WorldWideScience

Sample records for current employment status

  1. Transition to Employment and Community Life for Youths with Visual Impairments: Current Status and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Katherine M.

    2001-01-01

    Outcome data from the 21st Annual Report to Congress and the National Longitudinal Transition Study for youths with visual impairments indicate that postsecondary education does not lead to increased employment opportunities. Recommendations are offered concerning agency collaboration, vocational assessment and training, social skills training,…

  2. The variety of photorespiratory phenotypes - employing the current status for future research directions on photorespiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, S; Bauwe, H

    2013-07-01

    Mutations of genes encoding for proteins within the photorespiratory core cycle and associated processes are characterised by lethality under normal air but viability under elevated CO2 conditions. This feature has been described as 'the photorespiratory phenotype' and assumed to be distinctly equal for all of these mutants. In recent years a broad collection of photorespiratory mutants has been isolated, which has allowed a comparative analysis. Distinct phenotypic features were observed when Arabidopsis thaliana mutants defective in photorespiratory enzymes were compared, and during shifts from elevated to ambient CO2 conditions. The exact reasons for the mutant-specific photorespiratory phenotypes are mostly unknown, but they indicate even more plasticity of photorespiratory metabolism. Moreover, a growing body of evidence was obtained that mutant features could be modulated by alterations of several factors, such as CO2 :O2 ratios, photoperiod, light intensity, organic carbon supply and pathogens. Hence, systematic analyses of the responses to these factors appear to be crucial to unravel mechanisms how photorespiration adapts and interacts with the whole cellular metabolism. Here we review current knowledge regarding photorespiratory mutants and propose a new level of phenotypic sub-classification. Finally, we present further questions that should be addressed in the field of photorespiration.

  3. AUTO FIB Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, I.; Sharples, R. M.

    The current status of the automated fibre positioner, Autofib, is reviewed including the positioning performance and the set-up speed. Future plans to build another Autofib for the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope are also briefly discussed.

  4. Employment status and working conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudswaard, A.; Andries, F.

    2002-01-01

    In the 1990s an increasing number of employees were engaged in non-permanent contract work in the European Union. This can, to a large extent, be explained by an active labour market policy where job creation was the focus, and this type of employment provided a way of meeting the increased demand f

  5. Employment and Adults Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Current Status and Experiences of Barriers, Accommodations, and Stress in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punch, Renée

    2016-01-01

    In an integrative review of the literature covering the period 2004-2016, the author presents a current picture of the situation of people who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) relative to employment and careers-particularly the barriers, facilitators, and stress levels experienced by working DHH adults. First, an overview is provided of findings from recent reports on employment outcomes for people who are DHH. Second, the author reviews the literature on employment and workplace barriers, facilitators, and accommodations for people who are DHH, and relates findings about DHH people's workplace-related stress and fatigue levels and the associated issues of job demand, job control, and social support in the workplace. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of these findings, in particular the ways in which barriers to full participation of DHH people in the labor market can be addressed.

  6. Current status of DUMAND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieder, P.K.F.

    We give a brief description of the scientific aims of the DUMAND project, of the system lay-out and its capabilities, together with some technical details of the detector modules. Subsequently we present the anticipated project schedule and construction strategy, followed by an account of the present project status.

  7. Biosimilar drugs: Current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajiv; Singh, Jagjit

    2014-07-01

    Biologic products are being developed over the past three decades. The expiry of patent protection for many biological medicines has led to the development of biosimilars in UK or follow on biologics in USA. This article reviews the literature on biosimilar drugs that covers the therapeutic status and regulatory guidelines. Appraisal of published articles from peer reviewed journals for English language publications, search from PubMed, and guidelines from European Medicines Agency, US Food Drug Administration (FDA) and India were used to identify data for review. Literature suggest that biosimilars are similar biological products, i.e., comparable but not identical to the reference product, are not generic version of innovator product and do not ensure therapeutic equivalence. Biosimilars present more challenges than conventional generics and marketing approval is also more complicated. To improve access, US Congress passed the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation act 2009 and US FDA allowed "abbreviated pathway" for their approval. U.S law has defined new standards and terms and EMA scientific guidelines have also set detailed approval standards. India being one of the most preferred manufacturing destinations of biosimilars, there is a need for stringent safety and regulatory guidelines. The New India Guidelines "Draft Guidelines on Similar Biologics were announced in June 2012, by Department of Biotechnology at Boston bio and available online.

  8. Human reproduction: current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Izzo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY The concern about the maintenance of the human species has existed since the earliest civilizations. Progress in the diagnosis and treatment of infertility has led to the development of assisted reproductive techniques (ART which, along with the evolution of genetics and molecular biology studies, have contributed in a concrete way to the management of infertile couples. Classic in vitro fertilization was initially developed 35 years ago for the treatment of women with tubal blockage, however, it remains inaccessible to a significant proportion of infertile couples around the world. This can be explained by the lack of specialized clinics in some countries and by the high cost of the procedures. Efforts have been employed to increase the number of treatment cycles for assisted reproduction, as for example, the creation of low-cost programs. Even today, infertility remains a problem of global proportions, affecting millions of couples. The estimate of the incidence of infertility is uncertain, mainly because of the criteria used for its definition. This article aims to review the most important aspects, succinctly, regarding the incidence, etiology, and treatment options available to infertile couples.

  9. Human reproduction: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Carlos Roberto; Monteleone, Pedro Augusto Araújo; Serafini, Paulo C

    2015-01-01

    The concern about the maintenance of the human species has existed since the earliest civilizations. Progress in the diagnosis and treatment of infertility has led to the development of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) which, along with the evolution of genetics and molecular biology studies, have contributed in a concrete way to the management of infertile couples. Classic in vitro fertilization was initially developed 35 years ago for the treatment of women with tubal blockage, however, it remains inaccessible to a significant proportion of infertile couples around the world. This can be explained by the lack of specialized clinics in some countries and by the high cost of the procedures. Efforts have been employed to increase the number of treatment cycles for assisted reproduction, as for example, the creation of low-cost programs. Even today, infertility remains a problem of global proportions, affecting millions of couples. The estimate of the incidence of infertility is uncertain, mainly because of the criteria used for its definition. This article aims to review the most important aspects, succinctly, regarding the incidence, etiology, and treatment options available to infertile couples.

  10. Does Marital Status Influence the Parenting Styles Employed by Parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashiono, Benard Litali; Mwoma, Teresa B.

    2015-01-01

    The current study sought to establish whether parents' marital status, influence their use of specific parenting styles in Kisauni District, Kenya. A correlational research design was employed to carry out this study. Stratified sampling technique was used to select preschools while purposive sampling technique was used to select preschool…

  11. Current status of pulmonary metastasectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbech, Kåre; Ravn, Jesper; Steinbrüchel, Daniel Andreas

    2011-01-01

    for unresected patients. In this article, we discuss the current status on pulmonary metastasectomy. Preoperative assessment and selection of surgical candidates is covered. The different surgical strategies including surgical approach, unilateral versus bilateral exploration, lymph node dissection, and repeat...

  12. Current status of natural fibres

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anandjiwala, RD

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available , automotive, aerospace, marine, electronic, leisure and household uses. This paper will provide an overview of the current status of research and development. It will also deal with future drivers for the growth and competitiveness of natural fibres...

  13. Bioartificial liver: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pless, G; Sauer, I M

    2005-11-01

    Liver failure remains a life-threatening syndrome. With the growing disparity between the number of suitable donor organs and the number of patients awaiting transplantation, efforts have been made to optimize the allocation of organs, to find alternatives to cadaveric liver transplantation, and to develop extracorporeal methods to support or replace the function of the failing organ. An extracorporeal liver support system has to provide the main functions of the liver: detoxification, synthesis, and regulation. The understanding that the critical issue of the clinical syndrome in liver failure is the accumulation of toxins not cleared by the failing liver led to the development of artificial filtration and adsorption devices (artificial liver support). Based on this hypothesis, the removal of lipophilic, albumin-bound substances, such as bilirubin, bile acids, metabolites of aromatic amino acids, medium-chain fatty acids, and cytokines, should be beneficial to the clinical course of a patient in liver failure. Artificial detoxification devices currently under clinical evaluation include the Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS), Single-Pass Albumin Dialysis (SPAD), and the Prometheus system. The complex tasks of regulation and synthesis remain to be addressed by the use of liver cells (bioartificial liver support). The Extracorporeal Liver Assist Device (ELAD), HepatAssist, Modular Extracorporeal Liver Support system (MELS), and the Amsterdam Medical Center Bioartificial Liver (AMC-BAL) are bioartificial systems. This article gives a brief overview on these artificial and bioartificial devices and discusses remaining obstacles.

  14. ALMA Pipeline: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinnaga, H.; Humphreys, E.; Indebetouw, R.; Villard, E.; Kern, J.; Davis, L.; Miura, R. E.; Nakazato, T.; Sugimoto, K.; Kosugi, G.; Akiyama, E.; Muders, D.; Wyrowski, F.; Williams, S.; Lightfoot, J.; Kent, B.; Momjian, E.; Hunter, T.; ALMA Pipeline Team

    2015-12-01

    The ALMA Pipeline is the automated data reduction tool that runs on ALMA data. Current version of the ALMA pipeline produces science quality data products for standard interferometric observing modes up to calibration process. The ALMA Pipeline is comprised of (1) heuristics in the form of Python scripts that select the best processing parameters, and (2) contexts that are given for book-keeping purpose of data processes. The ALMA Pipeline produces a "weblog" that showcases detailed plots for users to judge how each step of calibration processes are treated. The ALMA Interferometric Pipeline was conditionally accepted in March 2014 by processing Cycle 0 and Cycle 1 data sets. From Cycle 2, ALMA Pipeline is used for ALMA data reduction and quality assurance for the projects whose observing modes are supported by the ALMA Pipeline. Pipeline tasks are available based on CASA version 4.2.2, and the first public pipeline release called CASA 4.2.2-pipe has been available since October 2014. One can reduce ALMA data both by CASA tasks as well as by pipeline tasks by using CASA version 4.2.2-pipe.

  15. The Current Status of CLASS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbig, P

    2000-01-01

    Abstract: I give a brief overview of the current status of some aspects of the Cosmic Lens All-Sky Survey (CLASS): description of the survey, current list of lens systems, cosmological parameters from lensing statistics, H_0 from time delays, dark lenses, wide-separation lenses.

  16. Employment: Labor Force Status (1983-2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Civilian labor force data consists of the number of employed persons, the number of unemployed persons, an unemployment rate and the total count of both employed and...

  17. Research on the current status and countermeasures of the campus culture of employment and entrepreneurship%高校就业与创业主题校园文化建设现状及对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周雪晴

    2015-01-01

    The current employment situation of college graduates is extremely grim. In view of this situation, we started our discussion with the current status of the campus culture of employment and entrepreneurship, analyzed the problems in hope of finding out the causes and proposed some specific measures like creation of some effective activities, resource integration and incentives so as to help the college graduates get a job successfully.%当前高校毕业生就业形势异常严峻,针对这一情况,我们从高校就业与创业主题校园文化建设的现状入手,查找存在的问题,探析问题成因,提出品牌活动创建、资源整合、评估激励等切实有效的具体措施,帮助大学生顺利就业和创业。

  18. Current status of Japanese detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Tatsumi, Daisuke; Arai, Koji; Nakagawa, Noriyasu; Agatsuma, Kazuhiro; Yamazaki, Toshitaka; Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Fujimoto, Masa-Katsu; Takamori, Akiteru; Bertolini, Alessandro; Sannibale, Virginio; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Marka, Szabolcs; Ando, Masaki; Tsubono, Kimio; Akutsu, Tomomi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Ishitsuka, Hideki; Uchiyama, Takashi; Miyoki, Shinji; Ohashi, Masatake; Kuroda, Kazuaki; Awaya, Norichika; Kanda, Nobuyuki; Araya, Akito; Telada, Souichi; Tomaru, Takayuki; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Sato, Nobuaki; Suzuki, Toshitaka; Shintomi, Takakazu

    2007-01-01

    Current status of TAMA and CLIO detectors in Japan is reported in this article. These two interferometric gravitational-wave detectors are being developed for the large cryogenic gravitational wave telescope (LCGT) which is a future plan for detecting gravitational wave signals at least once per year. TAMA300 is being upgraded to improve the sensitivity in low frequency region after the last observation experiment in 2004. To reduce the seismic noises, we are installing new seismic isolation system, which is called TAMA Seismic Attenuation System, for the four test masses. We confirmed stable mass locks of a cavity and improvements of length and angular fluctuations by using two SASs. We are currently optimizing the performance of the third and fourth SASs. We continue TAMA300 operation and R&D studies for LCGT. Next data taking in the summer of 2007 is planned. CLIO is a 100-m baseline length prototype detector for LCGT to investigate interferometer performance in cryogenic condition. The key features of...

  19. Sinoprobe Datacenter Development: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Y.; Dong, S.; Chen, Z.; Chen, G.; Cheng, M.

    2011-12-01

    The project of the Sinoprobe datacenter development is to build new IT infrastructures needed to store, visualize and manage all the data acquired by SinoProbe program.The SinoProbe data center is designed using service-oriented architecture (SOA) principles. More specifically, service component architecture (SCA) is used to implement sinoprobe data services. It also uses various advanced technologies such as Java/JEE for the platform, PostgresSQL/PostGIS for the data storage, ApacheDS for LDAP, CoachDB for the medadata storage, GeoServer for the GIS services, ExtJs and OpenLayer for the Ajax framework, and Apache Shiro for the security framework. Through the integration and development of various technologies used, the major services of the datacenter system are implemented including the security infrastructure services (user authentication and authorization), metadata services, data warehouse stores, data services, GIS services, and web portal. There are also visualization components including the development of a virtual globe to replace the currently used Google Earth. This poster presents the current status of the SinoProbe data center development, and the detailed discussion of the system.

  20. Current Status of JRR-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinase, Masami; Arai, Masaji; Maruo, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    JRR-3 at the Tokai-Shirakata site of JAEA was in its regular maintenance period, when the Great East Japan Earthquake took place on 11th March 2011. The reactor building with the solid foundations and the equipment important to safety survived the earthquake without serious damage, and no radioactive leakage has been occurred. Recovery works, check and test to confirm the integrity of all components and structures, and seismic assessment necessary for proving that the seismic loads which worked on a structure or component by the earthquake accommodated within its allowable stress have been carried out. After our recovery works and verification of the integrity of JRR-3, we confirmed that the integrity is ensured, and then reported the fact to the regulatory body. As another topic, the regulatory body will introduce new regulatory requirements for research reactors. Now, JRR-3 considers applying the new requirements for restart. This paper presents the current status of JRR-3 including the recovery works, seismic assessment and new regulatory requirements.

  1. [Current status of autism studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, H

    2001-01-01

    The current status of autism studies was reviewed based on English articles published during the 1990s. Although the concepts of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are established, diagnostic criteria of PDDNOS or atypical autism, which is frequently difficult to differentiate from autism, need to be established. The prevalence of autism has been estimated as about 0.05% in the U.S and many European countries, while it was reported to be 0.1% or higher in Japan and some European countries, though the reasons for this difference are unclear. High-functioning (IQ > or = 70) autism may not be as rare a condition as previously thought and both its difference from and similarity to Asperger's syndrome, the highest functioning PDD subtype, need clarification. About 20 to 40% of children with autism lose meaningful words by the age of 2 years and display autistic symptoms thereafter. Such autism, called the setback type in Japan, has been demonstrated to have a poorer adolescent/adult outcome compared to autism without setback and its relationship with childhood disintegrative disorder, which displays a clearer regression after normal development for at least the first 2 years of life, needs to be addressed. The etiology of autism is now considered mostly genetic for reasons, such as the significantly higher concordance rate of autism in identical twin pairs (60-80%) than in fraternal twin pairs (0-10%) and an 3-5% incidence of autism among sibs of an autism proband, 30 to 100 times higher than that in the general population. The involvement of several genes is implicated to create susceptibility for autism, yet the responsible genes have not been identified. Although there is no medication to cure autism, some psychotropic drugs, such as antipsychotics and SSRIs, seem effective for behavior problems in autism patients. Psychosocial treatments are the main therapeutic approach to autism, though they are yet to be well systematized. It is important to

  2. The TEMPIS Project: Current Status,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-19

    GRA&I 9 [ Valiente 19871 jC A 10 [Aba 1986AJ tnannounced ŕ [Ahn~ 1986B] oation- Table 1: Status of Subtasks Distribut on/ ____ Avail and/or 3 WkM On...W ~~ -tt-,u Rr ~~ n~ m1 Nn VJs -W r a -VW uS ru-p-urp-Vf U, 8 39. [ Valiente 19871 Valiente , J. Implementing TQuel Aggregates (in progress). Master’s

  3. Programmable Current-Mode Universal Active Filters Employing Current Conveyors

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Taher Abuelma'atti

    1998-01-01

    Novel current-mode active filter circuits using current-conveyors are presented. The proposed circuits can realize all standard second-order filter functions. The circuits enjoy high output impedances and can, therefore, be easily cascaded to produce higher order filters. Moreover, the realized filter function can be easily programmed using at most a 13-bit digital number without changing the circuit topology.

  4. Top Quark Current Experimental Status

    CERN Document Server

    Juste, A

    2006-01-01

    Ten years after its discovery at the Tevatron collider, we still know little about the top quark. Its large mass suggests it may play a key role in the mechanism of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking (EWSB), or open a window of sensitivity to new physics related to EWSB and preferentially coupled to it. To determine whether this is the case, precision measurements of top quark properties are necessary. The high statistics samples being collected by the Tevatron experiments during Run II start to incisively probe the top quark sector. This report summarizes the experimental status of the top quark, focusing in particular on the recent measurements from the Tevatron.

  5. Employment status and intimate partner violence among Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrazas-Carrillo, Elizabeth C; McWhirter, Paula T

    2015-04-01

    Exploring risk factors and profiles of intimate partner violence in other countries provides information about whether existing theories of this phenomenon hold consistent in different cultural settings. This study will present results of a regression analysis involving domestic violence among Mexican women (n = 83,159). Significant predictors of domestic violence among Mexican women included age, number of children in the household, income, education, self-esteem, family history of abuse, and controlling behavior of the husband. Women's employment status was not a significant predictor when all variables were included in the model; however, when controlling behavior of the husband was withdrawn from the model, women's employment status was a significant predictor of domestic violence toward women. Results from this research indicate that spousal controlling behavior may serve as a mediator of the predictive relationship between women's employment status and domestic violence among Mexican women. Findings provide support for continued exploration of the factors that mediate experiences of domestic violence among women worldwide.

  6. Toward the Employability-Link Model: Current Employment Transition to Future Employment Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, Johannes G.L.; Heijden, van der Beatrice I.J.M.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2008-01-01

    This article goes into a critical analysis of the concept of employability, its development across historical periods, its components, and different strategic approaches to enhance workers' employability throughout their career. Given the need for a systematic analysis and more empirical research in

  7. Transungual drug delivery: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkeeb, Rania; AliKhan, Ali; Elkeeb, Laila; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I

    2010-01-15

    Topical therapy is highly desirable in treating nail disorders due to its localized effects, which results in minimal adverse systemic events and possibly improved adherence. However, the effectiveness of topical therapies is limited by minimal drug permeability through the nail plate. Current research on nail permeation that focuses on altering the nail plate barrier by means of chemical treatments, penetration enhancers as well as physical and mechanical methods is reviewed. A new method of nail sampling is examined. Finally limitations of current ungual drug permeability studies are briefly discussed.

  8. Stemless shoulder arthroplasty: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, R Sean

    2014-09-01

    Since the original Neer humeral replacement in the 1950s, the standard primary anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty design has slowly evolved. Most recently, the humeral stem has become progressively shorter to help combat stem-related complications. Currently, there are several companies who have developed and marketed a stemless humeral arthroplasty component. Manufacturers' data for 5 stemless shoulder arthroplasty components currently on the market were analyzed and reviewed. A literature review of short-term results for stemless shoulder arthroplasty was completed. Of the stemless shoulder arthroplasty systems available on the market, 3 are currently undergoing clinical trials in the United States. The Tornier Simpliciti (Tornier, Edina, MN, USA) clinical trial began in 2011. The study with 2-year minimum follow-up results is scheduled for completion in November 2014. The Arthrex Eclipse (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA) clinical trial was started in January 2013. The tentative study completion date is 2017. The Biomet Nano (Biomet, Warsaw, IN, USA) clinical trial began in October 2013 and also has a tentative completion date of 2017. No other clinical trial is currently under way in the United States. Early results for stemless shoulder arthroplasty indicate clinical results similar to standard stemmed shoulder arthroplasty. Radiographic analysis indicates implant stability without migration or subsidence at 2- to 3-year minimum follow-up.. Several stemless shoulder arthroplasty implants are available outside the United States. Early clinical and radiographic results are promising, but well-designed clinical studies and midterm results are lacking. Three clinical trials are currently under way in the United States with initial availability for use anticipated in 2015. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Current status of rotavirus vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ching-Min Wang; Shou-Chien Chen; Kow-Tong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rotaviruses remain the major cause of childhood diarrheal disease worldwide and of diarrheal deaths of infants and children in developing countries. The huge burden of childhood rotavirus-related diarrhea in the world continues to drive the remarkable pace of vaccine development. Data sources: Research articles were searched using terms "rotavirus" and "rotavirus vaccine" in MEDLINE and PubMed. Articles not published in the English language, articles without abstracts, and opinion articles were excluded from the review. After preliminary screening, all articles were reviewed and synthesized to provide an overview of current vaccines and vaccination programs. Results: In this review of the global rotavirus vaccines and vaccination programs, the principles of rotavirus vaccine development and the efficacy of the currently licensed vaccines from both developed and developing countries were summarized. Conclusions: Rotavirus is a common cause of diarrhea in children in both developed and developing countries. Rotavirus vaccination is a cost-effective measure to prevent rotavirus diarrhea.

  10. Current status of transarterial radioembolization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas H Mahnken

    2016-01-01

    Unresectable primary and secondary liver malignancies present a major problem in the treatment of solid tumors. Transarterial radioembolization(TARE) is an increasingly used technique for treating various types of malignant liver tumors. This approach is appealing, as the mechanism of action is independent from other loco-regional treatments and potentially complementary to systemic therapies. There are two commercially available products in use for TARE: 90Y-resin and 90Y-glass microspheres. Currently available data indicates TARE so be safe and effective in hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) and metastatic liver disease. In HCC the results compare well with chemoembolization, while the role of TARE in combination with kinase inhibitors has yet to be established. Current data on TARE in metastatic liver disease is promising, but there is a strong need for prospective randomized trials comparing TARE and modern chemotherapeutic regimen to support the growing role of TARE in metastatic liver disease.

  11. The Current Status of Japanese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Russell

    A study of the current status of Japanese Americans is divided into three sections. Following a brief introduction, a background section provides an overview of Japanese American history, population size and socioeconomic measures, and selected social characteristics. A second section looks in greater depth at socioeconomic status as reported in…

  12. Economic and Employment Status of Asian-Pacific Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Pauline L.; Cabezas, Amado Y.

    This report deals with the employment and economic status of Asian and Pacific women in the United States. Data collected for a set of socioeconomic variables were analyzed and interpreted. Variables were analyzed by specific Asian ethnicity and by age. Data aggregated at the standard metropolitan statistical area level were used whenever…

  13. Breastfeeding Initiation and Continuation by Employment Status among Korean Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kang, N.M.; Lee, J.E.; Bai, Y.; Achterberg, T. van; Hyun, T.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to examine the factors associated with initiation and continuation of breastfeeding among Korean women in relation to their employment status. METHODS: Data were collected using a web-based self-administered questionnaire from 1,031 Korean mothers living in S

  14. Breastfeeding Initiation and Continuation by Employment Status among Korean Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kang, N.M.; Lee, J.E.; Bai, Y.; Achterberg, T. van; Hyun, T.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to examine the factors associated with initiation and continuation of breastfeeding among Korean women in relation to their employment status. METHODS: Data were collected using a web-based self-administered questionnaire from 1,031 Korean mothers living in

  15. Current status of cancer immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kono K

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To prove clinical benefits of cancer vaccine is currently difficult, except for one phase III trial has documented improved overall survival with the vaccine, Sipuleucel‑T, although induction of anti-tumor immune responses through cancer vaccine is theoretically promising and would be straightforward. In contrast, immune checkpoint blockade with anti-CTLA4 mAb and anti-PD‑1 mAb has demonstrated clear evidence of objective responses including improved overall survival and tumor shrinkage, driving renewed enthusiasm for cancer immunotherapy in multi­ple cancer types. In addition, there is a promising novel cancer immunotherapy, CAR therapy—a personalized treatment that involves genetically modifying a patient’s T- cells to make them target tumor cells. We are now facing new era of cancer immunotherapy.

  16. Current status in diabetic macular edema treatments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pedro Romero-Aroca

    2013-01-01

    ... status.The photocoagulation laser is currently restricted to focal macular edema in some countries,but due the high cost of intravitreal drugs,the use of laser treatment for focal and diffuse diabetic macular edema(DME...

  17. The Current Status of Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Silk, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Understanding galaxy formation is one of the most pressing issues in cosmology. We review the current status of galaxy formation from both an observational and a theoretical perspective, and summarise the prospects for future advances.

  18. rasdaman Array Database: current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merticariu, George; Toader, Alexandru

    2015-04-01

    rasdaman (Raster Data Manager) is a Free Open Source Array Database Management System which provides functionality for storing and processing massive amounts of raster data in the form of multidimensional arrays. The user can access, process and delete the data using SQL. The key features of rasdaman are: flexibility (datasets of any dimensionality can be processed with the help of SQL queries), scalability (rasdaman's distributed architecture enables it to seamlessly run on cloud infrastructures while offering an increase in performance with the increase of computation resources), performance (real-time access, processing, mixing and filtering of arrays of any dimensionality) and reliability (legacy communication protocol replaced with a new one based on cutting edge technology - Google Protocol Buffers and ZeroMQ). Among the data with which the system works, we can count 1D time series, 2D remote sensing imagery, 3D image time series, 3D geophysical data, and 4D atmospheric and climate data. Most of these representations cannot be stored only in the form of raw arrays, as the location information of the contents is also important for having a correct geoposition on Earth. This is defined by ISO 19123 as coverage data. rasdaman provides coverage data support through the Petascope service. Extensions were added on top of rasdaman in order to provide support for the Geoscience community. The following OGC standards are currently supported: Web Map Service (WMS), Web Coverage Service (WCS), and Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS). The Web Map Service is an extension which provides zoom and pan navigation over images provided by a map server. Starting with version 9.1, rasdaman supports WMS version 1.3. The Web Coverage Service provides capabilities for downloading multi-dimensional coverage data. Support is also provided for several extensions of this service: Subsetting Extension, Scaling Extension, and, starting with version 9.1, Transaction Extension, which

  19. The Relationship between Maternal Employment Status and Pregnancy Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khojasteh, Farnoush; Arbabisarjou, Azizollah; Boryri, Tahereh; Safarzadeh, Amneh; Pourkahkhaei, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Women comprise a large percentage of the workforce in industrial countries. In Europe and many other places in the world, women of reproductive age comprise a significant proportion of the workforce at the workplaces, and the rules and regulations require employers to evaluate and minimize health risks to pregnant women. In U.K, 70%, and in the United States 59% of women are employed. In Iran, 13% of women are employed, which comes down to less than 5% at Sistan& Baluchestan Province. Various studies have reported contradictory results about the effects of maternal employment tasks such as standing, repetitive bending, climbing stairs, and lifting heavy objects during pregnancy on fetal growth, preterm birth and other obstetric complications. Given the growing number of working women, and potential complications for mothers, the present study has conducted to investigate the relationship between maternal employment status and pregnancy outcomes in Zahedan city, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on survey conducted on 227 women (121 housewives, and 106 employed women) attending health centers in 2014. Using purposive convenient sampling method, eligible pregnant mothers (with no chronic diseases, singleton pregnancy, gravida 1-3, and no addiction) were selected as study subjects. Data were collected and recorded through a researcher-made questionnaire and also from mothers’ medical records, including personal details, prenatal and labor complications, and infant’s details. Collected data were fed into the SPSS version 21(IBM Corp, USA). Results: Frequency of placental abruption was greater among housewives (P=0.02), and a significant relationship was found between employment status and lifting heavy objects, which was more frequent among housewives (P=0.01). Lifting heavy objects during pregnancy was only significantly related to reduced amniotic fluid (P=0.001) and low birth weight (P=0.01). Frequency

  20. The Relationship between Maternal Employment Status and Pregnancy Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khojasteh, Farnoush; Arbabisarjou, Azizollah; Boryri, Tahere; Safarzadeh, Amneh; Pourkahkhaei, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Women comprise a large percentage of the workforce in industrial countries. In Europe and many other places in the world, women of reproductive age comprise a significant proportion of the workforce at the workplaces, and the rules and regulations require employers to evaluate and minimize health risks to pregnant women. In U.K, 70%, and in the United States 59% of women are employed. In Iran, 13% of women are employed, which comes down to less than 5% at Sistan& Baluchestan Province. Various studies have reported contradictory results about the effects of maternal employment tasks such as standing, repetitive bending, climbing stairs, and lifting heavy objects during pregnancy on fetal growth, preterm birth and other obstetric complications. Given the growing number of working women, and potential complications for mothers, the present study has conducted to investigate the relationship between maternal employment status and pregnancy outcomes in Zahedan city, Iran. This cross-sectional study was based on survey conducted on 227 women (121 housewives, and 106 employed women) attending health centers in 2014. Using purposive convenient sampling method, eligible pregnant mothers (with no chronic diseases, singleton pregnancy, gravida 1-3, and no addiction) were selected as study subjects. Data were collected and recorded through a researcher-made questionnaire and also from mothers' medical records, including personal details, prenatal and labor complications, and infant's details. Collected data were fed into the SPSS version 21(IBM Corp, USA). Frequency of placental abruption was greater among housewives (P=0.02), and a significant relationship was found between employment status and lifting heavy objects, which was more frequent among housewives (P=0.01). Lifting heavy objects during pregnancy was only significantly related to reduced amniotic fluid (P=0.001) and low birth weight (P=0.01). Frequency of preterm labor was higher among housewives compared to

  1. Critical reflections on the currently leading definition of sustainable employability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuren, Bram Bi; de Grip, Andries; Jansen, Nicole Wh; Kant, Imjert; Zijlstra, Fred Rh

    2016-06-01

    claims can be made, such relationships need to be tested with SE as criterion. This is, however, impossible within the approach van der Klink et al provides. (1), as SE is equated with its predictor(s). Therefore, similar to the first conceptual issue, it seems unlikely that the capability set adequately reflects SE. Fourth, the definition by van der Klink et al (1) suggests that SE only applies to individuals who are employed. In the Abma et al publication (9), which accompanies van der Klink's definition paper as a validation paper, this is shown by the way in which capabilities are measured. Moreover, the definition also suggests this because individuals can only be considered to be sustainably employable if their work context enables them to achieve tangible opportunities. However, individuals who are not currently working can still be highly employable and even sustainably so, but just be between jobs. It is therefore not required for individuals to be enabled by their employer to be sustainably employable. Consequently, in line with our aforementioned points on improving the definition, being enabled by an employer to achieve value may be an important predictor of SE, but it is not necessarily part of SE itself. Moreover, future approaches to SE should define the concept in such a way that it is applicable to every individual regardless of employment status. Finally, the definition and operationalization of SE in the form of a capability set do not include any specification on how the longitudinal aspect of SE should be captured. The definition rightfully acknowledges the longitudinal dimension of SE, but its operationalization focuses solely on achieving value. Although achieving value at work may be an important predictor of SE, a complete operationalization and definition should include its longitudinal nature as well. Outlook In conclusion, while van der Klink et al's definition of SE (1) does have strong merits, it requires further improvement. The approach

  2. Precarious Employment in the Vologda Oblast: Current State and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Mikhailovich Panov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the study of the phenomenon of precarious employment in Russian regions. Today, the socio-economic sciences lack a single concept of precarious employment applicable to Russian conditions. Despite the considerable amount of scientific and practical works of domestic and foreign authors on the issue of precarious employment, the criteria of its statistical evaluation as applied to Russian conditions have not been determined. At the same time, the development of precarious employment threatens the country’s socio-economic welfare, because it creates the risk of unwanted effects such as poor employment, hidden and open unemployment, lower labor productivity, degradation of human capital, etc. The paper provides a brief review of research on the problem stated, and defines precarious employment. The author makes an attempt to determine and substantiate the list of indicators available in official statistics for assessing precarious employment in the region. The study allocates three blocks of indicators: indicators of institutional regulation, conditions of employment and functioning of the labor market. Based on these indicators, the author analyzes the status and trends of precarious work in the Vologda Oblast in the period from 2001 to 2015. In some cases, the author presents a comparative analysis of the data for the Russian Federation and Northwestern Federal District. The analysis has helped identify positive and negative changes in the field of precarious employment in the Vologda Oblast. In particular, the author identifies the following problems: an increase in the share of those employed in the informal sector, a relative increase in the number of the working poor, an almost three-fold growth of overdue debts on wages in comparable prices per worker. On the basis of this analysis, the author identifies the directions of the state policy that can help reduce precarious employment: development of information

  3. Adventure Therapy: Current Status and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Dene

    1995-01-01

    Overviews articles in this issue that focus on the current status of adventure therapy and describe efforts aimed at defining a framework for conceptualizing adventure therapy. Notes changes in the field, including introduction of state laws requiring licensure of programs, the drive for program accreditation, and growing training opportunities in…

  4. Sociomedical aspects of epileptic patients: their employment and marital status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, K; Kawata, Y; Murakami, T; Kamata, A; Zhu, G; Mizuno, K; Okada, M; Kaneko, S

    2001-04-01

    We examined the employment and marital status of adult patients with epilepsy who did not have mental retardation and who had been treated at Hirosaki University Hospital, Hirosaki, Japan, for more than 5 years. The present study included 278 patients (142 males and 136 females) ranging from 20 to 60 years of age. We investigated the occupational status of the subjects and found that 168 had permanent jobs, but 41 patients were unemployed at the time of this survey. The proportion of the patients whose seizures were controlled at the time of this survey was 68% (114/168) in the group having permanent jobs, and 22% (9/41) in the unemployed group. Forty cases answered that they had resigned from their jobs due to occurrence of epileptic seizures. Of these patients, 13 were dismissed and 27 resigned voluntarily due to the potential for seizures. As to relationship between jobs and neuropsychiatric complications, the incidence of a past history of psychotic states in the unemployed group was significantly higher than that in the employed group. As to marital status, 13 males and 16 females (n = 29) had experienced divorce. Seven cases (two males and five females) had answered that epilepsy had been the reason for their divorce. We conclude that epilepsy or epileptic seizures have various negative effects on the patient's social life.

  5. Employment and employment conditions in the current economic crisis in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Vukšić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to analyze developments in employment and employment characteristics during the current crisis in Croatia. The main findings can be summarized as follows: (1 The primary (aggregate mode of adjustment to the crisis was a decline in employment. There are, however, considerable differences in adjustment patterns across economic activities. (2 During the crisis, jobs were lost in the, more dynamic, private sector, while the number of jobs in the public sector (entities in state ownership slightly increased. (3 Economic activities with comparatively larger shares of women in employment have experienced fewer employment cuts and the aggregate employment share of women rose during the crisis, especially in activities with a larger share of public sector workers.(4 There has been a declining share of younger workers during the crisis, justifying policy actions to facilitate their employment. (5 Employees with comparatively lower educational attainment face severe challenges in the labor market, which is a longer term trend, not specific to the crisis period. There are indications that this group of employees enjoys a higher level of protection in the public sector. (6 Analysis also shows a rising significance of more flexible forms of employment: increasing shares of fixed term employees (during the last two observed years, and of part time workers. (7 Working hours do not exhibit any strong trends specific to the crisis, except for the diminishing number of overtime hours per worker.

  6. Current status of nuclear physics research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertulani, Carlos A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University-Commerce (United States); Hussein, Mahir S., E-mail: hussein@if.usp.br [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2015-12-15

    In this review, we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the world. For this purpose, we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last nine decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data became available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as {sup 4}He, {sup 7}Li, {sup 9}Be, etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei containing up to more than 200 nucleons. Clearly, statistical mechanics, usually employed in systems with very large number of particles, would seemingly not work for such finite systems as the nuclei, neither do other theories which are applicable to condensed matter. The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions. New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei, deal with the wealth of experimental data that became available in the last 35 years. Furthermore, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked on. Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate

  7. Current Status of Nuclear Physics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertulani, Carlos A.; Hussein, Mahir S.

    2015-12-01

    In this review, we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the world. For this purpose, we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last nine decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data became available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as 4He, 7Li, 9Be, etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei containing up to more than 200 nucleons. Clearly, statistical mechanics, usually employed in systems with very large number of particles, would seemingly not work for such finite systems as the nuclei, neither do other theories which are applicable to condensed matter. The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions. New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei, deal with the wealth of experimental data that became available in the last 35 years. Furthermore, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked on. Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate students interested in

  8. Current Status on Cholangiocarcinoma and Gallbladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebata, Tomoki; Ercolani, Giorgio; Alvaro, Domenico; Ribero, Dario; Di Tommaso, Luca; Valle, Juan W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cholangiocarcinomas (CC) as well as gallbladder cancers are relatively rare and intractable diseases. Clinical, pathological, and epidemiological studies on these tumors have been under investigation. The current status and/or topics on biliary tract cancers have been reported in the East West Association of Liver Tumor (EWALT), held in Milano, Italy in 2015. Summary All the authors, herein, specifcally reported the current status and leading-edge findings on biliary tract cancers as the following sequence: epidemiology of CC, surgical therapy for intrahepatic CC, surgical therapy for perihilar CC, surgical therapy for gallblad der cancer, chemotherapy for biliary tract cancers, and new histological features in CC. Key Message The present review article will update the knowledge on biliary tract cancers, en hancing the quality of daily clinical practice. However, many features about these cancers remain unknown; further studies are required to establish disease-specific optimal treatment strategies. PMID:27995089

  9. Current status of iron-based superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamihara, Yoichi, E-mail: kamihara_yoichi@appi.keio.ac.jp [Keio University, Department of Applied Physics and Physico-Informatics, Faculty of Science and Technology (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Current status of iron-based superconductors is summarized. Although short range magnetic ordering and magnetic phase separation of Fe are controversial, (long range) magnetic and electronic phase diagrams of iron based superconductors can be classified into two-type. Antiferromagnetic ordering of itinerant Fe does not coexist with superconducting phase of SmFeAsO{sub 1 - x}F{sub x}. The very large H{sub c2} of iron-based superconductors attract us to attempts at applications.

  10. Current status of iron-based superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamihara, Yoichi

    2012-03-01

    Current status of iron-based superconductors is summarized. Although short range magnetic ordering and magnetic phase separation of Fe are controversial, (long range) magnetic and electronic phase diagrams of iron based superconductors can be classified into two-type. Antiferromagnetic ordering of itinerant Fe does not coexist with superconducting phase of SmFeAsO1 - xFx. The very large H c2 of iron-based superconductors attract us to attempts at applications.

  11. Brucellosis in Mexico: current status and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Martínez, J Eduardo; Mejía-Terán, Claudia

    2002-12-20

    Traditionally, Mexico has been recognized as endemic with brucellosis. The improvements in diagnostics techniques and vaccination strategies and the enforcement of a national eradication policy have contributed significantly to making progress in the control of brucellosis. The current status of brucellosis and its risk factors, in the different production species as well as in human population is reviewed. Also the trends in control and eventual eradication strategies and perspectives for the near future of Mexico are presented.

  12. Lung xenotransplantation: recent progress and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Donald G; Quinn, Kevin J; Dahi, Siamak; Burdorf, Lars; Azimzadeh, Agnes M; Pierson, Richard N

    2014-01-01

    Xenotransplantation has undergone important progress in controlling initial hyperacute rejection in many preclinical models, with some cell, tissue, and organ xenografts advancing toward clinical trials. However, acute injury, driven primarily by innate immune and inflammatory responses, continues to limit results in lung xenograft models. The purpose of this article is to review the current status of lung xenotransplantation--including the seemingly unique challenges posed by this organ-and summarize proven and emerging means of overcoming acute lung xenograft injury.

  13. Current status of domino heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shudo, Yasuhiro; Ma, Michael; Boyd, Jack H; Woo, Yiping Joseph

    2017-03-01

    Domino heart transplant, wherein the explanted heart from the recipient of an en-bloc heart-lung is utilized for a second recipient, represents a unique surgical strategy for patients with end-stage heart failure. With a better understanding of the potential advantages and disadvantages of this procedure, its selective use in the current era can improve and maximize organ allocation in the United States. In this report, we reviewed the current status of domino heart transplantation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Employment Status and Perceived Health Status in Younger and Older People with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krokavcova, Martina; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gavelova, Miriam; Middel, Berrie; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how employment is associated with perceived physical and mental health status in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical variables stratified by age. The sample consisted of 184 MS patients divided into a younger (less than 45 years) and an older (greater than or equal to 45 years) age…

  15. Trends in poverty risks among people with and without limiting-longstanding illness by employment status in Sweden, Denmark, and the United Kingdom during the current economic recession -- a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Johanna; Bruce, Daniel; Burström, Bo;

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have found higher employment rates and lower risk of relative poverty among people with chronic illness in the Nordic countries than in the rest of Europe. However, Nordic countries have not been immune to the general rise in poverty in many welfare states in recent decades....... This study analysed the trends in poverty risks among a particularly vulnerable group in the labour market: people with limiting-longstanding illness (LLSI), examining the experience of those with and without employment, and compared to healthy people in employment in Sweden, Denmark and the United Kingdom....

  16. Gravitational wave astronomy: the current status

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, David; Zhao, Chunnong; Wen, Linqing; Chu, Qi; Fang, Qi; Cai, RongGen; Gao, JiangRui; Lin, XueChun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, ZongHong; Reitze, David H; Arai, Koji; Zhang, Fan; Flaminio, Raffaele; Zhu, Xingjiang; Hobbs, George; Manchester, Richard N; Shannon, Ryan M; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Xu, Peng; Bian, Xing; Cao, Zhoujian; Chang, ZiJing; Dong, Peng; Gong, XueFei; Huang, ShuangLin; Ju, Peng; Luo, ZiRen; Qiang, Li'E; Tang, WenLin; Wan, XiaoYun; Wang, Yue; Xu, ShengNian; Zhang, YunLong; Zhang, HaiPeng; Lau, Yun-Kau; Ni, Wei-Tou

    2016-01-01

    In the centenary year of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, this paper reviews the current status of gravitational wave astronomy across a spectrum which stretches from attohertz to kilohertz frequencies. Sect. 1 of this paper reviews the historical development of gravitational wave astronomy from Einstein's first prediction to our current understanding the spectrum. It is shown that detection of signals in the audio frequency spectrum can be expected very soon, and that a north-south pair of next generation detectors would provide large scientific benefits. Sect. 2 reviews the theory of gravitational waves and the principles of detection using laser interferometry. The state of the art Advanced LIGO detectors are then described. These detectors have a high chance of detecting the first events in the near future. Sect. 3 reviews the KAGRA detector currently under development in Japan, which will be the first laser interferometer detector to use cryogenic test masses. Sect. 4 of this paper reviews gravit...

  17. Current Status of Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki M. Velonas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is a leading cause of cancer-related death of men globally. Since its introduction, there has been intense debate as to the effectiveness of the prostate specific antigen (PSA test as a screening tool for PCa. It is now evident that the PSA test produces unacceptably high rates of false positive results and is not prognostic. Here we review the current status of molecular biomarkers that promise to be prognostic and that might inform individual patient management. It highlights current efforts to identify biomarkers obtained by minimally invasive methods and discusses current knowledge with regard to gene fusions, mRNA and microRNAs, immunology, and cancer-associated microparticles.

  18. Current status of the DARPA Quantum Network

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, C; Pearson, D; Pikalo, O; Schlafer, J; Yeh, H; Elliott, Chip; Colvin, Alexander; Pearson, David; Pikalo, Oleksiy; Schlafer, John; Yeh, Henry

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the current status of the DARPA Quantum Network, which became fully operational in BBN's laboratory in October 2003, and has been continuously running in 6 nodes operating through telecommunications fiber between Harvard University, Boston University, and BBN since June 2004. The DARPA Quantum Network is the world's first quantum cryptography network, and perhaps also the first QKD systems providing continuous operation across a metropolitan area. Four more nodes are now being added to bring the total to 10 QKD nodes. This network supports a variety of QKD technologies, including phase-modulated lasers through fiber, entanglement through fiber, and freespace QKD. We provide a basic introduction and rational for this network, discuss the February 2005 status of the various QKD hardware suites and software systems in the network, and describe our operational experience with the DARPA Quantum Network to date. We conclude with a discussion of our ongoing work.

  19. Neutrino astronomy current status, future prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Karle, Albrecht

    2017-01-01

    This review volume is motivated by the recent discovery of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos by IceCube. The aim of the book is to bring together chapters on the status of current and future neutrino observatories with chapters on the implications and possible interpretations of the present observations and their upper limits. Each chapter is a mini-review of one aspect of the subject by leading experts. Taken together, the chapters constitute an up-to-date review of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos and their potential sources.

  20. The current status of observational cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jeremiah P Ostriker; Tarun Souradeep

    2004-10-01

    Observational cosmology has indeed made very rapid progress in recent years. The ability to quantify the universe has largely improved due to observational constraints coming from structure formation. The transition to precision cosmology has been spearheaded by measurements of the anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) over the past decade. Observations of the large scale structure in the distribution of galaxies, high red-shift supernova, have provided the required complementary information. We review the current status of cosmological parameter estimates from joint analysis of CMB anisotropy and large scale structure (LSS) data. We also sound a note of caution on overstating the successes achieved thus far.

