proposes the use of a sensor that can be installed directly in the low voltage electrical circuit conductors that are powering the initiative under evaluation, without the need for reforms that result in significant costs, repair, and maintenance. The proposed sensor consists of three elements: an air-core transformer current sensor, an amplifying/filtering stage, and a microprocessor. A prototype of the proposed sensor was developed and tests were performed to validate this sensor. Based on laboratory tests, it was possible to characterize the proposed current sensor with respect to the number of turns and cross-sectional area of the primary and secondary coils. Furthermore, using the Least Squares Method, it was possible to determine the efficiency of the air core transformer current sensor (the best efficiency found, considering different test conditions, was 2%), which leads to a linear output response.

  1. Wood energy for residential heating in Alaska: current conditions, attitudes, and expected use

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Nicholls; Allen M. Brackley; Valerie. Barber

    2010-01-01

    This study considered three aspects of residential wood energy use in Alaska: current conditions and fuel consumption, knowledge and attitudes, and future use and conditions. We found that heating oil was the primary fuel for home heating in southeast and interior Alaska, whereas natural gas was used most often in south-central Alaska (Anchorage). Firewood heating...

  2. Non-Destructive Current Sensing for Energy Efficiency Monitoring in Buildings with Environmental Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Lia Toledo Moreira; Mota, Alexandre de Assis; Coiado, Lorenzo Campos

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, buildings environmental certifications encourage the implementation of initiatives aiming to increase energy efficiency in buildings. In these certification systems, increased energy efficiency arising from such initiatives must be demonstrated. Thus, a challenge to be faced is how to check the increase in energy efficiency related to each of the employed initiatives without a considerable building retrofit. In this context, this work presents a non-destructive method for electric current sensing to assess implemented initiatives to increase energy efficiency in buildings with environmental certification. This method proposes the use of a sensor that can be installed directly in the low voltage electrical circuit conductors that are powering the initiative under evaluation, without the need for reforms that result in significant costs, repair, and maintenance. The proposed sensor consists of three elements: an air-core transformer current sensor, an amplifying/filtering stage, and a microprocessor. A prototype of the proposed sensor was developed and tests were performed to validate this sensor. Based on laboratory tests, it was possible to characterize the proposed current sensor with respect to the number of turns and cross-sectional area of the primary and secondary coils. Furthermore, using the Least Squares Method, it was possible to determine the efficiency of the air core transformer current sensor (the best efficiency found, considering different test conditions, was 2%), which leads to a linear output response. PMID:26184208

  3. Non-Destructive Current Sensing for Energy Efficiency Monitoring in Buildings with Environmental Certification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Toledo Moreira Mota

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, buildings environmental certifications encourage the implementation of initiatives aiming to increase energy efficiency in buildings. In these certification systems, increased energy efficiency arising from such initiatives must be demonstrated. Thus, a challenge to be faced is how to check the increase in energy efficiency related to each of the employed initiatives without a considerable building retrofit. In this context, this work presents a non-destructive method for electric current sensing to assess implemented initiatives to increase energy efficiency in buildings with environmental certification. This method proposes the use of a sensor that can be installed directly in the low voltage electrical circuit conductors that are powering the initiative under evaluation, without the need for reforms that result in significant costs, repair, and maintenance. The proposed sensor consists of three elements: an air-core transformer current sensor, an amplifying/filtering stage, and a microprocessor. A prototype of the proposed sensor was developed and tests were performed to validate this sensor. Based on laboratory tests, it was possible to characterize the proposed current sensor with respect to the number of turns and cross-sectional area of the primary and secondary coils. Furthermore, using the Least Squares Method, it was possible to determine the efficiency of the air core transformer current sensor (the best efficiency found, considering different test conditions, was 2%, which leads to a linear output response.

  4. GLOBALIZATION AND ECONOMIC CRISIS IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Marginean

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the relation between degree of economic globalization and the impact of economic crisis for developed and emerging European countries. We measure economic globalization through indexes based on share of external trade in GDP and FDI intensity (% of FDI inflows and outflows divided by GDP. The complexity of current economic and financial crisis could be evaluated through GDP growth rate, inflation rate, unemployment, public debt, budget deficit, balance of payments, exchange rate, etc. For the purpose of this paper we used GDP growth rate as a measure of economic crisis impact on national economies.

