WorldWideScience

Sample records for current employment status

  1. 42 CFR 411.104 - Current employment status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... furloughed, temporarily laid off, or who are on sick leave; (2) Teachers and seasonal workers who normally do not work throughout the year; and (3) Persons who have health coverage that extends beyond or between... employer or a certain level of commissions earned from work for that employer at any time; and (2) the...

  2. Municipal wastewater treatment in Mexico: current status and opportunities for employing ecological treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, Florentina; Roy, Eric D; White, John R

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the current status of municipal wastewater (MWW) treatment in Mexico, as well as to assess opportunities for using ecological treatment systems, such as constructed wetlands. In 2008, Mexico had 2101 MWW treatment plants that treated only 84 m3/s of wastewater (208 m3/s ofMWW were collected in sewer systems). Unfortunately, most treatment plants operate below capacity owing to a lack of maintenance and paucity of properly trained personnel. The main types of treatment systems applied in Mexico are activated sludge and waste stabilization ponds, which treat 44.3% and 18% of the MWW collected, respectively. As in many other developing nations around the world, there is a great need in Mexico for low-cost, low-maintenance wastewater treatment systems that are both economically and environmentally sustainable. In 2005, 24.3 million Mexicans lived in villages of less than 2500 inhabitants and 14.1 million lived in towns with 2500-15,000 inhabitants. An opportunity exists to extend the use of ecological treatment systems to these low population density areas and considerably increase the percentage of MWW that is treated in Mexico. Small-scale and medium-size constructed wetlands have been built successfully in some states, primarily during the past five years. Several barriers need to be overcome to increase the adoption and utilization of ecological wastewater technology in Mexico, including: a lack of knowledge about this technology, scarce technical information in Spanish, and the government's concentration on constructing MWW treatment plants solely in urban areas.

  3. Supported employment for persons with serious mental illness: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueser, K T; McGurk, S R

    2014-06-01

    The individual placement and supported (IPS) model of supported employment is the most empirically validated model of vocational rehabilitation for persons with schizophrenia or another serious mental illness. Over 18 randomized controlled trials have been conducted throughout the world demonstrating the effectiveness of supported employment at improving competitive work compared to other vocational programs: IPS supported employment is defined by the following principles: 1) inclusion of all clients who want to work; 2) integration of vocational and clinical services; 3) focus on competitive employment; 4) rapid job search and no required prevocational skills training; 5) job development by the employment specialist; 6) attention to client preferences about desired work and disclosure of mental illness to prospective employers; 7) benefits counseling; and 8) follow-along supports after a job is obtained. Supported employment has been successfully implemented in a wide range of cultural and clinical populations, although challenges to implementation are also encountered. Common challenges are related to problems such as the failure to access technical assistance, system issues, negative beliefs and attitudes of providers, funding restrictions, and poor leadership. These challenges can be overcome by tapping expertise in IPS supported employment, including standardized and tested models of training and consultation. Efforts are underway to increase the efficiency of training methods for supported employment and the overall program, and to improve its effectiveness for those clients who do not benefit. Progress in IPS supported employment offers people with a serious mental illness realistic hope for achieving their work goals, and taking greater control over their lives. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Current employment status, occupational category, occupational hazard exposure, and job stress in relation to telomere length: The Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, Kaori; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Landsbergis, Paul; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Seeman, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Objective Telomere length has been proposed as a biomarker of cell senescence, which is associated with a wide array of adverse health outcomes. While work is a major determinant of health, few studies have investigated the association of telomere length with various dimensions of occupation. Accelerated cellular aging could be a common pathway linking occupational exposure to several health outcomes. Methods Leukocyte telomere length was assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) in a community-based sample of 981 individuals (age: 45–84 years old). Questionnaires were used to collect information on current employment status, current or main occupation before retirement, and job strain. The O*NET (Occupational Resource Network) database was linked to the questionnaire data to create 5 exposure measures: physical activity on the job, physical hazard exposure, interpersonal stressors, job control, and job demands. Linear regression was used to estimate associations of occupational characteristics with telomere lengths after adjustment for age, sex, race, socioeconomic position, and several behavioral risk factors. Results There were no mean differences in telomere lengths across current employment status, occupational category, job strain categories or levels of most O*NET exposure measures. There was also no evidence that being in lower status occupational categories or being exposed to higher levels of adverse physical or psychosocial exposures accelerated the association between age and telomere shortening. Conclusions Cellular aging as reflected by shorter telomeres does not appear to be an important pathway linking occupation to various health outcomes. PMID:23686115

  5. Teleradiology - current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltadjiev, D.; Charakchiev

    2000-01-01

    Tele-radiology is a term becoming increasingly popular in the medical literature. Nevertheless, terminological definitions in this particular field are still rather vague. The scope of applications extend from simple image presenting via analogue telephone lines to transmission of 3-D medical images through a satellite. It is a matter of standards highly differing in terms of data transmission rates, safety, technical demands on the systems and the like. In this article new information technologies, technical aspects, as well as some major applications of tele-radiology are discussed. The current status of tele-medicine/tele-radiology in this country is likewise briefly outlined

  6. COHERENT Experiment: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimov, D; Belov, V; Bolozdynya, A; Burenkov, A; Albert, J B; Del Valle Coello, M; D’Onofrio, M; Awe, C; Barbeau, P S; Cervantes, M; Becker, B; Cabrera-Palmer, B; Collar, J I; Cooper, R J; Cooper, R L; Cuesta, C; Detwiler, J; Eberhardt, A; Dean, D; Dolgolenko, A G

    2017-01-01

    The COHERENT Collaboration is realizing a long term neutrino physics research program. The main goals of the program are to detect and study elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEνNS). This process is predicted by Standard Model but it has never been observed experimentally because of the very low energy of the recoil nucleus. COHERENT is using different detector technologies: CsI[Na] and NaI scintillator crystals, a single-phase liquid Ar and a Ge detectors. The placement of all the detector setups is in the basement of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The current status of the COHERENT experimental program is presented. (paper)

  7. Employment status and working conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudswaard, A.; Andries, F.

    2002-01-01

    In the 1990s an increasing number of employees were engaged in non-permanent contract work in the European Union. This can, to a large extent, be explained by an active labour market policy where job creation was the focus, and this type of employment provided a way of meeting the increased demand

  8. Employment and Adults Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Current Status and Experiences of Barriers, Accommodations, and Stress in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punch, Renée

    2016-01-01

    In an integrative review of the literature covering the period 2004-2016, the author presents a current picture of the situation of people who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) relative to employment and careers--particularly the barriers, facilitators, and stress levels experienced by working DHH adults. First, an overview is provided of findings…

  9. Biosimilar drugs: Current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajiv; Singh, Jagjit

    2014-07-01

    Biologic products are being developed over the past three decades. The expiry of patent protection for many biological medicines has led to the development of biosimilars in UK or follow on biologics in USA. This article reviews the literature on biosimilar drugs that covers the therapeutic status and regulatory guidelines. Appraisal of published articles from peer reviewed journals for English language publications, search from PubMed, and guidelines from European Medicines Agency, US Food Drug Administration (FDA) and India were used to identify data for review. Literature suggest that biosimilars are similar biological products, i.e., comparable but not identical to the reference product, are not generic version of innovator product and do not ensure therapeutic equivalence. Biosimilars present more challenges than conventional generics and marketing approval is also more complicated. To improve access, US Congress passed the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation act 2009 and US FDA allowed "abbreviated pathway" for their approval. U.S law has defined new standards and terms and EMA scientific guidelines have also set detailed approval standards. India being one of the most preferred manufacturing destinations of biosimilars, there is a need for stringent safety and regulatory guidelines. The New India Guidelines "Draft Guidelines on Similar Biologics were announced in June 2012, by Department of Biotechnology at Boston bio and available online.

  10. Engineered barriers: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, A.; Marsh, G.P.

    1988-01-01

    This report summarises the current state of research relevant to assessing the performance of engineered barriers made of steel and concrete in radioactive waste repositories. The objective of these barriers is to contain the radionuclides within them by providing both physical and chemical impediment to their release. The physical barriers are of most value for highly soluble isotopes with relatively short half-lives (eg 137 Cs), since they can provide containment until a large fraction of the activity has decayed. In addition they can facilitate retrievability for some period after disposal. The chemical barriers operate by beneficial conditioning of the near field groundwater and providing sites for sorption of radionuclides. Both of these reduce the aqueous concentration of radionuclides in the near field. (author)

  11. Employment status, employment functioning, and barriers to employment among VA primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivin, Kara; Yosef, Matheos; Levine, Debra S; Abraham, Kristen M; Miller, Erin M; Henry, Jennifer; Nelson, C Beau; Pfeiffer, Paul N; Sripada, Rebecca K; Harrod, Molly; Valenstein, Marcia

    2016-03-15

    Prior research found lower employment rates among working-aged patients who use the VA than among non-Veterans or Veterans who do not use the VA, with the lowest reported employment rates among VA patients with mental disorders. This study assessed employment status, employment functioning, and barriers to employment among VA patients treated in primary care settings, and examined how depression and anxiety were associated with these outcomes. The sample included 287 VA patients treated in primary care in a large Midwestern VA Medical Center. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted examining associations between socio-demographic and clinical predictors of six employment domains, including: employment status, job search self-efficacy, work performance, concerns about job loss among employed Veterans, and employment barriers and likelihood of job seeking among not employed Veterans. 54% of respondents were employed, 36% were not employed, and 10% were economically inactive. In adjusted analyses, participants with depression or anxiety (43%) were less likely to be employed, had lower job search self-efficacy, had lower levels of work performance, and reported more employment barriers. Depression and anxiety were not associated with perceived likelihood of job loss among employed or likelihood of job seeking among not employed. Single VA primary care clinic; cross-sectional study. Employment rates are low among working-aged VA primary care patients, particularly those with mental health conditions. Offering primary care interventions to patients that address mental health issues, job search self-efficacy, and work performance may be important in improving health, work, and economic outcomes. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Does Marital Status Influence the Parenting Styles Employed by Parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashiono, Benard Litali; Mwoma, Teresa B.

    2015-01-01

    The current study sought to establish whether parents' marital status, influence their use of specific parenting styles in Kisauni District, Kenya. A correlational research design was employed to carry out this study. Stratified sampling technique was used to select preschools while purposive sampling technique was used to select preschool…

  13. The WIMP Paradigm: Current Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The WIMP paradigm is the glue that joins together much of the high energy and cosmic frontiers. It postulates that most of the matter in the Universe is made of weakly-interacting massive particles, with implications for a broad range of experiments and observations. I will review the WIMP paradigm's underlying motivations, its current status in view of rapid experimental progress on several fronts, and recent theoretical variations on the WIMP paradigm theme.

  14. Current Status of HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Barbara; Roden, Richard; Wu, T.C.

    2010-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second largest cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide, with ~500,000 diagnoses and 274,000 deaths annually. It remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality despite effective screening tools and treatments for its precursor high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Increased understanding of cervical pathogenesis has led to the identification of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the etiological agent for cervical cancer and the development of preventive and therapeutic vaccines targeting HPV antigens for the control of cervical cancer. Herein, we discuss the current status of HPV vaccines. PMID:20677402

  15. Dark Matter Detection: Current Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerib, Daniel S.

    2011-01-01

    Overwhelming observational evidence indicates that most of the matter in the Universe consists of non-baryonic dark matter. One possibility is that the dark matter is Weakly-Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) that were produced in the early Universe. These relics could comprise the Milky Way's dark halo and provide evidence for new particle physics, such as Supersymmetry. This talk focuses on the status of current efforts to detect dark matter by testing the hypothesis that WIMPs exist in the galactic halo. WIMP searches have begun to explore the region of parameter space where SUSY particles could provide dark matter candidates.

  16. Employment: Labor Force Status (1983-2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Civilian labor force data consists of the number of employed persons, the number of unemployed persons, an unemployment rate and the total count of both employed and...

  17. Current status of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behnke, W.B.

    1984-01-01

    The decision to devote the 1984 conference to nuclear power is timely and appropriate. Illinois has a long, and distinguished history in the development of civilian nuclear power. The concept was born at the University of Chicago, developed at Argonne National Laboratory and demonstrated on the Commonwealth Edison system at our pioneer Dresden Nuclear Station. Today, Illinois ranks number one in the nation in nuclear generation. With over a quarter century of commercial operating experience, nuclear power has proven its worth and become a significant and growing component of electric power supply domestically and throughout the world. Despite its initial acceptance, however, the nuclear power industry in the U.S. is now in the midst of a difficult period of readjustment stemming largely from the economic and regulatory problems of the past decade. As a result, the costs of plants under construction have increased dramatically, causing serious financial difficulties for several projects and their owners. At the same time, the U.S. is facing hard choices concerning its future energy supplies. Conferences such as this have an important role in clarifying the issues and helping to find solutions to today's pressing energy problems. This paper summarizes the status of nuclear power both here and abroad, discussing the implications of current events in the context of national energy policy and economic development here in Illinois

  18. Current status of diuretic renography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Reilly, P.H.

    1987-01-01

    Percutaneous antegrade perfusion studies constitute a valuable contribution to the investigation of obstructive uropathy. In 1978, the first report of application of diuretic renogram techniques to this problem appeared in the literature. This was the first systematic report of a standardized protocol to be applied to a specific surgical problem. The purpose of the procedure, as with perfusion pressure-flow studies, is to help distinguish between a dilated urinary tract that is obstructed and requires surgery and a nonobstructed system in which urographic dilation and stasis mimic obstruction, but no genuine impedance to urine flow exists, and surgery is not required. The technique provides dual information. It gives quantitative data on individual renal function that perfusion pressure-flow studies do not, and it gives time-activity curves reflecting the urodynamics through the individual upper urinary tracts at normal and high urinary flow rates. In the early days, this information was obtained from probe studies, but the procedure is now almost exclusively performed using the gamma camera, images from which give additional information on the site of any suspected obstruction. In some ways, the development of diuretic renography and that of perfusion pressure-flow studies have proceeded in a competitive fashion, both attempting to answer the same questions by different means. In practice, however, the two tests would be regarded as complementary, as will be shown later in this chapter. The following sections describe the technique of diuretic renography, its current clinical application and status in surgical and nuclear medicine practice, and its role in comparison with other available tests for management of the dilated upper urinary tract

  19. Factors influencing Macao nurses' intention to leave current employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Moon Fai; Luk, Andrew Leung; Leong, Sok Man; Yeung, Siu Ming; Van, Iat Kio

    2009-03-01

    To investigate factors associated with nurses' intention to leave current employment in Macao. The shortage of nursing staff and nurses voluntarily leaving their jobs has continued to be a problem affecting the delivery of health care all over the world. One way to alleviate this shortfall is via recruitment, but this is not always successful. Another way is to reduce the rate at which nurses voluntarily leave their work places. A descriptive survey was conducted and data were collected using a self-reported structured questionnaire. Nurses were recruited in the Health Bureau and one private hospital in Macao. The status of nurses' intention to leave current employment (yes vs. no) was the dependent variable and nurses' predisposing characteristics, organisational environments and five components on job satisfaction outcomes were independent variables. Of 426 nurses, 166 (39.0%) indicated an intention to leave current employment. The results showed that age (p job satisfaction: pay and benefits (p third of the nurses in Macao indicated an intention to leave current employment. This figure may be a cause of concern for the hospital management and highlights the need to implement strategies to improve the communication between nurses and the organisation, to enhance nurse job satisfaction and commitment to the organisation. Our findings outline some issues contributing to this problem and provide the nurse manager with information regarding specific influences on nurses' turnover in Macao. Given the complexity of issues outlined in this analysis, nurse managers should assist their nursing staff to deal with those influences, make efforts to address the nursing shortage that will require additional communications and recognise the needs and values of their staff and empower them to create a better work environment. As a consequence, their commitment to the organisation can be fostered.

  20. Gas separation membranes current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    Membrane-based gas separation systems are now widely accepted and employed as unit operation in industrial gas, chemical and allied industries. Following their successful commercialization in the late Seventies to recover hydrogen from ammonia purge gas streams, membrane-based systems have gained acceptance in a wide variety of applications

  1. Predicting the effect of disability on employment status and income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Diane Smith

    2004-01-01

    Research shows that participation in employment contributes to life satisfaction for persons with disabilities [18]. Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) sought to prohibit discrimination against persons with disabilities in the workplace, however, the ADA's effectiveness remains controversial. This research utilizes data from the disability supplement of the 2000 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to examine the impact of disability status on predicting employment status and income. Confounding variables such as gender, age, educational level, race and marital/parental status are examined regarding their influence on results. Results from analysis utilizing zero-order correlation, linear and logistic regression analysis techniques revealed that disability status has a significant predictive effect on inability to work. Furthermore, results continue to show that despite legislation, the higher the level of disability, the lower the employment status (those employed for wages) and income. Finally, disability status, coupled with being female or decreased educational level, consistently shows significance in predicting lower employment status and income than men or non-minorities with disabilities. Future research opportunities and policy implications are discussed with regard to the results presented.

  2. Current status of baryon spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wali, K.C.

    1975-01-01

    The basic ideas of some of the current models and the experimental numerical comparisons are discussed briefly. Included are realistic or constituent quark models, experimental comparison, the experimental and theoretical basis for the assignments, algebraic quark models, and confinement schemes

  3. Veteran status, disability rating, and public sector employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, John V

    2018-06-01

    This paper used microdata from the 2013-2015 American Community Survey to examine differences in federal government, state and local government, private sector, and self-employment among employed veterans and nonveterans. The U.S. federal and state governments have hiring preferences to benefit veterans, especially disabled veterans. Other factors may also push veterans toward public sector employment. I found that veteran status substantially increased the likelihood of federal employment, with the largest magnitudes for severely disabled veterans. Differences in state and local government employment were modest and exhibited heterogeneity by disability severity. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Change in employment status of 5-year cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torp, Steffen; Nielsen, Roy A; Fosså, Sophie D; Gudbergsson, Saevar B; Dahl, Alv A

    2013-02-01

    To follow the employment status of 5-year cancer survivors for 5 years after diagnosis with their first lifetime invasive cancer and to identify socio-demographic, work-related and cancer-related predictors of employment status after 5 years. This prospective registry study concerned all 3278 people in Norway (18-61 years old) diagnosed with their first lifetime invasive cancer in 1999 and alive in 2004 and a cancer-free control group (n = 6368) matched by sex, age, educational level and employment status in 1998. The employment rate among male cancer survivors declined steadily every year, from 94% the year before diagnosis (1998) to 77% 5 years after diagnosis (2004). This change did not differ significantly from that of male controls. The employment rate of female survivors also declined steadily, from 87% (1998) to 69% (2004). This decline was greater than that among female controls, and in 2004 survivors had a significantly lower employment rate. For both men and women, the significant pre-diagnosis predictors of being employed in 2004 concerned higher socio-economic position. For both sexes, lung cancer survivors had the highest decline in employment rate, and male skin cancer survivors had a lower decline in employment rate than controls. Socio-demographic and work-related factors explained more of the variance in employment status than did cancer diagnosis. The employment rate among 5-year cancer survivors did not change significantly except for female survivors. Low socio-economic position is a risk factor for decline in employment rate and should be focused on to prevent cancer-related inequity.

  5. Current status of baryon spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wali, K.C.

    1975-08-01

    In this review of baryon spectroscopy, the basic ideas of some of the current models and the experimental data for their claims to success are discussed including realistic or constituent quark models, experimental comparison, the experimental and theoretical basis for the assignments, algebraic quark models, and confinement schemes

  6. Stemless shoulder arthroplasty: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, R Sean

    2014-09-01

    Since the original Neer humeral replacement in the 1950s, the standard primary anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty design has slowly evolved. Most recently, the humeral stem has become progressively shorter to help combat stem-related complications. Currently, there are several companies who have developed and marketed a stemless humeral arthroplasty component. Manufacturers' data for 5 stemless shoulder arthroplasty components currently on the market were analyzed and reviewed. A literature review of short-term results for stemless shoulder arthroplasty was completed. Of the stemless shoulder arthroplasty systems available on the market, 3 are currently undergoing clinical trials in the United States. The Tornier Simpliciti (Tornier, Edina, MN, USA) clinical trial began in 2011. The study with 2-year minimum follow-up results is scheduled for completion in November 2014. The Arthrex Eclipse (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA) clinical trial was started in January 2013. The tentative study completion date is 2017. The Biomet Nano (Biomet, Warsaw, IN, USA) clinical trial began in October 2013 and also has a tentative completion date of 2017. No other clinical trial is currently under way in the United States. Early results for stemless shoulder arthroplasty indicate clinical results similar to standard stemmed shoulder arthroplasty. Radiographic analysis indicates implant stability without migration or subsidence at 2- to 3-year minimum follow-up.. Several stemless shoulder arthroplasty implants are available outside the United States. Early clinical and radiographic results are promising, but well-designed clinical studies and midterm results are lacking. Three clinical trials are currently under way in the United States with initial availability for use anticipated in 2015. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Temporary Employment and the Future Labor Market Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Berglund

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe and explain the development of temporary employment in Sweden between 1992 and 2010, and to investigate the effect of temporary employment for individuals’ future career on the labor market. The article analyzes temporary employees’ status transitions on the labor market using Swedish Labour Force Survey (LFS data for the period 1992–2010. Each cohort consists of 2-year panels and focuses on changes between the first and last measuring points. The findings indicate that the specific type of temporary employment is crucial as regards whether or not it constitutes a stepping-stone toward permanent employment. The chances are greater in the case of, for example, substitutes, but are considerably less in the case of on-call employment. Certain types of temporary employment thus seem to be used by the employer to screen the employability of the employee, while others are used for achieving flexibility

  8. Current status of rotavirus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Min; Chen, Shou-Chien; Chen, Kow-Tong

    2015-11-01

    Rotaviruses remain the major cause of childhood diarrheal disease worldwide and of diarrheal deaths of infants and children in developing countries. The huge burden of childhood rotavirus-related diarrhea in the world continues to drive the remarkable pace of vaccine development. Research articles were searched using terms "rotavirus" and "rotavirus vaccine" in MEDLINE and PubMed. Articles not published in the English language, articles without abstracts, and opinion articles were excluded from the review. After preliminary screening, all articles were reviewed and synthesized to provide an overview of current vaccines and vaccination programs. In this review of the global rotavirus vaccines and vaccination programs, the principles of rotavirus vaccine development and the efficacy of the currently licensed vaccines from both developed and developing countries were summarized. Rotavirus is a common cause of diarrhea in children in both developed and developing countries. Rotavirus vaccination is a cost-effective measure to prevent rotavirus diarrhea.

  9. Current Status of RENO Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soo-Bong

    2010-01-01

    The RENO (Reactor Experiment for Neutrino Oscillation) is under construction to measure the value of the smallest and unknown neutrino mixing angle θ 13 . The experiment will compare the measured fluxes of electron antineutrinos at two detectors located at 290 m and 1.4 km distances from the center of the Yonggwang nuclear reactors in Korea, with world-second largest thermal power output of 16.4 GW. Construction of experimental halls and access tunnels for both near and far detector sites was completed in early 2009. The detectors are near completion, and data-taking is planned to start in mid 2010. An expected number of observed antineutrino is roughly 510 and 80 per day in the near detector and far detector, respectively. An estimated systematic uncertainty associated with the measurement is less than 0.6%, and an expected statistical error is about 0.3%. With three years of data, the experiment will search for the mixing angle values of sin 2 (2θ 13 ) down to 0.02 in 90% C.L. limit. In this talk, the construction status will be presented. (author)

  10. The current status of radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Minesh P.

    1996-01-01

    Objectives: Review the role of radiosurgery in recurrent malignant gliomas for palliative purposes. Review the role of radiosurgery in newly diagnosed malignant glioma as boost therapy and emphasize the randomized clinical trials underway. Review the role of radiosurgery in the management of patients with brain metastases and emphasize the major prognostic factors. Review the recently initiated clinical trials for brain metastases using radiosurgery. Review the role of radiosurgery in the management of benign tumors with specific emphasis on meningioma and acoustic neuroma. Emphasize the rationale for fractionation and present the preliminary results of fractionated stereotactic radiation. Stereotactic localization techniques, originally designed for neurosurgery, have been used to delivery high single doses of radiation to small intracranial targets for more than 25 years, a technique referred to as stereotactic radiosurgery. Radiosurgery has proven to be an attractive alternative to surgery in the management of several benign tumors, such as vestibular schwannomas with better preservation of hearing and facial nerve function than microsurgical resection. For other benign tumors such as meningioma and pituitary adenoma, preliminary results are promising, but longer range studies to confirm high tumor control rates are necessary. For patients with malignant glioma, radiosurgery has been used to escalate the radiation dose to enhance tumor control following surgery and radiation therapy. The rationale for this is grounded in the recent confirmatory randomized prospective trial verifying the value of brachytherapy in this disease. The results of radiosurgery from single institutional experiences for primary and recurrent malignant glioma indicate a palliative benefit as well as a potential survival benefit in a select sub-group of patients based on the appropriate mix of prognostic criteria such as patient age, performance status, tumor size and extent of resection

  11. Engineered barriers: current status 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, A.; Marsh, G.B.

    1989-06-01

    This report summarises the current state of research relevant to assessing the performance of engineered barriers made of steel and concrete in radioactive waste repositories. The objective of these barriers is to contain substantially the radionuclides within them by providing both physical and chemical impediment to their release. The physical barriers are of most value for highly soluble isotopes with relatively short half-lives (eg 137 Cs), since they can provide a measure of containment until a large fraction of the activity has decayed. In addition they can facilitate retrievability for some period after disposal. The chemical barriers operate by beneficial conditioning of the near field groundwater and providing sites for sorption of radionuclides. Both of these reduce the aqueous concentration of radionuclides in the near field. (author)

  12. Coronary MR angiography: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danias, P.G.; Manning, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    Since first described in the early 1990s, coronary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) has evolved as a promising noninvasive modality for imaging of the coronary arteries and evaluation of coronary artery disease. Despite technical limitations, coronary MRA has established value for imaging of anomalous coronary arteries and assessment of bypass graft patency. Current research focuses on the development of optimal respiratory compensation strategies, improved spatial and temporal resolution and faster acquisition of image data. The accurate detection of stenoses and assessment of the severity of coronary atherosclerosis is presently being evaluated with large multi-center studies. With further technique enhancements and more clinical experience, coronary MRA is likely to become the dominant noninvasive modality in clinical cardiology. (orig.) [de

  13. REACH and nanomaterials: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandrelli, Maria; Di Prospero Fanghella, Paola; Polci, Maria Letizia; Castelli, Stefano; Pettirossi, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    New challenges for regulators are emerging about a specific assessment and appropriate management of the potential risks of nanomaterials. In the framework of European legislation on chemicals, Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 REACH aims to ensure the safety of human health and the environment through the collection of information on the physico-chemical characteristics of the substances and on their profile (eco) toxicological and the identification of appropriate risk management linked to 'exposure to these substances without impeding scientific progress and the competitiveness of industry. In order to cover the current shortage of information on the safety of nanomaterials and tackle the acknowledged legal vacuum, are being a rich activities, carried out both by regulators both by stake holders, and discussions on the proposals for adapting the European regulatory framework for chemicals . The European Commission is geared to strengthen the REACH Regulation by means of updates of its annexes. The importance of responding to the regulatory requirements has highlighted the need for cooperation between European organizations, scientists and industries to promote and ensure the safe use of nanomaterials. [it

  14. The status of neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwirner, F.

    1987-11-01

    The situation of particle physics today is quite puzzling. On the one hand, the Standard Model (SM) of strong and electroweak interactions is consistent with all confirmed experimental data but theoretically rather unsatisfactory. On the other hand, none of the many theoretical speculations which try to go beyond the SM has (yet) received the slightest experimental support. The solution to this dilemma can only come from new data: either from the detection of a new particle threshold at high energy colliders, or from the appearance of some small discrepancy in high-precision experiments. A crucial sector for testing the SM and its extensions is that of neutral currents (NC), where an impressive amount of data has been collected in recent years. While waiting for the next generation of experiments, it is certainly useful to take stock of our knowledge, determining the NC parameters as precisely as we can and putting limits on possible deviations from the SM. The present talk contains the results of a recent analysis along these lines: the first part illustrates how a set of 'model-independent' parameters can be extracted from the available NC data, the second part particularizes the analysis to the SM and to some superstring-inspired models with an additional Z' in their low-energy spectrum. 27 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  15. A Systematic Review of Current Understandings of Employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stella; Dodd, Lorna J.; Steele, Catherine; Randall, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical framework is essential for the effective evaluation of employability. However, there are a wide range of definitions of employability coexisting in current literature. A review into existing ways in which employability has been conceptualised is needed to inform a better understanding of the nature of contributions made by various…

  16. Current status and prospects for Chernobyl Ukritiye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jampsin, B.

    1996-01-01

    Current status and prospects for Chernobyl Ukritiye (sarcophagus) are described, including the following issues: the accident; the sarcophagus; the radioactive inventory; the design basis criteria; the analysis of the present state; a way forward

  17. Health Status of Current National Guard Members

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Proctor, Susan P

    2005-01-01

    .... The objectives are to: 1) describe the current health status of this ARNG cohort, 2) examine to what extent the job strain of ARNG service affects the relationship between Civilian job strain and health and job performance outcomes and, 3...

  18. Current status of rotational atherectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomey, Matthew I; Kini, Annapoorna S; Sharma, Samin K

    2014-04-01

    Rotational atherectomy facilitates percutaneous coronary intervention for complex de novo lesions with severe calcification. A strategy of routine rotational atherectomy has not, however, conferred reduction in restenosis or major adverse cardiac events. As it is technically demanding, rotational atherectomy is also uncommon. At this 25-year anniversary since the introduction of rotational atherectomy, we sought to review the current state-of-the-art in rotational atherectomy technique, safety, and efficacy data in the modern era of drug-eluting stents, strategies to prevent and manage complications, including slow-flow/no-reflow and burr entrapment, and appropriate use in the context of the broader evolution in the management of stable ischemic heart disease. Fundamental elements of optimal technique include use of a single burr with burr-to-artery ratio of 0.5 to 0.6-rotational speed of 140,000 to 150,000 rpm, gradual burr advancement using a pecking motion, short ablation runs of 15 to 20 s, and avoidance of decelerations >5,000 rpm. Combined with meticulous technique, optimal antiplatelet therapy, vasodilators, flush solution, and provisional use of atropine, temporary pacing, vasopressors, and mechanical support may prevent slow-flow/no-reflow, which in contemporary series is reported in 0.0% to 2.6% of cases. On the basis of the results of recent large clinical trials, a subset of patients with complex coronary artery disease previously assigned to rotational atherectomy may be directed instead to medical therapy alone or bypass surgery. For patients with de novo severely calcified lesions for which rotational atherectomy remains appropriate, referral centers of excellence are required. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. rasdaman Array Database: current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merticariu, George; Toader, Alexandru

    2015-04-01

    rasdaman (Raster Data Manager) is a Free Open Source Array Database Management System which provides functionality for storing and processing massive amounts of raster data in the form of multidimensional arrays. The user can access, process and delete the data using SQL. The key features of rasdaman are: flexibility (datasets of any dimensionality can be processed with the help of SQL queries), scalability (rasdaman's distributed architecture enables it to seamlessly run on cloud infrastructures while offering an increase in performance with the increase of computation resources), performance (real-time access, processing, mixing and filtering of arrays of any dimensionality) and reliability (legacy communication protocol replaced with a new one based on cutting edge technology - Google Protocol Buffers and ZeroMQ). Among the data with which the system works, we can count 1D time series, 2D remote sensing imagery, 3D image time series, 3D geophysical data, and 4D atmospheric and climate data. Most of these representations cannot be stored only in the form of raw arrays, as the location information of the contents is also important for having a correct geoposition on Earth. This is defined by ISO 19123 as coverage data. rasdaman provides coverage data support through the Petascope service. Extensions were added on top of rasdaman in order to provide support for the Geoscience community. The following OGC standards are currently supported: Web Map Service (WMS), Web Coverage Service (WCS), and Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS). The Web Map Service is an extension which provides zoom and pan navigation over images provided by a map server. Starting with version 9.1, rasdaman supports WMS version 1.3. The Web Coverage Service provides capabilities for downloading multi-dimensional coverage data. Support is also provided for several extensions of this service: Subsetting Extension, Scaling Extension, and, starting with version 9.1, Transaction Extension, which

  20. Current status of ITER EC design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosia, G.

    2003-01-01

    The ITER-FEAT Electron Cyclotron System employs one equatorial launcher and three upper port launchers to inject 20 + 20 MW of mm-wave power at 170 GHz through slots in the plasma-facing neutron and radiation shield. The equatorial launcher includes 3 sets of toroidally steer-able mirrors, each collecting 8 RF beams from 24 circular cross-section corrugated wave-guides. In the upper-port launcher, eight beams, reflected in pairs by four toroidally angled (∼30 angle) and poloidally steer-able (∼ 10 angle) mirrors focus of the RF power on the plasma m = 2 and m = 3/2 plasma flux rational surfaces, for neo-classical tearing mode(s) (NTM) control. Conceptual studies of remote steering that would possibly allow removing the beam- steering equipment from the vacuum vessel and locating them in more protected positions have been carried out. All EC wave transmission is based on low losses circular cross section corrugated and evacuated wave guides each connected to a 170 GHz, 1 MW CW Gyrotron tube oscillator featuring an overall efficiency of ∼ 50%, obtained by depressed-collector energy recovery. In the paper, requirements, issues and the current status of the design is reviewed. (authors)

  1. Current status of relativistic core collapse simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Font, Jose A [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad de Valencia, Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    With the first generation of ground-based gravitational wave laser interferometers already taking data, the availability of reliable waveform templates from astrophysical sources, which may help extract the signal from the anticipated noisy data, is urgently required. Gravitational stellar core collapse supernova has traditionally been considered among the most important astrophysical sources of potentially detectable gravitational radiation. Only very recently the first multidimensional simulations of relativistic rotational core collapse have been possible (albeit for models with simplified input physics), thanks to the use of conservative formulations of the hydrodynamics equations and advanced numerical methodology, as well as stable formulations of Einstein's equations. In this paper, the current status of relativistic core collapse simulations is discussed, with the emphasis given to the modelling of the collapse dynamics and to the computation of the gravitational radiation in the existing numerical approaches. Work employing the conformally-flat approximation (CFC) of the 3+1 Einstein's equations is reported, as well as extensions of this approximation (CFC+) and investigations within the framework of the so-called BSSN formulation of the 3+1 gravitational field equations (with no approximation for the spacetime dynamics). On the other hand, the incorporation of magnetic fields and the MHD equations in numerical codes to improve the realism of core collapse simulations in general relativity, is currently an emerging field where significant progress is bound to be soon achieved. The paper also contains a brief discussion of magneto-rotational simulations of core collapse, aiming at addressing the effects of magnetic fields on the collapse dynamics and on the gravitational waveforms.

  2. Current status of relativistic core collapse simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Font, Jose A

    2007-01-01

    With the first generation of ground-based gravitational wave laser interferometers already taking data, the availability of reliable waveform templates from astrophysical sources, which may help extract the signal from the anticipated noisy data, is urgently required. Gravitational stellar core collapse supernova has traditionally been considered among the most important astrophysical sources of potentially detectable gravitational radiation. Only very recently the first multidimensional simulations of relativistic rotational core collapse have been possible (albeit for models with simplified input physics), thanks to the use of conservative formulations of the hydrodynamics equations and advanced numerical methodology, as well as stable formulations of Einstein's equations. In this paper, the current status of relativistic core collapse simulations is discussed, with the emphasis given to the modelling of the collapse dynamics and to the computation of the gravitational radiation in the existing numerical approaches. Work employing the conformally-flat approximation (CFC) of the 3+1 Einstein's equations is reported, as well as extensions of this approximation (CFC+) and investigations within the framework of the so-called BSSN formulation of the 3+1 gravitational field equations (with no approximation for the spacetime dynamics). On the other hand, the incorporation of magnetic fields and the MHD equations in numerical codes to improve the realism of core collapse simulations in general relativity, is currently an emerging field where significant progress is bound to be soon achieved. The paper also contains a brief discussion of magneto-rotational simulations of core collapse, aiming at addressing the effects of magnetic fields on the collapse dynamics and on the gravitational waveforms

  3. Breastfeeding Initiation and Continuation by Employment Status among Korean Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kang, N.M.; Lee, J.E.; Bai, Y.; Achterberg, T. van; Hyun, T.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to examine the factors associated with initiation and continuation of breastfeeding among Korean women in relation to their employment status. METHODS: Data were collected using a web-based self-administered questionnaire from 1,031 Korean mothers living in

  4. Employment Status of the Members of Tehran Deaf Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrooz nemati

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Regarding the importance of employment in social and emotional status of individuals, it would be important for the deaf. The purpose of the present study was to assess the employment status of the members of Tehran deaf community.Methods: This descriptive study was performed on all members of Tehran deaf community. A researchers-made questionnaire which had three parts (demographic information, employment status of the deaf members and their attitudes regarding employment was used in this study. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive methods.Results: Majority of deaf community members were adult (ages ranging between 18 and 30. Sixty-eight of them (52.5% were female and 53 (47.5% were male, from our participants, 56.2% were unemployed and 43.8% were employed. Main problems were: having no access to facilities regarding their disability (14.5%, communication problems (9.4%, lower salaries because of their disability (12.4%, being far from the working place (15.4%, disproportion of working environment to their disability (11.4%, maltreatment of their coworkers (13.2%, maltreatment of their employer (12.5% and discrimination because of their disability (11.2%, the attitudes of the deaf members were positive regarding the employment in all areas: 90% of them considered it as an essential part of life versus 10% of them mentioned not very important issue.Conclusion: Our findings showed that most of the deaf were supported by their family members, but not by the social facilities or their past education. The social policies should be reformed to support employment of the deaf.

  5. Visual difficulty and employment status in the world.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanen Harrabi

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Using a world-wide, population-based dataset, we sought to examine the relationship between visual difficulty and employment status. METHODS: The World Health Survey was conducted in 70 countries throughout the world in 2003 using a random, multi-stage, stratified, cluster sampling design. Far vision was assessed by asking about the level of difficulty in seeing and recognizing a person you know across the road (i.e. from a distance of about 20 meters. Responses included none, mild, moderate, severe, or extreme/unable. Participants were asked about their current job, and if they were not working, the reason why (unable to find job, ill health, homemaker, studies, unpaid work, other. The occupation in the last 12 months was obtained. Multinomial regression was used accounting for the complex survey design. RESULTS: Of those who wanted to work, 79% of those with severe visual difficulty and 64% of those with extreme visual difficulty were actually working. People who had moderate, severe, or extreme visual difficulty had a higher odds of not working due to an inability to find a job and of not working due to ill health after adjusting for demographic and health factors (P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: As the major causes of visual impairment in the world are uncorrected refractive error and cataract, countries are losing a great deal of labor productivity by failing to provide for the vision health needs of their citizens and failing to help them integrate into the workforce.

  6. Visual difficulty and employment status in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrabi, Hanen; Aubin, Marie-Josee; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Haddad, Slim; Freeman, Ellen E

    2014-01-01

    Using a world-wide, population-based dataset, we sought to examine the relationship between visual difficulty and employment status. The World Health Survey was conducted in 70 countries throughout the world in 2003 using a random, multi-stage, stratified, cluster sampling design. Far vision was assessed by asking about the level of difficulty in seeing and recognizing a person you know across the road (i.e. from a distance of about 20 meters). Responses included none, mild, moderate, severe, or extreme/unable. Participants were asked about their current job, and if they were not working, the reason why (unable to find job, ill health, homemaker, studies, unpaid work, other). The occupation in the last 12 months was obtained. Multinomial regression was used accounting for the complex survey design. Of those who wanted to work, 79% of those with severe visual difficulty and 64% of those with extreme visual difficulty were actually working. People who had moderate, severe, or extreme visual difficulty had a higher odds of not working due to an inability to find a job and of not working due to ill health after adjusting for demographic and health factors (P<0.05). As the major causes of visual impairment in the world are uncorrected refractive error and cataract, countries are losing a great deal of labor productivity by failing to provide for the vision health needs of their citizens and failing to help them integrate into the workforce.

  7. Disclosure of diagnosis of multiple sclerosis in the workplace positively affects employment status and job tenure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk-Brown, A K; Van Dijk, P A; Simmons, R D; Bourne, M P; Cooper, B K

    2014-06-01

    For many employees with multiple sclerosis (MS), disclosure of their diagnosis at work is seen as a high-risk strategy that might lead to diminished perceptions of their capabilities by supervisors and colleagues, if not outright discrimination. The consequence of this mistrust surrounding the disclosure process is that employees with MS may leave it until too late to effectively manage symptoms at work. The objective of this paper is to statistically evaluate the relationship between disclosure of diagnosis at work and maintenance of employment. Three annual, large-sample self-report surveys of MS patients prospectively examined the relationship between disclosure of diagnosis at work and employment status. A total of 1438 people responded to all three surveys. Of employed persons in 2010 (n = 946), 673 also responded to the 2012 survey. Of these 673 respondents 564 were still employed. People who had disclosed their MS status to an employer were more likely to remain in employment in Year 3. The effect of disclosure in predicting employment status remained after controlling for age, gender, hours worked and level of disability. This study provides the first empirical support for the positive role of disclosure in maintaining employment status, measured both as job retention and tenure in current employment. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. Critical reflections on the currently leading definition of sustainable employability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuren, Bram Bi; de Grip, Andries; Jansen, Nicole Wh; Kant, Imjert; Zijlstra, Fred Rh

    2016-06-01

    claims can be made, such relationships need to be tested with SE as criterion. This is, however, impossible within the approach van der Klink et al provides. (1), as SE is equated with its predictor(s). Therefore, similar to the first conceptual issue, it seems unlikely that the capability set adequately reflects SE. Fourth, the definition by van der Klink et al (1) suggests that SE only applies to individuals who are employed. In the Abma et al publication (9), which accompanies van der Klink's definition paper as a validation paper, this is shown by the way in which capabilities are measured. Moreover, the definition also suggests this because individuals can only be considered to be sustainably employable if their work context enables them to achieve tangible opportunities. However, individuals who are not currently working can still be highly employable and even sustainably so, but just be between jobs. It is therefore not required for individuals to be enabled by their employer to be sustainably employable. Consequently, in line with our aforementioned points on improving the definition, being enabled by an employer to achieve value may be an important predictor of SE, but it is not necessarily part of SE itself. Moreover, future approaches to SE should define the concept in such a way that it is applicable to every individual regardless of employment status. Finally, the definition and operationalization of SE in the form of a capability set do not include any specification on how the longitudinal aspect of SE should be captured. The definition rightfully acknowledges the longitudinal dimension of SE, but its operationalization focuses solely on achieving value. Although achieving value at work may be an important predictor of SE, a complete operationalization and definition should include its longitudinal nature as well. Outlook In conclusion, while van der Klink et al's definition of SE (1) does have strong merits, it requires further improvement. The approach

  9. The Relationship between Maternal Employment Status and Pregnancy Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khojasteh, Farnoush; Arbabisarjou, Azizollah; Boryri, Tahere; Safarzadeh, Amneh; Pourkahkhaei, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Women comprise a large percentage of the workforce in industrial countries. In Europe and many other places in the world, women of reproductive age comprise a significant proportion of the workforce at the workplaces, and the rules and regulations require employers to evaluate and minimize health risks to pregnant women. In U.K, 70%, and in the United States 59% of women are employed. In Iran, 13% of women are employed, which comes down to less than 5% at Sistan& Baluchestan Province. Various studies have reported contradictory results about the effects of maternal employment tasks such as standing, repetitive bending, climbing stairs, and lifting heavy objects during pregnancy on fetal growth, preterm birth and other obstetric complications. Given the growing number of working women, and potential complications for mothers, the present study has conducted to investigate the relationship between maternal employment status and pregnancy outcomes in Zahedan city, Iran. This cross-sectional study was based on survey conducted on 227 women (121 housewives, and 106 employed women) attending health centers in 2014. Using purposive convenient sampling method, eligible pregnant mothers (with no chronic diseases, singleton pregnancy, gravida 1-3, and no addiction) were selected as study subjects. Data were collected and recorded through a researcher-made questionnaire and also from mothers' medical records, including personal details, prenatal and labor complications, and infant's details. Collected data were fed into the SPSS version 21(IBM Corp, USA). Frequency of placental abruption was greater among housewives (P=0.02), and a significant relationship was found between employment status and lifting heavy objects, which was more frequent among housewives (P=0.01). Lifting heavy objects during pregnancy was only significantly related to reduced amniotic fluid (P=0.001) and low birth weight (P=0.01). Frequency of preterm labor was higher among housewives compared to

  10. Precarious Employment in the Vologda Oblast: Current State and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Mikhailovich Panov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the study of the phenomenon of precarious employment in Russian regions. Today, the socio-economic sciences lack a single concept of precarious employment applicable to Russian conditions. Despite the considerable amount of scientific and practical works of domestic and foreign authors on the issue of precarious employment, the criteria of its statistical evaluation as applied to Russian conditions have not been determined. At the same time, the development of precarious employment threatens the country’s socio-economic welfare, because it creates the risk of unwanted effects such as poor employment, hidden and open unemployment, lower labor productivity, degradation of human capital, etc. The paper provides a brief review of research on the problem stated, and defines precarious employment. The author makes an attempt to determine and substantiate the list of indicators available in official statistics for assessing precarious employment in the region. The study allocates three blocks of indicators: indicators of institutional regulation, conditions of employment and functioning of the labor market. Based on these indicators, the author analyzes the status and trends of precarious work in the Vologda Oblast in the period from 2001 to 2015. In some cases, the author presents a comparative analysis of the data for the Russian Federation and Northwestern Federal District. The analysis has helped identify positive and negative changes in the field of precarious employment in the Vologda Oblast. In particular, the author identifies the following problems: an increase in the share of those employed in the informal sector, a relative increase in the number of the working poor, an almost three-fold growth of overdue debts on wages in comparable prices per worker. On the basis of this analysis, the author identifies the directions of the state policy that can help reduce precarious employment: development of information

  11. Current status of ion source development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Junzo

    2001-01-01

    In this report, the current status of ion source development will be discussed. In September 2001, the 9th International Conference on Ion Sources (ICIS01) was held in Oakland, U.S.A. Referring the talks presented at ICIS01, recent topics in the ion source research fields will be described. (author)

  12. Radiation processing. Current status and future possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    Radiation processing developed following the Second World War and employees gamma- or electron-irradiation to process polymers, cure alkene-based inks and coatings, sterilize medical supplies, irradiate food, and manage wastes. The current status of these applications is described with the probable direction of future developments. (author)

  13. Current status of the AUSTRON project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, H.; Regler, M.; Lechner, R.E.; Weber, H.

    2001-01-01

    The current status of the AUSTRON spallation source project is described with reference to the need for neutrons in Europe and - due to a certain West-East imbalance of large research facilities - especially in Central Europe. A short overview about technical aspects of proton accelerator, rapid cycling synchrotron, storage ring, target and instrumentation is presented. (author)

  14. ATM in Europe: analysis of current status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    This deliverable provides an overview of the current status of the European market for ATM services. The offer of ATM services by principal operators in Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom is described. In addition, a number...... of international providers of ATM in Europe are presented....

  15. REMPAN at international level: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souchkevitch, Guennadi

    1997-01-01

    This document describes the current status of the Radiation Emergency medical Preparedness and Assistance Network - REMPAN, for the promotion of radiation emergency medical and public health preparedness and for practical assistance and advising countries, in a case of overexposure from any sources of radiation, by initiative of the World Health Organization - WHO

  16. Current status of methods for shielding analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engle, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    Current methods used in shielding analysis and recent improvements in those methods are discussed. The status of methods development is discussed based on needs cited at the 1977 International Conference on Reactor Shielding. Additional areas where methods development is needed are discussed

  17. Current status of quantum electrical metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urano, Chiharu; Kaneko, Nobuhisa; Kiryu, Shogo

    2005-01-01

    Physical background, current status of proof systems and researches of the next generation standards of Josephson voltage and Quantized Hall Resistance (QHR) standard system are described. Josephson effect, the principle and theory of quantized hall effect, usual voltage standard system, standard feed of direct current resistance, and researches of voltage standard and direct current resistance standard are explained. The current-voltage of Josephson element in the usual voltage standard proof system and bias method, outline of typical Josephson voltage standard proof system and GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure used as resistance standard are stated. Cryogenic Current Comparator (CCC) and Direct Current Comparator (DCC) proofread usual resistor. New Quantum Hall Array Resistance Standard (QHARS) is studied by BNM-LNE group in French, and the other new AC Quantized Hall Resistance (AC-QHR) by the European ACQHE Project. (S.Y.)

  18. Current status of neutron scattering in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornduangkaeo, Areeratt; Pongkasem, Somchai; Putchar, Suriya; Ampornrat, Pantip; Kajornrith, Varavuth; Chamchang, Jipawat

    2006-01-01

    The current neutron powder diffractometer at the Thai Research Reactor-1/Modification 1 (TRR-1/M1) has been modified from the obsolete neutron diffractometer which had been used during 1968-1975. The upgraded diffractometer has medium resolution and is appropriate for studying samples with small unit cell dimensions and training university students in the field of neutron scattering. This paper describes the current activities of neutron scattering research in Thailand, the current status of a new research reactor project at Ongkarak for enlarging the perspectives of its utilization in the future as well as the organizational reformation of the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP). (author)

  19. Employment characteristics and health status among men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, J H; Pope, C R

    1987-01-01

    This study examines the characteristics of jobs held by women as compared to men during the 1970s and assesses associations between job characteristics and family status with health status by sex. Sex differences in perceptions about the meaning of work, commitment to the work role, and stresses and rewards are considered. Survey data on 1490 employed men and women, ages 18-64, drawn from a random sample of enrollees of a large health maintenance organization in 1970-71 are linked with medical record data covering seven years of outpatient and inpatient services. The findings suggest important differences in the characteristics of jobs held by men and women and in the relative importance of these job characteristics in relation to health. Men held jobs with higher quality intrinsic work characteristics and perceived their jobs to be less stressful and less physically and mentally tiring than did women. Social support and integration through work and occupational status were significantly related to health status for both sexes, however, family responsibilities interact with job characteristics to affect health status for women. Single motherhood, in combination with low social support and integration through work, was related to poor health among women.

  20. Employment Status and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder following Compensation Seeking in Victims of Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, Maarten J. J.

    2011-01-01

    The current study was developed to explore the associations between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), level of compensation for pain and suffering, and employment status in a sample of victims of violence (n = 226) who had held a full-time job at time of victimization and had filed a claim with the Dutch Victim Compensation Fund (DVCF)…

  1. Current status of nuclear physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertulani, Carlos A.; Hussein, Mahir S.

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the world. For this purpose, we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last nine decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data became available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as 4 He, 7 Li, 9 Be, etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei containing up to more than 200 nucleons. Clearly, statistical mechanics, usually employed in systems with very large number of particles, would seemingly not work for such finite systems as the nuclei, neither do other theories which are applicable to condensed matter. The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions. New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei, deal with the wealth of experimental data that became available in the last 35 years. Furthermore, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked on. Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate students interested

  2. Current status of nuclear physics research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertulani, Carlos A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University-Commerce (United States); Hussein, Mahir S., E-mail: hussein@if.usp.br [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2015-12-15

    In this review, we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the world. For this purpose, we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last nine decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data became available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as {sup 4}He, {sup 7}Li, {sup 9}Be, etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei containing up to more than 200 nucleons. Clearly, statistical mechanics, usually employed in systems with very large number of particles, would seemingly not work for such finite systems as the nuclei, neither do other theories which are applicable to condensed matter. The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions. New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei, deal with the wealth of experimental data that became available in the last 35 years. Furthermore, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked on. Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate

  3. Cancer pain management-current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Thapa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer pain is still one of the most feared entities in cancer and about 75% of these patients require treatment with opioids for severe pain. The cancer pain relief is difficult to manage in patients with episodic or incidental pain, neuropathic pain, substance abuse and with impaired cognitive or communication skills. This non-systematic review article aims to discuss reasons for under treatment, tools of pain assessment, cancer pain and anxiety and possibly carve new approaches for cancer pain management in future. The current status of World Health Organization analgesic ladder has also been reviewed. A thorough literature search was carried out from 1998 to 2010 for current status in cancer pain management in MEDLINE, WHO guidelines and published literature and relevant articles have been included.

  4. Current status of low energy EB machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshiro Nishikimi; Shuichi Taniguchi; Kenichi Mizusawa

    1999-01-01

    Electron beam processing systems have been in use in a variety of applications such as curing of paints and printing inks, crosslinking of PE products, treating of rubber tire and so on. Low energy electron processing systems have become popular as self-shielded machines, which are compact and easy to use and do not require special facility as an irradiation room. This manuscript introduces the status of low energy EB (electron beam) machine through Nissin's products current

  5. Employment and employment conditions in the current economic crisis in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Vukšić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to analyze developments in employment and employment characteristics during the current crisis in Croatia. The main findings can be summarized as follows: (1 The primary (aggregate mode of adjustment to the crisis was a decline in employment. There are, however, considerable differences in adjustment patterns across economic activities. (2 During the crisis, jobs were lost in the, more dynamic, private sector, while the number of jobs in the public sector (entities in state ownership slightly increased. (3 Economic activities with comparatively larger shares of women in employment have experienced fewer employment cuts and the aggregate employment share of women rose during the crisis, especially in activities with a larger share of public sector workers.(4 There has been a declining share of younger workers during the crisis, justifying policy actions to facilitate their employment. (5 Employees with comparatively lower educational attainment face severe challenges in the labor market, which is a longer term trend, not specific to the crisis period. There are indications that this group of employees enjoys a higher level of protection in the public sector. (6 Analysis also shows a rising significance of more flexible forms of employment: increasing shares of fixed term employees (during the last two observed years, and of part time workers. (7 Working hours do not exhibit any strong trends specific to the crisis, except for the diminishing number of overtime hours per worker.

  6. Longitudinal perspectives on caregiving, employment history and marital status in midlife in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Harriet; Grundy, Emily

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, we examine associations between employment history and marital status and unpaid care provision among those aged 40-59 in England and Wales. We used data from a large nationally representative longitudinal study, the Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study. Initially based on a sample drawn from the 1971 Census, in 2001 this study included data on 110,464 people aged 40-59 of whom 5% provided 20 or more hours per week of unpaid care. We analysed associations between caregiving of this intensity and current employment, employment history, employment characteristics, marital status, and employment after childbearing. Among men, caregiving was associated with a history of lower levels of employment. The small group of men with a history of least employment were 70% more likely to provide care than those with a history of most employment. Among women, caregiving was associated with a history of non-employment, but there were no differences between those with fully engaged and partially engaged labour market histories. Analyses of a subset of data on women who had a child between 1981 and 1991 showed that those who had returned to full-time paid work by 1991 were over 50% less likely to later become caregivers. Some associations between employment characteristics and propensity to provide 20 or more hours per week of care were also identified. Those in public sector jobs and those previously in employment with a caregiving dimension were 20-30% more likely than other working women to provide unpaid care. These results suggest a continuing gender dimension in care provision which interacts with marital status and employment in gender-specific ways. It also suggests that implementation of strategies to enable those in midlife to combine caregiving and work responsibilities, should they wish to do so, should be an urgent priority.