  1. Short-term and long-term effects of childhood cancer on income from employment and employment status: A national cohort study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl Norberg, Annika; Montgomery, Scott M; Bottai, Matteo; Heyman, Mats; Hovén, Emma I

    2017-04-01

    There is insufficient knowledge regarding the economic impact of childhood cancer on parents. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the short-term and long-term effects of childhood cancer on mothers' and fathers' income from employment and employment status. The study sample consisted of the parents of children diagnosed with cancer from 2004 to 2009 in Sweden (3626 parents of 1899 children). Annual register data concerning income from employment and employment status (employed/not employed) were retrieved from the Longitudinal Integration Database for Health Insurance and Labor Market Studies. Using generalized linear models, the mean income from employment and employment status were compared with a matched control cohort of 34,874 parents sampled from the general population. Parents' income was found to decrease significantly after the child's cancer diagnosis. The effect was most pronounced for mothers, whose income was reduced for 6 years after diagnosis, whereas fathers' income was similar to that of control fathers 3 years after the diagnosis. Mothers were more likely to stop working after a child's cancer diagnosis compared with controls. No association was found for fathers' employment status. Younger age of parents; lower level of education; and, among mothers, being born outside of Sweden were found to be associated with more adverse effects on income. Parents' income from employment and employment status appear to be adversely affected by having a child with cancer. Socioeconomic consequences are not distributed equally: the income of fathers appears to catch up after a few years, whereas mothers tend to be disadvantaged in their professional life for several years after a child's cancer diagnosis. Cancer 2017;123:1238-1248. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  2. The ENIQ pilot study: current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaitre, P.; Eriksen, B.; Crutzen, S. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands); Hansch, M. [Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany); Whittle, J. [AEA Technology, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    1998-11-01

    A pilot study is currently being carried out by ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) in order to explore the issues involved in inspection qualification applied along the general principles of the European methodology. The components selected for the pilot study are austenitic pipe to pipe and pipe to elbows welds typical of those in BWR recirculation loops. A range of defect parameters has been defined. A suitable inspection procedure designed to find the designated defects will be applied to geometrically representative test pieces. The procedure/equipment will be qualified through open trials and technical justification. The personnel qualification will be done in a blind way. Once all features of the inspection system will have been qualified an in-service inspection will be simulated in order to test the feasibility of the qualification approach followed. In this paper the current status of this pilot study is discussed. (orig.)

  3. The STIS MAMA status: Current detector performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danks, A. C.; Joseph, C.; Bybee, R.; Argebright, V.; Abraham, J.; Kimble, R.; Woodgate, B.

    1992-01-01

    The STIS (Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph) is a second generation Hubble instrument scheduled to fly in 1997. Through a variety of modes, the instrument will provide spectral resolutions from R approximately 50 in the objective spectroscopy mode to 100,000 in the high resolution echelle mode in the wavelength region from 115 to 1000 nm. In the UV the instrument employs two MAMA (Multimode Anode Microchannel plate Arrays) 1024 by 1024 pixel detectors, which provide high DQE (Detective Quantum Efficiency), and good dynamic range and resolution. The current progress and performance of these detectors are reported, illustrating that the technology is mature and that the performance is very close to flight requirements.

  4. Gravitational wave astronomy: the current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, ChunNong; Wen, LinQing; Chu, Qi; Fang, Qi; Cai, RongGen; Gao, JiangRui; Lin, XueChun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, ZongHong; Reitze, David H.; Arai, Koji; Zhang, Fan; Flaminio, Raffaele; Zhu, XingJiang; Hobbs, George; Manchester, Richard N.; Shannon, Ryan M.; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Gao, Wei; Xu, Peng; Bian, Xing; Cao, ZhouJian; Chang, ZiJing; Dong, Peng; Gong, XueFei; Huang, ShuangLin; Ju, Peng; Luo, ZiRen; Qiang, Li'E.; Tang, WenLin; Wan, XiaoYun; Wang, Yue; Xu, ShengNian; Zang, YunLong; Zhang, HaiPeng; Lau, Yun-Kau; Ni, Wei-Tou

    2015-12-01

    In the centenary year of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, this paper reviews the current status of gravitational wave astronomy across a spectrum which stretches from attohertz to kilohertz frequencies. Sect. 1 of this paper reviews the historical development of gravitational wave astronomy from Einstein's first prediction to our current understanding the spectrum. It is shown that detection of signals in the audio frequency spectrum can be expected very soon, and that a north-south pair of next generation detectors would provide large scientific benefits. Sect. 2 reviews the theory of gravitational waves and the principles of detection using laser interferometry. The state of the art Advanced LIGO detectors are then described. These detectors have a high chance of detecting the first events in the near future. Sect. 3 reviews the KAGRA detector currently under development in Japan, which will be the first laser interferometer detector to use cryogenic test masses. Sect. 4 of this paper reviews gravitational wave detection in the nanohertz frequency band using the technique of pulsar timing. Sect. 5 reviews the status of gravitational wave detection in the attohertz frequency band, detectable in the polarisation of the cosmic microwave background, and discusses the prospects for detection of primordial waves from the big bang. The techniques described in sects. 1-5 have already placed significant limits on the strength of gravitational wave sources. Sects. 6 and 7 review ambitious plans for future space based gravitational wave detectors in the millihertz frequency band. Sect. 6 presents a roadmap for development of space based gravitational wave detectors by China while sect. 7 discusses a key enabling technology for space interferometry known as time delay interferometry.

  5. Gravitational wave astronomy: the current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, ChunNong; Wen, LinQing; Chu, Qi; Fang, Qi; Cai, RongGen; Gao, JiangRui; Lin, XueChun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, ZongHong; Reitze, David H.; Arai, Koji; Zhang, Fan; Flaminio, Raffaele; Zhu, XingJiang; Hobbs, George; Manchester, Richard N.; Shannon, Ryan M.; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Gao, Wei; Xu, Peng; Bian, Xing; Cao, ZhouJian; Chang, ZiJing; Dong, Peng; Gong, XueFei; Huang, ShuangLin; Ju, Peng; Luo, ZiRen; Qiang, Li'E.; Tang, WenLin; Wan, XiaoYun; Wang, Yue; Xu, ShengNian; Zang, YunLong; Zhang, HaiPeng; Lau, Yun-Kau; Ni, Wei-Tou

    2015-12-01

    In the centenary year of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, this paper reviews the current status of gravitational wave astronomy across a spectrum which stretches from attohertz to kilohertz frequencies. Sect. 1 of this paper reviews the historical development of gravitational wave astronomy from Einstein's first prediction to our current understanding the spectrum. It is shown that detection of signals in the audio frequency spectrum can be expected very soon, and that a north-south pair of next generation detectors would provide large scientific benefits. Sect. 2 reviews the theory of gravitational waves and the principles of detection using laser interferometry. The state of the art Advanced LIGO detectors are then described. These detectors have a high chance of detecting the first events in the near future. Sect. 3 reviews the KAGRA detector currently under development in Japan, which will be the first laser interferometer detector to use cryogenic test masses. Sect. 4 of this paper reviews gravitational wave detection in the nanohertz frequency band using the technique of pulsar timing. Sect. 5 reviews the status of gravitational wave detection in the attohertz frequency band, detectable in the polarisation of the cosmic microwave background, and discusses the prospects for detection of primordial waves from the big bang. The techniques described in sects. 1-5 have already placed significant limits on the strength of gravitational wave sources. Sects. 6 and 7 review ambitious plans for future space based gravitational wave detectors in the millihertz frequency band. Sect. 6 presents a roadmap for development of space based gravitational wave detectors by China while sect. 7 discusses a key enabling technology for space interferometry known as time delay interferometry.

  6. Current research status of immunology in the genomic era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This review updates the current status of immunology research under the influence of genomics,both conceptually and technologically.It particularly highlights the advantages of employing the high-throughput and large-scale technology,the large genomic database,and bioinformatic power in the immunology research.The fast development in the fields of basic immunology,clinical immunology(tumor and infectious immunology) and vaccine designing is illustrated with respect to the successful usage of genomic strategy.We also speculate the future research directions of immunology in the era of genomics and post-genomics.

  7. Current research status of immunology in the genomic era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI HaoWen; LI dinZhi; ZHAO GuoPing; WANG Ying

    2009-01-01

    This review updates the current status of immunology research under the influence of genomics, both conceptually and technologically. It particularly highlights the advantages of employing the high-throughput and large-scale technology, the large genomic database, and bioinformatic power in the immunology research. The fast development in the fields of basic immunology, clinical immunology (tumor and infectious immunology) and vaccine designing is illustrated with respect to the successful usage of genomic strategy. We also speculate the future research directions of immunology in the era of genomics and post-genomics.

  8. Effect of cervical dystonia on employment: A retrospective analysis of the ability of treatment to restore premorbid employment status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molho, Eric S; Agarwal, Nitendra; Regan, Katy; Higgins, Donald S; Factor, Stewart A

    2009-07-15

    Using a structured interview method, we sought to address the following questions regarding cervical dystonia (CD) and employment: (1) what is the frequency and severity of job impairment in CD; (2) what are the clinical features that contribute to job impairment; (3) how does the effectiveness of botulinum toxin (BTx) compare to oral medications in restoring employment status. In our population of 155 CD patients, employment was affected by CD in 53.3% (31.2% reduced hours or responsibilities, 3.3% changed to different job, 18.9% loss of employment) and 68.9% of patients reported reduced overall productivity. The likelihood of altered employment (P productivity (P BTx. Treatment with BTx was more likely to improve employment status than oral medications (66.1 vs. 18.5%) and much more likely to restore full employment with normal productivity (12.9 vs. 0.0%). These findings suggest that employment status is frequently affected by CD, particularly in patients withneck pain. BTx is significantly more effective than oral medications in restoring premorbid employment status. 2009 Movement Disorder Society.

  9. Current status of Pohang Neutron Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G.N.; Lee, Y.S.; Cho, M.H. [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, POSTECH, Pohang (KR)] [and others

    2000-03-01

    We present the current status of Pohang Neutron Facility, which is the pulsed neutron facility, based on the 70-MeV electron linear accelerator completed on Dec.1997. We have prepared the 15-m time-of-flight path, a Ta-target system, and the Data Acquisition System. Meanwhile we have measured the total cross-sections of Dy and Hf samples at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University and the neutron capture cross-sections of {sup 164}Dy isotope at Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology both in Japan. We also were participated the experiment at the 122-m flight path of the IBR-30 pulsed neutron source of Joint Institute of Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. (author)

  10. Current Status of Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipps, Simon P. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Bett, Andreas W. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Horowitz, Kelsey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This report summarizes the status of the concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) market and industry as well as current trends in research and technology. This report is intended to guide research agendas for Fraunhofer ISE, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and other R&D organizations. Version 1.1 of this report includes recent progress in CPV. The recent record module efficiency of 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve. 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve. 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve. 38.9% at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) is an impressive result, demonstrating the continuing opportunity for CPV technology to improve.

  11. Interventional Radiology of Male Varicocele: Current Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iaccarino, Vittorio, E-mail: vittorio.iaccarino@unina.it; Venetucci, Pietro [University of Naples ' Federico II' , Diagnostic Imaging Department-Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, School of Medicine (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Varicocele is a fairly common condition in male individuals. Although a minor disease, it may cause infertility and testicular pain. Consequently, it has high health and social impact. Here we review the current status of interventional radiology of male varicocele. We describe the radiological anatomy of gonadal veins and the clinical aspects of male varicocele, particularly the physical examination, which includes a new clinical and ultrasound Doppler maneuver. The surgical and radiological treatment options are also described with the focus on retrograde and antegrade sclerotherapy, together with our long experience with these procedures. Last, we compare the outcomes, recurrence and persistence rates, complications, procedure time and cost-effectiveness of each method. It clearly emerges from this analysis that there is a need for randomized multicentre trials designed to compare the various surgical and percutaneous techniques, all of which are aimed at occlusion of the anterior pampiniform plexus.

  12. Current Status of the KSTAR Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. S. Bak; K. Kim; C. H. Choi; Y. K. Oh; B. C. Kim; N. I. Her; H. L. Yang; G. S. Lee; the KSTAR Team

    2004-01-01

    As there is substantial progress in the KSTAR tokamak engineering, all the major structures and sub-systems are under fabrication and in procurement phase. The vacuum vessel,port, cryostat cylinder, lid, and bellows are being rigorously fabricated in the factory. The lower part of the KSTAR such as cryostat base and gravity support has been almost finished in its fabrication. There are also great progresses and significant results in manufacturing of the superconducting magnet, including four Toroidal Field (TF) coils, lower and upper PF7 coils which are the largest Poloidal Field (PF) coils. The TF00 coil, which has been made for test and back-up of the TF magnet system, was successfully tested in the cool-down and current charging. As the fabrications and procurements of major structures have been actively proceeded, assembly works were also launched from Aug. 2003. More detailed description on these status, results, and plans will be described in this paper.

  13. A comparative study of the patterning of women's health by family status and employment status in Finland and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Eva; Burström, Bo; Saastamoinen, Peppiina; Lahelma, Eero

    2005-06-01

    The main aim of this study is to compare the patterning of health by family status and employment status among women in Finland and Sweden and to explore whether the patterning of health by family status is influenced by employment status and income. An additional aim was to identify which combinations of family status and employment status are especially disadvantageous for women's health . The data derived from comparable interview surveys carried out in 1994/1995. The analyses were restricted to ages 25-49; 2282 women in Finland and 2685 in Sweden. Firstly, age-adjusted prevalence percentages were presented by family status and employment status. Secondly, the patterning of health by family status and employment status, and the influence of adjusting for income, were studied by logistic regression analysis. The main results showed that women living in couples with children had the best health in both countries. Additional analyses showed that in Finland particularly poor health can be found among women who are simultaneously non-partnered and non-employed, whereas in Sweden poor health can be found among all non-employed groups of women. Income did not explain the poor health among the non-partnered and non-employed. This study confirmed that health is patterned by family status and employment status both among Finnish and Swedish women. It was found that non-employed women without a partner are likely to have poor health. In order to reduce inequalities in health among women, more efforts should be put on promoting health among these groups.

  14. Edible vaccines: Current status and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Edible vaccines hold great promise as a cost-effective, easy-to-administer, easy-to-store, fail-safe and socioculturally readily acceptable vaccine delivery system, especially for the poor developing countries. It involves introduction of selected desired genes into plants and then inducing these altered plants to manufacture the encoded proteins. Introduced as a concept about a decade ago, it has become a reality today. A variety of delivery systems have been developed. Initially thought to be useful only for preventing infectious diseases, it has also found application in prevention of autoimmune diseases, birth control, cancer therapy, etc. Edible vaccines are currently being developed for a number of human and animal diseases. There is growing acceptance of transgenic crops in both industrial and developing countries. Resistance to genetically modified foods may affect the future of edible vaccines. They have passed the major hurdles in the path of an emerging vaccine technology. Various technical obstacles, regulatory and non-scientific challenges, though all seem surmountable, need to be overcome. This review attempts to discuss the current status and future of this new preventive modality.

  15. Current status of JENDL-3.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of JENDL-3.3 is presented. Reevaluation work toward JENDL-3.3 has started last April for three years project to supply a consolidated new versions of JENDL by JAERI NDC (Nuclear Data center) with the cooperation of JNDC (Japanese Nuclear Data Committee). The working schedule has been fixed by the careful review of the summary report, `The problems of JENDL-3.2`, submitted to JNDC last March after one year discussions by a small advisory group: `Identifying the problems of JENDL-3.2`. To cope with the problems, two new subgroups are set up in the Subcommittee of Nuclear Data of JNDC. One is Heavy Mass Elements Evaluation Working Group for the re-evaluation of major actinides (Th-232, U-233,235,236,238, Pu-236,239,241,242). The other is Intermediate Mass Elements Evaluation Working Group for solving the inconsistencies between calculations and integral experiments relating to the fields of fusion neutronics and shielding applications as well as new evaluations such as Er elements. Supplying covariance data for important nuclides are one of the main feature of JENDL-3.3. Re-evaluated data will be released as JENDL-3.3 in the individual bases after the reviewing process by the experts. (author)

  16. Current status of mini-gastric bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahawar, Kamal K.; Kumar, Parveen; Carr, William RJ; Jennings, Neil; Schroeder, Norbert; Balupuri, Shlok; Small, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    Mini-gastric bypass (MGP) is a promising bariatric procedure. Tens of thousands of this procedure have been performed throughout the world since Rutledge performed the first procedure in the United States of America in 1997. Several thousands of these have even been documented in the published scientific literature. Despite a proven track record over nearly two decades, this operation continues to polarise the bariatric community. A large number of surgeons across the world have strong objections to this procedure and do not perform it. The risk of symptomatic (bile) reflux, marginal ulceration, severe malnutrition, and long-term risk of gastric and oesophageal cancers are some of the commonly voiced concerns. Despite these expressed fears, several advantages such as technical simplicity, shorter learning curve, ease of revision and reversal, non-inferior weight loss and comorbidity resolution outcomes have prompted some surgeons to advocate a wider adoption of this procedure. This review examines the current status of these controversial aspects in the light of the published academic literature in English. PMID:27251826

  17. Chinese Soybean Industry: Current Status and Outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dachuan Liu; Shaojun Tian

    2002-01-01

    This paper focus on the soybeanresources and their industry development inChina. Due to the high demand in domesticmarket, it is necessary to expand the cultivationarea and improve the production yields.Meanwhile, to inc e the export of soybeansfrom overseas is also important. China has along history in producing traditional soyfoods. After recent fifty years, the developmentof Chinese soybean industry has reached to areasonable level. The current status of Chinesesoybean industry has been included in thepaper. It has been expected that in next fiveyears, there will be a rapid increase in theprocessing of soybeans; it will become morereasonable in the scale and distribution ofsoybean oil factories. Emphasis will be put onthe improvement of the functionalities ofsoybean products. Different kinds of functionalsoybean foods, especially the soybean proteinsfor particular uses will be developed by the useof modification technologies. Concern is alsogiven to the multi -utilizn of soybeanresources, which not only the extractionof oil from soybean and the processingof protein products from the meal; but alsoincludes the recovery of the naturalchemicals from soybeans which could then beexploited to novel products with more profits.

  18. Current status in diabetic macular edema treatments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro; Romero-Aroca

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is a serious chronic condition,which increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases,kidney failure and nerve damage leading to amputation.Furthermore the ocular complications include diabetic macular edema,is the leading cause of blindness among adults in the industrialized countries.Today,blindness from diabetic macular edema is largely preventable with timely detection and appropriate interventional therapy.The treatment should include an optimized control of glycemia,arterial tension,lipids and renal status.The photocoagulation laser is currently restricted to focal macular edema in some countries,but due the high cost of intravitreal drugs,the use of laser treatment for focal and diffuse diabetic macular edema(DME),can be valid as gold standard in many countries.The intravitreal anti vascular endothelial growth factor drugs(ranibizumab and bevacizumab),are indicated in the treatment of all types of DME,but the correct protocol for administration should be defined for the different Retina Scientific Societies.The corticosteroids for diffuse DME,has a place in pseudophakic patients,but its complications restricted the use of these drugs for some patients.Finally the intravitreal interface plays an important role and its exploration is mandatory in all DME patients.

  19. Current status of GALS setup in JINR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemlyanoy, S., E-mail: zemlya@jinr.ru; Avvakumov, K., E-mail: kavvakumov@jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Fedosseev, V. [CERN (Switzerland); Bark, R. [Nat. Research Foundation, iThemba LABS (South Africa); Blazczak, Z. [A. Mickiewicz University, Faculty of Physics (Poland); Janas, Z. [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics (Poland)

    2017-11-15

    This is a brief report on the current status of the new GAs cell based Laser ionization Setup (GALS) at the Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna. GALS will exploit available beams from the U-400M cyclotron in low energy multi-nucleon transfer reactions to study exotic neutron-rich nuclei located in the “north-east” region of nuclear map. Products from 4.5 to 9 MeV/nucleon heavy-ion collisions, such as {sup 136}Xe on {sup 208}Pb, are thermalized and neutralized in a high pressure gas cell and subsequently selectively laser re-ionized. In order to choose the best scheme of ion extraction the results of computer simulations of two different systems are presented. The first off- and online experiment will be performed on osmium atoms that is regarded as a most convenient element for producing isotopes with neutron number in the vicinity of the magic N = 126.

  20. Radiopharmaceuticals in China. Current status and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Hong-Mei; Liu, Bo-Li [Beijing Normal Univ. (China). Key Laboratory of Radiopharmaceuticals

    2014-04-01

    The review provides an overview of the current status of radiopharmaceuticals in China for in vivo clinical use and also describes some important advances in the past three decades. Development of the diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals as well as basic research on radiopharmaceutical chemistry are being introduced. The radiotracers developed in China include: (1) Brain perfusion imaging agents and CNS radiotracers for β-amyloid plaques, σ{sub 1} receptors, and dopamine D{sub 2} or D{sub 4} receptors; (2) {sup 99m}Tc- and {sup 18}F-labeled myocardial perfusion imaging agents; (3) tumor imaging agents including integrin-targeting radiotracer, novel sentinel lymph node imaging agents, hypoxia imaging agents, {sup 99m}Tc-labeled glucose derivatives, σ{sub 2} receptor imaging agents, folate receptor imaging agents, and potential radiotracers for imaging of human telomerase reverse transcriptase expression; (4) Potential infection imaging agents; (5) Potential asialoglycoprotein receptor imaging agents; (6) Other imaging agents. Moreover, some prospects of research and development of radiopharmaceuticals in the near future are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Current status of mini-gastric bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal K Mahawar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mini-gastric bypass (MGP is a promising bariatric procedure. Tens of thousands of this procedure have been performed throughout the world since Rutledge performed the first procedure in the United States of America in 1997. Several thousands of these have even been documented in the published scientific literature. Despite a proven track record over nearly two decades, this operation continues to polarise the bariatric community. A large number of surgeons across the world have strong objections to this procedure and do not perform it. The risk of symptomatic (bile reflux, marginal ulceration, severe malnutrition, and long-term risk of gastric and oesophageal cancers are some of the commonly voiced concerns. Despite these expressed fears, several advantages such as technical simplicity, shorter learning curve, ease of revision and reversal, non-inferior weight loss and comorbidity resolution outcomes have prompted some surgeons to advocate a wider adoption of this procedure. This review examines the current status of these controversial aspects in the light of the published academic literature in English.

  2. The status of health communication: education and employment outlook for a growing field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeever, Brooke Weberling

    2014-12-01

    Using an online survey of health communication practitioners and academics (N = 372), this study investigates the educational background (degrees, knowledge, skills, and coursework) perceived to be important for employment in health communication. It provides an update on what may be needed in terms of graduate education, as well as which areas may be emerging as most important in the field. The purpose is to inform students, educators, administrators, and practitioners about the current status and possible future trends in health communication education and practice.

  3. The Copernicus Sentinel-3 Mission: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlon, C.; Berruti, B.; Mavrocordatos, C.; Nieke, J.; Seitz, B.; Frerrick, J.; Vuilleumier@esa int, P.; Rebhan, H.; Mecklenburg, S.; Goryl, P.; Féménias, P.

    2016-02-01

    Sentinel-3 is an operational mission in high-inclination, low earth orbit for the provision of observational data to Copernicus services. Products include ocean, ice and land surface altimetry, complemented by thermal and visible wavelength multi-spectral image data. The operational character of the mission implies a high level of availability of the data products and fast delivery time, which have been important design drivers for the mission. In terms of ocean applications, the Sentinel-3 payload is designed to monitor open-ocean, coastal and inland waters using a suite of contemporaneous measurements. The spacecraft accommodates a topography payload consisting of a SAR Radar Altimeter (SRAL) and a Microwave Radiometer (MWR) plus a suite of instruments for precise orbit determination (POD). In addition, two large optical instruments - the Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) and the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer instrument (SLSTR) have been developed as part of the mission. Full performance will be achieved with a constellation of two identical satellites, separated by 180 degrees in the same orbital plane. Together, the optical and topography instruments of Sentinel-3 will ensure the continuation of important data streams established with ESA's ERS and ENVISAT satellites. Four Sentinel-3 satellites are in development with Sentinel-3A planned for launch in late 2015 and the Sentinel-3B satellite launch expected in 2017. Procurement of the C and D satellites is ongoing. The overall service duration is planned to be 20 years and is expected to be fulfilled by a series of several satellites. This paper reports the current status of the Sentinel-3 Mission and presets some first results from the instrument payload.

  4. Semiconductor plasmonic nanolasers: current status and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwo, Shangjr; Shih, Chih-Kang

    2016-08-01

    Scaling down semiconductor lasers in all three dimensions holds the key to the development of compact, low-threshold, and ultrafast coherent light sources, as well as integrated optoelectronic and plasmonic circuits. However, the minimum size of conventional semiconductor lasers utilizing dielectric cavity resonators (photonic cavities) is limited by the diffraction limit. To date, surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (spaser)-based plasmonic nanolaser is the only photon and plasmon-emitting device capable of this remarkable feat. Specifically, it has been experimentally demonstrated that the use of plasmonic cavities based on metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) nanostructures can indeed break the diffraction limit in all three dimensions. In this review, we present an updated overview of the current status for plasmonic nanolasers using the MIS configuration and other related metal-cladded semiconductor microlasers. In particular, by using composition-varied indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride core-shell nanorods, it is possible to realize all-color, single-mode nanolasers in the full visible wavelength range with ultralow continuous-wave (CW) lasing thresholds. The lasing action in these subdiffraction plasmonic cavities is achieved via a unique auto-tuning mechanism based on the property of weak size dependence inherent in plasmonic nanolasers. As for the choice of metals in the plasmonic structures, epitaxial silver films and giant colloidal silver crystals have been shown to be the superior constituent materials for plasmonic cavities due to their low plasmonic losses in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) spectral regions. In this review, we also provide some perspectives on the challenges and opportunities in this exciting new research frontier.

  5. Beagle 2: Mission to Mars - Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Morgan, G. H.; Yau, D.; Stewart, J. L. C.; Leese, M. R.; Praine, I. J.; Sheridan, S.

    2004-01-01

    Beagle 2 is a 72 kg probe (with a 32 kg lander) developed in the United Kingdom for inclusion on the European Space Agency's 2003 Mars Express. Beagle 2 was launched on June 2, 2003 with Mars Express on a Soyuz-Fregat rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Beagle 2 landed on Mars on December 25th, 2003 in Isidis Planitia (approx. 10.7 N and 268.6 W), a large sedimentary basin that overlies the boundary between ancient highlands and northern plains. Isidis Planitia, the third largest impact basin on Mars, which is possibly filled with sediment deposited at the bottom of long-standing lakes or seas, offers an ideal environment for preserving traces of life. The team is awaiting signals from the Beagle 2 lander at the time when this abstract was written. Current status of the mission will be reported. Beagle 2 was developed to search for organic material and other volatiles on and below the surface of Mars in addition to the study of the inorganic chemistry and mineralogy. Several fundamental properties can be used to determine the existence of an active or past biology on any planet, Earth or Mars. Beagle 2's targets for investigation included: (a) The presence of water, or the existence of minerals deposited from water to show that water was present, even if only transiently; (b) The detection of carbonaceous debris, the remains of organisms that might have lived in water or were washed to a final resting place by the action of water; (c) The structure of organic matter, to demonstrate that it might have been synthesized for a biological purpose; (d) The recognition of isotopic fractionation between carbonaceous phases (organic vs inorganic carbon phases), a condition which on Earth suggests that life emerged nearly 4 billion years ago.

  6. Influence of parental employment status on Dutch and Slovak adolescents' health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleskova, M.; Tuinstra, J.; Geckova, A.M.; van Dijk, J.P.; Salonna, F.; Groothoff, J.W.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Recent research shows the possibility that the link between parental employment status and children's health can be affected by different cultural or societal settings. The aim of this study was to explore whether the effect of father's and mother's employment status on several aspects o

  7. Influence of parental employment status on Dutch and Slovak adolescents' health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleskova, M.; Tuinstra, J.; Geckova, A.M.; van Dijk, J.P.; Salonna, F.; Groothoff, J.W.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Recent research shows the possibility that the link between parental employment status and children's health can be affected by different cultural or societal settings. The aim of this study was to explore whether the effect of father's and mother's employment status on several aspects o

  8. Parental support and adolescents' health in the context of parental employment status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Parental employment status is an important and often overlooked contextual factor that may influence parent adolescent relationships. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of parental support on adolescents' health within the context of parental employment status. Data on perceived mother's

  9. Parental support and adolescents' health in the context of parental employment status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2011-01-01

    Parental employment status is an important and often overlooked contextual factor that may influence parent adolescent relationships. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of parental support on adolescents' health within the context of parental employment status. Data on perceived mother's

  10. Burnout among Volunteers in the Social Services: The Impact of Gender and Employment Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Liat

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether gender and employment status affect burnout, motives for volunteering, and difficulties associated with volunteer activity in social and community services in Israel. The sample included 375 men and women aged 16 through 80. Participants were divided into four groups by employment status: high school students, employed…

  11. Influence of parental employment status on Dutch and Slovak adolescents' health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleskova, M.; Tuinstra, J.; Geckova, A.M.; van Dijk, J.P.; Salonna, F.; Groothoff, J.W.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Recent research shows the possibility that the link between parental employment status and children's health can be affected by different cultural or societal settings. The aim of this study was to explore whether the effect of father's and mother's employment status on several aspects

  12. Looking at Employment through a Lifespan Telescope: Age, Health, and Employment Status of People with Serious Visual Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Corinne; Schmeidler, Emilie; Todorov, Alexander

    This report discusses the outcomes of a study that examined employment issues for people with serious visual impairments. The study reviewed data from the 1994 and 1995 National Health Interview Survey that included 128,001 people (ages 18-69) with and without visual impairments. Chapter 1 highlights age (seen as lifestage) and health status as…

  13. A social work study on impact of gender, marital status and employment status on internet addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, internet has penetrated into people’s personal lives, significantly. People communicate with each other through internet facilities such as email services, social web pages, etc. Internet has influenced so much of our lives that many people get addicted and it has become a serious issue among different societies. In this study, we perform an empirical study to find the relationship of three issues of age, gender and employment status on internet addiction behavior. The survey selects 190 men and 160 women from a city of NajafAbad located in province of Esfahan, Iran and a questionnaire consists of 35 questions are distributed among them. The survey uses Chi-Square statistics to examine the effects of three mentioned factors and the results indicate that internet addiction is more among singles than married (Chi-Square=19.94. The survey also indicates that internet addition is more on men than women do (Chi-Square=6.64. However, our survey does not find any evidence to believe job employment has any impact on internet addiction.

  14. Preliminary study on employment status and fertility in South Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bello, B.; Kielkowski, D.; Heederik, D.; Wilson, K.; Vundle, Z.; Kruger, A.

    2009-01-01

    The role of occupational exposures in the declining fertility rate in South Africa is not known. Data on time-to-pregnancy (TTP) and important risk factors including employment was obtained from 166 African women of reproductive age by trained community interviewers. For analysis, unplanned pregnanc

  15. The interrelationship between income, health and employment status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Stronks (Karien); H. van de Mheen (Dike); J. van den Bos (Johannes); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that the relatively strong association between income and health compared to that between education/occupation and health, can partly be interpreted in terms of an association between employment sta

  16. Critical Consciousness: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Roderick J.; Diemer, Matthew A.; Voight, Adam M.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors consider Paulo Freire's construct of critical consciousness (CC) and why it deserves more attention in research and discourse on youth political and civic development. His approach to education and similar ideas by other scholars of liberation aims to foster a critical analysis of society--and one's status within…

  17. Women's Employment Status, Coercive Control, and Intimate Partner Violence in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Andres

    2007-01-01

    Findings from previous studies examining the relation between women's employment and the risk of intimate partner violence have been mixed. Some studies find greater violence toward women who are employed, whereas others find the opposite relation or no relation at all. I propose a new framework in which a woman's employment status and her risk of…

  18. Counselling International Students in Turkish Universities: Current Status and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektas, Dilek Yelda

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the current status of international students and counselling services provided at Turkish universities is addressed. Firstly, a brief history of counselling and counselling services in Turkish universities is examined, leading to a consideration of the current status of international students and counselling services.…

  19. Current Status and Future of Sports Food

    OpenAIRE

    Hailong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    According to the need of the popularization of sports nutrition knowledge and promoting of our country sports nutrition needs, the study expounds the new concept of sports nutrition food, the development of sports nutrition food abroad, the prospect of the domestic market and the status quo of cultivate. Sports nutrition food system which has been basically in more than a decade in domestic is made a detailed elaboration and an introduction of product research and development has been made. T...

  20. Current status of the Brazilian AMS program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, P.R.S. E-mail: paulogom@if.uff.br; Anjos, R.M.; Acquadro, J.C.; Santos, G.M.; Macario, K.D.; Liguori Neto, R.; Added, N.; Coimbra, M.M.; Appoloni, C.R.; Castro Faria, N.V. de; Magalhaes, S.D.; Donangelo, R

    2000-10-01

    The status and the near future plans for the Brazilian AMS program are described. The 8 MV Tandem accelerator at the University of Sao Paulo (USP) is ready to measure standard AMS samples. A recently installed 1.7 MV Tandem at the University of Rio de Janeiro will have a {sup 14}C AMS line. Together with external laboratories, we developed some projects on paleoclimatic and maritime geology. During these studies we have also learned sample preparation procedures.

  1. Current status of fast reactor physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, H.H.

    1979-01-01

    The subject of calculation of reactivity coefficients for fast reactors is developed, starting with a discussion of the status of relevant nuclear data and proceeding to the subjects of group cross section generation and of methods of obtaining reactivity coefficients from group cross sections. Reactivity coefficients measured in critical experiments are compared with calculated values. Dependence of reactivity coefficients on reactor design is discussed. Finally, results of the recent international comparison of calculated reactivity coefficients are presented.

  2. Critical reflections on the currently leading definition of sustainable employability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleuren, Bram Bi; de Grip, Andries; Jansen, Nicole Wh; Kant, Imjert; Zijlstra, Fred Rh

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable employability (SE) is an important topic as it deals with employees' abilities to function adequately at work and in the labor market throughout their working lives. However, until now there has been only one attempt to define SE in the international literature (1). This first definition

  3. Employment status and income as potential mediators of educational inequalities in population mental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzwiedz, Claire L.; Popham, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We assessed whether educational inequalities in mental health may be mediated by employment status and household income. Poor mental health was assessed using General Health Questionnaire ‘caseness’ in working age adult participants (N = 48 654) of the Health Survey for England (2001–10). Relative indices of inequality by education level were calculated. Substantial inequalities were apparent, with adjustment for employment status and household income markedly reducing their magnitude. Educational inequalities in mental health were attenuated by employment status. Policy responses to economic recession (such as active labour market interventions) might reduce mental health inequalities but longitudinal research is needed to exclude reverse causation. PMID:27593454

  4. CURRENT STATUS AND OUTLOOK OF RENEWABLE ENERGY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over 80% of the current Nigerian primary energy consumption is met by petroleum. ... energy resources in Nigeria, namely; biomass, hydropower, solar and wind energy. ... The data presented in this paper is a crucial eye-opener for relevant ...

  5. A New Current Mode SIMO-Type Universal Biquad Employing Multi-Output Current Conveyors (MOCCIIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Du

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new current-mode singleinput and multi-output (SIMO type universal biquad circuit using second generation multi-output current conveyors (MOCCII as the active components. The proposed circuit employs three MOCCIIs, two grounded capacitors and four grounded resistors, therefore offers electroning tuning possibilities. It can simultaneously realize second order low-pass, band-pass, high-pass, notch and all-pass filters. The circuit is cascadable and has low sensitivities. It provides independent control of ω0 (natural angular frequency and Q (quality factor. The influences of MOCCII parasitic elements have been analyzed and simulated using PSPICE. Experimental results including frequency responses of low-pass, high-pass, band-pass and band-stop filters, as well as frequency responses of filters with different ω0 (keeping Q invariable and different Q (keeping ω0 invariable are shown to be in agreement with theory.

  6. High-Current Cold Cathode Employing Diamond and Related Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshfield, Jay L. [Omega-P, Inc., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2014-10-22

    The essence of this project was for diamond films to be deposited on cold cathodes to improve their emission properties. Films with varying morphology, composition, and size of the crystals were deposited and the emission properties of the cathodes that utilize such films were studied. The prototype cathodes fabricated by the methods developed during Phase I were tested and evaluated in an actual high-power RF device during Phase II. These high-power tests used the novel active RF pulse compression system and the X-band magnicon test facility at US Naval Research Laboratory. In earlier tests, plasma switches were employed, while tests under this project utilized electron-beam switching. The intense electron beams required in the switches were supplied from cold cathodes embodying diamond films with varying morphology, including uncoated molybdenum cathodes in the preliminary tests. Tests with uncoated molybdenum cathodes produced compressed X-band RF pulses with a peak power of 91 MW, and a maximum power gain of 16.5:1. Tests were also carried out with switches employing diamond coated cathodes. The pulse compressor was based on use of switches employing electron beam triggering to effect mode conversion. In experimental tests, the compressor produced 165 MW in a ~ 20 ns pulse at ~18× power gain and ~ 140 MW at ~ 16× power gain in a 16 ns pulse with a ~ 7 ns flat-top. In these tests, molybdenum blade cathodes with thin diamond coatings demonstrated good reproducible emission uniformity with a 100 kV, 100 ns high voltage pulse. The new compressor does not have the limitations of earlier types of active pulse compressors and can operate at significantly higher electric fields without breakdown.

  7. The Current Status of the WARP Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelc, A. M.; Benetti, P.; Calligarich, E.; Calaprice, F.; Cambiaghi, M.; Carbonara, F.; Cavanna, F.; Cocco, A. G.; Dipompeo, F.; Ferrari, N.; Fiorillo, G.; Galbiati, C.; Grandi, L.; Mangano, G.; Montanari, C.; Palamara, O.; Pandola, L.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G. L.; Roncadelli, M.; Rossella, M.; Rubbia, C.; Santorelli, R.; Vignoli, C.; Zhao, Y.

    2006-07-01

    The WARP detector is a new idea in Dark Matter detection using liquid noble gases, specifically argon. We believe that argon is the medium best suited to detect nuclear recoils coming from interactions with the so called WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles). The detection technique, using two different discrimination methods, is capable of an identification power as high as one event in 108. During the second half of the year 2006 the next, 100 liter, detector will be constructed with an active veto shield to further suppress the background, while currently a 2.3 liter prototype, installed in the Gran Sasso Laboratory (Italy), has been taking data since May 2004. The small version of the detector is able to not only provide insight on the operation of a two-phase liquid argon chamber but is also able to provide physics results competitive with the current leading edge experiments.

  8. Energy sector in Ecuador: Current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez-Samaniego, M.R. [University of Cuenca (Ecuador). Faculty of Chemical Sciences; Energy Systems Planning, FEM, UNICAMP (Brazil); Garcia-Perez, M. [Monash University, Melbourne (Australia); Cortez, L.A.B. [Energy Systems Planning, FEM, UNICAMP (Brazil); Oscullo, J. [National Center for Energy Control - CENACE (Ecuador); Olmedo, G. [Polytechnic School of the Army - ESPE (Ecuador)

    2007-08-15

    This paper describes the current energy sector in Ecuador, its present structure, the oil industry, subsidies, and renewable energy, focusing on the evolution and reform of the electricity sector. Currently, 86% of the primary energy originates from nonrenewable sources. In 2005, the gross electricity generation was 15 127 GWh (45.5% hydropower, 43.11% thermal, and 11.39% imported). Ecuador is the fifth largest oil producer in South America but lacks sufficient oil refining capacity. Reserves of natural gas (NG) are small, and most of NG is produced from oil fields without energy recovery. Several projects are underway to increase the utilization of NG and renewable energies to meet Ecuador commitments to the Kyoto Protocol. (author)

  9. Cacao biotechnology: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasuriya, Anushka M; Dunwell, Jim M

    2017-10-06

    Theobroma cacao - The Food of the Gods, provides the raw material for the multi-billion dollar chocolate industry, and is also the main source of income for about 6 million smallholders around the world. Additionally, cocoa beans have a number of other non-food uses in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Specifically, the potential health benefits of cocoa have received increasing attention as it is rich in polyphenols, particularly flavonoids. At present, the demand for cocoa and cocoa-based products in Asia is growing particularly rapidly and chocolate manufacturers are increasing investment in this region. However, in many Asian countries, cocoa production is hampered due to many reasons including technological, political and socio-economic issues. This review provides an overview of the present status of global cocoa production and recent advances in biotechnological applications for cacao improvement, with special emphasis on genetics/genomics, in vitro embryogenesis and genetic transformation. In addition, in order to obtain an insight into the latest innovations in the commercial sector, a survey was conducted on granted patents relating to T. cacao biotechnology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Bioelectronic nose: Current status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewski, Tomasz; Gębicki, Jacek; Kamysz, Wojciech

    2017-01-15

    A characteristic feature of human and animal organs of smell is the ability to identify hundreds of thousands of odours. It is accompanied by particular smell sensations, which are a basic source of information about odour mixture. The main structural elements of biological smell systems are the olfactory receptors. Small differences in a structure of odorous molecules (odorants) can lead to significant change of odour, which is due to the fact that each of the olfactory receptors is coded with different gene and usually corresponds to different type of odour. Discovery and characterisation of the gene family coding the olfactory receptors contributed to the elaboration and development of the electronic smell systems, the so-called bioelectronic noses. The olfactory receptors are employed as a biological element in this type of instruments. An electronic system includes a converter part, which allows measurement and processing of generated signals. A suitable data analysis system is also required to visualise the results. Application potentialities of the bioelectronic noses are focused on the fields of economy and science where highly selective and sensitive analysis of odorous substances is required. The paper presents a review of the latest achievements and critical evaluation of the state of art in the field of bioelectronic noses.

  11. Sensing technology current status and future trends

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhas; Jayasundera, Krishanthi; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun

    2014-01-01

    This book is written for academic and industry professionals working in the field of sensing, instrumentation and related fields, and is positioned to give a snapshot of the current state of the art in sensing technology, particularly from the applied perspective.  The book is intended to give a broad overview of the latest developments, in addition to discussing the process through which researchers go through in order to develop sensors, or related systems, which will become more widespread in the future.  

  12. Current status of family health in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apolinar Membrillo Luna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Family Health (FH has three main elements: individual health, life material conditions and family functioning. Its main actors are the individual, the family and society. A common framework is the basis of FH, as each one of these elements is extremely important. Currently, in Mexico two aspects are considered: epidemiological studies and those inherent to the family medicine specialty. That latter has a residency and an integrated specialty curriculum, as well as certification from the corresponding board. All of this allows us to apply the HF approach to each and every family and individual that is cared for.

  13. Family therapy in Brazil: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picon, Felipe

    2012-04-01

    In the last three decades there has been a noticeable trend in the redefinition of the nuclear family in Brazil. A recent increase in the rates of divorces and paradoxically also in the rates of marriages, the legalization of same-sex unions and adoption by these couples, and the phenomenon of teenage pregnancy are some of the aspects that reflect on the current Brazilian family. This review highlights these changes and describes how family therapists in Brazil are facing the challenge of assisting these families, in a continental-sized country with uneven distribution of training courses and healthcare assistance.

  14. Current status of nanotechnology in urology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh K. Goyal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has been investigated for its applications in medicine. The objective of this review was to summarize the current applications of nanotechnology in Urology. A systematic search of literature was performed and relevant articles were analyzed with specific reference to applications in Urology. Nanotechnology has applications in diagnostic urology like in uroimaging using nanoparticles and nanosensors. It has therapeutic applications in infections, malignancies, genetic disease using targeted drug delivery, gene transfers, nano device-based manipulations etc. Nanotechnology has many applications in Urology. More efforts are required to make these applications practically feasible and affordable. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(8.000: 3114-3120

  15. Predicting Sobriety from the Employment Status of Dually Diagnosed Clients Who Are Opiate Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, James F.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (E. S. Neukrug & R. C. Fawcett, 2006) profiles and employment status for clients who are opiate dependent. A discriminant function analysis indicated that employment was a predictor in maintaining sobriety after 6 months. (Contains 4…

  16. Current status of respiratory nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suga, Kazuyoshi [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-01-01

    Multimodality image fusion is now becoming popular in respiratory nuclear medical field, since scintigraphic diagnosis, based on functional image interpretation, becomes more accurate and meaningful when supported by corresponding anatomical data. Although SPECT/PET scanner-mounted X-ray tomographic systems are now being introduced for an accurate image fusion in the chest, the use of a fully automatic multi-modality image fusion algorithm may be an alternative method. Our initial attempt of this algorithm for fusion imaging of Tc-99m MAA perfusion or thallium-201 SPECT and helical CT scan has contributed to accurate interpretation of the results without user interaction, and has facilitated the understanding of the functional basis of lung parenchymal CT attenuation changes. Three-dimensional displays with functional mapping are also now being increasingly introduced to various respiratory nuclear studies. A fractal analysis has shown successful results in the analysis of technegas and {sup 99m}Tc-MAA perfusion images, which will be increasingly applied for more objective assessment of the results. The feasibility of {sup 18}F-FDG PET scan in accurate staging of lung cancer and the good cost performance of this method in lung cancer strategy are repeatedly stressed by the recent studies. The feasibility of {sup 99m}Tc-MAA perfusion scan in the evaluation of right-to-left shunt in patients with hepatopulmonary syndrome, and the potential of {sup 123}I-MIBG scan in the evaluation of the function status of pulmonary neuroadrenergic system are new aspects for these well established tracers. There is the first attempt of intraoperative {sup 99m}Tc-colloid sentinel lymph node mapping in patients with resectable non-small cell lung cancer. This may improve the precision of pathologic staging and limit the need for mediastinal node dissection in selected patients. Radiolabeled aerosol lung scintigraphy is being increasingly applied to evaluate lung deposition of various

  17. Current status of robotics in urologic laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettman, Matthew T; Blute, Michael L; Peschel, Reinhard; Bartsch, Georg

    2003-02-01

    Urology has continuously embraced novel technologies like laparoscopy that reduce patient morbidity yet maintain an excellent standard of care. Because of limitations on maneuverability, operative vision, manual dexterity, and tactile sense, laparoscopy can be more difficult to perform than corresponding tasks in open surgery. To potentially increase clinical applicability of laparoscopy, robots that enhance operative performance have recently been introduced for a variety of laparoscopic procedures such as laparoscopic radical prostatectomy, pyeloplasty, and even laparoscopic cystectomy and neobladder construction. While these robots have generated excitement and many robotic applications have been described, the benefit of the advanced technology in expanded series of patients remains largely unknown. In addition, the ability of telerobotics to be used by surgeons inexperienced in conventional laparoscopy is also poorly understood. This review compares current features of available robots, advantages and limitations of robots, the emerging clinical applications, and the future potential of robotics in urology.