  5. Wave-current interactions at the FloWave Ocean Energy Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Donald; Davey, Thomas; Steynor, Jeffrey; Bruce, Tom; Smith, Helen; Kaklis, Panagiotis

    2015-04-01

    Physical scale model testing is an important part of the marine renewable energy development process, allowing the study of forces and device behaviour in a controlled environment prior to deployment at sea. FloWave is a new state-of-the-art ocean energy research facility, designed to provide large scale physical modelling services to the tidal and wave sector. It has the unique ability to provide complex multi-directional waves that can be combined with currents from any direction in the 25m diameter circular tank. The facility is optimised for waves around 2s period and 0.4m height, and is capable of generating currents upwards of 1.6m/s. This offers the ability to model metocean conditions suitable for most renewable energy devices at a typical scale of between 1:10 and 1:40. The test section is 2m deep, which can be classed as intermediate-depth for most waves of interest, thus the full dispersion equation must be solved as the asymptotic simplifications do not apply. The interaction between waves and currents has been studied in the tank. This has involved producing in the tank sets of regular waves, focussed wave groups, and random sea spectra including multi-directional sea states. These waves have been both inline-with and opposing the current, as well as investigating waves at arbitrary angles to the current. Changes in wave height and wavelength have been measured, and compared with theoretical results. Using theoretical wave-current interaction models, methods have been explored to "correct" the wave height in the central test area of the tank when combined with a steady current. This allows the wave height with current to be set equal to that without a current. Thus permitting, for example, direct comparison of device motion response between tests with and without current. Alternatively, this would also permit a specific wave height and current combination to be produced in the tank, reproducing recorded conditions at a particular site of interest. The

  6. Current-induced changes of migration energy barriers in graphene and carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obodo, J T; Rungger, I; Sanvito, S; Schwingenschlögl, U

    2016-05-21

    An electron current can move atoms in a nanoscale device with important consequences for the device operation and breakdown. We perform first principles calculations aimed at evaluating the possibility of changing the energy barriers for atom migration in carbon-based systems. In particular, we consider the migration of adatoms and defects in graphene and carbon nanotubes. Although the current-induced forces are large for both the systems, in graphene the force component along the migration path is small and therefore the barrier height is little affected by the current flow. In contrast, the same barrier is significantly reduced in carbon nanotubes as the current increases. Our work also provides a real-system numerical demonstration that current-induced forces within density functional theory are non-conservative.

  7. Current-induced changes of migration energy barriers in graphene and carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Obodo, Tobechukwu Joshua

    2016-04-29

    An electron current can move atoms in a nanoscale device with important consequences for the device operation and breakdown. We perform first principles calculations aimed at evaluating the possibility of changing the energy barriers for atom migration in carbon-based systems. In particular, we consider the migration of adatoms and defects in graphene and carbon nanotubes. Although the current-induced forces are large for both the systems, in graphene the force component along the migration path is small and therefore the barrier height is little affected by the current flow. In contrast, the same barrier is significantly reduced in carbon nanotubes as the current increases. Our work also provides a real-system numerical demonstration that current-induced forces within density functional theory are non-conservative. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. Energy losses in the D0 β solenoid cryostat caused by current changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, A.T.

    1993-11-01

    The proposed D0 β solenoid is a superconducting solenoid mounted inside an aluminum tube which supports the solenoid winding over it's full length. This aluminum support tube, also called bobbin, is therefore very tightly coupled to magnetic flux changes caused by solenoid current variations. These current changes in the solenoid, will cause answer currents to flow in the resistive bobbin wall and therefore cause heat losses. The insertion of an external dump resistor in the solenoid current loop reduces energy dissipation inside the cryostat during a quench and will shorten the discharge time constant. This note presents a simple electrical model for the coupled bobbin and solenoid and makes it easier to understand the circuit behavior and losses. Estimates for the maximum allowable rate of solenoid current changes, based on the maximum permissible rate of losses can be made using this model

  9. Energy use in pig production: an examination of current Iowa systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, P J; Kenealy, M D; Kliebenstein, J B; Harmon, J D; Helmers, M J; Honeyman, M S

    2012-03-01

    This paper compares energy use for different pig production systems in Iowa, a leader in US swine production. Pig production systems include not only the growth and performance of the pigs, but also the supporting infrastructure of pig production. This supporting infrastructure includes swine housing, facility management, feedstuff provision, swine diets, and manure management. Six different facility type × diet formulation × cropping sequence scenarios were modeled and compared. The baseline system examined produces 15,600 pigs annually using confinement facilities and a corn-soybean cropping sequence. Diet formulations for the baseline system were corn-soybean meal diets that included the synthetic AA l-lysine and exogenous phytase. The baseline system represents the majority of current US pork production in the Upper Midwest, where most US swine are produced. This system was found to require 744.6 MJ per 136-kg market pig. An alternative system that uses bedded hoop barns for grow-finish pigs and gestating sows would require 3% less (720.8 MJ) energy per 136-kg market pig. When swine production systems were assessed, diet type and feed ingredient processing were the major influences on energy use, accounting for 61 and 79% of total energy in conventional and hoop barn-based systems, respectively. Improving feed efficiency and better matching the diet formulation with the thermal environment and genetic potential are thus key aspects of reducing energy use by pig production, particularly in a hoop barn-based system. The most energy-intensive aspect of provisioning pig feed is the production of synthetic N for crop production; thus, effectively recycling manure nutrients to cropland is another important avenue for future research. Almost 25% of energy use by a conventional farrow-to-finish pig production system is attributable to operation of the swine buildings. Developing strategies to minimize energy use for heating and ventilation of swine buildings while

  10. Understanding the response of commercial and institutional organizations to the California energy crisis. A report to the California Energy Commission - Sylvia Bender, Project Manager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutzenhiser, Loren; Janda, Kathryn; Kunkle, Rick; Payne, Christopher