  7. Employment Status, Depression, Drinking, and Alcohol Use Disorder in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Mills, Britain; Canino, Glorisa

    2016-04-01

    Our aim was to examine the association between employment status, depression, drinking, binge drinking, and DSM-5 alcohol use disorder in Puerto Rico. Data are from a 2013 to 2014 household random sample of individuals 18 to 64 years of age in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Bivariate analyses showed that depression was 5 times higher among unemployed males than among those employed full time (21% vs. 4%) and 2 times higher among unemployed females compared to those employed part time or full time (18% vs. 7% and 9%). Employment status was not associated with weekly volume of drinking, but nonparticipation in the workforce was protective against drinking (odds ratio [OR] = 2.17; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03 to 4.57; p gender was a factor of risk for being a current drinker (OR = 2; 95% CI = 1.53 to 2.6; p gender was protective against depression (OR = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.14 to 0.73; p employed only part time were almost 5 times more likely than females employed full time to be depressed (OR = 4.66; 95% CI = 1.25 to 17.38; p Employment status in Puerto Rico is associated with depression and with current drinking, but not with other alcohol-related outcomes. Perhaps Puerto Rico is a "wet" environment, where drinking is already at a relatively high level that is not affected by employment status. Perhaps the chronic high rate of unemployment in the island has also created familial (e.g., support) and personal level accommodations (e.g., participation in the informal economy) that do not include increased drinking. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  8. Trends in poverty risks among people with and without limiting-longstanding illness by employment status in Sweden, Denmark, and the United Kingdom during the current economic recession – a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found higher employment rates and lower risk of relative poverty among people with chronic illness in the Nordic countries than in the rest of Europe. However, Nordic countries have not been immune to the general rise in poverty in many welfare states in recent decades. This study analysed the trends in poverty risks among a particularly vulnerable group in the labour market: people with limiting-longstanding illness (LLSI), examining the experience of those with and without employment, and compared to healthy people in employment in Sweden, Denmark and the United Kingdom. Methods Cross-sectional survey data from EU-SILC (European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions) on people aged 25–64 years in Sweden, Denmark and the United Kingdom (UK) were analysed between 2005 and 2010. Age-standardised rates of poverty risks (poverty risks were estimated using logistic regression. Results In all three countries, non-employed people with LLSI had considerably higher prevalence of poverty risk than employed people with or without LLSI. Rates of poverty risk in the UK for non-employed people with LLSI were higher than in Sweden and Denmark. Over time, the rates of poverty risk for Swedish non-employed people with LLSI in 2005 (13.8% CI=9.7-17.8) had almost doubled by 2010 (26.5% CI=19.9-33.1). For both sexes, the inequalities in poverty risks between non-employed people with LLSI and healthy employed people were much higher in the UK than in Sweden and Denmark. Over time, however, the odds of poverty risk among British non-employed men and women with LLSI compared with their healthy employed counterparts declined. The opposite trend was seen for Swedish men: the odds of poverty risk for non-employed men with LLSI compared with healthy employed men increased from OR 2.8 (CIs=1.6-4.7) in 2005 to OR 5.3 (CIs=3.2-8.9) in 2010. Conclusions The increasing poverty risks among the non-employed people with LLSI in Sweden over time are of

  9. Trends in poverty risks among people with and without limiting-longstanding illness by employment status in Sweden, Denmark, and the United Kingdom during the current economic recession--a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Johanna; Bruce, Daniel; Burström, Bo; Thielen, Karsten; Whitehead, Margaret; Nylén, Lotta

    2013-10-04

    Previous studies have found higher employment rates and lower risk of relative poverty among people with chronic illness in the Nordic countries than in the rest of Europe. However, Nordic countries have not been immune to the general rise in poverty in many welfare states in recent decades. This study analysed the trends in poverty risks among a particularly vulnerable group in the labour market: people with limiting-longstanding illness (LLSI), examining the experience of those with and without employment, and compared to healthy people in employment in Sweden, Denmark and the United Kingdom. Cross-sectional survey data from EU-SILC (European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions) on people aged 25-64 years in Sweden, Denmark and the United Kingdom (UK) were analysed between 2005 and 2010. Age-standardised rates of poverty risks (poverty risks were estimated using logistic regression. In all three countries, non-employed people with LLSI had considerably higher prevalence of poverty risk than employed people with or without LLSI. Rates of poverty risk in the UK for non-employed people with LLSI were higher than in Sweden and Denmark. Over time, the rates of poverty risk for Swedish non-employed people with LLSI in 2005 (13.8% CI=9.7-17.8) had almost doubled by 2010 (26.5% CI=19.9-33.1). For both sexes, the inequalities in poverty risks between non-employed people with LLSI and healthy employed people were much higher in the UK than in Sweden and Denmark. Over time, however, the odds of poverty risk among British non-employed men and women with LLSI compared with their healthy employed counterparts declined. The opposite trend was seen for Swedish men: the odds of poverty risk for non-employed men with LLSI compared with healthy employed men increased from OR 2.8 (CIs=1.6-4.7) in 2005 to OR 5.3 (CIs=3.2-8.9) in 2010. The increasing poverty risks among the non-employed people with LLSI in Sweden over time are of concern from a health equity perspective

  10. Current status and installation of dental PACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Seo; Kim, Kee Deog; Park, Hyok; Jeong, Ho Gul

    2004-01-01

    Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) is difficult to implement in the best of situations, but evidence is growing that the benefits are significant. The aims of this study are to analyze the current status of full PACS and establish successful installation standard of dental PACS. Materials and Methods were based on the investigation of current working status and installation standard of PACS, and observation of variable issues to installation of dental PACS. By September 30, 2004, full PACS implementations in their facilities were 88.1% in specialized general hospitals (37 installations out of total 42 hospitals), 59.8% in general hospitals (144 installations out of total 241 hospitals), 12.3% in medical hospitals (116 installations out of total 941 hospitals) and 3.6% in dental hospitals (4 installations out of total 110 hospitals). Only 4 university dental hospitals currently have installed and are operating full PACS. Major obstacle to wide spread of dental PACS is initial high investments. Clinical environments of dental PACS differed from medical situation. Because of characteristic dental practice, the initial investments for dental PACS are generally much greater than those of medical PACS. Also new economic crisis makes users scruple. The best way to overcome these limitations is to establish an economic installation standard for dental PACS. Also the clear technical communication between the customer and the supplier before both sides are committed to the obstacles are critical to its success.

  11. Current status of neutron scattering in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ampornrat, Pantip

    2000-01-01

    The neutron scattering experiments in Thailand have been done continuously since the start up of the reactor. In 1977, Thai research reactor was modified into TRIGA MARK III core. After that, the neutron spectrometer was installed again under a development program. Installation of upgrading spectrometer was delayed because of some problems involving the neutron intensity and instruments. However, these problems were solved and the setup is almost completed. The paper reports the current status of neutron spectrometer, the problems and plans for the experiments. (author)

  12. Distal protection in cardiovascular medicine: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Onn Akbar; Bhindi, Ravinay; McMahon, Aisling C; Brieger, David; Kritharides, Leonard; Lowe, Harry C

    2006-08-01

    Iatrogenic and spontaneous downstream microembolization of atheromatous material is increasingly recognized as a source of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Devising ways of reducing this distal embolization using a variety of mechanical means--distal protection--is currently under intense and diverse investigation. This review therefore summarizes the present status of distal protection. It examines the problem of distal embolization, describes the available distal protection devices, reviews those areas of cardiovascular medicine where distal protection devices are being investigated, and discusses potential future developments.

  13. Current status of laparoscopic central pancreatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAO Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Central pancreatectomy is an ideal surgical procedure for the treatment of benign or low-grade malignant tumors in the pancreatic neck or the proximal body of the pancreas, and it can preserve more normal pancreatic tissue in order to reduce the incidence of endocrine and exocrine insufficiency after surgery. Although some clinical studies have demonstrated the feasibility and safety of this procedure, laparoscopic central pancreatectomy was technically challenging with a few number of cases. This article reviews the current status of laparoscopic central pancreatectomy and introduces our clinical experience of laparoscopic central pancreatectomy and pancreaticojejunostomy.

  14. Neutrino astronomy current status, future prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Karle, Albrecht

    2017-01-01

    This review volume is motivated by the recent discovery of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos by IceCube. The aim of the book is to bring together chapters on the status of current and future neutrino observatories with chapters on the implications and possible interpretations of the present observations and their upper limits. Each chapter is a mini-review of one aspect of the subject by leading experts. Taken together, the chapters constitute an up-to-date review of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos and their potential sources.

  15. Trends in poverty risks among people with and without limiting-longstanding illness by employment status in Sweden, Denmark, and the United Kingdom during the current economic recession -- a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Johanna; Bruce, Daniel; Burström, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have found higher employment rates and lower risk of relative poverty among people with chronic illness in the Nordic countries than in the rest of Europe. However, Nordic countries have not been immune to the general rise in poverty in many welfare states in recent decades....... This study analysed the trends in poverty risks among a particularly vulnerable group in the labour market: people with limiting-longstanding illness (LLSI), examining the experience of those with and without employment, and compared to healthy people in employment in Sweden, Denmark and the United Kingdom....

  16. The ENIQ pilot study: current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaitre, P; Eriksen, B; Crutzen, S [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands); Hansch, M [Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany); Whittle, J [AEA Technology, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    1998-11-01

    A pilot study is currently being carried out by ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) in order to explore the issues involved in inspection qualification applied along the general principles of the European methodology. The components selected for the pilot study are austenitic pipe to pipe and pipe to elbows welds typical of those in BWR recirculation loops. A range of defect parameters has been defined. A suitable inspection procedure designed to find the designated defects will be applied to geometrically representative test pieces. The procedure/equipment will be qualified through open trials and technical justification. The personnel qualification will be done in a blind way. Once all features of the inspection system will have been qualified an in-service inspection will be simulated in order to test the feasibility of the qualification approach followed. In this paper the current status of this pilot study is discussed. (orig.)

  17. Employment status and job insecurity: On the subjective appraisal of an objective status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klandermans, B.; Klein Hesselink, J.; Vuuren, T. van

    2010-01-01

    The article argues that job insecurity has subjective aspects that are not determined by the objective levels of security of someone's employment status. These subjective aspects can be divided into two elements: the perceived probability and the perceived severity of job loss. The psychological

  18. Employment Status and Perceived Health Status in Younger and Older People with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krokavcova, Martina; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gavelova, Miriam; Middel, Berrie; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how employment is associated with perceived physical and mental health status in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical variables stratified by age. The sample consisted of 184 MS patients divided into a younger (less than 45 years) and an older (greater than or equal to 45 years) age…

  19. The association of employment status and family status with health among women and men in four Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, E; Lahelma, E; Saastamoinen, P; Elstad, J-I

    2005-01-01

    The Nordic countries have relatively equal employment participation between men and women, but some differences between countries exist in labour market participation. The aim was to examine the association between employment status and health among women and men in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, and analyse whether this association is modified by marital status and parental status. The data come from nationally representative cross-sectional surveys carried out in Denmark (n = 2,209), Finland (n = 4,604), Norway (n = 1,844) and Sweden (n = 5,360) in 1994-95. Women and men aged 25-49 were included. Employment status was categorized into full-time employed, part-time employed, unemployed, and housewives among women and into employed and unemployed among men. Health was measured by perceived health and limiting longstanding illness. Logistic regression analysis was used, adjusting for age and education. Marital status and parental status were analysed as modifying factors. The non-employed were more likely to report perceived health as below good and limiting longstanding illness than the employed among both women and men. The association between employment status and perceived health remained unchanged when marital status and parental status were adjusted for among all men and Finnish women, but the association was slightly strengthened among Danish and Swedish women, with the housewives becoming more likely to report ill health than employed women. The association between employment status and limiting longstanding illness was slightly strengthened among women, and slightly weakened among Norwegian men when marital and parental status were adjusted for. Non-employment was associated with poorer health in all countries, although there are differences in the employment patterns between the countries. Among women marital status and parental status showed a modest or no influence on the association between employment status and health. Among men there was no

  20. IVS: Current Status and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrend, D.; Nothnagel, A.; Petrachenko, W. T.; Tuccari, G.

    2016-12-01

    The International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) is a globally operating service that coordinates and performs Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) activities through its constituent components. The VLBI activities are associated with the creation, provision, dissemination, and archiving of relevant VLBI data and products. The products mostly pertain to the determination of the celestial and terrestrial reference frames, the Earth orientation parameters (EOP), atmospheric parameters as well as other ancillary parameters. The IVS observational network currently consists of about 40 radio telescopes worldwide. Subsets of these telescopes (8-12 stations) participate in 24-hour observing sessions that are run several times per week and in 1-hour intensive sessions for UT1 determination every day. The current VLBI network was developed mainly in the 1970s and 1980s. A number of factors, including aging infrastructure and demanding new scientific requirements, started to challenge its future sustainability and relevance. In response, the IVS and other groups developed and started implementing the next generation VLBI system, called VGOS (VLBI Global Observing System), at existing and new sites. The VGOS network is expected to reach maturity in the early 2020s. We describe the current status, progress, and anticipated prospects of geodetic/astrometric VLBI and the IVS.

  1. Current status in Japan related to LMNPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Takehiro

    1998-01-01

    Current status of nuclear power plants in Japan is presented with the basic concepts against ageing of LWR plants which are considered to continue growing into the 21st century. Life management for aged NPPs is recognized to be important for the safe and reliable operation. In April 1996 MITI published the first report regarding the measures to cope with the aged NPPs. Two BWRs and one PWR were evaluated as aged NPPs in Phase-I Technical evaluation, which concluded that safe operation is possible with correct and adequate maintenance despite operation exceeded 30 years. The technology development items towards attaining further highly reliable management were indicated including the inspection/monitoring technology, the preventive maintenance/repair technology and ageing evaluation technology

  2. Current status of Pohang Neutron Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G.N.; Lee, Y.S.; Cho, M.H. [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, POSTECH, Pohang (KR)] [and others

    2000-03-01

    We present the current status of Pohang Neutron Facility, which is the pulsed neutron facility, based on the 70-MeV electron linear accelerator completed on Dec.1997. We have prepared the 15-m time-of-flight path, a Ta-target system, and the Data Acquisition System. Meanwhile we have measured the total cross-sections of Dy and Hf samples at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University and the neutron capture cross-sections of {sup 164}Dy isotope at Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology both in Japan. We also were participated the experiment at the 122-m flight path of the IBR-30 pulsed neutron source of Joint Institute of Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. (author)

  3. Interventional Radiology of Male Varicocele: Current Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iaccarino, Vittorio; Venetucci, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    Varicocele is a fairly common condition in male individuals. Although a minor disease, it may cause infertility and testicular pain. Consequently, it has high health and social impact. Here we review the current status of interventional radiology of male varicocele. We describe the radiological anatomy of gonadal veins and the clinical aspects of male varicocele, particularly the physical examination, which includes a new clinical and ultrasound Doppler maneuver. The surgical and radiological treatment options are also described with the focus on retrograde and antegrade sclerotherapy, together with our long experience with these procedures. Last, we compare the outcomes, recurrence and persistence rates, complications, procedure time and cost-effectiveness of each method. It clearly emerges from this analysis that there is a need for randomized multicentre trials designed to compare the various surgical and percutaneous techniques, all of which are aimed at occlusion of the anterior pampiniform plexus.

  4. Current Status of Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipps, Simon P. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Bett, Andreas W. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Horowitz, Kelsey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This report summarizes the status of the concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) market and industry as well as current trends in research and technology. This report is intended to guide research agendas for Fraunhofer ISE, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and other R&D organizations. Version 1.1 of this report includes recent progress in CPV. The recent record module efficiency of 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve. 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve. 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve. 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve.

  5. Interventional Radiology of Male Varicocele: Current Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iaccarino, Vittorio, E-mail: vittorio.iaccarino@unina.it; Venetucci, Pietro [University of Naples ' Federico II' , Diagnostic Imaging Department-Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, School of Medicine (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Varicocele is a fairly common condition in male individuals. Although a minor disease, it may cause infertility and testicular pain. Consequently, it has high health and social impact. Here we review the current status of interventional radiology of male varicocele. We describe the radiological anatomy of gonadal veins and the clinical aspects of male varicocele, particularly the physical examination, which includes a new clinical and ultrasound Doppler maneuver. The surgical and radiological treatment options are also described with the focus on retrograde and antegrade sclerotherapy, together with our long experience with these procedures. Last, we compare the outcomes, recurrence and persistence rates, complications, procedure time and cost-effectiveness of each method. It clearly emerges from this analysis that there is a need for randomized multicentre trials designed to compare the various surgical and percutaneous techniques, all of which are aimed at occlusion of the anterior pampiniform plexus.

  6. Edible vaccines: Current status and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Edible vaccines hold great promise as a cost-effective, easy-to-administer, easy-to-store, fail-safe and socioculturally readily acceptable vaccine delivery system, especially for the poor developing countries. It involves introduction of selected desired genes into plants and then inducing these altered plants to manufacture the encoded proteins. Introduced as a concept about a decade ago, it has become a reality today. A variety of delivery systems have been developed. Initially thought to be useful only for preventing infectious diseases, it has also found application in prevention of autoimmune diseases, birth control, cancer therapy, etc. Edible vaccines are currently being developed for a number of human and animal diseases. There is growing acceptance of transgenic crops in both industrial and developing countries. Resistance to genetically modified foods may affect the future of edible vaccines. They have passed the major hurdles in the path of an emerging vaccine technology. Various technical obstacles, regulatory and non-scientific challenges, though all seem surmountable, need to be overcome. This review attempts to discuss the current status and future of this new preventive modality.

  7. MDSplus integration at TCABR tokamak: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sá, W.P. de; Ronchi, G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The implementation of MDSplus in TCABR tokamak, current status. • Interfaces between the system already installed and the MDSplus. • Web MDSplus interface. - Abstract: Experimental data for the TCABR tokamak is currently stored in MDSplus (Model Driven System Plus) database. The access to the data recorded during the experiments is performed using tools and libraries available by MDSplus system. The MDSplus system is widely used in different physics experiments, especially in plasmas physics and nuclear fusion. This standardized environment enables easy interaction among scientists of different experiments in different countries without the need to understand the particular characteristics of control, data acquisition and analysis, and remote access (CODAS) customized in each laboratory. In the first phase of implementation, intermediate interfaces had been developed between the legacy proprietary system and the MDSplus. In a second phase, the new diagnostic systems had been directly included in the created MDSplus system in the laboratory. After three years of use, the system installed on TCABR proved extremely efficient and significantly increased productivity in data analysis by involved scientists, regardless of whether they are locally at the TCABR, or accessing the system remotely from their home laboratories. The third phase, and subject of this article, are the development and implementation of the following systems: (i) web tools for the visualization of data, integrated with the experiment logbook, (ii) integration of MDSplus with applications (LabVIEW + MDSplus) and newer data acquisition hardware.

  8. MDSplus integration at TCABR tokamak: Current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sá, W.P. de, E-mail: pires@if.usp.br; Ronchi, G., E-mail: gronchi@if.usp.br

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The implementation of MDSplus in TCABR tokamak, current status. • Interfaces between the system already installed and the MDSplus. • Web MDSplus interface. - Abstract: Experimental data for the TCABR tokamak is currently stored in MDSplus (Model Driven System Plus) database. The access to the data recorded during the experiments is performed using tools and libraries available by MDSplus system. The MDSplus system is widely used in different physics experiments, especially in plasmas physics and nuclear fusion. This standardized environment enables easy interaction among scientists of different experiments in different countries without the need to understand the particular characteristics of control, data acquisition and analysis, and remote access (CODAS) customized in each laboratory. In the first phase of implementation, intermediate interfaces had been developed between the legacy proprietary system and the MDSplus. In a second phase, the new diagnostic systems had been directly included in the created MDSplus system in the laboratory. After three years of use, the system installed on TCABR proved extremely efficient and significantly increased productivity in data analysis by involved scientists, regardless of whether they are locally at the TCABR, or accessing the system remotely from their home laboratories. The third phase, and subject of this article, are the development and implementation of the following systems: (i) web tools for the visualization of data, integrated with the experiment logbook, (ii) integration of MDSplus with applications (LabVIEW + MDSplus) and newer data acquisition hardware.

  9. Current Status of Yongbyon Nuclear Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The DPRK has developed Yongbyon Nuclear Complex in Figure 1 since 1960's. Currently it is composed of the reactor facility, fuel fabrication facility including the enrichment center, and the radiochemistry center. Even though many facilities are not modern and economic in the western standards, Yongbyon Nuclear Complex is fully equipped with the entire life cycle of the nuclear installation. The key facilities have been added step by step. For example, the DPRK's nuclear reactor fleet started with the 2 MW IRT-2000 reactor in the middle of 80's. It started with a small scale radioactive isotope separation center nearby. But nowadays the DPRK is constructing a much more larger isotope separation center in the vicinity of its enrichment center along with a potential new UF6 conversion center. The general description over Yongbyon Nuclear Complex is given in this paper. More detailed context of the current status of the center will be discussed in the main symposium purely based on the open source information study.

  10. [Risk of certain obstetric pathologies in women employed in working conditions non-complying with the current legal status on work load and working conditions appropriate for pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowiec-Dabrowska, Teresa; Hanke, Wojciech; Sobala, Wojciech; Radwan-Włodarczyk, Zyta; Koszada-Włodarczyk, Wiesława

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the incidence of prematurity and small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants in occupationally involved pregnant women, and to find out how far working conditions departing from binding regulations contribute to the risk of the development of these pathologies. The study was carried out on a representative sample of 3050 women employed for longer than one week during pregnancy in the Łódź district. An interview conducted with the subjects few days after delivery was the source of information about working conditions. The obtained information was compared with the real situation in about 10% of randomly selected workposts. A high level of consistence was observed. The study revealed that almost 60% of women work in conditions, which do not comply with the Labor Code provisions setting working conditions permissible for pregnant women. In the study group, 4.68% of prematurity and 6.15% of SGA were recorded. A 66% excess in the risk of delivering SGA infants in case of at least one factor not complying with regulations was revealed. The excess was growing with the increased number of departures from regulations and continuation of employment during pregnancy. It was estimated that the number of SGA cases would decrease by 28% if the working conditions would have met the requirements. A prolonged time of work, local vibration for > 4h/shift, forced work pace, excessive effort and forced body position during the work performance contributed mostly to the risk of pathology. Interestingly, the risk of premature delivery was lower by about 40% in women working in unsatisfactory conditions, which is attributed to termination of work immediately after the occurrence of pregnancy-threatening symptoms. Only those women whose pregnancy was not threatened with pathology could continue their work. The study revealed a quite large number of workplaces not complying with regulations on working conditions permissible for pregnant women. Therefore

  11. Radiopharmaceuticals in China. Current status and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Hong-Mei; Liu, Bo-Li [Beijing Normal Univ. (China). Key Laboratory of Radiopharmaceuticals

    2014-04-01

    The review provides an overview of the current status of radiopharmaceuticals in China for in vivo clinical use and also describes some important advances in the past three decades. Development of the diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals as well as basic research on radiopharmaceutical chemistry are being introduced. The radiotracers developed in China include: (1) Brain perfusion imaging agents and CNS radiotracers for β-amyloid plaques, σ{sub 1} receptors, and dopamine D{sub 2} or D{sub 4} receptors; (2) {sup 99m}Tc- and {sup 18}F-labeled myocardial perfusion imaging agents; (3) tumor imaging agents including integrin-targeting radiotracer, novel sentinel lymph node imaging agents, hypoxia imaging agents, {sup 99m}Tc-labeled glucose derivatives, σ{sub 2} receptor imaging agents, folate receptor imaging agents, and potential radiotracers for imaging of human telomerase reverse transcriptase expression; (4) Potential infection imaging agents; (5) Potential asialoglycoprotein receptor imaging agents; (6) Other imaging agents. Moreover, some prospects of research and development of radiopharmaceuticals in the near future are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Current status of GALS setup in JINR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemlyanoy, S., E-mail: zemlya@jinr.ru; Avvakumov, K., E-mail: kavvakumov@jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Fedosseev, V. [CERN (Switzerland); Bark, R. [Nat. Research Foundation, iThemba LABS (South Africa); Blazczak, Z. [A. Mickiewicz University, Faculty of Physics (Poland); Janas, Z. [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics (Poland)

    2017-11-15

    This is a brief report on the current status of the new GAs cell based Laser ionization Setup (GALS) at the Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna. GALS will exploit available beams from the U-400M cyclotron in low energy multi-nucleon transfer reactions to study exotic neutron-rich nuclei located in the “north-east” region of nuclear map. Products from 4.5 to 9 MeV/nucleon heavy-ion collisions, such as {sup 136}Xe on {sup 208}Pb, are thermalized and neutralized in a high pressure gas cell and subsequently selectively laser re-ionized. In order to choose the best scheme of ion extraction the results of computer simulations of two different systems are presented. The first off- and online experiment will be performed on osmium atoms that is regarded as a most convenient element for producing isotopes with neutron number in the vicinity of the magic N = 126.

  13. The Japanese artificial organs scene: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitamura, Yoshinori; Murabayashi, Shun

    2005-08-01

    Artificial organs and regenerative medicine are the subjects of very active research and development (R&D) in Japan and various artificial organs are widely used in patients. Results of the R&D are presented at the annual conference of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs (JSAO). Progress in the fields of artificial organs and regenerative medicine are reviewed annually in the Japanese Journal of Artificial Organs. The official English-language journal of JSAO, Journal of Artificial Organs, also publishes many original articles by Japanese researchers. Although the annual conference and the publications of JSAO provide the world with update information on artificial organs and regenerative medicine in Japan, the information is not always understood appropriately in the rest of the world, mainly due to language problems. This article therefore introduces the current status of artificial organs and regenerative medicine in Japan. Artificial hearts and metabolic support systems are reviewed here and other interesting areas such as regenerative medicine can be found elsewhere.

  14. Current status of chirality in agrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Peter

    2018-04-27

    The agrochemical industry is continuously searching for new pesticides to develop products with optimal efficacy, lower application rates in the field, increased selectivity, favorable toxicological and environmental safety, enhanced user friendliness and better economic viability. One strategy to achieve these ambitious goals makes use of the unique properties of molecules containing asymmetric centers. In the past, many natural products and their congeners have been a source of inspiration for designing new active ingredients, and the molecular structure of the resulting molecules have become increasingly complex. 30% contain fragments with asymmetric centers. However, despite the enormous progress that has been made in catalytic asymmetric processes over the last decade, only few agrochemicals are produced in enantiomerically pure or enriched form on an industrial scale. Since 2007, around 43% of the 44 launched products (insecticides, acaricides, fungicides, nematicides, and herbicides) contain one or more asymmetric centers in the molecule (≈ 47 %) and most of them were launched as racemic mixtures of enantiomers or diastereomers. This review gives an overview of the current status of chiral agrochemicals launched over the past 10 years and describes the inherently connected challenges of modern agricultural chemistry by managing important aspects resulting from stereochemistry of these innovative products. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Current Status of TRR-1/M1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sittichai, Chaiyut

    2000-01-01

    In 1961, the first Thai Research Reactor, TRR-1, having power of 1 MW was established. It was located at Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) in Bangkok. TRR-1 was completely commissioned in June 1962. Plate typed high-enriched uranium (HEU) and U 3 O 8 -Al were used as fuel. Light water used as moderator and coolant. During 1975-1977, TRR-1 was shut down for modification. The reactor core and control system were disassembled and replaced by TRIGA Mark III. It is a circular hexagonal core typed reactor designed by General Atomics Company (GA). Afterwards, TRR-1 was officially renamed to Thai Research Reactor 1/Modification 1 (TRR-1/M1). TRR-1/M1 is a multipurpose reactor with nominal power of 2 MW. This swimming pool typed reactor uses low-enriched uranium (LEU) as fuel and light water as coolant and moderator. To date, the reactor has been operated with core No.12 that released power 1135 MWD to serve the user. The reactor has been serving for various kinds of utilization, for example, to produce radioisotope, neutron beam experiments and reactor physics experiments. This report explains in detail regarding operational experience and current status of this reactor, for example, reactor operation and reactor utilization. (author)

  16. Current status in diabetic macular edema treatments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro; Romero-Aroca

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is a serious chronic condition,which increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases,kidney failure and nerve damage leading to amputation.Furthermore the ocular complications include diabetic macular edema,is the leading cause of blindness among adults in the industrialized countries.Today,blindness from diabetic macular edema is largely preventable with timely detection and appropriate interventional therapy.The treatment should include an optimized control of glycemia,arterial tension,lipids and renal status.The photocoagulation laser is currently restricted to focal macular edema in some countries,but due the high cost of intravitreal drugs,the use of laser treatment for focal and diffuse diabetic macular edema(DME),can be valid as gold standard in many countries.The intravitreal anti vascular endothelial growth factor drugs(ranibizumab and bevacizumab),are indicated in the treatment of all types of DME,but the correct protocol for administration should be defined for the different Retina Scientific Societies.The corticosteroids for diffuse DME,has a place in pseudophakic patients,but its complications restricted the use of these drugs for some patients.Finally the intravitreal interface plays an important role and its exploration is mandatory in all DME patients.

  17. Current status of construction license of PEFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. Y.; Cho, J. S.; Min, Y. S.; Nam, J. M.; Jeon, G. P.; Park, S. S.; Jo, J. H.; Song, I. T.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2010 August, PEFP(Proton Engineering Frontier Project)'s Proton Accelerator Research Center has been under construction so far. Generally, in advance of construction startup, many kinds of licenses should be acquired along with the types of construction works. To acquire a license in time, each item should meet the standard by the related regulation, including not only procedural but also content aspect. In the advent of internet era, electronic government system has been adopted in many governmental functions: So is the national construction license acquisition system. Owing to the system, both approval and documentation functions in licensing are integrated in online computer network which provide us simplification in process and easy accessibility to license data. However, aside from these construction licenses, other types of licenses still remain separately managed: Machinery, electric facilities, and so on. Moreover, all the licenses have the priority order and take legal term in processing. So, to avoid any time delay in license acquisition, we organized license hierarchy and found out the priority among them. Thereafter, according to their legal term in approval and acquisition, whole license acquisition schedule was arranged and we completed all the necessary licenses acquisition in time In this study, we summarize the current status of license acquisition on Proton Accelerator Research Center Construction, and manifest how they have been and will be managed systematically

  18. Current status of construction license of PEFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. Y.; Cho, J. S.; Min, Y. S.; Nam, J. M.; Jeon, G. P.; Park, S. S.; Jo, J. H.; Song, I. T. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Since 2010 August, PEFP(Proton Engineering Frontier Project)'s Proton Accelerator Research Center has been under construction so far. Generally, in advance of construction startup, many kinds of licenses should be acquired along with the types of construction works. To acquire a license in time, each item should meet the standard by the related regulation, including not only procedural but also content aspect. In the advent of internet era, electronic government system has been adopted in many governmental functions: So is the national construction license acquisition system. Owing to the system, both approval and documentation functions in licensing are integrated in online computer network which provide us simplification in process and easy accessibility to license data. However, aside from these construction licenses, other types of licenses still remain separately managed: Machinery, electric facilities, and so on. Moreover, all the licenses have the priority order and take legal term in processing. So, to avoid any time delay in license acquisition, we organized license hierarchy and found out the priority among them. Thereafter, according to their legal term in approval and acquisition, whole license acquisition schedule was arranged and we completed all the necessary licenses acquisition in time In this study, we summarize the current status of license acquisition on Proton Accelerator Research Center Construction, and manifest how they have been and will be managed systematically.

  19. Current status of JENDL-3.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of JENDL-3.3 is presented. Reevaluation work toward JENDL-3.3 has started last April for three years project to supply a consolidated new versions of JENDL by JAERI NDC (Nuclear Data center) with the cooperation of JNDC (Japanese Nuclear Data Committee). The working schedule has been fixed by the careful review of the summary report, `The problems of JENDL-3.2`, submitted to JNDC last March after one year discussions by a small advisory group: `Identifying the problems of JENDL-3.2`. To cope with the problems, two new subgroups are set up in the Subcommittee of Nuclear Data of JNDC. One is Heavy Mass Elements Evaluation Working Group for the re-evaluation of major actinides (Th-232, U-233,235,236,238, Pu-236,239,241,242). The other is Intermediate Mass Elements Evaluation Working Group for solving the inconsistencies between calculations and integral experiments relating to the fields of fusion neutronics and shielding applications as well as new evaluations such as Er elements. Supplying covariance data for important nuclides are one of the main feature of JENDL-3.3. Re-evaluated data will be released as JENDL-3.3 in the individual bases after the reviewing process by the experts. (author)

  20. IAEA occupational radiation protection programme: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deboodt, P.; Mrabit, K.

    2006-01-01

    As stated in Art.III.A.6 of its Statute, the International Atomic Energy Agency (commonly referred to as the Agency) is authorized to establish or adopt, in consultation and, where appropriate, in collaboration with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned, standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property (including such standards for labour conditions), and to provide for the application of these standards to its own operation as well as to the operations making use of materials, services, equipment, facilities, and information made available by the Agency or at its request or under its control or supervision. The Agency s Occupational Radiation Protection Programme aims at harmonizing infrastructures for the control of radiation exposure of workers and for optimizing radiation protection in situation s of exposures due to external radiation and intakes of radionuclides from both artificial and natural sources of radiation. Under its regular and technical cooperation programmes, the Agency has been assigning high priority to both the establishment of safety standards for labour conditions and for the application of these standards through, Interalia, direct assistance under its technical cooperation (TC) programme, the rendering of services, the promotion of education and training, the fostering of information exchange and the coordination of research and development. The purpose of this paper is to present the current status and future IAEA activities in support of occupational radiation protection. (authors)

  1. Current status and prospects of HIV treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihlar, Tomas; Fordyce, Marshall

    2016-06-01

    Current antiviral treatments can reduce HIV-associated morbidity, prolong survival, and prevent HIV transmission. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) containing preferably three active drugs from two or more classes is required for durable virologic suppression. Regimen selection is based on virologic efficacy, potential for adverse effects, pill burden and dosing frequency, drug-drug interaction potential, resistance test results, comorbid conditions, social status, and cost. With prolonged virologic suppression, improved clinical outcomes, and longer survival, patients will be exposed to antiretroviral agents for decades. Therefore, maximizing the safety and tolerability of cART is a high priority. Emergence of resistance and/or lack of tolerability in individual patients require availability of a range of treatment options. Development of new drugs is focused on improving safety (e.g. tenofovir alafenamide) and/or resistance profile (e.g. doravirine) within the existing drug classes, combination therapies with improved adherence (e.g. single-tablet regimens), novel mechanisms of action (e.g. attachment inhibitors, maturation inhibitors, broadly neutralizing antibodies), and treatment simplification with infrequent dosing (e.g. long-acting injectables). In parallel with cART innovations, research and development efforts focused on agents that target persistent HIV reservoirs may lead to prolonged drug-free remission and HIV cure. Copyright © 2016 Gilead Sciences, Inc. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Current status of the IREN project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, W.I.

    1997-01-01

    A current status and a corrected time-schedule of the project of the new Intense Resonance Neutron pulsed source (IREN) realized in JINR (Dubna) for experiments dealing with fundamental and applied nuclear physics studies are discussed. This source is the upgraded variant of the existing IBR-30 pulsed booster. It consists of the 200 MeV electron linac and supplying by an electron beam the photo-neutron converter placed in the center of the very fast multiplying subcritical core. The existing buildings and beam infrastructure are planned to adopt for the new IREN source. The aim of the project is to improve essentially an energy resolution of the time-of-flight spectrometer and to increase twice (up to 10 15 n/sec) an integral neutron yield. An implementation of the IREN project has started in June 1994 with the planned end in December 1997. But due to mainly insufficient financing the approved time-schedule is shifted. Now most optimistic time of start-up of the neutron source is the end of 1999

  3. Current employment characteristics and career intentions of Lithuanian dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janulyte, Vilija; Aleksejuniene, Jolanta; Puriene, Alina; Peciuliene, Vytaute; Benzian, Habib

    2014-12-20

    The present survey explored the current employment profile and future career intentions of Lithuanian general dentists and specialists. A census sampling method was employed with data collected by means of a structured questionnaire that inquired about demographics, different employment-related aspects (practice type and location, working hours, perceived lack of patients, etc.), and future career intentions (intent to emigrate, to change profession, or the timing of retirement). The final response rate was 67.6% corresponding to 2,008 respondents. The majority of all dentists work full or part-time in the private dental sector, more than one third of them owns a private practice or rents a dental chair. A minority of dentists works in the public dental sector. According to the survey, 26.6% of general dentists and 39.2% of dental specialists works overtime (> 40 hours per week; P 0.05). The majority (68.9% of general dentists and 65.9% of dental specialists) plans to work after the retirement age (P > 0.05). Emigration as an option for their professional career is being considered by 10.8% of general dentists and 8.3% of dental specialists (P > 0.05). Working either full or part-time in private practices (OR = 4.3) and younger age (≤ 35 years; OR = 2.2) are the two strongest predictors for a perceived insufficient number of patients. One third of dentists in Lithuania work long hours and lack patients. Many dentists practice in multiple locations and plan to retire after the official retirement age. Some dentists and dental specialists plan to emigrate. The perceived shortcomings within the dental care system and workforce planning of dentists need to be addressed.

  4. Current status of endovascular catheter robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, Alan B; Bismuth, Jean

    2018-06-01

    In this review, we will detail the evolution of endovascular therapy as the basis for the development of catheter-based robotics. In parallel, we will outline the evolution of robotics in the surgical space and how the convergence of technology and the entrepreneurs who push this evolution have led to the development of endovascular robots. The current state-of-the-art and future directions and potential are summarized for the reader. Information in this review has been drawn primarily from our personal clinical and preclinical experience in use of catheter robotics, coupled with some ground-breaking work reported from a few other major centers who have embraced the technology's capabilities and opportunities. Several case studies demonstrating the unique capabilities of a precisely controlled catheter are presented. Most of the preclinical work was performed in the advanced imaging and navigation laboratory. In this unique facility, the interface of advanced imaging techniques and robotic guidance is being explored. Although this procedure employs a very high-tech approach to navigation inside the endovascular space, we have conveyed the kind of opportunities that this technology affords to integrate 3D imaging and 3D control. Further, we present the opportunity of semi-autonomous motion of these devices to a target. For the interventionist, enhanced precision can be achieved in a nearly radiation-free environment.

  5. Current status of JMTR refurbishment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminaga, Masanori; Niimi, Motoji; Hori, Naohiko; Takahashi, Kunihiro; Kanno, Masaru; Nakagawa, Tetsuya; Nagao, Yoshiharu; Ishihara, Masahiro; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    2010-02-01

    The JMTR is a light water moderated and cooled, beryllium reflected tank- type reactor using LUE silicide plate-type fuels. Its thermal power is 50 MW, maximum thermal and fast neutron flux is 4x10 18 m -2 s -1 . First criticality was achieved in March 1968, and its operation was stopped from August, 2006 for the refurbishment. The refurbishment is scheduled from the beginning of FY2007 to the end of FY2010. The renewed and upgraded JMTR will be re-started from FY2011. An investigation on aged components (aged-investigation) was carried out for concrete structures of the JMTR reactor building, exhaust stack, etc., and for tanks in the primary cooling system, heat exchangers, pipes in the secondary cooling system, cooling tower, emergency generators and so on, in order to identify their integrity. The aged-investigation was carried out at the beginning of FY2007. As a result, some components were decided to replace from viewpoints of future maintenance and improvement of reliability, and some components or structures were decided to repair. A visual inspection of inner side of the pressure vessel was carried out using an underwater camera in FY2008, and no serious damage was observed. Up to now, refurbishment works are in progress according to the planned schedule. In FY2009, motors of primary cooling pumps, secondary cooling pumps, motors of drain pumps, pump in the primary water transfer line to the water purification system, beryllium reflector frame, low-voltage motor control centers are to be replaced. A nuclear instrumentation system, process control system, safety protection system and so on are to be replaced in FY2010. In this paper, current status of JMTR refurbishment project is presented. (author)

  6. Current status of NPP generation IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yohanes Dwi Anggoro; Dharu Dewi; Nurlaila; Arief Tris Yuliyanto

    2013-01-01

    Today development of nuclear technology has reached the stage of research and development of Generation IV nuclear power plants (advanced reactor systems) which is an innovative development from the previous generation of nuclear power plants. There are six types of power generation IV reactors, namely: Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR), Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR), Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR), Molten Salt Reactor (MSR), and Super Critical Water-cooled Reactor (SCWR). The purpose of this study is to know the development of Generation IV nuclear power plants that have been done by the thirteen countries that are members of the Gen IV International Forum (GIF). The method used is review study and refers to various studies related to the current status of research and development of generation IV nuclear power. The result of this study showed that the systems and technology on Generation IV nuclear power plants offer significant advances in sustainability, safety and reliability, economics, and proliferation resistance and physical protection. In addition, based on the research and development experience is estimated that: SFR can be used optimally in 2015, VHTR in 2020, while NPP types GFR, LFR, MSR, and SCWR in 2025. Utilization of NPP generation IV said to be optimal if fulfill the goal of NPP generation IV, such as: capable to generate energy sustainability and promote long-term availability of nuclear fuel, minimize nuclear waste and reduce the long term stewardship burden, has an advantage in the field of safety and reliability compared to the previous generation of NPP and VHTR technology have a good prospects in Indonesia. (author)

  7. Current status of theranostics in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virgolini, Irene; Decristoforo, Clemens; Uprimny, Christian [Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Haug, Alexander [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Fanti, Stefano [University of Bologna, S. Orsola Hospital Bologna, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Bologna (Italy)

    2018-03-15

    The aim of this review is to report on the current status of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-directed theranostics in prostate cancer (PC) patients. The value of {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-directed PET imaging as a diagnostic procedure for primary and recurrent PC as well as the role of evolving PSMA radioligand therapy (PRLT) in castration-resistant (CR)PC is assessed. The most eminent data from mostly retrospective studies currently available on theranostics of prostate cancer are discussed. The current knowledge on {sup 68}Ga-PSMA PET/CT implicates that primary staging with PET/CT is meaningful in patients with high-risk PC and that the combination with pelvic multi parametric (mp)MR (or PET/mpMR) reaches the highest impact on patient management. There may be a place for {sup 68}Ga-PSMA PET/CT in intermediate-risk PC patients as well, however, only a few data are available at the moment. In secondary staging for local recurrence, {sup 68}Ga-PSMA PET/mpMR is superior to PET/CT, whereas for distant recurrence, PET/CT has equivalent results and is faster and cheaper compared to PET/mpMR. {sup 68}Ga-PSMA PET/CT is superior to {sup 18}F / {sup 11}Choline PET/CT in primary staging as well as in secondary staging. In patients with biochemical relapse, PET/CT positivity is directly associated with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) increase and amounts to roughly 50% when PSA is raised to ≤0.5 ng/ml and to ≥90% above 1 ng/ml. Significant clinical results have so far been achieved with the subsequent use of radiolabeled PSMA ligands in the treatment of CRPC. Accumulated activities of 30 to 50 GBq of {sup 177}Lu-PSMA ligands seem to be clinically safe with biochemical response and PERCIST/RECIST response in around 75% of patients along with xerostomia in 5-10% of patients as the only notable side effect. On the basis of the current literature, we conclude that PSMA-directed theranostics do have a major clinical impact in diagnosis and therapy of PC patients. We recommend

  8. Educational level and employment status in adults with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfitzer, Constanze; Helm, Paul C; Rosenthal, Lisa-Maria; Walker, Christoph; Ferentzi, Hannah; Bauer, Ulrike M M; Berger, Felix; Schmitt, Katharina R L

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Through this study we aimed to assess the educational level and employment status of adults with CHD in Germany. Data were acquired from an online survey carried out in 2015 by the German National Register for Congenital Heart Defects. A total of 1458 adults with CHD participated in the survey (response rate: 37.6%). For 1198 participants, detailed medical information, such as main cardiac diagnosis and information from medical reports, was available. Of the participants surveyed (n=1198), 54.5% (n=653) were female, and the mean age was 30 years. The majority of respondents (59.4%) stated that they had high education levels and that they were currently employed (51.1%). Patients with simple CHD had significantly higher levels of education (peducation levels and the majority were employed. The association between CHD and its severity and individuals' educational attainment should be investigated more closely in future studies.

  9. Current status of Uganda Kob (Kobus Kob Thomasi Neumann) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current status of Uganda Kob (Kobus Kob Thomasi Neumann) in Toro Game Reserve, Uganda. ... As part of a biological assessment of Toro Game Reserve, the status of Uganda kob Kobus kob Thomasi ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  10. Advanced Gas Tungsten Arc Weld Surfacing Current Status and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Egerland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gas Shielded Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW – a process well-known providing highest quality weld results joined though by lower performance. Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW is frequently chosen to increase productivity along with broadly accepted quality. Those industry segments, especially required to produce high quality corrosion resistant weld surfacing e.g. applying nickel base filler materials, are regularly in consistent demand to comply with "zero defect" criteria. In this conjunction weld performance limitations are overcome employing advanced 'hot-wire' GTAW systems. This paper, from a Welding Automation perspective, describes the technology of such devices and deals with the current status is this field – namely the application of dual-cathode hot-wire electrode GTAW cladding; considerably broadening achievable limits.

  11. Materials technology for fusion - Current status and future requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.E.; Bloom, E.E.; Clinard, F.W. Jr.; Smith, D.L.; Stevenson, R.D.; Wolfer, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    The general status of the materials research and development activities currently under way in support of controlled thermonuclear fusion reactors in the United States is reviewed. In the area of magnetic confinement configurations, attention is given to development programs for first wall materials, which are at various stages for possible austenitic stainless steels, high-strength Fe-Ni-Cr alloys, reactive and refractory metal alloys, specially designed long-range ordered and rapidly solidified alloys, and ferritic/martensitic steels, and for tritium breeding materials, electrical insulators, ceramics, and coolants. The development of materials for inertial confinement reactors is also surveyed in relation to the protection scheme employed for the first wall and the effects of pulsed neutron irradiation. Finally, the materials requirements and selection procedures for the ETF/INTOR and Starfire tokamak reactor designs are examined. Needs for the expansion of research on nonfirst-wall materials and inertial confinement fusion reactor material requirements are pointed out

  12. Current status of the world's research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, B.

    1999-01-01

    Data from the IAEA's Research Reactor Database (RRDB) provides information with respect to the status of the world's research reactors. Some summary data are given. Recent initiatives by the IAEA regarding communications and information flow with respect to research reactors are discussed. Future plans and perspectives are also introduced. (author)

  13. Current status of the US RERTR Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travelli, A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the status of the RERTR Program. The main objective is to provide the audience with some orientation and sense of perspective that may assist in viewing the other program presentations as part of an overall effort, rather than as separate and unrelated activities

  14. Work Ethic and Employment Status: A Study of Jobseekers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Roger B.; Fouts, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Although there have been numerous changes within the workplace during the past century, employers continue to search for employees with a strong work ethic. Employers often cite a strong work ethic as the most desired characteristic in a new employee. Work ethic can be described as a set of characteristics and attitudes in which an individual…

  15. Current Status of Deep Geological Repository Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnitz, R J

    2005-01-01

    This talk provided an overview of the current status of deep-geological-repository development worldwide. Its principal observation is that a broad consensus exists internationally that deep-geological disposal is the only long-term solution for disposition of highly radioactive nuclear waste. Also, it is now clear that the institutional and political aspects are as important as the technical aspects in achieving overall progress. Different nations have taken different approaches to overall management of their highly radioactive wastes. Some have begun active programs to develop a deep repository for permanent disposal: the most active such programs are in the United States, Sweden, and Finland. Other countries (including France and Russia) are still deciding on whether to proceed quickly to develop such a repository, while still others (including the UK, China, Japan) have affirmatively decided to delay repository development for a long time, typically for a generation of two. In recent years, a major conclusion has been reached around the world that there is very high confidence that deep repositories can be built, operated, and closed safely and can meet whatever safety requirements are imposed by the regulatory agencies. This confidence, which has emerged in the last few years, is based on extensive work around the world in understanding how repositories behave, including both the engineering aspects and the natural-setting aspects, and how they interact together. The construction of repositories is now understood to be technically feasible, and no major barriers have been identified that would stand in the way of a successful project. Another major conclusion around the world is that the overall cost of a deep repository is not as high as some had predicted or feared. While the actual cost will not be known in detail until the costs are incurred, the general consensus is that the total life-cycle cost will not exceed a few percent of the value of the

  16. The Current Status of STEM Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Josh

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the current Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education research base through an analysis of articles from eight journals focused on the STEM disciplines. Analyzed are both practitioner and research publications to determine the current scope of STEM education research, where current STEM education…

  17. Current status and prospects of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabaraev, A.B.; Cherepnin, Yu.S.; Tretyakov, I.T.; Khmelshikov, V.V.; Dollezhal, N.A.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The first nuclear research reactors (RR) appeared in the 1940s. Their initial purpose was to provide knowledge of the main processes associated with neutron-induced nuclear reactions. Later, the rang of problems addressed expanded substantially. Besides fundamental research in the properties of matter, such reactors are successfully used for dealing with problems in the fields of materials science, nuclear engineering, medicine, isotope production, education, etc. Over the whole period of RR fleet growth, more than six hundred nuclear research facilities were built in 70 countries of the world. As of the end of 2008, the number of Russian research reactors in service was about 20% of the globally operating RR fleet. This paper discusses the current status of the world's RR fleet and describes the capabilities of the experimental reactor facilities existing in Russia. In the 21st century, research reactors will remain in demand to solve scientific and technological problems for innovative development of society. The emerging renaissance of nuclear power, the expanding RR uses for production of isotopes and other applications, the increase in the number of countries willing to use nuclear technologies in energy production, industry and science - all contribute to a rebirth of interest in research reactors. One of the ways to improve the experimental capabilities lies in radical upgrading of the reactor facilities with qualitative changes in the main neutronic characteristics of the core. The associated design approaches are illustrated with the example of the IBR-2M reactor at the JNRI in Dubna. The imperative need restricting the spread of nuclear threat leads us to give up using highly enriched uranium in most research reactors. Development of RR fuel with reduced enrichment in uranium has been one of the priority objectives of NIKIET for many years. This paper presents the latest results obtained along these lines, as applied to pool-type research

  18. Current status of neutron scattering in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ampornrat, Pantip

    1999-01-01

    Thailand's neutron spectrometer has been installed soon after the startup of the reactor. The neutron scattering experiments have been done continuously, although there were some problems involving the neutron intensity and instruments. Development program has been planned for better experimental result. This paper reports the past and present status of neutron scattering equipment and experiments in Thailand. In addition, installation of a HRPD (High Resolution Powder Diffraction) system is included within the scope of the Ongkharak Nuclear Research Center project. (author)

  19. Current status of VHTR development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aochi, A.; Kondo, T.

    1982-01-01

    The status of the program at the beginning of fiscal 1982 is reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on the altering of the output helium temperature of the experimental VHTR to 950 0 . The modification is aimed at establishing the technical basis for post-experimental VHTR output helium temperature of 1000 0 C. Notes are given on the design of the VHTR as well as various research and development efforts in Japan on multi-purpose nuclear heat applications and HTGR technology

  20. Current status of fast reactor physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummel, H.H.

    1979-01-01

    The subject of calculation of reactivity coefficients for fast reactors is developed, starting with a discussion of the status of relevant nuclear data and proceeding to the subjects of group cross section generation and of methods of obtaining reactivity coefficients from group cross sections. Reactivity coefficients measured in critical experiments are compared with calculated values. Dependence of reactivity coefficients on reactor design is discussed. Finally, results of the recent international comparison of calculated reactivity coefficients are presented

  1. Employment status, medical support and Income as significant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    significant differences in affordability between individuals who had full time paid employment and those who ... Studies have shown that the direct costs of healthcare services2, travel time, patients' income, and ..... and age was their real ages.

  2. Burnout among Volunteers in the Social Services: The Impact of Gender and Employment Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Liat

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether gender and employment status affect burnout, motives for volunteering, and difficulties associated with volunteer activity in social and community services in Israel. The sample included 375 men and women aged 16 through 80. Participants were divided into four groups by employment status: high school students, employed…

  3. Influence of parental employment status on Dutch and Slovak adolescents' health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleskova, M.; Tuinstra, J.; Geckova, A.M.; van Dijk, J.P.; Salonna, F.; Groothoff, J.W.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Recent research shows the possibility that the link between parental employment status and children's health can be affected by different cultural or societal settings. The aim of this study was to explore whether the effect of father's and mother's employment status on several aspects

  4. Predictive Toxicology: Current Status and Future Outlook (EBI ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slide presentation at the EBI-EMBL Industry Programme Workshop on Predictive Toxicology and the currently status of Computational Toxicology activities at the US EPA. Slide presentation at the EBI-EMBL Industry Programme Workshop on Predictive Toxicology and the currently status of Computational Toxicology activities at the US EPA.

  5. Current status of herbal product: Regulatory overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A review of the regulatory status of herbal drugs/products was done for few countries forming part of Asia, Africa, America, Europe, and Australia, to understand various categories under which the trade of herbal products is permitted and their premarketing requirements. A critical assessment was done, to know the hindrances in the process of harmonization of herbal products. It has been found that there is a lack of harmonization in the regulatory requirements of herbal products internationally, besides the issues of availability of herbs and their conservation. These are hindering the international trade and growth of the herbal products segment. PMID:26681886

  6. A social work study on impact of gender, marital status and employment status on internet addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, internet has penetrated into people’s personal lives, significantly. People communicate with each other through internet facilities such as email services, social web pages, etc. Internet has influenced so much of our lives that many people get addicted and it has become a serious issue among different societies. In this study, we perform an empirical study to find the relationship of three issues of age, gender and employment status on internet addiction behavior. The survey selects 190 men and 160 women from a city of NajafAbad located in province of Esfahan, Iran and a questionnaire consists of 35 questions are distributed among them. The survey uses Chi-Square statistics to examine the effects of three mentioned factors and the results indicate that internet addiction is more among singles than married (Chi-Square=19.94. The survey also indicates that internet addition is more on men than women do (Chi-Square=6.64. However, our survey does not find any evidence to believe job employment has any impact on internet addiction.

  7. Current status of schistosomiasis in Sokoto, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Singh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in poor communities, where most of the population is dependent on river and well for their everyday activities. In this study 5 years–15 years aged children were sampled for schistosomiasis (Urinary and intestinal, using of urine and stool samples. The stool samples were analyzed using kato-katz thick faecal smear technique while the urine samples were analyzed by filtration technique. The overall prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis (Schistosoma haematobium was 60.8% (228 positive cases in 375 samples, and for intestinal schistosomiasis (Schistosoma mansoni was 2.93% (11 positive in 375 samples. The order of infection based on social status (occupation of pupil's parents was farmers > fishermen > traders > civil servents > others. The prevalence of infection based on pupil's water contact activities such as farming associated 84.87% urinary schistosomiasis, followed by swimming (78.21%. Occurrence of urinary schistosomiasis based on source of pupil's drinking water; highest infection was reported among those that drink dam water (75.24% while least infection was occurred whose drinking water was from bore-whole (17.64%. Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in the studied area is therefore very high and family status, means of water contact and availability of drinking water dependent. Therefore there is urgent need to adapt preventive measures, provision of safe drinking water as well as control programmes for vector snails, immediately.