  18. Anaerobic biorefinery: Current status, challenges, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatdeenarunat, Chayanon; Nguyen, Duc; Surendra, K C; Shrestha, Shilva; Rajendran, Karthik; Oechsner, Hans; Xie, Li; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) has been in use for many decades. To date, it has been primarily aimed at treating organic wastes, mainly manures and wastewater sludge, and industrial wastewaters. However, with the current advancements, a more open mind is required to look beyond these somewhat restricted original applications of AD. Biorefineries are such concepts, where multiple products including chemicals, fuels, polymers etc. are produced from organic feedstocks. The anaerobic biorefinery concept is now gaining increased attention, utilizing AD as the final disposal step. This review aims at evaluating the potential significance of anaerobic biorefineries, including types of feedstocks, uses for the produced energy, as well as sustainable applications of the generated residual digestate. A comprehensive analysis of various types of anaerobic biorefineries has been developed, including both large-scale and household level applications. Finally, future directives are highlighted showing how anaerobic biorefinery concept could impact the bioeconomy in the near future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. RICH upgrade: Current status and future perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Pistone, A

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is dedicated to precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of B hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva). The second long shutdown of the LHC is currently scheduled to begin in 2018. During this period the LHCb experiment with all its sub-detectors will be upgraded in order to run at an instantaneous luminosity of 2×10$^{33}$ cm$^{−2}$s$^{−1}$ and to read out data at a rate of 40MHz into a flexible software-based trigger. The Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) system will require new photon detectors and modifications of the optics of the upstream detector. Tests of the prototype of the smallest constituent of the new RICH system have been performed during testbeam sessions at the Test Beam Facility SPS North Area (CERN) in Autumn 2014.

  20. Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saenger Paul

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation for up to 7 years for pediatric indications measure up favorably to previously approved growth hormones as reference comparators. While the approval in the US is currently only for treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD in children and adults, the commercial use of approved biosimilar growth hormones will allow in the future for in-depth estimation of their efficacy and safety in non-GH deficient states as well.

  1. Current Status of Biosimilar Growth Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Saenger

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is set to expire, biosimilars or follow-on protein products (FOPPs have emerged. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Recent approval of biosimilar Somatropin (growth hormone in Europe and the US prompted this paper. The scientific viability of biosimilar growth hormone is reviewed. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation for up to 7 years for pediatric indications measure up favorably to previously approved growth hormones as reference comparators. While the approval in the US is currently only for treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD in children and adults, the commercial use of approved biosimilar growth hormones will allow in the future for in-depth estimation of their efficacy and safety in non-GH deficient states as well.

  2. Lasers in cardiovascular surgery--current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, J G; Dixon, J A

    1985-04-01

    The argon, carbon dioxide and neodymium-YAG lasers have been proposed as effective instruments for surgical procedures of the intact cardiovascular system. While argon and CO(2) lasers cause superficial (0 to 1 mm) thermal injury, the Nd:YAG laser is better suited for effecting deep thermal necrosis (3 to 4 mm). Microsurgical vessel anastomoses can be done by "tissue welding" with any of the three clinical lasers. Myocardial revascularization may be accomplished by drilling "neocapillaries" in ischemic myocardium. Endocardial resection for destroying arrhythmic pathways and removing hypertrophied septal muscle has also been successfully accomplished with laser phototherapy. Last, laser-mediated vaporization of atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries and peripheral circulation may offer a percutaneous approach to the treatment of arterial occlusive disease. Cardiovascular uses of lasers are purely investigational at the current time. Much more needs to be known before widespread clinical use of lasers in the cardiovascular system can occur.

  3. [Current status of food-borne diseases in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Akemi

    2012-08-01

    The current status of food-borne diseases in Japan was described. Although the number of outbreaks caused by Salmonella, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Escherichia coli(except enterohaemorrhagic E. coli) is decreasing, outbreaks by Campylobacter or Norovirus are increasing.

  4. Molecular imaging: current status and emerging strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pysz, M.A. [Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Gambhir, S.S. [Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Departments of Bioengineering and Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Willmann, J.K., E-mail: willmann@stanford.ed [Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2010-07-15

    In vivo molecular imaging has a great potential to impact medicine by detecting diseases in early stages (screening), identifying extent of disease, selecting disease- and patient-specific treatment (personalized medicine), applying a directed or targeted therapy, and measuring molecular-specific effects of treatment. Current clinical molecular imaging approaches primarily use positron-emission tomography (PET) or single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based techniques. In ongoing preclinical research, novel molecular targets of different diseases are identified and, sophisticated and multifunctional contrast agents for imaging these molecular targets are developed along with new technologies and instrumentation for multi-modality molecular imaging. Contrast-enhanced molecular ultrasound (US) with molecularly-targeted contrast microbubbles is explored as a clinically translatable molecular imaging strategy for screening, diagnosing, and monitoring diseases at the molecular level. Optical imaging with fluorescent molecular probes and US imaging with molecularly-targeted microbubbles are attractive strategies as they provide real-time imaging, are relatively inexpensive, produce images with high spatial resolution, and do not involve exposure to ionizing irradiation. Raman spectroscopy/microscopy has emerged as a molecular optical imaging strategy for ultrasensitive detection of multiple biomolecules/biochemicals with both in vivo and ex vivo versatility. Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid of optical and US techniques involving optically-excitable molecularly-targeted contrast agents and quantitative detection of resulting oscillatory contrast agent movement with US. Current preclinical findings and advances in instrumentation, such as endoscopes and microcatheters, suggest that these molecular imaging methods have numerous potential clinical applications and will be translated into clinical use in the near future.

  5. Current status of endovascular stroke treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Philip M; Schumacher, H Christian; Connolly, E Sander; Heyer, Eric J; Gray, William A; Higashida, Randall T

    2011-06-07

    interventional methods. Few would challenge neurologists over the responsibility for emergency evaluation and triage of stroke victims for intra intravenous fibrinolysis, even though emergency physicians are most commonly the first to evaluate these patients. There are many unanswered questions about the role of imaging in defining best treatment. Perfusion imaging with CT or MRI appears to have relevance even though its role remains undefined and is the subject of ongoing research. Meanwhile, investigators are exploring new, and perhaps more specific,imaging methods with cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen and cellular acid-base imbalance. There are currently 6 ongoing trials of stroke intervention, many with proprietary technologies and private funding, competing for the same patient population as multicenter trials funded by the NIH. At the same time, much of the interventional stroke treatment currently occurs outside of trials in the community and academic settings without the collection of much-needed data. Market forces will certainly shape future stroke therapy, but it is unclear whether the current combination of private and public funding for these endeavors is the best method of development.

  6. Current Status of VHTR Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Petti; Hans Gougar; Richard Wright; William Windes; Steve Herring; Richard Schultz; Paul Humrickhouse

    2010-10-01

    Abstract – High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) featuring particle fuel reached the stage of commercial deployment in the mid-1980s with the Fort St.Vrain and Thorium HochTemperatur Reaktor feeding electricity to the grids in the United States and West Germany, respectively. The technology was then adopted by Japan and China with the operation of the High Temperature Test Reactor in Oarai, Japan and the High Temperature Reactor (HTR-10) in China. Increasing the outlet temperature of the HTGR to even higher temperatures above 900°C will improve the thermodynamic efficiency of the system and enable application of a new class of gas reactor, the very high temperature reactor, to provide process heat, electricity, and hydrogen to chemical industries with the attendant benefits of improved energy security and reduced CO2 emissions. However, the increase in coolant outlet temperature presents a number of technical challenges associated with fuel, materials, power conversion, and analysis methods for the reactor and hydrogen production. The U.S. Department of Energy is sponsoring a broad program of research and development with a goal of addressing the technical challenges over a broad range of outlet temperatures as part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. This paper describes the research and development activities that are currently underway to realize the technologies needed for an HTGR that features outlet temperatures of 750 to 950°C.

  7. Current status of robotic surgery in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Kazuo

    2015-03-01

    The da Vinci S surgical system (Intuitive Surgical) was approved as a medical device in 2009 by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Robotic surgery has since been used in gastrointestinal, thoracic, gynecological, and urological surgeries. In April 2012, robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) was first approved for insurance coverage. Since then, RALP has been increasingly used, with more than 3,000 RALP procedures performed by March 2013. By July 2014, 183 institutions in Japan had installed the da Vinci surgical system. Other types of robotic surgeries are not widespread because they are not covered by public health insurance. Clinical trials using robotic partial nephrectomy and robotic gastrectomy for renal and gastric cancers, respectively, have recently begun as advanced medical treatments to evaluate health insurance coverage. These procedures must be evaluated for efficacy and safety before being covered by public health insurance. Other types of robotic surgery are being evaluated in clinical studies. There are several challenges in robotic surgery, including accreditation, training, efficacy, and cost. The largest issue is the cost-benefit balance. In this review, the current situation and a prospective view of robotic surgery in Japan are discussed.

  8. Current status of dentin adhesive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinfelder, K F

    1998-12-01

    Undoubtedly, dentin bonding agents have undergone a major evolution during the last several years. The shear bond strength of composite resin to the surface of dentin is actually greater than the inherent strength of the dentin itself under well-controlled conditions. No longer must the clinician depend only upon the bonding to enamel as the sole bonding mechanism. Bonding to both types of dental structure permits even better reinforcement of the tooth itself. Perhaps even more important than the high level of bonding exhibited by the current dentin adhesives is their ability to seal the dentin. So effective is this sealing capability that it is now possible to protect the pulpal tissue from microbial invasion through the dentinal tubules. Further, by enclosing the odontoblastic processes and preventing fluid flow, the potential for postoperative sensitivity is diminished considerably. In fact, so evolutionary is the concept of bonding that the procedures associated with the restoration of teeth has changed dramatically. Undoubtedly, far greater improvements can be anticipated in the future.

  9. Single port radical prostatectomy: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Oscar Darío; Azhar, Raed A; Clavijo, Rafael; Gidelman, Camilo; Medina, Luis; Troche, Nelson Ramirez; Brunacci, Leonardo; Sotelo, René

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the current literature on single port radical prostatectomy (LESS-RP). Single port radical prostatectomy laparoendoscopic (LESS-RP) has established itself as a challenge for urological community, starting with the proposal of different approaches: extraperitoneal, transperitoneal and transvesical, initially described for laparoscopy and then laparoscopy robot-assisted. In order to improve the LESS-RP, new instruments, optical devices, trocars and retraction mechanisms have been developed. Advantages and disadvantages of LESS-RP are controversial, while some claim that it is a non-trustable approach, regarding the low cases number and technical difficulties, others acclaim that despite this facts some advantages have been shown and that previous described difficulties are being overcome, proving this is novel proposal of robotics platform, the Da Vinci SP, integrating the system into "Y". The LESS-RP approach gives us a new horizon and opens the door for rapid standardization of this technique. The few studies and short series available can be result of a low interest in the application of LESS-RP in prostate, probably because of the technical complexity that it requires. The new robotic platform, the da Vinci SP, shows that it is clear that the long awaited evolution of robotic technologies for laparoscopy has begun, and we must not lose this momentum.

  10. Isobar Separator for Anions: Current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alary, Jean-François, E-mail: alaryjf@isobarex.ca [Isobarex Corp., 32 Nixon Road Unit #1, Bolton, ON L7E 1W2 (Canada); Javahery, Gholamreza [IONICS Mass Spectrometry, 32 Nixon Road Unit #1, Bolton, ON L7E 1W2 (Canada); Kieser, William; Zhao, Xiao-Lei [Andre E. Lalonde Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Advanced Research Complex, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton Street, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Litherland, Albert [IsoTrace Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3B1 (Canada); Cousins, Lisa [IONICS Mass Spectrometry, 32 Nixon Road Unit #1, Bolton, ON L7E 1W2 (Canada); Charles, Christopher [Andre E. Lalonde Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Advanced Research Complex, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton Street, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2015-10-15

    The Isobar Separator for Anions (ISA) is an emerging separation technique of isobars applied first to the selective removal of {sup 36}S from {sup 36}Cl, achieving a relative suppression ratio of 6 orders of magnitude. Using a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) column incorporating low energy gas cells, this innovative technique enables the use of a wide range of low energy ion–molecule reactions and collisional-induced dissociation processes for suppressing specific atomic of molecular anions with a high degree of selectivity. Other elemental pairs (analyte/isobar) successfully separated at AMS level include Ca/K, Sr/(Y, Zr), Cs/Ba, Hf/W and Pu/U. In view of these initial successes, an effort to develop a version of the ISA that can be used as a robust technique for routine AMS analysis has been undertaken. We will discuss the detailed layout of a practical ISA and the functional requirements that a combined ISA/AMS should meet. These concepts are currently being integrated in a pre-commercial ISA system that will be installed soon at the newly established A.E. Lalonde Laboratory in Ottawa, Canada.

  11. Current status of the LBNE neutrino beam

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Craig Damon; Crowley, Cory Francis; Hurh, Patrick; Hylen, James; Lundberg, Byron; Marchionni, Alberto; McGee, Mike; Mokhov, Nikolai V; Papadimitriou, Vaia; Plunkett, Rob; Reitzner, Sarah Diane; Stefanik, Andrew M; Velev, Gueorgui; Williams, Karlton; Zwaska, Robert Miles

    2015-01-01

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) will utilize a neutrino beamline facility located at Fermilab. The facility is designed to aim a beam of neutrinos toward a detector placed in South Dakota. The neutrinos are produced in a three-step process. First, protons from the Main Injector hit a solid target and produce mesons. Then, the charged mesons are focused by a set of focusing horns into the decay pipe, towards the far detector. Finally, the mesons that enter the decay pipe decay into neutrinos. The parameters of the facility were determined by an amalgam of the physics goals, the Monte Carlo modeling of the facility, and the experience gained by operating the NuMI facility at Fermilab. The initial beam power is expected to be ~700 kW, however some of the parameters were chosen to be able to deal with a beam power of 2.3 MW. The LBNE Neutrino Beam has made significant changes to the initial design through consideration of numerous Value Engineering proposals and the current design is described.

  12. Current status of the CLIO project

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, K; Miyoki, S; Ohashi, M; Kuroda, K; Ishitsuka, H; Akutsu, T; Telada, S; Tomaru, T; Suzuki, T; Sato, N; Saitô, Y; Higashi, Y; Haruyama, T; Yamamoto, A; Shintomi, T; Tatsumi, D; Ando, M; Tagoshi, H; Kanda, N; Awaya, N; Yamagishi, S; Takahashi, H; Araya, A; Takamori, A; Takemoto, S; Higashi, T; Hayakawa, H; Morii, W; Akamatsu, J

    2008-01-01

    CLIO (Cryogenic Laser Interferometer Observatory) is a Japanese gravitational wave detector project. One of the main purposes of CLIO is to demonstrate thermal-noise suppression by cooling mirrors for a future Japanese project, LCGT (Large-scale Cryogenic Gravitational Telescope). The CLIO site is in Kamioka mine, as is LCGT. The progress of CLIO between 2005 and 2007 (room- and cryogenic-temperature experiments) is introduced in this article. In a room-temperature experiment, we made efforts to improve the sensitivity. The current best sensitivity at 300 K is about $6 \\times 10^{-21} /\\sqrt{\\rm Hz}$ around 400 Hz. Below 20 Hz, the strain (not displacement) sensitivity is comparable to that of LIGO, although the baselines of CLIO are 40-times shorter (CLIO: 100m, LIGO: 4km). This is because seismic noise is extremely small in Kamioka mine. We operated the interferometer at room temperature for gravitational wave observations. We obtained 86 hours of data. In the cryogenic experiment, it was confirmed that the...

  13. The current status of the MASHA setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedeneev, V. Yu., E-mail: vvedeneyev@gmail.com; Rodin, A. M.; Krupa, L.; Belozerov, A. V.; Chernysheva, E. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Gulyaev, A. V.; Gulyaeva, A. V.; Kamas, D. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Kliman, J. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics (Slovakia); Komarov, A. B.; Motycak, S.; Novoselov, A. S.; Salamatin, V. S.; Stepantsov, S. V.; Podshibyakin, A. V.; Yukhimchuk, S. A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Granja, C.; Pospisil, S. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics (Czech Republic)

    2017-11-15

    The MASHA setup designed as the mass-separator with the resolving power of about 1700, which allows mass identification of superheavy nuclides is described. The setup uses solid ISOL (Isotope Separation On-Line) method. In the present article the upgrade of some parts of MASHA are described: target box (rotating target + hot catcher), ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance, data acquisition, beam diagnostics and control systems. The upgrade is undertaken in order to increase the total separation efficiency, reduce the separation time, of the installation and working stability and make possible continuous measurements at high beam currents. Ion source efficiency was measured in autonomous regime with using calibrated gas leaks of Kr and Xe injected directly to ion source. Some results of the first experiments for production of radon isotopes using the multi-nucleon transfer reaction {sup 48}Ca+{sup 242}Pu are described in the present article. The using of TIMEPIX detector with MASHA setup for neutron-rich Rn isotopes identification is also described.

  14. Current status of neuronal cell xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadori, Marta; Aron Badin, Romina; Hantraye, Philippe; Cozzi, Emanuele

    2015-11-01

    Neural cell transplantation has long been considered as an option for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. To date, several patients with Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases have been treated with human fetal-derived neurons with disparate results. However, the limited efficacy to date combined with the scarce availability of human fetal tissues and ethical concerns render this procedure inapplicable to a wide population scale. With a view to overcoming these shortcomings, transplantation of pig-derived cell precursors has been proposed and applied in preclinical and clinical trials. Recently long-term survival (more than 18 months) associated with clinical efficacy has been reported following transplantation of genetically engineered porcine neural precursors in fully immunosuppressed primate recipients. Despite the promising results obtained to date, several questions remain unanswered. In particular, the ideal xenogeneic cell-products to transplant, the extent of the immune response against the implanted xenograft and the most suitable therapeutic strategies to improve engraftment are all issues that still need to be thoroughly addressed. The present review describes the current knowledge in the pig-to-primate xenotransplantation field. In this context, recent data on human-to-nonhuman primate xenogeneic stem cell-based treatments for neurological disorders are discussed. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Counterfeit pharmaceuticals: current status and future projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheimer, Albert I; Chaney, Nicole M; Santella, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    To examine the problem of counterfeit drugs and its effects around the world, to consider the likely directions the problem will take, and to propose options for controlling or mitigating the problem. Recently published clinical literature identified through review of articles abstracted at MEDLINE. Search terms were counterfeiting, counterfeit drugs, substandard drugs, fake drugs, world counterfeiting, and counterfeit pharmaceuticals. Further information was abstracted from an array of informational sources, including magazines such as Business Week, newspapers such as the International Herald Tribune, National Public Radio news reports, pharmaceutical company press releases, and information from the World Health Organization. Multiple reviewers were used to retrieve relevant and current data. Relevant data were extracted independently by multiple reviewers. Traditionally, the problem of counterfeit pharmaceuticals has been limited to developing nations in Asia and Africa. Now, drug counterfeiting is rapidly becoming a worldwide concern, and counterfeit drugs are reaching the U.S. market. This article defines the problem of counterfeit drugs in its many forms and discusses the extent of the problem, with particular attention to the respective rates of counterfeiting across the globe and the origins of counterfeit drugs. Technologic advances have worsened the counterfeit drug problem. Because drug counterfeiting is a worldwide concern, worldwide action is needed to combat the problem.

  16. Current status of laser applications in urology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipper, Ansgar; Thomas, Stephen; Durek, C.; Jocham, Dieter

    1993-05-01

    The overall development of laser use in urology is recessing. The reasons are the refinement of methods of radical surgery and the continuing development of alternative technologies involving electric current. Taking the cost factor into account, are lasers still opportune in medicine? The answer is definitely yes. Cost reduction in medical practice without quality loss is only possible with effective methods of minimally invasive surgery. Continuing investigation of cutting, welding, coagulating and ablating instruments is justified. Competition of lasers to other technologies can only be beneficial to the cause. But where are the highlights of laser applications? The unsurpassed utilization of optical properties of lasers lie in the concept of photodynamic therapies and in optical feedback mechanisms for laser applications. The combination of lasers with three dimensional visualization of the treatment area by ultrasound (TULIP-procedure for benign prostatic hyperplasia) is a novel approach in laser application. The further development of these treatment modalities will reveal the true benefit of laser technology in urological applications.

  17. Current status of tritium calorimetry at TLK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buekki-Deme, A.; Alecu, C.G.; Kloppe, B.; Bornschein, B. [Institute of Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karsruhe - TLK, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    Inside a tritium facility, calorimetry is an important analytical method as it is the only reference method for accountancy (it is based on the measurement of the heat generated by the radioactive decay). Presently, at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK), 4 calorimeters are in operation, one of isothermal type and three of inertial guidance control type (IGC). The volume of the calorimeters varies between 0.5 and 20.6 liters. About two years ago we started an extensive work to improve our calorimeters with regard to reliability and precision. We were forced to upgrade 3 of our 4 calorimeters due to the outdated interfaces and software. This work involved creating new LabView programs driving the devices, re-tuning control loops and replacing obsolete hardware components. In this paper we give a review on the current performance of our calorimeters, comparing it to recently available devices from the market and in the literature. We also show some ideas for a next generation calorimeter based on experiences with our IGC calorimeters and other devices reported in the literature. (authors)

  18. Employment status and perceived health in the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarø Leif

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most western countries have disability benefit schemes ostensibly based upon requiring (1 a work inhibiting functional limitation that (2 can be attributed to a diagnosable condition, injury or disease. The present paper examines to what extent current practice matches the core premises of this model by examining how much poorer the perceived health of disability benefit recipients is, compared to the employed and the unemployed, and further to examine to what extent any poorer perceived health among benefit recipients can be attributed to mental or somatic illness and symptoms. Methods Information on disability benefit recipiency was obtained from Norwegian registry data, and merged with health information from the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK in Western Norway, 1997–99. Participants (N = 14 946 aged 40–47 were assessed for perceived physical and mental health (Short Form-12, somatic symptoms, mental health, and self reported somatic conditions and diseases treated with medication. Differences associated with employment status were tested in chi-square and t-tests, as well as multivariate and univariate regression models to adjust for potential confounders. Results Recipients of disability benefits (n = 1 351 had poorer perceived physical and mental health than employees (n = 13 156; group differences were 1.86 and 0.74 pooled standard deviations respectively. Self reported somatic diagnoses, mental health and symptoms accounted for very little of this difference in perceived health. The unemployed (n = 439 were comparable to the employed rather than the recipients of disability benefits. Conclusion Recipients of disability benefits have poor perceived health compared to both the employed and the unemployed. Surprisingly little of this difference can be ascribed to respondents' descriptions of their illnesses and symptoms. Even allowing for potential underascertainment of condition severity, this finding supports the

  19. Current radiological status of Utirik Atoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W L

    1998-08-01

    A preliminary radiological survey was conducted at Utirik Atoll in 1978 as part of the Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey (NMIRS). A dose assessment based on these limited data indicated a relatively low dose of about 0.12 mSv to people living on Utirik in 1978 (Robison et al., 1982). A much more detailed radiological survey was conducted in April of both 1993 and 1994. Aerial photos of the islands of Utirik Atoll were taken as part of the 1978 NMIRS. The sampling grids for the 1993 and 1994 surveys are shown overlaid on these aerial photos in Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4. External gamma measurements and a collection of either drinking coconuts or copra coconuts were made at each location. Pandanus, breadfruit, lime, and banana were collected where available. Ground water was collected in 1993/94 from four wells on Utirik Island and two wells on Aon Island. Surface soil and soil profiles were collected at some of the grid points on each of the islands at the atoll in 1993/94. A comparison of the number of samples collected in 1978 and 1993/94 are shown in Table 1. A detailed listing of the samples collected in the 1993/94 radiological survey at Utirik Atoll is given in Table 2. The number of vegetation samples collected in 1993/94 is nearly a factor of 7 greater than in 1978. Soil samples collected in 1993/94 exceeded the number collected in 1978 by more than a factor of 4. Consequently, extensive data are now available for the islands at Utirik Atoll and form the basis for the current dose assessment for the atoll.

  20. Current Status on Biochip and Detection Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Gwon, Hui Jeong

    2007-06-15

    The recent biotechnology technique has been miniaturized and it features a fusion of electricity, electronics and mechanics in the existing biology. As an example, biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites (microarrays) arranged on a solid substrate that permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to achieve higher throughput and speed. Like a computer chip that can perform millions of mathematical operations in a second, the biochip can perform thousands of biological reactions, such as decoding genes, in a few seconds. The biochip is being used in toxicological, protein, and biochemical research and it can also be used to rapidly detect chemical agents used in biological warfare so that defensive measures can be taken. These biochip technologies incorporate elements of microfluidics, micromachining, synthetic chemistry, separation technologies, and detection technologies of biological molecules. Basically, biochips can be divided into two types: microarray and lab-on-a-chip system. Microarrays use planted probes to catch and identify target biological molecules while lab-on-a-chips actively process loaded samples. The biochips are becoming more diverse and customers are appearing all over the world. The products from the biochip market are being used to help accelerating the research processes and capabilities of bio-pharmaceutical drug discovery and basic academic bioresearch. To fully take advantages of the attributes of biochip technologies such as miniaturization, parallelism, automation and integration, there are some problems to overcome. The major problem is to reduce the cost. Currently the prices of biochip products are too expensive to replace traditional products and processes. As a method to solve the problem, a radioisotope can be used as a detecting sensor by appling on the biochip, as it were, radio-biochip that will further bring the cost down. The originality using the radioisotope on the biochip technology will be able

  1. Antisense therapeutics in oncology: current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooqi AA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ammad Ahmad Farooqi,1 Zia ur Rehman,2 Jordi Muntane3,4 1Laboratory for Translational Oncology and Personalized Medicine, Rashid Latif Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan; 2Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Kohat University of Science and Technology (KUST, Kohat, Pakistan; 3Department of General Surgery, Institute of Biomedicine of Seville (IBiS, Hospital Universitary "Virgen del Rocío"/CSIC/University of Seville, Sevilla, Spain; 4Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEREHD o Ciberehd, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spain Abstract: There is increasing progress in translational oncology and tremendous breakthroughs have been made as evidenced by preclinical and clinical trials. Data obtained from high-throughput technologies are deepening our understanding about the molecular and gene network in cancer cells and rapidly emerging in vitro and in vivo evidence is highlighting the role of antisense agents as specific inhibitors of the expression of target genes, thus modulating the response of cancer cells to different therapeutic strategies. Much information is continuously being added into various facets of molecular oncology and it is now understood that overexpression of antiapoptotic proteins, oncogenes, oncogenic microRNAs (miRNA, and fusion proteins make cancer cells difficult to target. Delivery of antisense oligonucleotides has remained a challenge and technological developments have helped in overcoming hurdles by improving the ability to penetrate cells, effective and targeted binding to gene sequences, and downregulation of target gene function. Different delivery systems, including stable nucleic acid lipid particles, have shown potential in enhancing the delivery of cargo to the target site. In this review, we attempt to summarize the current progress in the development of antisense therapeutics and their potential in medical research. We partition this multicomponent

  2. Predicting employment status and subjective quality of life in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruo Fujino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although impaired social functioning, particularly poor employment status, is a cardinal feature of patients with schizophrenia and leads to decreased quality of life (QOL, few studies have addressed the relationship between these two clinical issues. The aim of this study was to determine whether employment status predicts subjective QOL and to evaluate a model in which functional capacity mediates the relationship between general cognitive performance and employment status. Ninety-three patients with schizophrenia were administered a comprehensive battery of cognitive tests, the UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment-Brief version (UPSA-B, the Social Functioning Scale (SFS, and the Subjective Quality of Life Scale (SQLS. First, we evaluated a model for predicting the employment/occupation subscale score of the SFS using path analysis, and the model fitted well (χ2 (4 = 3.6, p = 0.46; CFI = 1.0; RMSEA < 0.001, with 90% CIs: 0–0.152. Employment status was predicted by negative symptoms and functional capacity, which was in turn predicted by general cognitive performance. Second, we added subjective QOL to this model. In a final path model, QOL was predicted by negative symptoms and employment status. This model also satisfied good fit criteria (χ2 (7 = 10.3, p = 0.17; CFI = 0.987; RMSEA = 0.072, with 90% CIs: 0–0.159. The UPSA-B and SFS scores were moderately correlated with most measures of cognitive performance. These results support the notion that better employment status enhances subjective QOL in patients with schizophrenia.

  3. Mothers’ Employment, Marital Status and Educational Level on Students’ Academic Achievement in Business Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subuola Catherine Abosede

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The mother’s personality is a build-up of demographic factors among which employment, marital status and educational level are prominent in shaping child’s abilities and aspirations. This study therefore, determines the influence of mothers’ employment, marital status and educational level on students’ academic achievement in Business studies. Ex-post facto survey design and stratified random sampling technique were adopted for the study.Structured Questionnaire (MEMSEL Scale, r= .76 and Business Studies Achievement Test (r=.80 with a section for demographic data were administered on a sample of Two Hundred and Fifty students from five (5 schools in Ijebu-Ode, Nigeria. Multiple regressionstatisticswas used for data analysisat 0.05 level of significance.The findings revealed thatthere was a significant but negative relationship between mothers' marital status and academic achievement of student's (r=-.195; p .05; academic achievement and educational level (r = .091; p >.05; employment status and marital status (r = -.033; p > .05 and marital status and educational level (r = .079; p > .05. However there was a significant combined contribution on the independent variables on students' academic achievement in Business Studies (Adj. R=.037; F(3,237=4.111;P <.05.Thus, it was recommended that parents should provide positive home environments for their children, while school operators should respond favourably and focus attention on the children’s needs.

  4. Impacts of education level and employment status on healthrelated quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Šabanagić-Hajrić

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To evaluate the impacts of education level and employment status on health-related quality of life (HRQoL in multiple sclerosis patients. Methods This study included 100 multiple sclerosis patients treated at the Department of Neurology, Clinical Center of the University of Sarajevo. Inclusion criteria were the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS score between 1.0 and 6.5, age between 18 and 65 years, stable disease on enrollment. Quality of life (QoL was evaluated by the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 questionnaire (MSQoL-54. Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for comparisons. Linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate prediction value of educational level and employment status in predicting MSQOL-54 physical and mental composite scores. Results Full employment status had positive impact on physical health (54.85 vs. 37.90; p<0.001 and mental health (59.55 vs. 45.90; p<0.001 composite scores. Employment status retained its independent predictability for both physical (r2=0.105 and mental (r2=0.076 composite scores in linear regression analysis. Patients with college degree had slightly higher median value of physical (49.36 vs. 45.30 and mental health composite score (66.74 vs. 55.62 comparing to others, without statistically significant difference. Conclusion Employment proved to be an important factor in predicting quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients. Higher education level may determine better QOL but without significant predictive value. Sustained employment and development of vocational rehabilitation programs for MS patients living in the country with high unemployment level is an important factor in improving both physical and mental health outcomes in MS patients.

  5. Employment restructuring and the labor market status of young black men in the 1980s

    OpenAIRE

    David R. Howell

    1991-01-01

    The decline in the employment status of young black men relative to their white peers in the post-1970 U.S. Labor market is the impetus for this research. This paper examines the effects of recent employment restructuring on young workers by race and sex. In the case of the least educated group of young black men (aged 25-34), the employment-to-population ratio declined by almost 35 percent (equivalent to 28 percentage points) from 1970 tol985. Moreover, the 1980s were a stark reversal to the...

  6. Parental Employment Status and Symptoms of Children Abused during a Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobey, Trina; McAuliff, Kathleen; Rocha, Celina

    2013-01-01

    Incidences and severity of child abuse have increased since the start of the recession. This study examined the relationship between employment status and severity of symptoms in children abused during a recession year. Participants included 154 females and 65 males between 2 and 17 years old referred to Dallas Children's Advocacy Center…

  7. Reflection into China's Business English Teaching Practices Based on GDUFS Graduates' Employment Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenzhong; Wu, Si; Guo, Tingting

    2009-01-01

    GDUFS, as one of China's top three foreign language universities with the longest history in business English teaching, has accumulated over 20-year experiences in this discipline. This research reflects into its business English teaching practices based on its graduates' employment status in recent years, and concludes that the students of…

  8. Parental Employment Status and Symptoms of Children Abused during a Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobey, Trina; McAuliff, Kathleen; Rocha, Celina

    2013-01-01

    Incidences and severity of child abuse have increased since the start of the recession. This study examined the relationship between employment status and severity of symptoms in children abused during a recession year. Participants included 154 females and 65 males between 2 and 17 years old referred to Dallas Children's Advocacy Center after…

  9. Career Choice Status among Undergraduates and the Influence of Career Management Competencies and Perceived Employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Denise; Wilton, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the influence of career management competencies and perceived employability on career choice status (CCS) among undergraduates. Making informed and appropriate career choices is positively linked with well-being, work performance and academic and career success. Early career decision-making is now critical if students wish to…

  10. 16 CFR 254.4 - Misrepresentation of facilities, services, qualifications of staff, status, and employment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... staff, status, and employment prospects for students after training. (a) It is deceptive for an industry member to misrepresent, directly or indirectly, in advertising, promotional materials, or in any other... completion of a course. (b) It is deceptive for an industry member to misrepresent that it is a nonprofit...

  11. Self-rated health and employment status in patients with multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krokavcova, Martina; Nagyova, Iveta; Van Dijk, Jitse P.; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gavelova, Miriam; Middel, Berrie; Szilasiova, Jarmila; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The aim is to explore the association between self-rated health and employment status in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) when controlling for age, gender, functional disability, disease duration, anxiety and depression. Method. One hundred eighty-four people with MS completed a sociod

  12. Self-rated health and employment status in patients with multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krokavcova, Martina; Nagyova, Iveta; Van Dijk, Jitse P.; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gavelova, Miriam; Middel, Berrie; Szilasiova, Jarmila; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The aim is to explore the association between self-rated health and employment status in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) when controlling for age, gender, functional disability, disease duration, anxiety and depression. Method. One hundred eighty-four people with MS completed a

  13. Marital Status, Gender, and Home-to-Job Conflict among Employed Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomaguchi, Kei M.

    2012-01-01

    Although researchers argue that single parents perceive more work-family conflict than married parents, little research has examined nuances in such differences. Using data from the 2002 National Study of Changing Workforce (N = 1,430), this study examines differences in home-to-job conflict by marital status and gender among employed parents.…

  14. Nuclear Power for Sustainable Development : Current Status and Future Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Adamantiades, A.; Kessides, I.

    2009-01-01

    Interest in nuclear power has been revived as a result of volatile fossil fuel prices, concerns about the security of energy supplies, and global climate change. This paper describes the current status and future plans for expansion of nuclear power, the advances in nuclear reactor technology, and their impacts on the associated risks and performance of nuclear power. Advanced nuclear reactors have been designed to be simpler and safer, and to have lower costs than currently operating reactor...

  15. Special Education History, Current Status and Future: India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Pavan John

    2013-01-01

    Education of all children in public schools, including those with disabilities, continues to be an unresolved issue in many countries around the globe. While education of all children is mandated by law and considered a basic human right in many countries, the current status of implementation varies. India, for example, is an ancient country that…

  16. Current Status of Holland's Theory of Careers: Another Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John L.

    1987-01-01

    Responds to Brown's critique of author's (Holland) theory of vocational choice. Discusses validation of theories in general and the validation of this theory in particular. Discusses common complaints about and current status of this theory. Evaluates and responds to Brown's advice. Speculates about future of career theory. (ABL)

  17. Current Status and Advancements in Research of Plantation Nutrient Cycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Run; ZHANG Changshun; SUN Yongyu

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces concepts and current research status of plantation nutrients cyclings, and analyzes main contents of plantation nutrients cycling as nutrients contents, accumulation and distribution of nutrients elements, understory species and forest litter. At the same time, the paper summarizes the problems in plantation nutrients cycling and its prospects.

  18. Counseling in Malaysia: History, Current Status, and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Ching Mey; Ng, Kok-Mun

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the history of counseling in Malaysia, provides an update of its current status, and discusses some anticipated future trends for the profession in light of recent developments in the country. Counseling in Malaysia began with school guidance in the 1960s and has now achieved recognition as a profession in…

  19. Current Backpack Weight Status for Primary Schoolchildren in Colima, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo-Buenrostro, Bertha Alicia; Delgado-Enciso, Iván; Sánchez-Ramírez, Carmen Alicia; Cruz, Sergio Adrián Montero; Vásquez, Clemente; Mora-Brambila, Ana Bertha; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Iram P.; Martínez-Fierro, Margarita L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the current status of backpack weight in primary schoolchildren in Colima, Mexico, in relation to gender, school grade level, and body mass index. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 240 randomly selected children from 20 primary schools. The participating children's parents signed statements of…

  20. Current status of quantitative rotational spectroscopy for atmospheric research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Brian J.; Wlodarczak, Georges; Colmont, Jean-Marcel; Rohart, Francois

    2004-01-01

    Remote sensing of rotational transitions in the Earth's atmosphere has become an important method for the retrieval of geophysical temperatures, pressures and chemical composition profiles that requires accurate spectral information. This paper highlights the current status of rotational data that are useful for atmospheric measurements, with a discussion of the types the rotational lineshape measurements that are not generally available in either online repository.

  1. Current status and future research in motion planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Y.K.

    1995-07-01

    There have been numerous research efforts in the field of motion planning, resulting in many theoretical and practical results. We review the current status of existing motion planning algorithms, evaluate their completeness and efficiencies on modern computers, and suggest fruitful future research directions.

  2. Current Status and Future Prospects of Hydroelectricity Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Technical standardization is very essential to electricity industry, which plays an active role in many aspects including technology standardization, secure and economic operation of power systems, environment protection, technological progress, and improvement of enterprises' management. This paper introduces the current status of hydroelectricity standardization, summarizes the progress and achievements, and then points out the development direction and working target in the future.

  3. Current Status and Future Prospects of Hydroelectricity Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yongdong

    2010-01-01

    @@ Technical standardization is very essential to electricity industry, which plays an active role in many aspects including technology standardization, secure and economic operation of power systems, environment protection, technological progress, and improvement of enterprises' management. This paper introduces the current status of hydroelectricity standardization, summarizes the progress and achievements, and then points out the development direction and working target in the future.

  4. Unemployment and the timing of parenthood: Implications of partnership status and partner's employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Inanc

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In many countries, including the UK, unemployment is associated with earlier entries into motherhood. However, the implications of male unemployment are not straightforward. Objective: The paper addresses this issue by investigating transition to first births in relation to unemployment experience as moderated by partnership status. It also examines the effects of both partners‟ employment statuses on transition into parenthood, focusing on the joint labour market status of cohabiting and married couples. Methods: The impact of unemployment experience on the timing of parenthood is predicted using discrete time event history analysis. Data from the British Household Panel Study provide complete family and work histories. Unobserved heterogeneity is controlled for. Results: Unemployment leads to earlier entries into parenthood for both men and women. However, its impact differs according to the relationship status in which it is experienced. Unemployed men who cohabit and unemployed women who are single have a higher probability of becoming parents. Among married individuals the timing of parenthood is determined largely by the labour market status of the female partner. Irrespective of the male‟s employment status, couples with employed female spouses have a substantially lower probability of becoming parents. Yet among women who are not in employment there is a delaying effect of unemployment compared to being economically inactive. Conclusions: Different mechanisms explain the relationship between unemployment and fertility timing for non-married and married individuals. Neoclassical family models seem to determine parenthood timing among married individuals, whereas early parenthood among non-married individuals can be explained by an uncertainty reduction strategy or discouragement from marriage.

  5. Employment Status and Mental Health: Mediating Roles of Social Support and Coping Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, Michel; Touré, El Hadj; Perreault, Nicole; Caron, Jean

    2016-08-27

    Although it has been established that unemployment and underemployment increase distress and depression, the psychological mechanisms involved are not very clear. This study examines the roles of social support and coping strategies as mediators of the association between employment status and mental health, as well as gender and age differences as moderators. Residents from the epidemiological catchment area of south-west Montreal responded to a randomized household survey for adults in 2009. A follow-up was conducted based on participants' employment status 2 and 4 years later. ANOVAs tests were computed with SPSS to evaluate group differences, and structural equation modeling was performed with AMOS to test mediation effects. At baseline, among participants between 18 and 64 years old (n = 2325), 14.3 % were unemployed/not studying, 14.4 % worked part-time, and 56.5 % worked full-time. Employment status was found to significantly affect depression among those under 45 years old (chi-square = 23.4, p full-time employment with depression, which was fully mediated by social support, less coping with drugs/medication, and less distress. A negative association with full-time employment was also noted with distress, which was partially mediated by increased social support, coping with alcohol, and less coping with drugs/medication. The total indirect effect suggests that full-time employees generally have more resources and do not tend to use avoidance strategies like coping with drugs/medication, resulting in less distress (β = -0.05; p employment, namely full-time employment, in communities.

  6. Are Level of Education and Employment Related to Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders in Current and Retired Professional Footballers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouttebarge

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Mental disorders have become a topic of increasing interest in research due to their serious consequences for quality of life and functioning. Objectives The objective of this study was to explore the relationship of level of education, employment status and working hours with symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour, smoking, adverse nutritional behaviour among current and retired professional footballers. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study among current and retired professional footballers. Based on validated scales, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed by players’ unions in 11 countries across three continents. Results A total of 607 current professional footballers (mean age of 27 years and 219 retired professional footballers (mean age of 35 years were involved in the study. Among retired professional footballers, statistically significant negative correlations were found between employment status and symptoms of distress and anxiety/depression (P < 0.05, as well as between number of working hours and symptoms of anxiety/depression (P < 0.05. No other statistically significant associations were found among retired players. Among current professional footballers, level of education was not associated with symptoms of common mental disorders. Conclusions Among retired professional footballers, employment status as well as a higher number of working hours was weakly correlated to symptoms of distress and anxiety/depression. Combining a football career with sustainable attention for educational and career planning might be important and of high priority.

  7. Are Level of Education and Employment Related to Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders in Current and Retired Professional Footballers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Verhagen, Evert; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental disorders have become a topic of increasing interest in research due to their serious consequences for quality of life and functioning. Objectives The objective of this study was to explore the relationship of level of education, employment status and working hours with symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour, smoking, adverse nutritional behaviour) among current and retired professional footballers. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study among current and retired professional footballers. Based on validated scales, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed by players’ unions in 11 countries across three continents. Results A total of 607 current professional footballers (mean age of 27 years) and 219 retired professional footballers (mean age of 35 years) were involved in the study. Among retired professional footballers, statistically significant negative correlations were found between employment status and symptoms of distress and anxiety/depression (P < 0.05), as well as between number of working hours and symptoms of anxiety/depression (P < 0.05). No other statistically significant associations were found among retired players. Among current professional footballers, level of education was not associated with symptoms of common mental disorders. Conclusions Among retired professional footballers, employment status as well as a higher number of working hours was weakly correlated to symptoms of distress and anxiety/depression. Combining a football career with sustainable attention for educational and career planning might be important and of high priority. PMID:27625749

  8. The association between employment status and metabolic syndrome in women: modifying effect of education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiral, Yucel; Arik, Hale; Toğrul, Belgin Unal

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the researchers in this study was to examine the relations of paid work versus housework and educational level to metabolic syndrome in women. The study sample consisted of women who participated in a baseline survey of the Heart of Balcova Project, which is an ongoing cohort study in Izmir, Turkey. A randomly selected subsample of women who were aged 30-64 years and who were not retired or unemployed was derived from the individuals who participated in the Heart of Balcova Project. All data were collected through face-to-face interviews with 191 workers and 342 housewives. The association between employment status and metabolic syndrome was explored using multiple logistic regression models. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was significantly higher among housewives than among workers. Among the women with a high educational level, odds of metabolic syndrome were significantly higher for housewives than for those who were employed. An association between employment status and metabolic syndrome was not observed in the group with a low level of education. The findings revealed that educational level had a modifying effect on the relationship between employment status and metabolic syndrome among women and thus has implications for improving the understanding of the importance of health and educational opportunities for housewives.

  9. Investigation and Study on Employment Status of Migrant Workers in Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Ji-ying; Wang Yao

    2015-01-01

    With the gradual acceleration of urbanization speed and continuous improvements of agricultural productivity, the number of migrant workers is increasing. The living conditions of this group in cities determine the quality of urbanization in China, and are of great and far-reaching significance to Chinese construction of comprehensive well-off society. This study took the migrant workers in Heilongjiang Province as the research object, and took the representative new-generation migrant workers as the respondent to have a comprehensive analysis of the employment status. The study focused on these aspects, such as nature information, employment selection, employment quality, and social security, etc. Finally, it provided valuable ideas and methods on the reasonable solutions of the employment problems of the migrant workers to better increase farmers' income and improve their living qualities.

  10. Employment status in persons with and without HIV infection in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Rebecca; Omland, Lars Haukali; Kronborg, Gitte

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate annual employment rates and disability retirement rates (DRRs) among HIV-infected individuals and population controls during the period 1996-2011. DESIGN: A population-based cohort study including all HIV-infected individuals born in Denmark and not reporting intravenous (i.......v.) drug abuse as a route of HIV infection or diagnosed with hepatitis C infection (n = 2799) and 22,369 individually matched persons from the background population. Study inclusion was 1 January 1996 or HIV diagnosis, which ever came last. METHODS: Data on employment status and disability pension were...... extracted from Danish national registries. Employment rate and DRR were estimated in each calendar year after study inclusion for the cohorts included before 1996 (pre-1996), 1996-1999 and 2000-2011. RESULTS: Employment rate in the year of study inclusion increased from 54.8% [95% confidence interval (CI...

  11. Influence of parental employment status on Dutch and Slovak adolescents' health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salonna Ferdinand

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research shows the possibility that the link between parental employment status and children's health can be affected by different cultural or societal settings. The aim of this study was to explore whether the effect of father's and mother's employment status on several aspects of adolescents' health differs between Slovakia and the Netherlands. Methods Two data sets were used: 2616 Slovak adolescents (mean age 14.9 and 2054 Dutch adolescents (mean age 16.3. Self-rated health, GHQ-12, long-term well-being and Rosenberg self-esteem scale were used to assess the health of adolescents. Parental employment status was classified into the following categories: employed, unemployed, disabled, housewife (among mothers only. Logistic regression analyses were done separately for males and females. Results Results indicate that having an unemployed father negatively influences self-rated health and long-term well-being of Slovak male adolescents, but has no effect on the health of Dutch adolescents. Secondly, having a disabled father has a negative effect on the psychological well-being of Dutch males and the self-rated health of females, but does not influence the health of Slovak adolescents. Thirdly, having a mother who is disabled, unemployed or a housewife has a negative effect on the self-esteem of Slovak adolescents. Fourthly, Dutch males whose mother was a housewife had worse long-term well-being than those with an unemployed mother, whereas Dutch females whose mother was a housewife reported better psychological well-being than those with an employed mother. Conclusion To conclude briefly our results, father's unemployment seems to be a better predictor of health for Slovak adolescents, father's disablement of health for Dutch ones. Mother's employment status seemed to be important for the self-esteem of Slovak adolescents and mother as a housewife for the health of Dutch ones. This suggests that the link between

  12. Current status of the LHCf experiment and future plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamura T.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Large Hadron Collider forward (= LHCf experiment has successfully finished the first phase of data taking at LHC √s = 0.9 and 7 TeV proton-proton collisions in 2010. As current status, we concentrate on analyzing the obtained data. As the first result, the energy spectra of photon measured by LHCf during = 7 TeV p-p collision has been published recently. Also the study of the upgraded version of LHCf detector for future = 14TeV run scenario is developed with the GSO scintillator. Another possible plan of p-A(nuclear collision in LHC is also studied. In this paper, as the current status of the experiment, analyses, and works for foreseen detector upgrade are summarized.