    2002-07-24

    Beginning in the summer of 2000, California experienced serious energy supply problems, sharp increases in wholesale (and retail) electricity and natural gas prices, and isolated blackouts. In response to the rapidly worsening electricity situation in California in late 2000, the state set, as an initial goal, the reduction of the state's peak demand for the summer of 2001 by 5,000 megawatts. To meet this goal, the governor and legislature took a variety of steps to enhance supply, encourage rapid voluntary reductions in demand, and provide incentives for actions that would result in load reductions. Three bills-Assembly Bill 970, Senate Bill X1 5 and Assembly Bill X1 29-allocated roughly $950 million for consumption and demand reduction programs. The governor also enacted a variety of additional measures, including the ''Flex Your Power'' (media awareness and direct business involvement) campaign, requirements for retail sector outdoor lighting reductions, and toughening of energy efficiency building codes. There were, in fact, significant reductions in electricity demand in California during the summer of 2001 and the large number of expected supply disruptions was avoided. To understand the nature of these demand reductions and the motivations for consumer response, Washington State University (WSU) undertook a study for the California Energy Commission (CEC) focusing on conservation behavior in the residential, commercial, and agricultural sectors. The research presented in this report represents an exploration of the response of commercial and institutional organizations to the California energy situation and the unique set of influences that existed during this time. These influences included informational messages and media attention, program interventions, price changes, and external triggering events (e.g., blackouts). To better understand the effects of these influences on organizational response to the energy situation, we

  11. Measurement of electron- and ion beam energies and currents in a plasma focus discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Toshikazu; Kondoh, Yoshiomi; Shimoda, Katsuji; Hirano, Katsumi

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of energetic particle beams in a plsma focus with a Mather type device are presented. Rogowski coils are used for time-resolved measurement, and solid-state nuclear track detectors for time-integrated measurement of the beams. In the upstream direction with respect to the discharge current, only the electron beam with the maximum current of several kA was detected, which was approximately one percent of the discharge current. The electron energies of the beam were spread from 0.1 to 1 MeV. In the downstream direction, two successive emissions of ions were observed. The first emission had an extremely high energy of the order of some MeV and a low beam current of less than 10 A. The second emission, the main part of the ion beam, with energies of 100 - 800 keV, followed the first one with a time lag of several tens of nanoseconds, and the beam current reached several tens of amperes. (author)

  12. Current-induced changes of migration energy barriers in graphene and carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obodo, J. T.; Rungger, I.; Sanvito, S.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

    2016-05-01

    An electron current can move atoms in a nanoscale device with important consequences for the device operation and breakdown. We perform first principles calculations aimed at evaluating the possibility of changing the energy barriers for atom migration in carbon-based systems. In particular, we consider the migration of adatoms and defects in graphene and carbon nanotubes. Although the current-induced forces are large for both the systems, in graphene the force component along the migration path is small and therefore the barrier height is little affected by the current flow. In contrast, the same barrier is significantly reduced in carbon nanotubes as the current increases. Our work also provides a real-system numerical demonstration that current-induced forces within density functional theory are non-conservative.An electron current can move atoms in a nanoscale device with important consequences for the device operation and breakdown. We perform first principles calculations aimed at evaluating the possibility of changing the energy barriers for atom migration in carbon-based systems. In particular, we consider the migration of adatoms and defects in graphene and carbon nanotubes. Although the current-induced forces are large for both the systems, in graphene the force component along the migration path is small and therefore the barrier height is little affected by the current flow. In contrast, the same barrier is significantly reduced in carbon nanotubes as the current increases. Our work also provides a real-system numerical demonstration that current-induced forces within density functional theory are non-conservative. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/C6NR00534A

  13. Economic crisis: prelude to an energetic crisis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, B.

    2009-01-01

    Recession due to the financial crisis of 2008 has stopped the world economic development and the hydrocarbons sector too. Collapse of prices, cancellation of investments, reach of a 'peak demand', the four speeches which are given here, describe these impacts and their consequences; but in scrutinizing the incentives of the crisis, they show the new role of petroleum: pretext value against the weakness of dollar and the inflation risks, speculative value for the investment funds. (O.M.)

  14. Learning Crisis Unit through Post-Crisis: Characteristics and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebbi, Hela; Pündrich, Aline Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify the characteristics that a crisis unit should have to achieve effective learning after crisis. Literature has identified many relations between learning organizations and crisis; yet, there is a dearth of research on specific studies about crisis units and their post-crisis learning features. Thus, this paper…