  8. Spent fuel management: Current status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    The main objective of the Advisory Group on Spent Fuel Management is to review the world-wide situation in Spent Fuel Management, to define the most important directions of national efforts and international cooperation in this area, to exchange information on the present status and progress in performing the back-end of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to elaborate the general recommendations for future Agency programmes in the field of spent fuel management. This report which is a result of the third IAEA Advisory Group Meeting (the first and second were held in 1984 and 1986) is intended to provide the reader with an overview of the status of spent fuel management programmes in a number of leading countries, with a description of the past and present IAEA activities in this field of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and with the Agency's plans for the next years, based on the proposals and recommendations of Member States. A separate abstract was prepared for each of 14 papers presented at the advisory group meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Radiation Metabolomics: Current Status and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smrithi eSugumaran Menon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to ionizing radiation disrupts normal metabolic processes in cells and organs by inducing complex biological responses that interfere with gene and protein expression. Conventional dosimetry, monitoring of prodromal symptoms and peripheral lymphocyte counts are of limited value as organ and tissue specific biomarkers for personnel exposed to radiation, particularly, weeks or months after exposure. Analysis of metabolites generated in known stress-responsive pathways by molecular profiling helps to predict the physiological status of an individual in response to environmental or genetic perturbations. Thus, a multi-metabolite profile obtained from a high resolution mass spectrometry-based metabolomics platform offers potential for identification of robust biomarkers to predict radiation toxicity of organs and tissues resulting from exposures to therapeutic or non-therapeutic ionizing radiation. Here, we review the status of radiation metabolomics and explore applications as a standalone technology, as well as its integration in systems biology, to facilitate a better understanding of the molecular basis of radiation response. Finally, we draw attention to the identification of specific pathways that can be targeted for the development of therapeutics to alleviate or mitigate harmful effects of radiation exposure.

  10. Current status of water chemistry in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishigure, K. [Saitama Inst. of Tech. (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    At present 28 BWRs including 2 ABWRs and 23 PWRs are in operation in Japan and generated 36.8{open_square} of total electric power in 1998. Totally 4 BWRs, of which two are ABWRs, are now under construction, and one BWR together with one ABWR is in the stage of planning. One gas-cooled reactor (Tokai-1) was shut down permanently in 1998 and last year entered into decommissioning stage. According to the Japanese 2001 plan of electric power supply, 13 nuclear power plants newly constructed are to start operation in the next 10 years. In this paper the recent status of water chemistry technology in Japanese nuclear power plants is briefly summarized together with a touch upon the activities in the fundamental research. (author)

  11. Current status of water chemistry in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigure, K.

    2002-01-01

    At present 28 BWRs including 2 ABWRs and 23 PWRs are in operation in Japan and generated 36.8□ of total electric power in 1998. Totally 4 BWRs, of which two are ABWRs, are now under construction, and one BWR together with one ABWR is in the stage of planning. One gas-cooled reactor (Tokai-1) was shut down permanently in 1998 and last year entered into decommissioning stage. According to the Japanese 2001 plan of electric power supply, 13 nuclear power plants newly constructed are to start operation in the next 10 years. In this paper the recent status of water chemistry technology in Japanese nuclear power plants is briefly summarized together with a touch upon the activities in the fundamental research. (author)

  12. The Employment Status of Magistrates in South Africa and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    2017-11-07

    Nov 7, 2017 ... remuneration paid to an employee.7 An employer is also in certain ... Defence Force and the State Security Agency from its scope and application. ... Cole Management Theory and Practice 408. .... principal, in the sense that they have their chambers at court and they ...... Instances exist where the executive.

  13. Current status of neutron scattering in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornduangkaeo, Areeratt; Pongkasem, Somchai; Putchar, Suriya; Ampornrat, Pantip; Kajornrith, Varavuth; Sangariyavanich, Archara

    2003-01-01

    The current neutron powder diffractometer at the Thai Research Reactor-1/M1 (TRR-1/M1) has been modified from the obsolete neutron diffractometer which had been used during 1968-1975. The upgraded diffractometer has medium resolution and is appropriate for studying samples with small unit cell dimensions and training university students in the field of neutron scattering. This paper describes the current activities of neutron scattering research in Thailand as well as a new research reactor for enlarging the perspectives of its utilization in the future. (author)

  14. Current Status of Astrophysics of Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalenko, Igor

    2016-03-01

    I will review the current instrumentation and recent results. I will discuss which measurements have to be done in the near future to significantly advance our knowledge about the phenomenon of cosmic rays, their sources, and their interactions with the interstellar medium. A support from NASA APRA Grant No. NNX13AC47G is greatly acknowledged.

  15. Women's Employment Status, Coercive Control, and Intimate Partner Violence in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Andres

    2007-01-01

    Findings from previous studies examining the relation between women's employment and the risk of intimate partner violence have been mixed. Some studies find greater violence toward women who are employed, whereas others find the opposite relation or no relation at all. I propose a new framework in which a woman's employment status and her risk of…

  16. Current and future employment of the heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassitto, L.

    2001-01-01

    Heat pumps, mainly the compression type, grant high energy savings together with environment protection because of the free low temperature energy from environment or wasted heat they use. Their large employment depends on the appreciation of the above properties that are will be done. To grant economic savings on using heat pumps, electric energy and natural gas should have fixed and predictable prices [it

  17. Energy sector in Ecuador: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelaez-Samaniego, M.R.; Garcia-Perez, M.; Cortez, L.A.B.; Oscullo, J.; Olmedo, G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the current energy sector in Ecuador, its present structure, the oil industry, subsidies, and renewable energy, focusing on the evolution and reform of the electricity sector. Currently, 86% of the primary energy originates from nonrenewable sources. In 2005, the gross electricity generation was 15 127 GWh (45.5% hydropower, 43.11% thermal, and 11.39% imported). Ecuador is the fifth largest oil producer in South America but lacks sufficient oil refining capacity. Reserves of natural gas (NG) are small, and most of NG is produced from oil fields without energy recovery. Several projects are underway to increase the utilization of NG and renewable energies to meet Ecuador commitments to the Kyoto Protocol

  18. Supersymmetry: Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, H.; Barnett, R.M.; Bhattacharya, G.

    1990-11-01

    We review the most recent data from e + e - and p bar p colliders and discuss the resulting constraints on the parameters of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, and their implications for future supersymmetry searches. We review the patterns of cascade decays of squarks and gluinos and discuss the present status of supersymmetry event generators for hadron colliders. We present the results of detailed simulations of E T and same sign dilepton events from supersymmetry at the Tevatron. Although the E T signal continues to be viable, it is concluded that the same sign dilepton signal may be too small unless squarks and gluinos are approximately degenerate. The E T and the same-sign dilepton signals from supersymmetry and the Standard Model backgrounds at the SSC are also discussed in detail. We also discuss other promising ways of searching for supersymmetry at the SSC including events containing Z degree bosons, and events containing n isolated leptons (n ≥ 3). Finally, we discuss how supersymmetry searches might be modified if the Higgs sectors is more complicated or if R-parity is not conserved due to baryon number violating interactions. 49 refs., 12 figs

  19. Cacao biotechnology: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasuriya, Anushka M; Dunwell, Jim M

    2018-01-01

    Theobroma cacao-The Food of the Gods, provides the raw material for the multibillion dollar chocolate industry and is also the main source of income for about 6 million smallholders around the world. Additionally, cocoa beans have a number of other nonfood uses in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Specifically, the potential health benefits of cocoa have received increasing attention as it is rich in polyphenols, particularly flavonoids. At present, the demand for cocoa and cocoa-based products in Asia is growing particularly rapidly and chocolate manufacturers are increasing investment in this region. However, in many Asian countries, cocoa production is hampered due to many reasons including technological, political and socio-economic issues. This review provides an overview of the present status of global cocoa production and recent advances in biotechnological applications for cacao improvement, with special emphasis on genetics/genomics, in vitro embryogenesis and genetic transformation. In addition, in order to obtain an insight into the latest innovations in the commercial sector, a survey was conducted on granted patents relating to T. cacao biotechnology. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The current status of grazing incidence optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschenbach, B.

    1983-01-01

    The developments in the area of grazing incidence optics with emphasis on telescopes for use in X-ray astronomy are reviewed. The performance of existing high-resolution telescopes is outlined and compared with those expected from future missions like ROSAT and AXAF. Starting from the basic principles of X-ray reflection and scattering, an attempt is made to highlight the current understanding of X-ray mirror physics using new theoretical ideas as well as experimental laboratory results. (author)

  1. State Emergency Department Opioid Guidelines: Current Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broida, Robert I; Gronowski, Tanner; Kalnow, Andrew F; Little, Andrew G; Lloyd, Christopher M

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and categorize current state-sponsored opioid guidelines for the practice of emergency medicine (EM). We conducted a comprehensive search of EM-specific opioid prescribing guidelines and/or policies in each state to determine current state involvement in EM opioid prescribing, as well as to evaluate some of the specifics of each guideline or policy. The search was conducted using an online query and a follow-up email request to each state chapter of ACEP. We found that 17 states had emergency department-specific guidelines. We further organized the guidelines into four categories: limiting prescriptions for opioids with 67 total recommendations; preventing/diverting abuse with 56 total recommendations; addiction-related guidelines with 29 total recommendations; and a community resources section with 24 total recommendations. Our results showed that current state guidelines focus on providers limiting opioid pain prescriptions and vetting patients for possible abuse/diversion. This study highlights the 17 states that have addressed opioid prescribing guidelines and categorizes their efforts to date. It is hoped that this study will provide the basis for similar efforts in other states.

  2. Employment status of patients with neuromuscular diseases in relation to personal factors, fatigue and health status : A secondary analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rob Oostendorp; Peter Huijbregts; Marie-Antoinette Minis; Joke Kalkman; Baziel Engelen; Reinier Akkermans; Gijs Bleijenberg; Josephine Engels

    2010-01-01

    To determine the number of employed people in a group of patients with neuromuscular diseases and in 3 separate subgroups (facioscapulo-humeral dystrophy, hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, and myotonic dystrophy) to investigate any differences in employment status between the patient groups,

  3. Employment status of patients with neuromuscular diseases in relation to personal factors, fatigue and health status: a secondary analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minis, M.A.H; Kalkman, J.S.; Akkermans, R.P.; Engels, J.A.; Huijbregts, P.A.; Bleijenberg, G.; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Engelen, B.G.M. van

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the number of employed people in a group of patients with neuromuscular diseases and in 3 separate subgroups (facioscapulo-humeral dystrophy, hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, and myotonic dystrophy) to investigate any differences in employment status between the

  4. Melatonin receptors: Current status, facts, and hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankov, B.; Reiter, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Great progress has been made in the identification of melatonin binding sites, commonly identified as melatonin receptors by many authors, in recent years. The bulk of these studies have investigated the sites using either autoradiographic and biochemical techniques with the majority of the experiments being done on the rat, Djungarian and Syrian hamster, and sheep, although human tissue has also been employed. Many of the studies have identified melatonin binding in the central nervous system with either tritium- or iodine-labelled ligands. The latter ligand seems to provide the most reproducible and consistent data. Of the central neural tissues examined, the suprachiasmatic nuclei are most frequently mentioned as a location for melatonin binding sites although binding seems to be widespread in the brain. The other tissue that has been prominently mentioned as a site for melatonin binding is the pars tuberalis of the anterior pituitary gland. There may be time-dependent variations in melatonin binding densities in both neural and pituitary gland tissue. Very few attempts have been made to identify melatonin binding outside of the central nervous system despite the widespread actions of melatonin. Preliminary experiments have been carried out on the intracellular second messengers which mediate the actions of melatonin

  5. Current status of SFR development in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ieda, Yoshiaki; Chikazawa, Yoshitaka [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokyo (Japan). Project Promotion Office; Kotake, Shoji [Japan Atomic Power Company, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Fast Reactor development experiences and status in Japan are summarized. Even though international SFR circumstances were against in 1980s and 1990s, e.g. CRBRP, SNR-300 and Superphenix terminations, we kept on with our R and D activities steadily aiming at positive development targets in Japan. As results of our efforts, it has shown that our commercialized SFR concept, Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) could meet the targets in the Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems (FS) and the Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT) project. Further, Monju has finally achieved restart in May 2010 after having been shut for almost 15 years. A future plan of Monju is to be determined based on a direction of the national nuclear and energy policies that will be established in 2012. The undergoing FaCT project is pursuing commercialization of fast reactor cycle system around 2050 under cooperation of MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology), METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry), utilities, venders and JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). As results of the FaCT Phase I, feasibility of the key technologies for JSFR has been evaluated and the project is waiting for launching the phase II due to the Tohoku large earthquake. It is considered that the nuclear development policy might be affected by the Tohoku large Earthquake/Tsunami in Japan. Nevertheless the significance of nuclear energy will not be changed and thus we will focus on the issues learnt from Fukushima accidents and reflect into the improvement of the safety of Monju and the safety design criteria for the next generation Fast Reactor systems. (orig.)

  6. Current status of SFR development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ieda, Yoshiaki; Chikazawa, Yoshitaka

    2012-01-01

    Fast Reactor development experiences and status in Japan are summarized. Even though international SFR circumstances were against in 1980s and 1990s, e.g. CRBRP, SNR-300 and Superphenix terminations, we kept on with our R and D activities steadily aiming at positive development targets in Japan. As results of our efforts, it has shown that our commercialized SFR concept, Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) could meet the targets in the Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems (FS) and the Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT) project. Further, Monju has finally achieved restart in May 2010 after having been shut for almost 15 years. A future plan of Monju is to be determined based on a direction of the national nuclear and energy policies that will be established in 2012. The undergoing FaCT project is pursuing commercialization of fast reactor cycle system around 2050 under cooperation of MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology), METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry), utilities, venders and JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). As results of the FaCT Phase I, feasibility of the key technologies for JSFR has been evaluated and the project is waiting for launching the phase II due to the Tohoku large earthquake. It is considered that the nuclear development policy might be affected by the Tohoku large Earthquake/Tsunami in Japan. Nevertheless the significance of nuclear energy will not be changed and thus we will focus on the issues learnt from Fukushima accidents and reflect into the improvement of the safety of Monju and the safety design criteria for the next generation Fast Reactor systems. (orig.)

  7. Current status of neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    There are about 6000 new glioblastoma multiform brain tumours diagnosed each year in the United States of America alone. This cancer is usually fatal within six months of diagnosis even with current standard treatments. Research on boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been considered as a method of potentially curing such cancers. There is a great interest at under-utilised research reactors institutions to identify new medical utilization, attractive to the general public. Neutron capture therapy is a true multidisciplinary topic with a large variety of individuals involved. This publication attempts to provide current information for all those thinking about being involved with NCT, based on the knowledge and experience of those who have pioneered the treatment. It covers the whole range of NCT from designing reactor conversions or new facilities, through to clinical trials and their effectiveness. However, since most work has been done with boron capture therapy for brain tumours using modified thermal research reactors, this tends to be the focus of the report. One of the factors which need to be addressed at the beginning is the timing of the further development of NCT facilities. It should be emphasised that all current work is still at the research stage. Many of those now involved believe that there is little need for many more research facilities until such time as the treatment shows more promising results. For this and other reasons discussed in the report, very serious consideration should be given by research reactor owners and operators before spending large sums of money converting their facilities for NCT.

  8. Current status of neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    There are about 6000 new glioblastoma multiform brain tumours diagnosed each year in the United States of America alone. This cancer is usually fatal within six months of diagnosis even with current standard treatments. Research on boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been considered as a method of potentially curing such cancers. There is a great interest at under-utilised research reactors institutions to identify new medical utilization, attractive to the general public. Neutron capture therapy is a true multidisciplinary topic with a large variety of individuals involved. This publication attempts to provide current information for all those thinking about being involved with NCT, based on the knowledge and experience of those who have pioneered the treatment. It covers the whole range of NCT from designing reactor conversions or new facilities, through to clinical trials and their effectiveness. However, since most work has been done with boron capture therapy for brain tumours using modified thermal research reactors, this tends to be the focus of the report. One of the factors which need to be addressed at the beginning is the timing of the further development of NCT facilities. It should be emphasised that all current work is still at the research stage. Many of those now involved believe that there is little need for many more research facilities until such time as the treatment shows more promising results. For this and other reasons discussed in the report, very serious consideration should be given by research reactor owners and operators before spending large sums of money converting their facilities for NCT

  9. Targeted alpha therapy: Applications and current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruchertseifer, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Full text: The field of targeted alpha therapy has been developed rapidly in the last decade. Besides 223 Ra, 211 At and 212 Pb/ 212 Bi the alpha emitters 225 Ac and 213 Bi are promising therapeutic radionuclides for application in targeted alpha therapy of cancer and infectious diseases. The presentation will give a short overview about the current clinical treatments with alpha emitting radionuclides and will place an emphasis on the most promising clinical testing of peptides and antibodies labelled with 225 Ac and 213 Bi for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients with glioma and glioblastoma multiform, PSMA-positive tumor phenotype and bladder carcinoma in situ. (author)

  10. Current status of family health in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apolinar Membrillo Luna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Family Health (FH has three main elements: individual health, life material conditions and family functioning. Its main actors are the individual, the family and society. A common framework is the basis of FH, as each one of these elements is extremely important. Currently, in Mexico two aspects are considered: epidemiological studies and those inherent to the family medicine specialty. That latter has a residency and an integrated specialty curriculum, as well as certification from the corresponding board. All of this allows us to apply the HF approach to each and every family and individual that is cared for.

  11. Lactate biosensors: current status and outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassaei, Liza; Olthuis, Wouter; Tsujimura, Seiya; Sudhölter, Ernst J R; van den Berg, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Many research efforts over the last few decades have been devoted to sensing lactate as an important analytical target in clinical care, sport medicine, and food processing. Therefore, research in designing lactate sensors is no longer in its infancy and now is more directed toward viable sensors for direct applications. In this review, we provide an overview of the most immediate and relevant developments toward this end, and we discuss and assess common transduction approaches. Further, we critically describe the pros and cons of current commercial lactate sensors and envision how future sensing design may benefit from emerging new technologies.

  12. Sensing technology current status and future trends

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhas; Jayasundera, Krishanthi; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun

    2014-01-01

    This book is written for academic and industry professionals working in the field of sensing, instrumentation and related fields, and is positioned to give a snapshot of the current state of the art in sensing technology, particularly from the applied perspective.  The book is intended to give a broad overview of the latest developments, in addition to discussing the process through which researchers go through in order to develop sensors, or related systems, which will become more widespread in the future.  

  13. Endoscopic full-thickness resection: Current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Arthur; Meier, Benjamin; Caca, Karel

    2015-08-21

    Conventional endoscopic resection techniques such as endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection are powerful tools for treatment of gastrointestinal neoplasms. However, those techniques are restricted to superficial layers of the gastrointestinal wall. Endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR) is an evolving technique, which is just about to enter clinical routine. It is not only a powerful tool for diagnostic tissue acquisition but also has the potential to spare surgical therapy in selected patients. This review will give an overview about current EFTR techniques and devices.

  14. Current status of nuclear engineering education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palladino, N.J.

    1975-01-01

    The 65 colleges and universities offering undergraduate degrees in nuclear engineering and the 15 schools offering strong nuclear engineering options are, in general, doing a good job to meet the current spectrum of job opportunities. But, nuclear engineering programs are not producing enough graduates to meet growing demands. They currently receive little aid and support from their customers --industry and government--in the form of scholarships, grants, faculty research support, student thesis and project support, or student summer jobs. There is not enough interaction between industry and universities. Most nuclear engineering programs are geared too closely to the technology of the present family of reactors and too little to the future breeder reactors and controlled thermonuclear reactors. In addition, nuclear engineering programs attract too few women and members of minority ethnic groups. Further study of the reasons for this fact is needed so that effective corrective action can be taken. Faculty in nuclear engineering programs should assume greater initiative to provide attractive and objective nuclear energy electives for technical and nontechnical students in other disciplines to improve their technical understanding of the safety and environmental issues involved. More aggressive and persistent efforts must be made by nuclear engineering schools to obtain industry support and involvement in their programs

  15. Esophageal tissue engineering: Current status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poghosyan, T; Catry, J; Luong-Nguyen, M; Bruneval, P; Domet, T; Arakelian, L; Sfeir, R; Michaud, L; Vanneaux, V; Gottrand, F; Larghero, J; Cattan, P

    2016-02-01

    Tissue engineering, which consists of the combination and in vivo implantation of elements required for tissue remodeling toward a specific organ phenotype, could be an alternative for classical techniques of esophageal replacement. The current hybrid approach entails creation of an esophageal substitute composed of an acellular matrix and autologous epithelial and muscle cells provides the most successful results. Current research is based on the use of mesenchymal stem cells, whose potential for differentiation and proangioogenic, immune-modulator and anti-inflammatory properties are important assets. In the near future, esophageal substitutes could be constructed from acellular "intelligent matrices" that contain the molecules necessary for tissue regeneration; this should allow circumvention of the implantation step and still obtain standardized in vivo biological responses. At present, tissue engineering applications to esophageal replacement are limited to enlargement plasties with absorbable, non-cellular matrices. Nevertheless, the application of existing clinical techniques for replacement of other organs by tissue engineering in combination with a multiplication of translational research protocols for esophageal replacement in large animals should soon pave the way for health agencies to authorize clinical trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Current status of the RERTR program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travelli, Armando

    1983-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to review the progress which has been accomplished by the RERTR Program during the past year, the present status of the program, the activities which are now in progress, and the program plans for the coming years. The main program objectives have not changed during the past year. The primary goal of the RERTR Program is still to reduce the amount of HEU which is shipped and used around the world in research reactors and, with it, the nuclear proliferation potential which it creates. Also unchanged is the program objective to reduce HEU use without significant penalty to the reactors involved. This means that for every possible conversion, our technical goal is to achieve good experiment capabilities and the economic advantages that come from a long core lifetime and from relatively economical fuels. We also intend to limit as much as possible the modifications which may have to be made to the reactor in order to achieve conversion and, last but not least, we intend to avoid any significant problems that might appear in the safety and licensing areas. Other important goals are the sharing of information about reduced-enrichment technology and providing technical assistance to the U.S. Government on special problems that may affect implementation of its policies. The timetable of the RERTR Program has stretched slightly. At the time of the previous ANL Conference, a long range goal was set which was anticipated to require about five or six years. This happened in 1978 and, therefore, the long range goal was considered to be achievable by 1984. This final deadline, the time when the long term goal of technical convertibility of all research reactors can be achieved, has now been moved to 1986. In the meantime, good progress has been made towards the near-term goals. Much more detailed knowledge is available about what lies ahead from a technical point of view. In addition, the general level of confidence in the achievability of the

  17. Targeted alpha therapy: Applications and current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruchertseifer, Frank, E-mail: frank.bruchertseifer@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    Full text: The field of targeted alpha therapy has been developed rapidly in the last decade. Besides {sup 223}Ra, {sup 211}At and {sup 212}Pb/{sup 212}Bi the alpha emitters {sup 225}Ac and {sup 213}Bi are promising therapeutic radionuclides for application in targeted alpha therapy of cancer and infectious diseases. The presentation will give a short overview about the current clinical treatments with alpha emitting radionuclides and will place an emphasis on the most promising clinical testing of peptides and antibodies labelled with {sup 225}Ac and {sup 213}Bi for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients with glioma and glioblastoma multiform, PSMA-positive tumor phenotype and bladder carcinoma in situ. (author)

  18. Current status of research on school refusal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cándido J. Inglés

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available School refusal behavior refers to the avoidance of a child attending school and/or persistent difficulty staying in the classroom throughout the school day. Based on a review of the scientific literature, the aim of this study is to describe the current state of research on school refusal, differentiating between the findings and progress made in Spain from those achieved in the international field. For this purpose, the significance of this phenomenon, in addition to associated risk factors and variables, will be reviewed in the child and youth population. In turn, the commonly used assessment methods and most recommended treatment proposals, mainly based on cognitive behavioral therapy, are discussed. The results reveal several gaps and subjects for debate in some areas of knowledge about school refusal behavior, with differences being found between Spanish and international studies. In conclusion, future studies and challenges in this field are required.

  19. Current Status of Renal Denervation in Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briasoulis, Alexander; Bakris, George L

    2016-11-01

    Over the past 7 years, prospective cohorts and small randomized controlled studies showed that renal denervation therapy (RDN) in patients with resistant hypertension is safe but associated with variable effects on BP which are not substantially better than medical therapy alone. The failure of the most rigorously designed randomized sham-control study, SYMPLICITY HTN-3, to meet the efficacy endpoints has raised several methodological concerns. However, recently reported studies and ongoing trials with improved procedural characteristics, identification of patients with true treatment-resistant hypertension on appropriate antihypertensive regimens further explore potential benefits of RDN. The scope of this review is to summarize evidence from currently completed studies on RDN and discuss future perspectives of RDN therapy in patients with resistant hypertension.

  20. Current status of automated breast ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jung Shin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Breast ultrasonography (US is currently considered the first-line examination in the detection Epub ahead of print and characterization of breast lesions. However, conventional handheld US (HHUS has several limitations such as operator dependence and the requirement of a considerable amount of radiologist time for whole-breast US. Automated breast US (ABUS, recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for screening purposes, has several advantages over HHUS, such as higher reproducibility, less operator dependence, and less required physician time for image acquisition. In addition, ABUS provides both a coronal view and a relatively large field of view. Recent studies have reported that ABUS is promising in US screening for women with dense breasts and can potentially replace handheld second-look US in a preoperative setting.

  1. ILRS: Current Status and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, M. R.; Bianco, G.; Merkowitz, S.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Shargorodsky, V.; Zhongping, Z.

    2016-12-01

    The International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) is expanding its ground tracking capability with new stations and upgrades to current stations. Our Russian colleagues have installed new stations in Brasilia and South Africa, and have several other sites in process or in planning. The NASA Space Geodesy Program is preparing equipment for U.S. sites (McDonald and Haleakala) and with the Norwegian National Mapping Agency in Ny Ålesund; further deployments are planned. Upgrades continue at sites in China, and new sites are underway or planned in Europe and India. Stations are moving to higher repetition rates and more efficient detection to enhance satellite interleaving capability; some stations have already implemented automated processes that could lead to around-the-clock operation to increase temporal coverage and to make more efficient use of personnel. The ILRS roster of supported satellites continues to grow with the addition of the LARES satellite to augment tracking for the improvement of the ITRF. New GNSS constellations and geosynchronous satellites now bring the total roster to over 80 satellites - so much so, that new tracking strategies and time and location multiplexing are under consideration. There continues to be strong interest in Lunar Ranging. New applications of one-way and two-way laser ranging include ps-accurate time transfer, laser transponders for interplanetary ranging, and tracking of space debris. New laser ranging data products are being developed, including satellite orbit products, satellite orientation, gravity field products, and products to characterize the quality of data and station performance. This talk will give a brief summary of recent progress, current challenges and a view of the path ahead.

  2. Molecular imaging: current status and emerging strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pysz, M.A.; Gambhir, S.S.; Willmann, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    In vivo molecular imaging has a great potential to impact medicine by detecting diseases in early stages (screening), identifying extent of disease, selecting disease- and patient-specific treatment (personalized medicine), applying a directed or targeted therapy, and measuring molecular-specific effects of treatment. Current clinical molecular imaging approaches primarily use positron-emission tomography (PET) or single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based techniques. In ongoing preclinical research, novel molecular targets of different diseases are identified and, sophisticated and multifunctional contrast agents for imaging these molecular targets are developed along with new technologies and instrumentation for multi-modality molecular imaging. Contrast-enhanced molecular ultrasound (US) with molecularly-targeted contrast microbubbles is explored as a clinically translatable molecular imaging strategy for screening, diagnosing, and monitoring diseases at the molecular level. Optical imaging with fluorescent molecular probes and US imaging with molecularly-targeted microbubbles are attractive strategies as they provide real-time imaging, are relatively inexpensive, produce images with high spatial resolution, and do not involve exposure to ionizing irradiation. Raman spectroscopy/microscopy has emerged as a molecular optical imaging strategy for ultrasensitive detection of multiple biomolecules/biochemicals with both in vivo and ex vivo versatility. Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid of optical and US techniques involving optically-excitable molecularly-targeted contrast agents and quantitative detection of resulting oscillatory contrast agent movement with US. Current preclinical findings and advances in instrumentation, such as endoscopes and microcatheters, suggest that these molecular imaging methods have numerous potential clinical applications and will be translated into clinical use in the near future.

  3. High-Current Cold Cathode Employing Diamond and Related Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshfield, Jay L. [Omega-P, Inc., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2014-10-22

    The essence of this project was for diamond films to be deposited on cold cathodes to improve their emission properties. Films with varying morphology, composition, and size of the crystals were deposited and the emission properties of the cathodes that utilize such films were studied. The prototype cathodes fabricated by the methods developed during Phase I were tested and evaluated in an actual high-power RF device during Phase II. These high-power tests used the novel active RF pulse compression system and the X-band magnicon test facility at US Naval Research Laboratory. In earlier tests, plasma switches were employed, while tests under this project utilized electron-beam switching. The intense electron beams required in the switches were supplied from cold cathodes embodying diamond films with varying morphology, including uncoated molybdenum cathodes in the preliminary tests. Tests with uncoated molybdenum cathodes produced compressed X-band RF pulses with a peak power of 91 MW, and a maximum power gain of 16.5:1. Tests were also carried out with switches employing diamond coated cathodes. The pulse compressor was based on use of switches employing electron beam triggering to effect mode conversion. In experimental tests, the compressor produced 165 MW in a ~ 20 ns pulse at ~18× power gain and ~ 140 MW at ~ 16× power gain in a 16 ns pulse with a ~ 7 ns flat-top. In these tests, molybdenum blade cathodes with thin diamond coatings demonstrated good reproducible emission uniformity with a 100 kV, 100 ns high voltage pulse. The new compressor does not have the limitations of earlier types of active pulse compressors and can operate at significantly higher electric fields without breakdown.

  4. Sagebrush ecosystems: current status and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, E.A.; Connelly, J.W.; Knick, S.T.; Schroeder, M.A.; Stiver, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    The sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) biome has changed since settlement by Europeans. The current distribution, composition and dynamics, and disturbance regimes of sagebrush ecosystems have been altered by interactions among disturbance, land use, and invasion of exotic plants. In this chapter, we present the dominant factors that have influenced habitats across the sagebrush biome. Using a large-scale analysis, we identified regional changes and patterns in “natural disturbance”, invasive exotic species, and influences of land use in sagebrush systems. Number of fires and total area burned has increased since 1980 across much of the sagebrush biome. Juniper (Juniperus spp.) and pinyon (Pinus spp.) woodlands have expanded into sagebrush habitats at higher elevations. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), an exotic annual grass, has invaded much of lower elevation, more xeric sagebrush landscapes across the western portion of the biome. Consequently, synergistic feedbacks between habitats and disturbance (natural and human-caused) have altered disturbance regimes, plant community dynamics and contributed to loss of sagebrush habitats and change in plant communities. Habitat conversion to agriculture has occurred in the highly productive regions of the sagebrush biome and influenced up to 56% of the Conservation Assessment area. Similarly, urban areas, and road, railroad, and powerline networks fragment habitats, facilitate predator movements, and provide corridors for spread of exotic species across the entire sagebrush biome. Livestock grazing has altered sagebrush habitats; the effects of overgrazing combined with drought on plant communities in the late 1880s and early 1900s still influences current habitats. Management of livestock grazing has influenced sagebrush ecosystems by habitat treatments to increase forage and reduce sagebrush and other plant species unpalatable to livestock. Fences, roads, and water developments to manage livestock movements have further

  5. Current status of PHOBOS at sign RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betts, R.R.; Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL

    1996-01-01

    Four experiments are currently approved for the first measurements with colliding heavy ion beams from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) which is scheduled to come into operation in Spring 1999. These experiments are named STAR, Phoenix, PHOBOS and Brahms. It is expected that central collisions of 100 GeV/u Au + Au at RHIC will lead to energy densities far above any so far attained in the laboratory and it is suspected and hoped that this situation will lead to qualitatively new physics perhaps associated with the creation of a large volume containing a plasma of deconfined quarks and gluons. All four experiments attempt to search for signatures of new physics through combinations of measurements of quantities such as the multiplicity of produced particles, the average transverse momentum of these particles, fluctuations in their multiplicity distribution, their flavor composition, the size scales of the volume from which they are emitted, mass shifts and changes in the decay widths of resonances which decay inside the high energy density volume etc. The PHOBOS detector addresses these issues with a Multiplicity Array which covers the pseudo-rapidity region -5.3 ≤ η ≤ 5.3 with a coverage of 85% of 4π and also incorporates a Vertex Detector. The Multiplicity Array is complemented by two Multi-Particle Spectrometers, each of which cover the range 0.5 ≤ η ≤ 1.5 and azimuthal angle range Δφ = 11 degree. Various trigger and monitor detectors complete PHOBOS

  6. Advanced radiation chemistry research: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    Radiation chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies chemical transformations in materials exposed to high-energy radiations. It is based on the use of ionizing radiation as the initiator or catalyst in chemical reactions. The most significant advantage of radiation chemistry lies in its ability to be used in the production and study of almost any reactive atomic and molecular species playing a part in chemical reaction, synthesis, industrial processes, or in biological systems. Over the the last few years a number of meetings have taken place, under the auspices of the IAEA, in order to evaluate recent developments in radiation chemistry as well as the trends indicated by the results obtained. Radiation chemists from different countries have participated at these meetings. The present publication, a companion to the previous publication - New Trends and Development in Radiation Chemistry, IAEA-TECDOC-527 (1989) - includes some of the important contributions presented at these meetings. It is hoped that it will provide a useful overview of current activities and of emerging trends in this field, thus promoting better understanding of potential contributions of radiation chemistry to other fields of knowledge as well as to practical applications in industry, medicine and agriculture. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. The current status of the MASHA setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedeneev, V. Yu., E-mail: vvedeneyev@gmail.com; Rodin, A. M.; Krupa, L.; Belozerov, A. V.; Chernysheva, E. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Gulyaev, A. V.; Gulyaeva, A. V.; Kamas, D. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Kliman, J. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics (Slovakia); Komarov, A. B.; Motycak, S.; Novoselov, A. S.; Salamatin, V. S.; Stepantsov, S. V.; Podshibyakin, A. V.; Yukhimchuk, S. A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Granja, C.; Pospisil, S. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics (Czech Republic)

    2017-11-15

    The MASHA setup designed as the mass-separator with the resolving power of about 1700, which allows mass identification of superheavy nuclides is described. The setup uses solid ISOL (Isotope Separation On-Line) method. In the present article the upgrade of some parts of MASHA are described: target box (rotating target + hot catcher), ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance, data acquisition, beam diagnostics and control systems. The upgrade is undertaken in order to increase the total separation efficiency, reduce the separation time, of the installation and working stability and make possible continuous measurements at high beam currents. Ion source efficiency was measured in autonomous regime with using calibrated gas leaks of Kr and Xe injected directly to ion source. Some results of the first experiments for production of radon isotopes using the multi-nucleon transfer reaction {sup 48}Ca+{sup 242}Pu are described in the present article. The using of TIMEPIX detector with MASHA setup for neutron-rich Rn isotopes identification is also described.

  8. The current status of the MASHA setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedeneev, V. Yu.; Rodin, A. M.; Krupa, L.; Belozerov, A. V.; Chernysheva, E. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Gulyaev, A. V.; Gulyaeva, A. V.; Kamas, D.; Kliman, J.; Komarov, A. B.; Motycak, S.; Novoselov, A. S.; Salamatin, V. S.; Stepantsov, S. V.; Podshibyakin, A. V.; Yukhimchuk, S. A.; Granja, C.; Pospisil, S.

    2017-11-01

    The MASHA setup designed as the mass-separator with the resolving power of about 1700, which allows mass identification of superheavy nuclides is described. The setup uses solid ISOL (Isotope Separation On-Line) method. In the present article the upgrade of some parts of MASHA are described: target box (rotating target + hot catcher), ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance, data acquisition, beam diagnostics and control systems. The upgrade is undertaken in order to increase the total separation efficiency, reduce the separation time, of the installation and working stability and make possible continuous measurements at high beam currents. Ion source efficiency was measured in autonomous regime with using calibrated gas leaks of Kr and Xe injected directly to ion source. Some results of the first experiments for production of radon isotopes using the multi-nucleon transfer reaction 48Ca+242Pu are described in the present article. The using of TIMEPIX detector with MASHA setup for neutron-rich Rn isotopes identification is also described.

  9. The current status of the MASHA setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedeneev, V. Yu.; Rodin, A. M.; Krupa, L.; Belozerov, A. V.; Chernysheva, E. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Gulyaev, A. V.; Gulyaeva, A. V.; Kamas, D.; Kliman, J.; Komarov, A. B.; Motycak, S.; Novoselov, A. S.; Salamatin, V. S.; Stepantsov, S. V.; Podshibyakin, A. V.; Yukhimchuk, S. A.; Granja, C.; Pospisil, S.

    2017-01-01

    The MASHA setup designed as the mass-separator with the resolving power of about 1700, which allows mass identification of superheavy nuclides is described. The setup uses solid ISOL (Isotope Separation On-Line) method. In the present article the upgrade of some parts of MASHA are described: target box (rotating target + hot catcher), ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance, data acquisition, beam diagnostics and control systems. The upgrade is undertaken in order to increase the total separation efficiency, reduce the separation time, of the installation and working stability and make possible continuous measurements at high beam currents. Ion source efficiency was measured in autonomous regime with using calibrated gas leaks of Kr and Xe injected directly to ion source. Some results of the first experiments for production of radon isotopes using the multi-nucleon transfer reaction "4"8Ca+"2"4"2Pu are described in the present article. The using of TIMEPIX detector with MASHA setup for neutron-rich Rn isotopes identification is also described.

  10. Current status of tritium calorimetry at TLK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buekki-Deme, A.; Alecu, C.G.; Kloppe, B.; Bornschein, B. [Institute of Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karsruhe - TLK, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    Inside a tritium facility, calorimetry is an important analytical method as it is the only reference method for accountancy (it is based on the measurement of the heat generated by the radioactive decay). Presently, at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK), 4 calorimeters are in operation, one of isothermal type and three of inertial guidance control type (IGC). The volume of the calorimeters varies between 0.5 and 20.6 liters. About two years ago we started an extensive work to improve our calorimeters with regard to reliability and precision. We were forced to upgrade 3 of our 4 calorimeters due to the outdated interfaces and software. This work involved creating new LabView programs driving the devices, re-tuning control loops and replacing obsolete hardware components. In this paper we give a review on the current performance of our calorimeters, comparing it to recently available devices from the market and in the literature. We also show some ideas for a next generation calorimeter based on experiences with our IGC calorimeters and other devices reported in the literature. (authors)

  11. Advanced radiation chemistry research: Current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Radiation chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies chemical transformations in materials exposed to high-energy radiations. It is based on the use of ionizing radiation as the initiator or catalyst in chemical reactions. The most significant advantage of radiation chemistry lies in its ability to be used in the production and study of almost any reactive atomic and molecular species playing a part in chemical reaction, synthesis, industrial processes, or in biological systems. Over the the last few years a number of meetings have taken place, under the auspices of the IAEA, in order to evaluate recent developments in radiation chemistry as well as the trends indicated by the results obtained. Radiation chemists from different countries have participated at these meetings. The present publication, a companion to the previous publication - New Trends and Development in Radiation Chemistry, IAEA-TECDOC-527 (1989) - includes some of the important contributions presented at these meetings. It is hoped that it will provide a useful overview of current activities and of emerging trends in this field, thus promoting better understanding of potential contributions of radiation chemistry to other fields of knowledge as well as to practical applications in industry, medicine and agriculture. Refs, figs and tabs.

  12. Current status of nuclear safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Efforts at nuclear safety research have expanded year by year in Japan, in term of money and technical achievement. The Atomic Energy Commission set last year the five year nuclear safety research program, a guideline by which various research institutes will be able to develop their own efforts in a concerted manner. From the results of the nuclear safety research which cover very wide areas ranging from reactor engineering safety, safety of nuclear fuel cycle facilities, prevention of radiation hazards to the adequate treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes, AIJ hereafter focuses of LWR engineering safety and prevents two articles, one introducing the current results of the NSSR program developed by JAERI and the other reporting the LWR reliability demonstration testing projects being promoted by MITI. The outline of these demonstration tests was reported in this report. The tests consist of earthquake resistance reliability test of nuclear power plants, steam generator reliability tests, valve integrity tests, fuel assembly reliability tests, reliability tests of heat affected zones and reliability tests of pumps. (Kobatake, H.)

  13. Current status of the PBMR licensing project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mysen, A.; Clapisson, G.A.; Metcalf, P.E.

    2000-01-01

    The CNS is currently reviewing the PBMR conceptual design from a licensibility point of view. The PBMR concept is based on a High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor - pebble bed reactor type. It is anticipated that the PBMR design will rely on inherent safety characteristics to contain fission products within fuel over the full range of design basis events. This feature combined with the high temperature integrity of the fuel and structural graphite, allows the safe use of a high coolant temperature, which allows consideration of the future development of this reactor for non-electrical applications of nuclear heat for industrial use. The CNS licensing approach requires that the licensing and design basis of the plant should respect prevailing international norms and practices and that a quantitative risk assessment should demonstrate compliance with the CNS fundamental safety standards. The first stage of the licensing process is now ongoing; this is a pre-application phase, which will result in a statement on licensibility being issued. Identification of the specific documentation requirements and information needed is required across every step of the licensing process. Top level regulatory requirements have been established for the PBMR. They include the CNS fundamental safety standard and basic licensing criteria, which describes requirements on licensees of nuclear installations regarding risk assessment and compliance with the safety criteria and define classification of licensing basis events. (author)

  14. Current status of adrenalectomy for Cushing's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunicardi, F.C.; Rosman, P.M.; Lesser, K.L.; Andersen, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate the current use of adrenalectomy in the treatment of Cushing's disease, we reviewed seven consecutive patients who have undergone adrenalectomy for Cushing's disease at this medical center during 1983 to 1984. Seventy-one percent (5/7) had pituitary, or type I, Cushing's disease, while 29% (2/7) had adrenal, or type II, Cushing's disease from either an adenoma or an adrenocortical carcinoma. Presenting signs and symptoms, either initially or at the time of recurrence, were typical of Cushing's syndrome. Four of five patients with type I disease had recurrent disease after transphenoidal hypophysectomy, bilateral adrenalectomy, or unilateral adrenalectomy. In three of five patients, medical therapy of hypercortisolism was abandoned because of adverse side effects. Preoperative evaluation in all patients included cortisol and ACTH levels, dexamethasone suppression tests, and computerized tomography (both abdominal and head). In patients with a prior history of adrenalectomy, radiocholesterol scans were also performed and were useful. Angiographic procedures were not required in these patients. In patients with type I disease, posterior operative approaches were used. In patients with type II disease, an anterolateral approach was used. Posterolateral incisions are preferred over Hugh-Young incisions and provide better exposure with a reduced risk of poor wound healing. Morbidity and mortality included one death and three nonhealing wounds. In the six surviving patients, symptoms resolved with variable frequency. Findings suggestive of Nelson's syndrome (hyperpigmentation) have occurred in two patients; serial computerized tomographic scans fail to reveal evidence of pituitary tumors

  15. Biologic resurfacing of the patella: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scapinelli, Raphaele; Aglietti, Paolo; Baldovin, Marino; Giron, Francesco; Teitge, Robert

    2002-07-01

    The techniques of biologic resurfacing of the patella, like other joint surfaces, are still evolving. Currently none of them is free from criticism. In this regard it is our hope that progress in the basic science will offer in the near future new and more optimistic therapeutic possibilities (i.e., the restoration of a reparative cartilage that is structurally and functionally comparable to the native one). The greater expectancies come perhaps from the present experimental investigations about the combined use of tissue-engineered implants embedded with staminal cells and growth factors. Many problems remain to be solved, however, before reliable applicability in humans. From a general point of view, stem cells obtained from various sources (e.g., adult bone marrow, umbilical cord) offer the same finalities as the embryonic stem cells, without the ethical obstacles related to the latter. Therefore, it may be that restoration of part or all of the articular surface of a joint will be possible by way of these mesenchymal progenitors that have the ability to differentiate into the chondrogenic and osteogenic lines, which is required for the restoration of the various layers of a normal articular cartilage and subchondral bone.

  16. Current Status of Engineering Education in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ronald E.

    Many faculty believe that engineering education in America is at a crossroads and much change is needed. International competition in engineering and the global economy have major potential impact on the engineering workforce of the future. We must find ways to educate U.S. engineers to be competitive and creative contributors in the worldwide arena. Recent national reports are sounding the alarm that the U.S. is losing it leadership in technology and innovation, with consequences for economic prosperity and national security. The report Rising Above the Gathering Storm discusses this dilemma in detail and offers four recommendations to U.S. policymakers. The report Educating the Engineer of 2020 discusses new ways to prepare American engineers for the 21st Century. Furthermore, changes in ABET accreditation, along with new paradigms of teaching and new technology in the classroom, are changing the scholarship of engineering education. We must find ways to promote change in engineering faculty for this new opportunity in engineering educational scholarship. Future engineering students are now in K-12, which is becoming an increasingly diverse population that in the past has not been fully represented in engineering education. Current trends show disaffection for pursuing studies in science and engineering in the youth of our U.S. society. We must find new ways to portray engineering as an exciting and rewarding career, and certainly as an educational platform for professional careers beyond the baccalaureate degree.

  17. [Current status of noninvasive hemodynamics in hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisman, G

    Hypertension is a haemodynamic disorder resulting from a persistent mismatch between cardiac output and peripheral resistance. Hypertension undergoes haemodynamic progression during its natural history. Impedance cardiography is a method of evaluating the cardiovascular system that obtains haemodynamic information from beat to beat through the analysis of variations in the impedance of the thorax on the passage of an electric current. Impedance cardiography unmasks the haemodynamic deterioration underlying the increase in blood pressure as age and systolic blood pressure increases. This method may help to improve blood pressure control through individualized treatment with reduction of peripheral resistance, maintenance of cardiac output or its increase, improvement of arterial compliance and preservation of organ-tissue perfusion. It is useful in the management of patients with resistant hypertension, since a greater percentage of patients controlled with changes in the treatment in relation to the haemodynamic measurements are obtained. Impedance cardiography is important and has prognostic utility in relation to a haemodynamic deterioration pattern and increased cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Current status of tritium calorimetry at TLK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buekki-Deme, A.; Alecu, C.G.; Kloppe, B.; Bornschein, B.

    2015-01-01

    Inside a tritium facility, calorimetry is an important analytical method as it is the only reference method for accountancy (it is based on the measurement of the heat generated by the radioactive decay). Presently, at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK), 4 calorimeters are in operation, one of isothermal type and three of inertial guidance control type (IGC). The volume of the calorimeters varies between 0.5 and 20.6 liters. About two years ago we started an extensive work to improve our calorimeters with regard to reliability and precision. We were forced to upgrade 3 of our 4 calorimeters due to the outdated interfaces and software. This work involved creating new LabView programs driving the devices, re-tuning control loops and replacing obsolete hardware components. In this paper we give a review on the current performance of our calorimeters, comparing it to recently available devices from the market and in the literature. We also show some ideas for a next generation calorimeter based on experiences with our IGC calorimeters and other devices reported in the literature. (authors)

  19. Current status of pediatric minimal access surgery at Sultan Qaboos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: current status, laparoscopy, minimal access surgery, thoracoscopy. Departments of ... Materials and methods ... procedures, the open technique was used for the creation ... operated for bilateral inguinal herniotomy had recurrence.

  20. Current Status of On-Site Wastewater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Charles L.

    1978-01-01

    Wastewater management is becoming an important environmental issue nationally. This article reports the history and current status of wastewater management. Regulatory programs are discussed with specific state examples. Needs assessment is also included. (MA)

  1. International Shock-Wave Database: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levashov, Pavel

    2013-06-01

    Shock-wave and related dynamic material response data serve for calibrating, validating, and improving material models over very broad regions of the pressure-temperature-density phase space. Since the middle of the 20th century vast amount of shock-wave experimental information has been obtained. To systemize it a number of compendiums of shock-wave data has been issued by LLNL, LANL (USA), CEA (France), IPCP and VNIIEF (Russia). In mid-90th the drawbacks of the paper handbooks became obvious, so the first version of the online shock-wave database appeared in 1997 (http://www.ficp.ac.ru/rusbank). It includes approximately 20000 experimental points on shock compression, adiabatic expansion, measurements of sound velocity behind the shock front and free-surface-velocity for more than 650 substances. This is still a useful tool for the shock-wave community, but it has a number of serious disadvantages which can't be easily eliminated: (i) very simple data format for points and references; (ii) minimalistic user interface for data addition; (iii) absence of history of changes; (iv) bad feedback from users. The new International Shock-Wave database (ISWdb) is intended to solve these and some other problems. The ISWdb project objectives are: (i) to develop a database on thermodynamic and mechanical properties of materials under conditions of shock-wave and other dynamic loadings, selected related quantities of interest, and the meta-data that describes the provenance of the measurements and material models; and (ii) to make this database available internationally through the Internet, in an interactive form. The development and operation of the ISWdb is guided by an advisory committee. The database will be installed on two mirrored web-servers, one in Russia and the other in USA (currently only one server is available). The database provides access to original experimental data on shock compression, non-shock dynamic loadings, isentropic expansion, measurements of sound

  2. Teledermatology. Current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whited, J D

    2001-01-01

    Teledermatology is becoming an increasingly common means of delivering dermatologic healthcare worldwide and will almost certainly play a greater role in the future. The type of technology used distinguishes the 2 modes of teledermatology consultation. The store and forward technique uses still digital images generated by a digital camera. Consultations of this type are considered asynchronous since the images are obtained, sent, and reviewed at different times. In contrast, real-time interactive consultations are synchronous. Patients and clinicians interact in real-time through an audio-video communication link. Each modality has its advantages and disadvantages, and studies appear in the literature that assess both technologies. Although diagnostic reliability (precision) assessments for teledermatology are subject to limitations, existing information indicates that both store and forward and real-time interactive technology result in reliable diagnostic outcomes when compared with clinic-based evaluations. Less information regarding diagnostic accuracy is available; however, one evaluation that used store and forward technology found comparable diagnostic accuracy between teledermatology consultations and clinic-based examinations. Currently, little information is available regarding cost effectiveness and patient outcomes. Existing evidence, while inconclusive, suggests that teledermatology may be more costly than traditional clinic-based care, especially when using real-time interactive technology. Teledermatology has been shown to have utility as a triage mechanism for determining the urgency or need for a clinic-based consultation. Overall, patients appear to accept teledermatology and are satisfied with it as a means of obtaining healthcare. Clinicians have also generally reported positive experiences with teledermatology. Future studies that focus on cost effectiveness, patient outcomes, and patient and clinician satisfaction will help further define the

  3. Current Status on Biochip and Detection Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Gwon, Hui Jeong

    2007-06-01

    The recent biotechnology technique has been miniaturized and it features a fusion of electricity, electronics and mechanics in the existing biology. As an example, biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites (microarrays) arranged on a solid substrate that permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to achieve higher throughput and speed. Like a computer chip that can perform millions of mathematical operations in a second, the biochip can perform thousands of biological reactions, such as decoding genes, in a few seconds. The biochip is being used in toxicological, protein, and biochemical research and it can also be used to rapidly detect chemical agents used in biological warfare so that defensive measures can be taken. These biochip technologies incorporate elements of microfluidics, micromachining, synthetic chemistry, separation technologies, and detection technologies of biological molecules. Basically, biochips can be divided into two types: microarray and lab-on-a-chip system. Microarrays use planted probes to catch and identify target biological molecules while lab-on-a-chips actively process loaded samples. The biochips are becoming more diverse and customers are appearing all over the world. The products from the biochip market are being used to help accelerating the research processes and capabilities of bio-pharmaceutical drug discovery and basic academic bioresearch. To fully take advantages of the attributes of biochip technologies such as miniaturization, parallelism, automation and integration, there are some problems to overcome. The major problem is to reduce the cost. Currently the prices of biochip products are too expensive to replace traditional products and processes. As a method to solve the problem, a radioisotope can be used as a detecting sensor by appling on the biochip, as it were, radio-biochip that will further bring the cost down. The originality using the radioisotope on the biochip technology will be able

  4. Current Status on Biochip and Detection Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Gwon, Hui Jeong

    2007-06-15

    The recent biotechnology technique has been miniaturized and it features a fusion of electricity, electronics and mechanics in the existing biology. As an example, biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites (microarrays) arranged on a solid substrate that permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to achieve higher throughput and speed. Like a computer chip that can perform millions of mathematical operations in a second, the biochip can perform thousands of biological reactions, such as decoding genes, in a few seconds. The biochip is being used in toxicological, protein, and biochemical research and it can also be used to rapidly detect chemical agents used in biological warfare so that defensive measures can be taken. These biochip technologies incorporate elements of microfluidics, micromachining, synthetic chemistry, separation technologies, and detection technologies of biological molecules. Basically, biochips can be divided into two types: microarray and lab-on-a-chip system. Microarrays use planted probes to catch and identify target biological molecules while lab-on-a-chips actively process loaded samples. The biochips are becoming more diverse and customers are appearing all over the world. The products from the biochip market are being used to help accelerating the research processes and capabilities of bio-pharmaceutical drug discovery and basic academic bioresearch. To fully take advantages of the attributes of biochip technologies such as miniaturization, parallelism, automation and integration, there are some problems to overcome. The major problem is to reduce the cost. Currently the prices of biochip products are too expensive to replace traditional products and processes. As a method to solve the problem, a radioisotope can be used as a detecting sensor by appling on the biochip, as it were, radio-biochip that will further bring the cost down. The originality using the radioisotope on the biochip technology will be able

  5. [Immunotherapy for renal cell carcinoma - current status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Marc-Oliver; Foller, Susan

    2018-04-01

    Systemic treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has substantially changed during the last 2 years due to approval of the immune-checkpoint inhibitor Nivolumab (Opdivo ® ) and new multikinase inhibitors (Cabozantinib, Lenvatinib, Tivozanib). The german kidney tumor guideline strongly recommends Nivolumab and Cabozantinib as 2nd line treatments after prior VEGF targeted therapy. CheckMate 025, the prospective randomized trial which led to approval of Nivolumab demonstrated improved overall survival (26 month vs. 19.7 month; hazard ratio 0.73; p = 0.0006) and response rate (26 % vs. 5 %) as well as a favorable toxicity profile compared with Everolimus. Currently, numerous combinations with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors are compared to Sunitinib as first line treatment of mRCC. Out of these CheckMate 214, a randomized phase-3 trial is the first to demonstrate a significant higher objective response rate (42 % vs. 27 %, p < 0.0001) and overall survival (Sunitinib 26.0 month, median for Nivo + Ipi has been not yet reached (28.2 - NR); Hazard ratio 0.63) for the combination of Nivolumab and the CTLA-4 antibody Ipilimumab in IMDC intermediate and high risk patients. Furthermore, CheckMate 214 shows better side effect profile and quality of life in patients receiving Nivolumab and Ipilimumab compared with Sunitinib. However, a considerable increase of immune related adverse events is associated with the immune combination therapy. Another randomized trial demonstrates improved progression-free survival for the combination of the PD-L1 inhibitor Atezolizumab and the VEGF antibody Bevacizumab in patients with PD-L1 positive tumors; this was found in all IMDC risk groups. Further phase-3 trials with "new" VEGFR-TKIs (Axitinib, Cabozantinib, Lenvatinib) and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor combinations are ongoing.In conclusion, the PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor Nivolumab will remain a standard treatment for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma

  6. Current status and future perspective of PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Chul

    2002-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine imaging modality that consists of systemic administration to a subject of a radiopharmaceutical labeled with a positron-emitting radionuclide. Following administration, its distribution in the organ or structure under study can be assessed as a function of time and space by (1) detecting the annihilation radiation resulting from the interaction of the positrons with matter, and (2) reconstructing the distribution of the radioactivity from a series of that used in computed tomography (CT). The nuclides most generally exhibit chemical properties that render them particularly desirable in physiological studies. The radionuclides most widely used in PET are F-18, C-11, O-15 and N-13. Regarding to the number of the current PET Centers worldwide (based on ICP data), more than 300 PET Centers were in operation in 2000. The use of PET technology grew rapidly compared to that in 1992 and 1996, particularly in the USA, which demonstrates a three-fold rise in PET installations. In 2001, 194 PET Centers were operating in the USA. In 1994, two clinical and research-oriented PET Centers at Seoul National University Hospital and Samsung Medical Center, was established as the first dedicated PET and Cyclotron machines in Korea, followed by two more PET facilities at the Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Ajou Medical Center, Yonsei University Medical Center, National Cancer Center and established their PET Center. Catholic Medical School and Pusan National University Hospital have finalized a plan to install PET machine in 2002, which results in total of nine PET Centers in Korea. Considering annual trends of PET application in four major PET centers in Korea in Asan Medical Center recent six years (from 1995 to 2000), a total of 11,564 patients have been studied every year and the number of PET studies has shown steep growth year upon year. We had, 1,020 PET patients in 1995. This number increased to 1,196, 1,756, 2,379, 3

  7. [Current status of and prospects for contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzolari, E; Parisi, C

    1989-01-01

    It is estimated that at the current rate of growth the world's population will reach 8.5 billion by the year 2025 and 10-11 billion by the end of the 21st century. 90% of this population increase would occur in developing countries, where only 38% of couples used contraceptives during 1980-81 compared to 68% in developed countries. About 300 million couples in the Third World do not use contraceptives, although they do not want more children. Some of these contraceptives include natural steroids, such as progesterone and 17 beta-estradiol that is used for treatment of menopause (1-2 mg daily po). Medroxyprogesterone acetate and norethisterone enanthate depot injections have long-acting properties with low failure rates (3.6% + 0.7 pregnancies/100 women years) if given every 3 months, amenorrhea may occur. RU-486, substance with antiprogesterone activity, inhibits hormonal metabolism during ovulation in a dose of 100 mg/day, just like norgestimate. HRP 102 consists of 50 mg norethisterone enanthate and 5 mg estradiol valerate and cycloprovera contains 25 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate with 5 mg of estradiol cypionate. Both of these agents are effective contraceptives for 2 months. Norplant is implanted subcutaneously in capsule forms. It releases levonorgestrel/LNG for 6-7 years, and in a study of 992 women 2.6 pregnancies occurred for 100 women in the course of 5 years. Vaginal suppositories can release 20 mg/day LNG, or 5-10 mg progesterone/day, and they are considered ideal for nursing mothers. The IUD has been used by 60 million women, however, pelvic inflammatory disease may be associated with its use. Sulprostone and RU-486 (mifepristone) are post ovulatory agents with effectiveness of up to 90 day. Female sterilization has problems of reversibility, male sterilization is less accepted, and other male endocrine approaches producing azoospermia are in the testing phase. The ideal contraceptive with properties of wide acceptability, reversibility, and

  8. The current status of HANARO utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hark Rho; Lee, Choong Sung; Sohn, Jae Min; Park, Kyung Bae

    2003-01-01

    The HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Research Reactor) is now operating at 24 MW to meet the user's demands in a variety of utilization fields. The most active field is the neutron scattering and diffraction using the currently available HRPD (High Resolution Powder Diffraction), FCD (Four Circle Diffraction), RSI (Residual Stress Instrument), and SANS (Small Angle Neutron Scattering). Using these instruments, we have been investigating such characteristics as materials' crystal structure and phase transition, residual stress, texture, and hard and soft matters. Through examination and inspection of the test specimens, NRF (Neutron Radiography Facility) is contributing to such fields as the nuclear industry, ordnance industry, aerospace industry, and archaeology. The second utilization field is the fuel and material irradiation test. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has developed atomized fuel powder and provided it to USA, France and Argentina. Under the RERTR program, KAERI has been contributing to the development of research reactor fuels of better quality. To test the reactor materials and fuels, instrumented and non-instrumented capsules are widely being used. To produce and supply RIs and pharmaceuticals for medical and industrial purposes, HANARO and its RIPF (Radioisotope Production Facility) has been fully complying with demands so that the national welfare might be enhanced by our efforts. NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) is assisting the nuclear industry, environmental research and the promotion of the health area. To support all active utilizations, HANARO operators have been making every effort to not only improve the systems, if needed, but also to avoid the inadvertent reactor trip. Based upon this stable neutron supply, we have been developing and expanding the utilization fields and facilities. The PNS(Polarized Neutron Spectrometer) is under construction and the reflectometer is in preparation. The BNCT(Boron Neutron

  9. Ceramic materials for SOFCs: Current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozhukharov, V.

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the main parts of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs are build from ceramic materials. Namely the ceramic materials and composites, used for SOFCs manufacturing, are objects of the overview in the present work. The analysis carried out covers the last current publications in the field discussed. Special attention and examination in details have been done on patents state-of-the-art. After a background and short classification of the ceramic SOFCs materials the attention is focused on cathode, electrolyte, anode, interconnection and sealing materials. Their requirements, structure, thermal stability, composition control and behavior, processing and performance are the object of overview. A correlation has been made between the phase diagrams oxygen incorporation and transport, and SOFC advantages, generally for materials of lanthanum- base perovskite family. In order to analyze the innovative investigations regarding the patent branch of the SOFCs development and application, an object of review was patents from Japan, USA, Germany and European Union. Some examples of the inventions with accent on the ceramic materials are shown. In addition the tendency regarding R & D activities of SOFCs development materials from the leading companies in the world is analyzed. On the base of the most important technological and economical parameters of cell cathode/electrolyte/anode materials an attempt for evaluation and correlation has been made and innovative conceptions are shown.