  13. Current status of $\\varepsilon_K$ in lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Weonjong

    2016-01-01

    We present the current status of $\\varepsilon_K$ evaluated directly from the standard model using lattice QCD inputs. The lattice QCD inputs include $\\hat{B}_K$, $\\xi_0$, $\\xi_2$, $|V_{us}|$, $m_c(m_c)$, and $|V_{cb}|$. Recently, FLAG has updated $\\hat{B}_K$, exclusive $|V_{cb}|$ has been updated with new lattice data in the $\\bar{B}\\to D\\ell\\bar{\

  14. Current Status of Deltabaculoviruses, Cypoviruses and Chloriridoviruses Pathogenic for Mosquitoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James J. Becnel

    2007-01-01

    There are a variety of viral pathogens that cause disease in mosquitoes with most belonging to three major groups. The most common viruses of mosquitoes are the baculoviruses (DBVs) (Baculoviridae: Deltabaculovirus), cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses (CPVs) (Reoviridae: Cypovirus) and the iridoviruses (MIVs) (Iridoviridae: Chloriridovirus). Baculoviruses and iridoviruses are DNA viruses while cypoviruses are the main RNA viruses in mosquitoes. This review presents an overview of the current status and recent advancements in understanding the biology and molecular features of mosquito pathogenic viruses.

  15. Current Status and Development of National Grid in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    With most primary energy resources far from load centers, the voltage level of power system in China has imperatively been upgraded to meet the demand of long-distance power transmission. The successful commissioning of the 750-kV HVAC line in Northwest Power Grid has opened an era of national grid devel opment and brought about a series of technical problems to be faced. This report introduces briefly the current status and policies of UHV development in China.

  16. Current Status and Prospects of Biodiesel Production from Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhuan Liu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae represent a sustainable energy source because of their high biomass productivity and ability to remove air and water born pollutants. This paper reviews the current status of production and conversion of microalgae, including the advantages of microalgae biodiesel, high density cultivation of microalgae, high-lipid content microalgae selection and metabolic control, and innovative harvesting and processing technologies. The key barriers to commercial production of microalgae biodiesel and future perspective of the technologies are also discussed.

  17. Current Status and Prospects of Biodiesel Production from Microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Yuhuan Liu; Rongsheng Ruan; Zhenyi Du; Xiaodan Wu

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae represent a sustainable energy source because of their high biomass productivity and ability to remove air and water born pollutants. This paper reviews the current status of production and conversion of microalgae, including the advantages of microalgae biodiesel, high density cultivation of microalgae, high-lipid content microalgae selection and metabolic control, and innovative harvesting and processing technologies. The key barriers to commercial production of microalgae biodie...

  18. Current Status and Prospects of Biodiesel Production from Microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae represent a sustainable energy source because of their high biomass productivity and ability to remove air and water born pollutants. This paper reviews the current status of production and conversion of microalgae, including the advantages of microalgae biodiesel, high density cultivation of microalgae, high-lipid content microalgae selection and metabolic control, and innovative harvesting and processing technologies. The key barriers to commercial production of microalgae biodie...

  19. Male fertility in Greece: Trends and differentials by education level and employment status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Tragaki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: More than downplayed, the role of men in the demographic analysis of reproduction has been entirely neglected. However, male fertility can be an important issue for exploring how economic and employment uncertainties relate to fertility and family dynamics. Objective: This paper intends to study fertility variations over time, relying solely on data referring to father's socio-demographic characteristics; in particular, their age, education level, and employment status. Methods: We use a combination of Labor Force Survey and Demographic Statistics data on population and Vital Statistics on births to estimate male fertility indicators and fertility differentials by education level and employment status, for the period 1992-2011 in Greece. In addition, over-time developments in male TFR are separated into structural (education-specific and employment-specific distributions and behavioral (fertility, per se changes. Results: We find that the male fertility level is declining, the fertility pattern is moving into higher ages, and the reproduction period for men is getting shorter. From 1992 up to 2008, changes in male fertility were mostly driven by behavioral rather than compositional factors. However, the decline of male fertility over the period of economic recession (2008-2011 is largely attributed to the continuous decrease in the proportions of employed men. Conclusions: The study suggests that male fertility merits further exploration. In particular, years of economic downturn and countries where household living standards are mostly associated with male employment, a father's employability is likely to emerge as an increasingly important factor of fertility outcomes.

  20. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - March 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; NN Keck; KL Gaustad; RC Perez

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into four sections: (1) news about ingests currently under development, (2) current production ingests, (3) future ingest development plans, and (4) information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  1. Current status and perspectives of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    This mini-review describes recent epidemiological trends in cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan. Some of the topics discussed herein were presented at the first symposium on "Current perspectives of Taenia asiatica researches", that was held in Osong in Chungbuk Province, South Korea, in October 2011 and organized by Prof. K. S. Eom, Chungbuk National University School of Medicine. To better understand the trends in the occurrence of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan, clinical cases reported in 2005 have been updated. In addition, the current status of Taenia asiatica infections successively occurring in Japan since 2010 is also discussed.

  2. Employment status in multiple sclerosis: impact of disease-specific and non-disease-specific factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Ivonne; Kern, Simone; Horntrich, Antje; Ziemssen, Tjalf

    2013-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with high rates of early retirement (ER). A German cohort of MS patients and healthy control subjects (HCs) were compared cross-sectionally to investigate disease- and non-disease-specific factors that are associated with employment status (ES) in MS and to identify predictors of ES in MS. A total of 39 ER MS patients, 48 employed MS patients, and 37 HCs completed a brief neuropsychological battery and questionnaires related to depressive symptoms, fatigue, health-related quality of life (HrQoL) and health locus of control (HLC). Neurological disability was assessed by the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC). ER compared with employed MS patients scored significantly higher in neurological disability, depressive symptoms and fatigue and significantly lower in cognitive functioning and HrQoL. Further, both groups differed with regard to age, education, disease course and duration but not in HLC. Neurological disability, age and fatigue were identified as significant predictors of ES in MS. ES in MS was associated with demographic aspects, neurological and cognitive status, depressive symptoms, fatigue and HrQoL but was not associated with HLC. Findings confirm neurological disability, age and fatigue as independent predictors of ES in MS.

  3. Employment and Socioeconomic Factors Associated With Children's Up-to-Date Vaccination Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiwei; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Hill, Holly A; Yankey, David

    2017-04-01

    This study examined whether additional information on parents' employment and household characteristics would help explain the differences in children's up-to-date (UTD) vaccination status using the 2008 National Immunization Survey and its associated Socioeconomic Status Module. After controlling for basic sociodemographic factors in multivariable analyses, parent's work schedules and ease of taking time off from work were not associated with UTD vaccination status among 19- to 35-month-old children. We also conducted a stratified analysis to test the heterogeneous effects of the factors among children at 3 age-restricted maternal education levels and found the benefit of paid sick leave had a significant association only among families where the mother had a college degree. Families who had moved since the child's birth, especially if the mother had high school or lower education, were less likely to have children UTD on the vaccine series.

  4. The Association of Marital Status and Offers of Employer-based Health Insurance for Employed Women Aged 27-64: United States, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jessica L; Cohen, Robin A

    2017-01-01

    Data from the National Health Interview Survey •Among employed women aged 27-64, unmarried women (72.2%) were more likely than married women (69.3%) to have been offered health insurance by their employer. •Among employed married women aged 27-64, 16.8% were offered health insurance only through their spouse's employer. •Considering all offers of health insurance (through a woman's employer or her spouse's employer), employed married women aged 27-64 (86.1%) were more likely than employed unmarried women (72.2%) to have had an employer offer of health insurance. •Regardless of educational attainment, and for most income and racial groups, employed married women aged 27-64 were more likely than employed unmarried women to have been offered health insurance by their employer or their spouse's employer. In 2015, women were less likely than men to have been insured through their own employer and more likely to have been covered as a dependent (1). This report describes the association of marital status and the presence of employer-based health insurance offers among employed women in the United States. Analyses are limited to women aged 27-64 to exclude offers associated with parental employment for those under age 27. An offer of employer-based health insurance includes offers by the woman's employer or her spouse's employer. The presence of an offer does not indicate offer take up. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  5. Employment status and differences in the one-year coverage of physician visits: different needs or unequal access to services?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kivimäki Mika

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dichotomy employed vs. unemployed is still a relevant, but rather crude measure of status in current labour markets. Also, studies concerning the association of employment status with health have to specify the type of the employment as well as the characteristics of the unemployment. This study aims to reveal differences and potential inequalities in physician visits among seven groups in the core-periphery structures of the labour markets. Methods A total of 16 000 Finns responded to a postal survey in 2003. Their visits to physicians in public primary health care, occupational health care, private health services, hospital outpatient clinics and dental care services during previous year were measured as indicators of service utilisation. Participants were classified as employees having a permanent or fixed-term and full-time or part-time contract and as those experiencing short-term, prolonged or long-term unemployment. Differences in the one-year coverage of physician visits between these groups of employees were analysed using logistic regression analyses where differences in the need for services were controlled for by including demographics and self-rated health assessments in the models. Results Permanently employed respondents had visited a physician most often, and the need-adjusted regression models showed significantly lower odds ratios for a visit among fixed-term employees (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.53–0.81 and in particular among the long-term unemployed (OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.14–0.31. A stratified analysis according to health care sector showed the lowest odds ratios in occupational health care and private physicians (ORs between 0.05 and 0.73 and also low odds ratios for dentists (ORs between 0.45 and 0.91, whereas visits to public primary health care were more common among non-permanent employees and the unemployed (ORs between 1.46 and 2.39. Conclusion The use of physician services varies according to labour

  6. New Voltage-Mode All-pass Filter Topology Employing Single Current Operational Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Çiçekli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new voltage-mode all-pass filter topology based on single current operational amplifier (COA and the implementation of COA by using current conveyors are presented. The proposed topology employs three admittances and single active circuit element. COA implementation by using current conveyor blocks as sub-circuit contributes to workability of the COA employing circuits by using commercially available integrated circuits that can be employed as current conveyor. The validity of the proposed filter is verified by PSPICE simulation programme by using the MOSIS 0.35 micron CMOS process parameters. The simulation results agree well with the theoretical analysis and the circuit achieve a good total harmonic distortion (THD performance.

  7. Employment Status after Spinal Cord Injury (1992-2005): A Review with Implications For Interpretation, Evaluation, Further Research, and Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Amanda E.; Murphy, Gregory C.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the research conducted on the topic of employment status after spinal cord injury that was published between 1992 and 2005. This study follows on from an earlier review that focused on papers published between 1976 and 1991. The current study extends the earlier review by reporting an aggregate employment…

  8. Employment Status after Spinal Cord Injury (1992-2005): A Review with Implications For Interpretation, Evaluation, Further Research, and Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Amanda E.; Murphy, Gregory C.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the research conducted on the topic of employment status after spinal cord injury that was published between 1992 and 2005. This study follows on from an earlier review that focused on papers published between 1976 and 1991. The current study extends the earlier review by reporting an aggregate employment…

  9. Current status and challenge of Human Parasitology teaching in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hong-Juan; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Chun-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2012-11-01

    Parasitic infection profile in China has been changed greatly with the rapid economic development in China since the 1980s, such as the tremendous decreased infection rate of the soil-borne helminthiasis, the elimination of filariasis, the control of malaria, and the initiation to eradicate malaria in 2020. Some food-borne parasitic infections have increased such as Clonorchiasis, Cysticercosis, and Echinococcosis, probably because of the increased chances of eating out. This trend directly affected the status of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, such as the shorten length of this course, re-adjusted contents structure and teaching manners, even the change of the name of this course. In this paper, we analyzed the current status and challenges of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, and discussed the requisite contents and manners in course delivery and measures to improve the quality of Human Parasitology teaching in China.

  10. The global HIV epidemic: current status and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdool Karim, Quarraisha

    2013-06-01

    Three decades after the first reported cases of AIDS we have within our reach sufficient evidence to substantially alter the HIV epidemic at a country level regardless of mode of transmission of HIV. There are a growing number of countries demonstrating control of the epidemic. Human rights violations and/or legislation relating to sexual orientation, status of minors, injecting drug use and sex work together with stigma and discrimination remain key barriers to knowledge of HIV status and access to appropriate services. The use of anti-retrovirals prophylactically to reduce sexual and vertical transmission and systemically to treat infected infants and adults is central to the optimism in responses to the epidemic. In the current fiscal climate careful thought needs to be given to how to efficiently optimise combinations of what is available to have the biggest impact in the context of limited human and infrastructure resources.

  11. Profile of currently employed European Food Scientists and Technologists: Education, experience and skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Flynn

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The food & drink (F&D sector in Europe ranks low in innovation and the European F&D industry has been losing importance in the global market. The food professionals, i.e., food scientists and technologists (FSTs, may not be meeting the varied demands of the sector. Here, we identify education, experience and skills of current FSTs and compare  geographic regions and employment areas. Between 2009 and 2012, 287 questionnaires representing over 4000 FSTs were collected from employers in 16 countries. Analyses showed that more than 80% of FSTs have a university degree; but only in Industry in the Central European region are most degrees in food science/technology. More than half of FSTs, and almost 60% in the South, have less than 10 years’ experience. The most common FST job title is Quality Manager, but with several variations based on region and employment area. Among skills, the most common is Communicating; found in over 90% of FSTs in all regions and employment areas. Food Safety is the most common of the food sector-specific skills, present in more than 75% of FSTs, yet there are differences in food sector skills based on employment area. Overall, these data suggest similarities among currently employed food professionals throughout Europe; they are young and highly educated, but also differences, especially in their food sector-specific skills. An understanding of the current FST should contribute to the improvement of FST training and thus benefit the European food sector.

  12. Automated measurement system employing eddy currents to adjust probe position and determine metal hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, James M.; Dodson, Michael G.; Lechelt, Wayne M.

    1989-01-01

    A system for measuring the hardness of cartridge cases employs an eddy current probe for inducing and sensing eddy currents in each cartridge case. A first component of the sensed signal is utilized in a closed loop system for accurately positioning the probe relative to the cartridge case both in the lift off direction and in the tangential direction, and a second component of the sensed signal is employed as a measure of the hardness. The positioning and measurement are carried out under closed loop microprocessor control facilitating hardness testing on a production line basis.

  13. Current Status of Integral Medical Study on Endometriosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Chao-qin (俞超芹); YU Jin (俞瑾)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Endometriosis (EM), an estrogen dependent disease that comes from the planting of endometrial gland and stroma outside the uterine cavity, is characterized by invasiveness, wide planting and liability to relapse. It has been proved by recent studies that the pathogenesis of EM has its genetic background and is closely related with neuro-, endocrino- and immuno-factors. There has been great progress in the treatment of EM, but the clinical effect is not yet satisfactory. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has definitely played its role in EM treatment. In this article, the current status of integral medical study on EM is reviewed.

  14. Current Status of Single-incision Laparoscopic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Irfan; Ciancio, Fabio; Ferrara, Vincenzo;

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in minimally invasive surgery have centered on reducing the number of incisions required, which has led to the development of the single-incision laparoscopic technique. A panel of European single-incision laparoscopy experts met to discuss the current status of, and the future...... expectations for, the technique. The experts reached agreement on a number of statements and recommendations, which will support surgeons in adopting the technique. The panel agreed that the single-incision technique may offer a number of benefits to patients; however, further clinical data need...

  15. Thermoelectric microgenerators. Current status and prospects of application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strutynska L. T.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of current status and prospects of using thermoelectric microgenerators, including organic-fueled ones, is performed. Developments of thermoelectric microgenerators presented in this review demonstrate that their increasingly wide use forms a separate, very important line of thermoelectricity – micropower generation with growing potential of practical applications for charging batteries, mobile phones, digital cameras and photocameras, power supply to small radio stations, other portable devices, including medical. The ways of increasing the efficiency of such devices and relevant lines of their wide use in practice are determined.

  16. The current status of women in physics in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Najat K.; Kazmili, Brenda

    2015-12-01

    Women's representation in physics in Tanzania is generally low. Various studies have shown that Tanzanian girls face obstacles to realizing their educational and intellectual capabilities. The situation is even worse in the field of physics because of the perception that the subject is too difficult. The number of women in physics at the university level is highly associated with their number in secondary school level as well as their performance. This paper analyzes the current status of women engaged in physics in Tanzania in the academic and research institutions.

  17. Indirect dark matter searches: current status and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Many theoretical ideas for the particle nature of dark matter exist. The  most popular models often predict that dark matter particles self-annihilate or decay, giving rise to potentially detectable signatures in astronomical observations.  I will summarize the current status of searches for such signatures and critically reassess recent claims for dark matter signals.  I will further provide an outlook on anticipated developments in the next 10 years, and discuss new methods to facilitate strategy development.

  18. MicroRNAs of parasites: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan; Tuo, Wenbin; Gao, Hongwei; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2010-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous non-coding small RNAs regulating gene expression in eukaryotes at the post-transcriptional level. The complex life cycles of parasites may require the ability to respond to environmental and developmental signals through miRNA-mediated gene expression. Over the past 17 years, thousands of miRNAs have been identified in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and other parasites. Here, we review the current status and potential functions of miRNAs in protozoan, helminths, and arthropods, and propose some perspectives for future studies.

  19. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Current Status and Future Trends

    CERN Document Server

    Loo, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Guiding readers through the basics of these rapidly emerging networks to more advanced concepts and future expectations, Mobile Ad hoc Networks: Current Status and Future Trends identifies and examines the most pressing research issues in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs). Containing the contributions of leading researchers, industry professionals, and academics, this forward-looking reference provides an authoritative perspective of the state of the art in MANETs. The book includes surveys of recent publications that investigate key areas of interest such as limited resources and the mobility o

  20. Current status and future of Mo-99 supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponsard, Bernard [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK.CEN), Mol (Belgium). AIPES Reactors and Isotopes Working Group

    2016-01-15

    The global supply of Mo-99 relies on a limited number of research reactors and processing facilities. Its production is essential as medical diagnostic imaging techniques using Tc-99m account for approximately 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures worldwide. The short half-life's of the radioisotopes requires a continuous supply. Several severe disruptions have been experienced over the past decade. Fortunately, the situation encouraged the industry to develop new projects and new production routes. The current status of Mo-99 supply is described and the efforts made to achieve a reliable Tc-99m availability for nuclear medicine is summarized.

  1. Current Status and Prospects of Natural Gas Utilization in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Xin

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1 Overview and Current Status of Utilization of China's Natural Gas Resources Natural gas as a green fuel with low carbon content can comply with the trend in the epoch for development of non carbonaceous energy source, and has a lot of advantages such as its abundance in resources, convenience in applica tion and cost competitiveness. The application of natural gas as a premium fuel has become a focus pursued aggres sively by international players, and the perspectives for gas demand growth will be better than that for oil globally.

  2. Current status and challenges in PEMFC stacks, systems and commercialization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任远; 曹广益; 朱新坚

    2006-01-01

    The current status of worldwide developments of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stacks and system,research activities in resent years to analyze the cost of PEMFC stacks and systems, the remaining research and development issues that should be resolved before the PEMFC available for commercial application were discussed. The two main problems that challenge the PEMFC commercialization were cost and fuel supply infrastructure. The ways to lower the cost, to choose the fuel and improve the efficiency and reliability were described. To research the cost target of 125 kW and stack lifetime of 40 000 ~ 100 000h, basic research in PEMFC was indispensable.

  3. Laparoscopic surgery for inguinal hernia: Current status and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhandarkar Deepraj

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Repair of inguinal hernia is one of the commonest operations performed by surgeons around the world. The treatment of this common problem has seen an evolution from the pure tissue repairs to the prosthetic repairs and in the recent past to laparoscopic repair. The fact that so many hernia repairs are practiced is a testimony to the fact that probably none is distinctly superior to the other. This review assesses the current status of surgery for repair of inguinal hernia and examines the various controversial issues surrounding the subject.

  4. CT myocardial perfusion imaging: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M C; Newby, D E

    2016-08-01

    Computed tomography (CT) imaging of the heart has advanced rapidly, and it is now possible to perform a comprehensive assessment at a low radiation dose. CT myocardial perfusion imaging can provide additive information to CT coronary angiography, and is particularly useful in patients with heavily calcified coronary arteries or coronary artery stents. A number of protocols are now available for CT myocardial perfusion including static, dynamic, and dual-energy techniques. This review will discuss the current status of CT myocardial perfusion imaging, its clinical application, and future directions for this technology.

  5. The MAO NASU Plate Archive Database. Current Status and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakuliak, L. K.; Sergeeva, T. P.

    2006-04-01

    The preliminary online version of the database of the MAO NASU plate archive is constructed on the basis of the relational database management system MySQL and permits an easy supplement of database with new collections of astronegatives, provides a high flexibility in constructing SQL-queries for data search optimization, PHP Basic Authorization protected access to administrative interface and wide range of search parameters. The current status of the database will be reported and the brief description of the search engine and means of the database integrity support will be given. Methods and means of the data verification and tasks for the further development will be discussed.

  6. Surgical residency training in the mission setting: current status and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Smith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgery has traditionally been an important aspect of services offered by mission hospitals, but only in the last 20 years has surgical residency training been incorporated into the mission hospital setting. A working group of surgical educators met in conjunction with the Global Missions Health Conference in November 2015 and discussed the current status of surgical training in the mission setting. This paper outlines the current status and makes recommendations for mission groups who are contemplating starting a residency training program. Potential difficulties and the importance of regional recognition of the program are discussed. The work group felt that it was important to include a strong spiritual emphasis as part of the training. Future directions and the concern about employment opportunities are explored.

  7. Polycystic ovary syndrome: current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmess, Erin K; Naz, Rajesh K

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a widespread reproductive disorder that encompasses many associated health conditions and has an impact on various metabolic processes. PCOS is depicted by hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, and anovulation. It increases the risk of insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. The etiology of the disease remains unclear, and the subjective phenotype makes a united diagnosis difficult among physicians. It seems to be a familial genetic syndrome caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. It can be linked with metabolic disorders in first-degree family members. PCOS is the cause of up to 30% of infertility in couples seeking treatment. Currently, there is no cure for PCOS. Despite the growing incidence of this syndrome, limited research has been done that encompasses the entirety of PCOS spectrum. In this review, the current status and possible future perspective will be discussed.

  8. Polycystic ovary syndrome: current status and future perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmess, Erin K.; Naz, Rajesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a widespread reproductive disorder that encompasses many associated health conditions and has an impact on various metabolic processes. PCOS is depicted by hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, and anovulation. It increases the risk of insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. The etiology of the disease remains unclear, and the subjective phenotype makes a united diagnosis difficult among physicians. It seems to be a familial genetic syndrome caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. It can be linked with metabolic disorders in first-degree family members. PCOS is the cause of up to 30% of infertility in couples seeking treatment. Currently, there is no cure for PCOS. Despite the growing incidence of this syndrome, limited research has been done that encompasses the entirety of PCOS spectrum. In this review, the current status and possible future perspective will be discussed. PMID:24389146

  9. Product ecodesign and materials: current status and future prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieux, Fabrice; Zwolinski, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the current status of ecodesign in the industry and its future implications for materials. There is today more and more focus on the environmental impacts of products during their whole life cycle. In particular, ecodesign aims at integrating environmental aspects during the product's design process as any other criterion, in order to reduce the life cycle impacts. Although a lot of product environmental impact assessment and Design for Environment tools already exist, environmental aspects are unfortunately rarely routinely integrated into product development process in the industry. This is mainly due to the fact that current ecodesign tools are little adapted to designers' practices, requirements and competencies. After the sequential and DfX paradigms, design of products is today maturing into Integrated Design, where multiple points of views and expertise have to be considered at the same time to progressively define the product.

  10. Employment Status and Sick Leave After First-Time Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Øhlers, Anne Alexandrine; Zwisler, Ann Dorthe

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: In the Copenhagen Outpatient Programme–Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (COPE-ICD) Trial, a positive effect from a cost-saving, comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation program was found on physical and mental health in patients with ICDs. OBJECTIVE:: In the context of the COPE...... of employment status and sick leave were tested using logistic regression and linear regression models. RESULT:: A total of 196 patients were randomized. The questionnaire was completed by 138 patients (70%). In total, 47% had worked before ICD implantation. After 1 year, 81% were still working and their mean...

  11. Self-rated health and employment status in chronic haemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Aadahl, Mette; Schou, Lone

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Along with survival and other types of clinical outcome, physical, mental and social well-being are important indicators of the effectiveness of the medical care that haemodialysis (HD) patients receive. The present cross-sectional study was designed to assess self-rated health in HD...... patients from a large Danish HD centre compared to a Danish general population sample with similar sex and age distributions. Furthermore, employment status and associations between self-rated health and clinical, social and demographic factors were investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 150...... concerning physical functioning. No correlation was found between any of the eight scales and estimates of dialysis adequacy. Of patients aged 18-60 years, 22% were in employment. CONCLUSION: In a large group of Danish HD patients, self-rated health (and especially physical function) was found...

  12. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Calvopiña

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme.

  13. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero, Daniel; Castañeda, Byron; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2014-11-01

    A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme.

  14. Employment Status as an Indicator of Recovery and Function One Year after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Eleshia J; Ehlers, Shawna L; Bronars, Carrie A; Patten, Christi A; Brockman, Tabetha A; Cerhan, James R; Hogan, William J; Hashmi, Shahrukh K; Gastineau, Dennis A

    2016-09-01

    Employment after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an indicator of post-transplantation recovery and function, with economic and social implications. As survival rates for HSCT continue to improve, greater emphasis can be placed on factors affecting the quality of post-transplantation survival, including the ability to resume employment. A sample of recipients of autologous or allogeneic HSCT was accrued (n = 1000) to complete a longitudinal lifestyle survey before transplantation and at 1 year after transplantation. The present study examines associations between employment and patient characteristics, disease variables, illness status, and quality of life among 1-year survivors (n = 702). Participants had a mean age of 55 years (range, 18 to 78) and were predominately male (59.7%), married/partnered (77.1%), and non-Hispanic Caucasian (89.5%); most (79.4%) had received autologous transplantation. Of the 690 participants reporting some form of employment before illness diagnosis, 62.4% had returned to work by 1 year after HSCT. Full-time employment at 1 year after HSCT was significantly associated with remission of illness, improved illness, fewer post-transplantation hospitalizations, less fatigue and pain, higher quality of life, and higher rating of perceived health. Those unemployed because of their health reported the highest rates of fatigue and pain and lowest quality of life, and they were most likely to report poor perceived health. These findings highlight work reintegration as an important outcome and marker of survivors' overall adjustment after transplantation. Identifying factors affecting post-transplantation employment offers opportunities for behavioral interventions to target modifiable risk factors to optimize post-transplantation survivorship, inclusive of increased rates of return to work and decreased rates of associated disability.

  15. Robotic technology in surgery: current status in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Declan G; Hall, Rohan; Tong, Raymond; Goel, Rajiv; Costello, Anthony J

    2008-12-01

    There is increasing patient and surgeon interest in robotic-assisted surgery, particularly with the proliferation of da Vinci surgical systems (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) throughout the world. There is much debate over the usefulness and cost-effectiveness of these systems. The currently available robotic surgical technology is described. Published data relating to the da Vinci system are reviewed and the current status of surgical robotics within Australia and New Zealand is assessed. The first da Vinci system in Australia and New Zealand was installed in 2003. Four systems had been installed by 2006 and seven systems are currently in use. Most of these are based in private hospitals. Technical advantages of this system include 3-D vision, enhanced dexterity and improved ergonomics when compared with standard laparoscopic surgery. Most procedures currently carried out are urological, with cardiac, gynaecological and general surgeons also using this system. The number of patients undergoing robotic-assisted surgery in Australia and New Zealand has increased fivefold in the past 4 years. The most common procedure carried out is robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Published data suggest that robotic-assisted surgery is feasible and safe although the installation and recurring costs remain high. There is increasing acceptance of robotic-assisted surgery, especially for urological procedures. The da Vinci surgical system is becoming more widely available in Australia and New Zealand. Other surgical specialties will probably use this technology. Significant costs are associated with robotic technology and it is not yet widely available to public patients.

  16. Employment status and health: understanding the health of the economically inactive population in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Judith

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the association between health and unemployment has been well examined, less attention has been paid to the health of the economically inactive (EI population. Scotland has one of the worst health records compared to any Western European country and the EI population account for 23% of the working age population. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the health outcomes and behaviours of the employed, unemployed and the EI populations (further subdivided into the permanently sick, looking after home and family [LAHF] and others in Scotland. Methods Using data from the 2003 Scottish Health Survey, the differences in health and health behaviours among the employed, unemployed and the subgroups of the EI population were examined. Results Both low educational attainment and residence in a deprived community were more likely in the permanently sick group. The LAHF and the unemployed showed worse self-reported health and limiting longstanding illness compared to the employed but no significant differences were observed between these groups. The permanently sick group had significantly poorer health outcomes than all the other economic groups. Similar to the unemployed and LAHF they are more likely to smoke than the employed but less likely (along with LAHF and ‘others’ to exhibit heavy alcohol consumption. Interestingly, the LAHF showed better mental health than the rest of the EI group, but a similar mental health status to the unemployed. On the physical health element of lung function, the LAHF were no worse than the employed. Conclusion While on-going health promotion and vocational rehabilitation efforts need to be directed towards all, our data suggests that the EI group is at higher risk and policies and strategies directed at this group may need particular attention.

  17. Current status of severe acute respiratory syndrome in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-He Nie; Xin-Dong Luo; Jian-Zhong Zhang; Qin Su

    2003-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), also called infectious atypical pneumonia, is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel variant of coronavirus (SARS associated coronavirus, SARS-CoV). It is mainly characterized by pulmonary infection with a high infectivity and fatality.SARS is swept across almost all the continents of the globe, and has currently involved 33 countries and regions, including the mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, North America and Europe. On June 30, 2003, an acumulative total reached 8450 cases with 810 deaths. SARS epidemic was very rampant in March, April and May 2003 in the mainland of China and Hong Kong. Chinese scientists and healthcare workers cooperated closely with other scientists from all over the world to fight the disease. On April 16, 2003, World Health Organization (WHO) formally declared that SARSCoV was an etiological agent of SARS. Currently, there is no specific and effective therapy and prevention method for SARS. The main treatments include corticosteroid therapy,antiviralagents, anti-infection, mechanical ventilation and isolation. This disease can be prevented and controlled, and it is also curable. Under the endeavor of the Chinese Government, medical staffs and other related professionals,SARS has been under control in China, and Chinese scientists have also made a great contribution to SARS research.Otherstudies in developing new detection assays and therapies, and discovering new drugs and vaccines are in progress. In this paper, we briefly review the current status of SARS in China.

  18. [Renaissance of immuno-oncology for urological tumors : Current status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, M-O; Winkler, Y; Fetter, I; Oppel-Heuchel, H

    2016-05-01

    With the advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors, immunotherapy has gained new importance in oncology. Current research is focused on the cytotoxic T‑lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4), programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) immune checkpoints. The CTLA4 antibody ipilimumab (melanoma) as well as the PD-1 antibodies nivolumab (melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer and renal cell carcinoma) and pembrolizumab (melanoma) are approved for the treatment of metastatic disease in Europe. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (re)activate the immune system against cancer cells and appear to be more effective than current standards for many tumors. The toxicity profile is favorable but involves new so-called immune-related side effects, which need to be recognized and treated in time. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are also currently being tested in uro-oncology in phase 3 trials relevant for approval status. Based on this it is to be expected that immune checkpoint inhibitors will become a new standard (as monotherapy or as part of combination therapy) in the early lines of therapy in the near future and replace the previous standard therapies, particularly for metastasized renal cell carcinoma and urothelial cancer.

  19. Current Soil Nutrient Status of Intensively Managed Greenhouses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yun-Cai; SONG Zhi-Wen; LU Wen-Long; C.POSCHENRIEDER; U.SCHMIDHALTER

    2012-01-01

    Nine districts covering the main greenhouse vegetable areas in Tianjin Municipality of the North China Plain were selected for the soil investigation in 2010 to survey the current soil nutrient status (soil available N,P and K),acidification and salinization due to excessive input of fertilizers in greenhouses in Tianjin. The study showed that,in particular,soil available P content increased with the age of greenhouses.In contrast,our results did not reveal higher K accumulation and lowered pH in the greenhouse soils compared with cultivation in open fields.Over-fertilization,causing high NO3- accumulation,most likely resulted in salinity problems in the greenhouses.Ninety percent of the investigated greenhouse soils had electrical conductivity values of saturated paste extracts of 2-10 d S m-1,which might affect the yields of vegetable crops like green bean,pepper,cabbage,carrot,eggplant,lettuce,spinach,celery,cucumber and tomato. The findings of our survey of the current fertility and salinity problems in greenhouse soils suggest that there is an urgent need to improve the farmers' practices and strategies in fertilization management in greenhouses of China.Because education and the agricultural technical extension services may play a more important role in avoiding overuse of fertilizers,we suggest that current nutrient management practices should be improved in the near future through training of local farmers in farmers' schools and through strengthening the agricultural extension services with practical techniques.

  20. The current status of environmental health research in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowland, Angela; Cook, Angus; Heyworth, Jane

    2012-01-01

    At present, the extent of environmental health research in Australia is unclear and there are no recent overarching reviews of national publications on the subject. This study investigates the current status of environmental health research in Australia using a bibliometric analysis. Three databases (Medline, Web of Science, and AUSTHealth) were used to access original, peer-reviewed journal articles with Australian data published between 1 January 2001 and 11 June 2010. A total of 337 articles from 174 different journal titles were used in the analysis and were classified according to 15 pre-determined environmental health areas. The highest number of articles related to water health and resources (66 articles), exposure to hazardous chemicals (57 articles), and air pollution including indoor air (58 articles). These areas made up 54% of the total publication output over the past 10 years. The amount of environmental health research published in Australia over the past 10 years, and the topics explored in these studies, is comparable to that of other countries of similar socio-economic status.

  1. Immigration, work and health in Spain: the influence of legal status and employment contract on reported health indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Emily; Agudelo Suárez, Andrés A.; Benavides, Fernando G.; Schenker, Marc; Ana M. García; Benach, Joan; Delclós Gómez-Morán, Carlos Eric; López Jacob, María José; Ruiz Frutos, Carlos; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Porthé, Victoria; ITSAL project

    2010-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relationship of legal status and employment conditions with health indicators in foreign-born and Spanish-born workers in Spain. Methods Cross-sectional study of 1,849 foreign-born and 509 Spanish-born workers (2008–2009, ITSAL Project). Considered employment conditions: permanent, temporary and no contract (foreign-born and Spanish-born); considered legal statuses: documented and undocumented (foreign-born). Joint relationships with self-rated health (SRH) and mental...

  2. Running Vacuum in the Universe: current phenomenological status

    CERN Document Server

    Sola, Joan

    2016-01-01

    I review the excellent phenomenological status of a class of dynamical vacuum models in which the vacuum energy density, $\\rho_{\\Lambda}=\\rho_{\\Lambda}(H)$, as a function of the Hubble rate, evolves through its interaction with dark matter and/or through the accompanying running of the gravitational coupling $G$, including the possibility of being self-conserved with a nontrivial effective equation of state. Some of these models have been used to incorporate into a single vacuum structure the rapid stage of inflation, followed by the standard radiation and cold dark matter epochs all the way down until the dark energy era. Remarkably, the running vacuum models (RVM's) render an outstanding phenomenological description of the main cosmological data at a level that is currently challenging the concordance $\\Lambda$CDM model, thereby implying that present observations seem to point to a running vacuum rather than to a rigid cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ in our Universe.

  3. The current status of research on resources recycling in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Seung-Hee; Kuh, Sung-Eun; Kim, Dong-Su [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-03-31

    The current domestic research status for resources recycling has been reviewed by surveying the technical and review papers reported to some academic journals. The surveyed articles were classified based upon several categories, including recycling fields according to the kinds of recyclable materials, applied recycling technologies, organizations where the research was conducted, and references according to publication year and region. The survey showed that the recycling of metallurgical waste is being studied most actively. Also, the investigation of fly ash recycling is surveyed to be actively conducted. In the aspect of recycling technologies, chemical technologies are shown to be more widely applied than physical ones. For research-conducting organizations, academic institutes have been more active in the research of recycling field compared with national/private research institutes and industries. In the reference survey, English-written articles and the articles published between 1991-1995 period are shown to be most referred. (author). 6 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs.

  4. Optical timing studies of isolated neutron stars: Current Status

    CERN Document Server

    Mignani, R P

    2010-01-01

    Being fast rotating objects, Isolated Neutron Stars (INSs) are natural targets for high-time resolution observations across the whole electromagnetic spectrum. With the number of objects detected at optical (plus ultraviolet and infrared) wavelengths now increased to 24, high-time resolution observations of INSs at these wavelengths are becoming more and more important. While classical rotation-powered radio pulsars, like the Crab and Vela pulsars, have been the first INSs studied at high-time resolution in the optical domain, observations performed in the last two decades have unveiled potential targets in other types of INSs which are not rotation powered, although their periodic variability is still related to the neutron star rotation. In this paper I review the current status of high-time resolution observations of INSs in the optical domain for different classes of objects: rotation-powered pulsars, magnetars, thermally emitting neutron stars, and rapid radio transients, I describe their timing properti...

  5. Semiparametric Additive Transformation Model under Current Status Data

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Guang

    2011-01-01

    We consider the efficient estimation of the semiparametric additive transformation model with current status data. A wide range of survival models and econometric models can be incorporated into this general transformation framework. We apply the B-spline approach to simultaneously estimate the linear regression vector, the nondecreasing transformation function, and a set of nonparametric regression functions. We show that the parametric estimate is semiparametric efficient in the presence of multiple nonparametric nuisance functions. An explicit consistent B-spline estimate of the asymptotic variance is also provided. All nonparametric estimates are smooth, and shown to be uniformly consistent and have faster than cubic rate of convergence. Interestingly, we observe the convergence rate interfere phenomenon, i.e., the convergence rates of B-spline estimators are all slowed down to equal the slowest one. The constrained optimization is not required in our implementation. Numerical results are used to illustra...

  6. Indian fast reactor technology: Current status and future programme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Chetal; P Chellapandi

    2013-10-01

    The paper brings out the advantages of fast breeder reactor and importance of developing closed nuclear fuel cycle for the large scale energy production, which is followed by its salient safety features. Further, the current status and future strategy of the fast reactor programme since the inception through 40 MWt/13 MWe Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR), is highlighted. The challenges and achievements in science and technology of FBRs focusing on safety are described with the particular reference to 500 MWe capacity Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), being commissioned at Kalpakkam. Roadmap with comprehensive R&D for the large scale deployment of Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor (SFRs) and timely introduction of metallic fuel reactors with emphasis on breeding gain and enhanced safety are being brought out in this paper.

  7. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography: advance and current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Sung Il [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Ki [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) technology has undergone a great deal of progress along with the color and power Doppler imaging, three-dimensional imaging, electronic scanning, tissue harmonic imaging, and elastography, and one of the most important developments is the ability to acquire contrast-enhanced images. The blood flow in small vessels and the parenchymal microvasculature of the target lesion can be observed non-invasively by contrast-enhanced EUS (CE-EUS). Through a hemodynamic analysis, CE-EUS permits the diagnosis of various gastrointestinal diseases and differential diagnoses between benign and malignant tumors. Recently, mechanical innovations and the development of contrast agents have increased the use of CE-EUS in the diagnostic field, as well as for the assessment of the efficacy of therapeutic agents. The advances in and the current status of CE-EUS are discussed in this review.

  8. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography: advance and current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Ill Jang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS technology has undergone a great deal of progress along with the color and power Doppler imaging, three-dimensional imaging, electronic scanning, tissue harmonic imaging, and elastography, and one of the most important developments is the ability to acquire contrast-enhanced images. The blood flow in small vessels and the parenchymal microvasculature of the target lesion can be observed non-invasively by contrast-enhanced EUS (CE-EUS. Through a hemodynamic analysis, CE-EUS permits the diagnosis of various gastrointestinal diseases and differential diagnoses between benign and malignant tumors. Recently, mechanical innovations and the development of contrast agents have increased the use of CE-EUS in the diagnostic field, as well as for the assessment of the efficacy of therapeutic agents. The advances in and the current status of CE-EUS are discussed in this review.

  9. The current status of the Korean student health examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jung Shin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent trends place an emphasis on school health care, the ultimate goal of which is to protect,maintain, and promote students’ health. School health care is a program that integrates health careservices, health education, health counseling, and local social health services. The student healthexamination (SHE system is a part of school health care and schools and communities must beavailable to provide professional health services. Pediatricians also have important roles as experts inboth school health care and the SHE system. In this article, the history of school health care, its legalbasis, and the current status of the SHE system in Korea are reviewed. Furthermore, sample surveysfrom the past few years are reviewed. Through this holistic approach, future directions are proposed forthe improvement of SHE and school health care.

  10. Current Status of Mechanical Circulatory Support: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Spiliopoulos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure is a major public health problem and its management requires a significant amount of health care resources. Even with administration of the best available medical treatment, the mortality associated with the disease remains high. As therapeutical strategies for heart failure have been refined, the number of patients suffering from the disease has expanded dramatically. Although heart transplantation still represents the gold standard therapeutical approach, the implantation of mechanical circulatory support devices (MCSDs evolved to a well-established management for this disease. The limited applicability of heart transplantation caused by a shortage of donor organs and the concurrent expand of the patient population with end-stage heart failure led to a considerable utilization of MCSDs. This paper outlines the current status of mechanical circulatory support.

  11. The current status of world protection for mangrove forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhengyun, Zhang; Zhixian, Su; Qiaoying, Zhang; Aiying, Shen

    2003-09-01

    Mangrove forests occur extensively in the tropic areas rich in wildlife and other nonforestry resources and provide a wide array of raw materials for livelihood and production processes and have been a major source of income generation and subsistence for the local people. Exploitation of timber, fuel wood, poles, industrial raw material, and many other non-wood produets from the mangrove forests give rise to large scale economic activity and income generation. At present, mangrove forests are facing great peril. Reckless exploitation and swampland reclamation result in their gradual degradation. This article deals with the world’s mangrove forest resources and their benefit to people; describes the current status, points out the main causes of the destruction of these forests, presents proposals for protecting mangrove forests, and discusses international cooperation in protecting the world’s mangrove forests.

  12. [Current status of hyperthermia for deep-seated tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, M; Abe, M

    1989-03-01

    The current status of hyperthermia for deep-seated tumor is reviewed. Heating methods include external heating, intraluminal heating and interstitial heating, all of which have inherent advantages and disadvantages. Hyperthermia alone has significant effects on deep-seated tumors. The combination of hyperthermia and radiotherapy has been widely applied, resulting in 10-15% complete regression and 10-40% partial regression in the treatment of locally advanced tumors. The response rate of thermoradiotherapy was higher than that of radiotherapy for tumors in the brain, rectum and esophagus in the non-randomized study. The clinical application of thermochemotherapy is increasing and its effect is demonstrated in the prevention and treatment of peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancers. Reports of serious complications are rare. The technology for deep-heating and thermometry, and the new criteria for the assessment of thermotherapy for deep-seated tumors seems a promising new treatment modality.

  13. Current status of silicon materials research for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciszek, T F

    1985-04-01

    The desire for high solar cell efficiencies has been a strong factor in determining the course of recent silicon crystal growth research efforts for photovoltaics. This review, therefore, focuses on single-crystal, dislocation-free ingot growth methods (Czochralski growth, float zoning, and cold crucible growth) and on sheet growth technologies, generally multicrystalline, that have achieved moderately high (>13.5%) laboratory-scale efficiencies. These include dendritic web growth, growth from capillary dies, edge-supported pulling, ribbon-against-drop growth, and a recent technique termed crucible-free horizontal growth. Silicon ribbon crystals provide a favorable geometry and require no wafering, but they contain defects that limit solar cell performance. Growth processes, their current status, and cell efficiencies are discussed. Silicon material process steps before and after crystal growth are described, and the advantages of silicon are presented.

  14. Current status of high energy nucleon-meson transport code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Hiroshi; Sasa, Toshinobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of design code of accelerator (NMTC/JAERI code), outline of physical model and evaluation of accuracy of code were reported. To evaluate the nuclear performance of accelerator and strong spallation neutron origin, the nuclear reaction between high energy proton and target nuclide and behaviors of various produced particles are necessary. The nuclear design of spallation neutron system used a calculation code system connected the high energy nucleon{center_dot}meson transport code and the neutron{center_dot}photon transport code. NMTC/JAERI is described by the particle evaporation process under consideration of competition reaction of intranuclear cascade and fission process. Particle transport calculation was carried out for proton, neutron, {pi}- and {mu}-meson. To verify and improve accuracy of high energy nucleon-meson transport code, data of spallation and spallation neutron fragment by the integral experiment were collected. (S.Y.)

  15. Current status of minimally invasive endoscopicmanagement for Zenker diverticulum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alberto Aiolfi; Federica Scolari; Greta Saino; Luigi Bonavina

    2015-01-01

    Surgical resection has been the mainstay of treatment ofpharyngoesophageal (Zenker) diverticula over the pastcentury. Developments in minimally invasive surgeryand new endoscopic devices have led to a paradigmchange. The concept of dividing the septum betweenthe esophagus and the pouch rather than resecting thepouch itself has been revisited during the last threedecades and new technologies have been investigatedto make the transoral operation safe and effective. Theinternal pharyngoesophageal myotomy accomplished through the transoral stapling approach has been shown to effectively relieve outflow obstruction and restore physiological bolus transit in patients with medium size diverticula. Transoral techniques, either through a rigid device or by flexible endoscopy, are gaining popularity over the open surgical approach due the low morbidity, the fast recovery time and the fact that the procedure can be safely repeated. We provide an analysis of the the current status of minimally invasive endoscopic management of Zenker diverticulum.

  16. The Current Status of World Protection for Mangrove Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张征云; 苏智先; 张桥英; 申爱英

    2003-01-01

    Mangrove forests occur extensively in the tropic areas rich in wildlife and other non-forestry resources and provide a wide array of raw materials for livelihood and production processes and have been a major source of income generation and subsistence for the local people.Exploitation of timber, fuel wood, poles, industrial raw material, and many other non-wood products from the nangrove forests give rise to large scale economic activity and income generation. At present, mangrove forests are facing great peril. Reckless exploitation and swampland reclamation result in their gradual degradation. This article deals with the world's mangrove forest resources and their benefit to people; describes the current status, points out the main causes of the destruction of these forests, presents proposals for protecting mangrove forests, and discusses international cooperation in protecting the world's mangrove forests.