  15. Cuba's oil crisis spells trouble for Castro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on Cuba's oil crisis which presents long term woes for the government of Fidel Castro but new opportunities for foreign petroleum investment. That's the main thesis of a study by East-West Center (EWC), Honolulu. Since the cutoff of subsidized oil supplies from the former Soviet Union at the first of the year, Cuba has endured a crippling loss of export revenues and draconian energy rationing measures at home. The Soviets had reduced oil supplies to Cuba since 1989 after decades of providing the Castro government with subsidized oil supplies. Former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev exempted Cuba from paying market prices for Soviet oil in 1991 while requiring that of Soviet trading partners in eastern Europe. With the collapse of Communism in the former U.S.S.R., however, oil supplies from that region are available to Cuba only at market prices and for hard currency. That has triggered a crisis in the Western Hemisphere's sole Communist regime as Cuba's gross special product - equivalent to GNP - fell by 5% in 1990 and a further 20% in 1991. The foreign exchange loss of $1.6 billion stemming from the loss of Soviet subsidized oil supplies exceeds that of total foreign exchange earnings from all other sources. If Cuba imports oil in 1989 volumes at current prices, its oil import tab alone will be $1.3 billion, EWC projects

  16. Energy Yield Potential Estimation Using Marine Current Turbine Simulations for the Bosphorus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazicioglu, Hasan; Tunc, K. M. Murat; Ozbek, Muammer

    2017-01-01

    . The differences in elevation and salinity ratios between these two seas cause strong underwater currents. Depending on the morphology of the canal the speed of the flow varies and at some specific locations the energy intensity reaches to sufficient levels where electricity generation by marine current turbines...... becomes economically feasible. In this study, several simulations are performed for a 10 MW marine turbine farm/ cluster whose location is selected by taking into account several factors such as the canal morphology, current speed and passage of vessels. 360 different simulations are performed for 15...... within the selected region, the analyses are performed for three different flow speeds corresponding to 10 % increase and decrease in the average value. For each simulation the annual energy yield and cluster efficiency are calculated....

  17. Energy transfer, orbital angular momentum, and discrete current in a double-ring fiber array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeyev, C. N.; Volyar, A. V.; Yavorsky, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    We study energy transfer and orbital angular momentum of supermodes in a double-ring array of evanescently coupled monomode optical fibers. The structure of supermodes and the spectra of their propagation constants are obtained. The geometrical parameters of the array, at which the energy is mostly confined within the layers, are determined. The developed method for finding the supermodes of concentric arrays is generalized for the case of multiring arrays. The orbital angular momentum carried by a supermode of a double-ring array is calculated. The discrete lattice current is introduced. It is shown that the sum of discrete currents over the array is a conserved quantity. The connection of the total discrete current with orbital angular momentum of discrete optical vortices is made.

  18. Energy transfer, orbital angular momentum, and discrete current in a double-ring fiber array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexeyev, C. N.; Volyar, A. V. [Taurida National V.I. Vernadsky University, Vernadsky Prospekt, 4, Simferopol, 95007, Crimea (Ukraine); Yavorsky, M. A. [Taurida National V.I. Vernadsky University, Vernadsky Prospekt, 4, Simferopol, 95007, Crimea (Ukraine); Universite Bordeaux and CNRS, LOMA, UMR 5798, FR-33400 Talence (France)

    2011-12-15

    We study energy transfer and orbital angular momentum of supermodes in a double-ring array of evanescently coupled monomode optical fibers. The structure of supermodes and the spectra of their propagation constants are obtained. The geometrical parameters of the array, at which the energy is mostly confined within the layers, are determined. The developed method for finding the supermodes of concentric arrays is generalized for the case of multiring arrays. The orbital angular momentum carried by a supermode of a double-ring array is calculated. The discrete lattice current is introduced. It is shown that the sum of discrete currents over the array is a conserved quantity. The connection of the total discrete current with orbital angular momentum of discrete optical vortices is made.

  19. USA between the Greatest Economic Crisis and Current Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Liana Camarda

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available American business system might be defined trough its decentralized character, a capitalist one, based on private property and free will. Federalauthorities’ intercession to economy exhibits throughout budgetary and monetary policies strategy. Meantime federal budget gets a constituent referring toinvestment in cereals. American economic legislation acknowledges government involvement in business practice control, American Government acting aseconomical increase supervisor.

  20. Leave no hour of sunshine unexploited. Free of energy costs and crisis proofed - energy sulf-sufficient buildings; Keine Sonnenstunde ungenutzt lassen. Energiekostenfrei und krisensicher - energieautarke Haeuser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leukefeld, Timo [Helma Eigenheimbau AG, Lehrte (Germany). Projektgruppe ' das EnergieAutarke Haus' ; Firma Timo Leukefeld - Energie verbindet, Freiberg in Sachsen (Germany).; Prutti, Corina [das komm.buero, Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Living, heating and mobility provide the biggest expenses in the budget for the most people. Furthermore, the salaries from pension funds and retirement funds decrease. The purchasing power of older people decreases. Houses that largely are energetically self-sufficient as for example the energy self-sufficient house are a solution of this problem. The biggest costs just fall away for residents of these houses. These residents are independent from costs for fuel oil, gas and electricity.