    Es bien sabido que los componentes principales de las celdas de combustible de óxido sólido (SOFCs estan constituidos por materiales cerámicos. Dichos materiales cerámicos y materiales compuestos que se utilizan en la fabricación de SOFCs son objeto de estudio en el presente trabajo. El análisis llevado a cabo incluye la revisión de las últimas publicaciones en la materia, con una especial atención y examen minucioso sobre las patentes m

  10. Changes in Employment Status after Myocardial Infarction among Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Şahan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the Turkey Burden of Disease Study, 10% of the national burden of disease is attributed to cardiovascular diseases. Although the standardized coronary heart disease (CHD rate is falling in general, CHD prevalence among young people is rising. On the other hand, as a result of increased life expectancy and higher retirement ages, the CHD rate among workers is also increasing. Therefore, work ability and return to work after diagnosis are important for population health and well-being. Socioeconomic factors and working conditions may play a key role as well as clinical conditions described in the literature that affect returning to work. Aims: The aims of this qualitative study are exploring the changes in employment and working conditions of the patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI and affecting factors such as socioeconomic, personal and environmental. Study design: Qualitative research. Methods: The research population are fifty-three patients who are engaged in paid employment when the people have been diagnosed with myocardial infarction for the first time between 2011 and 2012 at a university hospital coronary care unit. We intended to reach the whole population. Twenty- seven patients were contacted whose phone numbers were accessible from the hospital records. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with twelve patients in a meeting room at the hospital. The interviews were tape-recorded accompanied by note-taking and the content analysis method were evaluated. Results: While many of the participants continued to work at the same job by working less, one third of them said that they were thinking about getting an easier job if they have the opportunity. On the other hand, in most cases, there were neither assessments about their work ability, nor changes to their working conditions after AMI. They had to cope with their conditions, such as economic or psychosocial, without any support

  11. Employment as a Social Determinant of Health: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies Exploring the Relationship between Employment Status and Physical Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Zeglin, Robert J.; McGuire-Kuletz, Maureen; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To explore employment as a social determinant of health through examining the relationship between employment status and physical health. Method: The authors explored the causal relationship between employment status and physical health through conducting a systematic review of 22 longitudinal studies conducted in Finland, France, the…

  12. The impact of prenatal employment on breastfeeding intentions and breastfeeding status at 1 week postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasio, Laura; Kozhimannil, Katy B; McGovern, Patricia; Gjerdingen, Dwenda; Johnson, Pamela Jo

    2013-11-01

    Postpartum employment is associated with non-initiation and early cessation of breastfeeding, but less is known about the relationship between prenatal employment and breastfeeding intentions and behaviors. This study aimed to estimate the relationship between prenatal employment status, a strong predictor of postpartum return to work, and breastfeeding intentions and behaviors. Using data from the Listening to Mothers II national survey (N = 1573), we used propensity score matching methods to account for non-random selection into employment patterns and to measure the impact of prenatal employment status on breastfeeding intentions and behaviors. We also examined whether hospital practices consistent with the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI), assessed based on maternal perception, were differentially associated with breastfeeding by employment status. Women who were employed (vs unemployed) during pregnancy were older, were more educated, were less likely to have had a previous cesarean delivery, and had fewer children. After matching, these differences were eliminated. Although breastfeeding intention did not differ by employment, full-time employment (vs no employment) during pregnancy was associated with decreased odds of exclusive breastfeeding 1 week postpartum (adjusted odds ratio = 0.48; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.92; P = .028). Higher BFHI scores were associated with higher odds of breastfeeding at 1 week but did not differentially impact women by employment status. Women employed full-time during pregnancy were less likely to fulfill their intention to exclusively breastfeed, compared to women who were not employed during pregnancy. Clinicians should be aware that employment circumstances may impact women's breastfeeding decisions; this may help guide discussions during clinical encounters.

  13. Brain MRI lesions and atrophy are associated with employment status in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauhid, Shahamat; Chu, Renxin; Sasane, Rahul; Glanz, Bonnie I; Neema, Mohit; Miller, Jennifer R; Kim, Gloria; Signorovitch, James E; Healy, Brian C; Chitnis, Tanuja; Weiner, Howard L; Bakshi, Rohit

    2015-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) commonly affects occupational function. We investigated the link between brain MRI and employment status. Patients with MS (n = 100) completed a Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI) (general health version) survey measuring employment status, absenteeism, presenteeism, and overall work and daily activity impairment. Patients "working for pay" were considered employed; "temporarily not working but looking for work," "not working or looking for work due to age," and "not working or looking for work due to disability" were considered not employed. Brain MRI T1 hypointense (T1LV) and T2 hyperintense (T2LV) lesion volumes were quantified. To assess lesional destructive capability, we calculated each subject's ratio of T1LV to T2LV (T1/T2). Normalized brain parenchymal volume (BPV) assessed brain atrophy. The mean (SD) age was 45.5 (9.7) years; disease duration was 12.1 (8.1) years; 75 % were women, 76 % were relapsing-remitting, and 76 % were employed. T1LV, T1/T2, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores, and activity impairment were lower and BPV was higher in the employed vs. not employed group (Wilcoxon tests, p 0.05). In multivariable logistic regression modeling, adjusting for age, sex, and disease duration, higher T1LV predicted a lower chance of employment (p 0.05). We report a link between brain atrophy and lesions, particularly lesions with destructive potential, to MS employment status.

  14. Medical telerobotic systems: current status and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgousti, Sotiris; Christoforou, Eftychios G; Panayides, Andreas S; Voskarides, Sotos; Novales, Cyril; Nouaille, Laurence; Pattichis, Constantinos S; Vieyres, Pierre

    2016-08-12

    Teleoperated medical robotic systems allow procedures such as surgeries, treatments, and diagnoses to be conducted across short or long distances while utilizing wired and/or wireless communication networks. This study presents a systematic review of the relevant literature between the years 2004 and 2015, focusing on medical teleoperated robotic systems which have witnessed tremendous growth over the examined period. A thorough insight of telerobotics systems discussing design concepts, enabling technologies (namely robotic manipulation, telecommunications, and vision systems), and potential applications in clinical practice is provided, while existing limitations and future trends are also highlighted. A representative paradigm of the short-distance case is the da Vinci Surgical System which is described in order to highlight relevant issues. The long-distance telerobotics concept is exemplified through a case study on diagnostic ultrasound scanning. Moreover, the present review provides a classification into short- and long-distance telerobotic systems, depending on the distance from which they are operated. Telerobotic systems are further categorized with respect to their application field. For the reviewed systems are also examined their engineering characteristics and the employed robotics technology. The current status of the field, its significance, the potential, as well as the challenges that lie ahead are thoroughly discussed.

  15. Employment stability and mental health in Spain: towards understanding the influence of gender and partner/marital status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortès-Franch, Imma; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Benach, Joan; Artazcoz, Lucía

    2018-04-02

    The growing demand for labour flexibility has resulted in decreasing employment stability that could be associated with poor mental health status. Few studies have analysed the whole of the work force in considering this association since research on flexible forms of employment traditionally analyses employed and unemployed people separately. The gender division of work, and family characteristics related to employment situation, could modify its association with mental wellbeing. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between a continuum of employment stability and mental health taking into account gender and partner/marital status. We selected 6859 men and 5106 women currently salaried or unemployed from the 2006 Spanish National Health Survey. Employment stability was measured through a continuum from the highest stability among employed to lowest probability of finding a stable job among the long-term unemployed. Mental health was measured with the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire. Logistic regression models were fitted for each combination of partner/marital status and gender. In all groups except among married women employment stability was related to poor mental health and a gradient between a continuum of employment stability and mental health status was found. For example, compared with permanent civil servants, married men with temporary contract showed an aOR = 1.58 (95%CI = 1.06-2.35), those working without a contract aOR = 2.15 (95%CI = 1.01-4.57) and aOR = 3.73 (95%CI = 2.43-5.74) and aOR = 5.35 (95%CI = 2.71-10.56) among unemployed of up to two years and more than two years, respectively. Among married and cohabiting people, the associations were stronger among men. Poor mental health status was related to poor employment stability among cohabiting women but not among married ones. The strongest association was observed among separated or divorced people. There is a rise in poor

  16. Labor Market Effects on Dropping out of High School: Variation by Gender, Race, and Employment Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, Ralph B., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    It is known from previous research that the likelihood of dropping out is affected by a number of individual traits, including, among others, socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity, gender, and employment status. It is also known that dropping out is contingent on a variety of school characteristics. What is less known about is how dropping…

  17. The Employment and Postsecondary Educational Status of Transition-Age Youths with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnall, Michele Capella

    2010-01-01

    A limited amount of information is available about the employment and postsecondary educational status of transition-age youths with visual impairments. Reports on the employment and postsecondary education tend to focus on overall results and usually do not provide detailed analyses by disability groups. In this article, the author presents the…

  18. Employment status and subjective well-being: The role of the social norm to work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, K.; Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.; Graaf, P.M. de

    2016-01-01

    This article examines to what extent a social norm to work moderates the relationship between employment status and subjective well-being. It was expected that the detrimental impact of non-employment on subjective well-being would be larger in countries with a stronger social norm. Using a direct

  19. Marital Violence and Women's Employment and Property Status: Evidence from North Indian Villages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh); A. Chhachhi (Amrita); M. Bhattacharyya (Manasi)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractDominant development policy approaches recommend women’s employment on the grounds that it facilitates their empowerment, which in turn is believed to be instrumental in enhancing women’s well-being. However, empirical work on the relationship between women’s employment status and

  20. Employment status and subjective well-being : The role of the social norm to work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, K.; Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.; de Graaf, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines to what extent a social norm to work moderates the relationship between employment status and subjective well-being. It was expected that the detrimental impact of non-employment on subjective well-being would be larger in countries with a stronger social norm. Using a direct

  1. Helicopter Rotor Noise Prediction: Background, Current Status, and Future Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.

    1997-01-01

    Helicopter noise prediction is increasingly important. The purpose of this viewgraph presentation is to: 1) Put into perspective the recent progress; 2) Outline current prediction capabilities; 3) Forecast direction of future prediction research; 4) Identify rotorcraft noise prediction needs. The presentation includes an historical perspective, a description of governing equations, and the current status of source noise prediction.

  2. Lung cancer: Current status and prospects for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountain, C.F.; Carr, D.T.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 32 papers. Some of the titles are: Activation of cellular ras genes in human neoplasms; The valve of definitive radiation therapy of unresectable squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma of the lung; Current concepts of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for small cell lung cancer, and Current status of immunotherapy for lung cancer

  3. Self-rated health and employment status in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krokavcova, Martina; Nagyova, Iveta; Van Dijk, Jitse P; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gavelova, Miriam; Middel, Berrie; Szilasiova, Jarmila; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W

    2010-01-01

    The aim is to explore the association between self-rated health and employment status in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) when controlling for age, gender, functional disability, disease duration, anxiety and depression. One hundred eighty-four people with MS completed a sociodemographic questionnaire that included questions on employment status, the first item of the Short Form-36 Health Survey and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Functional disability was assessed using the Expanded Disability Status Scale. The probability of good self-rated health in employed persons was investigated using stepwise logistic regression analyses. Patients with MS who reported good self-rated health were 2.46 times more likely to be employed (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-5.59). Patients without anxiety were 2.64 times more likely to be employed (95%CI: 1.23-5.67). Patients with higher EDSS scores were 0.49 times less likely to be employed (95%CI: 0.33-0.70). Age, gender, disease duration and the presence of depression did not show an increased chance of patient employment. Patients with MS with good self-rated health are more likely to be employed, even after adjusting for age, gender, education, functional disability, disease duration, depression and anxiety. Dependent on the findings of longitudinal studies unravelling the relevant causal pahways, self-rated health might be used as a quick and cheap prognostic marker, which could warn about the possible loss of employment, or changes in functional disability.

  4. Employment status and perceived health in the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, Simon; Glozier, Nicholas; Mæland, John Gunnar; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Mykletun, Arnstein

    2006-01-01

    Background Most western countries have disability benefit schemes ostensibly based upon requiring (1) a work inhibiting functional limitation that (2) can be attributed to a diagnosable condition, injury or disease. The present paper examines to what extent current practice matches the core premises of this model by examining how much poorer the perceived health of disability benefit recipients is, compared to the employed and the unemployed, and further to examine to what extent any poorer perceived health among benefit recipients can be attributed to mental or somatic illness and symptoms. Methods Information on disability benefit recipiency was obtained from Norwegian registry data, and merged with health information from the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK) in Western Norway, 1997–99. Participants (N = 14 946) aged 40–47 were assessed for perceived physical and mental health (Short Form-12), somatic symptoms, mental health, and self reported somatic conditions and diseases treated with medication. Differences associated with employment status were tested in chi-square and t-tests, as well as multivariate and univariate regression models to adjust for potential confounders. Results Recipients of disability benefits (n = 1 351) had poorer perceived physical and mental health than employees (n = 13 156); group differences were 1.86 and 0.74 pooled standard deviations respectively. Self reported somatic diagnoses, mental health and symptoms accounted for very little of this difference in perceived health. The unemployed (n = 439) were comparable to the employed rather than the recipients of disability benefits. Conclusion Recipients of disability benefits have poor perceived health compared to both the employed and the unemployed. Surprisingly little of this difference can be ascribed to respondents' descriptions of their illnesses and symptoms. Even allowing for potential underascertainment of condition severity, this finding supports the increasing focus on non

  5. Employment status and perceived health in the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarø Leif

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most western countries have disability benefit schemes ostensibly based upon requiring (1 a work inhibiting functional limitation that (2 can be attributed to a diagnosable condition, injury or disease. The present paper examines to what extent current practice matches the core premises of this model by examining how much poorer the perceived health of disability benefit recipients is, compared to the employed and the unemployed, and further to examine to what extent any poorer perceived health among benefit recipients can be attributed to mental or somatic illness and symptoms. Methods Information on disability benefit recipiency was obtained from Norwegian registry data, and merged with health information from the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK in Western Norway, 1997–99. Participants (N = 14 946 aged 40–47 were assessed for perceived physical and mental health (Short Form-12, somatic symptoms, mental health, and self reported somatic conditions and diseases treated with medication. Differences associated with employment status were tested in chi-square and t-tests, as well as multivariate and univariate regression models to adjust for potential confounders. Results Recipients of disability benefits (n = 1 351 had poorer perceived physical and mental health than employees (n = 13 156; group differences were 1.86 and 0.74 pooled standard deviations respectively. Self reported somatic diagnoses, mental health and symptoms accounted for very little of this difference in perceived health. The unemployed (n = 439 were comparable to the employed rather than the recipients of disability benefits. Conclusion Recipients of disability benefits have poor perceived health compared to both the employed and the unemployed. Surprisingly little of this difference can be ascribed to respondents' descriptions of their illnesses and symptoms. Even allowing for potential underascertainment of condition severity, this finding supports the

  6. Education and employment status of adults with autism spectrum disorders in Germany - a cross-sectional-survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Fabian; Jablotschkin, Martina; Arthen, Tobias; Riedel, Andreas; Fangmeier, Thomas; Hölzel, Lars P; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger

    2018-03-27

    Adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience challenges in participating in the labour market and struggle to achieve and maintain appropriate professional positions, possibly due to impairments of communication and social interaction. Studies have shown high rates of unemployment as well as evidence of inadequate employment. As knowledge on the participation in the German labour market is scarce, the aim of our study was to examine employment status, type of occupation and inadequate employment in a sample of clinically mostly late-diagnosed and most likely not intellectually disabled adults with ASD in Germany. We conducted a cross-sectional-survey in clinically mostly late-diagnosed adults with ASD. Employment status, type of occupation, and the level of formal education and training were examined through a postal questionnaire. Inadequate employment regarding participants' current and longest practised occupation was assessed by transforming participants' information into skill levels of the "Classification of Occupations 2010" of the German Federal Employment Agency, and comparing these with participants' level of formal education and training. The response rate was 43.2% (N = 185 of N = 428 potential participants). 94.6% were first-time diagnosed when being 18 years of age or older. 56.8% held a general university entrance-level qualification and 24.9% had obtained a Masters' or diploma degree as their highest vocational qualification. 94.1% had been employed at some time. Of these, 68.4% reported being currently employed, 13.5% being currently unemployed and 17.0% being retired for health reasons. Regarding the longest-practised and the current occupation, the highest proportion of participants was found in the occupational area "health and social sector, teaching and education" (22.4% and 23.3%, respectively). With respect to inadequate employment, 22.1% were found to be overeducated in relation to their longest-practised occupation and 31

  7. Predicting employment status and subjective quality of life in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruo Fujino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although impaired social functioning, particularly poor employment status, is a cardinal feature of patients with schizophrenia and leads to decreased quality of life (QOL, few studies have addressed the relationship between these two clinical issues. The aim of this study was to determine whether employment status predicts subjective QOL and to evaluate a model in which functional capacity mediates the relationship between general cognitive performance and employment status. Ninety-three patients with schizophrenia were administered a comprehensive battery of cognitive tests, the UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment-Brief version (UPSA-B, the Social Functioning Scale (SFS, and the Subjective Quality of Life Scale (SQLS. First, we evaluated a model for predicting the employment/occupation subscale score of the SFS using path analysis, and the model fitted well (χ2 (4 = 3.6, p = 0.46; CFI = 1.0; RMSEA < 0.001, with 90% CIs: 0–0.152. Employment status was predicted by negative symptoms and functional capacity, which was in turn predicted by general cognitive performance. Second, we added subjective QOL to this model. In a final path model, QOL was predicted by negative symptoms and employment status. This model also satisfied good fit criteria (χ2 (7 = 10.3, p = 0.17; CFI = 0.987; RMSEA = 0.072, with 90% CIs: 0–0.159. The UPSA-B and SFS scores were moderately correlated with most measures of cognitive performance. These results support the notion that better employment status enhances subjective QOL in patients with schizophrenia.

  8. Employment status, inflation and suicidal behaviour: an analysis of a stratified sample in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Paola; Pizzorno, Enrico; Gallina, Anna M; Mattei, Chiara; Gabrielli, Filippo; Kayman, Joshua

    2012-09-01

    There is abundant empirical evidence of a surplus risk of suicide among the unemployed, although few studies have investigated the influence of economic downturns on suicidal behaviours in an employment status-stratified sample. We investigated how economic inflation affected suicidal behaviours according to employment status in Italy from 2001 to 2008. Data concerning economically active people were provided by the Italian Institute for Statistical Analysis and by the International Monetary Fund. The association between inflation and completed versus attempted suicide with respect to employment status was investigated in every year and quarter-year of the study time frame. We considered three occupational categories: employed, unemployed who were previously employed and unemployed who had never worked. The unemployed are at higher suicide risk than the employed. Among the PE, a significant association between inflation and suicide attempt was found, whereas no association was reported concerning completed suicides. No association was found between completed and attempted suicides among the employed, the NE and inflation. Completed suicide in females is significantly associated with unemployment in every quarter-year. The reported vulnerability to suicidal behaviours among the PE as inflation rises underlines the need of effective support strategies for both genders in times of economic downturns.

  9. Employment status and sick-leave following obesity surgery: a five-year prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, John Roger; Hernæs, Ulrikke J V; Hufthammer, Karl Ove; Våge, Villy

    2015-01-01

    Background. Severe obesity is a risk factor for lower participation in paid work, but whether employment increases and sick leave decreases after obesity surgery is not well documented. Methods. We assessed 224 Norwegian patients with severe obesity (mean age: 40; mean BMI: 49; 61% female) regarding employment status (working versus not working) and the number of days of sick leave during the preceding 12 months, before and five years after obesity surgery (75% follow-up rate). Logistic regression analysis was used to study preoperative predictors of employment status after surgery. Results. There were no change in the employment rate over time (54% versus 58%), but the number of days of sick leave per year was significantly reduced, from a mean of 63 to a mean of 26, and from a median of 36 to a median of 4. Most of this change was attributable to patients with zero days of sick leave, which increased from 25% to 41%. Being female, older, having low education level, receiving disability pension and not being employed before obesity surgery were important risk factors for not being employed after obesity surgery. The type of obesity surgery, BMI and marital status were not useful predictors. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that undergoing obesity surgery is not associated with a higher rate of employment, although it may reduce the number of days of sick leave. Additional interventions are likely needed to influence the employment status of these patients. The significant preoperative predictors of not being employed in this study provide suggestions for further research.

  10. Employment status and sick-leave following obesity surgery: a five-year prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Roger Andersen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Severe obesity is a risk factor for lower participation in paid work, but whether employment increases and sick leave decreases after obesity surgery is not well documented.Methods. We assessed 224 Norwegian patients with severe obesity (mean age: 40; mean BMI: 49; 61% female regarding employment status (working versus not working and the number of days of sick leave during the preceding 12 months, before and five years after obesity surgery (75% follow-up rate. Logistic regression analysis was used to study preoperative predictors of employment status after surgery.Results. There were no change in the employment rate over time (54% versus 58%, but the number of days of sick leave per year was significantly reduced, from a mean of 63 to a mean of 26, and from a median of 36 to a median of 4. Most of this change was attributable to patients with zero days of sick leave, which increased from 25% to 41%. Being female, older, having low education level, receiving disability pension and not being employed before obesity surgery were important risk factors for not being employed after obesity surgery. The type of obesity surgery, BMI and marital status were not useful predictors.Conclusions. Our findings suggest that undergoing obesity surgery is not associated with a higher rate of employment, although it may reduce the number of days of sick leave. Additional interventions are likely needed to influence the employment status of these patients. The significant preoperative predictors of not being employed in this study provide suggestions for further research.

  11. Current status of accreditation for drug testing in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gail; Moeller, Manfred; Kronstrand, Robert

    2008-03-21

    At the annual meeting of the Society of Hair Testing in Vadstena, Sweden in 2006, a committee was appointed to address the issue of guidelines for hair testing and to assess the current status of accreditation amongst laboratories offering drug testing in hair. A short questionnaire was circulated amongst the membership and interested parties. Fifty-two responses were received from hair testing laboratories providing details on the amount and type of hair tests they offered and the status of accreditation within their facilities. Although the vast majority of laboratories follow current guidelines (83%), only nine laboratories were accredited to ISO/IEC 17025 for hair testing. A significant number of laboratories reporting that they were in the process of developing quality systems with a view to accrediting their methods within 2-3 years. This study provides an insight into the status of accreditation in hair testing laboratories and supports the need for guidelines to encourage best practice.

  12. Regression analysis of informative current status data with the additive hazards model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shishun; Hu, Tao; Ma, Ling; Wang, Peijie; Sun, Jianguo

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses regression analysis of current status failure time data arising from the additive hazards model in the presence of informative censoring. Many methods have been developed for regression analysis of current status data under various regression models if the censoring is noninformative, and also there exists a large literature on parametric analysis of informative current status data in the context of tumorgenicity experiments. In this paper, a semiparametric maximum likelihood estimation procedure is presented and in the method, the copula model is employed to describe the relationship between the failure time of interest and the censoring time. Furthermore, I-splines are used to approximate the nonparametric functions involved and the asymptotic consistency and normality of the proposed estimators are established. A simulation study is conducted and indicates that the proposed approach works well for practical situations. An illustrative example is also provided.

  13. Current status and future direction of the MONK software package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Nigel; Armishaw, Malcolm; Cooper, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    The current status of the MONK criticality software package is summarized in terms of recent and current developments and envisaged directions for the future. The areas of the discussion are physics modeling, geometry modeling, source modeling, nuclear data, validation, supporting tools and customer services. In future development plan, MONK continues to be focused on meeting the short and long-term needs of the code user community. (J.P.N.)

  14. Counseling in Malaysia: History, Current Status, and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Ching Mey; Ng, Kok-Mun

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the history of counseling in Malaysia, provides an update of its current status, and discusses some anticipated future trends for the profession in light of recent developments in the country. Counseling in Malaysia began with school guidance in the 1960s and has now achieved recognition as a profession in…

  15. The nonparametric bootstrap for the current status model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneboom, P.; Hendrickx, K.

    2017-01-01

    It has been proved that direct bootstrapping of the nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) of the distribution function in the current status model leads to inconsistent confidence intervals. We show that bootstrapping of functionals of the MLE can however be used to produce valid

  16. Current status of radiation treatment of water and wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.

    1997-01-01

    This is a brief review of the current status of radiation treatment of surface water, groundwater, wastewaters, and sewage sludges. Sources of ionizing radiation, and combination radiation methods for purification are described in some detail. Special attention is paid to pilot and industrial facilities. (author)

  17. Current status of quantitative rotational spectroscopy for atmospheric research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Brian J.; Wlodarczak, Georges; Colmont, Jean-Marcel; Rohart, Francois

    2004-01-01

    Remote sensing of rotational transitions in the Earth's atmosphere has become an important method for the retrieval of geophysical temperatures, pressures and chemical composition profiles that requires accurate spectral information. This paper highlights the current status of rotational data that are useful for atmospheric measurements, with a discussion of the types the rotational lineshape measurements that are not generally available in either online repository.

  18. Current Status of Single-incision Laparoscopic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Irfan; Ciancio, Fabio; Ferrara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in minimally invasive surgery have centered on reducing the number of incisions required, which has led to the development of the single-incision laparoscopic technique. A panel of European single-incision laparoscopy experts met to discuss the current status of, and the future...

  19. [Current status and prospects of gene doping detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjun; Zhang, Sichun; Xu, Jingjuan; Xia, Xinghua; Tian, Yaping; Zhang, Xinrong; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2008-07-01

    The fast development of biotechnology promotes the development of doping. From recombinant protein to gene doping, there is a great challenge to their detection. The improvement of gene therapy and potential to enhance athletic performance open the door for gene doping. After a brief introduction of the concept of gene doping, the current status and prospects of gene doping detection are reviewed.

  20. Chemical Reaction Engineering: Current Status and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudukovic, M. P.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Chemical Reaction Engineering (CRE) as the discipline that quantifies the interplay of transport phenomena and kinetics in relating reactor performance to operating conditions and input variables. Addresses the current status of CRE in both academic and industrial settings and outlines future trends. (TW)

  1. Special Education History, Current Status and Future: India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Pavan John

    2013-01-01

    Education of all children in public schools, including those with disabilities, continues to be an unresolved issue in many countries around the globe. While education of all children is mandated by law and considered a basic human right in many countries, the current status of implementation varies. India, for example, is an ancient country that…

  2. Hardwood lumber supply chain: current status and market opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Al Schuler; Mark Barford

    2007-01-01

    The membership of the Appalachian Hardwood Manufacturers Association was surveyed in 2005 to determine the current status of large Appalachian sawmills. The primary focus was to assess the impacts of globalization on primary manufacturing, but attention was also paid to general issues affecting the hardwood lumber supply chain-from concerns over forest health and log...

  3. Current status of agricultural extension services for market oriented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current status of agricultural extension services for market oriented agricultural development in Ethiopia: Results from a household baseline ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/afrrev.v10i3.1.

  4. Ethiopia's emerging domestic biogas sector : Current status, bottlenecks and drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, L.M.; Bermúdez Forn, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    Ethiopia experiences an energy and environmental crisis due to the sustained reliance on woody biomass to satisfy its energy needs. This situation could be improved by using biogas. This paper analyses the current status of the domestic biogas sector in Ethiopia and identifies barriers and

  5. Corporate Blended Learning in Portugal: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcal, Julia; Caetano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize the current status of blended learning in Portugal, given that b-learning has grown exponentially in the Portuguese market over recent years. 38 organizations (representing 68% of all institutions certified to provide distance training by the Government Labour Office--DGERT-) participated in this study. The…

  6. Current status of studies on temperature fluctuation phenomena in LMFRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshima, H.; Muramatsu, T.; Kobayashi, J.; Yamaguchi, A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the current status of studies being performed in PNC on temperature fluctuation phenomena occurring in fast reactors. The studies concentrate on four problems: thermal stratification, thermal striping, core-plenum interaction and free surface sloshing. Both experimental and analytical approaches to reveal these phenomena and to establish design and safety evaluation methods are presented together with future works. (author)

  7. Structural Learning Theory: Current Status and New Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandura, Joseph M.

    2001-01-01

    Presents the current status and new perspectives on the Structured Learning Theory (SLT), with special consideration given to how SLT has been influenced by recent research in software engineering. Topics include theoretical constructs; content domains; structural analysis; cognition; assessing behavior potential; and teaching and learning issues,…

  8. The Current Status of Teachers and the Teaching Profession in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the current status of teachers and the teaching sector in Tanzania. It draws on experiences of teachers, parents, and students in Dar es Salaam, Iringa and Mbeya regions. Informed by the qualitative inquiry, the paper is largely empirical in character. Data was sought through interviews and document ...

  9. Mother employment status and nutritional patterns in Japanese junior high schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaina, A; Sekine, M; Chandola, T; Marmot, M; Kagamimori, S

    2009-07-01

    To investigate associations between mothers' employment (full, part time and no employment) and nutrition habits (regularity of breakfast, snack, dinner, meal speed and portion size) in a sample of Japanese junior high schoolchildren, 12-13 years of age. A total of 10 453 children aged 12-13 years from the Toyama birth cohort study (fourth phase) participated, of whom 8906 children (89% response rate) responded to all questions related to the examined variables. Nutrition habits consisted of breakfast, snack, dinner, meal speed and meal portion. Children's obesity/overweight was measured by body mass index (BMI). Fathers' employment had no effect on their children's nutrition patterns. Children of full-time employed mothers were the most likely to snack and to skip dinner. Children of part-time employed mothers ate larger meal portions, and those of non-employed mothers reported faster meal speeds. BMI was significantly (P<0.001) higher among children of full-time employed mothers (19.3), and lowest among non-employed mothers (19.00). Children of full-time employed mothers are more likely to be overweight, but not obese compared with other children. There was a strong relationship between mother's employment and nutrition patterns in this cohort of Japanese schoolchildren; special programs focused on children's nutrition patterns should take into account the mothers' employment status.

  10. Marital violence and women's employment and property status: evidence from North Indian villages

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Manasi; Bedi, Arjun S.; Chhachhi, Amrita

    2009-01-01

    textabstractDominant development policy approaches recommend women’s employment on the grounds that it facilitates their empowerment, which in turn is believed to be instrumental in enhancing women’s well-being. However, empirical work on the relationship between women’s employment status and their well-being as measured by freedom from marital violence yields an ambiguous picture. Motivated by this ambiguity, this paper draws on testimonies of men and women and data gathered from rural Uttar...

  11. CMS Data Analysis: Current Status and Future Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Innocente, V

    2003-01-01

    We present the current status of CMS data analysis architecture and describe work on future Grid-based distributed analysis prototypes. CMS has two main software frameworks related to data analysis: COBRA, the main framework, and IGUANA, the interactive visualisation framework. Software using these frameworks is used today in the world-wide production and analysis of CMS data. We describe their overall design and present examples of their current use with emphasis on interactive analysis. CMS is currently developing remote analysis prototypes, including one based on Clarens, a Grid-enabled client-server tool. Use of the prototypes by CMS physicists will guide us in forming a Grid-enriched analysis strategy. The status of this work is presented, as is an outline of how we plan to leverage the power of our existing frameworks in the migration of CMS software to the Grid.

  12. Current status of fusion-relevant covariance data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    The following review of the current status of formatted data covariance files and their multigroup processing is a contribution to the IAEA Advisory Group Meeting on ''Improved Evaluations and Integral Data Testing for FENDL,'' to be held at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching, Germany, 12--16 September 1994. The draft agenda of this meeting lists as Item 6 the ''assessment of present status and role of uncertainty files, their processing and sensitivity studies related to FENDL.'' We conclude that this is an important and timely topic and recommend needed actions in this field

  13. Impacts of education level and employment status on healthrelated quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Šabanagić-Hajrić

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To evaluate the impacts of education level and employment status on health-related quality of life (HRQoL in multiple sclerosis patients. Methods This study included 100 multiple sclerosis patients treated at the Department of Neurology, Clinical Center of the University of Sarajevo. Inclusion criteria were the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS score between 1.0 and 6.5, age between 18 and 65 years, stable disease on enrollment. Quality of life (QoL was evaluated by the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 questionnaire (MSQoL-54. Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for comparisons. Linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate prediction value of educational level and employment status in predicting MSQOL-54 physical and mental composite scores. Results Full employment status had positive impact on physical health (54.85 vs. 37.90; p<0.001 and mental health (59.55 vs. 45.90; p<0.001 composite scores. Employment status retained its independent predictability for both physical (r2=0.105 and mental (r2=0.076 composite scores in linear regression analysis. Patients with college degree had slightly higher median value of physical (49.36 vs. 45.30 and mental health composite score (66.74 vs. 55.62 comparing to others, without statistically significant difference. Conclusion Employment proved to be an important factor in predicting quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients. Higher education level may determine better QOL but without significant predictive value. Sustained employment and development of vocational rehabilitation programs for MS patients living in the country with high unemployment level is an important factor in improving both physical and mental health outcomes in MS patients.

  14. Employment status and work-related difficulties in lung cancer survivors compared with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ae; Yun, Young Ho; Chang, Yoon Jung; Lee, Jongmog; Kim, Moon Soo; Lee, Hyun-Sung; Zo, Jae Ill; Kim, Jhingook; Choi, Yong Soo; Shim, Young Mog; Yoon, Seok-Jun

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the employment status of lung cancer survivors and the work-related problems they face. Although the number of lung cancer survivors is increasing, little is known about their employment and work-related issues. We enrolled 830 lung cancer survivors 12 months after lung cancer curative surgery (median time after diagnosis, 4.11 years) and 1000 volunteers from the general population. All participants completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire, Core 30-item and a questionnaire that included items relating to their jobs. We used logistic regression analysis to identify independent predictors of unemployment. The employment rate of lung cancer survivors decreased from 68.6% at the time of diagnosis to 38.8% after treatment, which was significantly lower than the employment rate of the general population (63.5%; adjusted odds ratio = 2.31, 95% confidence interval: 1.66-3.22). The posttreatment unemployment rate was higher for women than for men. Among survivors, employment was inversely associated with older age, household income, number of comorbidities, and poor social functioning. Fatigue (78.6%) was the most common work-related problem reported by survivors. Lung cancer survivors experienced more difficulties in employment than did the general population. Age, monthly household income, number of comorbidities, and social functioning appear to be important factors influencing employment status. These findings suggest that lung cancer survivors need support to cope with the financial impact of cancer.

  15. Impact of maternal education, employment and family size on nutritional status of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftikhar, Aisha; Bari, Attia; Bano, Iqbal; Masood, Qaisar

    2017-01-01

    To determine the impact of maternal education, employment, and family size on nutritional status of children. It was case control study conducted at OPD of children Hospital Lahore, from September 2015 to April 2017. Total 340 children (170 cases and 170 controls) with age range of six months to five years along with their mothers were included. Anthropometric measurements were plotted against WHO growth Charts. 170 wasted (Maternal education, employment and family size were compared between the cases and control. Confounding variables noted and dichotomized. Univariate analysis was carried out for factors under consideration i.e.; Maternal Education, employment and family size to study the association of each factor. Logistic regression analysis was applied to study the independent association. Maternal education had significant association with growth parameters; OR of 1.32 with confidence interval of (CI= 1.1 to 1.623). Employment status of mothers had OR of 1.132 with insignificant confidence interval of (CI=0.725 to 1.768). Family size had OR of one with insignificant confidence interval (CI=0.8 -1.21). Association remained same after applying bivariate logistic regression analysis. Maternal education has definite and significant effect on nutritional status of children. This is the key factor to be addressed for prevention or improvement of childhood malnutrition. For this it is imperative to launch sustainable programs at national and regional level to uplift women educational status to combat this ever increasing burden of malnutrition.

  16. Reflection into China's Business English Teaching Practices Based on GDUFS Graduates' Employment Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenzhong; Wu, Si; Guo, Tingting

    2009-01-01

    GDUFS, as one of China's top three foreign language universities with the longest history in business English teaching, has accumulated over 20-year experiences in this discipline. This research reflects into its business English teaching practices based on its graduates' employment status in recent years, and concludes that the students of…

  17. Smaller socioeconomic inequalities in health among women: the role of employment status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stronks, K.; van de Mheen, H.; van den Bos, J.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    1995-01-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in health are smaller among women than among men. In this paper, it is hypothesized that this is due to a gender difference in employment status. We used data from the baseline of a Dutch longitudinal study. The socioeconomic indicators were educational level of the

  18. Parental Employment Status and Symptoms of Children Abused during a Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobey, Trina; McAuliff, Kathleen; Rocha, Celina

    2013-01-01

    Incidences and severity of child abuse have increased since the start of the recession. This study examined the relationship between employment status and severity of symptoms in children abused during a recession year. Participants included 154 females and 65 males between 2 and 17 years old referred to Dallas Children's Advocacy Center after…

  19. Marital Status, Gender, and Home-to-Job Conflict among Employed Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomaguchi, Kei M.

    2012-01-01

    Although researchers argue that single parents perceive more work-family conflict than married parents, little research has examined nuances in such differences. Using data from the 2002 National Study of Changing Workforce (N = 1,430), this study examines differences in home-to-job conflict by marital status and gender among employed parents.…

  20. Employment status, difficulties at work and quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, Angela G. E. M.; Evertsz', Floor Bennebroek; Stokkers, Pieter C.; Bockting, Claudia L.; Sanderman, Robbert; Hommes, Daniel W.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2016-01-01

    ObjectivesTo assess employment status, difficulties at work and sick leave in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients and their relation with sociodemographic and clinical factors, quality of life (QoL), and anxiety and depression.Materials and methodsIBD patients attending an IBD outpatients'

  1. Employment status and occupational level of adult survivors of childhood cancer in Great Britain: The British childhood cancer survivor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frobisher, Clare; Lancashire, Emma R; Jenkinson, Helen; Winter, David L; Kelly, Julie; Reulen, Raoul C; Hawkins, Michael M

    2017-06-15

    The British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (BCCSS) provides the first detailed investigation of employment and occupation to be undertaken in a large population-based cohort. Previous studies have been limited by design issues such as using small numbers of survivors with specific diagnoses, and involved limited assessment of employment status and occupational level. The BCCSS includes 17,981 5-year survivors of childhood cancer. Employment status and occupational level were ascertained by questionnaire from eligible survivors (n = 14,836). Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore factors associated with employment and occupation, and to compare survivors to their demographic peers in the general population. Employment status was available for 10,257 survivors. Gender, current age, cancer type, radiotherapy, age at diagnosis and epilepsy were consistently associated with being: employed; unable to work; in managerial or non-manual occupations. Overall, survivors were less likely to be working than expected (OR (99% CI): 0.89 (0.81-0.98)), and this deficit was greatest for irradiated CNS neoplasm survivors (0.34 (0.28-0.41)). Compared to the general population, survivors were fivefold more likely to be unable to work due to illness/disability; the excess was 15-fold among CNS neoplasm survivors treated with radiotherapy. Overall survivors were less likely to be in managerial occupations than expected (0.85 (0.77-0.94)). However, bone sarcoma survivors were more likely to be in these occupations than expected (1.37 (1.01-1.85)) and also similarly for non-manual occupations (1.90 (1.37-2.62)). Survivors of retinoblastoma (1.55 (1.20-2.01)) and 'other' neoplasm group (1.62 (1.30-2.03)) were also more likely to be in non-manual occupations than expected. © 2017 The Authors International Journal of Cancer published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of UICC.

  2. Association between employment status and self-rated health: Korean working conditions survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kimin; Park, Jae Bum; Lee, Kyung-Jong; Cho, Yoon-Sik

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted with an aim of determining the association between employment status and self-rated health. Using the data from the Third Korean Working Conditions Survey conducted in 2011, We included data from 34,783 respondents, excluding employers, self-employed workers, unpaid family workers, others. Self-rated health was compared according to employment status and a logistic regression analysis was performed. Among the 34,783 workers, the number of permanent and non-permanent workers was 27,564 (79.2 %) and 7,219 (20.8 %). The risk that the self-rated health of non-permanent workers was poor was 1.20 times higher when both socio-demographic factors, work environment and work hazards were corrected. In this study, perceived health was found to be worse in the non-permanent workers than permanent workers. Additional research should investigate whether other factors mediate the relationship between employment status and perceived health.

  3. A case-control study of employment status and mortality in a cohort of Australian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, S; Taylor, R; Quine, S; Kerr, C; Western, J

    1999-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated a link in young populations between unemployment and ill health. The purpose of this study is to correlate mortality with employment status in two cohorts of young Australian males, aged 17-25 years, from 1984 to 1988. Two youth cohorts consisting of an initially unemployed sample (n = 1424 males) and a population sample (n = 4573 males), were surveyed annually throughout the study period. Those lost to follow-up during the survey period were matched with death registries across Australia. Employment status was determined from weekly diaries and death certificates and was designated as: employed or student; unemployed; not in the work force (excluding students). Conditional logistic regression, using age- and cohort- matched cases (deaths) and controls (alive), was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of dying with regard to employment status, taking into account potential confounders such as ethnicity, aboriginality, educational attainment, pre-existing health problems, socio-economic status of parents, and other factors. Twenty three male survey respondents were positively matched to death registry records. Compared to those employed or students (referent group), significantly elevated ORs were found to be associated with neither being in the workforce nor a student for all cause, external cause, and external cause mortality other than suicide. Odds ratios were adjusted for age, survey cohort, ethnicity, pre-existing physical and mental health status, education level, and socio-economic status of parent(s). A statistically significant increasing linear trend in odds ratios of male mortality for most cause groups was found across the employment categories, from those employed or student (lowest ORs), through those unemployed, to those not in the workforce (highest ORs). Suicide was higher, but not statistically significantly, in those unemployed or not in the workforce. Suicide also was associated, though not significantly, with

  4. Employment status, residential and workplace food environments: associations with women's eating behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Lamb, Karen E; Ball, Kylie

    2013-11-01

    There remains a lack of consistent evidence linking food environments with eating behaviours. Studies to date have largely ignored the way different individuals interact with their local food environment and have primarily focussed on exposures within the residential neighbourhood without consideration of exposures around the workplace, for example. In this study we firstly examine whether associations between the residential food environment and eating behaviours differ by employment status and, secondly, whether food environments near employed women's workplaces are more strongly associated with dietary behaviours than food environments near home. Employment status did not modify the associations between residential food environments and eating behaviours, however results showed that having access to healthy foods near the workplace was associated with healthier food consumption. Policies focused on supportive environments should consider commercial areas as well as residential neighbourhoods. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Tanzania: Current Status and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Fatma A.; Jaka, Hyasinta

    2018-01-01

    Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases in the world with high prevalence in most of sub-Saharan Africa countries. The complexity in its diagnosis and treatment poses a significant management challenge in the resource-limited settings including Tanzania, where most of the tests and drugs are either unavailable or unaffordable. This mini review aims at demonstrating the current status of the disease in the country and discussing the concomitant challenges in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. PMID:29666656

  6. Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Tanzania: Current Status and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Kilonzo, Semvua B.; Gunda, Daniel W.; Mpondo, Bonaventura C. T.; Bakshi, Fatma A.; Jaka, Hyasinta

    2018-01-01

    Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases in the world with high prevalence in most of sub-Saharan Africa countries. The complexity in its diagnosis and treatment poses a significant management challenge in the resource-limited settings including Tanzania, where most of the tests and drugs are either unavailable or unaffordable. This mini review aims at demonstrating the current status of the disease in the country and discussing the concomitant challenges in diagnosis, treatm...

  7. Current status of quality assurance of treatment planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mijnheer, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    A review is given of the current status of quality assurance of treatment planning systems. At this moment only one comprehensive report is available. In order to review national activities a questionnaire has been distributed amongst national societies of medical physicists. From the 23 responding countries, 8 indicated that only limited efforts are underway, 8 answered that a working group is evaluating their specific national requirements while in 5 countries a document is drafted. The highlights of these reports have been summarized. (author)

  8. CT colonography: current status in Europe and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefere, P.; Gryspeerdt, S.; Yoshida, H.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we review the current status of CT colonography (CTC) in Europe and future perspectives of CTC including fecal tagging and CAD. There are several large multi-centre studies that have been initiated. Fecal tagging has gradually become a prerequisite to perform state-of-the-art CTC. However, CAD for fecal-tagging CTC remains a subject for future research. (orig.)

  9. Nuclear liability legislation in Russia - current status and expected developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpov, A. E.; Borisov, D. G.

    2000-01-01

    Present report is provided by the experts of the Russian insurance business, a company member of the Russian Nuclear Pool, and not the experts of the Ministry of Atomic Energy of Russian Federation (RF Minatom). Considering the above, the following document will outline the current status of nuclear liability legislation and insurance in Russia from a viewpoint of the insurance companies and not RF Minatom. (author)

  10. Review of the current status of radiation risk estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.W.; Little, M.P.

    1988-10-01

    This report reviews the current status of radiation risk estimation for low linear energy transfer radiation. Recent statements by various national and international organisations regarding risk estimates are critically discussed. The recently published revised population risk estimates from the study of Japanese bomb survivors are also reviewed and used with some unpublished data from Japan to calculate risk figures for a general work force. (author)

  11. Marine renewable energy in China: Current status and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Yong-liang Zhang; Zheng Lin; Qiu-lin Liu

    2014-01-01

    Based on a general review of marine renewable energy in China, an assessment of the development status and amount of various marine renewable energy resources, including tidal energy, tidal current energy, wave energy, ocean thermal energy, and salinity gradient energy in China's coastal seas, such as the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea, and the South China Sea, is presented. We have found that these kinds of marine renewable energy resources will play an important role in meeti...

  12. Current status of RCA projects and strategies for future implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Lee, Jeong Kong

    1998-12-01

    This report is intended to provide basic overall information about ways to promote technical cooperation within the framework of RCA to accelerate and coordinate cooperative activities in nuclear science and technology in Asia and the Pacific region through a thorough review on the current status and through suggesting future implementation strategies. The contents of this report include an overall introduction of RCA, guidelines and operating rules for RCA programmes, current status and future plans for RCA projects as well as the RCA vision for the next 25 years. By reviewing the current status and future implementation strategies for RCA projects, it will help to set up a national nuclear policy aimed at seeking maximum benefits from participation in RCA projects and to implement programmes for nuclear cooperation with Asian-Pacific countries. It is expected that as a lead country for the energy sector, which is one of five thematic areas for the year 1999 - 2000 cycle programmes, Korea will continue to make significant contributions towards the implementation of RCA programmes in the future. With this report, we plan to keep up with future developments as well as implement an effective cooperation with the countries in the region so that the opinion of Korea, one of the nuclear advanced countries in the region, can be fully reflected in the establishment of future plans for RCA programmes. (author). 3 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  13. Current status and perspectives of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    This mini-review describes recent epidemiological trends in cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan. Some of the topics discussed herein were presented at the first symposium on "Current perspectives of Taenia asiatica researches", that was held in Osong in Chungbuk Province, South Korea, in October 2011 and organized by Prof. K. S. Eom, Chungbuk National University School of Medicine. To better understand the trends in the occurrence of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan, clinical cases reported in 2005 have been updated. In addition, the current status of Taenia asiatica infections successively occurring in Japan since 2010 is also discussed.