  17. Current status and future tendency of lake eutrophication in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Xiangcan; XU Qiujin; HUANG Changzhu

    2005-01-01

    Current trophic status and trend of Chinese freshwater lakes were investigated in this study. The results showed that all lakes studied were commonly undergoing the eutrophication process, water quality decreased and lake's ecosystem is being declined. Most of the urban lakes are facing serious eutrophication. Many medium-sized lakes are in metrophic or eutrophic status, some local water are even approaching the hypertrophic level. The famous five freshwater lakes in China have entered into eutrophication in the condition of higher nutrient load. Lake Taihu, Hongze and Caohu are already in eutrophic state. Eutrophic lakes are mainly distributed in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River and Yungui plateau. Lake eutrophication developed rapidly. Among the 34 lakes studied in 1970's, most of lakes were in the mesotrophic status,mesotrophic water area accounted for 91.8%. With the nine year of 1978-1987 the area percentage of oligotrophic lakes decreased from 3.2% to 0.53%, and that of eutrophic lakes increased from 5.0% to 55.01%. Recent data showed 57.5% lakes were in eutrophic and hypertrophic status of the 40 surveyed lakes.Eutrophic trend of Lake Taihu, Chaohu and Xuanwu in the region of the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River was predicated using the ecological stress model. The results showed that in 2008 Lake Taihu, Chaohu and Xuanwu might be of eutrophication, eutrophication and hypertrophication, respectively if no control measurement is taken. Provided the pollution water treatment rate is 60% in 2030, approximately 30 billion ton pollution water would still be discharged directly in the lakes. Therefore, in 2030 the urban lakes in China might be eutrophication or hypertrophication, and most of the medium-sized lakes at the urban-rural fringe might be in eutrophication or hypertrophication. The famous five biggest freshwater lakes in China might be eutrophication if control countermeasures are taken as now.Lake eutrophication has become a

  18. To pack or not to pack: the current status of periodontal dressings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathariya, Rahul; Jain, Hansa; Jadhav, Tanya

    2015-07-04

    Surgical wound dressings have been employed over several centuries for the purpose of protection of surgical sites, to prevent postoperative infection and to accelerate healing. Periodontal dressings, also known as periodontal packs, provide similar benefits when applied after periodontal surgical procedures. They can broadly be categorized as eugenol-based dressings and noneugenol dressings. Over the years, many modifications have been made to the composition of such dressings to improve their physical and therapeutic properties. Controversies surrounding the rationale for their use, advantages and disadvantages of the most commonly employed periodontal dressings and their current status in clinical practice are described in this comprehensive review. From the evidence-based literature presented here, we have also attempted to answer the question of whether there is a universal need for the application of periodontal dressings.

  19. Do changes in spousal employment status lead to domestic violence? Insights from a prospective study in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Rocca, Corinne H; Hubbard, Alan E; Subbiah, Kalyani; Edmeades, Jeffrey; Padian, Nancy S

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of physical domestic violence--violence against women perpetrated by husbands--is staggeringly high across the Indian subcontinent. Although gender-based power dynamics are thought to underlie women's vulnerability, relatively little is known about risk and protective factors. This prospective study in southern India examined the association between key economic aspects of gender-based power, namely spousal employment status, and physical domestic violence. In 2005-2006, 744 married women, aged 16-25, residing in low-income communities in Bangalore, India were enrolled in the study. Data were collected at enrollment, 12 and 24 months. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the prospective association between women's employment status, their perceptions of their husband's employment stability, and domestic violence. Women who were unemployed at one visit and began employment by the next visit had an 80% higher odds of violence, as compared to women who maintained their unemployed status. Similarly, women whose husbands had stable employment at one visit and newly had difficulty with employment had 1.7 times the odds of violence, as compared to women whose husbands maintained their stable employment. To our knowledge, this study is the first from a developing country to confirm that changes in spousal employment status are associated with subsequent changes in violence risk. It points to the complex challenges of violence prevention, including the need for interventions among men and gender-transformative approaches to promote gender-equitable attitudes, practices and norms among men and women.

  20. Current status of myelin replacement therapies in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jeffrey K; Franklin, Robin J M

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease of the human central nervous system characterized by immune-mediated myelin and axonal damage, and chronic axonal loss attributable to the absence of myelin sheaths. There are two aspects to the treatment of MS-first, the prevention of damage by suppressing the maladaptive immune system, and second, the long-term preservation of axons by the promotion of remyelination, a regenerative process in which new axons are restored to demyelinated axons. Medicine has made significant progress in the first of these in recent years-there is an increasing number of ever more effective disease-modifying immunomodulatory interventions. However, there are currently no widely used regenerative therapies in MS. Conceptually, there are two approaches to remyelination therapy-transplantation of myelinogenic cells and promotion of endogenous remyelination mediated by myelinogenic cells present within the diseased tissue. In this chapter, in addition to describing why remyelination therapies are important, we review both these approaches, outlining their current status and future developments.

  1. Wind turbines: current status, obstacles, trends and technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, E. I.; Botsaris, P. N.

    2016-11-01

    The last decade the installation of wind farms around the world is spreading rapidly and wind energy has become a significant factor for promoting sustainable development. The scope of the present study is to indicate the present status of global wind power expansion as well as the current state of the art in the field of wind turbine technology. The RAM (reliability/availability/maintenance) section is also examined and the Levelized Cost of Energy for onshore/ offshore electricity production is presented. Negative consequences that go with the rapid expansion of wind power like accidents, environmental effects, etc. are highlighted. Especially visual impact to the landscape and noise pollution are some factors that provoke social reactions. Moreover, the complicated and long permitted process of a wind power plant, the high capital cost of the investment and the grid instability due to the intermittent nature of wind, are also significant obstacles in the development of the wind energy production. The current trends in the field of research and development of onshore and offshore wind power production are analyzed. Finally the present study is trying to achieve an estimation of where the wind industry targets for the years to come.

  2. Current Status of the Daejeon Ion Accelerator Complex at KAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Sung-Ryul; Chang, Dae-Sik; Hwang, Churl-Kew; Lee, Seok-Kwan; Jin, Jeong-Tae; Oh, Byung-Hoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The Daejeon ion accelerator complex (DIAC) is being constructed at Korea atomic energy research institute (KAERI) in order to fulfill an increasing demand for heavy ion beam facilities for various purposes including structural material study, biological research and nanomaterial treatment. The accelerators in the DIAC are designed to produce heavy ion beams with energies up to 1 MeV/u and beam currents up to 300 μA. [1–4] In this article, current status of the DIAC construction is presented and discussed. The DIAC facilities are designed to handle stable non-radioactive beams. According to user demand, the separated two ECR sources (i.e., an 18 GHz KEK – the high energy accelerator research organization ECR ion source with a metal oven and a 14.5 GHz KAERI ECR ion source) together with low energy beam transport line (LEBT) can supply linacs with both metal and non-metal ions. From the successful full-power test results, we confirmed that the IH and RFQ linacs work properly and then they are ready to accelerate heavy ions up to 1.09 MeV/nucleon. Since all tests and reorganization of the integrated control system were successful, it is supposed that the DIAC is now ready for beam tuning. Presently, construction of radiation shielded walls and radiation safety licensing are now in progress.

  3. Current Status and Research into Overcoming Limitations of Capsule Endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwack, Won Gun; Lim, Yun Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic investigation has a critical role in the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. Since 2001, capsule endoscopy (CE) has been available for small-bowel exploration and is under continuous development. During the past decade, CE has achieved impressive improvements in areas such as miniaturization, resolution, and battery life. As a result, CE is currently a first-line tool for the investigation of the small bowel in obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and is a useful alternative to wired enteroscopy. Nevertheless, CE still has several limitations, such as incomplete examination and limited diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities. To resolve these problems, many groups have suggested several models (e.g., controlled CO2 insufflation system, magnetic navigation system, mobile robotic platform, tagging and biopsy equipment, and targeted drug-delivery system), which are in development. In the near future, new technological advances will improve the capabilities of CE and broaden its spectrum of applications not only for the small bowel but also for the colon, stomach, and esophagus. The purpose of this review is to introduce the current status of CE and to review the ongoing development of solutions to address its limitations.

  4. IAA multilingual space dictionary, current status and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimitsu, Tetsuo; McKenna-Lawlor, Susan; Candel, Danielle; Ninomiya, Keiken; Contant, Jean-Michel

    2015-12-01

    Terminology is a key issue for a better understanding among people using various languages. Since 1986, when the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) multilingual terminology database committee on astronautics was formed, the committee and its successor IAA study groups on the IAA multilingual space dictionary have made a continuous effort to construct a multilingual dictionary database on astronautical terms. In 2002, the dictionary was computerized using a database server and some recent internet technologies. The database is accessible from all over the world via the internet. You can search for terms at your home and office using a web browser installed on the computer with an internet connection. Since then, the number of terms and languages included in the database has increased. The current version includes about 3500 terms in 22 languages. The flexibility of the database enables the addition and the revision of new terms without much effort. The computerization has also demonstrated another possibility to utilize the database. When total of four paper books about the multilingual space terminology were published on the 50th anniversary of IAA in 2010, one of the lexicon books was edited by a computer program which accessed to the database. In this paper, the authors present the current status of the IAA multilingual database as well as the future possibilities on the utilization of the database.

  5. Drugs in development for toxoplasmosis: advances, challenges, and current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alday PH

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available P Holland Alday,1 Joseph Stone Doggett1,2 1Division of Infectious Diseases, Oregon Health & Science University, 2Portland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Portland, OR, USA Abstract: Toxoplasma gondii causes fatal and debilitating brain and eye diseases. Medicines that are currently used to treat toxoplasmosis commonly have toxic side effects and require prolonged courses that range from weeks to more than a year. The need for long treatment durations and the risk of relapsing disease are in part due to the lack of efficacy against T. gondii tissue cysts. The challenges for developing a more effective treatment for toxoplasmosis include decreasing toxicity, achieving therapeutic concentrations in the brain and eye, shortening duration, eliminating tissue cysts from the host, safety in pregnancy, and creating a formulation that is inexpensive and practical for use in resource-poor areas of the world. Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in identifying and developing new compounds for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. Unlike clinically used medicines that were repurposed for toxoplasmosis, these compounds have been optimized for efficacy against toxoplasmosis during preclinical development. Medicines with enhanced efficacy as well as features that address the unique aspects of toxoplasmosis have the potential to greatly improve toxoplasmosis therapy. This review discusses the facets of toxoplasmosis that are pertinent to drug design and the advances, challenges, and current status of preclinical drug research for toxoplasmosis. Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii, therapeutics, preclinical medicine, experimental medicine, mechanism of action, Apicomplexa

  6. Current status of preoperative drainage for distal biliary obstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harutoshi; Sugiyama; Toshio; Tsuyuguchi; Yuji; Sakai; Rintaro; Mikata; Shin; Yasui; Yuto; Watanabe; Dai; Sakamoto; Masato; Nakamura; Reina; Sasaki; Jun-ichi; Senoo; Yuko; Kusakabe; Masahiro; Hayashi; Osamu; Yokosuka

    2015-01-01

    Preoperative biliary drainage(PBD) was developed to improve obstructive jaundice, which affects a number of organs and physiological mechanisms in patients waiting for surgery. However, its role in patients who will undergo pancreaticoduodenectomy for biliary obstruction remains controversial. This article aims to review the current status of the use of preoperative drainage for distal biliary obstruction. Relevant articles published from 1980 to 2015 were identified by searching MEDLINE and Pub Med using the keywords "PBD", "pancreaticoduodenectomy", and "obstructive jaundice". Additional papers were identified by a manual search of the references from key articles. Current studies have demonstrated that PBD should not be routinely performed because of the postoperative complications. PBD should only be considered in carefully selected patients, particularly in cases where surgery had to be delayed. PBD may be needed in patients with severe jaundice, concomitant cholangitis, or severe malnutrition. The optimal method of biliary drainage has yet to be confirmed. PBD should be performed by endoscopic routes rather than by percutaneous routes to avoid metastatic tumor seeding. Endoscopic stenting or nasobiliary drainage can be selected. Although more expensive, the use of metallic stents remains a viable option to achieve effective drainage without cholangitis and reintervention.

  7. Current status and progress in gastric cancer with liver metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jing; CHEN Lin

    2011-01-01

    Objective This review discusses the current status and progress in studies on gastric cancer with liver metastasis (GCLM), involving the routes, subtypes, and prognosis of GCLM; the genes and molecules associated with metastasis;the feasibility and value of each imaging modality; and current treatment options.Data sources The data used in this review were mainly from Medline and PubMed published in English from 2005 to August 2010. The search terms were "gastric cancer" and "liver metastasis".Study selection Articles regarding the characteristics, diagnostic modalities, and vadous therapeutic options of GCLM were selected.Results The prognosis of GCLM is influenced by the clinicopathological characteristics of primary tumors, as well as the presence of liver metastases. Improved understanding of related genes and molecules will lead to the development of methods of early detection and targeted therapies. For the diagnosis of GCLM, each imaging modality has its relative benefits. There remains no consensus regarding therapeutic options.Conclusions Early detection and characterization of liver metastases is crucial for the prognosis of gastric cancer patients. Multidisciplinary team discussions are required to design optimal treatment strategies, which should be based on the clinicopathological characteristics of each patient.

  8. Drugs in development for toxoplasmosis: advances, challenges, and current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alday, P Holland; Doggett, Joseph Stone

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes fatal and debilitating brain and eye diseases. Medicines that are currently used to treat toxoplasmosis commonly have toxic side effects and require prolonged courses that range from weeks to more than a year. The need for long treatment durations and the risk of relapsing disease are in part due to the lack of efficacy against T. gondii tissue cysts. The challenges for developing a more effective treatment for toxoplasmosis include decreasing toxicity, achieving therapeutic concentrations in the brain and eye, shortening duration, eliminating tissue cysts from the host, safety in pregnancy, and creating a formulation that is inexpensive and practical for use in resource-poor areas of the world. Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in identifying and developing new compounds for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. Unlike clinically used medicines that were repurposed for toxoplasmosis, these compounds have been optimized for efficacy against toxoplasmosis during preclinical development. Medicines with enhanced efficacy as well as features that address the unique aspects of toxoplasmosis have the potential to greatly improve toxoplasmosis therapy. This review discusses the facets of toxoplasmosis that are pertinent to drug design and the advances, challenges, and current status of preclinical drug research for toxoplasmosis. PMID:28182168

  9. Tariffs, Employment and the Current Account: Real Wage Resistance and the Macroeconomics of Protectionism

    OpenAIRE

    Sweder van Wijnbergen

    1987-01-01

    Using a standard complete specialization model of a small open economy within a rigorous intertemporal optimization framework with contract- based wage rigidity, we show that permanent tariffs may lead to a current account deterioration and a fall in employment, contradicting most of the literature of macro-economic effects of import tariffs. I show that this will always be the case if the economy is small enough. The crucial factor in this complete reversal of standard results is the impact ...

  10. High Voltage Coil Current Sensor for DC-DC Converters Employing DDCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Drinovsky

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Current sensor is an integral part of every switching converter. It is used for over-current protection, regulation and in case of multiphase converters for balancing. A new high voltage current sensor for coil-based current sensing in DC-DC converters is presented. The sensor employs DDCC with high voltage input stage and gain trimming. The circuit has been simulated and implemented in 0.35 um BCD technology as part of a multiphase DC-DC converter where its function has been verified. The circuit is able to sustain common mode voltage on the input up to 40 V, it occupies 0.387*0.345 mm2 and consumes 3.2 mW typically.

  11. Acute stroke magnetic resonance imaging: current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloska, Stephan P; Wintermark, Max; Engelhorn, Tobias; Fiebach, Jochen B

    2010-03-01

    Cerebral stroke is one of the most frequent causes of permanent disability or death in the western world and a major burden in healthcare system. The major portion is caused by acute ischemia due to cerebral artery occlusion by a clot. The minority of strokes is related to intracerebral hemorrhage or other sources. To limit the permanent disability in ischemic stroke patients resulting from irreversible infarction of ischemic brain tissue, major efforts were made in the last decade. To extend the time window for thrombolysis, which is the only approved therapy, several imaging parameters in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been investigated. However, the current guidelines neglect the fact that the portion of potentially salvageable ischemic tissue (penumbra) is not dependent on the time window but the individual collateral blood flow. Within the last years, the differentiation of infarct core and penumbra with MRI using diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and perfusion imaging (PI) with parameter maps was established. Current trials transform these technical advances to a redefined patient selection based on physiological parameters determined by MRI. This review article presents the current status of MRI for acute stroke imaging. A special focus is the ischemic stroke. In dependence on the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, the basic principle and diagnostic value of different MRI sequences are illustrated. MRI techniques for imaging of the main differential diagnoses of ischemic stroke are mentioned. Moreover, perspectives of MRI for imaging-based acute stroke treatment as well as monitoring of restorative stroke therapy from recent trials are discussed.

  12. Acute stroke magnetic resonance imaging: current status and future perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloska, Stephan P. [University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany); University of Muenster, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenster (Germany); Wintermark, Max [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Engelhorn, Tobias [University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany); Fiebach, Jochen B. [Charite, Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Center for Stroke Research Berlin (CSB), Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Cerebral stroke is one of the most frequent causes of permanent disability or death in the western world and a major burden in healthcare system. The major portion is caused by acute ischemia due to cerebral artery occlusion by a clot. The minority of strokes is related to intracerebral hemorrhage or other sources. To limit the permanent disability in ischemic stroke patients resulting from irreversible infarction of ischemic brain tissue, major efforts were made in the last decade. To extend the time window for thrombolysis, which is the only approved therapy, several imaging parameters in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been investigated. However, the current guidelines neglect the fact that the portion of potentially salvageable ischemic tissue (penumbra) is not dependent on the time window but the individual collateral blood flow. Within the last years, the differentiation of infarct core and penumbra with MRI using diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and perfusion imaging (PI) with parameter maps was established. Current trials transform these technical advances to a redefined patient selection based on physiological parameters determined by MRI. This review article presents the current status of MRI for acute stroke imaging. A special focus is the ischemic stroke. In dependence on the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, the basic principle and diagnostic value of different MRI sequences are illustrated. MRI techniques for imaging of the main differential diagnoses of ischemic stroke are mentioned. Moreover, perspectives of MRI for imaging-based acute stroke treatment as well as monitoring of restorative stroke therapy from recent trials are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Predicting Meaningful Employment for Refugees: The Influence of Personal Characteristics and Developmental Factors on Employment Status and Hourly Wages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codell, Jonathan D.; Hill, Robert D.; Woltz, Dan J.; Gore, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Refugee demographic and developmental variables were evaluated as predictors of employment outcomes following a six-month non-governmental organization (NGO) directed resettlement period. The sample consisted of 85 refugee adults (18 to 54 years) who were resettling in a medium sized urban setting in the western United States. Demographics…

  14. Leishmaniases in Ecuador: Comprehensive review and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Velez, Lenin N; Villegas, Nancy V; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Gomez, Eduardo A L; Kato, Hirotomo

    2017-02-01

    This article reviews current knowledge about leishmaniases in Ecuador, proceeding from 1920, when the first human case was described, to the present, mainly focusing on the recent research events published. Regarding basic situations, it appears that 23 of Ecuador's 24 provinces have leishmaniasis-case reports. The disease is one of the mandatory notification infectious diseases in the country since 2005. All the 21,305 cases notified to the Ministry of Public Health, during the period from 2001 through 2014, were said to involve different clinical features of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) but not visceral (VL). Eight Leishmania species, L. (Viannia) guyanensis, L. (V.) panamensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (Leishmania) mexicana, L. (L.) amazonensis, L. (L.) major-like, L. (V.) naiffiand L. (V.) lainsoni were characterized. The last two species were most recently reported from the Ecuadorian Amazon regions. Of the 73 Ecuadorian Lutzomyia species (43 man-biting species) recorded, only four, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ayacuchensis, and Lu. tortura were incriminated as vectors of the Leishmania parasites. Current knowledge on the reservoir hosts of Leishmania in Ecuador is extremely poor. Recently, in Ecuador different kinds of molecular techniques were developed for diagnosis and mass screening of the disease, employing various materials derived from patients and sand fly vectors. These are PCR-RFLP, colorimetric FTA-LAMP etc. Brief comments and recommendations were also given, for future research and control of leishmaniases in Ecuador.

  15. Current status of cerebral glioma surgery in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jin-song; ZHANG Jie; ZHUANG Dong-xiao; YAO Cheng-jun; QIU Tian-ming; LU Jun-feng; ZHU Feng-ping; MAO Ying; ZHOU Liang-fu

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of gliomas is highly individualized.Surgery for gliomas is essentially for histological diagnosis,to alleviate mass effect,and most importantly,to favor longer survival expectancy.During the past two decades,many surgical techniques and adjuvants have been applied to glioma surgery in China,which lead to a rapid development in the field of cerebral glioma surgery.This article broadly and critically reviewed the existing studies on cerebral glioma surgery and to portrait the current status of glioma surgery in China.A literature search was conducted covering major innovative surgical techniques and adjuvants for glioma surgery in China.The following databases were searched:the Pubmed (January 1995 to date);China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database (January 1995 to date) and VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals (January 1995 to date).A selection criterion was established to exclude duplicates and irrelevant studies.The outcome measures were extracted from included studies.A total of 3307 articles were initially searched.After excluded by abstracts and full texts,69 studies conducted in the mainland of China were included and went through further analysis.The philosophy of surgical strategies for cerebral gliomas in China is undergoing tremendous change.Nowadays Chinese neurosurgeons pay more attention to the postoperative neurofunctional status of the patients.The aim of the glioma surgery is not only the more extensive tumor resection but also the maximal safety of intervention.The well balance of longer overall survival and higher quality of life should be judged with respect to each individual patient.

  16. Current status and potential perspectives in classical radiotherapy technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabić-Stanković Kata M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and potentials of classical radiotherapy After purchase of radiotherapy equipment in 2003, classic radiation therapy in Serbia will reach the highest world level. In order to define the highest standards in radiation technology, we analyzed the current status and potential perspectives of radiation therapy. Technological levels of radiotherapy in developed countries An analysis of present situation in the USA, assumed as the most developed in the world, was done. Available data, collected in the last 3 years (equipment assortment, therapy modalities, workload and manpower for 284 radiotherapy centers, out of potential 2050, were analyzed. Results were presented as crude percentage and mached to point current status. Results of analysis and discussion The analysis showed that CLINAC accelerators are the most popular (82.7%, as well as, ADAC (43.7% and Focus (CMS (27.4% systems for therapy planning. Movement towards virtual simulation is evident (59.3%, although classic ”simulation” is not fully eliminated from the radiotherapy chain. The most popular brachytherapy afterloader is Microselectron HDR (71%. About 64.4% centers use IMPAC communication/verification/record system that seems more open than Varis. All centers practice modern radiotherapy modalities and techniques (CFRT, IMRT, SRS/SRT, TBI, IORT, IVBHRT, HDR BHRT, etc.. CT and MRI availability is out of question, but PET is available in 3% of centers, however this percentage is rapidly growing. Up to 350 new patients per year are treated by one accelerator (about 35 pts. a day. Centers are relatively small and utilize 2-3 accelerators on average. Average FTE staffing norm is 4 radiation oncologists, 2-3 medical radiotherapy physicists, about 3 certified medical dosimetrists and about 6 radiotherapy technologists. Technological aspects and conclusion In the past 5 years relative stagnation in classic radiotherapy has been observed. In spite of substantial investments in

  17. Job search self-efficacy as mediator between employment status and symptoms of anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusu, A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the direct and indirect relationship between unemployment and anxiety symptoms, through job search-self efficacy (JSSE. A total of 30 participants who lost their jobs from the same employing organization were used in this two wave longitudinal study. Participants filled out two questionnaires comprising the Trimodal Anxiety Questionnaire and a Job Search Self-Efficacy subscale at the beginning of the study (T1 and after three months (T2. Results show that participants who were still unemployed three months after being laid off reported higher symptoms of anxiety compared to those who had been reemployed (ηp2 = .13. We also found that participants who were reemployed reported higher levels of JSSE at T2 compared to those who were still unemployed (ηp2 = .25. Moreover, there was a significant negative association between JSSE and anxiety at T1 and at T2. Furthermore, the analysis conducted shows evidence for the mediating role of JSSE in the relationship between employment status and anxiety symptoms. The applied potential of these findings is discussed.

  18. Nationwide survey for current clinical status of amniocentesis and maternal serum marker test in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Hidehiko; Yamada, Shigehito; Fujii, Yosuke; Sawai, Hideaki; Arimori, Naoko; Yamanouchi, Yasuko; Ozasa, Yuka; Kanai, Makoto; Sago, Haruhiko; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Takada, Fumio; Masuzaki, Hideaki; Matsubara, Yoichi; Hirahara, Fumiki; Kugu, Koji

    2016-10-01

    Prenatal testing has been provided in Japan over the past several decades. However, it is difficult to assess the clinical status of amniocentesis (AC) and maternal serum markers (MSM) because obstetricians can perform these tests without registration. This study aims to investigate the current clinical status of AC and MSM in Japan. We conducted a questionnaire study that was intended for a total of 5622 Japanese obstetrics/gynecology facilities during October 2013 to January 2014. The response rate was 40.8% (2295/5622). Of the 2295 facilities, 864 performed MSM (37.7%), 619 performed AC (27.0%) and 412 performed both (18.0%). The average number of MSM tests was 2.0 per month (range 0-52), and the average number of AC tests was 2.4 per month (range 0-30). Involvement of genetic professionals, such as clinical geneticists (CGs) and certified genetic counselors (CGCs), contribute to a content-rich explanation and management of difficult issues and lengthened the explanation time. Nevertheless, relatively few facilities employed these specialists (MSM: 96/864 and AC: 128/619). This is the first study to highlight the current clinical status of AC and MSM tests in Japan. Active involvement of CGs and CGCs can provide more appropriate genetic counseling for prenatal tests.

  19. Engaging Employers to Drive up Skills: The Realities of Effective Employer Engagement--Current Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning and Skills Network (NJ3), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Learning and Skills Network's (LSN's) think tank, the Centre for Innovation in Learning, in association with the 157 Group, the Association of Learning Providers (ALP) and the Association of Colleges (AoC), has undertaken timely and important research into how to support and improve employer engagement in the further education (FE) and skills…

  20. SaudiVeg ecoinformatics: Aims, current status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. El-Sheikh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade many electronic databases of vegetation plots were established in many countries around the world. These databases contain valuable phytosociological information assisting both governmental and NGO (Non-governmental organizations agencies to formulate strategies and on-ground plans to manage and protect nature resources. This paper provides an account on aims, current status and perspectives of building of a vegetation database for the Central Region (Najd of Saudi Arabia – the founding element of the Saudi Vegetation Database (SVD. The data stored by the database are sample plots (vegetation relevés collected according to the field techniques of the Braun-Blanquet approach (lists of taxa accompanied by semi-quantitative cover assessment, and are accompanied by general vegetation characteristics such as vegetation layering and cover, information on life-form of the recorded species, geographical coordinates, altitude, soil typology, topography and many more. More than 2900 vegetation-plot records (relevés have so far been collected in the Najd region; of these more than 2000 have already been stored using the Turboveg database platform. These field records cover many habitats such as depressions, wadis (dry river beds, agricultural lands, sand dunes, sabkhas, and ruderal habitats. The ecological information collected in the database is currently the largest set of vegetation data collated into a database in the Middle East. These data are of great importance for biodiversity studies in Saudi Arabia, since the region is recording a loss of biodiversity at a fast rate due to environmental problems such as global warming and land-use changes. We envisage that this database would catalyze further data collection on vegetation of the entire Arabian Peninsula, and shall serve as one of the most important datasets for classification and mapping of the vegetation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  1. The current status of orbital experiments for UHECR studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasyuk, M. I.; Casolino, M.; Garipov, G. K.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Gorodetzky, P.; Khrenov, B. A.; Klimov, P. A.; Morozenko, V. S.; Sakaki, N.; Saprykin, O. A.; Sharakin, S. A.; Takizawa, Y.; Tkachev, L. G.; Yashin, I. V.; Zotov, M. Yu

    2015-08-01

    Two types of orbital detectors of extreme energy cosmic rays are being developed nowadays: (i) TUS and KLYPVE with reflecting optical systems (mirrors) and (ii) JEM-EUSO with high- transmittance Fresnel lenses. They will cover much larger areas than existing ground-based arrays and almost uniformly monitor the celestial sphere. The TUS detector is the pioneering mission developed in SINP MSU in cooperation with several Russian and foreign institutions. It has relatively small field of view (±4.5°), which corresponds to a ground area of 6.4 • 103 km2. The telescope consists of a Fresnel-type mirror-concentrator (∼ 2 m2) and a photo receiver (a matrix of 16 x 16 photomultiplier tubes). It is to be deployed on the Lomonosov satellite, and is currently at the final stage of preflight tests. Recently, SINP MSU began the KLYPVE project to be installed on board of the Russian segment of the ISS. The optical system of this detector contains a larger primary mirror (10 m2), which allows decreasing the energy threshold. The total effective field of view will be at least ±14° to exceed the annual exposure of the existing ground-based experiments. Several configurations of the detector are being currently considered. Finally, JEM-EUSO is a wide field of view (±30°) detector. The optics is composed of two curved double-sided Fresnel lenses with 2.65 m external diameter, a precision diffractive middle lens and a pupil. The ultraviolet photons are focused onto the focal surface, which consists of nearly 5000 multi-anode photomultipliers. It is developed by a large international collaboration. All three orbital detectors have multi-purpose character due to continuous monitoring of various atmospheric phenomena. The present status of development of the TUS and KLYPVE missions is reported, and a brief comparison of the projects with JEM-EUSO is given.

  2. Robotic hepatobiliary surgery: update on the current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, A D; Ali, M R; Khatri, V P

    2013-10-01

    An update on the current status of robotic hepatobiliary surgery based on a review of the available literature. A literature search was performed using the PubMed database with search phrases "robotic hepatectomy", "robotic liver resection", "robotic liver surgery", "robotic hepatobiliary surgery", and "robotic biliary reconstruction". We selected articles with high volume case series or case controlled series. As a result of our literature search we will focus on the 9 major articles on robotic liver resection (RLR) with 235 patients undergoing RLR for a total of 244 liver resections. In addition a brief update on robotic biliary reconstruction will also be presented based on the above articles and recent review articles. Indications for robotic liver resection included both benign (N.=72, 29.5%) and malignant disease (N.=172, 70.5%). The most common indication was colorectal liver metastasis (N.=87, 50.6%) and hepatocellular carcinoma (N.=57, 33%). The most common type of resection was subsegmental (N.=55, 22.5%), with a significant number of major hepatectomies (N.=80, 32.8%). Overall conversion rate was 7.8%, with majority converted to open (N.=18) and one converted to hand assisted. The overall complication rate was 11.8% (N.=29). No perioperative mortality was reported. Preliminary results show that robotic assisted laparoscopic hepatobiliary surgery has materialized as a new technique that combines the advantages of laparoscopy with the dissection, suturing and articulation of robotics. This more closely approximates open surgery. The preliminary data demonstrates that RLR can be applied in major hepatobiliary centers safely. Future comparative studies are needed to determine if this is of significant benefit over current open techniques.

  3. Current status of the UCSF second-generation PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. K.; Arenson, Ronald L.; Wong, Albert W. K.; Bazzill, Todd M.; Lou, Shyhliang A.; Andriole, Katherine P.; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jianguo; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the current status of the second generation PACS at UCSF commenced in October 1992. The UCSF PACS is designed in-house as a hospital-integrated PACS based on an open architecture concept using industrial standards including UNIX operating system, C programming language, X-Window user interface, TCP/IP communication protocol, DICOM 3.0 image standard and HL7 health data format. Other manufacturer's PACS components which conform with these standards can be easily integrated into the system. Relevant data from HIS and RIS is automatically incorporated into the PACS using HL7 data format and TCP/IP communication protocol. The UCSF system also takes advantage of state-of-the-art communication, storage, and software technologies in ATM, multiple storage media, automatic programming, multilevel processes for a better cost-performance system. The primary PACS network is the 155 Mbits/sec OC3 ATM with the Ethernet as the back-up. The UCSF PACS also connects Mt. Zion Hospital and San Francisco VA Medical Center in the San Francisco Bay area via an ATM wide area network with a T1 line as the back-up. Currently, five MR and five CT scanners from multiple sites, two computed radiography systems, two film digitizers, one US PACS module, the hospital HIS and the department RIS have been connected to the PACS network. The image data is managed by a mirrored database (Sybase). The PACS controller, with its 1.3 terabyte optical disk library, acquires 2.5 gigabytes digital data daily. Four 2K, five, 1,600-line multiple monitor display workstations are on line in neuroradiology, pediatric radiology and intensive care units for clinical use. In addition, the PACS supports over 100 Macintosh users in the department and selected hospital sites for both images and textual retrieval through a client/server mechanism. We are also developing a computation and visualization node in the PACS network for advancing radiology research.

  4. Current status of PET imaging in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Gennaro; Niccolini, Flavia; Politis, Marios

    2016-06-01

    To review the developments of recent decades and the current status of PET molecular imaging in Huntington's disease (HD). A systematic review of PET studies in HD was performed. The MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane and Scopus databases were searched for articles in all languages published up to 19 August 2015 using the major medical subject heading "Huntington Disease" combined with text and key words "Huntington Disease", "Neuroimaging" and "PET". Only peer-reviewed, primary research studies in HD patients and premanifest HD carriers, and studies in which clinical features were described in association with PET neuroimaging results, were included in this review. Reviews, case reports and nonhuman studies were excluded. A total of 54 PET studies were identified and analysed in this review. Brain metabolism ([(18)F]FDG and [(15)O]H2O), presynaptic ([(18)F]fluorodopa, [(11)C]β-CIT and [(11)C]DTBZ) and postsynaptic ([(11)C]SCH22390, [(11)C]FLB457 and [(11)C]raclopride) dopaminergic function, phosphodiesterases ([(18)F]JNJ42259152, [(18)F]MNI-659 and [(11)C]IMA107), and adenosine ([(18)F]CPFPX), cannabinoid ([(18)F]MK-9470), opioid ([(11)C]diprenorphine) and GABA ([(11)C]flumazenil) receptors were evaluated as potential biomarkers for monitoring disease progression and for assessing the development and efficacy of novel disease-modifying drugs in premanifest HD carriers and HD patients. PET studies evaluating brain restoration and neuroprotection were also identified and described in detail. Brain metabolism, postsynaptic dopaminergic function and phosphodiesterase 10A levels were proven to be powerful in assessing disease progression. However, no single technique may be currently considered an optimal biomarker and an integrative multimodal imaging approach combining different techniques should be developed for monitoring potential neuroprotective and preventive treatment in HD.

  5. Veterinary pharmacology: history, current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, P; Fink-Gremmels, J; Toutain, P L

    2013-04-01

    Veterinary therapeutics, based on the art of Materia Medica, has been practised for countless centuries, but the science of veterinary pharmacology is of very recent origin. This review traces the contribution of Materia Medica to veterinary therapeutics from the Egyptian period through to the Age of Enlightenment. The first tentative steps in the development of the science of veterinary pharmacology were taken in the 18th century, but it was not until the mid 20th century that the science replaced the art of Materia Medica. This review traces the 20th century developments in veterinary pharmacology, with emphasis on the explosion of knowledge in the 35 year period to 2010. The range of factors which have influenced the current status of the discipline are reviewed. Future developments are considered from the perspectives of what might be regarded as desirable and those innovations that might be anticipated. We end with words of encouragement for young colleagues intent upon pursuing a career in veterinary pharmacology. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Pathological examination of breast cancer biomarkers: current status in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Shinobu

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews the current status of pathological evaluation for biomarkers in Japan. The introduced issues are the international trends for estimation of biomarkers considering diagnosis and treatment decision, and pathological issues under discussion, and how Japanese Breast Cancer Society (JBCS) members have addressed issues related to pathology and biomarkers evaluation. As topics of immunohistochemical study, (1) ASCO/CAP guidelines, (2) Ki67 and other markers, (3) quantification and image analysis, (4) application of cytologic samples, (5) pre-analytical process, and (6) Japan Pathology Quality Assurance System are introduced. Various phases of concepts, guidelines, and methodologies are co-existed in today's clinical practice. It is expected in near future that conventional methods and molecular procedures will be emerged, and Japanese Quality assurance/Quality control (QA/QC) system will work practically. What we have to do in the next generation are to validate novel procedures, to evaluate the relationship between traditional concepts and newly proposed ideas, to establish a well organized QA/QC system, and to standardize pre-analytical process that are the basis of all procedures using pathological tissues.

  7. Current Status of Carl Sagan Observatory in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ibarra, A.

    The current status of Observatory "Carl Sagan" (OCS) of University of Sonora is presented. This project was born in 1996 focused to build a small solar-stellar observatory completely operated by remote control. The observatory will be at "Cerro Azul", a 2480 m peak in one of the best regions in the world for astronomical observation, at the Sonora-Arizona desert. The OCS, with three 16 cm solar telescopes and a 55 cm stellar telescope is one of the cheapest observatories, valuated in US200,000 Added to its scientific goals to study solar coronal holes and Supernovae Type 1A, the OCS has a strong educative and cultural program in Astronomy to all levels. At the end of 2001, we started the Program "Constelacion", to build small planetariums through all the countries with a cost of only US80,000. Also, the webcast system for transmission of the solar observations from the prototype OCS at the campus, was expanded to webcast educational programs in Astronomy since July of this year, including courses and diplomats for Latin American people. All of these advances are exposed here.

  8. High-density matter: current status and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J. R.

    2015-05-01

    There are many fascinating processes in the Universe which we observe in more and more in detail thanks to increasingly sophisticated technology. One of the most interesting phenomena is the life cycle of stars, their birth, evolution and death. If the stars are massive enough, they end their lives in the core-collapse supernova explosion, the one of the most violent events in the Universe. As the result, the densest objects in the Universe, neutron stars and/or black holes are created. Naturally, the physical basis of these events should be understood in line with observation. The current status of our knowledge of processes in the life of stars is far from adequate for their true understanding. We show that although many models have been constructed their detailed ability to describe observations is limited or non-existent. Furthermore the general failure of all models means that we cannot tell which are heading in the right direction. A possible way forward in modeling of high-density matter is outlined, exemplified by the quark-meson-coupling model (QMC). This model has a natural explanation for the saturation of nuclear forces and depends on very few adjustable parameters, strongly constrained by the underlying physics. Latest QMC results for compact objects and finite nuclei are presented.

  9. Immunotherapy in the management of melanoma: current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alston D

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Dylan Alston,1 Jerry D Brewer21Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine, Midwestern University, Downers Grove, IL, 2Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USAAbstract: As the rate of melanoma continues to increase, so does the need for more effective and durable therapies. Despite considerable research, the management of advanced disease remains challenging. Numerous therapies are being investigated, many of which aim at upregulating the immune system's innate ability to attack the tumor. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 antibodies are immune stimulants that act as negative regulators of the immune system by modifying an antitumor T-cell response. Ipilimumab, one such cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 antibody, and vemurafenib, a BRAF competitive inhibitor, were approved as first-line therapies in 2011 due to improved survival rates versus standard chemotherapy. Allovectin-7 is a lipid plasmid that encodes for major histone compatibility complex DNA sequences. It has led to increases in cytotoxic T-cell production, which subsequently attacks the tumor. OncoVEX, an oncolytic herpes virus, and PV-10, a chemoablative agent, have yielded promising results in metastatic lesions and have demonstrated a unique "bystandarder" phenomenon. In this paper we review the basics of melanoma from the pathophysiology, risk factors, signs, diagnostic approaches, and current status of immunologic management of melanoma.Keywords: melanoma, immunotherapy, ipilimumab, vemurafenib, OncoVEX, Allovectin-7

  10. The SNO+ experiment. Current status and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozza, Valentina [Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Zellescher Weg 19, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    SNO+ is a large liquid scintillator based experiment that reuses the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory detector. The detector, located 2 km underground in a mine near Sudbury, Canada, consists of a 12 m diameter acrylic vessel which will be filled with 780 tonnes of liquid scintillator. The main physics goal of SNO+ is to search for the neutrinoless double-beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 130}Te. During the double-beta phase, the liquid scintillator will be initially loaded with 0.3-0.5% natural tellurium. In 5 years of data taking, SNO+ expects to reach a sensitivity on the effective Majorana neutrino mass of 55-133 meV, just above the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy region. Recently, the possibility to deploy up to 10 times more natural tellurium has been investigated, by which SNO+ could explore deep into the parameter space for the inverted hierarchy in the near future. Designed as a general purpose neutrino experiment, SNO+ can additionally measure the reactor antineutrino oscillations, geo-neutrinos in a geologically-interesting location, watch supernova neutrinos and measure low-energy solar neutrinos. A first commissioning phase with the detector filled with water will begin soon. The scintillator phase is expected to start after few months of water data taking. The 0νββ decay phase is foreseen for the 2017. In this talk the current status and the broad physics program of SNO+ will be presented.

  11. CURRENT STATUS, CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF RABBIT PRODUCTION IN BOTSWANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. MOREKI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the current status of rabbit production, challenges facing the industry and opportunities available. Rabbit farming in Botswana is in its infancy and the rabbit population is estimated to be less than 1000. However, this value is a gross underestimate due to poor monitoring by government extension services. In Botswana, rabbits are mainly kept in the backyards, indicating that intensive systems have not yet been developed. Rabbits have small body size, short gestation period, high reproductive potential, rapid growth rate and ability to utilize forages. Compared to beef, chicken, mutton, chevon and chicken, rabbit meat has low cholesterol, high protein and low fat contents. Rabbit production can be integrated into small farming systems, with the rabbits being fed on crop residues, weeds, poultry droppings, and kitchen and garden wastes. The manure can be used to fertilize soils. The major challenges in rabbit production are inadequacy of breeding stock, inadequate rabbit feeds, poor management (feeding, housing and health care, lack of research support, lack of technical support from extension services, lack of access to credit and inadequate supply of equipment. The major opportunity available to the rearers is that the market is vast due to the small rabbit population in the country. The attributes of rabbits suggest that rabbit farming is likely to play an important role in nutrition, poverty alleviation and food security, especially in countries with higher unemployment levels and HIV/AIDS prevalence rates such as Botswana.

  12. Current status and future trends of medical physics in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorin Nieto, J.

    2015-01-01

    Medical Physics is an area that applies the principles of physics to medicine, particularly in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases using ionizing and nonionizing radiation. The main attractive of medical physics is that it has a direct impact on the quality and safety of medical care in humans; this social component with direct implications for the population is of high value for Mexico. This paper describes the concepts of medical physics, trends and the current status of this discipline as a profession, which is directly related to the efforts of clinical research. It is also described what is, in my opinion, the future of medical physics in Mexico, emphasizing the fact that this field requires a substantial boost from universities and hospitals to recruit highly qualified young medical physicists and the support from government agencies such as Secretaria de Salud, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social and Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del Estado through clinical research projects that allow the necessary evolution of medical physics into the hospital setting.

  13. High-density matter: current status and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone J. R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many fascinating processes in the Universe which we observe in more and more in detail thanks to increasingly sophisticated technology. One of the most interesting phenomena is the life cycle of stars, their birth, evolution and death. If the stars are massive enough, they end their lives in the core-collapse supernova explosion, the one of the most violent events in the Universe. As the result, the densest objects in the Universe, neutron stars and/or black holes are created. Naturally, the physical basis of these events should be understood in line with observation. The current status of our knowledge of processes in the life of stars is far from adequate for their true understanding. We show that although many models have been constructed their detailed ability to describe observations is limited or non-existent. Furthermore the general failure of all models means that we cannot tell which are heading in the right direction. A possible way forward in modeling of high-density matter is outlined, exemplified by the quark-meson-coupling model (QMC. This model has a natural explanation for the saturation of nuclear forces and depends on very few adjustable parameters, strongly constrained by the underlying physics. Latest QMC results for compact objects and finite nuclei are presented.

  14. Current Status of Manufacturing Hazardous Waste in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Changqing; Zhang Jiangshan; Zhao Youcai

    2007-01-01

    It is difficult to manage the manufacturing hazardous waste(MHW)whichis generated from a huge amount of complicated sources and causes very serious pollution.Therefore more and more attention has been paid to MHW pollution.shanghai,as an industrial and economic center and an intemational metropolis in China,has a vast industrial system spanning a multitude of sectors,which generates MHW not only in a huge magnitude but also in a large variety of types from complicated sourrces,resulting in severe pollution.In 2003,the production of MHW in Shanghai is about 3.96 x 10ton,involving 33 indices.Most of MHW in Shanghai is treated and disposed of,but a significant portion is not handled properly and effectively.This paper carries out in-field investigation on the current status of MHW production and treat ment in Shanghai,and puts forward scientific proposals that Shanghai should facilitate cleaner production and minimize haz ardous waste;strictly enforce hazardous waste registration system, strengthen monitoring the certified enterprises;strengthen intent disposal center construction and realize hazardous waste reclamation;accelerate establishing tlle technical criteria and the management policy,promote the research and development on the treatment and disposal technology,and strengthen information management,thus realizing integrated management on MHW pollution.

  15. Current status of animal welfare and animal rights in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiaqi; Bayne, Kathryn; Wang, Jianfei

    2013-11-01

    In the past few years, new social passions have sparked on the Chinese mainland. At the centre of these burgeoning passions is a focus on animal welfare, animal treatment, and even animal rights, by the public and academic sectors. With China's rapid economic changes and greater access to information from around the world, societal awareness of animal issues is rising very fast. Hastening this paradigm shift were several highly public incidents involving animal cruelty, including exposés on bear bile harvesting for traditional Chinese medicine, the thousands of dogs rescued from China's meat trade, and the call to boycott shark fin soup and bird nest soup. This article outlines the current status of campaigning by animal advocates in China (specifically the animal rights movement) from three interlinked perspectives: wildlife conservation, companion animal protection, and laboratory animal protection. By reviewing this campaigning, we attempt to present not only the political and social impact of the concept of animal rights, but also the perceptions of, and challenges to, animal rights activities in China.