  1. Understanding the response of commercial and institutional organizations to the California energy crisis. A report to the California Energy Commission - Sylvia Bender, Project Manager

    OpenAIRE

    Lutzenhiser, Loren; Janda, Kathryn; Kunkle, Rick; Payne, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Beginning in the summer of 2000, California experienced serious energy supply problems, sharp increases in wholesale (and retail) electricity and natural gas prices, and isolated blackouts. In response to the rapidly worsening electricity situation in California in late 2000, the state set, as an initial goal, the reduction of the state's peak demand for the summer of 2001 by 5,000 megawatts. To meet this goal, the governor and legislature took a variety of steps to enhance supply, enco...

  2. Determination of the energy of suprathermal electrons during lower hybrid current drive on PBX-M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Goeler, S.; Bernabei, S.; Davis, W.; Ignat, D.; Kaita, R.; Roney, P.; Stevens, J.; Post-Zwicker, A.

    1993-06-01

    Suprathermal electrons are diagnosed by a hard x-ray pinhole camera during lower hybrid current drive on PBX-M. The experimental hard x-ray images are compared with simulated images, which result from an integration of the relativistic bremsstrahlung along lines-of-sight through the bean-shaped plasma. Images with centrally peaked and radially hollow radiation profiles are easily distinguished. The energy distribution of the suprathermal electrons is analyzed by comparing images taken with different absorber foils. An effective photon temperature is derived from the experimental images, and a comparison with simulated photon temperatures yields the energy of the suprathermal electrons. The analysis indicates that the energy of the suprathermal electrons in the hollow discharges is in the 50 to 100 key range in the center of the discharge. There seems to exist a very small higher energy component close to the plasma edge

  3. Energy planning and management Current situation in the World, Turkey and ITU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onaygil, Sermin

    2006-01-01

    efficiency measures applied in the end-use sectors such as, industrial processes, heating and electrical home appliances. When energy intensity values of some countries are compared, it can be easily seen that Turkey, having the energy intensity of 0.38, consumes more energy than Japan having the value of 0.09, US with that of 0.25, world mean as 0.29 and even if Greece, Turkeys neighbor, as 0.20. Since Turkey is in the pre-accession period for being a member to European Union (EU), the harmonization with the EU legislation is carried out in every sector negotiated together with EU, including energy. The purposes of EU energy policy can be summarized as to improve competitiveness, energy supply security, energy efficiency, market share of renewable energy sources and to contribute protection of the environment. In each progress report prepared by EU for Turkey, it is stated that in order to harmonize with the related EU legislation and to decrease the energy intensity, Turkey should enact a framework energy efficiency law. Considering this suggestion, Draft Law on Energy Efficiency was prepared by taking the opinions of all related government and private sector representatives and it is waiting for ratification in Turkish Grand National Assembly. It is indicated that world energy consumption shall increase twice in 2050 as compared to 2005 while it is required to decrease this consumption to half for protecting the current climate of the world. Therefore, in order to prevent the adverse effects of climate change by means of economical measures, energy must be used 4 times efficient than it is used today. Within this framework, the major and inevitable measure is stated as the rational use of energy by each country considering their national situations including energy, economy and environment points of view. Generally, such studies are conducted by neutral and institutional organizations like Russian Energy Efficiency Center, Energy Conservation Center of Japan and Ukraine

  4. Methods for calculating energy and current requirements for industrial electron beam processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, M.R.; Farrell, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    The practical problems of determining electron beam parameters for industrial irradiation processes are discussed. To assist the radiation engineer in this task, the physical aspects of electron beam absorption are briefly described. Formulas are derived for calculating the surface dose in the treated material using the electron energy, beam current and the area thruput rate of the conveyor. For thick absorbers electron transport results are used to obtain the depth-dose distributions. From these the average dose in the material, anti D, and the beam power utilization efficiency, F/sub p/, can be found by integration over the distributions. These concepts can be used to relate the electron beam power to the mass thruput rate. Qualitatively, the thickness of the material determines the beam energy, the area thruput rate and surface dose determine the beam current while the mass thruput rate and average depth-dose determine the beam power requirements. Graphs are presented showing these relationships as a function of electron energy from 0.2 to 4.0 MeV for polystyrene. With this information, the determination of electron energy and current requirements is a relatively simple procedure

  5. Development of large high current density superconducting solenoid magnets for use in high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1977-05-01

    The development of a unique type of large superconducting solenoid magnet, characterized by very high current density windings and a two-phase helium tubular cooling system is described. The development of the magnet's conceptual design and the construction of two test solenoids are described. The successful test of the superconducting coil and its tubular cooling refrigeration system is presented. The safety, environmental and economic impacts of the test program on future developments in high energy physics are shown. Large solid angle particle detectors for colliding beam physics will analyze both charged and neutral particles. In many cases, these detectors will require neutral particles, such as gamma rays, to pass through the magnet coil with minimum interaction. The magnet coils must be as thin as possible. The use of superconducting windings allows one to minimize radiation thickness, while at the same time maximizing charged particle momentum resolution and saving substantial quantities of electrical energy. The results of the experimental measurements show that large high current density solenoid magnets can be made to operate at high stored energies. The superconducting magnet development described has a positive safety and environmental impact. The use of large high current density thin superconducting solenoids has been proposed in two high energy physics experiments to be conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center and Cornell University as a result of the successful experiments described