  14. Health service utilisation of rural-to-urban migrants in Guangzhou, China: does employment status matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaolei; Zou, Guanyang; Chen, Wen; Han, Siqi; Zou, Xia; Ling, Li

    2017-01-01

    To describe the self-reported health status and service utilisation of employed, retired and unemployed migrants in Guangzhou, a megacity in southern China. A cross-sectional study adapted from the National Health Service Survey was conducted between September and December in 2014. Based on the distribution of occupation of migrants, multistage sampling was used to recruit individuals. Logistic regression was applied to explore the factors influencing their service utilisation. Of 2906 respondents, 76.6% were employed, 9.2% retired and 14.2% unemployed. Only 8.1% reported having an illness in the previous 2 weeks, and 6.5% reported having been hospitalised in the previous year. Employed migrants had the lowest recent physician consultation rate (3.4%) and the lowest annual hospitalisation rate (4.5%) (P rates (6.8% and 14.5% respectively, P employed (1.5%) and unemployed migrants (3.4%) (P gender, employment status remained significant in explaining the recent two-week treatment-seeking behaviour of migrants (P Employed migrants make the least use of health services. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Socioeconomic and employment status of patients with rheumatoid arthritis in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong-Mi; Rhee, Jinnie; Ku, Hyemin; Lee, Eui-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by gender and socio-economic characteristics. It also explores the differences in the employment status between RA patients and the general population without RA in Korea. We analyzed data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV) conducted from 2007 to 2009. Prevalence rates were estimated for female and male patients with RA in terms of age, residence, education, income level, and occupation type. The female respondents aged 45 to 64 were divided into the RA population and the non-RA population in order to compare the employment status between the two groups. The annual physician-diagnosed RA prevalence rate was 1.45%. The prevalence rate was 2.27% for women and 0.62% for men. Individuals with RA had a significantly lower employment rate than individuals without RA (41.7 vs. 68.1%). The main reason for non-employment among RA patients was health-related problems (47.1%). There was statistically significant difference in employment type among the two groups. The experience rates for sick leave and sick-in-bed due to RA were 1.7 and 3.9%, respectively. Middle- and old-aged women accounted for the majority of the Korean RA population, which had a significant lower employment rate compared to the population without RA for both sexes. RA resulted in considerable productivity loss in Korea.

  16. Employment Status and Mental Health: Mediating Roles of Social Support and Coping Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, Michel; Touré, El Hadj; Perreault, Nicole; Caron, Jean

    2017-09-01

    Although it has been established that unemployment and underemployment increase distress and depression, the psychological mechanisms involved are not very clear. This study examines the roles of social support and coping strategies as mediators of the association between employment status and mental health, as well as gender and age differences as moderators. Residents from the epidemiological catchment area of south-west Montreal responded to a randomized household survey for adults in 2009. A follow-up was conducted based on participants' employment status 2 and 4 years later. ANOVAs tests were computed with SPSS to evaluate group differences, and structural equation modeling was performed with AMOS to test mediation effects. At baseline, among participants between 18 and 64 years old (n = 2325), 14.3 % were unemployed/not studying, 14.4 % worked part-time, and 56.5 % worked full-time. Employment status was found to significantly affect depression among those under 45 years old (chi-square = 23.4, p employment with depression, which was fully mediated by social support, less coping with drugs/medication, and less distress. A negative association with full-time employment was also noted with distress, which was partially mediated by increased social support, coping with alcohol, and less coping with drugs/medication. The total indirect effect suggests that full-time employees generally have more resources and do not tend to use avoidance strategies like coping with drugs/medication, resulting in less distress (β = -0.05; p employment, namely full-time employment, in communities.

  17. Employment status in persons with and without HIV infection in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Rebecca; Omland, Lars Haukali; Kronborg, Gitte

    2014-01-01

    .v.) drug abuse as a route of HIV infection or diagnosed with hepatitis C infection (n = 2799) and 22,369 individually matched persons from the background population. Study inclusion was 1 January 1996 or HIV diagnosis, which ever came last. METHODS: Data on employment status and disability pension were......OBJECTIVE: To estimate annual employment rates and disability retirement rates (DRRs) among HIV-infected individuals and population controls during the period 1996-2011. DESIGN: A population-based cohort study including all HIV-infected individuals born in Denmark and not reporting intravenous (i...... extracted from Danish national registries. Employment rate and DRR were estimated in each calendar year after study inclusion for the cohorts included before 1996 (pre-1996), 1996-1999 and 2000-2011. RESULTS: Employment rate in the year of study inclusion increased from 54.8% [95% confidence interval (CI...

  18. Employment status of patients receiving maintenance dialysis – peritoneal and hemodialysis: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S Lakshmi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The long-term dialysis therapy for end-stage renal disease takes a heavy toll of quality of life of the patient. Several factors such as fatigue and decreased physical capability, impaired social and mental functioning, contribute to this forlorn state. To meld maintenance dialysis treatment with a regular employment can be a serious test. A cross-sectional study of employment of patients on hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis in a state government tertiary institute in South India was performed between June 2015 and December 2015. Patients who completed 3 months of regular dialysis were only included in the study. The number of patients on hemodialysis was 157 and on peritoneal dialysis was 69. The employment status before the initiation of dialysis was 60% (93 out of 155 and 63.7% (44 out of 69 in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, respectively. After initiation, the loss of employment was observed in 44% (41 out of 93 in hemodialysis and 51.2% (26 out of 44 in peritoneal dialysis (P = 0.2604. Even though there was fall of absolute number of job holders in both the blue and white collar jobs, the proportion of jobholders in the white collar job holders improved. On univariate analysis, the factors which influenced the loss of employment were males, age between 50 and 60 years, number of comorbidities >2, illiteracy and blue collar versus white collar job before the initiation of dialysis. The majority of patients had the scores above 80 on Karnofsky performance scale and the majority belonged upper and middle classes than lower classes on modified Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic status scale; however, the loss of employment was also disproportionately high. There appeared a substantial difference in the attitude of the patients toward the employment. There was no difference between hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis in the loss of employment of our patients.

  19. Education and employment status of children and adults with thalassemia in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakbaz, Zahra; Treadwell, Marsha; Kim, Hae-Young; Trachtenberg, Felicia; Parmar, Nagina; Kwiatkowski, Janet L; Cunningham, Melody J; Martin, Marie; Sweeters, Nancy; Neufeld, Ellis J; Giardina, Patricia J; Olivieri, Nancy; Yamashita, Robert C; Vichinsky, Elliott

    2010-10-01

    Advances in the management of thalassemia have resulted in increased life expectancy and new challenges. We conducted the first survey of education and employment status of people with thalassemia in North America. A total of 633 patients (349 adults and 284 school age children) enrolled in the Thalassemia Clinical Research Network (TCRN) registry in Canada and the U.S. were included in the data analysis. Predictors considered for analysis were age, gender, race/ethnicity, site of treatment (Canada vs. United States), transfusion and chelation status, serum ferritin, and clinical complications. Seventy percent of adults were employed of which 67% reported working full-time. Sixty percent had a college degree and 14% had achieved some post-college education. Eighty-two percent of school age children were at expected grade level. In a multivariate analysis for adults, Whites (OR = 2.76, 95% CI: 1.50-5.06) were more likely to be employed compared to Asians. Higher education in adults was associated with older age (OR = 1.67, 95% CI: 1.29-2.15), female gender (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.32-3.23) and absence of lung disease (OR = 14.3, 95% CI: 2.04-100). Younger children (OR = 5.7 for 10-year increments, 95% CI: 2.0-16.7) and Canadian patients (OR = 5.6, 95% CI: 1.5-20) were more likely to be at the expected education level. Neither transfusion nor chelation was associated with lower employment or educational achievement. Individuals with thalassemia in North America can achieve higher education; however, full-time employment remains a problem. Transfusion and chelation do not affect employment or education status of this patient population. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Self-rated health and employment status in chronic haemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Aadahl, Mette; Schou, Lone

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Along with survival and other types of clinical outcome, physical, mental and social well-being are important indicators of the effectiveness of the medical care that haemodialysis (HD) patients receive. The present cross-sectional study was designed to assess self-rated health in HD...... patients were included. They were asked to complete the Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire and additional questions concerning education and employment status. The SF-36 consists of eight scales representing physical, social, mental and general health. Clinical, biochemical and dialysis adequacy data were...... patients from a large Danish HD centre compared to a Danish general population sample with similar sex and age distributions. Furthermore, employment status and associations between self-rated health and clinical, social and demographic factors were investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 150...

  1. Investigation on Current Status of World Nuclear Education and Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J. Y.; Min, M. J.; Noh, B. C.

    2010-04-01

    All over the world, the interest of nuclear energy is increasing and the expectations of it are getting more as one of the most practical alternative energy resources. However, since 1990s, as a lot of nuclear specialists are being retired, now the problem of manpower shortage is taken into consideration for all of us and will be continued until 2011. In this point of view, the good quality of the professional nuclear training and education systems and the nuclear education centers are requested in order to breed and supply the next generation nuclear scientists and engineers. Thus, the objective of this study is to explore the current status of world nuclear education for both of nuclear power countries and potential nuclear power utilization countries in the near future. This report introduces the importance of nuclear energy, the current status of world nuclear power plants operation and the contribution of nuclear energy. Besides, it also includes the nuclear energy development plan of potential nuclear developing countries in the near future. In addition, this study also explores the nuclear training and education systems of the nuclear development countries and the current status of nuclear education in various fields such as government, industries, nuclear power plants ect. Especially, as considering the status of nuclear education classified such as Asia, the Americas, East and West Europe, the Middle East and Africa, it shows the different characteristics of nuclear education systems in each regions aimed to identify the good practices on the nuclear education systems. Finally, through observation of international cooperation and networks of the various nuclear organizations, this will be contributed to the development of nuclear education for member states and be suggested the various of the direction of development for nuclear education in Korea. The report presents in the basis of the recent status data of the world nuclear education systems collected

  2. Current status of high-T{sub c} wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vase, Per [Nordic Superconductor Technologies A/S, Priorparken 685, DK 2605 Broendby (Denmark); Fluekiger, Rene [Departement de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Universite de Geneve (Switzerland); Leghissa, Martino [Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, Erlangen (Germany); Glowacki, Bartek [Department of Material Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    This paper is the result of the work of a SCENET (The European Network for Superconductivity) material working group's efforts on giving values for present and future expected performance of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires and tapes. The purpose of the work is to give input to the design of HTS applications like power cables, motors, current leads, magnets, transformers and generators. The current status performance values are supposed to be used in the design of today's prototypes and the future values for the design of fully commercial HTS applications of the future. We focus on what is expected to be the relevant parameters for HTS application design. The most successful technique by far for making HTS tapes has been on the (Bi, Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (Bi-2223) material by the powder-in-tube (PIT) technique and this paper therefore focuses on giving the current status and expected future performance for Bi-2223 tapes. (author)

  3. Employment as a Social Determinant of Health: A Review of Longitudinal Studies Exploring the Relationship between Employment Status and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Zeglin, Robert J.; McGuire-Kuletz, Maureen; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To explore employment as a social determinant of health through examining the relationship between employment status and mental health. Method: The authors conducted a systematic review of 48 longitudinal studies conducted in Australia, Canada, Croatia, Germany, Ireland, Israel, the Netherlands, Norway, United Kingdom, and United States…

  4. Male fertility in Greece: Trends and differentials by education level and employment status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Tragaki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: More than downplayed, the role of men in the demographic analysis of reproduction has been entirely neglected. However, male fertility can be an important issue for exploring how economic and employment uncertainties relate to fertility and family dynamics. Objective: This paper intends to study fertility variations over time, relying solely on data referring to father's socio-demographic characteristics; in particular, their age, education level, and employment status. Methods: We use a combination of Labor Force Survey and Demographic Statistics data on population and Vital Statistics on births to estimate male fertility indicators and fertility differentials by education level and employment status, for the period 1992-2011 in Greece. In addition, over-time developments in male TFR are separated into structural (education-specific and employment-specific distributions and behavioral (fertility, per se changes. Results: We find that the male fertility level is declining, the fertility pattern is moving into higher ages, and the reproduction period for men is getting shorter. From 1992 up to 2008, changes in male fertility were mostly driven by behavioral rather than compositional factors. However, the decline of male fertility over the period of economic recession (2008-2011 is largely attributed to the continuous decrease in the proportions of employed men. Conclusions: The study suggests that male fertility merits further exploration. In particular, years of economic downturn and countries where household living standards are mostly associated with male employment, a father's employability is likely to emerge as an increasingly important factor of fertility outcomes.

  5. Employment status, difficulties at work and quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boer, Angela G E M; Bennebroek Evertsz', Floor; Stokkers, Pieter C; Bockting, Claudia L; Sanderman, Robert; Hommes, Daniel W; Sprangers, Mirjam A G; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2016-10-01

    To assess employment status, difficulties at work and sick leave in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients and their relation with sociodemographic and clinical factors, quality of life (QoL), and anxiety and depression. IBD patients attending an IBD outpatients' clinic received self-report questionnaires on employment status, IBD-related difficulties at work and sick leave (Trimbos/iMTA questionnaire for Costs associated with Psychiatric Illness), sociodemographic factors, QoL (Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire and 12-item Short-form Health Survey) and anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Disease activity was assessed by their gastroenterologist. Associations between paid employment and sick leave with sociodemographic and clinical factors, QoL and anxiety and depression were assessed by regression analyses. In total, 202 IBD patients of working age, with a mean age of 41 years, participated; 63% had Crohn's disease and 37% had ulcerative colitis, and 57% were women and 19% had active disease. In all, 123 (61%) patients were in paid employment, of whom 31 (25%) were on sick leave, whereas 46 (23%) received a disability pension. Concentration problems (72%), low working pace (78%) and delayed work production (50%) were the most prevalent IBD-related work difficulties. IBD patients without paid employment were older and more often women, with active disease, lower QoL and higher anxiety and depression rates. Sick leave was associated with lower QoL and higher anxiety and depression rates. More than half of IBD patients were in paid employment, whereas almost a quarter was receiving a disability pension. A large majority experienced work difficulties. Having no paid employment was associated with poorer QoL and more anxiety and depression symptomatology.

  6. The Remote Employment: Current Trends in the Organization and Remuneration of Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herasymenko Oksana O.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at distinguishing between the concepts of «freelance», «remote employment», «work from home» with highlighting of differences affecting the organizational-legal format and the economic aspects of social and labor relations between the parties to the agreements on work in remote mode. The prerequisites for the emergence of the non-standard forms of employment in the conditions of establishing the post economy and the electronic-network society have been determined. The data of sociological researches on the current condition and prospects of prevalence of remote employment in Ukraine have been provided. The types and forms of remote employment have been generalized according to different classifications. Using a number of criteria, the article discloses characteristic features of such atypical forms of employment as freelance, distance employment, and work from home. The disadvantages of the atypical forms of employment have been allocated and their advantages have been generalized. An analysis of the current normative-legal regulation has been carried out and the substantiation of organizational and economic foundations of freelancing, remote employment, work from home in Ukraine has been provided.

  7. Indirect dark matter searches: current status and perspectives

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Many theoretical ideas for the particle nature of dark matter exist. The  most popular models often predict that dark matter particles self-annihilate or decay, giving rise to potentially detectable signatures in astronomical observations.  I will summarize the current status of searches for such signatures and critically reassess recent claims for dark matter signals.  I will further provide an outlook on anticipated developments in the next 10 years, and discuss new methods to facilitate strategy development.

  8. Current status of large-scale cryogenic gravitational wave telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, K; Ohashi, M; Miyoki, S; Uchiyama, T; Ishitsuka, H; Yamamoto, K; Kasahara, K; Fujimoto, M-K; Kawamura, S; Takahashi, R; Yamazaki, T; Arai, K; Tatsumi, D; Ueda, A; Fukushima, M; Sato, S; Nagano, S; Tsunesada, Y; Zhu, Zong-Hong; Shintomi, T; Yamamoto, A; Suzuki, T; Saito, Y; Haruyama, T; Sato, N; Higashi, Y; Tomaru, T; Tsubono, K; Ando, M; Takamori, A; Numata, K; Aso, Y; Ueda, K-I; Yoneda, H; Nakagawa, K; Musha, M; Mio, N; Moriwaki, S; Somiya, K; Araya, A; Kanda, N; Telada, S; Tagoshi, H; Nakamura, T; Sasaki, M; Tanaka, T; Oohara, K; Takahashi, H; Miyakawa, O; Tobar, M E

    2003-01-01

    The large-scale cryogenic gravitational wave telescope (LCGT) project is the proposed advancement of TAMA, which will be able to detect the coalescences of binary neutron stars occurring in our galaxy. LCGT intends to detect the coalescence events within about 240 Mpc, the rate of which is expected to be from 0.1 to several events in a year. LCGT has Fabry-Perot cavities of 3 km baseline and the mirrors are cooled down to a cryogenic temperature of 20 K. It is planned to be built in the underground of Kamioka mine. This paper overviews the revision of the design and the current status of the R and D

  9. [Molecular imaging; current status and future prospects in USA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2007-02-01

    The goal of this review is to introduce the definition, current status, and future prospects of the molecular imaging, which has recently been a hot topic in medicine and the biological science in USA. In vivo imaging methods to visualize the molecular events and functions in organs or animals/humans are overviewed and discussed especially in combinations of imaging modalities (machines) and contrast agents(chemicals) used in the molecular imaging. Next, the close relationship between the molecular imaging and the nanotechnology, an important part of nanomedicine, is stressed from the aspect of united multidisciplinary sciences such as physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine.

  10. History and current status of nuclear fuel reprocessing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funasaka, Hideyuki; Nagai, Toshihisa; Washiya, Tadahiro

    2008-01-01

    History and present state of fast breeder reactor was reviewed in series. As a history and current status of nuclear fuel reprocessing technology, this ninth lecture presented the progress of the FBR fuel reprocessing technology and advanced reprocessing processes. FBR fuel reprocessing technology had been developed to construct the reprocessing equipment test facilities (RETF) based on PUREX process technologies. With economics, reduction of environmental burdens and proliferation resistance taken into consideration, advanced aqueous method for nuclear fuel cycle activities has been promoted as the government's basic policy. Innovative technologies on mechanical disassembly, continuous rotary dissolver, crystallizer, solvent extraction and actinides recovery have been mainly studied. (T. Tanaka)

  11. Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Tanzania: Current Status and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semvua B. Kilonzo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases in the world with high prevalence in most of sub-Saharan Africa countries. The complexity in its diagnosis and treatment poses a significant management challenge in the resource-limited settings including Tanzania, where most of the tests and drugs are either unavailable or unaffordable. This mini review aims at demonstrating the current status of the disease in the country and discussing the concomitant challenges in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

  12. Current Status of Operation and Management of Dental School Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, John W

    2017-08-01

    This article summarizes the current status of the operation and management of dental school clinics as schools strive to provide excellent patient-centered care in an environment that is educationally sound, efficient, and financially strong. Clinical education is a large component of dental education and an area in which many dental schools have an opportunity to enhance revenue. Clinical efficiencies and alternative models of clinical education are evolving in U.S. dental schools, and this article describes some of those evolutionary changes. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century."

  13. CT myocardial perfusion imaging: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong Hyun; Kim, Young-Hak

    2017-07-01

    Computed tomography myocardial perfusion (CTP) combined with coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) may constitute a "1-stop shop" for the noninvasive diagnosis of hemodynamically significant coronary stenosis during a single CT examination. CTP shows high diagnostic performance and provides incremental value over CCTA for the detection of hemodynamically significant coronary stenosis in patients with a high Agatston calcium score or coronary artery stents. Future studies should determine the optimal protocol and clinical value of CTP for guiding revascularization strategy and prognostication. In this article, we review the current status and future perspectives of CTP, focusing on technical considerations, clinical applications, and future research topics.

  14. Thermoelectric microgenerators. Current status and prospects of application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strutynska L. T.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of current status and prospects of using thermoelectric microgenerators, including organic-fueled ones, is performed. Developments of thermoelectric microgenerators presented in this review demonstrate that their increasingly wide use forms a separate, very important line of thermoelectricity – micropower generation with growing potential of practical applications for charging batteries, mobile phones, digital cameras and photocameras, power supply to small radio stations, other portable devices, including medical. The ways of increasing the efficiency of such devices and relevant lines of their wide use in practice are determined.

  15. Current status and some aspects of the future energy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antic, D. P.; Sokcic-Kostic, M. S. . E-mail address of corresponding author: dragon@vin.bg.ac.yu; Antic, D.)

    2005-01-01

    Current status of the energy production and of the energy sources in the world, European Union, Serbia and Montenegro and the Balkan states is analyzed. Some trends in the energy consumption and productions in some European states are analyzed. Some problems of the Serbia and Montenegro energy production system are compared with situation in neighbor states, Germany, and European Union. At present, anywhere in the world, the nuclear power in on the defensive. In some countries it has been even outlawed. Some parameters show that nuclear power, on the global scale and during this century at least, is absolutely essential and reasons for revival of nuclear energy are realistic. (author)

  16. ZnO growth technologies: current status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupan, Oleg

    2011-01-01

    Development of new technologies for ZnO nano materials and thin films is of critical importance for further fundamental investigations and practical applications. We discuss on the main technical control of the synthesis of zinc oxide and its properties, which are of significance in understanding the growth mechanism and further developing ZnO-based devices. Next, we present a brief summary of recent research activities, current status and progress in developing improved control of technological processes for zinc oxide as advanced material.

  17. Current status of the nuclear medicine in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torizuka, K.

    1974-01-01

    A brief survey of the current status of Japan nuclear medicine is given. The following data are described (from the material of the 11th Japan Conference of Radioisotopes): 1. the increase of the number of nuclear instruments between 1971 and 1973; 2. the total amount of the cobalt radiation apparatur (inclusive of the cesium apparatus) in the hospitals in 1971- and 1972; 3. the radioactive medicines and nuclids used in Japan; 4. the radioactive isotopes used generally in the therapeutics in 1971 and 1972; 5. the question of labour. (K.A.)

  18. Community-based dental education: history, current status, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formicola, Allan J; Bailit, Howard L

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the history, current status, and future direction of community-based dental education (CBDE). The key issues addressed include the reasons that dentistry developed a different clinical education model than the other health professions; how government programs, private medical foundations, and early adopter schools influenced the development of CBDE; the societal and financial factors that are leading more schools to increase the time that senior dental students spend in community programs; the impact of CBDE on school finances and faculty and student perceptions; and the reasons that CBDE is likely to become a core part of the clinical education of all dental graduates.

  19. Are Level of Education and Employment Related to Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders in Current and Retired Professional Footballers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Verhagen, Evert; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2016-06-01

    Mental disorders have become a topic of increasing interest in research due to their serious consequences for quality of life and functioning. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship of level of education, employment status and working hours with symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour, smoking, adverse nutritional behaviour) among current and retired professional footballers. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study among current and retired professional footballers. Based on validated scales, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed by players' unions in 11 countries across three continents. A total of 607 current professional footballers (mean age of 27 years) and 219 retired professional footballers (mean age of 35 years) were involved in the study. Among retired professional footballers, statistically significant negative correlations were found between employment status and symptoms of distress and anxiety/depression (P working hours and symptoms of anxiety/depression (P working hours was weakly correlated to symptoms of distress and anxiety/depression. Combining a football career with sustainable attention for educational and career planning might be important and of high priority.

  20. Current status of endoscopic simulation in gastroenterology fellowship training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirapinyo, Pichamol; Thompson, Christopher C

    2015-07-01

    Recent guidelines have encouraged gastroenterology and surgical training programs to integrate simulation into their core endoscopic curricula. However, the role that simulation currently has within training programs is unknown. This study aims to assess the current status of simulation among gastroenterology fellowship programs. This questionnaire study consisted of 38 fields divided into two sections. The first section queried program directors' experience on simulation and assessed the current status of simulation at their institution. The second portion surveyed their opinion on the potential role of simulation on the training curriculum. The study was conducted at the 2013 American Gastroenterological Association Training Directors' Workshop in Phoenix, Arizona. The participants were program directors from Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education accredited gastroenterology training programs, who attended the workshop. The questionnaire was returned by 69 of 97 program directors (response rate of 71%). 42% of programs had an endoscopic simulator. Computerized simulators (61.5%) were the most common, followed by mechanical (30.8%) and animal tissue (7.7%) simulators, respectively. Eleven programs (15%) required fellows to use simulation prior to clinical cases. Only one program has a minimum number of hours fellows have to participate in simulation training. Current simulators are deemed as easy to use (76%) and good educational tools (65%). Problems are cost (72%) and accessibility (69%). The majority of program directors believe that there is a need for endoscopic simulator training, with only 8% disagreeing. Additionally, a majority believe there is a role for simulation prior to initiation of clinical cases with 15% disagreeing. Gastroenterology fellowship program directors widely recognize the importance of simulation. Nevertheless, simulation is used by only 42% of programs and only 15% of programs require that trainees use simulation prior to

  1. The employment status of 1995 graduates from radiation oncology training programs in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, Daniel F.; Kresl, John J.; Sheldon, John M.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the employment status of 1995 graduates of radiation oncology training programs in the United States. Methods and Materials: All senior residents (149) and fellows (36) who completed training in 1995 were mailed an employment survey questionnaire by the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology (ARRO). Telephone follow-up of nonrespondents achieved a 100% response rate. Twenty graduates who chose to continue training and five who returned to their home countries were removed from the study. Of the 160 who attempted to enter the U.S. workforce, 106 were men and 54 were women. Initial job status and job status at 6-8 months following graduation were determined. Results: Unemployment was 6.9% at graduation and 4.4% at 6-8 months. Underemployment (part-time employment) was 10.6% at graduation and 11.9% at 6-8 months postgraduation. Of those working part-time 6-8 months after graduation, 63% (12 of 19) did so involuntarily after unsuccessfully seeking full-time employment. For the 20 graduates who chose to continue training with fellowships, seven (35%) did so solely to avoid unemployment, four (20%) were partially influenced by the job market, and nine (45%) were not influenced by the job market. Adverse employment search outcome was defined as being either unemployed as a radiation oncologist or involuntarily working part-time. Excluding those who chose to work part-time, a total of 19 (11.9%) graduates at 6-8 months following graduation, compared to 22 (13.8%) at graduation, were either unemployed or involuntarily working part-time. In terms of gender, this represented 18.5% (10 of 54) of females and 8.6% (9 of 105) of males. In terms of geographic restrictions in the job search, 56% of males and 70% of females with an adverse employment outcome limited their job search to certain parts of the country. This compares to 62% of all graduates in this study with geographic restrictions in their job search. In terms of perceptions of the

  2. The employment status of 1995 graduates from radiation oncology training programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, D F; Kresl, J J; Sheldon, J M

    1999-03-15

    To quantify the employment status of 1995 graduates of radiation oncology training programs in the United States. All senior residents (149) and fellows (36) who completed training in 1995 were mailed an employment survey questionnaire by the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology (ARRO). Telephone follow-up of nonrespondents achieved a 100% response rate. Twenty graduates who chose to continue training and five who returned to their home countries were removed from the study. Of the 160 who attempted to enter the U.S. workforce, 106 were men and 54 were women. Initial job status and job status at 6-8 months following graduation were determined. Unemployment was 6.9% at graduation and 4.4% at 6-8 months. Underemployment (part-time employment) was 10.6% at graduation and 11.9% at 6-8 months postgraduation. Of those working part-time 6-8 months after graduation, 63% (12 of 19) did so involuntarily after unsuccessfully seeking full-time employment. For the 20 graduates who chose to continue training with fellowships, seven (35%) did so solely to avoid unemployment, four (20%) were partially influenced by the job market, and nine (45%) were not influenced by the job market. Adverse employment search outcome was defined as being either unemployed as a radiation oncologist or involuntarily working part-time. Excluding those who chose to work part-time, a total of 19 (11.9%) graduates at 6-8 months following graduation, compared to 22 (13.8%) at graduation, were either unemployed or involuntarily working part-time. In terms of gender, this represented 18.5% (10 of 54) of females and 8.6% (9 of 105) of males. In terms of geographic restrictions in the job search, 56% of males and 70% of females with an adverse employment outcome limited their job search to certain parts of the country. This compares to 62% of all graduates in this study with geographic restrictions in their job search. In terms of perceptions of the workforce and employment opportunities, 95% of

  3. Employment and Socioeconomic Factors Associated With Children's Up-to-Date Vaccination Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiwei; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Hill, Holly A; Yankey, David

    2017-04-01

    This study examined whether additional information on parents' employment and household characteristics would help explain the differences in children's up-to-date (UTD) vaccination status using the 2008 National Immunization Survey and its associated Socioeconomic Status Module. After controlling for basic sociodemographic factors in multivariable analyses, parent's work schedules and ease of taking time off from work were not associated with UTD vaccination status among 19- to 35-month-old children. We also conducted a stratified analysis to test the heterogeneous effects of the factors among children at 3 age-restricted maternal education levels and found the benefit of paid sick leave had a significant association only among families where the mother had a college degree. Families who had moved since the child's birth, especially if the mother had high school or lower education, were less likely to have children UTD on the vaccine series.

  4. Mental health, family roles and employment status inside and outside the household in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-de la Torre, Jorge; Molina, Antonio J; Fernández-Villa, Tania; Artazcoz, Lucía; Martín, Vicente

    2018-02-13

    To document the prevalence of poor mental health by gender and social class, and to analyze if poor mental health is associated with the family roles or the employment status inside and outside the household. A cross-sectional study based on a representative sample of the Spanish population was carried out (n = 14,247). Mental health was evaluated using GHQ-12. Employment status, marital status, family roles (main breadwinner and the person who mainly carries out the household work) and educational level were considered as explanatory variables. Multiple logistic regression models stratified by gender and social class were fitted and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were obtained. Gender and social class differences in the prevalence of poor mental health were observed. Unemployment was associated with higher prevalence. Among men the main breadwinner role was related to poor mental health mainly in those that belong to manual classes (aOR = 1.2). Among women, mainly among nonmanual classes, these problems were associated to marital status: widowed, separated or divorced (aOR = 1.9) and to dealing with the household work by themselves (aOR = 1.9). In Spain, gender and social class differences in mental health still exist. In addition, family roles and working situation, both inside and outside the household, could constitute a source of inequalities in mental health. Copyright © 2018 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Postnatal paternal involvement and maternal emotional disturbances: The effect of maternal employment status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wan-Chien; Chang, Shin-Yow; Chen, Yi-Ting; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Chen, Yi-Hua

    2017-09-01

    Recently, studies have begun emphasizing paternal involvement during the perinatal period and its impact on maternal health. However, most studies have assessed maternal perception and focused on adolescents or minority groups in Western countries. Therefore, the current study investigated the association between paternal involvement and maternal postnatal depression and anxiety, along with the effects of maternal job status in the Asian society of Taiwan. This study recruited pregnant women in the first trimester of pregnancy as well as their partners on prenatal visits from July 2011 to September 2013 at four selected hospitals in metropolitan areas of Taipei, Taiwan. In total, 593 parental pairs completed the first interview and responded to the follow-up questionnaires until 6 months postpartum. Self-reported data were collected, and multiple logistic regression models were used for analyses. Lower paternal childcare and nursing frequency was independently associated with an increased risk of maternal postpartum depression (adjusted odds ratio (OR) =4.33, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.34-13.98), particularly among unemployed mothers. Furthermore, among unemployed mothers, the risk of postnatal anxiety was 3.14 times higher in couples with fathers spending less time with the child, compared with couples with fathers spending more time (95% CI=1.10-8.98). However, no significant findings were obtained for employed mothers. The high prevalence of maternal postnatal emotional disturbances warrants continual consideration. Higher paternal involvement in childcare arrangements should be emphasized to aid in ameliorating these maternal emotional disturbances, particularly among unemployed mothers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Is temporary employment related to health status? Analysis of the Northern Swedish Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waenerlund, Anna-Karin; Virtanen, Pekka; Hammarström, Anne

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether temporary employment was related to non-optimal self-rated health and psychological distress at age 42 after adjustment for the same indicators at age 30, and to analyze the effects of job insecurity, low cash margin and high job strain on this relationship. A subcohort of the Northern Swedish Cohort that was employed at the 2007 follow-up survey (n = 907, response rate of 94%) was analyzed using data from 1995 and 2007 questionnaires. Temporary employees had a higher risk of both non-optimal self-rated health and psychological distress. After adjustment for non-optimal self-rated health at age 30 and psychological distress at age 30 as well as for sociodemographic variables, the odds ratios decreased but remained significant. However, after adjustment for job insecurity, high job strain and low cash margin the odds ratio dropped for non-optimal self-rated health but remained significant for psychological distress. Temporary employment may have adverse effects on self-rated health and psychological health after adjustment for previous health status and sociodemographic variables. Our findings indicate that low cash margin and job insecurity may partially mediate the association between temporary employment and health status.

  7. MONK and MCBEND: Current status and recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, Simon D.; Baker, Chris M.J.; Bird, Adam J.; Cowan, Pat; Davies, Nigel; Dobson, Geoff P.; Fry, Tim C.; Kyrieleis, Albrecht; Smith, Paul N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We describe recent developments to the Monte Carlo codes MONK and MCBEND. • MONK is a Monte Carlo code for nuclear criticality and reactor physics analyses. • MCBEND is a Monte Carlo code for radiation shielding and dosimetry analyses. • Improvements include input; physics; scoring; variance reduction; and visualisation. • Parallelisation of MONK and multi-physics coupling are described. - Abstract: MONK® and MCBEND are Monte Carlo software packages for: nuclear criticality and reactor physics; and radiation shielding and dosimetry applications, respectively. The codes are actively developed, maintained and supported by AMEC’s ANSWERS® Software Service in line with the ANSWERS vision of providing easy-to-use software that meets the current and emerging needs of the user community. This paper summarises the current status of MONK and MCBEND and the recent developments which have been carried out to the codes, and their supporting nuclear data libraries and visualisation package

  8. Review of the current status of linear hybrid reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, K.R.

    1977-07-01

    A review was made of the current status of linear fusion-fission hybrid reactor design studies in the USA. The linear hybrid reactor concepts reviewed include the linear theta-pinch hybrid reactor being studied at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, the electron beam-heated solenoid hybrid reactor under development at Physics International Co., the laser-heated solenoid hybrid reactor being investigated at Mathematical Sciences Northwest, Inc., and the linear fusion waste burning reactor being studied at General Atomic Company. The discussion addresses confinement and heating mechanisms for each concept, as well as the hybrid blanket designs. The current state of the four reactor designs is summarized and the performance of the various concepts compared

  9. Study of Grants, new Mexico, uranium miners: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, J.M.; Morgan, M.V.; Buechley, R.W.; Key, C.R.; Valdivia, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Uranium Epidemiology Study at the University of New Mexico was initiated in 1977 with the objective of assessing health effects of uranium mining in the Grants, New Mexico, area. The planned approach was a cohort study of mortality that would capitalize on the availability of health records at the Grants Clinic. The first year's work confirmed the study's feasibility (Buechley, 1979). Subsequent efforts have focused on the health and exposure data base and comprehensive follow-up. A retrospective cohort study of early miners is in progress; a prospective cohort study of miners who began working under the current federal standard is planned. This report will summarize the current status of the Uranium Epidemiology Study

  10. Elementary particle physics and cosmology: current status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubakov, Valerii A

    1999-01-01

    The current status of elementary particle physics can be briefly summarized as follows: the Standard Model of elementary particles is perfectly (at the level of radiation effects!) adequate in describing all the available experimental data except for the recent indications of neutrino oscillations. At the same time, much (and possibly most) of today's cosmology is not encompassed by the Standard Model - a fact which, together with intrinsic theoretical difficulties and the neutrino oscillation challenge, strongly indicates that the Standard Model is incomplete. It is expected that in the current decade a 'new physics', i.e. particles and interactions beyond the Standard Model, will emerge. Major advances in cosmology, both in terms of qualitatively improved observations and theoretical analysis of the structure and evolution of the Universe, are expected as well. (special issue)

  11. Polycystic ovary syndrome: current status and future perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmess, Erin K.; Naz, Rajesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a widespread reproductive disorder that encompasses many associated health conditions and has an impact on various metabolic processes. PCOS is depicted by hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, and anovulation. It increases the risk of insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. The etiology of the disease remains unclear, and the subjective phenotype makes a united diagnosis difficult among physicians. It seems to be a familial genetic syndrome caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. It can be linked with metabolic disorders in first-degree family members. PCOS is the cause of up to 30% of infertility in couples seeking treatment. Currently, there is no cure for PCOS. Despite the growing incidence of this syndrome, limited research has been done that encompasses the entirety of PCOS spectrum. In this review, the current status and possible future perspective will be discussed. PMID:24389146

  12. Research Experience in Psychiatry Residency Programs Across Canada: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugalingam, Arany; Ferreria, Sharon G; Norman, Ross M G; Vasudev, Kamini

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the current status of research experience in psychiatry residency programs across Canada. Method: Coordinators of Psychiatric Education (COPE) resident representatives from all 17 psychiatry residency programs in Canada were asked to complete a survey regarding research training requirements in their programs. Results: Among the 17 COPE representatives, 15 completed the survey, representing 88% of the Canadian medical schools that have a psychiatry residency program. Among the 15 programs, 11 (73%) require residents to conduct a scholarly activity to complete residency. Some of these programs incorporated such a requirement in the past 5 years. Ten respondents (67%) reported availability of official policy and (or) guidelines on resident research requirements. Among the 11 programs that have a research requirement, 10 (91%) require residents to complete 1 scholarly activity; 1 requires completion of 2 scholarly activities. Eight (53%) residency programs reported having a separate research track. All of the programs have a research coordinator and 14 (93%) programs provide protected time to residents for conducting research. The 3 most common types of scholarly activities that qualify for the mandatory research requirement are a full independent project (10 programs), a quality improvement project (8 programs), and assisting in a faculty project (8 programs). Six programs expect their residents to present their final work in a departmental forum. None of the residency programs require publication of residents’ final work. Conclusions: The current status of the research experience during psychiatry residency in Canada is encouraging but there is heterogeneity across the programs. PMID:25565474

  13. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Calvopiña

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme.

  14. Parametric overdispersed frailty models for current status data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Steven; Aerts, Marc; Molenberghs, Geert; Hens, Niel

    2017-12-01

    Frailty models have a prominent place in survival analysis to model univariate and multivariate time-to-event data, often complicated by the presence of different types of censoring. In recent years, frailty modeling gained popularity in infectious disease epidemiology to quantify unobserved heterogeneity using Type I interval-censored serological data or current status data. In a multivariate setting, frailty models prove useful to assess the association between infection times related to multiple distinct infections acquired by the same individual. In addition to dependence among individual infection times, overdispersion can arise when the observed variability in the data exceeds the one implied by the model. In this article, we discuss parametric overdispersed frailty models for time-to-event data under Type I interval-censoring, building upon the work by Molenberghs et al. (2010) and Hens et al. (2009). The proposed methodology is illustrated using bivariate serological data on hepatitis A and B from Flanders, Belgium anno 1993-1994. Furthermore, the relationship between individual heterogeneity and overdispersion at a stratum-specific level is studied through simulations. Although it is important to account for overdispersion, one should be cautious when modeling both individual heterogeneity and overdispersion based on current status data as model selection is hampered by the loss of information due to censoring. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  15. Profile of currently employed European Food Scientists and Technologists: Education, experience and skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Flynn

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The food & drink (F&D sector in Europe ranks low in innovation and the European F&D industry has been losing importance in the global market. The food professionals, i.e., food scientists and technologists (FSTs, may not be meeting the varied demands of the sector. Here, we identify education, experience and skills of current FSTs and compare  geographic regions and employment areas. Between 2009 and 2012, 287 questionnaires representing over 4000 FSTs were collected from employers in 16 countries. Analyses showed that more than 80% of FSTs have a university degree; but only in Industry in the Central European region are most degrees in food science/technology. More than half of FSTs, and almost 60% in the South, have less than 10 years’ experience. The most common FST job title is Quality Manager, but with several variations based on region and employment area. Among skills, the most common is Communicating; found in over 90% of FSTs in all regions and employment areas. Food Safety is the most common of the food sector-specific skills, present in more than 75% of FSTs, yet there are differences in food sector skills based on employment area. Overall, these data suggest similarities among currently employed food professionals throughout Europe; they are young and highly educated, but also differences, especially in their food sector-specific skills. An understanding of the current FST should contribute to the improvement of FST training and thus benefit the European food sector.

  16. Employment and weight status: The extreme case of body concern in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung-Yong; Brewis, Alexandra A; SturtzSreetharan, Cindi

    2018-05-01

    For an industrialized nation, obesity rates in South Korea are extremely low. Yet, reflecting an extremely fat-averse, thin-positive society, efforts to lose weight are now reportedly very common. Since the 1980s, South Korea has experienced an increasingly flexible and insecure labor market which was exacerbated by the 1997 economic recession. In this social and economic setting, body shape and weight status, as human capital, may have gained significant bargaining power in the labor market. Consequently, we propose that Koreans, particularly those who are employed in "stable" jobs (i.e., non-manual and regular jobs), would increasingly engage in intense weight management and reduction activities even when not technically overweight or obese as a means to job security and upward mobility. Using nationally-representative data from the Korean Nutrition and Health Examination Survey (KNHANES), we identify the changing role of weight concerns versus actual body weight in predicting South Korean efforts to lose weight between 2001 (KNHANES-phase 1) and 2007-2009 (phase 4). The patterns were examined by occupation type (manual and non-manual jobs) and status (regular and non-regular jobs). Oaxaca decomposition analysis supported that people's perception of being "fat," rather than actual weight status, was crucial to explaining accelerated weight management efforts in South Korea over the decade (coef. = 0.062 and p-value < .0001 for male with regular work; coef. = 0.031 and p-value = .002 for female with regular work). Occupation status, rather than employment in itself, mattered. Job stability predicted increased effort; the pattern of change through time suggests efforts to invest high levels of effort in appearance positively impacts both employment opportunity and stability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Employment Status after Spinal Cord Injury (1992-2005): A Review with Implications For Interpretation, Evaluation, Further Research, and Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Amanda E.; Murphy, Gregory C.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the research conducted on the topic of employment status after spinal cord injury that was published between 1992 and 2005. This study follows on from an earlier review that focused on papers published between 1976 and 1991. The current study extends the earlier review by reporting an aggregate employment…

  18. Robotic technology in surgery: current status in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Declan G; Hall, Rohan; Tong, Raymond; Goel, Rajiv; Costello, Anthony J

    2008-12-01

    There is increasing patient and surgeon interest in robotic-assisted surgery, particularly with the proliferation of da Vinci surgical systems (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) throughout the world. There is much debate over the usefulness and cost-effectiveness of these systems. The currently available robotic surgical technology is described. Published data relating to the da Vinci system are reviewed and the current status of surgical robotics within Australia and New Zealand is assessed. The first da Vinci system in Australia and New Zealand was installed in 2003. Four systems had been installed by 2006 and seven systems are currently in use. Most of these are based in private hospitals. Technical advantages of this system include 3-D vision, enhanced dexterity and improved ergonomics when compared with standard laparoscopic surgery. Most procedures currently carried out are urological, with cardiac, gynaecological and general surgeons also using this system. The number of patients undergoing robotic-assisted surgery in Australia and New Zealand has increased fivefold in the past 4 years. The most common procedure carried out is robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Published data suggest that robotic-assisted surgery is feasible and safe although the installation and recurring costs remain high. There is increasing acceptance of robotic-assisted surgery, especially for urological procedures. The da Vinci surgical system is becoming more widely available in Australia and New Zealand. Other surgical specialties will probably use this technology. Significant costs are associated with robotic technology and it is not yet widely available to public patients.

  19. Australian shellfish ecosystems: Past distribution, current status and future direction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris L Gillies

    Full Text Available We review the status of marine shellfish ecosystems formed primarily by bivalves in Australia, including: identifying ecosystem-forming species, assessing their historical and current extent, causes for decline and past and present management. Fourteen species of bivalves were identified as developing complex, three-dimensional reef or bed ecosystems in intertidal and subtidal areas across tropical, subtropical and temperate Australia. A dramatic decline in the extent and condition of Australia's two most common shellfish ecosystems, developed by Saccostrea glomerata and Ostrea angasi oysters, occurred during the mid-1800s to early 1900s in concurrence with extensive harvesting for food and lime production, ecosystem modification, disease outbreaks and a decline in water quality. Out of 118 historical locations containing O. angasi-developed ecosystems, only one location still contains the ecosystem whilst only six locations are known to still contain S. glomerata-developed ecosystems out of 60 historical locations. Ecosystems developed by the introduced oyster Crasostrea gigas are likely to be increasing in extent, whilst data on the remaining 11 ecosystem-forming species are limited, preventing a detailed assessment of their current ecosystem-forming status. Our analysis identifies that current knowledge on extent, physical characteristics, biodiversity and ecosystem services of Australian shellfish ecosystems is extremely limited. Despite the limited information on shellfish ecosystems, a number of restoration projects have recently been initiated across Australia and we propose a number of existing government policies and conservation mechanisms, if enacted, would readily serve to support the future conservation and recovery of Australia's shellfish ecosystems.

  20. Smart wearable systems: current status and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Marie; Estève, Daniel; Fourniols, Jean-Yves; Escriba, Christophe; Campo, Eric

    2012-11-01

    Extensive efforts have been made in both academia and industry in the research and development of smart wearable systems (SWS) for health monitoring (HM). Primarily influenced by skyrocketing healthcare costs and supported by recent technological advances in micro- and nanotechnologies, miniaturisation of sensors, and smart fabrics, the continuous advances in SWS will progressively change the landscape of healthcare by allowing individual management and continuous monitoring of a patient's health status. Consisting of various components and devices, ranging from sensors and actuators to multimedia devices, these systems support complex healthcare applications and enable low-cost wearable, non-invasive alternatives for continuous 24-h monitoring of health, activity, mobility, and mental status, both indoors and outdoors. Our objective has been to examine the current research in wearable to serve as references for researchers and provide perspectives for future research. Herein, we review the current research and development of and the challenges facing SWS for HM, focusing on multi-parameter physiological sensor systems and activity and mobility measurement system designs that reliably measure mobility or vital signs and integrate real-time decision support processing for disease prevention, symptom detection, and diagnosis. For this literature review, we have chosen specific selection criteria to include papers in which wearable systems or devices are covered. We describe the state of the art in SWS and provide a survey of recent implementations of wearable health-care systems. We describe current issues, challenges, and prospects of SWS. We conclude by identifying the future challenges facing SWS for HM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Australian shellfish ecosystems: Past distribution, current status and future direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Chris L.; McLeod, Ian M.; Alleway, Heidi K.; Cook, Peter; Crawford, Christine; Creighton, Colin; Diggles, Ben; Ford, John; Hamer, Paul; Heller-Wagner, Gideon; Lebrault, Emma; Le Port, Agnès; Russell, Kylie; Sheaves, Marcus; Warnock, Bryn

    2018-01-01

    We review the status of marine shellfish ecosystems formed primarily by bivalves in Australia, including: identifying ecosystem-forming species, assessing their historical and current extent, causes for decline and past and present management. Fourteen species of bivalves were identified as developing complex, three-dimensional reef or bed ecosystems in intertidal and subtidal areas across tropical, subtropical and temperate Australia. A dramatic decline in the extent and condition of Australia’s two most common shellfish ecosystems, developed by Saccostrea glomerata and Ostrea angasi oysters, occurred during the mid-1800s to early 1900s in concurrence with extensive harvesting for food and lime production, ecosystem modification, disease outbreaks and a decline in water quality. Out of 118 historical locations containing O. angasi-developed ecosystems, only one location still contains the ecosystem whilst only six locations are known to still contain S. glomerata-developed ecosystems out of 60 historical locations. Ecosystems developed by the introduced oyster Crasostrea gigas are likely to be increasing in extent, whilst data on the remaining 11 ecosystem-forming species are limited, preventing a detailed assessment of their current ecosystem-forming status. Our analysis identifies that current knowledge on extent, physical characteristics, biodiversity and ecosystem services of Australian shellfish ecosystems is extremely limited. Despite the limited information on shellfish ecosystems, a number of restoration projects have recently been initiated across Australia and we propose a number of existing government policies and conservation mechanisms, if enacted, would readily serve to support the future conservation and recovery of Australia’s shellfish ecosystems. PMID:29444143

  2. Has the employment status of people living with HIV changed since the early 2000s?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annequin, Margot; Lert, France; Spire, Bruno; Dray-Spira, Rosemary

    2015-07-31

    In a context marked by major changes in the field of HIV and in the general socioeconomic context, this study aimed at investigating changes in the employment situation of people living with HIV (PLWHIV) in France since the early 2000s. Repeated cross-sectional survey among two nationally representative samples of PLWHIV followed at hospital in France in 2003 (N = 2932) and 2011 (N = 3022). Differences between 2003 and 2011 in (1) rates of employment, unemployment, and inactivity and (2) rates of work cessation and access to work following HIV diagnosis were measured using two-step multivariate Poisson regression models adjusted for individual sociodemographic determinants of position on the labor market, and then additionally for health status characteristics. Overall, among working-age PLWHIV 60.9% in 2003 and 59.6% in 2011 were employed; 12.6 and 15.8%, respectively, were unemployed; and 26.5 and 24.6%, respectively, were inactive. Adjusting for sociodemographic determinants of position on the labor market, while employment rate was not different in 2011 compared with 2003, inactivity rate significantly decreased (adjusted prevalence rate ratio: 0.83, 95% confidence interval: [0.72-0.96]) and unemployment rate significantly increased (1.28 [1.04-1.57]). After additional adjustment for health status characteristics, the difference was no longer significant for inactivity (0.89 [0.77-1.03]) but remained significant for unemployment (1.55 [1.24-1.93]). Compared with 2003, in 2011 transitions to unemployment following HIV diagnosis tended to be more frequent (1.58 [0.92-2.68]) and access to work was significantly less frequent (0.57 [0.33-0.99]). Improvements in HIV care have not translated into improvements in PLWHIV's situation regarding employment.

  3. Self-reported mood, general health, wellbeing and employment status in adults with suspected DCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Amanda; Williams, Natalie; Thomas, Marie; Hill, Elisabeth L

    2013-04-01

    Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) affects around 2-6% of the population and is diagnosed on the basis of poor motor coordination in the absence of other neurological disorders. Its psychosocial impact has been delineated in childhood but until recently there has been little understanding of the implications of the disorder beyond this. This study aims to focus on the longer term impact of having DCD in adulthood and, in particular, considers the effect of employment on this group in relation to psychosocial health and wellbeing. Self-reported levels of life satisfaction, general health and symptoms of anxiety and depression were investigated in a group of adults with a diagnosis of DCD and those with suspected DCD using a number of published self-report questionnaire measures. A comparison between those in and out of employment was undertaken. As a group, the unemployed adults with DCD reported significantly lower levels of life satisfaction. Whilst there was no significant difference between those who were employed and unemployed on General Health Questionnaire scores; both groups reported numbers of health related issues reflective of general health problems in DCD irrespective of employment status. While both groups reported high levels of depressive symptoms and rated their satisfaction with life quite poorly, the unemployed group reported significantly more depressive symptoms and less satisfaction. Additionally, the results identified high levels of self-reported anxiety in both groups, with the majority sitting outside of the normal range using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. These findings add to the small but increasing body of literature on physical and mental health and wellbeing in adults with DCD. Furthermore, they are the first to provide insight into the possible mediating effects of employment status in adults with DCD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pain, fatigue and hand function closely correlated to work ability and employment status in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandqvist, Gunnel; Scheja, Agneta; Hesselstrand, Roger

    2010-09-01

    To identify factors, individual and work related, influencing work ability, and to assess the association between work ability and employment status, activities of daily life (ADLs) and quality of life in patients with SSc. Fifty-seven consecutive patients (53 females/4 males) with SSc (47 lcSSc/10 dcSSc) were included. Median age was 58 [interquartile range (IQR) 47-62] years and disease duration 14 (9-19) years. The patients were assessed for socio-demographic characteristics, disease parameters, symptoms, work ability, empowerment and adaptations in a workplace, social support, ADLs and quality of life. Work ability, assessed with the Work Ability Index (WAI) could be evaluated in 48 of 57 patients. The correlation between employment status and WAI was good (r(s) = 0.79, P work (P work (P Employment interventions should include support in job adaptations as well as self-management strategies to help patients deal with pain and fatigue and to enhance the confidence to perform their work.

  5. Parks and recreation employment status: implications from a civil service perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel Frater; Arthur Graham

    2002-01-01

    Current research on the credentialing process in parks, recreation and leisure services has focused primarily on accreditation and certification and has largely ignored the civil service exam as a credentialing toll or condition of employment in many state and municipal parks and recreation departments.

  6. Nuclear power for sustainable development. Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamantiades, A.; Kessides, I.

    2009-01-01

    Interest in nuclear power has been revived as a result of volatile fossil fuel prices, concerns about the security of energy supplies, and global climate change. This paper describes the current status and future plans for expansion of nuclear power, the advances in nuclear reactor technology, and their impacts on the associated risks and performance of nuclear power. Advanced nuclear reactors have been designed to be simpler and safer, and to have lower costs than currently operating reactors. By addressing many of the public health and safety risks that plagued the industry since the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, these reactors may help break the current deadlock over nuclear power. In that case, nuclear power could make a significant contribution towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, significant issues persist, fueling reservations among the public and many decision makers. Nuclear safety, disposal of radioactive wastes, and proliferation of nuclear explosives need to be addressed in an effective and credible way if the necessary public support is to be obtained. (author)

  7. Current status of cerebral glioma surgery in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin-song; Zhang, Jie; Zhuang, Dong-xiao; Yao, Cheng-jun; Qiu, Tian-ming; Lu, Jun-feng; Zhu, Feng-ping; Mao, Ying; Zhou, Liang-fu

    2011-09-01

    The treatment of gliomas is highly individualized. Surgery for gliomas is essentially for histological diagnosis, to alleviate mass effect, and most importantly, to favor longer survival expectancy. During the past two decades, many surgical techniques and adjuvants have been applied to glioma surgery in China, which lead to a rapid development in the field of cerebral glioma surgery. This article broadly and critically reviewed the existing studies on cerebral glioma surgery and to portrait the current status of glioma surgery in China. A literature search was conducted covering major innovative surgical techniques and adjuvants for glioma surgery in China. The following databases were searched: the Pubmed (January 1995 to date); China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database (January 1995 to date) and VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals (January 1995 to date). A selection criterion was established to exclude duplicates and irrelevant studies. The outcome measures were extracted from included studies. A total of 3307 articles were initially searched. After excluded by abstracts and full texts, 69 studies conducted in the mainland of China were included and went through further analysis. The philosophy of surgical strategies for cerebral gliomas in China is undergoing tremendous change. Nowadays Chinese neurosurgeons pay more attention to the postoperative neurofunctional status of the patients. The aim of the glioma surgery is not only the more extensive tumor resection but also the maximal safety of intervention. The well balance of longer overall survival and higher quality of life should be judged with respect to each individual patient.

  8. Current Diagnosis, Treatment and Etiology of Status Epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çetin Kürşad Akpınar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Status Epilepticus (SE is a medical emergency that causes significant morbidity and mortality and requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. Although SE can be divided into two subgroups as convulsive and nonconvulsive, treatment principles are generally similar. Treatment should be prompt and underlying cause should be corrected. Although intravenous lorazepam is the first-line treatment due to a lower risk of relapse, diazepam becomes the first choice since loeazepan is not available in our country. Even though intravenous benzodiazepine stops seizures, intravenous antiepileptic drug (phenytoin, etc. should be administered at a loading dose. Patients with refractory status epilepticus should be supported with respect to vital, respiratory, metabolic and hemodynamic aspects and followed up in an intensive care unit to monitor cerebral electrical activity. The most common cause in the etiology is the cessation of antiepileptic drugs. The aim of SE treatment is to stop seizures and prevent complications and recurrence. In this paper, current diagnosis, treatment and etiology of SE are reviewed.