  16. Chinese Soybean Industry:Current Status and Outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DachuanLiu; ShaojunTian

    2002-01-01

    This paper focus on the soybean resources and their industry development in China.Due to the high demand in domestic market,it is necessary to expand the cultivation area and improve the production yields.Meanwhile,to increase the export of soybeans from overseas is also important.China has a long history in producing traditional soybean foods.After recent fifty years,the development of Chinese soybean industry has reached to a reasonable level.The current status of Chinese soybean industry has been included in the paper.It has been expected that in next five years,there will be a rapid increase in the processing of soybeans;it will become more reasonable in the scale and distribution of soybean oil factories.Emphasis will be put on the improvement of the functionalities of soybean products.Different kinds of functional soybean foods,especially the soybean proteins for particular uses will be developed by the use of modification technologies.Concern is also given to the multi-utilization of soybean resources,which not only covers the extraction of oil from soybean seeds and the processing of protein products from the meal;but also includes the recovery of the natural phyto-chemicals from soybeans which could then be exploited to novel products with more profits.

  17. Gastric Cancer: Current Status of Diagnosis and Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Tsunehiro; Saikawa, Yoshiro, E-mail: saiky@z8.keio.jp; Kitagawa, Yuko [Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Keio University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 1608582 (Japan)

    2013-01-16

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of death from malignant disease worldwide and most frequently discovered in advanced stages. Because curative surgery is regarded as the only option for cure, early detection of resectable gastric cancer is extremely important for good patient outcomes. Therefore, noninvasive diagnostic modalities such as evolutionary endoscopy and positron emission tomography are utilized as screening tools for gastric cancer. To date, early gastric cancer is being treated using minimally invasive methods such as endoscopic treatment and laparoscopic surgery, while in advanced cancer it is necessary to consider multimodality treatment including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. Because of the results of large clinical trials, surgery with extended lymphadenectomy could not be recommended as a standard therapy for advanced gastric cancer. Recent clinical trials had shown survival benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy after curative resection compared with surgery alone. In addition, recent advances of molecular targeted agents would play an important role as one of the modalities for advanced gastric cancer. In this review, we summarize the current status of diagnostic technology and treatment for gastric cancer.

  18. Current status of HIV/AIDS in South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaturaka Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the United Nations Joint Program on HIV/AIDS, 33.2 million adults and children are living with the infection worldwide. Of these, two to three million are estimated to be in South Asia. All countries of the region have a low prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. However, it is important to review the current epidemiological data to identify the trends of infection as it would have implications on prevention. Materials and Methods: We performed a MEDLINE search using phrases ′South Asia′ plus ′HIV′ , ′AIDS′, and names of individual countries in South Asia (limits: articles published in last 10 years, in English language. Clinical trials, reviews, meta-analyses, letters, editorials, and practice guidelines were all considered. The following countries were included as belonging to South Asia; Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Recent estimates and data on country status, and details of national control programs were obtained from websites of international agencies such as the World Bank and United Nations Joint Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS. Results and Discussion: This review looks into many aspects of HIV infection in South Asia including country profiles with regard to infection, economic and psychological burden of illness and treatment issues in the South Asian context.

  19. Current Status on Resource and Recycling Technology for Rare Earths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Osamu; Okabe, Toru H.

    2014-06-01

    The development of recycling technologies for rare earths is essential for resource security and supply stability because high-quality rare earth mines are concentrated in China and the demand for rare earth metals such as neodymium and dysprosium, used as raw materials in permanent magnets (neodymium magnet), is expected to increase rapidly in the near future. It is also important to establish a recycling-based society from the perspective of the conservation of finite and valuable mineral resources and the reduction of the environmental load associated with mining and smelting. In this article, the current status of rare earth resource as well as that of recycling technology for the magnets is reviewed. The importance of establishing an efficient recycling process for rare earths is discussed from the characteristics of supply chain of rare earths, and the technological bases of the recycling processes for the magnet are introduced. Further, some fundamental researches on the development of new recycling processes based on pyrometallurgical process are introduced, and the features of the recycling processes are evaluated.

  20. Neural synchrony in cortical networks: history, concept and current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Uhlhaas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Following the discovery of context-dependent synchronization of oscillatory neuronal responses in the visual system, the role of neural synchrony in cortical networks has been expanded to provide a general mechanism for the coordination of distributed neural activity patterns. In the current paper, we present an update of the status of this hypothesis through summarizing recent results from our laboratory that suggest important new insights regarding the mechanisms, function and relevance of this phenomenon. In the first part, we present recent results derived from animal experiments and mathematical simulations that provide novel explanations and mechanisms for zero and nero-zero phase lag synchronization. In the second part, we shall discuss the role of neural synchrony for expectancy during perceptual organization and its role in conscious experience. This will be followed by evidence that indicates that in addition to supporting conscious cognition, neural synchrony is abnormal in major brain disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. We conclude this paper with suggestions for further research as well as with critical issues that need to be addressed in future studies.

  1. Bonded permanent magnets: Current status and future opportunities (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, John; Constantinides, Steve

    1997-04-01

    Permanent magnets play a vital role in modern society as a component in a wide range of devices utilized by many industries and consumers. In 1995, the world production of permanent magnets was estimated to be valued at 3.6 billion and growing at an annual rate of 12%. Bonded permanent magnets are the fastest growing segment of this market. Bonded magnet technology enables a wide variety of magnetic powders to be combined with several polymer and binder systems to produce magnetic components utilizing several processing options. In this article, we review the development of bonded magnet technology. The major classes of magnetic powders, binder systems, and processing technologies are described. Recent developments in magnetic material grades, e.g., anisotropic NdFeB, rare earth lean NdFeB, SmFe(N,C) are outlined. The current status of processing and binder options aimed at increasing the upper application temperature limit of these materials is highlighted. Finally, the improvements and future opportunities for bonded magnets are discussed.

  2. Soil contamination in China: current status and mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang-Jie; Ma, Yibing; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Tang, Zhong; McGrath, Steve P

    2015-01-20

    China faces great challenges in protecting its soil from contamination caused by rapid industrialization and urbanization over the last three decades. Recent nationwide surveys show that 16% of the soil samples, 19% for the agricultural soils, are contaminated based on China’s soil environmental quality limits, mainly with heavy metals and metalloids. Comparisons with other regions of the world show that the current status of soil contamination, based on the total contaminant concentrations, is not worse in China. However, the concentrations of some heavy metals in Chinese soils appear to be increasing at much greater rates. Exceedance of the contaminant limits in food crops is widespread in some areas, especially southern China, due to elevated inputs of contaminants, acidic nature of the soil and crop species or cultivars prone to heavy metal accumulation. Minimizing the transfer of contaminants from soil to the food chain is a top priority. A number of options are proposed, including identification of the sources of contaminants to agricultural systems, minimization of contaminant inputs, reduction of heavy metal phytoavailability in soil with liming or other immobilizing materials, selection and breeding of low accumulating crop cultivars, adoption of appropriate water and fertilizer management, bioremediation, and change of land use to grow nonfood crops. Implementation of these strategies requires not only technological advances, but also social-economic evaluation and effective enforcement of environmental protection law.

  3. Current status of fasciolosis in Vietnam: an update and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, T D; Doanh, P N; Saegerman, C; Losson, B

    2016-09-01

    Vietnam is recognized to be endemic for fasciolosis. However, most of the available publications have not been published in international journals. This review is based on national and international Vietnamese publications and highlights the current status of fasciolosis in Vietnam. It also provides some information available for neighbouring countries. Updated data on responsible species, distribution, transmission and control aspects are summarized. The central region of Vietnam is reported as being highly endemic for fasciolosis, with a high number of human patients (more than 20,000 in 2011). Fasciola gigantica is reported to be the main species in Vietnam. However, hybrids between F. gigantica and F. hepatica were identified. Both humans and animals are infected by the ingestion of raw vegetables and possibly contaminated drinking water. Three lymnaeid snail species (Austropeplea viridis, Radix auricularia and Radix rubiginosa) may act as intermediate hosts of Fasciola spp. However, due to the likely misidentification of snail species and cercariae during the past decade the critical analysis of published data is difficult. A better understanding of transmission aspects of fasciolosis would allow the implementation of preventive measures of this important neglected zoonotic disease.

  4. Plague in Iran: its history and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Shahraki, Abdolrazagh; Carniel, Elizabeth; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Plague remains a public health concern worldwide, particularly in old foci. Multiple epidemics of this disease have been recorded throughout the history of Iran. Despite the long-standing history of human plague in Iran, it remains difficult to obtain an accurate overview of the history and current status of plague in Iran. In this review, available data and reports on cases and outbreaks of human plague in the past and present in Iran and in neighboring countries were collected, and information was compiled regarding when, where, and how many cases occurred. This paper considers the history of plague in Persia (the predecessor of today's Iran) and has a brief review of plague in countries in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region, including a range of countries in the Middle East and North Africa. Since Iran has experienced outbreaks of plague for several centuries, neighboring countries have reported the disease in recent years, the disease can be silent for decades, and the circulation of Yersinia pestis has been reported among rodents and dogs in western Iran, more attention should be paid to disease monitoring in areas with previously reported human cases and in high-risk regions with previous epizootic and enzootic activity.

  5. Pig islets for islet xenotransplantation: current status and future perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Qinghua; Liu Zhongwei; Zhu Haitao

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the current status and progress on pig islet xenotransplantation.Data sources Data used in this review were mainly from English literature of Pubmed database.The search terms were "pig islet" and "xenotransplantation".Study selection The original articles and critical reviews selected were relevant to this review's theme.Results Pigs are suggested to be an ideal candidate for obtaining available islet cells for transplantation.However,the potential clinical application of pig islet is still facing challenges including inadequate yield of high-quality functional islets and xenorejection of the transplants.The former can be overcome mainly by selection of a suitable pathogen-free source herd and the development of isolation and purification technology.While the feasibility of successful preclinical pig islet xenotranplantation provides insights in the possible mechanisms of xenogeneic immune recognition and rejection to overwhelm the latter.In addition,the achievement of long-term insulin independence in diabetic models by means of distinct islet products and novel immunotherapeutic strategies is promising.Conclusions Pig islet xenotransplantation is one of the prospective treatments to bridge the gap between the needs of transplantation in patients with diabetes and available islet cells.Nonetheless,further studies and efforts are needed to translate obtained findings into tangible applications.

  6. Current Status of Early Blight Resistance in Tomato: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Pragya; Oh, Yeonyee; Panthee, Dilip R

    2017-09-21

    Early blight (EB) is one of the dreadful diseases of tomato caused by several species of Alternaria including Alternaria linariae (which includes A. solani and A. tomatophila), as well as A. alternata. In some instances, annual economic yield losses due to EB have been estimated at 79%. Alternaria are known only to reproduce asexually, but a highly-virulent isolate has the potential to overcome existing resistance genes. Currently, cultural practices and fungicide applications are employed for the management of EB due to the lack of strong resistant cultivars. Resistance sources have been identified in wild species of tomato; some breeding lines and cultivars with moderate resistance have been developed through conventional breeding methods. Polygenic inheritance of EB resistance, insufficient resistance in cultivated species and the association of EB resistance with undesirable horticultural traits have thwarted the effective breeding of EB resistance in tomato. Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) conferring EB resistance have been detected in the populations derived from different wild species including Solanum habrochaites, Solanum arcanum and S. pimpinellifolium, but none of them could be used in EB resistance breeding due to low individual QTL effects. Pyramiding of those QTLs would provide strong resistance. More research is needed to identify additional sources of useful resistance, to incorporate resistant QTLs into breeding lines through marker-assisted selection (MAS) and to develop resistant cultivars with desirable horticultural traits including high yielding potential and early maturity. This paper will review the current understanding of causal agents of EB of tomato, resistance genetics and breeding, problems associated with breeding and future prospects.

  7. Current Status of Early Blight Resistance in Tomato: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragya Adhikari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Early blight (EB is one of the dreadful diseases of tomato caused by several species of Alternaria including Alternaria linariae (which includes A. solani and A. tomatophila, as well as A. alternata. In some instances, annual economic yield losses due to EB have been estimated at 79%. Alternaria are known only to reproduce asexually, but a highly-virulent isolate has the potential to overcome existing resistance genes. Currently, cultural practices and fungicide applications are employed for the management of EB due to the lack of strong resistant cultivars. Resistance sources have been identified in wild species of tomato; some breeding lines and cultivars with moderate resistance have been developed through conventional breeding methods. Polygenic inheritance of EB resistance, insufficient resistance in cultivated species and the association of EB resistance with undesirable horticultural traits have thwarted the effective breeding of EB resistance in tomato. Several quantitative trait loci (QTL conferring EB resistance have been detected in the populations derived from different wild species including Solanum habrochaites, Solanum arcanum and S. pimpinellifolium, but none of them could be used in EB resistance breeding due to low individual QTL effects. Pyramiding of those QTLs would provide strong resistance. More research is needed to identify additional sources of useful resistance, to incorporate resistant QTLs into breeding lines through marker-assisted selection (MAS and to develop resistant cultivars with desirable horticultural traits including high yielding potential and early maturity. This paper will review the current understanding of causal agents of EB of tomato, resistance genetics and breeding, problems associated with breeding and future prospects.

  8. Emerging memories: resistive switching mechanisms and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Doo Seok; Thomas, Reji; Katiyar, R S; Scott, J F; Kohlstedt, H; Petraru, A; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2012-07-01

    The resistance switching behaviour of several materials has recently attracted considerable attention for its application in non-volatile memory (NVM) devices, popularly described as resistive random access memories (RRAMs). RRAM is a type of NVM that uses a material(s) that changes the resistance when a voltage is applied. Resistive switching phenomena have been observed in many oxides: (i) binary transition metal oxides (TMOs), e.g. TiO(2), Cr(2)O(3), FeO(x) and NiO; (ii) perovskite-type complex TMOs that are variously functional, paraelectric, ferroelectric, multiferroic and magnetic, e.g. (Ba,Sr)TiO(3), Pb(Zr(x) Ti(1-x))O(3), BiFeO(3) and Pr(x)Ca(1-x)MnO(3); (iii) large band gap high-k dielectrics, e.g. Al(2)O(3) and Gd(2)O(3); (iv) graphene oxides. In the non-oxide category, higher chalcogenides are front runners, e.g. In(2)Se(3) and In(2)Te(3). Hence, the number of materials showing this technologically interesting behaviour for information storage is enormous. Resistive switching in these materials can form the basis for the next generation of NVM, i.e. RRAM, when current semiconductor memory technology reaches its limit in terms of density. RRAMs may be the high-density and low-cost NVMs of the future. A review on this topic is of importance to focus concentration on the most promising materials to accelerate application into the semiconductor industry. This review is a small effort to realize the ambitious goal of RRAMs. Its basic focus is on resistive switching in various materials with particular emphasis on binary TMOs. It also addresses the current understanding of resistive switching behaviour. Moreover, a brief comparison between RRAMs and memristors is included. The review ends with the current status of RRAMs in terms of stability, scalability and switching speed, which are three important aspects of integration onto semiconductors.

  9. EDIBLE VACCINES FROM GM CROPS: CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE SCOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doshi V

    2013-06-01

    take “food” rather than “drugs” when we are ill. This review attempts to discuss the current status and future of this new preventive modality.

  10. Genomic resources in fruit plants: an assessment of current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Manoj K; Shekhawat, N S

    2015-01-01

    The availability of many genomic resources such as genome sequences, functional genomics resources including microarrays and RNA-seq, sufficient numbers of molecular markers, express sequence tags (ESTs) and high-density genetic maps is causing a rapid acceleration of genetics and genomic research of many fruit plants. This is leading to an increase in our knowledge of the genes that are linked to many horticultural and agronomically important traits. Recently, some progress has also been made on the identification and functional analysis of miRNAs in some fruit plants. This is one of the most active research fields in plant sciences. The last decade has witnessed development of genomic resources in many fruit plants such as apple, banana, citrus, grapes, papaya, pears, strawberry etc.; however, many of them are still not being exploited. Furthermore, owing to lack of resources, infrastructure and research facilities in many lesser-developed countries, development of genomic resources in many underutilized or less-studied fruit crops, which grow in these countries, is limited. Thus, research emphasis should be given to those fruit crops for which genomic resources are relatively scarce. The development of genomic databases of these less-studied fruit crops will enable biotechnologists to identify target genes that underlie key horticultural and agronomical traits. This review presents an overview of the current status of the development of genomic resources in fruit plants with the main emphasis being on genome sequencing, EST resources, functional genomics resources including microarray and RNA-seq, identification of quantitative trait loci and construction of genetic maps as well as efforts made on the identification and functional analysis of miRNAs in fruit plants.

  11. Current Status of Soil-transmitted Nematode Infection in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YING-DAN CHEN; LIN-HUA TANG; LONG-QI XU

    2008-01-01

    Objective To Carry out national surveys for ascertaining the current status and trends of soil-transmitted nematode infections in China,providing scientific basis for forther developing control strategies.Methods In 1988-1992(hereinafter abbreriated as "survey in 1990"),a stratified cluster random sampling method was used in the survey.In 2001-2004(hereinafter abbreriated as "survey in 2003"),in order to compare with the survey in 1990,two-characteristic stratified cluster random sampling method was used and 687 investigation spots were sampled from the 2848 spots selected in the survey in 1990.Kato-Katz thick smear method was used to examine the eggs of soil-transmitted nematodes in fecal samples. Results The prevalence rates were 53.6% and 19.6% for soil-transmitted nematodes,14.6%and 6.120% for hookworms,44.6% and 12.7% for Ascaris lumbricoides,17.4% and 4.630% for Trichuris trichiura in survey 1990 and survey 2003,respectively.The prevalence rates of soil-transmitted nematodes were higher in 13 provinces than the average level in China in the survey in 1990.and higher in 8 provinces than the average level in the survey in 2003.The prevalence of hookworms,Ascaris lumbricoides,Trichurls trichiura and the overall prevalence of soft-transmitted nematodes were higher in females than in males.It is estimated from the results of survey in 2003 that the number of persons with soil-transmitted nematode infections in the country is about 129 million,less than that in the survey in 1990. Conclusion The prevalence of soil-transmitted nematodes has declined considerably but is still relatively high in some provinces and autonomous regions.Control activities and socioeconomic development may have contributed to the decreased prevalence.

  12. CURRENT STATUS OF INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRIC MONITORING IN UKRAINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumak, V; Deniachenko, N; Makarovska, O; Mihailescu, L-C; Prykhodko, A; Voloskyi, V; Vanhavere, F

    2016-09-01

    About 50 000 workers are being occupationally exposed to radiation in Ukraine. Individual dosimetric monitoring (IDM) is provided by 77 dosimetry services and laboratories of very different scale with a number of monitored workers ranging from several persons to ∼9000. In the present work, the current status of personal dosimetry in Ukraine was studied. The First National Intercomparison (FNI) of the IDM labs was accompanied by a survey of the laboratory operation in terms of coverage, types of dosimetry provided, instrumentation and methodologies used, metrological support, data recording, etc. Totally, 34 laboratories responded to the FNI call, and 18 services with 19 different personal dosimetry systems took part in the intercomparison exercise providing 24 dosimeters each for blind irradiation to photons of 6 different qualities (ISO N-series X-rays, S-Cs and S-Co sources) in a dose range of 5-60 mSv. Performance of the dosimetry labs was evaluated according to ISO 14146 criteria of matching trumpet curves with H0 = 0.2 mSv. The test revealed that 8 of the 19 systems meet ISO 14146 criteria in full, 5 other labs show marginal performance and 6 laboratories demonstrated catastrophic quality of dosimetric results. Altogether, 18 participating labs provide dosimetric monitoring to 37 477 workers (about three-fourths of all occupationally exposed workers), usually on monthly (nuclear industry) or quarterly (rest of applications) basis. Of this number, 20 664 persons (55 %) receive completely adequate individual monitoring, and the number of personnel receiving IDM of inadequate quality counts 3054 persons.

  13. CURRENT STATUS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR FOSTERING SOCIAL ENTREPRENEUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Doo Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, problems in current status of social entrepreneurs in Korea were examined and further policy issues for them were suggested as well. For the methodology, the study analyzed the drawbacks and policy implication of fostering social entrepreneurs through Focus Group Interview (FGI on analysis of present condition of incubating social entrepreneur and programs for it. First, it should escape from personnel expense-centered one and convert to ecosystem-centered or division-centered project in the direction of the government for fostering social entrepreneurs, putting emphasis on follow-up management and evaluation. Second, it must suggest a standard model for social entrepreneur promotion project. In other words, the projects with low performance should be reduced and education models appropriate for new circumstances and changes must be adopted through not only programs standardized in divisions, categories and local provinces, but also appointing expert instructors and project evaluation. Third, it’s necessary to propose specific guideline for detailed education operation according to education trainee and objectives of social entrepreneur. Fourth, it is needed to have more various contents development and distribution by strengthening support for specialized foundation, management and case studies related to fostering social entrepreneurs. Finally, it is even more required to spread awareness on social economics relating to programs for fostering social entrepreneur. With the long-term perspective, it is needed to render policy and specialization for fostering Korean-model social entrepreneurs, which is able to raise competent social entrepreneurs suitable for each stage of growth such as sourcing, incubation and launching social entrepreneurs.

  14. Applicability of RNA interference in cancer therapy: Current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Maduri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a manifestation of dysregulated gene function arising from a complex interplay of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes present in our body. Cancer has been constantly chased using various therapies but all in vain as most of them are highly effective only in the early stages of cancer. Recently, RNA interference (RNAi therapy, a comparatively new entrant is evolving as a promising player in the battle against cancer due to its post-transcriptional gene silencing ability. The most alluring feature of this non-invasive technology lies in its utility in the cancer detection and the cancer treatment at any stage. Once this technology is fully exploited it can bring a whole new era of therapeutics capable of curing cancer at any stage mainly due to its ability to target the vital processes required for cell proliferation such as response to growth factors, nutrient uptake/synthesis, and energy generation. This therapy can also be used to treat stage IV cancer, the most difficult to treat till date, by virtue of its metastasis inhibiting capability. Recent research has also proved that cancer can even be prevented by proper modulation of physiological RNAi pathways and researchers have found that many nutrients, which are a part of routine diet, can effectively modulate these pathways and prevent cancer. Even after having all these advantages the potential of RNAi therapy could not be fully tapped earlier, due to many limitations associated with the administration of RNAi based therapeutics. However, recent advancements in this direction, such as the development of small interfering RNA (siRNA tolerant to nucleases and the development of non-viral vectors such as cationic liposomes and nanoparticles, can overcome this obstacle and facilitate the clinical use of RNAi based therapeutics in the treatment of cancer. The present review focuses on the current status of RNAi therapeutics and explores their potential as future diagnostics and

  15. Current status of assisted reproductive technology in Korea, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyoung Hoon; Song, Hyun Jin; Lee, Kyu Sup; Choi, Young Min

    2015-03-01

    Great advances have been made in the field of assisted reproductive technology (ART) since the first in vitro fertilization (IVF) baby was born in Korea. This study was designed to report on the current status of ART therapy in South Korea between January 1 and December 31 of 2010. A revised survey, originally developed by the International Committee Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies, was sent to all available ART centers via email in 2013. Fresh embryo transfer (FET) cases were categorized into standard IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injections. These cases, the thawing embryo transfer (TET) cases, and other related procedures were surveyed. Data from 30,785 ART procedures were provided by 78 clinics. Of the 28,200 cycles in which oocytes were retrieved, 92.2% of these cycles were completely transferred. In addition, 8,075 cycles were confirmed to be clinical pregnancies in the FET cycles, which represent a pregnancy rate of 28.6% per oocyte pick-up and 31.1% per embryo transfer. The most common number of embryos transferred in the FET was three embryos (37.3%) followed by two embryos (36.3%) and one embryo (14.0%). Of the 6,648 TET cycles transferred, 2,356 clinical pregnancies were confirmed by ultrasonography. The most common number of embryos in the TET group was two embryos (43.4%) followed by three embryos (25.4%) and one embryo (18.9%). The clinical pregnancy rate per transfer in the FET cycles was similar in 2009 and 2010. Among the FET cycles where one or two embryos were transferred, the clinical pregnancy rate per transfer slightly increased from 2009 (28.7%) to 2010 (32.9%).

  16. Current and Future Status of Diversity in Ophthalmologist Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xierali, Imam M; Nivet, Marc A; Wilson, M Roy

    2016-09-01

    Increasing the level of diversity among ophthalmologists may help reduce disparities in eye care. To assess the current and future status of diversity among ophthalmologists in the workforce by sex, race, and ethnicity in the context of the available number of medical students in the United States. Data from the Association of American Medical Colleges, the American Medical Association, and US Census were used to evaluate the differences and trends in diversity among ophthalmologists, all full-time faculty except ophthalmology, ophthalmology faculty, ophthalmology residents, medical school students, and the US population between 2005 and 2015. For 2014, associations of sex, race, and ethnicity with physician practice locations were assessed. Proportions of ophthalmologists stratified by sex, race, and ethnicity between 2005 and 2015. Women and minority groups traditionally underrepresented in medicine (URM)-black, Hispanic, American Indian, Alaskan Native, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander-were underrepresented as practicing ophthalmologists (22.7% and 6%, respectively), ophthalmology faculty (35.1% and 5.7%, respectively), and ophthalmology residents (44.3% and 7.7%, respectively), compared with the US population (50.8% and 30.7%, respectively). During the past decade, there had been a modest increase in the proportion of female practicing ophthalmologists who graduated from US medical schools in 1980 or later (from 23.8% to 27.1%; P workforce despite an available pool of medical students. Given the prevalent racial and ethnic disparities in eye care and an increasingly diverse society, future research and training efforts that increase the level of diversity among medical students and residents seems warranted.

  17. Current status of genome editing in vector mosquitoes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reegan, Appadurai Daniel; Ceasar, Stanislaus Antony; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2017-01-16

    Mosquitoes pose a major threat to human health as they spread many deadly diseases like malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis and Zika. Identification and use of novel molecular tools are essential to combat the spread of vector borne diseases. Genome editing tools have been used for the precise alterations of the gene of interest for producing the desirable trait in mosquitoes. Deletion of functional genes or insertion of toxic genes in vector mosquitoes will produce either knock-out or knock-in mutants that will check the spread of vector-borne diseases. Presently, three types of genome editing tools viz., zinc finger nuclease (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) and clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9) are widely used for the editing of the genomes of diverse organisms. These tools are also applied in vector mosquitoes to control the spread of vector-borne diseases. A few studies have been carried out on genome editing to control the diseases spread by vector mosquitoes and more studies need to be performed with the utilization of more recently invented tools like CRISPR/Cas9 to combat the spread of deadly diseases by vector mosquitoes. The high specificity and flexibility of CRISPR/Cas9 system may offer possibilities for novel genome editing for the control of important diseases spread by vector mosquitoes. In this review, we present the current status of genome editing research on vector mosquitoes and also discuss the future applications of vector mosquito genome editing to control the spread of vectorborne diseases.

  18. Analysis on Current Status and Plights of Translational Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jin-wen; QIAN Feng

    2015-01-01

    Translational medicine, which is a new concept appearing in the field of international medical health in the past three or four years, forms a discipline of the system medicine (including systematic pathology, diagnosis and comprehensive treatment as well as pharmacology, etc) synchronizing with personalized medicine and predictable medicine. It is a branch of medical research trying to build a better bridge between the basic studies and the clinical medical treatment. It can promote the predicative, prognostic and personalized medicines by the evaluation and application of molecular markers, the individual therapies based on molecular subtypes and the evaluation and predication of therapeutic responses and prognosis. And its purpose is to build a direct connection between basic research and clinical practice so as to transform the knowledge and achievements of basic research into new therapeutic methods in clinic, which can be used to serve the clinic and solve clinical problems. Nevertheless, the study on translational medicine is limited, and there are few review articles about the progress of translational medicine in English. With the development of innovative and new technology, the therapeutic methods become more accurate and diverse, and the translational medicine will make outstanding advances and provide more space for the future treatment of various diseases so as to better serve the clinical practices and the patients. In addition, except the outstanding achievements, there are still multiple plights in the translational medicine research. Therefore, this study aimed to review the current status and the present problems in translational medicine, hoping to expand the study outcomes in China to the whole world.

  19. Livestock in biomedical research: history, current status and future prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polejaeva, Irina A; Rutigliano, Heloisa M; Wells, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    Livestock models have contributed significantly to biomedical and surgical advances. Their contribution is particularly prominent in the areas of physiology and assisted reproductive technologies, including understanding developmental processes and disorders, from ancient to modern times. Over the past 25 years, biomedical research that traditionally embraced a diverse species approach shifted to a small number of model species (e.g. mice and rats). The initial reasons for focusing the main efforts on the mouse were the availability of murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and genome sequence data. This powerful combination allowed for precise manipulation of the mouse genome (knockouts, knockins, transcriptional switches etc.) leading to ground-breaking discoveries on gene functions and regulation, and their role in health and disease. Despite the enormous contribution to biomedical research, mouse models have some major limitations. Their substantial differences compared with humans in body and organ size, lifespan and inbreeding result in pronounced metabolic, physiological and behavioural differences. Comparative studies of strategically chosen domestic species can complement mouse research and yield more rigorous findings. Because genome sequence and gene manipulation tools are now available for farm animals (cattle, pigs, sheep and goats), a larger number of livestock genetically engineered (GE) models will be accessible for biomedical research. This paper discusses the use of cattle, goats, sheep and pigs in biomedical research, provides an overview of transgenic technology in farm animals and highlights some of the beneficial characteristics of large animal models of human disease compared with the mouse. In addition, status and origin of current regulation of GE biomedical models is also reviewed.

  20. Differences between men and women in substance use: the role of educational level and employment status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixidó-Compañó, Ester; Espelt, Albert; Sordo, Luis; Bravo, María J; Sarasa-Renedo, Ana; Indave, B Iciar; Bosque-Prous, Marina; Brugal, M Teresa

    2017-03-15

    To determine differences between men and women in hazardous drinking, heavy cannabis use and hypnosedative use according to educational level and employment status in the economically active population in Spain. Cross-sectional study with data from 2013 Spanish Household Survey on Alcohol and Drugs on individuals aged 25-64 [n=14,113 (women=6,171; men=7,942)]. Dependent variables were hazardous drinking, heavy cannabis use and hypnosedative consumption; the main independent variables were educational level and employment situation. Associations between dependent and independent variables were calculated with Poisson regression models with robust variance. All analyses were stratified by sex. Hazardous drinking and heavy cannabis use were higher in men, while women consumed more hypnosedatives. The lower the educational level, the greater the gender differences in the prevalence of this substances owing to different consumption patterns in men and women. While men with a lower educational level were higher hazardous drinkers [RII=2.57 (95%CI: 1.75-3.78)] and heavy cannabis users [RII=3.03 (95%CI: 1.88-4.89)] compared to higher educational level, in women the prevalence was the same. Women with a lower education level and men with a higher education level had higher hypnosedative consumption. Unemployment was associated with increased heavy cannabis use and hypnosedative use in both women and men and with lower hazardous drinking only in women. There are differences between men and women in the use of psychoactive substances that can be explained by the unequal distribution of substance use in them according to educational level. Unemployment was associated with substance use in both men and women. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Support for international agricultural research: current status and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Robert S; Mohanty, Samarendu

    2010-11-30

    The success of the first Green Revolution in the form of abundant food supplies and low prices over the past two decades has diverted the world's attention from agriculture to other pressing issues. This has resulted in lower support for the agricultural research work primarily undertaken by the 15 research centers of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). The total support in real dollars for most of the last three decades has been more or less flat although the number of centers increased from 4 to 15. However, since 2000, the funding situation has improved for the CGIAR centers, with almost all the increase coming from grants earmarked for specific research projects. Even for some centers such as the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), the downward trend continued as late as 2006 with the budget in real dollars reaching the 1978 level of support. The recent food crisis has renewed the call for a second Green Revolution by revitalizing yield growth to feed the world in the face of growing population and a shrinking land base for agricultural use. The slowdown in yield growth because of decades of neglect in agricultural research and infrastructure development has been identified as the underlying reason for the recent food crisis. For the second Green Revolution to be successful, the CGIAR centers will have to play a complex role by expanding productivity in a sustainable manner with fewer resources. Thus, it is crucial to examine the current structure of support for the CGIAR centers and identify the challenges ahead in terms of source and end use of funds for the success of the second Green Revolution. The objective of this paper is to provide a historical perspective on the support to the CGIAR centers and to examine the current status of funding, in particular, the role of project-specific grants in rebuilding capacity of these centers. The paper will also discuss the nature of the support (unrestricted vs. project

  2. Development and regulation of biosimilars: current status and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiftsoglou, Asterios S; Ruiz, Sol; Schneider, Christian K

    2013-06-01

    provided through several Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) guidelines as well as individual scientific advice requested from the European Medicines Agency (EMA) by various companies for the development and regulation of biosimilars. This review is mainly focused on the current status of regulation of biosimilars in the EU as well as on future challenges lying ahead for the improvement of the requirements needed for the marketing authorization of biosimilars. Emphasis is given on the quality requirements concerning these medicinal products (biologics).

  3. The current status of forensic science laboratory accreditation in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkoc, Ekrem; Neuteboom, Wim

    2007-04-11

    Forensic science is gaining some solid ground in the area of effective crime prevention, especially in the areas where more sophisticated use of available technology is prevalent. All it takes is high-level cooperation among nations that can help them deal with criminality that adopts a cross-border nature more and more. It is apparent that cooperation will not be enough on its own and this development will require a network of qualified forensic laboratories spread over Europe. It is argued in this paper that forensic science laboratories play an important role in the fight against crime. Another, complimentary argument is that forensic science laboratories need to be better involved in the fight against crime. For this to be achieved, a good level of cooperation should be established and maintained. It is also noted that harmonization is required for such cooperation and seeking accreditation according to an internationally acceptable standard, such as ISO/IEC 17025, will eventually bring harmonization as an end result. Because, ISO/IEC 17025 as an international standard, has been a tool that helps forensic science laboratories in the current trend towards accreditation that can be observed not only in Europe, but also in the rest of the world of forensic science. In the introduction part, ISO/IEC 17025 states that "the acceptance of testing and calibration results between countries should be facilitated if laboratories comply with this international standard and if they obtain accreditation from bodies which have entered into mutual recognition agreements with equivalent bodies in other countries using this international standard." Furthermore, it is emphasized that the use of this international standard will assist in the harmonization of standards and procedures. The background of forensic science cooperation in Europe will be explained by using an existing European forensic science network, i.e. ENFSI, in order to understand the current status of forensic

  4. Policies for second generation biofuels: current status and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egger, Haakan; Greaker, Mads; Potter, Emily

    2011-07-01

    Current state-of-the-art knowledge concludes that green house gas (GHG) emissions must be controlled and reduced within the next 30-40 years. The transport sector contributes almost a fifth of the current global emissions, and its share is likely to increase in the future. The US and a number of European countries have therefore introduced various support schemes for research and development (RandD) of low emission fuels that can potentially replace the current fossil fuels. One such alternative is biofuels. The advantage of biofuels are that it is easy to introduce into the transport sector. On the other hand, recent research papers question whether the supply of feedstock is sufficient, and to what extent biofuels lead to GHG emission reductions. This report reviews the current status of second generation biofuels. Second generation biofuels are made from cellulose, which according to our survey of the literature, is in more abundant supply than the first generation biofuels feedstocks. Furthermore, it seems to have the potential to reduce GHG emissions from the transport sector without leading to devastating land use changes, which recent critique has held against first generation biofuels. Given that governments have decided to support RandD of low emission fuels, we ask the following questions: Should second generation biofuels receive RandD support to the same extent as other low emission fuels like hydrogen? How should support schemes for second generation biofuels be designed? Second generation biofuels can be divided according to the production process into thermo-chemical and bio-chemical. With respect to the thermo-chemical process the potential for cost reductions seems to be low. On the other hand, ethanol made from cellulose using the biochemical conversion process is far from a ripe technology. Expert reports point to several potential technological breakthroughs which may reduce costs substantially. Hence, cellulosic ethanol, should receive direct

  5. Parental employment status and adolescents' health: the role of financial situation, parent-adolescent relationship and adolescents' resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Benka, Jozef; Orosova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with parental employment status and its relationship to adolescents' self-reported health. It studies the role of the financial situation, parent-adolescent relationship and adolescent resilience in the relationship between parental employment status and adolescents' self-rated health, vitality and mental health. Multiple regression analyses were used to analyse questionnaire data obtained from 2799 adolescents (mean age 14.3) in 2006. The results show a negative association of the father's, but not mother's unemployment or non-employment with adolescents' health. Regression analyses showed that neither financial strain nor a poor parent-adolescent relationship or a low score in resilience accounted for the relationship between the father's unemployment or non-employment and poorer adolescent health. Furthermore, resilience did not work as a buffer against the negative impact of fathers' unemployment on adolescents' health.

  6. Current status of the JET ITER-like Wall Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, G F; Edwards, P; Greuner, H; Loving, A; Maier, H; Mertens, Ph; Philipps, V; Riccardo, V; Rubel, M; Ruset, C; Scmidt, A; Villedieu, E [JET-EFDA Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)], E-mail: gfm@jet.uk

    2009-12-15

    This paper presents an overview of the status and relevant technical issues for the ITER-like Wall Project with emphasis on progress since the 11th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications.

  7. Current Status and Prediction on Development of PE Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Jiao

    2003-01-01

    This article comprehensively analyzes the status of market demand/supply and import/export volumes of PE in the world and in China, and predicts the future development trends in the fields of PE production and consumption.

  8. 21 CFR 210.1 - Status of current good manufacturing practice regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Status of current good manufacturing practice... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, PACKING, OR HOLDING OF DRUGS; GENERAL § 210.1 Status of current good manufacturing practice...

  9. Current status of the New Antiepileptic drugs in chronic pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Singh Sidhu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs are extensively used worldwide to treat a wide range of disorders other than epilepsy, such as neuropathic pain, migraine and bipolar disorder. Due to this situation more than 20 new third-generation AEDs have been introduced in the market recently. The future design of new AEDs must also have potential to help in the non-epileptic disorders. The wide acceptance of second generation AEDs for the management of various Non-epileptic disorders has caused the emergence of generics in the market. The wide use of approved AEDs outside epilepsy is based on both economic and scientific reasons. Bipolar disorders, migraine prophylaxis, fibromyalgia and neuropathic pain represent the most attractive indication expansion opportunities for anticonvulsant developers, providing blockbuster revenues. Strong growth in non-epilepsy conditions will see Pfizer’s Lyrica become the market leading brand by 2018. In this review we mainly focus on the current status of new AEDs in the treatment of chronic pain and migraine prophylaxis. AEDs have a strong analgesic potential and this is demonstrated by the wide use of carbamazepine in trigeminal neuralgia and sodium valproate in migraine prophylaxis. At present, data on the new AEDs for non-epileptic conditions are inconclusive. Not all AEDs are effective in the management of neuropathic pain and migraine. Only those AEDs whose mechanisms of action are match with pathophysiology of the disease, have potential to show efficacy in non-epileptic disorder. For this better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and mechanisms of action of new AEDs are essential requirement before initiating pre-clinical and clinical trials. Many new AEDs show good results in the animal model and open-label studies but fail to provide strong evidence at randomized, placebo-controlled trials. The final decision regarding the clinical efficacy of the particular AEDs in a specific non-epileptic disorder

  10. Current Status of the Problem of Cosmological Variability of Fundamental Physical Constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshslovich, D.A.; Ivanchik, A.V.; Orlov, A.V.; Potekhin, A.Y.; Petitjean, P.

    We review the current status of the problem of cosmological variability of fundamental physical constants, provided by modern laboratory experiments, Oklo phenomena analysis, and especially astronomical observations.

  11. Impacts of education level and employment status on health-related quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šabanagić-Hajrić, Selma; Alajbegović, Azra

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the impacts of education level and employment status on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in multiple sclerosis patients. This study included 100 multiple sclerosis patients treated at the Department of Neurology, Clinical Center of the University of Sarajevo. Inclusion criteria were the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score between 1.0 and 6.5, age between 18 and 65 years, stable disease on enrollment. Quality of life (QoL) was evaluated by the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 questionnaire (MSQoL-54). Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for comparisons. Linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate prediction value of educational level and employment status in predicting MSQOL-54 physical and mental composite scores. Full employment status had positive impact on physical health (54.85 vs. 37.90; p les than 0.001) and mental health (59.55 vs. 45.90; p les than 0.001) composite scores. Employment status retained its independent predictability for both physical (r(2)=0.105) and mental (r(2)=0.076) composite scores in linear regression analysis. Patients with college degree had slightly higher median value of physical (49.36 vs. 45.30) and mental health composite score (66.74 vs. 55.62) comparing to others, without statistically significant difference. Employment proved to be an important factor in predicting quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients. Higher education level may determine better QOL but without significant predictive value. Sustained employment and development of vocational rehabilitation programs for MS patients living in the country with high unemployment level is an important factor in improving both physical and mental health outcomes in MS patients.

  12. MELiSSA Food Characterization general approach and current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihreter, Martin; Chaerle, Laury; Secco, Benjamin; Molders, Katrien; van der Straeten, Dominique; Duliere, Eric; Pieters, Serge; Maclean, Heather; Dochain, Denis; Quinet, Muriel; Lutts, Stanley; Graham, Thomas; Stasiak, Michael; Rondeau Vuk, Theresa; Zheng, Youbin; Dixon, Mike; Laniau, Martine; Larreture, Alain; Timsit, Michel; Aronne, Giovanna; Barbieri, Giancarlo; Buonomo, Roberta; Veronica; Paradiso, Roberta; de Pascale, Stafania; Galbiati, Massimo; Troia, A. R.; Nobili, Matteo; Bucchieri, Lorenzo; Page, Valérie; Feller, Urs; Lasseur, Christophe

    . Available MELiSSA closed environment crop growth data were used to develop a first photosynthetic model representing the basic carbon fixation mechanisms. This model will be further elaborated in the course of this study to predict yield, oxygen production and transpi-ration. As an ultimate goal the model is intended to simulate the composition of the different plant organs (root, shoot, fruit/seed or tuber) for each crop under various conditions. For the validation of this model an extensive amount of data sets are needed. Current plant growth bench test setups will provide part of the required data. To gain more precise and detailed datasets, a highly closed plant growth chamber (Plant Characterization Unit, PCU) is under development. The PCU will provide accurate mass balances for carbon, water, oxygen and other elements with statistical reliability. This reliability is achieved through a high degree of closure and environment homogeneity. The PCU will also provide data for the above described plant characterization studies. The general work approach, the current status and future steps will be illustrated.

  13. Hepatic encephalopathy before and neurological complications after liver transplantation have no impact on the employment status 1 year after transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Henning; Pflugrad; Anita; B; Tryc; Annemarie; Goldbecker; Christian; P; Strassburg; Hannelore; Barg-Hock; Jürgen; Klempnauer; Karin; Weissenborn

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the impact of hepatic encephalopathybefore orthotopic liver transplantation(OLT) and neurological complications after OLT on employment after OLT.METHODS One hundred and fourteen patients with chronic liver disease aged 18-60 years underwent neurological examination to identify neurological complications, neuropsychological tests comprising the PSE-SyndromeTest yielding the psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score, the critical flicker frequency and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status(RBANS), completed a questionnaire concerning their occupation and filled in the short form 36(SF-36) to assess health-related quality of life before OLT and 12 mo after OLT, if possible. Sixty-eight(59.6%) patients were recruited before OLT, while on the waiting list for OLT at Hannover Medical School [age: 48.7 ± 10.2 years, 45(66.2%) male], and 46(40.4%) patients were included directly after OLT. RESULTS Before OLT 43.0% of the patients were employed. The patients not employed before OLT were more often non-academics(employed: Academic/non-academic 16(34.0%)/31 vs not employed 10(17.6%)/52, P = 0.04), had more frequently a history of hepatic encephalopathy(HE)(yes/no; employed 15(30.6%)/34 vs not employed 32(49.2%)/33, P = 0.05) and achieved worse results in psychometric tests(RBANS sum score mean ± SD employed 472.1 ± 44.5 vs not employed 443.1 ± 56.7, P = 0.04) than those employed. Ten patients(18.2%), who were not employed before OLT, resumed work afterwards. The patients employed after OLT were younger [age median(range, min-max) employed 47(42, 18-60) vs not employed 50(31, 29-60), P = 0.01], achieved better results in the psychometric tests(RBANS sum score mean ± SD employed 490.7 ± 48.2 vs not employed 461.0 ± 54.5, P = 0.02) and had a higher health-related quality of life(SF 36 sum score mean ± SD employed 627.0 ± 138.1 vs not employed 433.7 ± 160.8; P < 0.001) compared to patients not employed after OLT

  14. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed.

  15. Lower hybrid current drive for edge current density modification in DIII-D: Final status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenstermacher, M.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Porkolab, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Fusion Center

    1993-08-04

    Application of Lower Hybrid (LH) Current Drive (CD) in the DIII-D tokamak has been studied at LLNL, off and on, for several years. The latest effort began in February 1992 in response to a letter from ASDEX indicating that the 2.45 GHz, 3 MW system there was available to be used on another device. An initial assessment of the possible uses for such a system on DIII-D was made and documented in September 1992. Multiple meetings with GA personnel and members of the LH community nationwide have occurred since that time. The work continued through the submission of the 1995 Field Work Proposals in March 1993 and was then put on hold due to budget limitations. The purpose of this document is to record the status of the work in such a way that it could fairly easily be restarted at a future date. This document will take the form of a collection of Appendices giving both background and the latest results from the FY 1993 work, connected by brief descriptive text. Section 2 will describe the final workshop on LHCD in DIII-D held at GA in February 1993. This was an open meeting with attendees from GA, LLNL, MIT and PPPL. Summary documents from the meeting and subsequent papers describing the results will be included in Appendices. Section 3 will describe the status of work on the use of low frequency (2.45 GHZ) LH power and Parametric Decay Instabilities (PDI) for the special case of high dielectric in the edge regions of the DIII-D plasma. This was one of the critical issues identified at the workshop. Other potential issues for LHCD in the DIII-D scenarios are: (1) damping of the waves on fast ions from neutral beam injection, (2) runaway electrons in the low density edge plasma, (3) the validity of the WKB approximation used in the ray-tracing models in the steep edge density gradients.

  16. Current Trends in Treatment of Status Epilepticus and Refractory Status Epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betjemann, John P

    2015-12-01

    Status epilepticus is a heterogeneous disorder with varied definitions and presentations. Taken together, all forms of status epilepticus carry significant morbidity and mortality, much of which is dictated by the underlying etiology. Generalized convulsive status epilepticus, which represents a common form, is a true neurologic emergency that requires emergent management. Treatment focuses on stabilizing the patient and aggressive medical management to achieve the timely termination of seizures. For other forms of status epilepticus including nonconvulsive and focal status epilepticus, the goal remains early seizure termination, but the use of intravenous medications should be weighed against the risks associated with these therapies. The diagnostic evaluation of status epilepticus is guided by the patient's history and should be broad, including a screen for toxins, electrolytes, structural abnormalities, and central nervous system infectious and autoimmune/inflammatory etiologies. Considerable research is still needed to improve our understanding of the mechanisms, consequences, and therapy of status epilepticus.