  6. Energy extraction from ocean currents using straight bladed cross-flow hydrokinetic turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Dudhgaonkar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting marine renewable energy remains to be a prime focus of researchers across the globe both in environmental and in commercial perspectives. India is blessed with a long coastline, and the seas around Indian peninsula offer ample potential to tap various ocean energy forms. National Institute of Ocean Technology carries out research and various ocean energy technologies, out of which harnessing kinetic energy in seawater currents is one. This article presents the open sea trials recently carried out on National Institute of Ocean Technology’s cross-flow hydrokinetic ocean current turbine in South Andaman. The turbine was designed to generate 100 W electricity at 1.2 m/s current speed and was built in-house. The turbine was initially tested in a seawater channel and then was deployed in Macpherson Strait in Andaman. It was fitted below a floating platform designed especially for this purpose, and the performance of the turbine was continuously logged inside an on-board data acquisition system. The trials were successful and in line with computations.

  7. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Kevin

    2013-09-15

    Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States. This project created a national database of ocean current energy resources to help advance awareness and market penetration in ocean current energy resource assessment. The database, consisting of joint velocity magnitude and direction probability histograms, was created from data created by seven years of numerical model simulations. The accuracy of the database was evaluated by ORNL?s independent validation effort documented in a separate report. Estimates of the total theoretical power resource contained in the ocean currents were calculated utilizing two separate approaches. Firstly, the theoretical energy balance in the Gulf Stream system was examined using the two-dimensional ocean circulation equations based on the assumptions of the Stommel model for subtropical gyres with the quasi-geostrophic balance between pressure gradient, Coriolis force, wind stress and friction driving the circulation. Parameters including water depth, natural dissipation rate and wind stress are calibrated in the model so that the model can reproduce reasonable flow properties including volume flux and energy flux. To represent flow dissipation due to turbines additional turbine drag coefficient is formulated and included in the model. Secondly, to determine the reasonableness of the total power

  8. Municipal solid waste (MSW) as a renewable source of energy: current and future practices in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan

    2010-06-01

    With rapid economic growth and massive urbanization, China faces the problem of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal and the pressing need for development of alternative energy. Waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration, which recovers energy from discarded MSW and produces electricity and/or steam for heating, is recognized as a renewable source of energy and is playing an increasingly important role in MSW management in China. This article provides an overview of the WTE industry, discusses the major challenges in expanding WTE incineration in China, namely, high capital and operational costs, equipment corrosion, air pollutant emissions, and fly ash disposal. A perspective on MSW as a renewable energy source in China is also presented. Currently, only approximately 13% of MSW generated in China is disposed in WTE facilities. With the significant benefits of environmental quality, the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and government policies and financial incentives as a renewable energy source, WTE incineration industry is expected to experience significant growth in the coming decade and make greater contribution to supplying renewable energy in China. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Energy from biomass and biofuels. Current market initiatives. Altener seminar, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 26 May 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Biomass, organic wastes, hydroelectric power, wind power and solar energy contribute to approximately 6% of the current energy demand in the European Union (EU). Goals are set by the EU to double this share in the energy production in the next decade. The EU Altener Programme aims to increase the use of renewables as source of energy, the trade in renewable energy products and related equipment and services, supporting a wide variety of projects, sector and market studies, events and technical standards. The Agricultural and Forestrial Biomass Network (AFB-Nett) promotes and stimulates, as part of the Altener Programme, the implementation and commercial exploitation of energy from biomass by the initiation of among other things business opportunities and information exchange. The AFB-Nett National Coordinator for the Netherlands, Novem, organised in this respect the title seminar. 85 participants from several European countries attended presentations covering the whole bio-energy chain: from information on biomass supply, through trade, logistics and pretreatment issues up to discussion on conversion technologies. It became clear to the audience that it is a necessary condition to take into account the total chain when developing projects in a specific field of this chain. However, non-technical aspects must be considered as well. Therefore, in developing business opportunities the challenge remains to connect all good project initiatives covering parts of the chain into a few 'whole-chain'-projects

  10. Comparison of Measured Dark Current Distributions with Calculated Damage Energy Distributions in HgCdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, C. J.; Marshall, P. W.; Howe, C. L.; Reed, R. A.; Weller, R. A.; Mendenhall, M.; Waczynski, A.; Ladbury, R.; Jordan, T. M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a combined Monte Carlo and analytic approach to the calculation of the pixel-to-pixel distribution of proton-induced damage in a HgCdTe sensor array and compares the results to measured dark current distributions after damage by 63 MeV protons. The moments of the Coulombic, nuclear elastic and nuclear inelastic damage distributions were extracted from Monte Carlo simulations and combined to form a damage distribution using the analytic techniques first described in [1]. The calculations show that the high energy recoils from the nuclear inelastic reactions (calculated using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX [2]) produce a pronounced skewing of the damage energy distribution. While the nuclear elastic component (also calculated using the MCNPX) contributes only a small fraction of the total nonionizing damage energy, its inclusion in the shape of the damage across the array is significant. The Coulombic contribution was calculated using MRED [3-5], a Geant4 [4,6] application. The comparison with the dark current distribution strongly suggests that mechanisms which are not linearly correlated with nonionizing damage produced according to collision kinematics are responsible for the observed dark current increases. This has important implications for the process of predicting the on-orbit dark current response of the HgCdTe sensor array.