  9. Current Status of Mechanical Circulatory Support: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Spiliopoulos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure is a major public health problem and its management requires a significant amount of health care resources. Even with administration of the best available medical treatment, the mortality associated with the disease remains high. As therapeutical strategies for heart failure have been refined, the number of patients suffering from the disease has expanded dramatically. Although heart transplantation still represents the gold standard therapeutical approach, the implantation of mechanical circulatory support devices (MCSDs evolved to a well-established management for this disease. The limited applicability of heart transplantation caused by a shortage of donor organs and the concurrent expand of the patient population with end-stage heart failure led to a considerable utilization of MCSDs. This paper outlines the current status of mechanical circulatory support.

  10. [Current status and sustainable development countermeasures of Anoectochilus roxburghii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Lin; Shao, Qing-Song; Zhou, Ai-Cun; Wang, Hong-Zhen; Zhang, Ai-Lian; Xu, Jian-Wei; Huang, Yu-Qiu

    2016-02-01

    The current status of the domestic manufacturing and sales markets of Anoectochilus roxburghii were investigated and analyzed in the study. Some problems in the A. roxburghii industry were revealed and a variety of sustainable development countermeasures were also proposed. The main problems of A. roxburghii industry are the lack of protection for wild resources, the lag in the speed of variety breeding, the insufficient research on the quality systems, the low level of industry and product innovation capability, as well as the relatively low market cognition and brand competence. Therefore, strengthening the protection for breeding resources, establishing a dynamic monitoring system, promoting the variety breeding, constructing a propagation system for improved varieties, enhancing the quality of medicinal herbs, accelerating the adjustment of product structure, upgrading the industry technology, strengthening brand competence and expanding the market, will be the effective methods to realize the sustainable development of A. roxburghii industry. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. Current Status of HbA1c Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hua; Yi, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is formed via non-enzymatic glycosylation reactions at the α–amino group of βVal1 residues in the tetrameric Hb, and it can reflect the ambient glycemic level over the past two to three months. A variety of HbA1c detection methods, including chromatography, immunoassay, enzymatic measurement, electrochemical sensor and capillary electrophoresis have been developed and used in research laboratories and in clinics as well. In this review, we summarize the current status of HbA1c biosensors based on the recognition of the sugar moiety on the protein and also their applications in the whole blood sample measurements. PMID:28777351

  12. Cobalt 60 gamma irradiation current status, trends and insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corley, John T.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the current status, trends and insights into the continued, safe use of cobalt 60 gamma irradiation. Also presented are some of the many initiatives undertaken at MDS Nordion. Topics covered include our investment for the future supply of raw materials and the latest news from source production. Briefly presented are the tasks associated with the safe transport of cobalt 60 around the world. Discussed is cobalt 60 usage at the customer site; more specifically maintaining source integrity, source utilization and irradiator design trends. Highlighted are industry trends for North America, Europe and the rest of the world. Finally presented are the challenges and opportunities for the industry. Stressed in the paper is the need to work together

  13. Current status of thermoluminescence studies on minerals and rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaran, A.V.; Nambi, K.S.V.; Sunta, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    The usefulness of thermoluminescence (TL) in geological studies is being increasingly recognized, as may be judged from the considerable volume of literature accumulated over the past couple of decades; besides, a number of seminars, conferences and specialists' meetings have also been held on the subject of applied TL. However, these publications lie scattered over several periodicals and conference proceedings and an interested worker finds it difficult to obtain the gist of the contributions in one place. The present authors felt a need for this and have, therefore, attempted to bring together in this Report the current status of TL research about different minerals; applications in the fields of geochronology, ore-prospecting, stratigraphic correlation, geothermometry and other useful areas are also included. (author)

  14. The current status of the Korean student health examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jung Shin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent trends place an emphasis on school health care, the ultimate goal of which is to protect,maintain, and promote students’ health. School health care is a program that integrates health careservices, health education, health counseling, and local social health services. The student healthexamination (SHE system is a part of school health care and schools and communities must beavailable to provide professional health services. Pediatricians also have important roles as experts inboth school health care and the SHE system. In this article, the history of school health care, its legalbasis, and the current status of the SHE system in Korea are reviewed. Furthermore, sample surveysfrom the past few years are reviewed. Through this holistic approach, future directions are proposed forthe improvement of SHE and school health care.

  15. Current Status and Application of Hazard Definition Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, George C.

    1997-01-01

    A research is performed: to define wake non-encounter & hazard, to provide requirements for sensors, and to obtain input from the user community. This research includes: validating wake encounter simulation models, establishing a metric to quantify the upset potential of a wake encounter, applying hazard metric and simulation models to the commercial fleet for development of candidate acceptable encounter limits, and applying technology to near term problems to evaluate current status of technology. The following lessons are learned from this project: technology is not adequate to determine absolute spacing requirements; time, not distance, determines the duration of the wake hazard; Optimum standards depend on the traffic; Wing span is an important parameter for characterizing both generator and follower; and Short span "biz jets" are easily rolled.

  16. Current Status of QA For Nuclear Power Plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagoshi, Hitohiko

    1986-01-01

    It is the current status of QA and our QA experiences with nuclear power plants against the background of the Japanese social and business environment. Accordingly, in 1972, 'The Guidance for Quality Assurance in Construction of Nuclear Power Plants' based on U. S. 10CEF50 Appendix B, was published by the Japan Electric Association. 'Jug-4101 The Guide for Quality Assurance of Nuclear Power Plants' has been prepared by referring to the IAEA QA code. The Guide has been accepted by the Japanese nuclear industry and applied to the QA programs of every organization concerned therewith. The Japanese approach to higher quality will naturally be different from that of other countries because of Japan's cultural, social, and economic conditions. Even higher quality is being aimed at through the LWR Improvement and Standardization Program and coordinated quality assurance efforts

  17. The Dortmund low background facility. Current status and recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goessling, Claus; Kroeninger, Kevin; Nitsch, Christian [Experimentelle Physik IV, TU Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Dortmund Low Background Facility (DLB) is a low-background gamma ray spectrometry system with an artificial overburden. The overburden of ten meters of water equivalent, in combination with a multi-layer lead castle and an active muon veto are shielding a high-purity germanium detector of 60 % relative efficiency. The background level is remarkably low compared to a conventional spectrometer system without special shielding and enables sensitivities well below 1 Bq/kg. Thus, material screening measurements as well as environmental monitoring measurements are possible on an easy-accessible location above ground at the campus of the Technische Universitaet Dortmund. The integral background count rate between 40 keV and 2700 keV is 2.528±0.004 counts/kg/min, which is comparable to systems that are situated below ground. In the talk, an overview of the current status of the DLB is given and recent developments are presented.

  18. Microbiological risk factors in dentistry. Current status of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska, Jolanta

    2005-01-01

    Dentists belong to a professional group potentially exposed to harmful biological factors which most often are infectious microorganisms, less frequently - allergenic or toxic microorganisms. The fundamental routes of spreading harmful microorganisms in a dental surgery are: blood-borne, saliva-droplet, direct contact with a patient and with infected equipment, and water-droplet infections. In this paper, the current status of knowledge on microbiological hazards in a dentist's work is presented. Groups of microorganisms, such as prions, viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa, to which a dentist is, or may be exposed, are discussed. Epidemiological assessment of microbiological hazards in a dentist's work was performed and the basic principles of prevention formulated. Special attention was given to microflora in dental unit waterlines, and the biofilm persisting in them, as a source of occupational hazards specific for a dentist's workplace.

  19. Marine renewable energy in China: Current status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-liang Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a general review of marine renewable energy in China, an assessment of the development status and amount of various marine renewable energy resources, including tidal energy, tidal current energy, wave energy, ocean thermal energy, and salinity gradient energy in China's coastal seas, such as the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea, and the South China Sea, is presented. We have found that these kinds of marine renewable energy resources will play an important role in meeting China's future energy needs. Additionally, considering the uneven distribution of China's marine renewable energy and the influences of its exploitation on the environment, we have suggested several sites with great potential for each kind of marine energy. Furthermore, perspectives on and challenges related with marine renewable energy in China are addressed.

  20. Current status of high energy nucleon-meson transport code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Hiroshi; Sasa, Toshinobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of design code of accelerator (NMTC/JAERI code), outline of physical model and evaluation of accuracy of code were reported. To evaluate the nuclear performance of accelerator and strong spallation neutron origin, the nuclear reaction between high energy proton and target nuclide and behaviors of various produced particles are necessary. The nuclear design of spallation neutron system used a calculation code system connected the high energy nucleon{center_dot}meson transport code and the neutron{center_dot}photon transport code. NMTC/JAERI is described by the particle evaporation process under consideration of competition reaction of intranuclear cascade and fission process. Particle transport calculation was carried out for proton, neutron, {pi}- and {mu}-meson. To verify and improve accuracy of high energy nucleon-meson transport code, data of spallation and spallation neutron fragment by the integral experiment were collected. (S.Y.)

  1. Current status of the Fastbus Micro-Vax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siskind, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    The present hardware, firmware, and software design and status of the Fastbus Micro-VAX, a two board Fastbus module packaging of the DEC Micro-VAX II computing system, is described. The hardware currently features an Intel 80186, equipped with 64 kB of ROM, 32 kB of RAM, and an 82586/82501 Ethernet port, as a front end I/O processor, plus a high bandwidth Fastbus interface implemented in semi-custom ECL 100K VLSI with the Motorola MCA2500ECL macrocell array. Standard 80186 firmware implements multiple Fastbus segment drivers and interrupt receivers software compatible with the UPI, a limited Fastbus interprocessor network, and emulations of the DEC DEQNA Ethernet interface and an MSCP disk interface. Software includes device drivers for the non-DEC devices, plus appropriate standard access subroutines for the Fastbus and network devices

  2. Consequences of occupational asthma on employment and financial status: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameille, J; Pairon, J C; Bayeux, M C; Brochard, P; Choudat, D; Conso, F; Devienne, A; Garnier, R; Iwatsubo, Y

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe changes in employment and income following a diagnosis of occupational asthma, and to determine what factors might affect these changes. Two hundred and nine patients with occupational asthma were reviewed on average 3.1 yrs after the diagnosis had been made. They were contacted by telephone or were sent a self-administered questionnaire by post. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to determine which variables were associated with loss of employment after the diagnosis. At the time of review, 44% of patients had left their previous job and 25% were currently unemployed. Remarkably, 32% remained exposed to the offending agents in the same job. Forty six percent of the patients had suffered a reduction of income (84% of those who had left their employer versus 19% of those still employed in the same company (p company, level of education, and age at the time of diagnosis were significantly associated with a risk for becoming unemployed or having a new employer after the diagnosis of occupational asthma. Occupational asthma results in severe socioeconomic consequences. The French compensation system for occupational asthma should be revised, as the criteria currently used to determine compensation for this disease largely underestimate the social and occupational damages.

  3. Changes in the Employment Status and Risk of Stroke and Stroke Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshak, Ehab S; Honjo, Kaori; Iso, Hiroyasu; Ikeda, Ai; Inoue, Manami; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-05-01

    Because of limited evidence, we investigated a long-term impact of changes in employment status on risk of stroke. This was a prospective study of 21 902 Japanese men and 19 826 women aged 40 to 59 years from 9 public health centers across Japan. Participants were followed up from 1990 to 1993 to the end of 2009 to 2014. Cox proportional hazard ratio of stroke (incidence and mortality) and its types (hemorrhagic and ischemic) was calculated according to changes in the employment status within 5 years interval between 1990 to 1993 and 1995 to 1998 (continuously employed, job loss, reemployed, and continuously unemployed). During the follow-up period, 973 incident cases and 275 deaths from stroke in men and 460 cases and 131 deaths in women were documented. Experiencing 1 spell of unemployment was associated with higher risks of morbidity and mortality from total, hemorrhagic, and ischemic stroke in both men and women, even after propensity score matching. Compared with continuously employed subjects, the multivariable hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for total stroke incidence in job lost men was 1.58 (1.18-2.13) and in job lost women was 1.51 (1.08-2.29), and those for total stroke mortality were 2.22 (1.34-3.68) in men and 2.48 (1.26-4.77) in women. The respective hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) in reemployed men was 2.96 (1.89-4.62) for total stroke incidence and 4.21 (1.97-8.97) for mortality, whereas those in reemployed women were 1.30 (0.98-1.69) for incidence and 1.28 (0.76-2.17) for mortality. Job lost men and women and reemployed men had increased risks for both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke incidence and mortality. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Health-related quality of life and employment status of liver transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Fredrik; Rissanen, Anne M; Sintonen, Harri; Roine, Risto P; Höckerstedt, Krister; Isoniemi, Helena

    2009-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is one preferable outcome measure of medical interventions such as liver transplantation (LT). The aim of this study was to compare HRQoL of LT patients with that of the general population and to assess the employment status of LT patients. HRQoL was measured with the 15D instrument, a validated, non-disease-specific, 15-dimensional, self-administered HRQoL instrument. The questionnaire was sent to all adult LT patients in Finland (401 patients) alive in June 2007. The response rate was 89% (353 patients). The results were compared to those of 6050 age-standardized and gender-standardized controls from the general population. LT patients (mean age, 55 years; range, 20-82) had slightly worse HRQoL scores than the general population (mean 15D score, 0.889 versus 0.907; P gender-adjusted analyses. HRQoL decreased with increasing age (P employed at the time of the study. Persons that were employed had significantly better HRQoL than those unemployed (15D scores, 0.934 versus 0.859; P Employment is an indicator of HRQoL. Copyright 2008 AASLD.

  5. Disclosure of disease status among employed multiple sclerosis patients: association with negative work events and accommodations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frndak, Seth E; Kordovski, Victoria M; Cookfair, Diane; Rodgers, Jonathan D; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Benedict, Ralph H B

    2015-02-01

    Unemployment is common in multiple sclerosis (MS) and detrimental to quality of life. Studies suggest disclosure of diagnosis is an adaptive strategy for patients. However, the role of cognitive deficits and psychiatric symptoms in disclosure are not well studied. The goals of this paper were to (a) determine clinical factors most predictive of disclosure, and (b) measure the effects of disclosure on workplace problems and accommodations in employed patients. We studied two overlapping cohorts: a cross-sectional sample (n = 143) to determine outcomes associated with disclosure, and a longitudinal sample (n = 103) compared at four time points over one year on reported problems and accommodations. A case study of six patients, disclosing during monitoring, was also included. Disclosure was associated with greater physical disability but not cognitive impairment. Logistic regression predicting disclosure status retained physical disability, accommodations and years of employment (p work problems and accommodations over time. The case study revealed that reasons for disclosing are multifaceted, including connection to employer, decreased mobility and problems at work. Although cognitive impairment is linked to unemployment, it does not appear to inform disclosure decisions. Early disclosure may help maintain employment if followed by appropriate accommodations. © The Author(s), 2014.

  6. Marine current energy devices: Current status and possible future applications in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rourke, Fergal O.; Boyle, Fergal; Reynolds, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing demand for the use of renewable energy technologies to generate electricity due to concerns over climate change. The oceans provide a huge potential resource of energy. Energy extraction using marine current energy devices (MCEDs) offers a sustainable alternative to conventional sources and a predictable alternative to other renewable energy technologies. A MCED utilises the kinetic energy of the tides as opposed to the potential energy which is utilised by a tidal barrage. Over the past decade MCEDs have become an increasingly popular method of energy extraction. However, marine current energy technology is still not economically viable on a large scale due to its current stage of development. Ireland has an excellent marine current energy resource as it is an island nation and experiences excellent marine current flows. This paper reviews marine current energy devices, including a detailed up-to-date description of the current status of development. Issues such as network integration, economics, and environmental implications are addressed as well as the application and costs of MCEDs in Ireland. (author)

  7. Current status of RTO development and its implications for Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDougall, M. [Powerex Corp., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    This presentation includes a corporate review of Powerex, a review of Order 2000, and the current status of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) efforts regarding Regional Transmission Operators (RTOs). Other topics of discussion include FERC's standard market design, an update of RTO West and implications for Canada. Powerex was incorporated in 1988 as a wholly-owned subsidiary of BC Hydro. British Columbia-based Powerex's heaviest trading is along the western-most states and Alberta, but it is slowly expanding into central and eastern markets. It evolved by selling and buying power at the United States Border. It received US FERC power marketing authorization in 1997 and has since seen sales jump from C$165 million to C$5.4 billion. Currently, the majority of power supply is from utilities other than BC Hydro. The presentation addresses issues such as the Federal Power Act, PUHCA and PURPA, and the 1992 Energy Policy Act which deals with expanded access to the power grid. Power Pool restructuring and FERC orders 888/889 are also discussed. 2 figs.

  8. Current status of surrogacy in Japan and uterine transplantation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisu, Iori; Banno, Kouji; Mihara, Makoto; Iida, Takuya; Yoshimura, Yasunori

    2011-10-01

    Recent advances in assisted reproductive technology (ART) have made it possible to circumvent many causes of male and female infertility. The right to have a child by ART has been respected for infertile couples. However, there are currently no legal regulations concerning ART in Japan, and this has resulted in social and ethical problems. Surrogacy involves particularly complex medical, ethical, social, and legal issues, and is frequently focused on as a major social concern. Uterine transplantation (UTx) is a potential alternative for young women with uterine factor infertility due to hysterectomy for treatment of a malignant uterine tumor or massive blood loss after delivery, or because of a congenital disease such as Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster syndrome. UTx has been examined in experimental animals as a basis for establishment of fecundity for young women with uterine factor infertility. In this review, we focus on surrogacy in Japan and UTx research, and discuss the current status and concerns in this field. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Plutonium metal exchange program : current status and statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandon, L. (Lav); Eglin, J. L. (Judith Lynn); Michalak, S. E. (Sarah E.); Picard, R. R.; Temer, D. J. (Donald J.)

    2004-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plutonium (Pu) Metal Sample Exchange program was conducted to insure the quality and intercomparability of measurements such as Pu assay, Pu isotopics, and impurity analyses. The Rocky Flats program was discontinued in 1989 after more than 30 years. In 2001, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) reestablished the Pu Metal Exchange program. In addition to the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) at Aldermaston, six Department of Energy (DOE) facilities Argonne East, Argonne West, Livermore, Los Alamos, New Brunswick Laboratory, and Savannah River are currently participating in the program. Plutonium metal samples are prepared and distributed to the sites for destructive measurements to determine elemental concentration, isotopic abundance, and both metallic and nonmetallic impurity levels. The program provides independent verification of analytical measurement capabilies for each participating facility and allows problems in analytical methods to be identified. The current status of the program will be discussed with emphasis on the unique statistical analysis and modeling of the data developed for the program. The discussion includes the definition of the consensus values for each analyte (in the presence and absence of anomalous values and/or censored values), and interesting features of the data and the results.

  10. Current Status and Research into Overcoming Limitations of Capsule Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Gun Kwack

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic investigation has a critical role in the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal (GI diseases. Since 2001, capsule endoscopy (CE has been available for small-bowel exploration and is under continuous development. During the past decade, CE has achieved impressive improvements in areas such as miniaturization, resolution, and battery life. As a result, CE is currently a first-line tool for the investigation of the small bowel in obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and is a useful alternative to wired enteroscopy. Nevertheless, CE still has several limitations, such as incomplete examination and limited diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities. To resolve these problems, many groups have suggested several models (e.g., controlled CO2 insufflation system, magnetic navigation system, mobile robotic platform, tagging and biopsy equipment, and targeted drug-delivery system, which are in development. In the near future, new technological advances will improve the capabilities of CE and broaden its spectrum of applications not only for the small bowel but also for the colon, stomach, and esophagus. The purpose of this review is to introduce the current status of CE and to review the ongoing development of solutions to address its limitations.

  11. Current status of RTO development and its implications for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDougall, M.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation includes a corporate review of Powerex, a review of Order 2000, and the current status of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) efforts regarding Regional Transmission Operators (RTOs). Other topics of discussion include FERC's standard market design, an update of RTO West and implications for Canada. Powerex was incorporated in 1988 as a wholly-owned subsidiary of BC Hydro. British Columbia-based Powerex's heaviest trading is along the western-most states and Alberta, but it is slowly expanding into central and eastern markets. It evolved by selling and buying power at the United States Border. It received US FERC power marketing authorization in 1997 and has since seen sales jump from C$165 million to C$5.4 billion. Currently, the majority of power supply is from utilities other than BC Hydro. The presentation addresses issues such as the Federal Power Act, PUHCA and PURPA, and the 1992 Energy Policy Act which deals with expanded access to the power grid. Power Pool restructuring and FERC orders 888/889 are also discussed. 2 figs

  12. Current Status of Postdoctoral and Graduate Programs in Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assael, Leon

    2017-08-01

    Advanced dental education has evolved in the context of societal needs and economic trends to its current status. Graduate programs have positioned their role in the context of health systems and health science education trends in hospitals, interprofessional clinical care teams, and dental schools and oral health care systems. Graduate dental education has been a critical factor in developing teams in trauma care, craniofacial disorders, pediatric and adult medicine, and oncology. The misalignment of the mission of graduate dental programs and the demands of private practice has posed a challenge in the evolution of programs as educational programs have been directed towards tertiary and indigent care while the practice community focuses on largely healthy affluent patients for complex clinical interventions. Those seeking graduate dental education today are smaller in number and include more international dental graduates than in the past. Graduate dental education in general dentistry and in the nine recognized dental specialties now includes Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA) recognition of training standards as part of its accreditation process and a CODA accreditation process for areas of clinical education not recognized as specialties by the American Dental Association. Current types of programs include fellowship training for students in recognized specialties. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century."

  13. Drugs in development for toxoplasmosis: advances, challenges, and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alday, P Holland; Doggett, Joseph Stone

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes fatal and debilitating brain and eye diseases. Medicines that are currently used to treat toxoplasmosis commonly have toxic side effects and require prolonged courses that range from weeks to more than a year. The need for long treatment durations and the risk of relapsing disease are in part due to the lack of efficacy against T. gondii tissue cysts. The challenges for developing a more effective treatment for toxoplasmosis include decreasing toxicity, achieving therapeutic concentrations in the brain and eye, shortening duration, eliminating tissue cysts from the host, safety in pregnancy, and creating a formulation that is inexpensive and practical for use in resource-poor areas of the world. Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in identifying and developing new compounds for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. Unlike clinically used medicines that were repurposed for toxoplasmosis, these compounds have been optimized for efficacy against toxoplasmosis during preclinical development. Medicines with enhanced efficacy as well as features that address the unique aspects of toxoplasmosis have the potential to greatly improve toxoplasmosis therapy. This review discusses the facets of toxoplasmosis that are pertinent to drug design and the advances, challenges, and current status of preclinical drug research for toxoplasmosis.

  14. Radio Astronomy in Malaysia: Current Status and Outreach Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, N.; Abidin, Z. Z.; Ibrahim, U. F. S. U.; Umar, R.; Hassan, M. S. R.; Rosli, Z.; Hamidi, Z. S.; Ibrahim, Z. A.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we will present the current status of radio astronomical research and outreach in Malaysia. We will also present a short history of our research group, which is currently the only radio astronomical facility in Malaysia. Our group is called the Radio Cosmology Research Lab and was established in 2005 by Dr Zamri Zainal Abidin and Prof Dr Zainol Abidin Ibrahim. We will discuss the future plans for this group including our keen interest in being part of a more global network of radio astronomers. We are already an active member of the South-East Asia Astronomy Network (SEAAN) and aims to have a radio astronomical facility in order to join the Global Very Long Baseline Interferometer (VLBI) as well becoming a research hub for the future Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project. We will also present some of the scientific goals of our group including providing a platform for radio astronomers to be able to do observations of weak and high red-shifted radio objects such as galaxy clusters and supernovae.

  15. Brain perfusion CT in acute stroke: current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, Matthias E-mail: matthias.koenig@ruhr-uni-bochum.de

    2003-03-01

    Dynamic perfusion CT has become a widely accepted imaging modality for the diagnostic workup of acute stroke patients. Although compared with standard spiral CT the use of multislice CT has broadened the range from which perfusion data may be derived in a single scan run. The advent of multidetector row technology has not really overcome the limited 3D capability of this technique. Multidetector CT angiography (CTA) of the cerebral arteries may in part compensate for this by providing additional information about the cerebrovascular status. This article describes the basics of cerebral contrast bolus scanning with a special focus on optimization of contrast/noise in order to ensure high quality perfusion maps. Dedicated scan protocols including low tube voltage (80 kV) as well as the use of highly concentrated contrast media are amongst the requirements to achieve optimum contrast signal from the short bolus passage through the brain. Advanced pre and postprocessing algorithms may help reduce the noise level, which may become critical in unconscious stroke victims. Two theoretical concepts have been described for the calculation of tissue perfusion from contrast bolus studies, both of which can be equally employed for brain perfusion imaging. For each perfusion model there are some profound limitations regarding the validity of perfusion values derived from ischemic brain areas. This makes the use of absolute quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) values for the discrimination of the infarct core from periinfarct ischemia questionable. Multiparameter imaging using maps of CBF, cerebral blood volume (CBV), and a time parameter of the local bolus transit enables analyzing of the cerebral perfusion status in detail. Perfusion CT exceeds plain CT in depicting cerebral hypoperfusion at its earliest stage yielding a sensitivity of about 90% for the detection of embolic and hemodynamic lesions within cerebral hemispheres. Qualitative assessment of brain perfusion can be

  16. Cost Estimating in DoD: Current Status, Trends, and What the Future Holds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nussbaum, Daniel A

    2005-01-01

    (1) Current Status: Baseline analysis of current cost estimating community, including which organizations are responsible for developing and reviewing cost estimates, how many personnel there are, what...

  17. Pediatric neurology training in Canada: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doja, Asif

    2012-05-01

    Child neurology training in Canada has changed considerably over time, with increasing requirements for standardized teaching of the fundamentals of child neurology and the CanMEDS competencies. We sought to determine the current status of child neurology training in Canada as well future directions for training. A web-based survey was sent to program directors (PD's) of active pediatric neurology training programs. General questions about the programs were asked, as well as about success at the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC) exam, breakdown of rotations, views on CanMEDS roles and questions on the future of pediatric neurology. 9/9 PD's completed the survey. 96.5% of all trainees successfully passed their RCPSC exam from 2001-2006. Breakdowns of the number and type of rotations for each year of training were provided. All CanMEDS roles were deemed to be important by PD's and programs have developed unique strategies to teach and assess these roles.92.6% of trainees chose to go into academic practice, with the most popular subspecialty being epilepsy. All PD's favour joint training sessions particularly for neurogenetics and neuromuscular disease. Overall, PD's suggest recruitment for future child neurologists at the medical student level but are divided as to whether we are currently training too few or too many child neurologists. This survey provides a view of the current state of pediatric neurology training in Canada and suggestions for further development of post-graduate training. In particular, attention should be given to joint educational programs as well as urgently assessing the manpower needs of child neurologists.

  18. Acute stroke magnetic resonance imaging: current status and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloska, Stephan P.; Wintermark, Max; Engelhorn, Tobias; Fiebach, Jochen B.

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral stroke is one of the most frequent causes of permanent disability or death in the western world and a major burden in healthcare system. The major portion is caused by acute ischemia due to cerebral artery occlusion by a clot. The minority of strokes is related to intracerebral hemorrhage or other sources. To limit the permanent disability in ischemic stroke patients resulting from irreversible infarction of ischemic brain tissue, major efforts were made in the last decade. To extend the time window for thrombolysis, which is the only approved therapy, several imaging parameters in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been investigated. However, the current guidelines neglect the fact that the portion of potentially salvageable ischemic tissue (penumbra) is not dependent on the time window but the individual collateral blood flow. Within the last years, the differentiation of infarct core and penumbra with MRI using diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and perfusion imaging (PI) with parameter maps was established. Current trials transform these technical advances to a redefined patient selection based on physiological parameters determined by MRI. This review article presents the current status of MRI for acute stroke imaging. A special focus is the ischemic stroke. In dependence on the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, the basic principle and diagnostic value of different MRI sequences are illustrated. MRI techniques for imaging of the main differential diagnoses of ischemic stroke are mentioned. Moreover, perspectives of MRI for imaging-based acute stroke treatment as well as monitoring of restorative stroke therapy from recent trials are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Personal dosimetric monitoring in Ukraine: current status and further development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumak, V. V.; Musijachenkom, A. V.; Boguslavskaya, A. I.

    2003-01-01

    Presently Ukraine has mixed system for dosimetric monitoring. Nuclear power plants and some major nuclear facilities have their own dosimetry services, which are responsible for regular dosimetric monitoring of workers. Rest of occupationally exposed persons is monitored by dosimetry laboratories affiliated to the territorial authorities for sanitary and epidemiology supervision. In 2002-2003 Ukrainian Ministry of Health performed survey of the status of dosimetric monitoring and inventory of critical groups requiring such monitoring. Dosimetry services in Ukraine cover about 38,000 occupationally exposed workers, including 9,100 medical professionals, 16,400 employees of 5 nuclear power plants and ca.12,400 workers dealing with other sources of occupational exposure (industry, research). Territorial dosimetry services operate in 13 of 24 regions of Ukraine, using DTU-01 manual TLD readers produced with one exception in 1988-1990. The coverage of critical groups by dosimetric monitoring is variable and ranges from 38% to 100% depending on the region. Personnel of nuclear power plants (about 16,400 workers) is monitored by their own dosimetry services achieving absolute coverage of the main staff and temporary workers. Current inadequate status of dosimetric monitoring infrastructure in Ukraine demands an urgent elaboration of the united state system for monitoring and recording of individual doses. The proposed plan would allows to bring dosimetry infrastructure in Ukraine to the modern state which would be compatible with existing and future European and international radiation protection networks. Unitary structure of Ukraine, strong administrative command and good communications between regions of the country are positive factors in favour of efficient implementation of the proposed plan. Deficiencies are associated with limited funding of this effort. (authors)

  20. Leishmaniases in Ecuador: Comprehensive review and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Velez, Lenin N; Villegas, Nancy V; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Gomez, Eduardo A L; Kato, Hirotomo

    2017-02-01

    This article reviews current knowledge about leishmaniases in Ecuador, proceeding from 1920, when the first human case was described, to the present, mainly focusing on the recent research events published. Regarding basic situations, it appears that 23 of Ecuador's 24 provinces have leishmaniasis-case reports. The disease is one of the mandatory notification infectious diseases in the country since 2005. All the 21,305 cases notified to the Ministry of Public Health, during the period from 2001 through 2014, were said to involve different clinical features of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) but not visceral (VL). Eight Leishmania species, L. (Viannia) guyanensis, L. (V.) panamensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (Leishmania) mexicana, L. (L.) amazonensis, L. (L.) major-like, L. (V.) naiffiand L. (V.) lainsoni were characterized. The last two species were most recently reported from the Ecuadorian Amazon regions. Of the 73 Ecuadorian Lutzomyia species (43 man-biting species) recorded, only four, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ayacuchensis, and Lu. tortura were incriminated as vectors of the Leishmania parasites. Current knowledge on the reservoir hosts of Leishmania in Ecuador is extremely poor. Recently, in Ecuador different kinds of molecular techniques were developed for diagnosis and mass screening of the disease, employing various materials derived from patients and sand fly vectors. These are PCR-RFLP, colorimetric FTA-LAMP etc. Brief comments and recommendations were also given, for future research and control of leishmaniases in Ecuador. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Deployment Trauma Phenotype and Employment Status in Veterans of the Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amick, Melissa M; Meterko, Mark; Fortier, Catherine B; Fonda, Jennifer R; Milberg, William P; McGlinchey, Regina E

    To determine the prevalence of comorbid mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression, termed the deployment trauma phenotype (DTP), and its constituent diagnoses' impact on unemployment status in a national cohort of veterans. Retrospective analysis of the comprehensive TBI evaluation, a Veterans Affairs-wide protocol for assessing TBI, employment status, and psychiatric impressions. The final data set consisted of 48 821 veterans. Frequency of mTBI, PTSD, and depression in isolation and combinations and their association with unemployment status. Age- and education-adjusted risk ratios (RRs) showed that the mTBI-only group was the least likely to be unemployed, RR = 0.65 (0.59-0.71). By contrast, the greatest likelihood of unemployment was associated with membership in the DTP group, RR = 1.45 (1.36-1.56), and the comorbid PTSD and depression group, RR = 1.39 (1.27-1.52). Furthermore, the DTP was nearly 3 times more prevalent (16.4%) in this sample compared with comorbid PTSD and depression (5.7%), indicating that the DTP conveys risk for unemployment to a significantly greater number of individuals. The comorbid and interactive conditions of PTSD, depression, and mTBI, rather than mTBI in isolation, were linked to significant risk for unemployment in this veteran cohort. These findings suggest that multifaceted assessments and interventions to improve postdeployment reintegration are needed.

  2. Current status and future prospects on nuclear industry in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joongjae

    2006-01-01

    It is ny great pleasure to have this chance of speaking at twenty-first KAIF/KNS Annual Conference, with the subject of the current status and future prospects of nuclear industry in Korea. As you all know, since the start of operation in Obninsk, the former Soviet Union, on June 26th, 1954, nuclear generation in the world has expanded continuously for the past 50 years. In 1973, when the first oil crisis hit the world, there were 147 nuclear power plants in operation, supplying only 0.8% of the world energy demand. About 30 years later, by the end of last year, 443 plants were in operation in 32 countries, supplying about 16% of the world power demand. Nuclear power generation is greatly contributing to the energy security of many countries and preservation of global environments. Recently, countries all over the world are becoming aware of the values and importance of nuclear energy which can help respond to energy crises caused by a sharp rise in oil prices and protect the earth from global warming. Due to its high energy density and ability to secure fuel supply at a lower cost, in addition to its cleanliness resulting from almost no emission of greenhouse gases, nuclear power generation is the practical alternative for energy security and the prevention of global warming. However, in the rapidly changing 21st century, the nuclear industries of the world, as well as Korea, are facing more challenges than ever before. The political and social disputes on nuclear generation are continuing while we all are facing urgent challenges, including the concerns about the safety of nuclear generation, procuring site to build nuclear power plants, and the improvement of competitiveness. Please allow me to remind you that it is very important for the world's nuclear societies to cooperate together in order to overcome diverse difficulties along our path and to contribute to the development of mankind and preservation of natural environments with nuclear power as a

  3. [Current status and potential perspectives in classical radiotherapy technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabić-Stanković, Kata M; Stanković, Jovan B; Radosević-Jelić, Ljiljana M

    2004-01-01

    After purchase of radiotherapy equipment in 2003, classic radiation therapy in Serbia will reach the highest world level. In order to define the highest standards in radiation technology, we analyzed the current status and potential perspectives of radiation therapy. An analysis of present situation in the USA, assumed as the most developed in the world, was done. Available data, collected in the last 3 years (equipment assortment, therapy modalities, workload and manpower) for 284 radiotherapy centers, out of potential 2050, were analyzed. Results were presented as crude percentage and matched to point current status. The analysis showed that CLINAC accelerators are the most popular (82.7%), as well as, ADAC (43.7%) and Focus (CMS) (27.4%) systems for therapy planning. Movement towards virtual simulation is evident (59.3%), although classic "simulation" is not fully eliminated from the radiotherapy chain. The most popular brachytherapy afterloader is Microselectron HDR (71%). About 64.4% centers use IMPAC communication/verification/record system that seems more open than Varis. All centers practice modern radiotherapy modalities and techniques (CPRT, IMRT, SRS/SRT, TBI, IORT, IVBHRT, HDR BHRT, etc.). CT and MRI availability is out of question, but PET is available in 3% of centers, however this percentage is rapidly growing. Up to 350 new patients per year are treated by one accelerator (about 35 pts. a day). Centers are relatively small and utilize 2-3 accelerators on average. Average FTE staffing norm is 4 radiation oncologists, 2-3 medical radiotherapy physicists, about 3 certified medical dosimetrists and about 6 radiotherapy technologists. In the past 5 years relative stagnation in classic radiotherapy has been observed. In spite of substantial investments in technology and consequent improvements, as well as wide introduction of computers in radiotherapy, radiotherapy results have not changed significantly. Vendor developement strategies do not point that

  4. Tidal current energy resource assessment in Ireland: Current status and future update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rourke, Fergal; Boyle, Fergal; Reynolds, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Interest in renewable energy in Ireland has increased continually over the past decade. This interest is due primarily to security of supply issues and the effects of climate change. Ireland imports over 90% of its primary energy consumption, mostly in the form of fossil fuels. The exploitation of Ireland's vast indigenous renewable energy resources is required in order to reduce this over-dependence on fossil fuel imports to meet energy demand. Various targets have been set by the Irish government to incorporate renewable energy technologies into Ireland's energy market. As a result of these targets, the development in wind energy has increased substantially over the past decade; however this method of energy extraction is intermittent and unpredictable. Ireland has an excellent tidal current energy resource and the use of this resource will assist in the development of a sustainable energy future. Energy extraction using tidal current energy technologies offers a vast and predictable energy resource. This paper reviews the currently accepted tidal current energy resource assessment for Ireland. This assessment was compiled by Sustainable Energy Ireland in a report in 2004. The assessment employed a 2-dimensional numerical model of the tidal current velocities around Ireland, and from this numerical model the theoretical tidal current energy resource was identified. With the introduction of constraints and limitations, the technical, practical, accessible and viable tidal current energy resources were obtained. The paper discusses why the assessment needs updating including the effect on the assessment of the current stage of development of tidal current turbines and their deployment technology. (author)

  5. Cognitive function in older adults according to current socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Michael; Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Brown, Bruce L; Woody, Parker; Hedges, Dawson W

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive function may be influenced by education, socioeconomic status, sex, and health status. Furthermore, aging interacts with these factors to influence cognition and dementia risk in late life. Factors that may increase or decrease successful cognitive aging are of critical importance, particularly if they are modifiable. The purpose of this study was to determine if economic status in late life is associated with cognition independent of socioeconomic status in early life. Cross-sectional demographic, socioeconomic, and cognitive function data were obtained in 2592 older adults (average age 71.6 years) from the Center for Disease Control's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and analyzed with linear regression modeling. Cognitive function, as measured with a test of processing speed, was significantly associated with poverty index scores after adjusting for educational attainment as an estimate of childhood socioeconomic status, ethnic background, age, health status, and sex (P status is independently associated with cognitive function in adults over age 60 years.

  6. The relation of family violence, employment status, welfare benefits, and alcohol drinking in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Eunice; Lasch, Kathryn E; Chandra, Pinky; Lee, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    Objective To examine the contribution of employment status, welfare benefits, alcohol use, and other individual and contextual factors to physical aggression during marital conflict. Methods Logistic regression models were used to analyze panel data collected in the National Survey of Families and Households in 1987 and 1992. A total of 4,780 married or cohabiting persons reinterviewed in 1992 were included in the analysis. Domestic violence was defined as reporting that both partners were physically violent during arguments. Results Unemployed respondents are not at greater risk of family violence than employed respondents, after alcohol misuse, income, education, age, and other factors are controlled for; however, employed persons receiving welfare benefits are at significantly higher risk. Alcohol misuse, which remains a predictor of violence even after other factors are controlled for, increases the risk of family violence, and satisfaction with social support from family and friends is associated with its decrease. Conclusions Alcohol misuse has an important effect on domestic violence, and the potential impact of welfare reform on domestic violence needs to be monitored. PMID:11342506

  7. Self-Reported Employment Status and Social Participation After Successful Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Sandesh; Singh, Jagmeet; Sandal, Shaifali; Liebman, Scott E; Demme, Richard A

    2016-03-01

    Kidney transplantation (KTX) is considered the treatment of choice for most individuals with end-stage kidney disease. The purpose of this study was to assess the employment status and social participation after successful KTX. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study. Eligible participants were patients who received a transplant ≥1 year ago and who were previously on hemodialysis (HD) for ≥1 year. Two hundred individuals participated in this study. A significant number (93.5%) of patients reported they were working prior to HD versus 35% while on HD. Only 14% reported receiving disability benefits prior to HD versus 75% receiving disability while on HD. Comparing transplant recipients with pre-HD patients, 35.5% versus 93.5% reported working, and 74.5% versus 14% reported receiving disability benefits, respectively. After transplant, patients were more likely to join recreational clubs, travel frequently, and participate in recreational/religious activities and social events than when they were on HD. Posttransplant, these individuals are more likely to participate in social and leisure activities, but the majority did not resume employment and continued to receive disability payments. Future studies could explore barriers to employment in patients who underwent successful transplantation and the causes and factors as to why these individuals continue to receive disability benefits. © 2016, NATCO.

  8. Ventilator-associated pneumonia: current status and future recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efrati, Shai; Deutsch, Israel; Antonelli, Massimo; Hockey, Peter M; Rozenblum, Ronen; Gurman, Gabriel M

    2010-04-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common hazardous complication in ICU patients. The aim of the current review is to give an update on the current status and future recommendations for VAP prevention. This article gives an updated review of the current literature on VAP. The first part briefly reviews pathogenesis and epidemiology while the second includes an in-depth review of evidence-based practice guidelines (EBPG) and new technologies developed for prevention of VAP. VAP remains a frequent and costly complication of critical illness with a pooled relative risk of 9-27% and mortality of 25-50%. Strikingly, VAP adds an estimated cost of more than $40,000 to a typical hospital admission. An important aetiological mechanism of VAP is gross or micro-aspiration of oropharyngeal organisms around the cuff of the endotracheal tube (ETT) into the distal bronchi. Prevention of VAP is preferable. Preventative measures can be divided into two main groups: the implemen- tation of EBPGs and use of device-based technologies. EBPGs have been authored jointly by the American Thoracic Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. The Canadian Critical Care Trials group also published VAP Guidelines in 2008. Their recommendations are detailed in this review. The current device-based technologies include drainage of subglottic secretions, silver coated ETTs aiming to influence the internal bio-layer of the ETT, better sealing of the lower airways with ultrathin cuffs and loops for optimal cuff pressure control. EBPG consensus includes: elevation of the head of the bed, use of daily "sedation vacations" and decontamination of the oropharynx. Technological solutions should aim to use the most comprehensive combination of subglottic suction of secretions, optimization of ETT cuff pressure and ultrathin cuffs. VAP is a type of hospital-acquired pneumonia that develops more than 48 h after endotracheal intubation. Its incidence is estimated to be 9-27%, with a

  9. Cyclotron facilities in Brazil: Current status and licensing aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facure, A.; Carvalho, S.M.; Di Prinzio, R.; Silveira, C.S.; Gasparian, P.B.R.; Franca, W.F.

    2017-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a highly sensitive and accurate nuclear medicine imaging technology but the major problem of this technique is the use of radioisotopes with short half-life, less than two hours. The production and selling of short half-life radioisotopes used to be monopoly of the Brazilian Government. In 2006, a Constitutional Amendment revoked the state monopoly due to the need for the use of short half-life radioisotopes in nuclear medicine centers very far from the government production facilities. The aim of this study is to describe the current status of short half-life radioisotopes production in Brazil and discuss some licensing process. In Brazil, as has been occurring worldwide, the number of nuclear medicine centers is increasing. Currently there are 123 services performing PET scans in Brazil. There are 14 cyclotrons operating in Brazil. The type of licensing process conducted in Brazil does not take into account the population density of each state, with a free competition model being adopted. Because of this there is a lot of equipment concentrated in the Southeast and no cyclotrons operating in the Northern part of the country. One of the biggest obstacles during the licensing process is the designation of qualified personnel as operation workers and radiation safety officers. The number of cyclotron accelerators and PET/CT equipment increased in recent years. However, a number of external factors such as the distance from the nuclear medicine centers, and qualified personnel have proved crucial for the economic viability of this type of facility. (author)

  10. Cyclotron facilities in Brazil: Current status and licensing aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facure, A.; Carvalho, S.M.; Di Prinzio, R.; Silveira, C.S.; Gasparian, P.B.R.; Franca, W.F., E-mail: facure@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-09-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a highly sensitive and accurate nuclear medicine imaging technology but the major problem of this technique is the use of radioisotopes with short half-life, less than two hours. The production and selling of short half-life radioisotopes used to be monopoly of the Brazilian Government. In 2006, a Constitutional Amendment revoked the state monopoly due to the need for the use of short half-life radioisotopes in nuclear medicine centers very far from the government production facilities. The aim of this study is to describe the current status of short half-life radioisotopes production in Brazil and discuss some licensing process. In Brazil, as has been occurring worldwide, the number of nuclear medicine centers is increasing. Currently there are 123 services performing PET scans in Brazil. There are 14 cyclotrons operating in Brazil. The type of licensing process conducted in Brazil does not take into account the population density of each state, with a free competition model being adopted. Because of this there is a lot of equipment concentrated in the Southeast and no cyclotrons operating in the Northern part of the country. One of the biggest obstacles during the licensing process is the designation of qualified personnel as operation workers and radiation safety officers. The number of cyclotron accelerators and PET/CT equipment increased in recent years. However, a number of external factors such as the distance from the nuclear medicine centers, and qualified personnel have proved crucial for the economic viability of this type of facility. (author)

  11. Current status of the UCSF second-generation PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. K.; Arenson, Ronald L.; Wong, Albert W. K.; Bazzill, Todd M.; Lou, Shyhliang A.; Andriole, Katherine P.; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jianguo; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the current status of the second generation PACS at UCSF commenced in October 1992. The UCSF PACS is designed in-house as a hospital-integrated PACS based on an open architecture concept using industrial standards including UNIX operating system, C programming language, X-Window user interface, TCP/IP communication protocol, DICOM 3.0 image standard and HL7 health data format. Other manufacturer's PACS components which conform with these standards can be easily integrated into the system. Relevant data from HIS and RIS is automatically incorporated into the PACS using HL7 data format and TCP/IP communication protocol. The UCSF system also takes advantage of state-of-the-art communication, storage, and software technologies in ATM, multiple storage media, automatic programming, multilevel processes for a better cost-performance system. The primary PACS network is the 155 Mbits/sec OC3 ATM with the Ethernet as the back-up. The UCSF PACS also connects Mt. Zion Hospital and San Francisco VA Medical Center in the San Francisco Bay area via an ATM wide area network with a T1 line as the back-up. Currently, five MR and five CT scanners from multiple sites, two computed radiography systems, two film digitizers, one US PACS module, the hospital HIS and the department RIS have been connected to the PACS network. The image data is managed by a mirrored database (Sybase). The PACS controller, with its 1.3 terabyte optical disk library, acquires 2.5 gigabytes digital data daily. Four 2K, five, 1,600-line multiple monitor display workstations are on line in neuroradiology, pediatric radiology and intensive care units for clinical use. In addition, the PACS supports over 100 Macintosh users in the department and selected hospital sites for both images and textual retrieval through a client/server mechanism. We are also developing a computation and visualization node in the PACS network for advancing radiology research.

  12. SaudiVeg ecoinformatics: Aims, current status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. El-Sheikh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade many electronic databases of vegetation plots were established in many countries around the world. These databases contain valuable phytosociological information assisting both governmental and NGO (Non-governmental organizations agencies to formulate strategies and on-ground plans to manage and protect nature resources. This paper provides an account on aims, current status and perspectives of building of a vegetation database for the Central Region (Najd of Saudi Arabia – the founding element of the Saudi Vegetation Database (SVD. The data stored by the database are sample plots (vegetation relevés collected according to the field techniques of the Braun-Blanquet approach (lists of taxa accompanied by semi-quantitative cover assessment, and are accompanied by general vegetation characteristics such as vegetation layering and cover, information on life-form of the recorded species, geographical coordinates, altitude, soil typology, topography and many more. More than 2900 vegetation-plot records (relevés have so far been collected in the Najd region; of these more than 2000 have already been stored using the Turboveg database platform. These field records cover many habitats such as depressions, wadis (dry river beds, agricultural lands, sand dunes, sabkhas, and ruderal habitats. The ecological information collected in the database is currently the largest set of vegetation data collated into a database in the Middle East. These data are of great importance for biodiversity studies in Saudi Arabia, since the region is recording a loss of biodiversity at a fast rate due to environmental problems such as global warming and land-use changes. We envisage that this database would catalyze further data collection on vegetation of the entire Arabian Peninsula, and shall serve as one of the most important datasets for classification and mapping of the vegetation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  13. Oil development in China: Current status and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Linwei; Fu Feng; Li Zheng; Liu Pei

    2012-01-01

    The future of oil has become an important topic of the discussion of energy policy in China. This paper attempts to present a full picture of the current status and future trends of China’s oil development through system analysis. First, we map a Sankey diagram of China’s oil flow to reveal the physical pattern of China’s oil supply and consumption. Then, we present the historical and ongoing trends of China’s oil flow from key aspects such as oil demand, oil resource availability, technology improvement, and policy adjustment. Based on these understandings, we design three scenarios of China’s oil demand in 2030, and analyze policy implications for oil saving, automotive energy development, and energy security. From the analysis, we draw some conclusions for policy decisions, such as to control the total oil consumption to avoid energy security risks, to enhance oil saving in all sectors with road transportation as the emphasis, and to increase the investment on oil production and refining to secure oil supply and reduce emissions. - Highlights: ► A Sankey Diagram to reveal the physical pattern of China’s oil supply and consumption. ► Present the ongoing trends of China’s oil development. ► Discuss important policy issues such as oil saving, energy security, and emissions reduction.

  14. The current status and prospect of nuclear power in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, S. [State Nuclear Power Technology Corp., Beijing (China)

    2014-07-01

    'Full text:' China's nuclear power development has attracted world attention. This paper presented the current status of the nuclear power plant in China. By June 30, 2014, China has 20 operational units of 18.05GWe installed capacity, taking up 1.44% of the country's total. All the units have been operating well without any events above INES Level 1 in 2013. China also has 28 units of 30.5GWe installed capacity under construction, which accounts for around 40% of that in the world. The paper presented the progress of AP1000 in China. China made a national plan for 2011 to 2020 with the target to reach 58GWe operational nuclear power and 30GWe under construction by 2020. The Chinese President Xi Jinping urged recently to speed up the approval for new builds. This paper also presented the work of 'Go Global' by Chinese nuclear companies, i.e., their development of international market. (author)

  15. The current status of radiological protection infraestructures in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngalie, J.E.; Mompome, W.K.; Meza, L.H.

    2008-01-01

    Without adequate and sustainable radiation protection infrastructure, the benefits associated with safe use of nuclear technology and atomic energy might be jeopardized. In the United Republic of Tanzania, the Atomic Energy Act No. 7 of 2003 established the Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission as sole regulatory body responsible for regulating and controlling the safe and peaceful utilization of nuclear technology in the country. The Atomic Energy (Protection from ionizing radiation) Regulations, 2004 further specifies practices designed to ensure that unnecessary exposure of persons to ionizing radiation is avoided, that all exposures are kept as low as reasonably achievable and that all the dose limits specified in the radiation protection standards are not exceeded. This is achieved through the systems of notification, authorizations through registration and licensing, safety and security of radiation sources as well as regulatory inspections and enforcements. These activities are performed by the Commission with operational funds allocated by the Government of Tanzania. The Commission further provides other services namely individual monitoring; calibration services; education and training to radiation workers, public as well as law enforcers; and safe management of radioactive waste. Despite such achievement, still there are a lot to be done in order to strengthen the radiation protection infrastructure in Tanzania. These include issues such as gaps in our legislations, regulations and guidance, security of sources, enforcement of laws, etc. This paper describes and discusses the current status of the regulatory control activities and radiation protection services provided by the Commission and suggestions for further improvement of radiological protection infrastructure in Tanzania. (author)

  16. Current Status of Mycotoxin Contamination of Food Commodities in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Nleya

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural products, especially cereal grains, serve as staple foods in sub-Saharan Africa. However, climatic conditions in this region can lead to contamination of these commodities by moulds, with subsequent production of mycotoxins posing health risks to both humans and animals. There is limited documentation on the occurrence of mycotoxins in sub-Saharan African countries, leading to the exposure of their populations to a wide variety of mycotoxins through consumption of contaminated foods. This review aims at highlighting the current status of mycotoxin contamination of food products in Zimbabwe and recommended strategies of reducing this problem. Zimbabwe is one of the African countries with very little information with regards to mycotoxin contamination of its food commodities, both on the market and at household levels. Even though evidence of multitoxin occurrence in some food commodities such as maize and other staple foods exist, available published research focuses only on Aspergillus and Fusarium mycotoxins, namely aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON, trichothecenes, fumonisins, and zearalenone (ZEA. Occurrence of mycotoxins in the food chain has been mainly associated with poor agricultural practices. Analysis of mycotoxins has been done mainly using chromatographic and immunological methods. Zimbabwe has adopted European standards, but the legislation is quite flexible, with testing for mycotoxin contamination in food commodities being done voluntarily or upon request. Therefore, the country needs to tighten its legislation as well as adopt stricter standards that will improve the food safety and security of the masses.

  17. Current Status of Mycotoxin Contamination of Food Commodities in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nleya, Nancy; Adetunji, Modupeade Christianah; Mwanza, Mulunda

    2018-05-03

    Agricultural products, especially cereal grains, serve as staple foods in sub-Saharan Africa. However, climatic conditions in this region can lead to contamination of these commodities by moulds, with subsequent production of mycotoxins posing health risks to both humans and animals. There is limited documentation on the occurrence of mycotoxins in sub-Saharan African countries, leading to the exposure of their populations to a wide variety of mycotoxins through consumption of contaminated foods. This review aims at highlighting the current status of mycotoxin contamination of food products in Zimbabwe and recommended strategies of reducing this problem. Zimbabwe is one of the African countries with very little information with regards to mycotoxin contamination of its food commodities, both on the market and at household levels. Even though evidence of multitoxin occurrence in some food commodities such as maize and other staple foods exist, available published research focuses only on Aspergillus and Fusarium mycotoxins, namely aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON), trichothecenes, fumonisins, and zearalenone (ZEA). Occurrence of mycotoxins in the food chain has been mainly associated with poor agricultural practices. Analysis of mycotoxins has been done mainly using chromatographic and immunological methods. Zimbabwe has adopted European standards, but the legislation is quite flexible, with testing for mycotoxin contamination in food commodities being done voluntarily or upon request. Therefore, the country needs to tighten its legislation as well as adopt stricter standards that will improve the food safety and security of the masses.

  18. Current status of the development of international exemption principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    For the past several years, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been investigating the possibility of exempting certain radiation sources and practices from regulatory control. Initial efforts were conducted under the general heading of de minimis. Interest in this topic arises from international recognition that a significant fraction of the wastes from industry, research, medicine, and the nuclear fuel cycle are contaminated to such low levels that applying regulatory controls may be unwarranted. The IAEA evaluation has been conducted by Advisory Groups considering two interrelated topics: to establish principles for exemption, and to apply the principles to various areas of waste management. The IAEA Advisory Groups developed the criteria from modeled assessments of the potential radiation exposure pathways and scenarios for individuals and population groups following the unrestricted release of radioactive materials. Although the scenarios and models used by the IAEA are necessarily generic, consultants to the Advisory Groups attempted to identify the most important radiation exposure pathways based on available literature. This approach is intended to provide the basic framework for the numerical derivation of generic exempt quantities that would be conservative in most situations. This paper discusses the current status of the IAEA's efforts on the subject of exemption and presents the generic results expressed as overall exemption limits for municipal wastes and materials for recycle and reuse

  19. Plague in Iran: its history and current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolrazagh Hashemi Shahraki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Plague remains a public health concern worldwide, particularly in old foci. Multiple epidemics of this disease have been recorded throughout the history of Iran. Despite the long-standing history of human plague in Iran, it remains difficult to obtain an accurate overview of the history and current status of plague in Iran. METHODS: In this review, available data and reports on cases and outbreaks of human plague in the past and present in Iran and in neighboring countries were collected, and information was compiled regarding when, where, and how many cases occurred. RESULTS: This paper considers the history of plague in Persia (the predecessor of today’s Iran and has a brief review of plague in countries in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region, including a range of countries in the Middle East and North Africa. CONCLUSIONS: Since Iran has experienced outbreaks of plague for several centuries, neighboring countries have reported the disease in recent years, the disease can be silent for decades, and the circulation of Yersinia pestis has been reported among rodents and dogs in western Iran, more attention should be paid to disease monitoring in areas with previously reported human cases and in high-risk regions with previous epizootic and enzootic activity.