  17. AN ASSESMENT OF CURRENT EMPLOYMENT NEEDS IN THE ROMANIAN FURNITURE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristinel Petrişor CONSTANTIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an exploratory survey among Romanian companies from the furniture industry. The study aimed to identify: (1 respondents’ opinions regarding the main competences that a candidate needs to prove in order to be hired; (2 attitudes regarding the competences of the graduates from the Wood Engineering Faculty, Transilvania University of Brasov; and (3 main current employment needs of Romanian furniture industry. The results indicated that the highest importance in the selection of employees is given to transversal competences such as: orientation to quality; learning capacity; and availability for self-development, team working; and involvement in meeting customers’ requirements. The interviewed representatives of the studied companies mainly need skilled workers in the furniture industry but also engineers able to manage the company’s processes, or to design certain processes and products. The results of the present study may be used by the Wood Engineering Faculty in their attempt to adapt the academic curriculum and course contents; and give their graduates a chance to acquire relevant competences which may enhance their employability.

  18. Quebec: employer who disclosed employee's HIV-positive status violated rights to dignity and freedom from discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazatchkine, Cécile

    2011-04-01

    The Quebec human rights tribunal held that an employer who disclosed the HIV-positive status of an employee to his staff violated the employee's right to the safeguard of his dignity, without distinction or exclusion based on disability, contrary to Sections 4 and 10 of the Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms (the Quebec Charter).

  19. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future June 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  20. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future March 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  1. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future January 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liljegren, JC

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  2. Current status on marine litter indicators in Nordic waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Jakob; Tairova, Zhanna; Magnusson, Kerstin

    Status for project on Marine litter in the Nordic waters. This includes a review of Nordic studies on marine litter indicators. Various studies as part of either research or existing monitoring have provided information on occurrence of marine litter in Nordic waters from Baltic Sea to the Arctic....

  3. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future July 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of ACRF instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) SBIR instrument development.

  4. Current status of intestinal Schistosomiasis and soil- transmitted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    a year until the level of infection falls below the level of public health importance. There is also a need to ... Since then, the status of the disease has not been known in the area. ..... habit in the rainy season and contact with water while crossing ...

  5. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future February 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development

  6. Current status of the JET ITER-like Wall Project

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, G. F.; Edwards, P; H. Greuner; Loving, A.; Maier, H; Mertens, Ph; Philipps, V.; Riccardo, V.; Rubel, Marek J.; Ruset, C.; Scmidt, A.; Villedieu, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the status and relevant technical issues for the ITER-like Wall Project with emphasis on progress since the 11th International Workshop on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications. QC 20101118

  7. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future May 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  8. Overly ambitious: contributions and current status of Q methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, J.K.; Tamas, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    This essay offers a small description of recent contributions and status of Q methodology by means of a review of suggested best practices, a systematic review of practice, and a methodological audit. Both theoretical and empirical study suggest that Q methodology neither delivers its promised

  9. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future May 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  10. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future March 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  11. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - March 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  12. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - February 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  13. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future October 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  14. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voelker DK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dana K Voelker,1 Justine J Reel,2 Christy Greenleaf3 1West Virginia University, College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Morgantown, WV, 2University of North Carolina Wilmington, College of Health and Human Services, Wilmington, NC, 3University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, College of Health Sciences, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise. Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. Keywords: adolescence, eating disorders, obesity, bullying, puberty, physical activity

  15. Deconstructing family meals: Do family structure, gender and employment status influence the odds of having a family meal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Mienah Z; Alcalá, Héctor E; Albert, Stephanie L; Fischer, Heidi

    2017-07-01

    We assessed the odds of having a family dinner by parental gender, family structure and parental employment. This study used data from the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) (2006-2008). Multivariate analyses assessed the odds of two outcomes among parents: 1) eating at all with children and 2) having a family dinner. Single men had lower odds of eating at all with children and eating a family dinner in comparison to partnered/married males. Partnered/married women had increased odds of eating at all with children and eating a family dinner compared to their partnered/married male counterparts. While single women had increased odds of eating at all with children compared to partnered/married males, no difference was detected in the odds of having a family dinner. Among dual-headed households, women had lower odds of eating a family dinner when both parents were employed compared a dual-headed household with employed male/non-employed female. There were no differences among men regardless of their employment status or that of their partner/spouse. Family structure, parental gender and employment status all influence the odds of having a family dinner. Future research on family meals should consider all of these factors to better understand trends and disparities across household compositions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future August 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  17. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future July 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  18. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future September 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  19. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - November 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  20. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - December 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-01-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  1. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future March 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  2. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - January 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-03-02

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  3. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future February 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-02-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  4. Current Status & Development Trend of VSAT Market in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Nutu

    2006-01-01

    @@ 1. General Status of VSAT Market Development in China 1)Development History Development in China The history of the application of satellite communication in China is not too long and it was dated from the early seventies of the 20th century. In 1973, approved by Chinese government,Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications purchased satellite earth equipment from foreign country and constructed 3 stations in Shanghai and Beijing.

  5. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - August 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  6. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - April 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  7. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - September 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-10-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  8. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - October 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  9. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - May 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  10. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - June 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  11. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - July 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  12. Microbiological aspects of biofuel production: Current status and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa S. Elshahed

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel research is currently an area of immense interest due to the increase in global energy demand by emerging economies and the recent increases in global oil prices. Multiple approaches are currently being researched for the use of microorganisms in the production of various biofuel (e.g. alcohols, hydrogen, biodiesel, and biogas from multiple starting materials. This review provides a brief overview on the research currently underway on laboratory and industrial scales in the area of biofuels, with specific emphasis on the economic viability of various approaches currently being utilized.

  13. Current status of the medical expenses for the treatment of arteriosclerosis obliterans in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaji, T; Takayama, T; Endo, A; Akai, A; Kudo, M; Kagaya, H; Suzuki, J; Hashimoto, T; Hoshina, K; Kimura, H; Okamoto, H; Shigematsu, K; Miyata, T

    2010-04-01

    We aimed to determine the current status of the medical expenses for the treatment of arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO) and evaluate the cost effectiveness of the medical practices employed in ASO treatment in Japan. We performed a prospective observational study using 140 ASO patients. The cost of the medical practices comprised the costs of outpatient treatment, pharmacological agents, and hospitalization. To compare the average monthly costs, the patients were divided into preintervention, postintervention, or conservative-therapy groups. To compare the total costs and effectiveness of each treatment, the patients who had first visited our division during the study period were classified into surgery, endovascular-revascularization (EVR), or conservative-therapy groups. The adverse reactions of the 4 most popular agents for ASO were investigated, and bleeding events were assessed specifically. The average monthly costs for outpatient treatment and pharmacological agents were yen 168,002 in conservative cases, yen 149,871 in preoperation cases, and yen 128,527 in postoperation cases. The mean total costs were yen 5,407,950 in conservative cases, yen 7,375,290 in surgical cases, and yen 2,631,650 in EVR cases. The average change of the gauge in clinical status was 0.57 in conservative cases, 2.13 in surgical cases, and 2.25 in EVR cases. Warfarin induced more bleeding complications than the other agents. The costs of pharmacological agents represented much of the medical costs in any treatment groups.

  14. Maternal employment, child care, and nutritional status of 12-18-month-old children in Managua, Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, J F; Engle, P L; Zeitlin, M F

    1998-02-01

    Relationships among women's employment, child care strategies, and nutritional status of children 12-18 months of age were examined in 80 Nicaraguan households sampled by randomized block design in 10 low income urban communities. Multiple regression analyses showed that children of employed mothers (56%) fared better in weight/height than those whose mothers were not employed, with and without controlling for socioeconomic status and maternal education, paternal financial support, child care adequacy, and sex and age of the child. Children with inadequate alternate child care (care by a preteen or care at the work place) had lower height for age, even controlling for the same variables and for maternal employment. Differences in 10 caregiving behaviors between families as a function of work status of the mother and adequacy of child care were examined. In families with working mothers, caregivers were less likely to be observed washing their hands, suggesting that the positive associations of work for earnings might be due to income rather than improved care. Inadequate care was associated with less food variety, less use of health care, and marginally less hand-washing. Inadequate child care, which tends to be associated with informal work, nuclear families and poverty, should be a concern for child welfare.

  15. Fermilab’s Accelerator Complex: Current Status, Upgrades and Outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Convery, M. E. [Fermilab

    2016-10-31

    We report on the status of the Fermilab accelerator complex, including recent performance, upgrades in progress, and plans for the future. Beam delivery to the neutrino experiments surpassed our goals for the past year. The Proton Improvement Plan is well underway with successful 15 Hz beam operation. Beam power of 700 kW to the NOvA experiment was demonstrated and will be routine in the next year. We are also preparing the Muon Campus to commission beam to the g-2 experiment.

  16. Current status of the BAIKAL-GVD project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avrorin, A.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, 60-th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Aynutdinov, V.M., E-mail: aynutdin@yandex.ru [Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, 60-th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Belolaptikov, I.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Bogorodsky, D.Yu. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation); Brudanin, V.B. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Budnev, N.M. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation); Danilchenko, I.A.; Domogatsky, G.V.; Doroshenko, A.A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, 60-th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Dyachok, A.N. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation); Dzhilkibaev, Zh-A.M. [Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, 60-th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Fialkovsky, S.V. [Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Gaponenko, O.N. [Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, 60-th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Golubkov, K.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Gress, O.A.; Gress, T.I.; Grishin, O.G. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation); Kebkal, K.G.; Kebkal, O.G. [EvoLogics GmbH, Berlin 13355 (Germany); Klabukov, A.M. [Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, 60-th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); and others

    2013-10-11

    We present a status of the Baikal-GVD Project. The objective of this project is a construction of a km3-scale neutrino telescope in the Lake Baikal. As an important milestone, the first GVD engineering array has been deployed and ran in April, 2011. Application of a completely new technology gave us an opportunity to study all the basic elements of the future full detector and to finalize the GVD technical design. We discuss the configuration and the design of the engineering array as well as data performance with the preliminary results.

  17. Current Status of Dengue Therapeutics Research and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Jenny G H; Ooi, Eng Eong; Vasudevan, Subhash G

    2017-03-01

    Dengue is a significant global health problem. Even though a vaccine against dengue is now available, which is a notable achievement, its long-term protective efficacy against each of the 4 dengue virus serotypes remains to be definitively determined. Consequently, drugs directed at the viral targets or critical host mechanisms that can be used safely as prophylaxis or treatment to effectively ameliorate disease or reduce disease severity and fatalities are still needed to reduce the burden of dengue. This review will provide a brief account of the status of therapeutics research and development for dengue. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  18. Biofuel production from microalgae as feedstock: current status and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Song-Fang; Jin, Wen-Biao; Tu, Ren-Jie; Wu, Wei-Min

    2015-06-01

    Algal biofuel has become an attractive alternative of petroleum-based fuels in the past decade. Microalgae have been proposed as a feedstock to produce biodiesel, since they are capable of mitigating CO2 emission and accumulating lipids with high productivity. This article is an overview of the updated status of biofuels, especially biodiesel production from microalgae including fundamental research, culture selection and engineering process development; it summarizes research on mathematical and life cycle modeling on algae growth and biomass production; and it updates global efforts of research and development and commercialization attempts. The major challenges are also discussed.

  19. Current Status and Challenges in Wind Energy Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Badger, Jake; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2014-01-01

    Here we discuss the status and challenges in the development of atlases for the assessment of the regional and global wind resources. The text more specifically describes a methodology that is under development at DTU Wind Energy in Denmark. As the wind assessment is based on mesoscale modelling,......, some of the specific challenges in mesoscale modelling for wind energy purposes are discussed such as wind profiles and long-term statistics of the wind speed time series. Solutions to these challenges will help secure an economic and effective deployment of wind energy....

  20. Medicinal Use of Cannabis: History and Current Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Kalant

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of the history and pharmacology of cannabis in relation to current scientific knowledge concerning actual and potential therapeutic uses of cannabis preparations and pure cannabinoids.

  1. Current status and future directions of research on facial attractiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kościński, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the current state of knowledge on the perception of facial attractiveness and to assess the opportunity for research on poorly explored issues regarding facial preferences...

  2. Magnesium Nanocomposites: Current Status and Prospects for Army Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    reviewed the current state of Mg development for Army-related ground vehicle applications (56). Two Mg alloys—WE43 and Elektron 675—currently under...development through a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and Magnesium Elektron , NA show great promise for a variety of...applications. WE43 has superior corrosion resistance to many early Mg alloys and is being considered for a variety of applications. Elektron 675 is

  3. Current status of the Mallard population in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Lars; Söderquist, Pär; Clausen, Preben

    indicators suggest that the Nordic Mallard population is currently in good condition. However major knowledge gaps were identified with regard to release of hand-reared Mallards and the effect of short stopping for the trends observed locally. A detailed assessment of the effect of releases is urgently...... needed as well as an assessment of the role of short stopping in explaining current trends in winter population in certain parts of the European flyway....

  4. Temporary Employment and Social Inequality in Canada: Exploring Intersections of Gender, Race and Immigration Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Sylvia; Vosko, Leah F.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the 2002-2004 waves of Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, this article investigates the consequences of different types of temporary employment--fixed-term or contract, casual, agency and seasonal employment--for differently situated workers in Canada. Attention to intersecting social locations of gender, race and immigrant…

  5. Current Status of Imaging Physics and Instrumentation In Nuclear Medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Joung [Institute of Health Science, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    Diagnostic and functional imaging device have been developed independently. The recognition that combining of these two devices can provide better diagnostic outcomes by fusing anatomical and functional images. The representative examples of combining devices would be PET/CT and SPECT/CT. Development and their applications of animal imaging and instrumentation have been very active, as new drug development with advanced imaging device has been increased. The development of advanced imaging device resulted in researching and developing for detector technology and imaging systems. It also contributed to develop a new software, reconstruction algorithm, correction methods for physical factors, image quantitation, computer simulation, kinetic modeling, dosimetry, and correction for motion artifacts. Recently, development of MRI and PET by combining them together was reported. True integration of MRI and PET has been making the progress and their results were reported. The recent status of imaging and instrumentation in nuclear medicine is reported in this paper.

  6. Targeting to the hair follicles: current status and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosicka, Hanna; Cal, Krzysztof

    2010-02-01

    The pilosebaceous unit is a complex structure that undergoes a specific growth cycle and comprises a few important drug targeting sites. For example, drugs can be targeted to the bulge region with stem cells or to the sebaceous glands. Interest in pilosebaceous units is directed towards their utilization as reservoirs for localized therapy and also as a transport pathway for systemic drug delivery. Improved investigative methods, such as differential stripping, are being developed in order to determine follicular penetration. This article reviews relevant aspects of effective follicle-targeting formulations and delivery systems as well as the activity status of hair follicles, and variations in follicle size and distribution throughout various body regions. Each of these factors strongly affects follicular permeation. We provide examples of improved penetration of particle-based formulations and of a size-dependent manner of follicular penetration. Contradictions are also discussed, indicating the need for detailed future investigations.

  7. Current Status of the GRACE Follow-On Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Michael; Flechtner, Frank; Webb, Frank; Landerer, Felix; Grunwald, Ludwig

    2016-04-01

    The GRACE Follow-On Mission has now advanced to the Assembly and Test Phase with the delivery of essentially all satellite subsystems and science instruments. As of the time of this abstract submission, the team continues to plan launch in 2017. The project team is conducting tests of satellite and instrument operation and performance and putting together updated simulations of expected performance on-orbit, including intersatellite ranging (both microwave and laser), accelerometer, thermal variability and deformation, and other errors. In addition, all required ground analysis software of the Science Data System is in development and testing at JPL, The UTCSR, and GFZ, in preparation for fully integrated end-to-end (international) testing from Level-1 through Level-3 data in the coming year. In this presentation, we will provide the detailed status of project integration and test, the latest simulations of science performance, and schedule for remaining project milestones.

  8. Current status of duplex surface engineered Ti-based materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.Bell

    2004-01-01

    Industrial exploitation of the high specific strength and corrosion resistance of titanium were dominated historically by the technological advances which have been made in gas-turbine engine and aircraft components. Realization of the possible benefits in general engineering has been limited by the absence of any proven and reliable means of overcoming the poor wear resistance and galling tendency suffered by titanium alloys when in contact with other materials. This problem can only be addressed by optimizing and demonstrating industrially viable surface engineering processes for titanium in general engineering. The status of single and duplex surface engineering systems are reviewed. In addition, in order to fully realize the potential of advanced surface engineering of titanium components contact mechanics models are developed to enable the automotive engineers to design dynamically the loaded automotive engine and transmission components.

  9. Current status of radioisotope production in the year of 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seon Duk; Bang, H. S.; Shin, B. C

    2004-02-01

    The RIPF(Radio Isotope Production Facility) is the unique facility in Korea which has been used for the isotope production. Through the survey on the radioisotope quantities of production and consumption in the domestic industry, we were trying to show the trend of isotope production. The quantities of Tc-99m, Mo-99, Cr-51, I-131 solution and I-131 capsule produced in the hot cell and clean room of RIPF were compared with the quantities at the previous year. Also the output of the labeling compound such as Hippuran, MIBG, RIHSA, Phytate, MDP, DISIDA, DTPA, etc was compared with the previous year by the radioactivity and the vial. We treated the sum of selling amount of industrial isotopes and tracer isotopes and the status of technical supports also.

  10. Small modular reactors: current status, economic aspects and licensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimbron E, E. [Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Santa Fe, Av. Carlos Lazo No. 100, Santa Fe, 01389 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Puente E, F., E-mail: erick.zimbron@gmail.com [ININ, Direccion de Investigacion Cientifica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    Interest for nuclear energy had resurgence since the beginning of the new century. This was a consequence of the new world conditions and needs: increasing energy demands (mainly from developing countries), awareness of the importance of energetic security and the necessity of limiting carbon emissions. In this nuclear boom, Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) develop and start to consolidate as a viable option for the present energy market. Their modular characteristics, lower initial capital cost, passive safety features and their niche applications, situate them as a technology with various advantages. The following study will present and analysis that will help to comprehend the SMRs present status. Information will show planned reactors, reactors in construction and in operation, advantages and challenges of their implementation, relevant economic aspects and important licensing factors that need to be highlighted. The analysis showed that the SMR technology is still in an initial stage that could reach and important development point in the next ten years. In this period, many of the reactors that are in design stage or that are through their licensing process might be constructed and could be getting ready for a commercial status. On the other hand, it has been observed that there are two main economic factors that need to be considered for any SMRs implementation project. First, the costs (initial, operation, maintenance, fuel and decommissioning) and second their possible niche market applications. Additionally, it has been noted that the licensing process is one of the greatest challenges for SMR general development. Licensing is mainly related to topic such as Emergency Planning Zone, first-of-a-kind engineering, passive safety features, proliferation resistance, multiple module designs and staffing. Previous information will serve as a base for carrying out a feasibility assessment analysis for SMR in Mexico. This part will be the last section of the project

  11. Robotic single port surgery: Current status and future considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Samarasekera

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: R-LESS is technically feasible and the benefits of robotic surgery eliminate many of the challenges seen with conventional LESS. However, despite the advantages of the robotic platform, R-LESS is not free of challenges. Instrument clashing remains an issue due to the bulky profile of the current robotic system. Other issues include lack of space for the assistant at the bedside, inability to incorporate the 4 th robotic arm for retraction and difficulties with triangulation. Although solutions for some of these issues are currently under development, R-LESS is still very much in its infancy.

  12. The current status of high temperature superconducting wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, B. P.; Burkhanov, G. S.

    1991-12-01

    The principal technological difficulties associated with the manufacture of high temperature superconducting (HTSC) wires based on yttrium and lanthanum ceramics are briefly reviewed. It is noted that the superconducting and mechanical properties of HTSC wires or ribbons are largely determined by their microstructure. Particular attention is given to the currently used method of producing HTSC wires whereby the ceramic powder is encased in a pipe shell and then deformed by different methods, such as rolling, drawing, or pressing. The requirements for the shell material are examined, and current densities are presented for HTSC wires produced in shells of copper, silver, aluminum, nickel, stainless steel, and zirconium.

  13. Microbial synthesis of gold nanoparticles: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedbalkar, Utkarsha; Singh, Richa; Wadhwani, Sweety; Gaidhani, Sharvari; Chopade, B A

    2014-07-01

    Gold nanoparticles have been employed in biomedicine since the last decade because of their unique optical, electrical and photothermal properties. Present review discusses the microbial synthesis, properties and biomedical applications of gold nanoparticles. Different microbial synthesis strategies used so far for obtaining better yield and stability have been described. It also includes different methods used for the characterization and analysis of gold nanoparticles, viz. UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X ray diffraction spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, ransmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, electron dispersive X ray, X ray photoelectron spectroscopy and cyclic voltametry. The different mechanisms involved in microbial synthesis of gold nanoparticles have been discussed. The information related to applications of microbially synthesized gold nanoparticles and patents on microbial synthesis of gold nanoparticles has been summarized.

  14. Hantavirus immunology of rodent reservoirs: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schountz, Tony; Prescott, Joseph

    2014-03-14

    Hantaviruses are hosted by rodents, insectivores and bats. Several rodent-borne hantaviruses cause two diseases that share many features in humans, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Eurasia or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas. It is thought that the immune response plays a significant contributory role in these diseases. However, in reservoir hosts that have been closely examined, little or no pathology occurs and infection is persistent despite evidence of adaptive immune responses. Because most hantavirus reservoirs are not model organisms, it is difficult to conduct meaningful experiments that might shed light on how the viruses evade sterilizing immune responses and why immunopathology does not occur. Despite these limitations, recent advances in instrumentation and bioinformatics will have a dramatic impact on understanding reservoir host responses to hantaviruses by employing a systems biology approach to identify important pathways that mediate virus/reservoir relationships.

  15. Nanomedicines for renal disease: current status and future applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamaly, Nazila; He, John C.; Ausiello, Dennis A.;

    2016-01-01

    Treatment and management of kidney disease currently presents an enormous global burden, and the application of nanotechnology principles to renal disease therapy, although still at an early stage, has profound transformative potential. The increasing translation of nanomedicines to the clinic, a...

  16. Business Education at Catholic Universities: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porth, Stephen J.; McCall, John J.; DiAngelo, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Is business education at Catholic colleges and universities different than business education at secular institutions? This study assesses the current state of business education at Catholic colleges and universities based on a national survey of business school deans and faculty members and an audit of business unit web sites. Results suggest…

  17. Current Status on Flood Forecasting and Early Warning in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiemig, V.; Roo, A.P.J. de

    2011-01-01

    An overview of the current state of flood forecasting and early warning in Africa is provided in order to identify future user needs and research. Information was collected by reviewing previously published research in the scientific literature and from institutional websites. This information was

  18. Measles: Current Status and Outbreak Control on Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amler, Robert W.; Orenstein, Walter A.

    1984-01-01

    The current effort to eliminate measles in the United States has caused record low levels of the disease. This strategy must continue to be applied in order to break the transmission of measles on college campuses through high immunization levels, promotion of rapid reporting of cases, and quick responses to outbreaks. (Author/DF)

  19. Business Education at Catholic Universities: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porth, Stephen J.; McCall, John J.; DiAngelo, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Is business education at Catholic colleges and universities different than business education at secular institutions? This study assesses the current state of business education at Catholic colleges and universities based on a national survey of business school deans and faculty members and an audit of business unit web sites. Results suggest…

  20. Current status of food-borne trematode infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, R; Esteban, J G; Fried, B

    2012-08-01

    Food-borne trematodiases constitute an important group of the most neglected tropical diseases, not only in terms of research funding, but also in the public media. The Trematoda class contains a great number of species that infect humans and are recognized as the causative agents of disease. The biological cycle, geographical distribution, and epidemiology of most of these trematode species have been well characterized. Traditionally, these infections were limited, for the most part, in populations living in low-income countries, particularly in Southeast Asia, and were associated with poverty. However, the geographical limits and the population at risk are currently expanding and changing in relation to factors such as growing international markets, improved transportation systems, and demographic changes. The diagnosis of these diseases is based on parasitological techniques and only a limited number of drugs are currently available for treatment, most of which are unspecific. Therefore, in-depth studies are urgently needed in order to clarify the current epidemiology of these helminth infections and to identify new and specific targets for both effective diagnosis and treatment. In this review, we describe the biology, medical and epidemiological features, and current treatment and diagnostic tools of the main groups of flukes and the corresponding diseases.

  1. Continuing Professional Development in School Psychology: Current Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynd, George W.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Current patterns and trends in continuing education for school psychologists are identified by looking at the programs developed by the American Psychological Association and the National Association of School Psychologists, followed by a brief description of the National School Psychology Inservice Training Network project. (Author/BW)

  2. Current status of renal biopsy for small renal masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seung Beom; Kwak, Cheol

    2014-09-01

    Small renal masses (SRMs) are defined as radiologically enhancing renal masses of less than 4 cm in maximal diameter. The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has increased in recent years, which is mainly due to the rise in incidental detection of localized SRMs. However, the cancer-specific mortality rate is not increasing. This discrepancy may be dependent on the indolent nature of SRMs. About 20% of SRMs are benign, and smaller masses are likely to have pathologic characteristics of low Fuhrman grade and clear cell type. In addition, SRMs are increasingly detected in elderly patients who are likely to have comorbidities and are a high-risk group for active treatment like surgery. As the information about the nature of SRMs is improved and management options for SRMs are expanded, the current role of renal mass biopsy for SRMs is also expanding. Traditionally, renal mass biopsy has not been accepted as a standard diagnostic tool in the clinical scenario because of several issues about safety and accuracy. However, current series on SRM biopsy have reported high diagnostic accuracy with rare complications. Studies of modern SRM biopsy have reported diagnostic accuracy greater than 90% with very high specificity. Also, current series have shown very rare morbid cases caused by renal mass biopsy. Currently, renal biopsy of SRMs can be recommended in most cases except when patients have imaging or clinical characteristics indicative of pathology and in cases in which conservative management is not considered.

  3. Current Status of Renal Biopsy for Small Renal Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seung Beom

    2014-01-01

    Small renal masses (SRMs) are defined as radiologically enhancing renal masses of less than 4 cm in maximal diameter. The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has increased in recent years, which is mainly due to the rise in incidental detection of localized SRMs. However, the cancer-specific mortality rate is not increasing. This discrepancy may be dependent on the indolent nature of SRMs. About 20% of SRMs are benign, and smaller masses are likely to have pathologic characteristics of low Fuhrman grade and clear cell type. In addition, SRMs are increasingly detected in elderly patients who are likely to have comorbidities and are a high-risk group for active treatment like surgery. As the information about the nature of SRMs is improved and management options for SRMs are expanded, the current role of renal mass biopsy for SRMs is also expanding. Traditionally, renal mass biopsy has not been accepted as a standard diagnostic tool in the clinical scenario because of several issues about safety and accuracy. However, current series on SRM biopsy have reported high diagnostic accuracy with rare complications. Studies of modern SRM biopsy have reported diagnostic accuracy greater than 90% with very high specificity. Also, current series have shown very rare morbid cases caused by renal mass biopsy. Currently, renal biopsy of SRMs can be recommended in most cases except when patients have imaging or clinical characteristics indicative of pathology and in cases in which conservative management is not considered. PMID:25237457

  4. San Juan Fracture Characterization Project: Status and current results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majer, E.L.; Daley, T.M.; Myer, L.R.; Nihei, K.; Queen, J.; Sinton, J.; Murphy, J.; Fortuna, M.; Lynn, H.B.; Imhoff, M.A.; Wilson, R.

    2001-02-26

    The overall objectives of this report are to extend current state-of-the-art 3-D imaging to extract the optimal information for fracture quantification and to develop next generation capability in fracture imaging for true 3-D imaging of the static and dynamic fracture properties.

  5. Current status in the therapy of liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhl, Philipp; Fricker, Gert; Haberkorn, Uwe; Mier, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic diseases, like viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, hereditary hemochromatosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and Wilson's disease, play an important role in the development of liver cirrhosis and, hence, hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review, the current treatment options and the molecular mechanisms of action of the drugs are summarized. Unfortunately, the treatment options for most of these hepatic diseases are limited. Since hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) infections are the most common causes of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, they are the focus of the development of new drugs. The current treatment of choice for HBV/HCV infection is an interferon-based combination therapy with oral antiviral drugs, like nucleos(t)ide analogues, which is associated with improving the therapeutic success and also preventing the development of resistances. Currently, two new protease inhibitors for HCV treatment are expected (deleobuvir, faldaprevir) and together with the promising drug, daclatasvir (NS5A-inhibitor, currently in clinical trials), adequate therapy is to be expected in due course (circumventing the requirement of interferon with its side-effects), while in contrast, efficient HBV therapeutics are still lacking. In this respect, entry inhibitors, like Myrcludex B, the lead substance of the first entry inhibitor for HBV/HDV (hepatitis D) infection, provide immense potential. The pharmacokinetics and the mechanism of action of Myrcludex B are described in detail.

  6. Current Status on Flood Forecasting and Early Warning in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiemig, V.; Roo, A.P.J. de

    2011-01-01

    An overview of the current state of flood forecasting and early warning in Africa is provided in order to identify future user needs and research. Information was collected by reviewing previously published research in the scientific literature and from institutional websites. This information was s

  7. Current Status on Flood Forecasting and Early Warning in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiemig, V.; Roo, A.P.J. de

    2011-01-01

    An overview of the current state of flood forecasting and early warning in Africa is provided in order to identify future user needs and research. Information was collected by reviewing previously published research in the scientific literature and from institutional websites. This information was s

  8. EMDR and the anxiety disorders: exploring the current status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, A.; ten Broeke, E.

    2009-01-01

    Based on the assumptions of Shapiro's adaptive information-processing model, it could be argued that a large proportion of people suffering from an anxiety disorder would benefit from eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). This article provides an overview of the current empirical evi

  9. “Do Changes in Spousal Employment Status Lead to Domestic Violence? Insights from a Prospective Study in Bangalore, India”

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Corinne H Rocca; Hubbard, Alan E.; Subbiah, Kalyani; Edmeades, Jeffrey; Padian, Nancy S.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of physical domestic violence – violence against women perpetrated by husbands – is staggeringly high across the Indian subcontinent. Although gender-based power dynamics are thought to underlie women's vulnerability, relatively little is known about risk and protective factors. This prospective study in southern India examined the association between key economic aspects of gender-based power, namely spousal employment status, and physical domestic violence. In 2005-2006, 744 ...

  10. Occupational stress, job insecurity and perception of the health status in Italian teachers with stable or temporary employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcella, L; Di Donato, A; Reversi, S; Fattorini, E; Boscolo, P

    2009-01-01

    The object of this study is to analyse job stress and insecurity and the perception of symptoms (health status) of 374 teachers (30 women and 74 men) with stable or temporary employment in schools in Pescara, a town in Central Italy. Job strain and job insecurity were analysed by an Italian version of the Karasek?s questionnaire, the perception of the health status by a 12 item test, and state and trait anxiety by STAI I and STAI II. There were no significant differences depending on the type of school. The young women with temporary contracts showed only higher levels of job insecurity than the women with stable employment, while those over 50 years old also showed more elevated values of job strain. Men with temporary contracts showed higher levels of both job insecurity and state and trait anxiety. The following highly significant correlations were observed: a) in women, job strain and perception of symptoms vs STAI I and STAI II (pauthority) plays an important role in men; temporary employment is mainly related to anxiety in men, while anxiety enhances the perception of poor health status mainly in women.

  11. Antidotes for novel oral anticoagulants: current status and future potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Mark; Crowther, Mark A

    2015-08-01

    The direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran and the anti-Xa agents rivaroxaban, edoxaban, and apixaban are a new generation of oral anticoagulants. Their advantage over the vitamin K antagonists is the lack of the need for monitoring and dose adjustment. Their main disadvantage is currently the absence of a specific reversal agent. Dabigatran's, unlike the anti-Xa agents, absorption can be reduced by activated charcoal if administered shortly after ingestion and it can be removed from the blood with hemodialysis. Prothrombin complex concentrate, activated prothrombin complex concentrate, and recombinant factor VIIa all show some activity in reversing the anticoagulant effect of these drugs but this is based on ex vivo, animal, and volunteer studies. It is unclear, which, if any, of these drugs is the most suitable for emergency reversal. Three novel molecules (idarucizumab, andexanet, and PER977) may provide the most effective and safest way of reversal. These agents are currently in premarketing studies.

  12. [Robotic colorectal surgery: current status and future developments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayne, D

    2013-08-01

    Robotic assistance has the potential to compensate for the limitations inherent in standard laparoscopic surgery. The daVinci® surgical system remains the only currently available commercial robotic system. It has found popularity in rectal cancer surgery where its application has consistently been shown to reduce the need to convert to open surgery. With this exception, the technological advances of the robotic system have not so far translated into any reproducible patient benefit. The first part of this manuscript presents an overview of the current daVinci® platform, its applications, the evidence base and future developments in colorectal surgery. The second part of the manuscript looks at other robot systems in development and the different innovations and strategies taken to advance minimally invasive surgery.The English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink (under supplemental).

  13. Robotic bariatric surgery: A general review of the current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minoa K; Hagen, Monika E; Buchs, Nicolas C; Buehler, Leo H; Morel, Philippe

    2017-05-23

    While conventional laparoscopy is the gold standard for almost all bariatric procedures, robotic assistance holds promise for facilitating complex surgeries and improving clinical outcomes. Since the report of the first robotic-assisted bariatric procedure in 1999, numerous publications, including those reporting comparative trials and meta-analyses across bariatric procedures with a focus on robotic assistance, can be found. This article reviews the current literature and portrays the perspectives of robotic bariatric surgery. While there are substantial reports on robotic bariatric surgery currently in publication, most studies suffer from low levels of evidence. As such, although robotics technology is without a doubt superior to conventional laparoscopy, the precise role of robotics in bariatric surgery is not yet clear. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Large Antenna Control Methods: Current Status and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, G.; Lin, Y. H.; Milman, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    Current methods for control of large antennas, as well as future trends required for improved performance are addressed. Some of the target missions in which these methods would be used are: the Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) for communications; the Satellite Surveillance (SSS) for aircraft traffic control; the orbiting Very Long Baseline Interferometer (VLBI), or QUASAT, for radio astronomy; and the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) for IR and submillimeter astronomy.

  15. Acute respiratory infection due to : current status of diagnostic methods

    OpenAIRE

    Loens, K.; Goossens, H.; Ieven, M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Because of the absence of well-standardized both in-house and FDA-approved commercially available diagnostic tests, the reliable diagnosis of respiratory infection due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae remains difficult. In addition, no formal external quality assessment schemes which would allow to conclude about the performance of M. pneumoniae diagnostic tests exist. In this review, the current state of knowledge of M. pneumoniae-associated respiratory infections in the context ...

  16. Current status of afterloading in gynecological contact therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, M.; Fournier, D. von; Schulz-Wendtland, R.; Kuttig, H.; Junkermann, H.

    1987-01-12

    The present state of the remote-controlled afterloading technique is described. Beside the description of the development and the advantages of this method we discuss the currently available afterloading equipment as well as the appropriate radionuclids. The simulation of the treatment of the classic schools from Paris, Stockholm and Manchester is demonstrated by means of proper application combinations. Finally advantages and disadvantages of the HDR and LDR-treatment - especially in regard to radio-biological effects - are discussed.

  17. Current status of Tc-99m production in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charoen, Sakda [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2003-03-01

    Technetium-99m is the workhorse of nuclear medicine and currently accounts for over 80% of all in vivo diagnostic procedures. In Thailand, Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) had experiences in production of Technetium-99m by solvent extraction process and alternative technology for Technetium-99m generator based on zirconium molybdate and titanium molybdate gel generators were also studied. The paper describes past experiences and future plan of Technetium-99m production in Thailand. (author)

  18. Current Status and Prospects of New Architecture Materials from Bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The feasibility of the technologies has been discussed in the paper that bamboo is used for middling and top-grade building construction, architecture decorating, and other major applications. The content includes the current application of bamboo materials in construction field; the bamboo bearing material technological process such as the laminated bamboo board, bamboo mat plywood processes; bamboo ceiling and wall material technologies such as the bamboo particleboard, cement-bonded bamboo particlebo...

  19. Current status of clinical laser applications in periodontal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Akira; Mizutani, Koji; Takasaki, Aristeo Atsushi; Sasaki, Katia Miyuki; Nagai, Shigeyuki; Schwarz, Frank; Yoshida, Itaru; Eguro, Toru; Zeredo, Jorge Luis; Izumi, Yuichi

    2008-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder caused by bacterial infection. Laser treatment demonstrates specific characteristics that may be valuable in managing periodontal disease. In addition, lasers reduce stress and uncomfortable conditions for patients during and after treatment compared to other conventional tools. This article reviews the literature to describe the current clinical applications of lasers for gingival tissue management-including esthetic treatment, non-surgical and surgical periodontal pocket therapy, osseous surgery, and implant therapy.

  20. Current status of Indian medicinal plants with aphrodisiac potential

    OpenAIRE

    Ramandeep Singh; Ashraf Ali; G. Jeyabalan; Alok Semwal

    2013-01-01

    In India, indigenous remedies have been used in treatment of sexual dysfunction since the time of Charaka and Sushruta. Plants have been always an exemplary source of drugs and many of the currently available drugs have been derived directly or indirectly from them. An aphrodisiac is defined as an agent that arouses sexual desire. Erectile dysfunction or sexual dysfunction (ED or SD) or male impotence is defined as the inability of a man to achieve and maintain an erection sufficient for mutu...

  1. EMDR and the anxiety disorders: exploring the current status

    OpenAIRE

    de Jongh, A; Ten Broeke, E

    2009-01-01

    Based on the assumptions of Shapiro's adaptive information-processing model, it could be argued that a large proportion of people suffering from an anxiety disorder would benefit from eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). This article provides an overview of the current empirical evidence on the application of EMDR for the anxiety disorders spectrum other than posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Reviewing the existing literature, it is disappointing to find that 20 years aft...

  2. Current Status and Perspectives of Cysticercosis and Taeniasis in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yamasaki, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    This mini-review describes recent epidemiological trends in cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan. Some of the topics discussed herein were presented at the first symposium on "Current perspectives of Taenia asiatica researches", that was held in Osong in Chungbuk Province, South Korea, in October 2011 and organized by Prof. K. S. Eom, Chungbuk National University School of Medicine. To better understand the trends in the occurrence of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan, clinical cases repor...

  3. Early detection of age related macular degeneration: current status

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Roy; Loewenstein, Anat

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), a main cause of severe vision loss in age related macular degeneration (AMD), is crucial in order to preserve vision and the quality of life of patients. This review summarizes current literature on the subject of early detection of CNV, both in the clinic setting and mainly in the patient’s home. New technologies are evolving to allow for earlier detection and thus vision preservation in AMD patients.

  4. Early detection of age related macular degeneration: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Roy; Loewenstein, Anat

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), a main cause of severe vision loss in age related macular degeneration (AMD), is crucial in order to preserve vision and the quality of life of patients. This review summarizes current literature on the subject of early detection of CNV, both in the clinic setting and mainly in the patient's home. New technologies are evolving to allow for earlier detection and thus vision preservation in AMD patients.

  5. Current status of the MiniBooNE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Heather L.; /Los Alamos

    2004-11-01

    MiniBooNE is an experiment designed to refute or confirm the LSND {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} {yields} {bar {nu}}{sub e} oscillation result. MiniBooNE will look for oscillations of {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} in a closed-box appearance analysis. MiniBooNE began collecting data in 2002, and is expected to continue data taking through 2005. Current MiniBooNE results are presented.

  6. Current status of HIV/AIDS in the ART era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Kazuhisa

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) spread to humans from chimpanzees (HIV-1 groups M and N), gorillas (HIV-1 groups P and O), and sooty mangabeys (HIV-2). HIV is spread mainly through blood or body fluids. Subjects can become infected with HIV by sexual contact, needle sharing, blood transfusions, or maternal transmissions as a blood-borne virus or via breast-milk. The incubation period of HIV-1 from infection to the development of AIDS ranges from 8 to 11 years. In the past 3 decades, HIV has caused a great burden to global wealth and health. According to the WHO global health survey, 36.7 million people were infected with HIV, causing 1.1 million deaths in 2015. Since the discovery of HIV-1, many anti-retroviral drugs have been developed. Following the discovery and wide-spread use of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) the life expectancy of HIV infected individuals has substantially increased. By 2015, all major guidelines recommended treating all HIV-infected adults regardless of their CD4 count. Despite effective ART with virological suppression, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), cardiovascular diseases (CVD), metabolic syndrome (MS), bone abnormalities and non-HIV-associated malignancies remain a major complication associated with HIV infection. In this review article, I would like to describe recent ART status and problems in the ART-era.

  7. Current Status of Acanthamoeba in Iran: A Narrative Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Niyyati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Free-living amoebae belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba have an environmental distribution. Amoebic keratitis due to these protozoan parasites continue to rise in Iran and worldwide. In Iran, there are various researches regarding both morphological and molecular identification of Acanthamoeba spp. in environmental and clinical samples. However, there is no thorough review about Acanthamoeba genotypes and their distribution in environmental sources such as water, dust and biofilm in Iran. Besides, according to increasing cases of Amoebic keratitis in the region awareness regarding the pathogenic potential of these sight-threatening amoebae is of utmost importance.We conducted a thorough review based on the database sources such as MEDLINE, PubMed and Google scholar. No restrictions were placed on study date, study design or language of publication. We searched all valuable and relevant information considering the occurrence of the Acanthamoeba in both environmental and clinical samples.According to our thorough review Acanthamoeba belonging to T4 genotype is the most prevalent type strain in environmental and clinical samples in several regions in Iran and worldwide, however, there are reports regarding Acanthamoeba belonging to other genotypes such as T2, T3, T5, T6 and T11 and the mentioned point could leads us to more researches with the goal of presenting the real genotype dominance of Acanthamoeba and related disease in the country.Overall, the present review will focus on present status of genotypes of Acanthamoeba in Iran during recent years.

  8. Current status of laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, Jacob; Bay-Nielsen, M

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair is becoming more common in many countries, but the quality of care, experience of the operating surgeon, and details of the surgical technique are not known in detail on a national level in Denmark. In a period of expanding surgical volume for lapar......BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair is becoming more common in many countries, but the quality of care, experience of the operating surgeon, and details of the surgical technique are not known in detail on a national level in Denmark. In a period of expanding surgical volume...... for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair, it is important to know the typical indications for surgery, re-operation rates, details of surgical technique, and status of surgical training on a national level in order to rationalize interventions to improve outcome. METHODS: Data from the National Hernia Database...... for the last 8 years regarding laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair were used in combination with questionnaire data obtained from all surgical units in Denmark. The questionnaire included issues such as the number of operating surgeons in the department, number of residents training in the laparoscopic...

  9. Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping In Gastric Cancer Surgery: Current Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bara Tivadar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lymphonodular metastases remain an important predictive and prognostic factor in gastric cancer development. The precise determination of the lymphonodular invasion stage can be made only by extended intraoperative lymphadenectomy and histopathological examination. But the main controversy is the usefulness of extended lymph dissection in early gastric cancer. This increases the duration of the surgery and the complications rate, and it is unnecessary without lymphonodular invasion. The identification of the sentinel lymph nodes has been successfully applied for some time in the precise detection of lymph nodes status in breast cancer, malignant melanoma and the use for gastric cancer patients has been a controversial issue. The good prognosis in early gastric cancer had been a surgery challenge, which led to the establishment of minimally invasive individualized treatment and acceptance of sentinel lymph node mapping. The dual-tracer method, submucosally administered endoscopically is also recommended in sentinel lymph node biopsy by laparoscopic approach. There are new sophisticated technologies for detecting sentinel lymph node such as: infrared ray endoscopy, florescence imaging and near-infrared technology, carbon nanoparticles, which will open new perspectives in sentinel lymph nodes mapping.

  10. Aircraft with outboard horizontal stabilizers, history, current status, development potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentfield, John A. C.

    2009-08-01

    The potential of using outboard horizontal stabilizers (OHS) to reduce aircraft drag, and hence improve fuel economy, was investigated historically, experimentally and theoretically. The feasibility of OHS configurations on the basis of the structural stress levels expected was also studied. The findings of the work showed that from simple, low Reynolds number, wind-tunnel tests, at a wing-chord-based Reynolds number of approximately 6×10 4 and also from theoretical analyses for a higher Reynolds number of 9×10 6, lift/drag ( L/ D) value increases in the region of 40-50% for wing and tail surfaces can be expected relative to corresponding values for conventional aircraft. When account is taken of fuselage and tail-support boom drag, the expected overall L/ D increase is in the region of 30-35%. The analytical stress-level work showed that contrary to what, on a first thought basis, might be expected, there were no major stress problems. Flight tests at the University of Calgary, and by others elsewhere, employing radio-controlled, powered, model aircraft (i.e. UAVs) showed that aircraft of the OHS type were easily controlled in flight and were stable. An examination was made of additional areas that may contribute yet further to the development of the OHS concept.

  11. Current status of assisted reproductive technology in Korea, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyoung Hoon; Song, Hyun Jin; Lee, Kyu Sup; Choi, Young Min

    2016-03-01

    The number of assisted reproductive technology (ART) clinics, ART cycles, clinical pregnancy rate (CPR), and number of newborns conceived using ART have steadily increased in South Korea. This aim of this study was to describe the status of ART in South Korea between January 1 and December 31, 2011. A localized online survey was created and sent to all available ART centers via email in 2015. Fresh embryo transfer (FET) cases were categorized depending on whether standard in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), or half-ICSI procedures were used. Thawed embryo transfer (TET) and other related procedures were surveyed. Data from 36,990 ART procedures were provided by 74 clinics. Of the 30,410 cycles in which oocytes were retrieved, a complete transfer was performed in 91.0% (n=27,683). In addition, 9,197 cycles were confirmed to be clinical pregnancies in the FET cycles, representing a pregnancy rate of 30.2% per oocyte pick-up and 33.2% per ET. The most common number of embryos transferred in the FET procedures was three (38.1%), followed by two (34.7%) and one (14.3%). Of the 8,826 TET cycles, 3,137 clinical pregnancies (31.1%) were confirmed by ultrasonography. While the overall clinical pregnancy rate for the TET cycles performed was lower than the rate reported in 2010 (31.1% vs. 35.4%), the overall CPR for the FET cycles was higher than in 2010 (33.2% in 2011 and 32.9% in 2010). The most common number of embryos transferred in FET cycles was three, as was the case in 2010.