  11. Characterisation Of The Beam Plasma In High Current, Low Energy Ion Beams For Implanters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiala, J.; Armour, D. G.; Berg, J. A. van der; Holmes, A. J. T.; Goldberg, R. D.; Collart, E. H. J.

    2006-01-01

    The effective transport of high current, positive ion beams at low energies in ion implanters requires the a high level of space charge compensation. The self-induced or forced introduction of electrons is known to result in the creation of a so-called beam plasma through which the beam propagates. Despite the ability of beams at energies above about 3-5 keV to create their own neutralising plasmas and the development of highly effective, plasma based neutralising systems for low energy beams, very little is known about the nature of beam plasmas and how their characteristics and capabilities depend on beam current, beam energy and beamline pressure. These issues have been addressed in a detailed scanning Langmuir probe study of the plasmas created in beams passing through the post-analysis section of a commercial, high current ion implanter. Combined with Faraday cup measurements of the rate of loss of beam current in the same region due to charge exchange and scattering collisions, the probe data have provided a valuable insight into the nature of the slow ion and electron production and loss processes. Two distinct electron energy distribution functions are observed with electron temperatures ≥ 25 V and around 1 eV. The fast electrons observed must be produced in their energetic state. By studying the properties of the beam plasma as a function of the beam and beamline parameters, information on the ways in which the plasma and the beam interact to reduce beam blow-up and retain a stable plasma has been obtained

  12. Differential current measurement in the BNL energy recovery linac test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, Peter

    2006-01-01

    An energy recovery linac (ERL) test facility is presently under construction at BNL [V.N. Litvinenko, et al., High current energy recovery linac at BNL, PAC, 2005; I. Ben-Zvi, et al., Extremely high current, high brightness energy recovery linac, PAC, 2005]. The goal of this test facility is to demonstrate CW operation with an average beam current greater than 100mA, and with greater than 99.95% efficiency of current recovery. This facility will serve as a test bed for the novel high current CW photo-cathode [A. Burrill, et al., Multi-alkali photocathode development at BNL, PAC, 2005; A. Murray, et al., State-of-the-art electron guns and injector designs for energy recovery linacs, PAC, 2005], the superconducting RF cavity with HOM dampers [R. Calaga, et al., High current superconducting cavities at RHIC, EPAC, 2004; R. Calaga, et al., in: Proceedings of the 11th workshop on RF superconductivity, Lubeck, Germany, 2003], and the lattice [D. Kayran, V. Litvinenko, Novel method of emittance preservation in ERL merging system in presence of strong space charge forces, PAC, 2005; D. Kayran, et al., Optics for high brightness and high current ERL project at BNL, PAC, 2005] and feedback systems needed to insure the specified beam parameters. It is an important stepping stone for electron cooling in RHIC [I. Ben-Zvi, et al., Electron cooling of RHIC, PAC, 2005], and essential to meet the luminosity specifications of RHICII [T. Hallman, et al., RHICII/eRHIC white paper, available at http://www.bnl.gov/henp/docs/NSAC_RHICII-eRHIC_2-15-03.pdf]. The expertise and experience gained in this effort might also extend forward into a 10-20GeV ERL for the electron-ion collider eRHIC [http://www.agsrhichome.bnl.gov/eRHIC/, Appendix A, The linac-ring option, 2005]. We report here on the use of a technique of differential current measurement to monitor the efficiency of current recovery in the test facility, and investigate the possibility of using such a monitor in the machine

  13. Crowds and Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Christian

    The November Revolution in 1918 made manifest and further unleashed a political crisis in Germany, the consequences of which have been thoroughly examined. What has attracted less attention is how the Revolution also triggered a semantic crisis within sociology, namely with regard to conceptions...... selected aspects of classical crowd semantics – in particular notions of imitation and suggestibility – and for placing them centrally in the understanding of the social, in times of crisis and not....

  14. Integrated crisis management exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callen, R.B.; DeHart, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes some of the steps that Mobil has taken to enhance their crisis management capability and to improve their readiness. The approach stretches from the individual plant level to Mobil's Corporate offices in Fairfax, Virginia. Some of the lessons learned from several integrated crisis management exercises are outlined and some areas where additional industry co-operation in crisis management could pay dividends are suggested

  15. US health care crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirić, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    The United States health care is presently challenged by a significant economic crisis. The purpose of this report is to introduce the readers of Medicinski Pregled to the root causes of this crisis and to explain the steps undertaken to reform health care in order to solve the crisis. It is hoped that the information contained in this report will be of value, if only in small measure, to the shaping of health care in Serbia.