  20. Plague in Iran: its history and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Shahraki, Abdolrazagh; Carniel, Elizabeth; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Plague remains a public health concern worldwide, particularly in old foci. Multiple epidemics of this disease have been recorded throughout the history of Iran. Despite the long-standing history of human plague in Iran, it remains difficult to obtain an accurate overview of the history and current status of plague in Iran. In this review, available data and reports on cases and outbreaks of human plague in the past and present in Iran and in neighboring countries were collected, and information was compiled regarding when, where, and how many cases occurred. This paper considers the history of plague in Persia (the predecessor of today's Iran) and has a brief review of plague in countries in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region, including a range of countries in the Middle East and North Africa. Since Iran has experienced outbreaks of plague for several centuries, neighboring countries have reported the disease in recent years, the disease can be silent for decades, and the circulation of Yersinia pestis has been reported among rodents and dogs in western Iran, more attention should be paid to disease monitoring in areas with previously reported human cases and in high-risk regions with previous epizootic and enzootic activity.

  1. Current status and progress of pancreatic cancer in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Quan-Jun; Yang, Feng; Jin, Chen; Fu, De-Liang

    2015-07-14

    Cancer is currently one of the most important public health problems in the world. Pancreatic cancer is a fatal disease with poor prognosis. As in most other countries, the health burden of pancreatic cancer in China is increasing, with annual mortality rates almost equal to incidence rates. The increasing trend of pancreatic cancer incidence is more significant in the rural areas than in the urban areas. Annual diagnoses and deaths of pancreatic cancer in China are now beyond the number of cases in the United States. GLOBOCAN 2012 estimates that cases in China account for 19.45% (65727/337872) of all newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer and 19.27% (63662/330391) of all deaths from pancreatic cancer worldwide. The population's growing socioeconomic status contributes to the rapid increase of China's proportional contribution to global rates. Here, we present an overview of control programs for pancreatic cancer in China focusing on prevention, early diagnosis and treatment. In addition, we describe key epidemiological, demographic, and socioeconomic differences between China and developed countries. Facts including no nationwide screening program for pancreatic cancer, delay in early detection resulting in a late stage at presentation, lack of awareness of pancreatic cancer in the Chinese population, and low investment compared with other cancer types by government have led to backwardness in China's pancreatic cancer diagnosis and treatment. Finally, we suggest measures to improve health outcomes of pancreatic cancer patients in China.

  2. Current status and future trends of medical physics in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorin Nieto, J.

    2015-01-01

    Medical Physics is an area that applies the principles of physics to medicine, particularly in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases using ionizing and nonionizing radiation. The main attractive of medical physics is that it has a direct impact on the quality and safety of medical care in humans; this social component with direct implications for the population is of high value for Mexico. This paper describes the concepts of medical physics, trends and the current status of this discipline as a profession, which is directly related to the efforts of clinical research. It is also described what is, in my opinion, the future of medical physics in Mexico, emphasizing the fact that this field requires a substantial boost from universities and hospitals to recruit highly qualified young medical physicists and the support from government agencies such as Secretaria de Salud, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social and Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del Estado through clinical research projects that allow the necessary evolution of medical physics into the hospital setting.

  3. Current Status of Carl Sagan Observatory in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ibarra, A.

    The current status of Observatory "Carl Sagan" (OCS) of University of Sonora is presented. This project was born in 1996 focused to build a small solar-stellar observatory completely operated by remote control. The observatory will be at "Cerro Azul", a 2480 m peak in one of the best regions in the world for astronomical observation, at the Sonora-Arizona desert. The OCS, with three 16 cm solar telescopes and a 55 cm stellar telescope is one of the cheapest observatories, valuated in US200,000 Added to its scientific goals to study solar coronal holes and Supernovae Type 1A, the OCS has a strong educative and cultural program in Astronomy to all levels. At the end of 2001, we started the Program "Constelacion", to build small planetariums through all the countries with a cost of only US80,000. Also, the webcast system for transmission of the solar observations from the prototype OCS at the campus, was expanded to webcast educational programs in Astronomy since July of this year, including courses and diplomats for Latin American people. All of these advances are exposed here.

  4. Current status and future trends of medical physics in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, J Azorin

    2015-01-01

    Medical Physics is an area that applies the principles of physics to medicine, particularly in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases using ionizing and nonionizing radiation. The main attractive of medical physics is that it has a direct impact on the quality and safety of medical care in humans; this social component with direct implications for the population is of high value for Mexico. This paper describes the concepts of medical physics, trends and the current status of this discipline as a profession, which is directly related to the efforts of clinical research. It is also described what is, in my opinion, the future of medical physics in Mexico, emphasizing the fact that this field requires a substantial boost from universities and hospitals to recruit highly qualified young medical physicists and the support from government agencies such as Secretaria de Salud, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social and Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del Estado through clinical research projects that allow the necessary evolution of medical physics into the hospital setting

  5. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis and screening: Current status and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Fu Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD is a clinically feasible technology to prevent the transmission of monogenic inherited disorders in families afflicted the diseases to the future offsprings. The major technical hurdle is it does not have a general formula for all mutations, thus different gene locus needs individualized, customized design to make the diagnosis accurate enough to be applied on PGD, in which the quantity of DNA is scarce, whereas timely result is sometimes requested if fresh embryo transfer is desired. On the other hand, preimplantation genetic screening (PGS screens embryo with aneuploidy and was also known as PGD-A (A denotes aneuploidy in order to enhance the implantation rates as well as livebirth rates. In contrasts to PGD, PGS is still under ferocious debate, especially recent reports found that euploid babies were born after transferring the aneuploid embryos diagnosed by PGS back to the womb and only very few randomized trials of PGS are available in the literature. We have been doing PGD and/or PGS for more than 10 years as one of the core PGD/PGS laboratories in Taiwan. Here we provide a concise review of PGD/PGS regarding its current status, both domestically and globally, as well as its future challenges.

  6. Current status of Joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Vogler, William A.

    1989-01-01

    Tests with specially instrumented NASA B-737 and FAA B-727 aircraft together with several different ground friction measuring devices have been conducted for a variety of runway surface types and wetness conditions. This effort is part of the Joint FAA/NASA Aircraft Ground Vehicle Runway Friction Program aimed at obaining a better understanding of aircraft ground handling performance under adverse weather conditions and defining relationships between aircraft and ground vehicle tire friction measurements. Aircraft braking performance on dry, wet, snow-, and ice-covered runway conditions is discussed together with ground vehicle friction data obtained under similar runway conditions. For the wet, compacted snow- and ice-covered runway conditions, the relationship between ground vehicles and aircraft friction data is identified. The influence of major test parameters on friction measurements such as speed, test tire characteristics, and surface contaminant type are discussed. The test results indicate that use of properly maintained and calibrated ground vehicles for monitoring runway friction conditions should be encouraged particularly under adverse weather conditions. The current status of the runway friction program is summarized and future test plans are identified.

  7. The SNO+ experiment. Current status and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozza, Valentina [Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Zellescher Weg 19, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    SNO+ is a large liquid scintillator based experiment that reuses the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory detector. The detector, located 2 km underground in a mine near Sudbury, Canada, consists of a 12 m diameter acrylic vessel which will be filled with 780 tonnes of liquid scintillator. The main physics goal of SNO+ is to search for the neutrinoless double-beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 130}Te. During the double-beta phase, the liquid scintillator will be initially loaded with 0.3-0.5% natural tellurium. In 5 years of data taking, SNO+ expects to reach a sensitivity on the effective Majorana neutrino mass of 55-133 meV, just above the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy region. Recently, the possibility to deploy up to 10 times more natural tellurium has been investigated, by which SNO+ could explore deep into the parameter space for the inverted hierarchy in the near future. Designed as a general purpose neutrino experiment, SNO+ can additionally measure the reactor antineutrino oscillations, geo-neutrinos in a geologically-interesting location, watch supernova neutrinos and measure low-energy solar neutrinos. A first commissioning phase with the detector filled with water will begin soon. The scintillator phase is expected to start after few months of water data taking. The 0νββ decay phase is foreseen for the 2017. In this talk the current status and the broad physics program of SNO+ will be presented.

  8. Gastric Cancer: Current Status of Diagnosis and Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Tsunehiro; Saikawa, Yoshiro; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of death from malignant disease worldwide and most frequently discovered in advanced stages. Because curative surgery is regarded as the only option for cure, early detection of resectable gastric cancer is extremely important for good patient outcomes. Therefore, noninvasive diagnostic modalities such as evolutionary endoscopy and positron emission tomography are utilized as screening tools for gastric cancer. To date, early gastric cancer is being treated using minimally invasive methods such as endoscopic treatment and laparoscopic surgery, while in advanced cancer it is necessary to consider multimodality treatment including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. Because of the results of large clinical trials, surgery with extended lymphadenectomy could not be recommended as a standard therapy for advanced gastric cancer. Recent clinical trials had shown survival benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy after curative resection compared with surgery alone. In addition, recent advances of molecular targeted agents would play an important role as one of the modalities for advanced gastric cancer. In this review, we summarize the current status of diagnostic technology and treatment for gastric cancer

  9. Radiation processing in India. Current status and future program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Jai Pal

    2003-01-01

    Radiation processing is an alternative to conventional methods such as thermal and chemical processing in many industrial applications. In India, this technology has found extensive applications in area of healthcare, agriculture, food preservation, industry and environment. Both gamma radiation and electron beam accelerators are being utilized for this purpose. Presently, 6 commercial gamma irradiators housing about 1.5 million curie Co-60 and an annual turnover of over US$ 2 million and 3 commercial electron beam (EB) accelerators with installed capacity of 185 kW are commercially operating in India. Five demonstration plants housing a total of 0.5 million curie Co-60 have been set up to assess the techno-commercial viability of the processes such as radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex, decontamination of spices, hygienization of sewage sludge, shelf-life extension of onions. The new areas being explored include use of electron beam treated pulp for viscose-rayon process, radiation processed 'hydrogel' burn/wound dressings and radiation processing of natural polymers. In the present paper, the current status of this program, especially the recent developments and future direction of radiation processing technology in India is reviewed. (author)

  10. Neural synchrony in cortical networks: history, concept and current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Uhlhaas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Following the discovery of context-dependent synchronization of oscillatory neuronal responses in the visual system, the role of neural synchrony in cortical networks has been expanded to provide a general mechanism for the coordination of distributed neural activity patterns. In the current paper, we present an update of the status of this hypothesis through summarizing recent results from our laboratory that suggest important new insights regarding the mechanisms, function and relevance of this phenomenon. In the first part, we present recent results derived from animal experiments and mathematical simulations that provide novel explanations and mechanisms for zero and nero-zero phase lag synchronization. In the second part, we shall discuss the role of neural synchrony for expectancy during perceptual organization and its role in conscious experience. This will be followed by evidence that indicates that in addition to supporting conscious cognition, neural synchrony is abnormal in major brain disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. We conclude this paper with suggestions for further research as well as with critical issues that need to be addressed in future studies.

  11. Current global status of carotid artery stent placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wholey, M H; Wholey, M; Bergeron, P; Diethrich, E B; Henry, M; Laborde, J C; Mathias, K; Myla, S; Roubin, G S; Shawl, F; Theron, J G; Yadav, J S; Dorros, G; Guimaraens, J; Higashida, R; Kumar, V; Leon, M; Lim, M; Londero, H; Mesa, J; Ramee, S; Rodriguez, A; Rosenfield, K; Teitelbaum, G; Vozzi, C

    1998-05-01

    Our purpose was to review the current status of carotid artery stent placement throughout the world. Surveys were sent to major interventional centers in Europe, North and South America, and Asia. Information from peer-reviewed journals was also included and supplemented the survey. The survey asked various questions regarding the patients enrolled, procedure techniques, and results of carotid stenting, including complications and restenosis. Of the centers which were sent surveys, 24 responded. The total number of endovascular carotid stent procedures that have been performed worldwide to date included 2,048 cases, with a technical success of 98.6%. Complications that occurred during carotid stent placement or within a 30-day period following placement were recorded. Overall, there were 63 minor strokes, with a rate of occurrence of 3.08%. The total number of major strokes was 27, for a rate of 1.32%. There were 28 deaths within a 30-day postprocedure period, resulting in a mortality rate of 1.37%. Restenosis rates of carotid stenting have been 4.80% at 6 mo. Endovascular stent treatment of carotid artery atherosclerotic disease is growing as an alternative to vascular surgery, especially for patients that are at high risk for standard carotid endarterectomy. The periprocedural risks for major and minor strokes and death are generally acceptable at this early stage of development.

  12. Collagen Cross-Linking: Current Status and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Hovakimyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Collagen cross-linking (CXL using UVA light and riboflavin (vitamin B2 was introduced as a clinical application to stabilize the cornea by inducing cross-links within and between collagen fibers. CXL has been investigated extensively and has been shown clinically to arrest the progression of keratoconic or post-LASIK ectasia. With its minimal cost, simplicity, and proven positive clinical outcome, CXL can be regarded as a useful approach to reduce the number of penetrating keratoplasties performed. Small case series have also indicated that CXL is beneficial in corneal edema by reducing stromal swelling behavior and in keratitis by inhibiting pathogen growth. Despite these encouraging results, CXL remains a relatively new method that is potentially associated with complications. Aspects such as side effects and recurrence rates have still to be elucidated. In light of the growing interest in CXL, our paper summarizes present knowledge about this promising approach. We have intentionally endeavored to include the more relevant studies from the recent literature to provide an overview of the current status of CXL.

  13. Current Status of Manufacturing Hazardous Waste in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Changqing; Zhang Jiangshan; Zhao Youcai

    2007-01-01

    It is difficult to manage the manufacturing hazardous waste(MHW)whichis generated from a huge amount of complicated sources and causes very serious pollution.Therefore more and more attention has been paid to MHW pollution.shanghai,as an industrial and economic center and an intemational metropolis in China,has a vast industrial system spanning a multitude of sectors,which generates MHW not only in a huge magnitude but also in a large variety of types from complicated sourrces,resulting in severe pollution.In 2003,the production of MHW in Shanghai is about 3.96 x 10ton,involving 33 indices.Most of MHW in Shanghai is treated and disposed of,but a significant portion is not handled properly and effectively.This paper carries out in-field investigation on the current status of MHW production and treat ment in Shanghai,and puts forward scientific proposals that Shanghai should facilitate cleaner production and minimize haz ardous waste;strictly enforce hazardous waste registration system, strengthen monitoring the certified enterprises;strengthen intent disposal center construction and realize hazardous waste reclamation;accelerate establishing tlle technical criteria and the management policy,promote the research and development on the treatment and disposal technology,and strengthen information management,thus realizing integrated management on MHW pollution.

  14. High-density matter: current status and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone J. R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many fascinating processes in the Universe which we observe in more and more in detail thanks to increasingly sophisticated technology. One of the most interesting phenomena is the life cycle of stars, their birth, evolution and death. If the stars are massive enough, they end their lives in the core-collapse supernova explosion, the one of the most violent events in the Universe. As the result, the densest objects in the Universe, neutron stars and/or black holes are created. Naturally, the physical basis of these events should be understood in line with observation. The current status of our knowledge of processes in the life of stars is far from adequate for their true understanding. We show that although many models have been constructed their detailed ability to describe observations is limited or non-existent. Furthermore the general failure of all models means that we cannot tell which are heading in the right direction. A possible way forward in modeling of high-density matter is outlined, exemplified by the quark-meson-coupling model (QMC. This model has a natural explanation for the saturation of nuclear forces and depends on very few adjustable parameters, strongly constrained by the underlying physics. Latest QMC results for compact objects and finite nuclei are presented.

  15. Current status and directions for fast reactor reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    The development of fast breeder reactors (FBRs) for commercial electric power production has been under way in several countries for more than 20 years. In the United States (US), as elsewhere, early work was focused on small reactors to prove the feasibility of concepts and later was followed by larger reactors to test engineering features and to develop fuel technology. Because of the perceived crisis in electrical generation expected late in this century, major efforts (including fuel cycle activities) were developed in the early 1970s to ensure the capability of developing and using this new form of nuclear power. However, because of the effects of the oil price rise and subsequent emphasis on conservation, and a slowdown of industrial growth, there has been a decline in such activities, particularly in the US, which was at one time (1970s) the world leader in reactor development. This paper provides a brief history of breeder reprocessing and describes the current status, with emphasis on US programs and glimpses into the future

  16. The current status and prospect of nuclear power in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, S.

    2014-01-01

    'Full text:' China's nuclear power development has attracted world attention. This paper presented the current status of the nuclear power plant in China. By June 30, 2014, China has 20 operational units of 18.05GWe installed capacity, taking up 1.44% of the country's total. All the units have been operating well without any events above INES Level 1 in 2013. China also has 28 units of 30.5GWe installed capacity under construction, which accounts for around 40% of that in the world. The paper presented the progress of AP1000 in China. China made a national plan for 2011 to 2020 with the target to reach 58GWe operational nuclear power and 30GWe under construction by 2020. The Chinese President Xi Jinping urged recently to speed up the approval for new builds. This paper also presented the work of 'Go Global' by Chinese nuclear companies, i.e., their development of international market. (author)

  17. Current status of accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreiner, A. J.; Bergueiro, J.; Di Paolo, H.; Castell, W.; Vento, V. Thatar; Cartelli, D.; Kesque, J.M.; Valda, A.A.; Ilardo, J.C.; Baldo, M.; Erhardt, J.; Debray, M.E.; Somacal, H.R.; Estrada, L.; Sandin, J.C. Suarez; Igarzabal, M.; Huck, H.; Padulo, J.; Minsky, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    The direct use of proton and heavy ion beams for radiotherapy is a well established cancer treatment modality, which is becoming increasingly widespread due to its clear advantages over conventional photon-based treatments. This strategy is suitable when the tumor is spatially well localized. Also the use of neutrons has a long tradition. Here Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) stands out, though on a much smaller scale, being a second-generation promising alternative for tumors which are diffuse and infiltrating. On this sector, so far only nuclear reactors have been used as neutron sources. In this paper we describe the current situation worldwide as far as the use of accelerator-based neutron sources for BNCT is concerned (so-called Accelerator-Based (AB)-BNCT). In particular we discuss the present status of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be reaction. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams to perform BNCT for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. (author)

  18. Classical swine fever in India: current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vinod Kumar; Rajak, Kaushal Kishore; Kumar, Amit; Yadav, Sharad Kumar

    2018-05-04

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a globally significant disease of swine caused by classical swine fever virus. The virus affects the wild boars and pigs of all age groups, leading to acute, chronic, late-onset or in-apparent course of the disease. The disease causes great economic loss to the piggery industry due to mortality, stunted growth, poor reproductive performance, and by impeding the international trade of pig and pig products. In India, CSF outbreaks are reported from most of the states wherever pig rearing is practiced and more frequently from northeast states. In spite of the highly devastating nature and frequent outbreaks, CSF remained underestimated and neglected for decades in India. The country requires rapid and sensitive diagnostic tests for an early detection of infection to limit the spread of the disease. Also, effective prophylactics are required to help in control and eradication of the disease for the development of the piggery industry. This review looks into the economic impact; epidemiology of CSF highlighting the temporal and spatial occurrence of outbreaks in the last two decades, circulation, and emergence of the virus genotypes in and around the country; and the constraints in the disease control, with the aim to update the knowledge of current status of the disease in India. The article also emphasizes the importance of the disease and the need to develop rapid specific diagnostics and effective measures to eradicate the disease.

  19. Current status of animal welfare and animal rights in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiaqi; Bayne, Kathryn; Wang, Jianfei

    2013-11-01

    In the past few years, new social passions have sparked on the Chinese mainland. At the centre of these burgeoning passions is a focus on animal welfare, animal treatment, and even animal rights, by the public and academic sectors. With China's rapid economic changes and greater access to information from around the world, societal awareness of animal issues is rising very fast. Hastening this paradigm shift were several highly public incidents involving animal cruelty, including exposés on bear bile harvesting for traditional Chinese medicine, the thousands of dogs rescued from China's meat trade, and the call to boycott shark fin soup and bird nest soup. This article outlines the current status of campaigning by animal advocates in China (specifically the animal rights movement) from three interlinked perspectives: wildlife conservation, companion animal protection, and laboratory animal protection. By reviewing this campaigning, we attempt to present not only the political and social impact of the concept of animal rights, but also the perceptions of, and challenges to, animal rights activities in China. 2013 FRAME.

  20. Veterinary pharmacology: history, current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, P; Fink-Gremmels, J; Toutain, P L

    2013-04-01

    Veterinary therapeutics, based on the art of Materia Medica, has been practised for countless centuries, but the science of veterinary pharmacology is of very recent origin. This review traces the contribution of Materia Medica to veterinary therapeutics from the Egyptian period through to the Age of Enlightenment. The first tentative steps in the development of the science of veterinary pharmacology were taken in the 18th century, but it was not until the mid 20th century that the science replaced the art of Materia Medica. This review traces the 20th century developments in veterinary pharmacology, with emphasis on the explosion of knowledge in the 35 year period to 2010. The range of factors which have influenced the current status of the discipline are reviewed. Future developments are considered from the perspectives of what might be regarded as desirable and those innovations that might be anticipated. We end with words of encouragement for young colleagues intent upon pursuing a career in veterinary pharmacology. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Thorium-based nuclear fuel: current status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    Until the present time considerable efforts have already been made in the area of fabrication, utilization and reprocessing of Th-based fuels for different types of reactors, namely: by FRG and USA - for HTRs; FRG and Brazil, Italy - for LWRs; India - for HWRs and FBRs. Basic research of thorium fuels and thorium fuel cycles are also being undertaken by Australia, Canada, China, France, FRG, Romania, USSR and other countries. Main emphasis has been given to the utilization of thorium fuels in once-through nuclear fuel cycles, but in some projects closed thorium-uranium or thorium-plutonium fuel cycles are also considered. The purpose of the Technical Committee on the Utilization of Thorium-Based Nuclear Fuel: Current Status and Perspective was to review the world thorium resources, incentives for further exploration, obtained experience in the utilization of Th-based fuels in different types of reactors, basic research, fabrication and reprocessing of Th-based fuels. As a result of the panel discussion the recommendations on future Agency activities and list of major worldwide activities in the area of Th-based fuel were developed. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 9 papers in this proceedings series

  2. Management of reprocessed uranium. Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    There is worldwide interest in developing advanced and innovative technologies for nuclear fuel cycles, minimizing waste and environmental impacts. As of the beginning of 2003, about 171000 tonnes heavy metal spent nuclear fuel is in storage, while smaller amounts have been reprocessed. In several countries, including France, India, Japan and the Russian Federation, spent fuel has been viewed as a national energy resource. Some countries hold reprocessed uranium as the result of their commercial reprocessing service contracts for reprocessing the spent fuel of others. Reprocessed uranium has a potential value for recycling either directly or after appropriate treatment. This report analyses the existing options, approaches and developments in the management of reprocessed uranium. It includes the technical issues involved in managing reprocessed uranium which are RepU arisings, storage, chemical conversion, re-enrichment, fuel fabrication, transport, reactor irradiation, subsequent reprocessing and disposal options, as well as assessment of holistic environmental impacts. The objective of this document is to overview the information on the current status and future trends in the management of RepU and to identify major issues to be considered for future projects

  3. Current Status of Periodic Safety Review of HANARO Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minjin; Ahn, Guk-Hoon; Lee, Choong Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A PSR for a research reactor became a legal requirement as the Nuclear Safety Act was amended and came into effect in 2014. This paper describes the current status and methodology of the first Periodic Safety Review (PSR) of HANARO that is being performed. The legal requirements, work plan, and process of implementing a PSR are described. Because this is the first PSR for a research reactor, it is our understating that the operating organization and regulatory body should communicate well with each other to complete the PSR in a timely manner. The first PSR of HANARO is under way. In order to achieve a successful result, activities of the operation organization such as scheduling, maintaining consistency in input data for review, and reviewing the PSR reports that will require intensive resources should be well planned. This means the operating organization needs to incorporate appropriate measures to ensure the transfer of knowledge and expertise arising from the PSR via a contractor to the operation organization. It is desirable for the Regulatory Body to be involved in all stage of the PSR to prevent any waste of resources and minimize the potential for a reworking of the PSR and the need for an additional assessment and review as recommended by foreign experts.

  4. Veterinary public health in India: current status and future needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatak, S; Singh, B B

    2015-12-01

    Veterinary public health (VPH) assumes huge significance in developing countries such as India. However, the implementation of VPH services throughout the country is still in its infancy. From 1970 onwards, many institutes, national and international organisations, professional societies, policies and personalities have contributed towards the development of VPH in India. Nevertheless, there is an urgent need to develop VPH still further as there are many issues, such as high population density, the re-emergence of zoonotic pathogens, environmental pollution and antimicrobial resistance, that require attention. The time has surely come to involve all stakeholders, ranging from primary producers (e.g., farmers) to policy-makers, so as to garner support for the holistic implementation of VPH services in India. To improve VPH activities and services, science-based policies enforced through stringent regulation are required to improve human, animal and environmental health. The emergence of the 'One Health' concept has ushered in new hopes for the resurrection of VPH in India. Applying tools such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OlE) Day One Competencies and the OlE Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS Tool) is essential to improve the quality of national Veterinary Services and to identify gaps and weaknesses in service provision, which can be remedied to comply with the OlE international standards. VPH initiatives started modestly but they continue to grow. The present review is focused on the current status and future needs of VPH in India.

  5. The payloads of Advanced Virgo: current status and upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naticchioni, L.; Virgo Collaboration

    2018-02-01

    The development and integration of new detector payloads has been an important part of the Advanced Virgo (AdV) project, the major upgrade of the Virgo interferometric detector of Gravitational Waves, aiming to increase the detector sensitivity by one order of magnitude. During the integration phase of the new AdV payloads with monolithic suspension of mirrors we experienced systematic suspension failures later identified as caused by dust contamination of the vacuum system. In order to not postpone the detector commissioning, making possible to join the LIGO O2 observation run, the Collaboration decided to proceed with the integration of the payloads relying on steel wire suspensions for all the mirrors. In this proceeding the status of the currently integrated payloads is reported, including their angular control characterization and the Q-factor measurements for test mass steel wire suspensions. The payload upgrade for the re-integration of monolithic suspensions after the O2 run is reported in the last section.

  6. The current status of theory evaluation in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok

    2015-10-01

    To identify the current status of theory evaluation in nursing and provide directions for theory evaluation for future development of theoretical bases of nursing discipline. Theory evaluation is an essential component in development of nursing knowledge, which is a critical element in development of nursing discipline. Despite earlier significant efforts for theory evaluation in nursing, a recent decline in the number of theory evaluation articles was noted and there have been few updates on theory evaluation in nursing. Discussion paper. A total of 58 articles published from 2003-2014 were retrieved through searches using the PUBMED, PsyInfo and CINAHL. The articles were sorted by the area of evaluation and analysed to identify themes reflecting the theory evaluation process. Diverse ways of theory evaluation need to be continuously used in future theory evaluation efforts. Six themes reflecting the theory evaluation process were identified: (a) rarely using existing theory evaluation criteria; (b) evaluating specifics; (c) using various statistical analysis methods; (d) developing instruments; (e) adopting in practice and education; and (f) evaluating mainly middle-range theories and situation-specific theories. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. High Voltage Coil Current Sensor for DC-DC Converters Employing DDCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Drinovsky

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Current sensor is an integral part of every switching converter. It is used for over-current protection, regulation and in case of multiphase converters for balancing. A new high voltage current sensor for coil-based current sensing in DC-DC converters is presented. The sensor employs DDCC with high voltage input stage and gain trimming. The circuit has been simulated and implemented in 0.35 um BCD technology as part of a multiphase DC-DC converter where its function has been verified. The circuit is able to sustain common mode voltage on the input up to 40 V, it occupies 0.387*0.345 mm2 and consumes 3.2 mW typically.

  8. Occupational rehabilitation in Hong Kong: current status and future needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, H K H; Szeto, G P Y; Cheng, A S K; Siu, H; Chan, C C H

    2011-03-01

    This paper reviews the development of occupational rehabilitation in Hong Kong, both in terms of the science as well as the service for injured workers. Besides, it also reviews the existing Employees' Compensation Ordinance for work injury to illustrate how the policy could influence the success and development of the discipline. Five experienced occupational rehabilitation providers, including 1 occupational medicine specialist, 3 occupational therapists, and 1 physiotherapist critically reviewed the past and current development of occupational rehabilitation in Hong Kong as well as the local contextual factors, which could influence its future development. Since the enactment of the Employees' Compensation Ordinance in the 1950s, there have been progressive improvements in the field of occupational rehabilitation in Hong Kong. Services in the early years were mostly based on the biomedical model, where doctors and patients tended to focus on clinical symptoms and physical pathology when making clinical decisions. Since then, remarkable academic achievements have been made in the field locally, from the validation of clinical instruments for assessment of work capacity, assessment of employment readiness to the evaluation of efficacy of interventional programs for injured workers focusing on work related outcomes. However, there has been a relatively lack of progress in the development of related policies and implementation of related programs for occupational rehabilitation. There is no built in linkage between rehabilitation, compensation and prevention in the current system in Hong Kong, and there is no rehabilitation policy specific to those workers with occupational diseases and injuries. There are still deficiencies in the development and provision of occupational rehabilitation services in Hong Kong. Incorporation of requirements for occupational rehabilitation at the legislation and policy levels should be seriously considered in the future. Besides, the

  9. The changing role of employment status in marriage formation among young Korean adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keuntae Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite a persistent decline in Korea's marriage rates over the past three decades, there is a striking lack of research on the transition to marriage among young Koreans. Similarly, few studies have examined how economic determinants have evolved over the past several decades, even as the Korean social and socioeconomic structure has undergone substantial transformation. Methods: This paper examines changes over time in the determinants of marriage formation in Korea, using employment history data from the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS on three cohorts of young adults born in the 1950s‒1970s. Results: Results indicate that, for women, the marital implications of being employed reversed over the three decades examined. While working decreased the odds of getting married for women born in the 1950s, it had no statistically significant effect for those born in the 1960s, and it strongly increased the odds of marriage for the most recent (1970s cohort of women. For their part, men's employment not only continued to positively predict getting married over the three decades, but its impact became stronger with each cohort, so that a man's odds of transition to first marriage was most strongly tied to his employment status for those born in the 1970s, as compared to earlier cohorts. Contribution: This study contributes to the literature by addressing the relationship between marriage timing and economic resources using more direct measures, examining the association between mandatory military service and marriage formation, and testing if determinants of marriage timing may evolve over time in Korea.

  10. Operational validation - current status and opportunities for improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, E.

    2002-01-01

    The design of nuclear plant systems and operational practices is based on the application of multiple defenses to minimize the risk of occurrence of safety and production challenges and upsets. With such an approach, the effectiveness of individual or combinations of design and operational features in preventing upset challenges should be known. A longstanding industry concern is the adverse impact errors in human performance can have on plant safety and production. To minimize the risk of error occurrence, designers and operations staff routinely employ multiple design and operational defenses. However, the effectiveness of individual or combinations of defensive features in minimizing error occurrence are generally only known in a qualitative sense. More importantly, the margins to error or upset occurrence provided by combinations of design or operational features are generally not characterized during design or operational validation. This paper provides some observations and comments on current validation practice as it relates to operational human performance concerns. The paper also discusses opportunities for future improvement in validation practice in terms of the resilience of validation results to operating changes and characterization of margins to safety or production challenge. (author)

  11. Emerging memories: resistive switching mechanisms and current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Doo Seok; Thomas, Reji; Katiyar, R S; Scott, J F; Kohlstedt, H; Petraru, A; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2012-01-01

    The resistance switching behaviour of several materials has recently attracted considerable attention for its application in non-volatile memory (NVM) devices, popularly described as resistive random access memories (RRAMs). RRAM is a type of NVM that uses a material(s) that changes the resistance when a voltage is applied. Resistive switching phenomena have been observed in many oxides: (i) binary transition metal oxides (TMOs), e.g. TiO 2 , Cr 2 O 3 , FeO x and NiO; (ii) perovskite-type complex TMOs that are variously functional, paraelectric, ferroelectric, multiferroic and magnetic, e.g. (Ba,Sr)TiO 3 , Pb(Zr x Ti 1−x )O 3 , BiFeO 3 and Pr x Ca 1−x MnO 3 ; (iii) large band gap high-k dielectrics, e.g. Al 2 O 3 and Gd 2 O 3 ; (iv) graphene oxides. In the non-oxide category, higher chalcogenides are front runners, e.g. In 2 Se 3 and In 2 Te 3 . Hence, the number of materials showing this technologically interesting behaviour for information storage is enormous. Resistive switching in these materials can form the basis for the next generation of NVM, i.e. RRAM, when current semiconductor memory technology reaches its limit in terms of density. RRAMs may be the high-density and low-cost NVMs of the future. A review on this topic is of importance to focus concentration on the most promising materials to accelerate application into the semiconductor industry. This review is a small effort to realize the ambitious goal of RRAMs. Its basic focus is on resistive switching in various materials with particular emphasis on binary TMOs. It also addresses the current understanding of resistive switching behaviour. Moreover, a brief comparison between RRAMs and memristors is included. The review ends with the current status of RRAMs in terms of stability, scalability and switching speed, which are three important aspects of integration onto semiconductors. (review article)

  12. Emerging memories: resistive switching mechanisms and current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Doo Seok; Thomas, Reji; Katiyar, R. S.; Scott, J. F.; Kohlstedt, H.; Petraru, A.; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2012-07-01

    The resistance switching behaviour of several materials has recently attracted considerable attention for its application in non-volatile memory (NVM) devices, popularly described as resistive random access memories (RRAMs). RRAM is a type of NVM that uses a material(s) that changes the resistance when a voltage is applied. Resistive switching phenomena have been observed in many oxides: (i) binary transition metal oxides (TMOs), e.g. TiO2, Cr2O3, FeOx and NiO; (ii) perovskite-type complex TMOs that are variously functional, paraelectric, ferroelectric, multiferroic and magnetic, e.g. (Ba,Sr)TiO3, Pb(Zrx Ti1-x)O3, BiFeO3 and PrxCa1-xMnO3 (iii) large band gap high-k dielectrics, e.g. Al2O3 and Gd2O3; (iv) graphene oxides. In the non-oxide category, higher chalcogenides are front runners, e.g. In2Se3 and In2Te3. Hence, the number of materials showing this technologically interesting behaviour for information storage is enormous. Resistive switching in these materials can form the basis for the next generation of NVM, i.e. RRAM, when current semiconductor memory technology reaches its limit in terms of density. RRAMs may be the high-density and low-cost NVMs of the future. A review on this topic is of importance to focus concentration on the most promising materials to accelerate application into the semiconductor industry. This review is a small effort to realize the ambitious goal of RRAMs. Its basic focus is on resistive switching in various materials with particular emphasis on binary TMOs. It also addresses the current understanding of resistive switching behaviour. Moreover, a brief comparison between RRAMs and memristors is included. The review ends with the current status of RRAMs in terms of stability, scalability and switching speed, which are three important aspects of integration onto semiconductors.

  13. Employment status and work-related problems of gastrointestinal cancer patients at diagnosis: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, A. G. E. M.; Bruinvels, D. J.; Tytgat, K. M. A. J.; Schoorlemmer, A.; Klinkenbijl, J. H. G.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the employment status of patients with gastrointestinal cancer at diagnosis and to examine work-related problems of employed patients. Design New, consecutive patients were included at the Gastrointestinal Oncology Center Amsterdam, a one-stop, rapid access diagnostic assessment

  14. Do changes in spousal employment status lead to domestic violence? Insights from a prospective study in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Rocca, Corinne H; Hubbard, Alan E; Subbiah, Kalyani; Edmeades, Jeffrey; Padian, Nancy S

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of physical domestic violence--violence against women perpetrated by husbands--is staggeringly high across the Indian subcontinent. Although gender-based power dynamics are thought to underlie women's vulnerability, relatively little is known about risk and protective factors. This prospective study in southern India examined the association between key economic aspects of gender-based power, namely spousal employment status, and physical domestic violence. In 2005-2006, 744 married women, aged 16-25, residing in low-income communities in Bangalore, India were enrolled in the study. Data were collected at enrollment, 12 and 24 months. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the prospective association between women's employment status, their perceptions of their husband's employment stability, and domestic violence. Women who were unemployed at one visit and began employment by the next visit had an 80% higher odds of violence, as compared to women who maintained their unemployed status. Similarly, women whose husbands had stable employment at one visit and newly had difficulty with employment had 1.7 times the odds of violence, as compared to women whose husbands maintained their stable employment. To our knowledge, this study is the first from a developing country to confirm that changes in spousal employment status are associated with subsequent changes in violence risk. It points to the complex challenges of violence prevention, including the need for interventions among men and gender-transformative approaches to promote gender-equitable attitudes, practices and norms among men and women.

  15. Changes in employment status and experience of discrimination among cancer patients: findings from a nationwide survey in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Hyun; Park, Jong-Hyock; Kim, Sung-Gyeong; Lee, Kyung-Sook; Hahm, Myung-Il

    2010-12-01

    As the number of working cancer patients increases, workplace discrimination and its relationship to changes in employment status among cancer patients is becoming an increasingly important social concern. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of the relationship between changes in employment status and discrimination following a diagnosis of cancer. A total of 748 cancer patients, aged 18 years and older, who were employed before receiving a diagnosis of cancer, were enrolled in this study. Patients were recruited from ten cancer centers in Korea. Sociodemographic data, work-related data, and clinical information, as well as information on changes in employment status and incidences of discrimination, were collected from all patients. A change in employment status was reported by 73.4% of the sample, with unemployment being the most common change (46.4%). Forty-two (5.6%) patients reported that they had experienced discrimination in the workplace. Reports of discrimination were only weakly correlated with changes in employment status, but were significantly correlated with forced unemployment. Additional analyses revealed that being female, being from a lower socioeconomic status group and having a disability were risk-factors for unemployment, while being male, being from a higher socioeconomic status group and having a disability were risk-factors for workplace discrimination or forced unemployment. More attention should be paid to vulnerable who are diagnosed with cancer. An individualized and culture-based approach should be taken to minimize undesirable changes in employment status and to reduce discrimination among patients receiving a diagnosis of cancer. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The influence of marital status and spousal employment on retirement behavior in Germany and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radl, Jonas; Himmelreicher, Ralf K

    2015-05-01

    This article analyzes the impact of marital status and spousal employment on the timing of retirement in Germany and Spain. Retirement behavior is examined by means of event-history models, with a competing risks framework being used to distinguish between voluntary and involuntary work-exit transitions. To take account of the role of social policies, we adopt a comparative approach. Data are drawn from a 2006 special retirement module implemented analogously in national labor force surveys. The results show that spousal labor market participation plays a large role in work-exit transitions, even when retirement is involuntary. This finding questions the widespread belief that coretirement is exclusively due to preference for joint retirement shared among spouses. Moreover, widows and widowers tend to retire prematurely in Germany, whereas no such effect could be found in Spain. This finding is explained by reference to specific economic incentives arising from national pension legislation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Predictors for Employment Status in People With Multiple Sclerosis: A 10-Year Longitudinal Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslin, Mia; Fink, Katharina; Hammar, Ulf; von Koch, Lena; Johansson, Sverker

    2018-01-31

    To identify predictors for employment status after 10 years in a cohort of people with multiple sclerosis (MS), with the aim to increase knowledge concerning factors present at an early stage that are important for working life and work-life balance. A 10-year longitudinal observational cohort study. University hospital. A consecutive sample of people with MS (N=154) of working age were included at baseline, of which a total of 116 people participated in the 10-year follow-up; 27 people declined participation and 11 were deceased. Not applicable. Baseline data on personal factors and functioning were used as independent variables. Employment status 10 years after baseline, categorized as full-time work, part-time work, and no work, was used as the dependent variable. A generalized ordinal logistic regression was used to analyze the predictive value of the independent variables. Predictors for full- or part-time work after 10 years were young age (P=.002), low perceived physical impact of MS (P=.02), fatigue (P=.03), full-time work (P=.001), and high frequency of social/lifestyle activities (P=.001) at baseline. Low perceived physical impact of MS (P=.02) at baseline also predicted full-time work after 10 years. This study underlines the complexity of working life for people with MS, and indicates that it may be valuable to give more attention to the balance between working and private life, both in clinical practice and future research, to achieve a sustainable working life over time. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hospital nurse job attitudes and performance: the impact of employment status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Cheng-I; Hsu, Yao-Feng

    2011-03-01

    According to the 2007 Taiwan Labor Front Human Resources Report, as much as 47.6% of nurses at some public hospitals were contracted rather than full time. Furthermore, turnover rates for contract nurses were found to be as high as five to eight times of those for full-time nurses. Because high turnover rates are likely to induce negative impacts on the stability of care provided in the absence of staffing continuity, the association between nursing employment arrangement and nursing care quality is attracting greater attention. This study was designed to investigate the work status of contract versus full-time nurses at a public hospital in Taiwan and to examine the impact of such on work-related attitudes, organizational citizenship behavior, and job performance. Samples were recruited from a public hospital in Taiwan. In addition to self-rated items, researchers used supervisor-rated structured questionnaires for job performance to attenuate the possible effect of common method bias. The study investigated the impact of hospital nurse employment status on work-related attitudes, organizational citizenship behavior, and job performance using a regression model that included the critical work-related attitudes variables of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Study findings included the following: (a) organizational commitment, job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior, and job performance correlate positively with one another. (b) No significant difference between contract and full-time nurses was found in terms of organizational commitment, job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior, and self-rated job performance. However, when rated by supervisors, reported job performance levels for full-time nurses were significantly higher than those of contract nurses. (c) Organizational citizenship behavior exhibited a mediating effect between job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and job performance. In this study, supervisors

  19. Current and Future Status of Diversity in Ophthalmologist Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xierali, Imam M; Nivet, Marc A; Wilson, M Roy

    2016-09-01

    Increasing the level of diversity among ophthalmologists may help reduce disparities in eye care. To assess the current and future status of diversity among ophthalmologists in the workforce by sex, race, and ethnicity in the context of the available number of medical students in the United States. Data from the Association of American Medical Colleges, the American Medical Association, and US Census were used to evaluate the differences and trends in diversity among ophthalmologists, all full-time faculty except ophthalmology, ophthalmology faculty, ophthalmology residents, medical school students, and the US population between 2005 and 2015. For 2014, associations of sex, race, and ethnicity with physician practice locations were assessed. Proportions of ophthalmologists stratified by sex, race, and ethnicity between 2005 and 2015. Women and minority groups traditionally underrepresented in medicine (URM)-black, Hispanic, American Indian, Alaskan Native, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander-were underrepresented as practicing ophthalmologists (22.7% and 6%, respectively), ophthalmology faculty (35.1% and 5.7%, respectively), and ophthalmology residents (44.3% and 7.7%, respectively), compared with the US population (50.8% and 30.7%, respectively). During the past decade, there had been a modest increase in the proportion of female practicing ophthalmologists who graduated from US medical schools in 1980 or later (from 23.8% to 27.1%; P workforce despite an available pool of medical students. Given the prevalent racial and ethnic disparities in eye care and an increasingly diverse society, future research and training efforts that increase the level of diversity among medical students and residents seems warranted.

  20. Neutron star matter equation of state: current status and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Akira

    2014-09-01

    Neutron star matter has a variety of constituents and structures depending on the density; neutron-rich nuclei surounded by electrons and drip neutrons in the crust, pasta nuclei at the bottom of inner crust, and uniform isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter in a superfluid state in the outer core. In the inner core, the neutron Fermi energy becomes so large that exotic constituents such as hyperons, mesons and quarks may emerge. Radioactive beam and hypernuclear experiments provide information on the symmetry energy and superfluidity in the crust and outer core and on the hyperon potentials in the inner core, respectively. Cold atom experiments are also helpful to understand pure neutron matter, which may be simulated by the unitary gas. An equation of state (EOS) constructed based on these laboratory experiments has to be verified by the astronomical observations such as the mass, radius, and oscillations of neutron stars. One of the key but missing ingredients is the three-baryon interactions such as the hyperon-hyperon-nucleon (YYN) interaction. YYN interaction is important in order to explain the recently discovered massive neutron stars consistently with laboratory experiments. We have recently found that the ΛΛ interaction extracted from the ΛΛ correlation at RHIC is somewhat stronger than that from double Λ hypernuclei. Since these two interactions corresponds to the vacuum and in-medium ΛΛ interactions, respectively, the difference may tell us a possible way to access the YYN interaction based on experimental data. In the presentation, after a review on the current status of neutron star matter EOS studies, we discuss the necessary tasks to pin down the EOS. We also present our recent study of ΛΛ interaction from correlation data at RHIC.

  1. Livestock in biomedical research: history, current status and future prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polejaeva, Irina A; Rutigliano, Heloisa M; Wells, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    Livestock models have contributed significantly to biomedical and surgical advances. Their contribution is particularly prominent in the areas of physiology and assisted reproductive technologies, including understanding developmental processes and disorders, from ancient to modern times. Over the past 25 years, biomedical research that traditionally embraced a diverse species approach shifted to a small number of model species (e.g. mice and rats). The initial reasons for focusing the main efforts on the mouse were the availability of murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and genome sequence data. This powerful combination allowed for precise manipulation of the mouse genome (knockouts, knockins, transcriptional switches etc.) leading to ground-breaking discoveries on gene functions and regulation, and their role in health and disease. Despite the enormous contribution to biomedical research, mouse models have some major limitations. Their substantial differences compared with humans in body and organ size, lifespan and inbreeding result in pronounced metabolic, physiological and behavioural differences. Comparative studies of strategically chosen domestic species can complement mouse research and yield more rigorous findings. Because genome sequence and gene manipulation tools are now available for farm animals (cattle, pigs, sheep and goats), a larger number of livestock genetically engineered (GE) models will be accessible for biomedical research. This paper discusses the use of cattle, goats, sheep and pigs in biomedical research, provides an overview of transgenic technology in farm animals and highlights some of the beneficial characteristics of large animal models of human disease compared with the mouse. In addition, status and origin of current regulation of GE biomedical models is also reviewed.

  2. Current Status of Nursing Informatics Education in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eunjoo; Kim, Jeongeun; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Jungha; Jin, Meiling; Ahn, Shinae; Jun, Jooyeon; Song, Healim; On, Jeongah; Jung, Hyesil; Hong, Yeong Joo; Yim, Suran

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study presents the current status of nursing informatics education, the content covered in nursing informatics courses, the faculty efficacy, and the barriers to and additional supports for teaching nursing informatics in Korea. Methods A set of questionnaires consisting of an 18-item questionnaire for nursing informatics education, a 6-item questionnaire for faculty efficacy, and 2 open-ended questions for barriers and additional supports were sent to 204 nursing schools via email and the postal service. Nursing schools offering nursing informatics were further asked to send their syllabuses. The subjects taught were analyzed using nursing informatics competency categories and other responses were tailed using descriptive statistics. Results A total of 72 schools (35.3%) responded to the survey, of which 38 reported that they offered nursing informatics courses in their undergraduate nursing programs. Nursing informatics courses at 11 schools were taught by a professor with a degree majoring in nursing informatics. Computer technology was the most frequently taught subject (27 schools), followed by information systems used for practice (25 schools). The faculty efficacy was 3.76 ± 0.86 (out of 5). The most frequently reported barrier to teaching nursing informatics (n = 9) was lack of awareness of the importance of nursing informatics. Training and educational opportunities was the most requested additional support. Conclusions Nursing informatics education has increased during the last decade in Korea. However, the proportions of faculty with degrees in nursing informatics and number of schools offering nursing informatics courses have not increased much. Thus, a greater focus is needed on training faculty and developing the courses. PMID:27200224

  3. Current status of brachytherapy in cancer treatment – short overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Skowronek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer incidence and mortality depend on a number of factors, including age, socio-economic status and geographical location, and its prevalence is growing around the world. Most of cancer treatments include external beam radiotherapy or brachytherapy. Brachytherapy, a type of radiotherapy with energy from radionuclides inserted directly into the tumor, is increasingly used in cancer treatment. For cervical and skin cancers, it has become a standard therapy for more than 100 years as well as an important part of the treatment guidelines for other malignancies, including head and neck, skin, breast, and prostate cancers. Compared to external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy has the potential to deliver an ablative radiation dose over a short period of time directly to the altered tissue area with the advantage of a rapid fall-off in dose, and consequently, sparing of adjacent organs. As a result, the patient is able to complete the treatment earlier, and the risks of occurrence of another cancer are lower than in conventional radiotherapy treatment. Brachytherapy has increased its use as a radical or palliative treatment, and become more advanced with the spread of pulsed-dose-rate and high-dose-rate afterloading machines; the use of new 3D/4D planning systems has additionally improved the quality of the treatment. The aim of the present study was to present short summaries of current studies on brachytherapy for the most frequently diagnosed tumors. Data presented in this manuscript should help especially young physicians or physicists to explore and introduce brachytherapy in cancer treatments.

  4. Current Status of Nursing Informatics Education in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eunjoo; Kim, Jeongeun; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Jungha; Jin, Meiling; Ahn, Shinae; Jun, Jooyeon; Song, Healim; On, Jeongah; Jung, Hyesil; Hong, Yeong Joo; Yim, Suran

    2016-04-01

    This study presents the current status of nursing informatics education, the content covered in nursing informatics courses, the faculty efficacy, and the barriers to and additional supports for teaching nursing informatics in Korea. A set of questionnaires consisting of an 18-item questionnaire for nursing informatics education, a 6-item questionnaire for faculty efficacy, and 2 open-ended questions for barriers and additional supports were sent to 204 nursing schools via email and the postal service. Nursing schools offering nursing informatics were further asked to send their syllabuses. The subjects taught were analyzed using nursing informatics competency categories and other responses were tailed using descriptive statistics. A total of 72 schools (35.3%) responded to the survey, of which 38 reported that they offered nursing informatics courses in their undergraduate nursing programs. Nursing informatics courses at 11 schools were taught by a professor with a degree majoring in nursing informatics. Computer technology was the most frequently taught subject (27 schools), followed by information systems used for practice (25 schools). The faculty efficacy was 3.76 ± 0.86 (out of 5). The most frequently reported barrier to teaching nursing informatics (n = 9) was lack of awareness of the importance of nursing informatics. Training and educational opportunities was the most requested additional support. Nursing informatics education has increased during the last decade in Korea. However, the proportions of faculty with degrees in nursing informatics and number of schools offering nursing informatics courses have not increased much. Thus, a greater focus is needed on training faculty and developing the courses.

  5. The current status of forensic science laboratory accreditation in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkoc, Ekrem; Neuteboom, Wim

    2007-04-11

    Forensic science is gaining some solid ground in the area of effective crime prevention, especially in the areas where more sophisticated use of available technology is prevalent. All it takes is high-level cooperation among nations that can help them deal with criminality that adopts a cross-border nature more and more. It is apparent that cooperation will not be enough on its own and this development will require a network of qualified forensic laboratories spread over Europe. It is argued in this paper that forensic science laboratories play an important role in the fight against crime. Another, complimentary argument is that forensic science laboratories need to be better involved in the fight against crime. For this to be achieved, a good level of cooperation should be established and maintained. It is also noted that harmonization is required for such cooperation and seeking accreditation according to an internationally acceptable standard, such as ISO/IEC 17025, will eventually bring harmonization as an end result. Because, ISO/IEC 17025 as an international standard, has been a tool that helps forensic science laboratories in the current trend towards accreditation that can be observed not only in Europe, but also in the rest of the world of forensic science. In the introduction part, ISO/IEC 17025 states that "the acceptance of testing and calibration results between countries should be facilitated if laboratories comply with this international standard and if they obtain accreditation from bodies which have entered into mutual recognition agreements with equivalent bodies in other countries using this international standard." Furthermore, it is emphasized that the use of this international standard will assist in the harmonization of standards and procedures. The background of forensic science cooperation in Europe will be explained by using an existing European forensic science network, i.e. ENFSI, in order to understand the current status of forensic

  6. The association between loss of work ability and depression: a focus on employment status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Ah; Ju, Yeong Jun; Han, Kyu-Tae; Choi, Jae Woo; Yoon, Hyo Jung; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2017-01-01

    Work-related factors are one of the known risk factors for depression. Given that the ability to work is considered an important aspect of well-being and health status, we investigated the association between the loss of work ability and depression. We further examined the association stratified by employment status. We used data from the Korea Welfare Panel Study. The dependent variable of the present study was depression, which is measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Work ability transition from the previous year was divided into three categories: maintained, loss, and complete loss. A linear mixed-effects model was performed for the analysis. The work ability loss group (β = 2.071, p work ability completely loss group (β = 2.651, p = 0.015) had higher depression scores compared to those who maintained their work ability from the previous year. Specifically, those who lost their work ability and their job (β = 3.685, p = 0.0068) had the highest depression scores compared to those who maintained their work ability and job. We found that those who lost their ability to work may be at risk of depression, and this finding was particularly prominent among those who also became unemployed. Therefore, psychological support is needed for these individuals to overcome the negative influence of the loss of work ability.

  7. Employment status is associated with both physical and mental health quality of life in people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Sergio; Raboud, Janet; Mustard, Cameron; Bayoumi, Ahmed; Lavis, John N; Rourke, Sean B

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the relationship between employment status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in HIV/AIDS. A total of 361 participants provided baseline data in the context of an ongoing cohort study examining the natural history of neurobehavioral functioning and its effects on HRQOL. We administered tests and collected laboratory data to determine demographic status, HIV disease markers, psychosocial symptom burden, neurocognitive function and HRQOL (MOS-HIV). We performed regression analyses to evaluate the contribution of employment status to the physical and mental health components of quality of life (QOL). Multivariate analyses showed that employment status was strongly related to better physical and mental health QOL after controlling for potential confounders. We found, however, that employment status had a greater impact on physical health than mental health QOL [physical health (β = 6.8, 95% CI 4.6 to 9.1) and mental health QOL (β = 3.3, 95% CI 0.93 to 5.7)]. The effect of employment for physical health QOL was stronger than that observed for ethnicity, social support, or having an AIDS diagnosis and was comparable to that observed with having many HIV-related symptoms. This cross-sectional study suggests that there may be physical and mental health benefits associated with obtaining or keeping employment, or more likely that both selection and causation mechanisms comprise an interactional and reinforcing process.