  16. Current Harmonics Compensation in Microgrids Exploiting the Power Electronics Interfaces of Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Bouloumpasis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a method of current harmonic reduction in a distorted distribution system. In order to evaluate the proposed method a grid with high-order current harmonics is assumed. The reduction of current distortion is feasible due to the pulse modulation of an active filter, which consists of a buck-boost converter connected back-to-back to a polarity swapping inverter. For a practical application, this system would be the power electronic interface of a Renewable Energy Source (RES and therefore it changes a source of harmonics to a damping harmonics system. Using the proposed method, the current Total Harmonic Distortion (THD of the grid is reduced below the acceptable limits and thus the general power quality of the system is improved. Simulations in the MATLAB/SIMULINK platform and experiments have been performed in order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Food waste-to-energy conversion technologies: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thi Phuong Thuy; Kaushik, Rajni; Parshetti, Ganesh K; Mahmood, Russell; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2015-04-01

    Food waste represents a significantly fraction of municipal solid waste. Proper management and recycling of huge volumes of food waste are required to reduce its environmental burdens and to minimize risks to human health. Food waste is indeed an untapped resource with great potential for energy production. Utilization of food waste for energy conversion currently represents a challenge due to various reasons. These include its inherent heterogeneously variable compositions, high moisture contents and low calorific value, which constitute an impediment for the development of robust, large scale, and efficient industrial processes. Although a considerable amount of research has been carried out on the conversion of food waste to renewable energy, there is a lack of comprehensive and systematic reviews of the published literature. The present review synthesizes the current knowledge available in the use of technologies for food-waste-to-energy conversion involving biological (e.g. anaerobic digestion and fermentation), thermal and thermochemical technologies (e.g. incineration, pyrolysis, gasification and hydrothermal oxidation). The competitive advantages of these technologies as well as the challenges associated with them are discussed. In addition, the future directions for more effective utilization of food waste for renewable energy generation are suggested from an interdisciplinary perspective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An eddy current-induced magnetic plucking for piezoelectric energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, Nam Ho; Baek, Yoon Su

    2016-01-01

    Frequency up-conversion is a very efficient method of energy harvesting in order to overcome low, non-periodic, or altered ambient vibration. In order to perform frequency up-conversion and transference of mechanical energy without contact, an eddy current-induced magnetic drag force is used. In this paper, we present a novel configuration of eddy current-induced magnetic plucking for piezoelectric energy harvesting. Our method consists of two permanent magnets, a piezoelectric beam, and a copper disk piece. We design our harvesting method to achieve loading, sudden release, and free vibration using the actuation of the piezoelectric beam through the magnetic mutual coupling between the magnet and copper disk piece. We present the principle of magnetic drag force-generation, characterize the energy harvesting performance of our harvesting method, and demonstrate our harvesting method’s capability of frequency up-conversion and transference of mechanical energy without contact under low, non-periodic, or altered ambient vibration. To that end, we describe the calculation of magnetic drag force with various geometric dimensions and material properties, model of the piezoelectric cantilever beam, comparison between estimation response and measured experiment response, and the measured voltage and power responses. (paper)

  19. Enhancing crisis leadership in public health emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitchman, Scott

    2013-10-01

    Reviews of public health emergency responses have identified a need for crisis leadership skills in health leaders, but these skills are not routinely taught in public health curricula. To develop criteria for crisis leadership in public health, published sources were reviewed to identify attributes of successful crisis leadership in aviation, public safety, military operations, and mining. These sources were abstracted to identify crisis leadership attributes associated with those disciplines and compare those attributes with crisis leadership challenges in public health. Based on this review, the following attributes are proposed for crisis leadership in public health: competence in public health science; decisiveness with flexibility; ability to maintain situational awareness and provide situational assessment; ability to coordinate diverse participants across very different disciplines; communication skills; and the ability to inspire trust. Of these attributes, only competence in public health science is currently a goal of public health education. Strategies to teach the other proposed attributes of crisis leadership will better prepare public health leaders to meet the challenges of public health crises.

  20. Structural Statics and Dynamics of the Economy of Transcarpathia under Pre-Crisis and Crisis Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slava Svitlana S.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Under current conditions in Ukraine, when the vector is directed at increasing self-sufficiency of the regions, diagnostics of structural transformations in their economic systems is a mandatory and necessary component to identify potential points of the region development. Accordingly, the purpose of the article is to study the structural trends in the economy of the Transcarpathian region and identify its leading sectors under the pre-crisis and crisis conditions, balance in dynamics of the main indicators — the volume of sales, regional value added, capital investment and the number of employees, as well as formation of the main directions in development of the regional economy. It has been revealed that for the past ten years the restructuring of the region economic did not go on too rapidly and it is still difficult to speak about a clear trend of transition to a post-industrial system. Given the current characteristics of the economy of Transcarpathia, the article defined the basic problematic aspects of its structural transformation. It allowed to determine the long-term, according to the authors, ways of “modernization” of economic processes in terms of attracting investments, increasing innovation, business activity, formation of a complete production cycle, use of alternative energy sources, implementation of the EU requirements.