  8. Policies for second generation biofuels: current status and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egger, Haakan; Greaker, Mads; Potter, Emily

    2011-07-01

    Current state-of-the-art knowledge concludes that green house gas (GHG) emissions must be controlled and reduced within the next 30-40 years. The transport sector contributes almost a fifth of the current global emissions, and its share is likely to increase in the future. The US and a number of European countries have therefore introduced various support schemes for research and development (RandD) of low emission fuels that can potentially replace the current fossil fuels. One such alternative is biofuels. The advantage of biofuels are that it is easy to introduce into the transport sector. On the other hand, recent research papers question whether the supply of feedstock is sufficient, and to what extent biofuels lead to GHG emission reductions. This report reviews the current status of second generation biofuels. Second generation biofuels are made from cellulose, which according to our survey of the literature, is in more abundant supply than the first generation biofuels feedstocks. Furthermore, it seems to have the potential to reduce GHG emissions from the transport sector without leading to devastating land use changes, which recent critique has held against first generation biofuels. Given that governments have decided to support RandD of low emission fuels, we ask the following questions: Should second generation biofuels receive RandD support to the same extent as other low emission fuels like hydrogen? How should support schemes for second generation biofuels be designed? Second generation biofuels can be divided according to the production process into thermo-chemical and bio-chemical. With respect to the thermo-chemical process the potential for cost reductions seems to be low. On the other hand, ethanol made from cellulose using the biochemical conversion process is far from a ripe technology. Expert reports point to several potential technological breakthroughs which may reduce costs substantially. Hence, cellulosic ethanol, should receive direct

  9. Post-harvest technologies for various crops of pakistan: status quo, employment generation and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.

    2005-01-01

    The climatic conditions of Pakistan vary from tropical to temperate, allow 40 different kinds of vegetables, 21 type of fruit, and 5 major crops (wheat, cotton, rice, sugarcane, and maize) to grow. During the peak harvest-season, a great proportion of fresh agricultural/horticultural produce is lost, due to unavailability of suitable post-harvest technologies. An effort was made to present the status quo, constraints, Government policies and possible post-harvest technologies that can be developed/adopted in the country to generate employment in the rural areas. Secondary processing-industry (flour mills, sugar mills, oil mills etc.) is fairly developed in the country. However. primary processing of agricultural produce is poorly developed in the country. The higher cost of the processed products, consumers habits of eating fresh commodities, seasonability of fresh fruit and vegetables, and low quality of the processed products are the key-constraints for the slow growth of post-harvest processing industry. By removing these constraints, and by developing/adopting various technologies, identified in this paper, we may help to establish post-harvest processing industry on sound footings. Consequently, the employment-opportunities will increase in the rural areas of the country. (author)

  10. Assessing the nutritional status of beef cattle: current practices and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... Key words: Body condition scoring, blood metabolites, nutritional status, cattle. INTRODUCTION ... reproductive performance and good walking and foraging ..... the gastrointestinal tract while mobilization is increased in.

  11. Review of mercury pollution in South Africa: current status

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Walters, Chavon R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a review on the status of mercury (Hg) as a pollutant in South African aquatic ecosystems. Spatial patterns of Hg distribution and bioaccumulation in water resources were investigated by collecting and analyzing multimedia...

  12. The current status of utilization of research reactors in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzheng, Yuan

    2004-01-01

    Seminars on utilization of research reactors were held to enhance experience exchanging among institutes and universities in China. The status of CARR (China Advanced Research Reactor) project is briefly described. The progress in BNCT program in China is introduced. (author)

  13. Assessment of the current status of basic nuclear data compilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Topics discussed include: the status of mass-chain evaluations, remote terminal access, other US Nuclear Data Network publications, formats and procedures subcommittee report, keyword follow-up (Phys. Rev. C), and atomic data and nuclear data tables

  14. Current Status and Prediction on Development of PE Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Jiao

    2003-01-01

    This article comprehensively analyzes the status of market demand/supply and import/export volumes of PE in the world and in China, and predicts the future development trends in the fields of PE production and consumption.

  15. Current Status and Future Directions of Targeted Peptide Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkema, R.

    2009-01-01

    Current status: Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is currently almost exclusively targeted at the somatostatin receptor (sst). Of the 5 receptor subtypes, sst2 is frequently very highly expressed at the cell surface of neuroendocrine tumors (NET). Octreotide is a small and stable derivative of native somatostatin, which can be very well labeled with therapeutic radionuclides such as the beta-emitters ''9''0Y, ''1''7''7Lu or the Auger emitter ''1''1''1In, chelated in DTPA or DOTA, linked to the peptide. All current therapeutic octreotide derivatives are agonists that are internalized in the cell. The affinity for the sst2 receptor is better for [DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotate than for [DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotide or [DTPA]octreotide. ''9''0Y is a pure beta-emitter, with a half-life of 2.7 days, a high energy of 2.270 MeV, and a maximum penetration in tissue of 12mm. ''1''7''7Lu with a half-life of 6.7 days emits a low abundance of gamma photons as well as beta particles of 497 keV, with a maximum tissue penetration of 2 mm. ''1''7''7Lu-[DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotate (Lu-DOTATE), ''9''0Y-[DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotate (Y-DOTATATE) and ''9''0Y-[DOTA,Tyr''3]octreotide (Y-DOTATOC) are today the most frequently used therapeutic radiopeptides. Main inclusion criteria: inoperable and/or metastatic NET, receptor-positivity in all known lesions demonstrated by sufficient uptake on ''1''1''1In-octreotide scintigraphy (intensity > liver parenchyma), life expectancy at least 3-6 months, sufficient bone marrow reserve (hemoglobin (HGB) ≥ 5 mmol/L, white blood cells (WBC) ≥ 2*10 9 /L, platelets (PLT) ≥ 75*10 12 /L), sufficient renal function (serum creatinine 40 mL/min), sufficient hepatic and cardiac reserve. Karnofski score ≥50. Efficacy: several groups have reported objective response rates (RECIST or WHO/SWOG; CT or MRI based). Complete remission (CR) is rarely seen, partial remission (PR; >50% shrinkage SWOG) in 7% - 37%, minor remission (MR, 25% - 50% shrinkage) in 13% - 17

  16. Prototypes of Self-Powered Radiation Detectors Employing Intrinsic High-Energy Current (HEC) (POSTPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    neutron sensi- tivities of a Pt self - powered detector ,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 25, 292–295 (1978). 6T. A. Dellin, R. E. Huddleston, and C. J...Gamma-sensitive self - powered detectors and their use for in-core flux -mapping,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 28, 752–757 (1981). 9E. A. Burke and J. Wall...AFCEC-CX-TY-TP-2016-0006 PROTOTYPES OF SELF - POWERED RADIATION DETECTORS EMPLOYING INTRINSIC HIGH-ENERGY CURRENT (HEC) (POSTPRINT) Piotr

  17. High linearity current communicating passive mixer employing a simple resistor bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Rongjiang; Guo Guiliang; Yan Yuepeng

    2013-01-01

    A high linearity current communicating passive mixer including the mixing cell and transimpedance amplifier (TIA) is introduced. It employs the resistor in the TIA to reduce the source voltage and the gate voltage of the mixing cell. The optimum linearity and the maximum symmetric switching operation are obtained at the same time. The mixer is implemented in a 0.25 μm CMOS process. The test shows that it achieves an input third-order intercept point of 13.32 dBm, conversion gain of 5.52 dB, and a single sideband noise figure of 20 dB. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  18. Current status of the New Antiepileptic drugs in chronic pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Singh Sidhu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs are extensively used worldwide to treat a wide range of disorders other than epilepsy, such as neuropathic pain, migraine and bipolar disorder. Due to this situation more than 20 new third-generation AEDs have been introduced in the market recently. The future design of new AEDs must also have potential to help in the non-epileptic disorders. The wide acceptance of second generation AEDs for the management of various Non-epileptic disorders has caused the emergence of generics in the market. The wide use of approved AEDs outside epilepsy is based on both economic and scientific reasons. Bipolar disorders, migraine prophylaxis, fibromyalgia and neuropathic pain represent the most attractive indication expansion opportunities for anticonvulsant developers, providing blockbuster revenues. Strong growth in non-epilepsy conditions will see Pfizer’s Lyrica become the market leading brand by 2018. In this review we mainly focus on the current status of new AEDs in the treatment of chronic pain and migraine prophylaxis. AEDs have a strong analgesic potential and this is demonstrated by the wide use of carbamazepine in trigeminal neuralgia and sodium valproate in migraine prophylaxis. At present, data on the new AEDs for non-epileptic conditions are inconclusive. Not all AEDs are effective in the management of neuropathic pain and migraine. Only those AEDs whose mechanisms of action are match with pathophysiology of the disease, have potential to show efficacy in non-epileptic disorder. For this better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and mechanisms of action of new AEDs are essential requirement before initiating pre-clinical and clinical trials. Many new AEDs show good results in the animal model and open-label studies but fail to provide strong evidence at randomized, placebo-controlled trials. The final decision regarding the clinical efficacy of the particular AEDs in a specific non-epileptic disorder

  19. Corpus callosum atrophy as a marker of clinically meaningful cognitive decline in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. Impact on employment status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathanasiou, Athanasios; Messinis, Lambros; Zampakis, Petros; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2017-09-01

    Cognitive impairment in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is more frequent and pronounced in secondary progressive MS (SPMS). Cognitive decline is an important predictor of employment status in patients with MS. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) markers have been used to associate tissue damage with cognitive dysfunction. The aim of the study was to designate the MRI marker that predicts cognitive decline in SPMS and explore its effect on employment status. 30 SPMS patients and 30 healthy participants underwent neuropsychological assessment using the Trail Making Test (TMT) parts A and B, semantic and phonological verbal fluency task and a computerized cognitive screening battery (Central Nervous System Vital Signs). Employment status was obtained as a quality of life measure. Brain MRI was performed in all participants. We measured total lesion volume, third ventricle width, thalamic and corpus callosum atrophy. The frequency of cognitive decline for our SPMS patients was 80%. SPMS patients differed significantly from controls in all neuropsychological measures. Corpus callosum area was correlated with cognitive flexibility, processing speed, composite memory, executive functions, psychomotor speed, reaction time and phonological verbal fluency task. Processing speed and composite memory were the most sensitive markers for predicting employment status. Corpus callosum area was the most sensitive MRI marker for memory and processing speed. Corpus callosum atrophy predicts a clinically meaningful cognitive decline, affecting employment status in our SPMS patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. MELiSSA Food Characterization general approach and current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihreter, Martin; Chaerle, Laury; Secco, Benjamin; Molders, Katrien; van der Straeten, Dominique; Duliere, Eric; Pieters, Serge; Maclean, Heather; Dochain, Denis; Quinet, Muriel; Lutts, Stanley; Graham, Thomas; Stasiak, Michael; Rondeau Vuk, Theresa; Zheng, Youbin; Dixon, Mike; Laniau, Martine; Larreture, Alain; Timsit, Michel; Aronne, Giovanna; Barbieri, Giancarlo; Buonomo, Roberta; Veronica; Paradiso, Roberta; de Pascale, Stafania; Galbiati, Massimo; Troia, A. R.; Nobili, Matteo; Bucchieri, Lorenzo; Page, Valérie; Feller, Urs; Lasseur, Christophe

    . Available MELiSSA closed environment crop growth data were used to develop a first photosynthetic model representing the basic carbon fixation mechanisms. This model will be further elaborated in the course of this study to predict yield, oxygen production and transpi-ration. As an ultimate goal the model is intended to simulate the composition of the different plant organs (root, shoot, fruit/seed or tuber) for each crop under various conditions. For the validation of this model an extensive amount of data sets are needed. Current plant growth bench test setups will provide part of the required data. To gain more precise and detailed datasets, a highly closed plant growth chamber (Plant Characterization Unit, PCU) is under development. The PCU will provide accurate mass balances for carbon, water, oxygen and other elements with statistical reliability. This reliability is achieved through a high degree of closure and environment homogeneity. The PCU will also provide data for the above described plant characterization studies. The general work approach, the current status and future steps will be illustrated.

  1. Employment status at time of first hospitalization for heart failure is associated with a higher risk of death and rehospitalization for heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørth, Rasmus; Fosbøl, Emil L; Mogensen, Ulrik M

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Employment status at time of first heart failure (HF) hospitalization may be an indicator of both self-perceived and objective health status. In this study, we examined the association between employment status and the risk of all-cause mortality and recurrent HF hospitalization in a nation......AIMS: Employment status at time of first heart failure (HF) hospitalization may be an indicator of both self-perceived and objective health status. In this study, we examined the association between employment status and the risk of all-cause mortality and recurrent HF hospitalization...

  2. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed.

  3. Lower hybrid current drive for edge current density modification in DIII-D: Final status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenstermacher, M.E.; Porkolab, M.

    1993-01-01

    Application of Lower Hybrid (LH) Current Drive (CD) in the DIII-D tokamak has been studied at LLNL, off and on, for several years. The latest effort began in February 1992 in response to a letter from ASDEX indicating that the 2.45 GHz, 3 MW system there was available to be used on another device. An initial assessment of the possible uses for such a system on DIII-D was made and documented in September 1992. Multiple meetings with GA personnel and members of the LH community nationwide have occurred since that time. The work continued through the submission of the 1995 Field Work Proposals in March 1993 and was then put on hold due to budget limitations. The purpose of this document is to record the status of the work in such a way that it could fairly easily be restarted at a future date. This document will take the form of a collection of Appendices giving both background and the latest results from the FY 1993 work, connected by brief descriptive text. Section 2 will describe the final workshop on LHCD in DIII-D held at GA in February 1993. This was an open meeting with attendees from GA, LLNL, MIT and PPPL. Summary documents from the meeting and subsequent papers describing the results will be included in Appendices. Section 3 will describe the status of work on the use of low frequency (2.45 GHZ) LH power and Parametric Decay Instabilities (PDI) for the special case of high dielectric in the edge regions of the DIII-D plasma. This was one of the critical issues identified at the workshop. Other potential issues for LHCD in the DIII-D scenarios are: (1) damping of the waves on fast ions from neutral beam injection, (2) runaway electrons in the low density edge plasma, (3) the validity of the WKB approximation used in the ray-tracing models in the steep edge density gradients

  4. The Current Status of the Economic Security of Poltava Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarevska Olha M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The status of economic security of Poltava region in 2012–2016 was analyzed, the analysis was conducted using the developed methodology for assessing economic security of region, which is based on the joint use of indicative and functional methods. In order to assess the status of economic security of region, a system of indicators, divided by economic security components, has been formed using functional approach. The information-analytical provision of assessment has been formed using statistical information on the socio-economic development of the region. The influence of factors of destabilizing and destimulative nature on the status of economic security of the region has been researched. It has been concluded that the economic security of Poltava region is unsatisfactory, despite the existence of some positive tendencies, which at present are not sustainable.

  5. [Development of antituberculous drugs: current status and future prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Haruaki; Namba, Kenji

    2006-12-01

    and drug regimens for anti-TB chemotherapy. There are a number of difficulties in drug-design for the development of new drug formulations with increased potential for antimycobacterial effects, excellent pharmacokinetics, and tolerability. It should be emphasized that the most urgent goal of chemotherapy of TB and MAC infections, especially that associated with HIV infection, is to develop highly active, low-cost drugs which can be used not only in industrialized countries but also in developing countries, since the incidences of AIDS-associated intractable TB and MAC infections are rapidly increasing in the latter. We strongly wish a great advance of fundametal and practical studies in developing such kinds of new anti-TB drugs in the near future. 1. Prospects for non-clinical or clinical development of new antituberculous drugs in relation to corporate strategy: Kenji NAMBA (New Product Research Laboratories I, Daiichi Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.) Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the deadliest threats to public health. No new anti-TB drugs have been brought into the clinic in the past 40 years. Current non-clinical works with progressed technology and Global Alliance for TB Drug Development, a non-profit organization established in 2000, accelerate research and development of faster-acting anti-TB compounds. We reviewed the status of new types of compounds which are being developed as anti-TB drug, such as diarylquinoline (TMC 207), nitroimidazole (PA-824 and OPC-67683), and moxifloxacin (MFLX). We also discussed the best clinical development plans for new-TB drugs in relation to corporate strategy. 2. Exploring novel drug targets through the chemical genomics approach and its possible application to the development of anti-tuberculosis drugs: Yorimasa SUWA (Reverse Proteomics Research Institute Co., Ltd.), Yohji SUZUKI (Teijin Ltd.) Recently, chemical genomics approach has been focused as an emerging technology for the drug discovery. In advance to a very large scale

  6. Differences between men and women in substance use: the role of educational level and employment status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixidó-Compañó, Ester; Espelt, Albert; Sordo, Luis; Bravo, María J; Sarasa-Renedo, Ana; Indave, B Iciar; Bosque-Prous, Marina; Brugal, M Teresa

    To determine differences between men and women in hazardous drinking, heavy cannabis use and hypnosedative use according to educational level and employment status in the economically active population in Spain. Cross-sectional study with data from 2013 Spanish Household Survey on Alcohol and Drugs on individuals aged 25-64 [n=14,113 (women=6,171; men=7,942)]. Dependent variables were hazardous drinking, heavy cannabis use and hypnosedative consumption; the main independent variables were educational level and employment situation. Associations between dependent and independent variables were calculated with Poisson regression models with robust variance. All analyses were stratified by sex. Hazardous drinking and heavy cannabis use were higher in men, while women consumed more hypnosedatives. The lower the educational level, the greater the gender differences in the prevalence of this substances owing to different consumption patterns in men and women. While men with a lower educational level were higher hazardous drinkers [RII=2.57 (95%CI: 1.75-3.78)] and heavy cannabis users [RII=3.03 (95%CI: 1.88-4.89)] compared to higher educational level, in women the prevalence was the same. Women with a lower education level and men with a higher education level had higher hypnosedative consumption. Unemployment was associated with increased heavy cannabis use and hypnosedative use in both women and men and with lower hazardous drinking only in women. There are differences between men and women in the use of psychoactive substances that can be explained by the unequal distribution of substance use in them according to educational level. Unemployment was associated with substance use in both men and women. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of self-efficacy, depression and symptom distress on employment status and leisure activities of liver transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Li-Chueh; Huang, Hsiu-Li; Wang, Yi-Wen; Lee, Wei-Chen; Chen, Kang-Hua; Yang, Tsui-Yun

    2014-07-01

    To examine the effect of self-efficacy, subjective work ability, depression and symptom distress on and to provide a description of, the employment and leisure activities of liver transplant recipients. Return to work and leisure activities have become an important aspect of life for liver transplant recipients worldwide. An investigation of the factors that influence the employment status and leisure activities has been recommended as a means to help transplant recipients restore their productivity. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive and correlational study in 2010. A convenience sampling method was used. Data were collected using a set of questionnaires that were administered retrospectively. A total of 106 liver transplant patients were included in this study. The post-transplantation employment rate was 45.2%. The positive predictors of employment were higher subjective work ability and higher symptom distress. Gender (female), monthly family income (employment status. Of the 106 patients, 62 (58.5%) were in the low-diversity group (score of less than 3) of leisure activities. Monthly family income of employment, while depression was a negative predictor. Nurses in the transplant team should focus on increasing a sense of confidence, decreasing depressive symptoms and monitoring the severity of symptoms to improve the employment status of liver transplant recipients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Power of national economy, disease control and employment status in patients with RA-an analytical multi-site ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieringer, Herwig; Puchner, Rudolf; Pohanka, Erich; Danninger, Kathrin

    2016-02-01

    In rheumatology, sufficient disease control is a central part of the treatment concept. However, modern treatment strategies are associated with a substantial economic burden for health care systems. Ecological studies offer the unique opportunity to analyse differences between groups as well as group level effects. In the present analytical multi-site ecological study, we investigated whether more powerful national economies as measured by the gross domestic product per capita (GDPpc) are associated with better disease control in RA patients as measured by the disease activity score 28 (DAS28). We used aggregated data on RA patients from the recently published COMORA study as well as the World Health Organization database. There was a strong negative correlation between DAS28 and GDPpc (r = -0.815; p = 0.0002). Adjustment for sex, smoking status, disease duration or current employment status did not significantly change this association. There was a strong, negative correlation between DAS28 and age (r = -0.870; p < 0.001) and a strong, positive correlation between GDPpc and age (r = 0.737; p = 0.002). Adjustment for age reduced the regression coefficient (DAS28/GDPpc) to -0.000018 (p = 0.054). There was a negative correlation between DAS28 and current employment status (r = -0.642; p = 0.008) and a positive correlation between GDPpc and employment status (r = 0.722; p = 0.002). In conclusion, there is evidence of an association between disease control and GDPpc. This association is alleviated after adjustment for age. Of note, in countries with higher GDPpc, a higher proportion of RA patients are currently employed. This is true despite the fact that RA patients in countries with higher GDPpc are also older.

  9. Current status of Russian Evaluated Neutron Data Libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhin, A.I.; Ignatyuk, A.V.; Manokhin, V.N.; Nikolaev, M.N.

    1996-01-01

    The status of Russian Evaluated Data Libraries is discussed. The last modifications of the BROND-2 files and their relations to the additional files of the FOND library and the ABBN-90 group constants are considered. The main characteristics of new libraries for the photoneutron data, dosimetry and activation reaction cross sections and transmutation cross sections for intermediate energies are described briefly. (author)

  10. Current status of CHESS - the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.; Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY

    1982-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of CHESS through its three-year construction period, which ends in the fall of 1981. Included are a brief description of beam lines, monochromators, station instrumentations and support facilities. Our experiences with source size and stability over the last year are reported, along with planned fall revisions and running schedule. (orig.)

  11. Current status of the EPR method to detect irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desrosiers, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    This review gives a brief outline of the principles of the EPR detection method for irradiated foods by food type. For each food type, the scope, limitations and status of the method are given. The extensive reference list aims to include all which define the method, as well as some rarely cited works of historical importance. (author)

  12. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future January 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liljegren, JC

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  13. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future October 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  14. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future May 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  15. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future February 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development

  16. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future May 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  17. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future March 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  18. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - February 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  19. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - March 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  20. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voelker DK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dana K Voelker,1 Justine J Reel,2 Christy Greenleaf3 1West Virginia University, College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Morgantown, WV, 2University of North Carolina Wilmington, College of Health and Human Services, Wilmington, NC, 3University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, College of Health Sciences, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise. Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. Keywords: adolescence, eating disorders, obesity, bullying, puberty, physical activity

  1. Cancer and heart attack survivors’ expectations of employment status: results from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia F. A. Duijts

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sociodemographic, health- and work-related factors have been found to influence return to work in cancer survivors. It is feasible though that behavioural factors, such as expectation of being at work, could also affect work-related outcomes. Therefore, the effect of earlier identified factors and expectation of being at work on future employment status in cancer survivors was explored. To assess the degree to which these factors specifically concern cancer survivors, a comparison with heart attack survivors was made. Methods Data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing were used. Cancer and heart attack survivors of working age in the UK were included and followed up for 2 years. Baseline characteristics of both cancer and heart attack survivors were compared regarding employment status. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed in survivors at work, and the interaction between independent variables and diagnose group was assessed. Results In cancer survivors at work (N = 159, alcohol consumption, participating in moderate or vigorous sport activities, general health and participation were univariate associated with employment status at two-year follow-up. Only fair general health (compared to very good general health remained statistically significant in the multivariate model (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.13–0.76; p = 0.010. In heart attack survivors at work (N = 78, gender, general health and expectation of being at work were univariate associated with employment status at follow-up. Female gender (OR 0.03; 95% CI 0.00–0.57; p = 0.018 and high expectation of being at work (OR 10.68; 95% CI 1.23–93.92; p = 0.033 remained significant in the multivariate model. The influence of gender (p = 0.066 and general health (p = 0.020 regarding employment status was found to differ significantly between cancer and heart attack survivors. Conclusions When predicting future employment status in cancer

  2. Cancer and heart attack survivors' expectations of employment status: results from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijts, Saskia F A; van der Beek, Allard J; Bleiker, Eveline M A; Smith, Lee; Wardle, Jane

    2017-08-07

    Sociodemographic, health- and work-related factors have been found to influence return to work in cancer survivors. It is feasible though that behavioural factors, such as expectation of being at work, could also affect work-related outcomes. Therefore, the effect of earlier identified factors and expectation of being at work on future employment status in cancer survivors was explored. To assess the degree to which these factors specifically concern cancer survivors, a comparison with heart attack survivors was made. Data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing were used. Cancer and heart attack survivors of working age in the UK were included and followed up for 2 years. Baseline characteristics of both cancer and heart attack survivors were compared regarding employment status. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed in survivors at work, and the interaction between independent variables and diagnose group was assessed. In cancer survivors at work (N = 159), alcohol consumption, participating in moderate or vigorous sport activities, general health and participation were univariate associated with employment status at two-year follow-up. Only fair general health (compared to very good general health) remained statistically significant in the multivariate model (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.13-0.76; p = 0.010). In heart attack survivors at work (N = 78), gender, general health and expectation of being at work were univariate associated with employment status at follow-up. Female gender (OR 0.03; 95% CI 0.00-0.57; p = 0.018) and high expectation of being at work (OR 10.68; 95% CI 1.23-93.92; p = 0.033) remained significant in the multivariate model. The influence of gender (p = 0.066) and general health (p = 0.020) regarding employment status was found to differ significantly between cancer and heart attack survivors. When predicting future employment status in cancer survivors in the UK, general health is the most relevant factor

  3. Parental employment status and adolescents' health: the role of financial situation, parent-adolescent relationship and adolescents' resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Benka, Jozef; Orosova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with parental employment status and its relationship to adolescents' self-reported health. It studies the role of the financial situation, parent-adolescent relationship and adolescent resilience in the relationship between parental employment status and adolescents' self-rated health, vitality and mental health. Multiple regression analyses were used to analyse questionnaire data obtained from 2799 adolescents (mean age 14.3) in 2006. The results show a negative association of the father's, but not mother's unemployment or non-employment with adolescents' health. Regression analyses showed that neither financial strain nor a poor parent-adolescent relationship or a low score in resilience accounted for the relationship between the father's unemployment or non-employment and poorer adolescent health. Furthermore, resilience did not work as a buffer against the negative impact of fathers' unemployment on adolescents' health.

  4. Factors associated with contraceptive practices of married women in Bangladesh with respect to their employment status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskar, M S; Mahbub, M H; Yokoyama, Kenjiro; Inoue, Masaiwa; Harada, Noriaki

    2006-09-01

    There might be a difference between non-working and working women in their perception of rights and privileges which may influence their contraceptive behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine contraceptive behavior among non-working and working women in Bangladesh determining associated factors. Analysis was based on data from the 1999-2000 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey which employs nationally representative sample. The prevalence of current contraceptive use (any method) was 58.2% among non-working women and 65.5% among working women. Both rates are still low for the country. Some factors, such as discussed family planning with husband, husband approves family planning, desire for more children, and husband lives together, were influential determinants of lower contraceptive prevalence among the non-working women. The results indicate a necessity for social activities promoting husband-wife communication and women's participation in employment to enhance the use of contraceptives among Bangladeshi women, especially non-working women.

  5. The Influence of Race on Employment Status and Earnings of African Immigrant Men in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Djamba, Yanyi K.; Kimuna, Sitawa R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses the labor queue theory to examine the changing influence of race on the employment status and earnings of African immigrant men in the United States between 1980 and 2008. The results show that the white advantage echoed in previous research has diminished. Black African immigrant men's chance of being employed is now greater than that of their white counterparts when their sociodemographic characteristics are...

  6. Rice Genome Research: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Han

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice ( L. is the leading genomics system among the crop plants. The sequence of the rice genome, the first cereal plant genome, was published in 2005. This review summarizes progress made in rice genome annotations, comparative genomics, and functional genomics researches. It also maps out the status of rice genomics globally and provides a vision of future research directions and resource building.

  7. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future July 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  8. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future September 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  9. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future August 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  10. Safety analysis reports. Current status (third key report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A review of Ukrainian regulations and laws concerned with Nuclear power and radiation safety is presented with an overview of the requirements for the Safety Analysis Report Contents. Status of Safety Analysis Reports (SAR) is listed for each particular Ukrainian NPP including SAR development schedules. Organisational scheme of SAR development works includes: general technical co-ordination on Safety Analysis Report development; list of leading organisations and utilization of technical support within international projects

  11. Current Status & Development Trend of VSAT Market in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Nutu

    2006-01-01

    @@ 1. General Status of VSAT Market Development in China 1)Development History Development in China The history of the application of satellite communication in China is not too long and it was dated from the early seventies of the 20th century. In 1973, approved by Chinese government,Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications purchased satellite earth equipment from foreign country and constructed 3 stations in Shanghai and Beijing.

  12. Current status of the near surface repository in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, V.; Glodeanu, F.; Rotaru, I.

    2000-01-01

    The radioactive waste management at the Cernavoda NPP is based on collection, pretreatment and storage of all solid wastes. The disposal of operational and decommissioning wastes has been evaluated, based on the results of a research and development programme. A near surface disposal facility was selected and a siting process was implemented. The status of this project and its prospective are discussed in the paper. (author)

  13. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - April 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  14. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - December 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-01-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  15. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future February 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-02-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  16. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - September 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-10-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  17. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - July 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  18. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - August 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  19. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - June 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  20. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - October 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  1. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future March 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  2. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - May 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  3. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - January 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-03-02

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  4. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - November 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  5. Current status of Chinese nuclear power industry and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Min; Kim, Min; Jeong, Hee Jong; Hwang, Jeong Ki; Cho, Chung Hee

    1996-10-01

    China has been carrying out active international cooperation aiming to be a country where is to be an economical super power and an advanced country in nuclear power technology by the year early 2000, and China also has begun to be recognized as the largest potential market for the construction of nuclear power plants(NPPs) expecting to construct more than thirty nuclear power units by the year 2020. China has advanced technology in the basic nuclear science including liquid metal breeder reactor technology, nuclear material, medium and small size power plants, and isotope production technology, and also China has complete nuclear fuel cycle technology. However, China still has low NPP technology. Therefore, it is expected that China may have complementary cooperative relationship with China, it is expected that Korea may have an access to the advanced Chinese nuclear science technology, and may have a good opportunity to explore the Chinese market actively exporting excellent Korean NPP technology, and further may have a good position to the neighboring Asian countries' NPP markets. From this perspective, general Chinese social status, major nuclear R and D activity status, and correct NPP and technology status have been analyzed in this report, and this report is expected to be a useful resource for cooperating with China in future. 10 tabs., 6 figs., 16 refs. (Author)

  6. New horizons in predictive toxicology: current status and application

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, A. G. E

    2012-01-01

    "In this comprehensive discussion of predictive toxicology and its applications, leading experts express their views on the technologies currently available and the potential for future developments...

  7. The relationship between employment and veteran status, disability and gender from 2004-2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Diane L

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, about 1.8 million or 8 percent of the 22.2 million veterans were women in the US. The unemployment rate for female veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan rose to 13.5%, above the 8.4% for non-veteran adult women. To examine data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), from 2004-2011 to determine the relationship between employment and veteran status, disability and gender. Chi square analysis was used to determine if significant differences existed between the employment rate of female veterans with disabilities and female veterans without disabilities, female non-veterans with disabilities and male veterans with disabilities. Binomial logistic regression analysis was used to determine how veteran status, disability and gender affected the likelihood of not being employed. Significant differences were found in employment rate between female veterans with disabilities and female veterans without disabilities, but not when compared to female non-veterans with disabilities or male veterans with disabilities. Disability was the strongest factor increasing the likelihood of not being employed, though veteran status and female gender were also predictive. Female veterans with disabilities experience low levels of employment. Policies and programs are needed to address the unique needs of these veterans.

  8. AN ASSESMENT OF CURRENT EMPLOYMENT NEEDS IN THE ROMANIAN FURNITURE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristinel Petrişor CONSTANTIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an exploratory survey among Romanian companies from the furniture industry. The study aimed to identify: (1 respondents’ opinions regarding the main competences that a candidate needs to prove in order to be hired; (2 attitudes regarding the competences of the graduates from the Wood Engineering Faculty, Transilvania University of Brasov; and (3 main current employment needs of Romanian furniture industry. The results indicated that the highest importance in the selection of employees is given to transversal competences such as: orientation to quality; learning capacity; and availability for self-development, team working; and involvement in meeting customers’ requirements. The interviewed representatives of the studied companies mainly need skilled workers in the furniture industry but also engineers able to manage the company’s processes, or to design certain processes and products. The results of the present study may be used by the Wood Engineering Faculty in their attempt to adapt the academic curriculum and course contents; and give their graduates a chance to acquire relevant competences which may enhance their employability.

  9. Continuing-education needs of the currently employed public health education workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrante, J P; Moon, R W; Auld, M E; Gebbie, K M

    2001-08-01

    This study examined the continuing-education needs of the currently employed public health education workforce. A national consensus panel of leading health educators from public health agencies, academic institutions, and professional organizations was convened to examine the forces creating the context for the work of public health educators and the competencies they need to practice effectively. Advocacy; business management and finance; communication; community health planning and development, coalition building, and leadership; computing and technology; cultural competency; evaluation; and strategic planning were identified as areas of critical competence. Continuing education must strengthen a broad range of critical competencies and skills if we are to ensure the further development and effectiveness of the public health education workforce.

  10. Impacts of education level and employment status on health-related quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šabanagić-Hajrić, Selma; Alajbegović, Azra

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the impacts of education level and employment status on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in multiple sclerosis patients. This study included 100 multiple sclerosis patients treated at the Department of Neurology, Clinical Center of the University of Sarajevo. Inclusion criteria were the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score between 1.0 and 6.5, age between 18 and 65 years, stable disease on enrollment. Quality of life (QoL) was evaluated by the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 questionnaire (MSQoL-54). Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for comparisons. Linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate prediction value of educational level and employment status in predicting MSQOL-54 physical and mental composite scores. Full employment status had positive impact on physical health (54.85 vs. 37.90; p les than 0.001) and mental health (59.55 vs. 45.90; p les than 0.001) composite scores. Employment status retained its independent predictability for both physical (r(2)=0.105) and mental (r(2)=0.076) composite scores in linear regression analysis. Patients with college degree had slightly higher median value of physical (49.36 vs. 45.30) and mental health composite score (66.74 vs. 55.62) comparing to others, without statistically significant difference. Employment proved to be an important factor in predicting quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients. Higher education level may determine better QOL but without significant predictive value. Sustained employment and development of vocational rehabilitation programs for MS patients living in the country with high unemployment level is an important factor in improving both physical and mental health outcomes in MS patients.

  11. The current implementation status of the integration of sports and physical activity into Dutch rehabilitation care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Femke; Hettinga, Florentina J; Alingh, Rolinde A; Duijf, Marjo; Dekker, Rienk; van der Woude, Lucas H V; van der Schans, Cees P

    PURPOSE: To describe the current status of the nationwide implementation process of a sports and physical activity stimulation programme to gain insight into how sports and physical activity were integrated into Dutch rehabilitation care. METHODS: The current implementation status of a sports and

  12. The proton ''spin contents'': Current status ampersand perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Ta-Pei; Li, Ling-Fong

    1990-01-01

    The present status of the phenomenological and theoretical interpretation of the EMC result on the polarized deep elastic scattering is reviewed. We focus our discussion on the possibility of a significant gluonic contribution to the proton spin via the axial anomaly. We contrast the variant perspectives on this question: the viewpoint that stresses the interpretation in terms of the parton distributions vs the one that concentrates on the matrix elements of local operators. Some remarks concerning the validity of OZI rule for the strange quark are also included. 53 refs

  13. Current Status of Dengue Therapeutics Research and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Jenny G H; Ooi, Eng Eong; Vasudevan, Subhash G

    2017-03-01

    Dengue is a significant global health problem. Even though a vaccine against dengue is now available, which is a notable achievement, its long-term protective efficacy against each of the 4 dengue virus serotypes remains to be definitively determined. Consequently, drugs directed at the viral targets or critical host mechanisms that can be used safely as prophylaxis or treatment to effectively ameliorate disease or reduce disease severity and fatalities are still needed to reduce the burden of dengue. This review will provide a brief account of the status of therapeutics research and development for dengue. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  14. The current status of imaging diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fang; Tang Guangcai

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the incidence and the mortality rate of female breast cancer in our country is increasing, Early diagnosis of breast cancer is particularly important. Precious preoperative staging in the breast cancer is advantageous for the treatment planning. Evaluating the efficacy of chemotherapy is beneficial for adjusting the follow-up plan. Imaging examination has become an important role in breast cancer management. At present, commonly used equipment include mammography, ultrasound, CT, and MRI, etc. This article reviews the present study status of these tools in diagnosis of breast cancer. A reasonable and effective choice of those tools can facilitate clinic diagnosis and treatment. (authors)

  15. Current Status and Challenges in Wind Energy Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Badger, Jake; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2014-01-01

    Here we discuss the status and challenges in the development of atlases for the assessment of the regional and global wind resources. The text more specifically describes a methodology that is under development at DTU Wind Energy in Denmark. As the wind assessment is based on mesoscale modelling,......, some of the specific challenges in mesoscale modelling for wind energy purposes are discussed such as wind profiles and long-term statistics of the wind speed time series. Solutions to these challenges will help secure an economic and effective deployment of wind energy....

  16. The current status of radioactive monitoring gauges in UIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong

    1993-01-01

    The author introduces the characteristics of representative products for current environment radiation monitoring and measurement instruments of radiation nuclide content in UIC including aerosol detection equipment and multi function radiation dosemeters

  17. Medicinal Use of Cannabis: History and Current Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Kalant

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of the history and pharmacology of cannabis in relation to current scientific knowledge concerning actual and potential therapeutic uses of cannabis preparations and pure cannabinoids.

  18. Biofuel implementation in East Europe: Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondili, E.M.; Kaldellis, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    There is a continuously increasing interest concerning the biofuel implementation in Europe, mainly because of environmental protection and energy supply security reasons. In this context, the European Union (EU) strongly encourages the use of biofuels through a number of Directives. To that effect, EU members follow the Directives implementing various political, fiscal and technical measures and incentives. In the light of the potential created by the recently joined Eastern European countries, an increasing interest is shown in the whole biofuel supply chain within the EU. In parallel, the status of the Eastern European countries domestic market, as far as biofuels are concerned, is an interesting issue, since most of these countries present a significant potential, however still lagging in biofuel implementation. In the above context, the objective of the present work is to give a concise and up-to-date picture of the present status of biofuel implementation in East Europe. The work also aims at identifying the prospects of these countries as far as biofuels are concerned and their role in the EU framework as potential suppliers of a wider market. (author)

  19. Dentin-bonded all-ceramic crowns: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, F J; Qualtrough, A J; Hale, R W

    1998-04-01

    Dentin-bonded all-ceramic crowns employ contemporary techniques to lute the crown to the tooth using a resin luting material and dentin-bonding system. The advantages of these crowns are that they provide good esthetics and fracture resistance and can be used in cases of substantial tooth loss. Their principal disadvantages are that the luting procedure is more time-consuming and that these crowns should not be used where margins are subgingival. Dentin-bonded all-ceramic crowns may be a useful addition to the dentist's armamentarium, but long-term clinical studies are needed to fully assess their performance.

  20. Are ethnic minorities disadvantaged? The employment participation and occupational status of Moroccan and Turkish second generation migrants in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gracia, P.; Vazquez, L.; van de Werfhorst, H.G.

    2014-01-01

    We use data from the 2009/10 Wave of the Netherlands Longitudinal Lifecourse Study to analyze the employment participation and occupational status of Moroccan and Turkish Second Generation Migrants (SGM) in the Netherlands. By considering measures of family background (i.e. parental education,

  1. Employment status matters: a statewide survey of quality-of-life, prevention behaviors, and absenteeism and presenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, James A; Kelly, Kevin M; Burmeister, Leon F; Lozier, Matt J; Amendola, Alison; Lind, David P; KcKeen, Arlinda; Slater, Tom; Hall, Jennifer L; Rohlman, Diane S; Buikema, Brenda S

    2014-07-01

    To estimate quality-of-life (QoL), primary care, health insurance, prevention behaviors, absenteeism, and presenteeism in a statewide sample of the unemployed, self-employed, and organizationally employed. A statewide survey of 1602 Iowans included items from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention QoL and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey prevention behavior questionnaires used to assess employee well-being; their indicator results are related to World Health Organization's Health and Work Performance Questionnaire-derived absenteeism and presenteeism scores. The unemployed exhibited poorer QoL and prevention behaviors; the self-employed exhibited many better QoL scores due largely to better prevention behaviors than those employed by organizations. Higher QoL measures and more prevention behaviors are associated with lower absenteeism and lower presenteeism. Employment status is related to measures of well-being, which are also associated with absenteeism and presenteeism.

  2. Current status of thin seam longwall mining in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, S.S. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Orndorff, A.

    1996-12-31

    Thin seams in this paper refers to those seams the economic mining height of which is below 50-55 in. that are traditionally considered to be the proprietary of plowing and present a whole net set of problems for longwall mining. In thin seams it is difficult to design and manufacture an efficient high capacity cutting machine for maintenance and production operations. Thin seam mining by longwall plowing began in the late fifties in southern West Virginia, and continues to the present time. In the seventies when longwall mining began to take off a large percentage of U.S. longwalls were operating in the thin seams. Tables 1 and 2 show the historical trends of cutting machines used for seams less than 55 in and 50 in, respectively. In addition to the plow system, the single-ended fixed drum and single-ended ranging drum shearers were introduced in the mid and late seventies and operated continuously until 2-4 years ago. The double-ended ranging drum shearers have also been employed for thin seam longwall mining during this period including several in-web (or off-pan) shearers between late seventies and early eighties. In this paper three thin-seam longwalls in three states employing the latest thin-seam longwall technology will be reviewed. However only two of them are still in operation while the third one ceased operation recently.

  3. Are Level of Education and Employment Related to Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders in Current and Retired Professional Footballers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Verhagen, Evert; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2016-01-01

    Mental disorders have become a topic of increasing interest in research due to their serious consequences for quality of life and functioning. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship of level of education, employment status and working hours with symptoms of common mental

  4. Are Level of Education and Employment Related to Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders in Current and Retired Professional Footballers?

    OpenAIRE

    Gouttebarge; Aoki; Verhagen; Kerkhoffs

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental disorders have become a topic of increasing interest in research due to their serious consequences for quality of life and functioning. Objectives The objective of this study was to explore the relationship of level of education, employment status and working hours with symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour, smoking, adverse nutritional beh...

  5. Captive breeding of pangolins: current status, problems and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Liushuai; Gong, Shiping; Wang, Fumin; Li, Weiye; Ge, Yan; Li, Xiaonan; Hou, Fanghui

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin’s specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins. PMID:26155072

  6. Captive breeding of pangolins: current status, problems and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Liushuai; Gong, Shiping; Wang, Fumin; Li, Weiye; Ge, Yan; Li, Xiaonan; Hou, Fanghui

    2015-01-01

    Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin's specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins.

  7. Captive breeding of pangolins: current status, problems and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liushuai Hua

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin’s specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins.

  8. STS operations planning - Current status and outlook for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    Consideration is given to the status of Space Shuttle operations planning and outlook for the period 1982-94, with some speculations on Shuttle-related space operations early in the next century. Attention is given to the evolution of Shuttle payload capabilities over the next five years. The following list of near-earth environment factors to be exploited by the Space Shuttle is given: (1) easy control of gravity; (2) absence of atmosphere; (3) a comprehensive view of the earth's surface and atmosphere; (4) isolation of hazardous processes from earth biosphere; (5) freely available light, heat and photovoltaic power; (6) an infinite natural reservoir for the disposal of radioactive waste products; and (7) a super-cold heat sink.

  9. Current status of Clonorchis sinensis and clonorchiasis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, De-Hua; Hong, Xiao-Kun; Su, Bi-Xiu; Liang, Chi; Hide, Geoff; Zhang, Xiaoli; Yu, Xinbing; Lun, Zhao-Rong

    2016-01-01

    The oriental liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis, a pathogen causing clonorchiasis, is of major socio-economic importance in East Asia, including China, Korea and Vietnam. This parasite is now recognized as a biocarcinogen strongly linked to cholangiocarcinoma in humans. Here, we describe the status of clonorchiasis in China, where it has been estimated that more than 15 million patients are affected. This paper also summarizes the major advances in the field of clonorchiasis research during last decade, including diagnosis techniques, pathogenesis and genome/transcriptome/proteome studies in the last years. We strongly hope that our work can stimulate the governments of the countries or regions where clonorchiasis is endemic to pay more attention to this disease and establish related guidelines to prevent and control it. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. [Current status of bio-based materials industry in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Xiaoqian; Weng, Yunxuan; Huang, Zhigang; Yang, Nan; Wang, Xiyuan; Zhang, Min; Jin, Yujuan

    2016-06-25

    In recent years, bio-based materials are becoming a new dominant industry leading the scientific and technological innovation, and economic development of the world. We reviewed the new development of bio-based materials industry in China, analyzed the entire market of bio-based materials products comprehensively, and also stated the industry status of bio-based chemicals, such as lactic acid, 1,3-propanediol, and succinic acid; biodegradable bio-based polymers, such as co-polyester of diacid and diol, polylactic acid, carbon dioxide based copolymer, polyhydroxyalknoates, polycaprolactone, and thermoplastic bio-based plastics; non-biodegradable bio-based polymers, such as bio-based polyamide, polytrimethylene terephthalate, bio-based polyurethane, and bio-based fibers.

  11. Bacterial Wilt in China: History, Current Status, and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Gaofei; Wei, Zhong; Xu, Jin; Chen, Huilan; Zhang, Yong; She, Xiaoman; Macho, Alberto P.; Ding, Wei; Liao, Boshou

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial wilt caused by plant pathogenic Ralstonia spp. is one of the most important diseases affecting the production of many important crops worldwide. In China, a large scientific community has been dedicated to studying bacterial wilt and its causative agent, Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum and R. solanacearum. Most of their work was published in Chinese, which has hindered international communication and collaboration in this field. In this review, we summarize the status of knowledge on geographical distribution, diversity, and host range of Ralstonia spp., as well as, the impact of bacterial wilt on important crops and disease control approaches, in China. We present areas of research and publications by Chinese scientists and propose the promotion of collaborative research within China and with the international community. PMID:28955350

  12. Space transportation systems within ESA programmes: Current status and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahais, Maurice

    1993-03-01

    An overview of the space transportation aspects of the ESA (European Space Agency) programs as they result from history, present status, and decisions taken at the ministerial level conference in Granada, Spain is presented. The new factors taken into consideration for the long term plan proposed in Munich, Germany, the three strategic options for the reorientation of the ESA long term plan, and the essential elements of space transportation in the Granada long term plan in three areas of space activities, scientific, and commercial launches with expendable launch vehicles, manned flight and in-orbit infrastructure, and future transportation systems are outlined. The new ESA long term plan, in the field of space transportation systems, constitutes a reorientation of the initial program contemplated in previous councils at ministerial level. It aims at balancing the new economic situation with the new avenues of cooperation, and the outcome will be a new implementation of the space transportation systems policy.

  13. Filtered neutron beams at the FMRB - review and current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberts, W.G.; Dietz, E.

    1987-12-01

    A review is presented of our experience with filtered neutron beams installed in beam tubes of the Research and Measurement Reactor Braunschweig since 1976: Desing of the filters and measurement of the beam parameters are reported and an outline of the research work done with the beams is given. The present status of the irradiation facility, which consists of 5 beams (144 keV, 24.5 keV, 2 keV, 0.2 keV and thermal neutrons), is described in some detail to allow understanding of the physical as well as the technical prerequisites for performing calibrations of neutron measuring instruments. An appendix contains the actual beam parameters. (orig.) [de

  14. Current status of the MPEG-4 standardization effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastassiou, Dimitris

    1994-09-01

    The Moving Pictures Experts Group (MPEG) of the International Standardization Organization has initiated a standardization effort, known as MPEG-4, addressing generic audiovisual coding at very low bit-rates (up to 64 kbits/s) with applications in videotelephony, mobile audiovisual communications, video database retrieval, computer games, video over Internet, remote sensing, etc. This paper gives a survey of the status of MPEG-4, including its planned schedule, and initial ideas about requirements and applications. A significant part of this paper is summarizing an incomplete draft version of a `requirements document' which presents specifications of desirable features on the video, audio, and system level of the forthcoming standard. Very low bit-rate coding algorithms are not described, because no endorsement of any particular algorithm, or class of algorithms, has yet been made by MPEG-4, and several seminars held concurrently with MPEG-4 meetings have not so far provided evidence that such high performance coding schemes are achievable.

  15. Macromolecular contrast agents for MR mammography: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daldrup-Link, Heike E.; Brasch, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    Macromolecular contrast media (MMCM) encompass a new class of diagnostic drugs that can be applied with dynamic MRI to extract both physiologic and morphologic information in breast lesions. Kinetic analysis of dynamic MMCM-enhanced MR data in breast tumor patients provides useful estimates of tumor blood volume and microvascular permeability, typically increased in cancer. These tumor characteristics can be applied to differentiate benign from malignant lesions, to define the angiogenesis status of cancers, and to monitor tumor response to therapy. The most immediate challenge to the development of MMCM-enhanced mammography is the identification of those candidate compounds that demonstrate the requisite long intravascular distribution and have the high tolerance necessary for clinical use. Potential mammographic applications and limitations of various MMCM, defined by either experimental animal testing or clinical testing in patients, are reviewed in this article. (orig.)

  16. HappyFace - current status and future development plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magradze, Erekle; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Quadt, Arnulf [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). 2. Physikalisches Inst.

    2013-07-01

    The HappyFace Project is a meta-monitoring tool, which is allow to monitor the Grid sites of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG). It can also be used for any (complex) computing system, e.g. local or distributed computing resources. HappyFace provides fast access to all relevant monitoring sites and gets a complete overview about the status of all available sites on one page. It has an automatic querying system, a lot of testing modules can be plugged in and also the ability to design and add new modules is available. The project had been written in Python and PHP, but in the 3rd version of HappyFace the source code is fully migrated to Python and the web output uses only HTML templates, which makes it simpler.

  17. Small modular reactors: current status, economic aspects and licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimbron E, E.; Puente E, F.

    2014-10-01

    Interest for nuclear energy had resurgence since the beginning of the new century. This was a consequence of the new world conditions and needs: increasing energy demands (mainly from developing countries), awareness of the importance of energetic security and the necessity of limiting carbon emissions. In this nuclear boom, Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) develop and start to consolidate as a viable option for the present energy market. Their modular characteristics, lower initial capital cost, passive safety features and their niche applications, situate them as a technology with various advantages. The following study will present and analysis that will help to comprehend the SMRs present status. Information will show planned reactors, reactors in construction and in operation, advantages and challenges of their implementation, relevant economic aspects and important licensing factors that need to be highlighted. The analysis showed that the SMR technology is still in an initial stage that could reach and important development point in the next ten years. In this period, many of the reactors that are in design stage or that are through their licensing process might be constructed and could be getting ready for a commercial status. On the other hand, it has been observed that there are two main economic factors that need to be considered for any SMRs implementation project. First, the costs (initial, operation, maintenance, fuel and decommissioning) and second their possible niche market applications. Additionally, it has been noted that the licensing process is one of the greatest challenges for SMR general development. Licensing is mainly related to topic such as Emergency Planning Zone, first-of-a-kind engineering, passive safety features, proliferation resistance, multiple module designs and staffing. Previous information will serve as a base for carrying out a feasibility assessment analysis for SMR in Mexico. This part will be the last section of the project

  18. Current status of cadmium as an environmental health problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaerup, Lars; Akesson, Agneta

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium is a toxic metal occurring in the environment naturally and as a pollutant emanating from industrial and agricultural sources. Food is the main source of cadmium intake in the non-smoking population. The bioavailability, retention and toxicity are affected by several factors including nutritional status such as low iron status. Cadmium is efficiently retained in the kidney (half-time 10-30 years) and the concentration is proportional to that in urine (U-Cd). Cadmium is nephrotoxic, initially causing kidney tubular damage. Cadmium can also cause bone damage, either via a direct effect on bone tissue or indirectly as a result of renal dysfunction. After prolonged and/or high exposure the tubular injury may progress to glomerular damage with decreased glomerular filtration rate, and eventually to renal failure. Furthermore, recent data also suggest increased cancer risks and increased mortality in environmentally exposed populations. Dose-response assessment using a variety of early markers of kidney damage has identified U-Cd points of departure for early kidney effects between 0.5 and 3 μg Cd/g creatinine, similar to the points of departure for effects on bone. It can be anticipated that a considerable proportion of the non-smoking adult population has urinary cadmium concentrations of 0.5 μg/g creatinine or higher in non-exposed areas. For smokers this proportion is considerably higher. This implies no margin of safety between the point of departure and the exposure levels in the general population. Therefore, measures should be put in place to reduce exposure to a minimum, and the tolerably daily intake should be set in accordance with recent findings.

  19. Small modular reactors: current status, economic aspects and licensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimbron E, E. [Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Santa Fe, Av. Carlos Lazo No. 100, Santa Fe, 01389 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Puente E, F., E-mail: erick.zimbron@gmail.com [ININ, Direccion de Investigacion Cientifica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    Interest for nuclear energy had resurgence since the beginning of the new century. This was a consequence of the new world conditions and needs: increasing energy demands (mainly from developing countries), awareness of the importance of energetic security and the necessity of limiting carbon emissions. In this nuclear boom, Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) develop and start to consolidate as a viable option for the present energy market. Their modular characteristics, lower initial capital cost, passive safety features and their niche applications, situate them as a technology with various advantages. The following study will present and analysis that will help to comprehend the SMRs present status. Information will show planned reactors, reactors in construction and in operation, advantages and challenges of their implementation, relevant economic aspects and important licensing factors that need to be highlighted. The analysis showed that the SMR technology is still in an initial stage that could reach and important development point in the next ten years. In this period, many of the reactors that are in design stage or that are through their licensing process might be constructed and could be getting ready for a commercial status. On the other hand, it has been observed that there are two main economic factors that need to be considered for any SMRs implementation project. First, the costs (initial, operation, maintenance, fuel and decommissioning) and second their possible niche market applications. Additionally, it has been noted that the licensing process is one of the greatest challenges for SMR general development. Licensing is mainly related to topic such as Emergency Planning Zone, first-of-a-kind engineering, passive safety features, proliferation resistance, multiple module designs and staffing. Previous information will serve as a base for carrying out a feasibility assessment analysis for SMR in Mexico. This part will be the last section of the project

  20. Oral transmucosal drug delivery--current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Mohammed; Sayed, Ossama M; Lane, Majella E

    2014-08-25

    Oral transmucosal drug delivery (OTDD) dosage forms have been available since the 1980s. In contrast to the number of actives currently delivered locally to the oral cavity, the number delivered as buccal or sublingual formulations remains relatively low. This is surprising in view of the advantages associated with OTDD, compared with conventional oral drug delivery. This review examines a number of aspects related to OTDD including the anatomy of the oral cavity, models currently used to study OTDD, as well as commercially available formulations and emerging technologies. The limitations of current methodologies to study OTDD are considered as well as recent publications and new approaches which have advanced our understanding of this route of drug delivery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.