  12. Current status of General Pathology training in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casademont, J; Porcel, J M; Vargas Núñez, J A; González Macías, J

    2013-12-01

    One of the core subjects in university training of the physicians has been General Pathology. Responsibility for this has historically fallen on Internal Medicine specialists. However, we are unaware if this situation is currently maintained. A questionnaire was sent to the coordinators of the subject of the 39 Spanish medical schools to know, among other things, the current denomination of the subjects (traditionally known as «General Pathology»), number of credits, teaching activities included in the subject and number and specialty of the professors responsible for it. Some data from the medical schools that did not respond were obtained from their web pages. A total of 28 of the 39 (72%) medical schools existing in Spain answered the survey. The current denomination of the subject «General Pathology» varied greatly. The mean number of credits (one credit=20-25 h) was 11.2 (range 3 to 29). In 22 of 34 schools (65%), the subject was taught in the third year of the studies, but in 21% of the schools, it was partially and in 15% of the schools, totally, taught in the second year. More than half of the professors (54%) who taught the subject were Internal Medicine specialists, although this responsibility was shared with other specialists in a large proportion. Teaching of General Pathology shows a marked heterogeneity that does not seem to be due to teaching or pedagogic criteria among the different schools of Spain. These facts may be due to less presence in the university setting of Internal Medicine compared to other specialties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: Current status and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jamie R; Morrison, Gladys; Dolan, M Eileen; Fleming, Gini F

    2016-01-01

    As there are increasing numbers of cancer survivors, more attention is being paid to the long term unwanted effects patients may experience as a result of their treatment and the impact these side effects can have on their quality of life. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is one of the most common long-term toxicities from chemotherapy. In this review we will briefly review the clinical presentation, evaluation and management of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, with a focus on CIPN related to platinum and taxane agents. We will then discuss current clinical models of peripheral neuropathy and ongoing research to better understand CIPN and develop potential treatment options.

  14. Current status of radionuclide imaging in valvular heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher, C.A.; Okada, R.D.; Pohost, G.M.

    1980-12-18

    The current state-of-the-art in radionuclide imaging of valvular heart disease is based on different angiographic patterns in three left-sided valve abnormalities: pressure overload, volume overload, and inflow obstruction. In pressure overload, the left ventricle has normal dimensions or is minimally dilated the volume overload involves a left ventricular dilatation with a normal or reduced ejection fraction at rest the left ventricular function in inflow obstruction is normal, but in some cases may be depressed. Radionuclide angiography evaluates the effect of a valve abnormality on cardiac chamber and function thallium-201 imaging diagnoses regional myocardial blood flow and cell integrity and can evaluate the associated coronary artery disease.

  15. Immunotherapy for opportunistic infections: Current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuji, Shigeo; Löffler, Jürgen; Einsele, Hermann; Kapp, Markus

    2016-11-16

    The outcome after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has significantly improved during the last decades. However, opportunistic infections such as viral and mold infections are still a major obstacle for cure. Within this field, adoptive T cell therapy against pathogens is a promising treatment approach. Recently, the techniques to develop T cell products including pathogen-specific T cells have been sophisticated and are now available in accordance to good manufacturing practice (GMP). Here, we aim to summarize current knowledge about adoptive T cell therapy against viral and mold infections.

  16. Prostate Artery Embolization for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Current Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirakhur, Anirudh; McWilliams, Justin P

    2017-02-01

    Prostate artery embolization has garnered much attention as a promising treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. We aim to provide an up-to-date review of this minimally invasive technique, including discussion of potential benefits and technical challenges. Current evidence suggests it is a safe and effective option for patients with medication-refractory urinary obstructive symptoms who are poor surgical candidates or refuse surgical therapy. Larger, randomized studies with long-term follow-up data are needed for this technique to be formally established in the treatment paradigm for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  17. The Current Status of Peer Assessment Techniques and Sociometric Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, William M; Castellanos, Melisa; Persram, Ryan J

    2017-09-01

    Current issues in the use of peer assessment techniques and sociometric methods are discussed. Attention is paid to the contributions of the four articles in this volume. Together these contributions point to the continual level of change and progress in these techniques. They also show that the paradigm underlying these methods has been unchanged for decades. It is argued that this domain is ripe for a paradigm change that takes advantage of recent developments in statistical techniques and technology. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Status and Current Sensitivity of the CELESTE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    De Naurois, Mathieu

    2000-01-01

    The CELESTE experiment uses the heliostats of an old solar farm in the French Pyrenees to detect gamma ray air showers by the atmospheric Cerenkov technique. CELESTE has been operating since November 1999 with an array of 40 heliostats fully instrumented with 1GHz flash ADCs. Significant advances have been made in the detector simulations and in the data analysis techniques. We report here on results from recent observations of the Crab nebula above an energy threshold of 50GeV. The results and simulations illustrate the current sensitivity of the experiment.

  19. Current status of research and related activities in NAA application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ab. Khalik bin Haji Wood [Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1999-10-01

    Current activities of Analytical Chemistry Group of MINT (Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research) laboratory for elemental analysis of trace amounts in environmental samples such as air particulate matter (on air filter), soils/sediments, water, flora/fauna, oil sludge/waste sludge, and tailing/blasting slag and others, utilizing particularly NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) method are reviewed. The laboratory participates in the IAEA-organized Interlaboratory Comparison Studies to ensure the analytical system. Other activities include analytical chemistry services with ICP-mass spectrometry and GC/GCMS to compliment the NAA and, moreover, air and marine pollution studies with participation in the UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (S. Ohno)

  20. The Current Status of Oral Contraceptives: Progress and Recent Innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golobof, Alexandra; Kiley, Jessica

    2016-05-01

    Millions of women in the United States and abroad use oral contraceptive pills. These popular contraceptives are the most common reversible birth control method in the United States, and a wide variety of pills are available for prescription. Oral contraceptives provide safe and effective protection against pregnancy and offer several noncontraceptive benefits. Over the years, advances in the laboratory and knowledge gained through epidemiologic data promoted the development of new contraceptive preparations. Generations of oral contraceptives emerged over time, containing lower doses of estrogens and new and novel progestins. The current review discusses the clinical characteristics of oral contraceptives, with emphasis on basic pharmacology and the evolution of various contraceptive formulations and regimens.

  1. Atomic clock with nuclear transition: current status in TU Wien

    OpenAIRE

    Kazakov, G. A.; Schreitl, M.; Winkler, G.; Sterba, J. H.; Steinhauser, G; Schumm, T.

    2011-01-01

    The nucleus of 229Thorium presents a unique isomer state of very low energy and long lifetime, current estimates are around 7.8 eV and seconds to hours respectively. This nuclear transitions therefore is a promising candidate for a novel type of frequency standard and several groups worldwide have set out to investigate this system. Our aim is to construct a "solid state nuclear clock", i.e. a frequency standard where Thorium ions are implanted into Calciumfluoride crystals transparent in vac...

  2. Current readings: Status of surgical treatment for endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Robert C; Leacche, Marzia; Shah, Jinesh; Byrne, John G

    2014-01-01

    Valve endocarditis is associated with high morbidity and mortality and requires a thorough evaluation including early surgical consultation to identify patients who may benefit from surgery. We review 5 recent articles that highlight the current debates related to best treatment strategies for valve endocarditis. Recent publications have focused on neurologic risk assessment, timing of surgery, and prognostic factors associated with native and prosthetic valve endocarditis. The initial patient assessment and management is best performed by a multidisciplinary team. Future investigations should focus on identifying surgical candidates early and the outcomes affected by replacement valve choice in both native and prosthetic valve endocarditis.

  3. Nitriding and Nitrocarburizing; Current Status and Future Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somers, Marcel A. J.

    in a compound layer consisting of iron (carbo-)nitrides and a diffusion zone, consisting of a dispersion of alloying element nitrides in ferrite. The compound layer provides beneficial tribological and corrosion performance, while the diffusion zone is responsible for improved fatigue performance. Furthermore......, aspects of low temperature surface hardening of stainless steels in a gaseous environment will be addressed. Here, the developed case consists of expanded austenite and/or expanded martensite, which essentially is a super saturated solid solution of nitrogen/carbon in austenite/martensite. The current...

  4. Current Status of Immunotherapy Treatments for Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Luna, Cristina; Prados, Jose; Ortiz, Raul; Melguizo, Consolacion; Torres, Carolina; Caba, Octavio

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a lethal disease representing the seventh most frequent cause of death from cancer worldwide. Resistance of pancreatic tumors to current treatments leads to disappointing survival rates, and more specific and effective therapies are urgently needed. In recent years, immunotherapy has been proposed as a promising approach to the treatment of PC, and encouraging results have been published by various preclinical and clinical studies. This review provides an overview of the latest developments in the immunotherapeutic treatment of PC and summarizes the most recent and important clinical trials.

  5. Data Mining Activities for Bone Discipline - Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Johnston, S. L.; Arnaud, S. B.

    2008-01-01

    The disciplinary goals of the Human Research Program are broadly discussed. There is a critical need to identify gaps in the evidence that would substantiate a skeletal health risk during and after spaceflight missions. As a result, data mining activities will be engaged to gather reviews of medical data and flight analog data and to propose additional measures and specific analyses. Several studies are briefly reviewed which have topics that partially address these gaps in knowledge, including bone strength recovery with recovery of bone mass density, current renal stone formation knowledge, herniated discs, and a review of bed rest studies conducted at Ames Human Research Facility.

  6. Current status of neonatal intensive care in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik Nagesh, N; Razak, Abdul

    2016-05-01

    Globally, newborn health is now considered as high-level national priority. The current neonatal and infant mortality rate in India is 29 per 1000 live births and 42 per 1000 live births, respectively. The last decade has seen a tremendous growth of neonatal intensive care in India. The proliferation of neonatal intensive care units, as also the infusion of newer technologies with availability of well-trained medical and nursing manpower, has led to good survival and intact outcomes. There is good care available for neonates whose parents can afford the high-end healthcare, but unfortunately, there is a deep divide and the poor rural population is still underserved with lack of even basic newborn care in few areas! There is increasing disparity where the 'well to do' and the 'increasingly affordable middle class' is able to get the most advanced care for their sick neonates. The underserved urban poor and those in rural areas still contribute to the overall high neonatal morbidity and mortality in India. The recent government initiative, the India Newborn Action Plan, is the step in the right direction to bridge this gap. A strong public-private partnership and prioritisation is needed to achieve this goal. This review highlights the current situation of neonatal intensive care in India with a suggested plan for the way forward to achieve better neonatal care.

  7. Genomic architecture of HIV-1 infection: current status & challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurvinder; Sharma, Gaurav; Kumar, Neeraj; Kaul, Mrinali H; Bansal, Rhea A; Vajpayee, Madhu; Wig, Naveet; Sharma, Surender K; Mehra, Narinder K

    2013-11-01

    Studies on host genomics have revealed the existence of identifiable HIV-1 specific protective factors among infected individuals who remain naturally resistant viraemia controllers with little or no evidence of virus replication. These factors are broadly grouped into those that are immune associated (MHC, chemokines, cytokines, CTLs and others), linked to viral entry (chemokine co-receptors and ligands), act as post-entry restriction elements (TRIM5a, APOBEC3) and those associated with viral replication (cytokines and others). These features have been identified through multiple experimental approaches ranging from candidate gene approaches, genome wide association studies (GWAS), expression analysis in conjunction with functional assays in humans to primate based models. Several studies have highlighted the individual and population level gross differences both in the viral clade sequences as well as host determined genetic associations. This review collates current information on studies involving major histocompatibility complex (MHC) as well as non MHC genes in the context of HIV-1 infection and AIDS involving varied ethnic groups. Special focus of the review is on the genetic studies carried out on the Indian population. Further challenges with regard to therapeutic interventions based on current knowledge have been discussed along with discussion on documented cases of stem cell therapy and very early highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) interventions.

  8. Radiation damage of biomolecules (RADAM) database development: current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denifl, S.; Garcia, G.; Huber, B. A.; Marinković, B. P.; Mason, N.; Postler, J.; Rabus, H.; Rixon, G.; Solov'yov, A. V.; Suraud, E.; Yakubovich, A. V.

    2013-06-01

    Ion beam therapy offers the possibility of excellent dose localization for treatment of malignant tumours, minimizing radiation damage in normal tissue, while maximizing cell killing within the tumour. However, as the underlying dependent physical, chemical and biological processes are too complex to treat them on a purely analytical level, most of our current and future understanding will rely on computer simulations, based on mathematical equations, algorithms and last, but not least, on the available atomic and molecular data. The viability of the simulated output and the success of any computer simulation will be determined by these data, which are treated as the input variables in each computer simulation performed. The radiation research community lacks a complete database for the cross sections of all the different processes involved in ion beam induced damage: ionization and excitation cross sections for ions with liquid water and biological molecules, all the possible electron - medium interactions, dielectric response data, electron attachment to biomolecules etc. In this paper we discuss current progress in the creation of such a database, outline the roadmap of the project and review plans for the exploitation of such a database in future simulations.

  9. [Current status and prospects of portable NIR spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin-Yang; Lu, Qi-Peng; Gao, Hong-Zhi; Peng, Zhong-Qi

    2013-11-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a reliable, rapid, and non-destructive analytical method widely applied in as a number of fields such as agriculture, food, chemical and oil industry. In order to suit different applications, near-infrared spectrometers are now varied. Portable near-infrared spectrometers are needed for rapid on-site identification and analysis. Instruments of this kind are rugged, compact and easy to be transported. In this paper, the current states of portable near-infrared spectrometers are reviewed. Portable near-infrared spectrometers are built of different monochromator systems: filter, grating, Fourier-transform methods, acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) and a large number of new methods based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). The first part focuses on working principles of different monochromator systems. Advantages and disadvantages of different systems are also briefly mentioned. Descriptions of each method are given in turn. Typical spectrometers of each kind are introduced, and some parameters of these instruments are listed. In the next part we discuss sampling adapters, display, power supply and some other parts, which are designed to make the spectrometer more portable and easier to use. In the end, the current states of portable near-infrared spectrometers are summarized. Future trends of development of portable near-infrared spectrometers in China and abroad are discussed.

  10. The Current Status of Radiology in Neuro-Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiyong Gong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available  "n"nThe availability of multimodal imaging techniques enables the acquisition of both structural and functional information of the brain, and it opens a unique window for revealing the brain activity and connectivity in neuro-psychiatric disorders.  The current lecture will review some of the most often used imaging modalities, with particular emphasis on MRI, in the research field of major neuro-psychiatric disorders from the functional perspective. Diffused tension image shows the white matter in vivo and provides us with useful parameters such as FA and ADC to assess the brain tissue integrity. Perfusion MRI helps to assess the cerebral blood flow relevant to functional alteration. BOLD fMRI is readily available for the functional brain assessment in psychiatry with task and non-task design (i.e. resting-state fMRI. The topic of fMRI will be focused, and in particular, the resting-state fMRI which has recently attracted considerable attentions and has shown potentials in future clinical applications. The current lecture will specifically focuse on the recent advances of MR imaging research in epilepsy, schizophrenia and major depressive disorders.     

  11. Current Status of the SANAEM RFQ Accelerator Beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Turemen, G; Ogur, S; Yildiz, V; Mete, O; Oz, S; Ozbey, A; Yildiz, H; Yaman, F; Akgun, Y; Alacakir, A; Bolukdemir, S; Bozbey, A; Sahin, A; Unel, G; Erhan, S

    2015-01-01

    The design and production studies of the proton beamline of SPP, which aims to acquire know-how on proton accelerator technology thru development of man power and serves as particle accelerator technologies test bench, continue at TAEK-SANAEM as a multi-phase project. For the first phase, 20 keV protons will be accelerated to 1.3 MeV by a single piece RFQ. Currently, the beam current and stability tests are ongoing for the Inductively Coupled Plasma ion source. The measured magnetic field maps of the Low Energy Beam Transport solenoids are being used for matching various beam configurations of the ion source to the RFQ by computer simulations. The installation of the low energy diagnostics box was completed in Q1 of 2015. The production of the RFQ cavity was started with aluminum 7075-T6 which will be subsequently coated by Copper to reduce the RF (Ohmic) losses. On the RF side, the development of the hybrid power supply based on solid state and tetrode amplifiers continues. All RF transmission components hav...

  12. Rheology of Rings: Current Status and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Gregory

    Understanding the dynamics of circular or ring-like polymers has been a subject of investigation since the 1980s and is one which remains an area that is not fully understood. Part of the reason for this is the difficulty of making synthetic rings of sufficient size to establish the nature of the entanglement dynamics, if entanglements even exist in these materials. Furthermore, there is now strong evidence that small amounts of linear impurities can impact the dynamics. Hence, one of the major challenges to our understanding of ring dynamics is to make large molecular weight rings of sufficient purity that the dynamics of the rings themselves can be determined. In the present work the current state of understanding of the dynamics of rings is outlined and current work from our group of collaborators to make extremely large circular polymers using Echeverria Coli as a route to make pure rings (circular DNA) in sufficient quantity and size to determine the dynamics of these materials will be shown. First results of ring dynamics in dilute solution are presented and new results on concentrated and entangled solutions will be discussed. Remaining challenges will be elucidated. Partially supported by the John R. Bradford Endowment and the Paul Whitfield Horn Professorship at Texas Tech University.

  13. Medicinal foods from marine animals: current status and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Pallela, Ramjee

    2012-01-01

    The lifestyle of human being is changing day by day toward the simplified and more convenient way of living. Human wellbeing is majorly dependent on the daily food habits that are in accordance with the habits of individual community and the surrounding environments. Although the food habits are simplified and fashioned according to the current lifestyle, many of the Asians are still showing much importance to the naturally derived and traditional foods. One such medicinally important natural source is the foods from marine organisms, which are an important growing notion for the development of marine nutraceuticals and functional foods. In this context, we have already brought the recent trends and applications of marine algal (macro and micro) foods in my previous volume. The current preliminary chapter of this book volume on marine animals and microbes describes about the prospects of various marine animals and their derived substances/materials as medicinal foods. In addition, this chapter encourages the new researchers as well as various health communities to implement the marine animal-based medicinal foods and their applications.

  14. Origins, current status, and future challenges of green chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastas, Paul T; Kirchhoff, Mary M

    2002-09-01

    Over the course of the past decade, green chemistry has demonstrated how fundamental scientific methodologies can protect human health and the environment in an economically beneficial manner. Significant progress is being made in several key research areas, such as catalysis, the design of safer chemicals and environmentally benign solvents, and the development of renewable feedstocks. Current and future chemists are being trained to design products and processes with an increased awareness for environmental impact. Outreach activities within the green chemistry community highlight the potential for chemistry to solve many of the global environmental challenges we now face. The origins and basis of green chemistry chart a course for achieving environmental and economic prosperity inherent in a sustainable world.

  15. Ligninolytic enzymes from Ganoderma spp: current status and potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuan-Wei; Cong, Wei-Ran; Su, Kai-Qi; Zhang, Yong-Ming

    2013-11-01

    White-rot fungal species belonging to Ganoderma have long been used as medicinal mushrooms in many Asian countries. In recent years, however, attention is not just being paid to their pharmacological properties, but to their other potentially valuable features as well, including their secretion of enzymes which decompose lignin. The current literature regarding lignin-modifying enzymes from the genus Ganoderma, their potential uses, and the components, structures and processes of lignocellulose degradation are discussed. The ligninolytic enzymes from the genus Ganoderma, as well as the number of additional enzymes that participate in lignin degradation, are summarized; further, the potential applications of these enzymes are analyzed and probed in this article. This review will provide insight on the valuable applications of Ganoderma spp. and will serve as a useful reference on the use of lignocellulose degradation as a means of environmental protection.

  16. Treatment of sepsis: current status of clinical immunotherapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Callaghan, A

    2012-02-03

    While antibiotics address the root cause of sepsis--that of pathogen infection--they fail to provide an adequate cure for the condition. Currently, 30% to 50% of septic patients die, and this figure is likely to increase in line with the proliferation of multi-drug resistant bacteria. With an increased understanding of the immune response, it has been proposed that modulation of this defence mechanism offers the best hope of cure. Many entry-points in the immune system have been identified and targeted therapies have been developed,but why are these not in routine clinical practice? This review examines the latest evidence for the use of immuno-modulating drugs, obtained from human clinical trials. We discuss cytokine-based therapies, steroids and anti-coagulants. Finally, consideration is given as to why successful therapies in the laboratory, and in vivo models, do not automatically translate into clinical benefit

  17. Perfectionism and eating disorders: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardone-Cone, Anna M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Frost, Randy O; Bulik, Cynthia M; Mitchell, James E; Uppala, Saritha; Simonich, Heather

    2007-04-01

    The literature examining the relation between perfectionism and eating disorders was reviewed and content and methodological comparisons were made with the perfectionism literature in anxiety disorders and depressive disorders. A PsychInfo search using the key words "perfectionism/perfect/perfectionistic," "anorexia," "bulimia," and "eating disorders" was performed and the generated list of papers was supplemented based on a review of reference lists in the papers. A total of 55 papers published between 1990 and 2005 were identified that assessed perfectionism among individuals with diagnosed eating disorders. The key research questions were distilled from these publications and empirical findings were summarized for each question, followed by a comparison with perfectionism papers in the anxiety and depressive disorder literatures. Also, key research design methodological parameters were identified and comparisons made across the three literatures: eating disorders, anxiety disorders, depressive disorders. The current review concludes with conceptual and methodological recommendations for researchers interested in perfectionism and eating disorders.

  18. Transformational leadership in sport: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Calum A; Bastardoz, Nicolas; Eklund, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Borrowed from organizational psychology, the concept of transformational leadership has now been applied to a sport context for a decade. Our review covers and critically discusses empirical articles published on this growing topic. However, because the majority of studies used cross-sectional designs and single-source questionnaires to tap what has been a fuzzy construct, current theoretical and methodological issues impede understanding of whether transformational leadership matters for sport outcomes. To make a difference to applied practice and policy, the transformational leadership construct requires a refined definition and stronger empirical tests allowing for robust causal inference. We highlight avenues for advancing research on transformational leadership in the sport context. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Current status and future prospects of yellow fever vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Andrew S; Barrett, Alan D T

    2015-01-01

    Yellow fever 17D vaccine is one of the oldest live-attenuated vaccines in current use that is recognized historically for its immunogenic and safe properties. These unique properties of 17D are presently exploited in rationally designed recombinant vaccines targeting not only flaviviral antigens but also other pathogens of public health concern. Several candidate vaccines based on 17D have advanced to human trials, and a chimeric recombinant Japanese encephalitis vaccine utilizing the 17D backbone has been licensed. The mechanism(s) of attenuation for 17D are poorly understood; however, recent insights from large in silico studies have indicated particular host genetic determinants contributing to the immune response to the vaccine, which presumably influences the considerable durability of protection, now in many cases considered to be lifelong. The very rare occurrence of severe adverse events for 17D is discussed, including a recent fatal case of vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease.

  20. Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES): current status and challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiu-li; YANG Yun-sheng; SUN Gang; GUO Ming-zhou

    2010-01-01

    Objective To give a conceptual description of natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), review theearly efforts in the NOTES field, and discuss its challenges and limitations.Data sources The data were retrieved mainly from publications listed in MEDLINE, PubMed and China WanfangDatabase from 2005 to 2009. The search term was "NOTES". Study selection The articles involved in the "NOTES" study were selected and the review articles were excluded from the comparison. Results A marked increase in quantity in articles was shown each year for NOTES studies from 2006 to 2009. Animalexperiments with "NOTES" have been carried out in China from 2007, and two independent "NOTES" procedures onhumans were reported in 2009. Conclusion Although still in its infancy, the "NOTES" procedure is promising as another type of minimally invasivesurgery and favorable alternative to current interventions.

  1. Some medicinal plants with antiasthmatic potential:a current status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dnyaneshwar J Taur; Ravindra Y Patil

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is a common disease that is rising in prevalence worldwide with the highest prevalence in industrialized countries. Asthma affect about 300 million people worldwide and it has been estimated that a further 100 million will be affected by 2025. Since the ancient times, plants have been exemplary sources of medicine. Current asthma therapy lack satisfactory success due to adverse effect, hence patients are seeking complementary and alternative medicine to treat their asthma. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in various human ailments. India has about 45 000 plant species and among them several thousand are claimed to possess medicinal properties. Researches conducted in the last few decades on the plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for asthma have shown antiasthmatic, antihistaminic and antiallergic activity. This review reveals that some plants and their extract have antiasthmatic, antihistaminic, anticholinergic and antiallergic activity.

  2. Astroparticles in Latin America: current status and outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Sidelnik, Iván

    2014-01-01

    The successful installation and operation of the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina has been a milestone in Astroparticle research in Latin America, generating new regional research opportunities in the field. In this context, the LAGO project, begun in 2005 with the aim of studying the high-energy component of gamma ray bursts (GRBs). This observatory consists of different arrays of water-Cherenkov detectors installed in high altitude mountains throughout Latin America. Recently, it has demonstrated the feasibility of conducting studies on the solar modulation of the galactic cosmic ray flux. Currently more than 80 scientists and students from Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Argentina are integrated into the LAGO Collaboration. The high level of regional integration in the scientific community reached thanks to this kind of major projects, has led to the recent formation of the CLES (Consorcio Latinoamericano de Experimentos Subterr\\'{a}neos). This organization promotes ...

  3. THE CROATIAN FRESHWATER FISHERY - CURRENT STATUS AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Pažur

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater fishery in, objectively speaking, a modest sector of agriculture characteristic for its extreme production aspects, i. e. one of the most intensive agricultural sector are the trout ponds with over 140 ton of fish a year per 1 ha of water surface, the carp ponds with about 500 kg/ha are semi-intensive sector, while the management of over 60,000 ha of open water is completely extensive with catch less than 10 kg/ha, so such waters are used only for sport and recreation. The paper will analyse both subjective and objective causes of the current situation and propose the measures that might gain a high income-earning position for the sector in different economic categories, since the conditions for such development are realistic.

  4. Molecular Testing of Lymphoproliferative Disorders: Current Status and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Kyung Jeon

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Molecular pathologic testing plays an important role for the diagnosis, prognostication and decision of treatment strategy in lymphoproliferative disease. Here, we briefly review the molecular tests currently used for lymphoproliferative disease and those which will be implicated in clinical practice in the near future. Specifically, this guideline addresses the clonality test for B- and T-cell proliferative lesions, molecular cytogenetic tests for malignant lymphoma, determination of cell-of-origin in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and molecular genetic alterations incorporated in the 2016 revision of the World Health Organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms. Finally, a new perspective on the next-generation sequencing for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic purpose in malignant lymphoma will be summarized.

  5. Mineralized Collagen: Rationale, Current Status, and Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ye Qiu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the rationale for the in vitro mineralization process, preparation methods, and clinical applications of mineralized collagen. The rationale for natural mineralized collagen and the related mineralization process has been investigated for decades. Based on the understanding of natural mineralized collagen and its formation process, many attempts have been made to prepare biomimetic materials that resemble natural mineralized collagen in both composition and structure. To date, a number of bone substitute materials have been developed based on the principles of mineralized collagen, and some of them have been commercialized and approved by regulatory agencies. The clinical outcomes of mineralized collagen are of significance to advance the evaluation and improvement of related medical device products. Some representative clinical cases have been reported, and there are more clinical applications and long-term follow-ups that currently being performed by many research groups.

  6. Laboratory diagnosis of mucormycosis: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, Michaela; Caramalho, Rita; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    Fungal infections caused by members of the Mucorales order are rapidly progressing and fatal. The importance of mucormycosis has grown in recent years as the number of patients with predisposing factors has increased dramatically. Clinical symptoms are elusive and conventional techniques are often insensitive and unspecific; in particular, cultures are often negative even though direct microscopy is positive. For early diagnosis of the causative agent of disease and subsequently guiding therapy to improving patients' outcome, molecular assays are promising add-ons. This article provides an overview on current laboratory methods for diagnosing mucormycosis with a special focus on new molecular-based tools. We aim to highlight the pros and cons of various techniques at hand. Given the increase in number and the severity of these infections, molecular approaches for improved diagnosis are highly warranted.

  7. [Current status and future perspectives of hepatocyte transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Eugenia; Cortés, Miriam; Gómez-Lechón, M José; Maupoey, Javier; San Juan, Fernando; López, Rafael; Mir, Jose

    2014-02-01

    The imbalance between the number of potential beneficiaries and available organs, originates the search for new therapeutic alternatives, such as Hepatocyte transplantation (HT).Even though this is a treatment option for these patients, the lack of unanimity of criteria regarding indications and technique, different cryopreservation protocols, as well as the different methodology to assess the response to this therapy, highlights the need of a Consensus Conference to standardize criteria and consider future strategies to improve the technique and optimize the results.Our aim is to review and update the current state of hepatocyte transplantation, emphasizing the future research attempting to solve the problems and improve the results of this treatment. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Bacteria engineered for fuel ethanol production: current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dien, B.S.; Cotta, M.A. [National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Peoria, IL (United States); Jeffries, T.W. [Inst. for Microbial and Biochemical Technology, Forest Service, Forest Products Lab., USDA, Madison, WI (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The lack of industrially suitable microorganisms for converting biomass into fuel ethanol has traditionally been cited as a major technical roadblock to developing a bioethanol industry. In the last two decades, numerous microorganisms have been engineered to selectively produce ethanol. Lignocellulosic biomass contains complex carbohydrates that necessitate utilizing microorganisms capable of fermenting sugars not fermentable by brewers' yeast. The most significant of these is xylose. The greatest successes have been in the engineering of gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Zymomonas mobilis. E. coli and K. oxytoca are naturally able to use a wide spectrum of sugars, and work has concentrated on engineering these strains to selectively produce ethanol. Z. mobilis produces ethanol at high yields, but ferments only glucose and fructose. Work on this organism has concentrated on introducing pathways for the fermentation of arabinose and xylose. The history of constructing these strains and current progress in refining them are detailed in this review. (orig.)

  9. Current status of frameless anchored IUD for immediate intracesarean insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemeersch, Dirk; Goldstuck, Norman D; Hasskamp, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Immediate postpartum intrauterine device (IUD) insertion deserves great attention as it can provide immediate, timely and convenient contraception plus the added benefit of preventing repeat unintended pregnancies. Although women post vaginal delivery can benefit from immediate post-placenta contraception, women undergoing Cesarean section clearly need contraception, as an inter-delivery interval shorter than 18 months places them at a high risk for uterine rupture. The main drawback of currently available framed IUD devices for immediate postpartum insertion of an IUD is their high expulsion and displacement rates when inserted immediately postpartum after both vaginal and Cesarean delivery. Current research suggests that a brief window of opportunity exists of 10 minutes for insertion of conventional IUDs after which time expulsion rates both immediately and over time are greatly enhanced. This paper summarizes the current research conducted to overcome the expulsion problems associated with conventional T-shaped devices as well as through the use of an anchored frameless device. In the 1970s and 1980s, attempts were made to solve the expulsion problem by modifying existing devices, such as adding absorbable sutures (Delta-T) or additional appendages. These attempts proved to be clinically unsuccessful as the catgut suture added to the transverse arms did not provide sufficient resistance to prevent downward displacement and expulsion. An anchoring technique to suspend a copper IUD to the fundus of the uterus was developed in Belgium in the 1980s and has been the subject of extensive ongoing clinical research since 1985. Recently the frameless copper releasing anchor IUD, GyneFix, has been tested for postplacental insertion. Initially, the anchor was modified by the inclusion of a biodegradable cone which was added below the anchoring knot. Clinical studies confirmed the adequacy of this approach suggesting that it was technically possible to anchor an IUD

  10. Current Status of Obstetric Anaesthesia: Improving Satisfaction and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Sudharma Ranasinghe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC reported in 2003 that although the maternal mortal-ity rate has decreased by 99% since 1900, there has been no further decrease in the last two decades [1] . A more recent report indicates a rate of 11.8 per 100,000 live births [2] , although anaesthesia-related maternal mortality and morbidity has considerably decreased over the lastfew decades. Despite the growing complexity of problems and increasing challenges such as pre-existing maternal disease, obesity, and the increasing age of pregnant mothers, anaesthesia related maternal mortality is extremely rare in the developed world. The current safety has been achievedthrough changes in training, service, technical advances and multidisciplinary approach to care. The rates of general anaesthesia for cesarean delivery have decreased and neuraxial anaesthetics have become the most commonly used techniques. Neuraxial techniques are largely safe and effective, but potential complications, though rare, can be severe.

  11. History and current status of commercial pulsed laser deposition equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, James A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper will review the history of the scale-up of the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) process from small areas ∼1 cm2 up to 10 m2 starting in about 1987. It also documents the history of commercialization of PLD as various companies become involved in selling fully integrated laser deposition tools starting in 1989. The paper will highlight the current state of the art of commercial PLD equipment for R&D that is available on the market today from mainstream vendors as well as production-oriented applications directed at piezo-electric materials for microelectromechanical systems and high-temperature superconductors for coated-conductor applications. The paper clearly demonstrates that considerable improvements have been made to scaling this unique physical vapour deposition process to useful substrate sizes, and that commercial deposition equipment is readily available from a variety of vendors to address a wide variety of technologically important thin-film applications.

  12. DM-Ice: Current Status and Future Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Pettus, Walter C

    2015-01-01

    DM-Ice is a program towards the first direct detection search for dark matter in the Southern Hemisphere with a 250 kg-scale NaI(Tl) crystal array. It will provide a definitive understanding of the modulation signal reported by DAMA by running an array at both Northern and Southern Hemisphere sites. A 17 kg predecessor, DM-Ice17, was deployed in December 2010 at a depth of 2457 m under the ice at the geographic South Pole and has concluded its 3.5 yr data run. An active R&D program is underway to investigate detectors with lower backgrounds and improved readout electronics; two crystals with 37 kg combined mass are currently operating at the Boulby Underground Laboratory. We report on the final analyses of the DM-Ice17 data and describe progress towards a 250 kg DM-Ice experiment.

  13. Preparative Purification of Recombinant Proteins: Current Status and Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Saraswat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in fermentation technologies have resulted in the production of increased yields of proteins of economic, biopharmaceutical, and medicinal importance. Consequently, there is an absolute requirement for the development of rapid, cost-effective methodologies which facilitate the purification of such products in the absence of contaminants, such as superfluous proteins and endotoxins. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of a selection of key purification methodologies currently being applied in both academic and industrial settings and discuss how innovative and effective protocols such as aqueous two-phase partitioning, membrane chromatography, and high-performance tangential flow filtration may be applied independently of or in conjunction with more traditional protocols for downstream processing applications.

  14. Brain Cancer Stem Cells: Current Status on Glioblastoma Multiforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facchino, Sabrina; Abdouh, Mohamed [Developmental Biology Laboratory, Hopital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, 5415 Boul. l' Assomption, Montreal, H1T 2M4 (Canada); Bernier, Gilbert, E-mail: gbernier.hmr@ssss.gouv.qc.ca [Developmental Biology Laboratory, Hopital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, 5415 Boul. l' Assomption, Montreal, H1T 2M4 (Canada); Faculté de Médecine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, H3T 1J4 (Canada)

    2011-03-30

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), an aggressive brain tumor of astrocytic/neural stem cell origin, represents one of the most incurable cancers. GBM tumors are highly heterogeneous. However, most tumors contain a subpopulation of cells that display neural stem cell characteristics in vitro and that can generate a new brain tumor upon transplantation in mice. Hence, previously identified molecular pathways regulating neural stem cell biology were found to represent the cornerstone of GBM stem cell self-renewal mechanism. GBM tumors are also notorious for their resistance to radiation therapy. Notably, GBM “cancer stem cells” were also found to be responsible for this radioresistance. Herein, we will analyze the data supporting or not the cancer stem cell model in GBM, overview the current knowledge regarding GBM stem cell self-renewal and radioresistance molecular mechanisms, and discuss the potential therapeutic application of these findings.

  15. Current status of lectin-based cancer diagnosis and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fohona S. Coulibaly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are carbohydrate recognizing proteins originating from diverse origins in nature, including animals, plants, viruses, bacteria and fungus. Due to their exceptional glycan recognition property, they have found many applications in analytical chemistry, biotechnology and surface chemistry. This manuscript explores the current use of lectins for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Moreover, novel drug delivery strategies aiming at improving lectin’s stability, reducing their undesired toxicity and controlling their non-specific binding interactions are discussed. We also explore the nanotechnology application of lectins for cancer targeting and imaging. Although many investigations are being conducted in the field of lectinology, there is still a limited clinical translation of the major findings reported due to lectins stability and toxicity concerns. Therefore, new investigations of safe and effective drug delivery system strategies for lectins are warranted in order to take full advantage of these proteins.

  16. Therapeutic drug monitoring for imatinib: Current status and Indian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Brijesh; Gota, Vikram; Menon, Hari; Sengar, Manju; Nair, Reena; Patial, Pankaj; Banavali, S D

    2013-07-01

    Imatinib is the current gold standard for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Recent pharmacokinetic studies have shown considerable variability in trough concentrations of imatinib due to variations in its metabolism, poor compliance, or drug-drug interactions and highlighted its impact on clinical response. A trough level close to 1000 ng/mL, appears to be correlated with better cytogenetic and molecular responses. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) for imatinib may provide useful added information on efficacy, safety and compliance than clinical assessment alone and help in clinical decision making. It may be particularly helpful in patients with suboptimal response to treatment or treatment failure, severe or rare adverse events, possible drug interactions, or suspected nonadherence. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm relationship between imatinib plasma concentrations with response, and to define effective plasma concentrations in different patient populations.

  17. Current Status of Lead-Free Soldering and Conductive Adhesives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KatsuakiSuganuma

    2003-01-01

    Lead-free soldering technology took offin the Japanese market during the year 2000, and as the year 2001-03 ushered in the 21 st century, a large number of products with lead-free soldering were already appearing on store shelves. Elsewhere, EU deliberation on the draft of the WEEE/RoHS directive finalized in February 2003 and be in force in July 2006. The course had been set for adopting lead-free solder for mounting processes of parts as well, bringing the possibility of lead-free solder mounting very close to achievement. This review will provide a view of the current state of technological progress in lead-free soldering, both in Japan and abroad, and will discuss future prospects.

  18. NCBI Reference Sequences: current status, policy and new initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Kim D; Tatusova, Tatiana; Klimke, William; Maglott, Donna R

    2009-01-01

    NCBI's Reference Sequence (RefSeq) database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/RefSeq/) is a curated non-redundant collection of sequences representing genomes, transcripts and proteins. RefSeq records integrate information from multiple sources and represent a current description of the sequence, the gene and sequence features. The database includes over 5300 organisms spanning prokaryotes, eukaryotes and viruses, with records for more than 5.5 x 10(6) proteins (RefSeq release 30). Feature annotation is applied by a combination of curation, collaboration, propagation from other sources and computation. We report here on the recent growth of the database, recent changes to feature annotations and record types for eukaryotic (primarily vertebrate) species and policies regarding species inclusion and genome annotation. In addition, we introduce RefSeqGene, a new initiative to support reporting variation data on a stable genomic coordinate system.

  19. Some medicinal plants with aphrodisiac potential: A current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramandeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aphrodisiac is the word derived from Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of sexual, love and beauty. An aphrodisiac is defined as an agent (food or drug that arouses sexual desire. Current sexual dysfunction therapy lack satisfactory success due to adverse effect, hence patients are seeking complementary and alternative medicine to treat sexual dysfunction. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in various human ailments. India has about more than 45 000 plant species and among them several thousand are claimed to possess medicinal properties. Researchers conducted in the last few decades on the plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for sexual dysfunction. This review reveals that some plants and their extract have aphrodisiac activity, which are helpful for researcher to develop new herbal aphrodisiac formulations. In the recent years, interest in drugs of plant origin has been progressively increased.

  20. Some medicinal plants with aphrodisiac potential:A current status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramandeep Singh; Ashraf Ali; Gaurav Gupta; Alok Semwal; G Jeyabalan

    2013-01-01

    Aphrodisiac is the word derived fromAphrodite, theGreek goddess of sexual, love and beauty. An aphrodisiac is defined as an agent(food or drug) that arouses sexual desire.Current sexual dysfunction therapy lack satisfactory success due to adverse effect, hence patients are seeking complementary and alternative medicine to treat sexual dysfunction.Ayurveda and otherIndian literature mention the use of plants in various human ailments.India has about more than45000 plant species and among them several thousand are claimed to possess medicinal properties. Researchers conducted in the last few decades on the plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for sexual dysfunction.This review reveals that some plants and their extract have aphrodisiac activity, which are helpful for researcher to develop new herbal aphrodisiac formulations.In the recent years, interest in drugs of plant origin has been progressively increased.

  1. [Organ cryopreservation: current status of research carried out in Grenoble].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descotes, J L; Payen, E; Rambeaud, J J; Peuridieu, J F; Baudot, A; Odin, J; Mazuer, J; Boutron, P; Delon-Martin, C; Dupeyre, R

    1995-12-01

    After discussing the problem of organ cryopreservation and reviewing the current data available on this subject, the Grenoble project is presented. Physical and biological studies have been combined with experimentation of autologous renal transplantation in rabbits to assess the functional value of the retransplanted organ after treatment and cooling. Renal resistances are measured during perfusion of the kidney with the cryoprotective solution. In order to verify the homogeneity of the cryoprotector concentration in the organ, on NMR spectral imaging test has been developed. A new rapid imaging method now allows real time monitoring of concentration variations during perfusion. In addition to concentration and homogeneity, analysis of local spectra also provides information about the local temperature de the kidney.

  2. Flecainide: Current status and perspectives in arrhythmia management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George; K; Andrikopoulos; Sokratis; Pastromas; Stylianos; Tzeis

    2015-01-01

    Flecainide acetate is a class IC antiarrhythmic agent and its clinical efficacy has been confirmed by the results of several clinical trials. Nowadays, flecainide is recommended as one of the first line therapies for pharmacological conversion as well as maintenance of sinus rhythm in patients with atrial fibrillation and/or supraventricular tachycardias. Based on the Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial study results, flecainide is not recommended in patients with structural heart disease due to high proarrhythmic risk. Recent data support the role of flecainide in preventing ventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia associated both with ryanodine receptor and calsequestrin mutations. We herein review the current clinical data related to flecainide use in clinical practice and some concerns about its role in the management of patients with coronary artery disease.

  3. Prognostics and Health Management of Wind Turbines: Current Status and Future Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Shuangwen

    2016-10-04

    This presentation was given at the 2016 Annual Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management Society. It covers the current status and challenges and opportunities of prognostics and health management of wind turbines.

  4. WISM - A Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurement: Past Accomplishments, Current Status, and Path Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, Quenton; Racette, Paul; Durham, Tim (Principal Investigator)

    2016-01-01

    Presented are the prior accomplishments, current status and path forward for GSFC's Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurement (WISM). This work is a high level overview of the project, presented via Webinar to the IEEE young professionals.

  5. Personality disorders in the DSM-5: current status, lessons learned, and future challenges. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiger, Thomas A; Krueger, Robert F

    2013-10-01

    Provides an introduction to a special section of Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment. The purpose of this special section is to provide a discussion of the current status, lessons learned, and future challenges for the classification of personality disorders.

  6. Nitric oxide and phytohormone interactions: current status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano eFreschi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is currently considered a ubiquitous signal in plant systems, playing significant roles in a wide range of plant responses to environmental and endogenous cues. During the signaling events leading to these plant responses, NO frequently interacts with plant hormones and other endogenous molecules, at times originating remarkably complex signaling cascades. Accumulating evidence indicates that virtually all major classes of plant hormones may influence, at least to some degree, the endogenous levels of NO. In addition, studies conducted during the induction of diverse plant responses have demonstrated that NO may also affect biosynthesis, catabolism/conjugation, transport, perception and/or transduction of different phytohormones, such as auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, ethylene, salicylic acid, jasmonates and brassinosteroids. Although still not completely elucidated, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between NO and plant hormones have recently been investigated in a number of species and plant responses. This review specifically focuses on the current knowledge of the mechanisms implicated in NO-phytohormone interactions during the regulation of developmental and metabolic plant events. The modifications triggered by NO on the transcription of genes encoding biosynthetic/degradative enzymes as well as proteins involved in the transport and signal transduction of distinct plant hormones will be contextualized during the control of developmental, metabolic and defense responses in plants. Moreover, the direct post-translational modification of phytohormone biosynthetic enzymes and receptors through S-nitrosylation will also be discussed as a key mechanism for regulating plant physiological responses. Finally, some future perspectives toward a more complete understanding of NO-phytohormone interactions will also be presented and discussed.

  7. Assessment of the current status of basic nuclear data compilations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemer, R.L.

    1992-12-31

    The Panel on Basic Nuclear Data Compilations believes that it is important to provide the user with an evaluated nuclear database of the highest quality, dependability, and currency. It is also important that the evaluated nuclear data are easily accessible to the user. In the past the panel concentrated its concern on the cycle time for the publication of A-chain evaluations. However, the panel now recognizes that publication cycle time is no longer the appropriate goal. Sometime in the future, publication of the evaluated A-chains will evolve from the present hard-copy Nuclear Data Sheets on library shelves to purely electronic publication, with the advent of universal access to terminals and the nuclear databases. Therefore, the literature cut-off date in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) is rapidly becoming the only important measure of the currency of an evaluated A-chain. Also, it has become exceedingly important to ensure that access to the databases is as user-friendly as possible and to enable electronic publication of the evaluated data files. Considerable progress has been made in these areas: use of the on-line systems has almost doubled in the past year, and there has been initial development of tools for electronic evaluation, publication, and dissemination. Currently, the nuclear data effort is in transition between the traditional and future methods of dissemination of the evaluated data. Also, many of the factors that adversely affect the publication cycle time simultaneously affect the currency of the evaluated nuclear database. Therefore, the panel continues to examine factors that can influence cycle time: the number of evaluators, the frequency with which an evaluation can be updated, the review of the evaluation, and the production of the evaluation, which currently exists as a hard-copy issue of Nuclear Data Sheets.

  8. Current Research Status of KHNP for Site Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kyemin; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Bahng, Ki-In; Na, Jang-Hwan [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In Korea, by the geographical characteristics, many Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) have been constructed and operated at a single site. This is above average level or number of plants per site in the world. For this reason, the public concerns for the safety of nuclear facilities increased after Fukushima Daiichi accident. As a result, comprehensive risk assessment and management for the site which have multi-unit NPPs were strongly asked. Currently, to solve it, many researches and projects has carried out by various Korean companies, research centers, and regulatory authorities. In this paper, R and D plans of KHNP for multi-unit risk were summarized. Firstly, the needs of multi-unit PSA were reviewed. R and D activities and plans of KHNP were summarized in the last part. In this paper, we summarized the R and D plans of KHNP for assessing the multi-unit risk. Currently, multi-unit risk or multi-unit PSA are important and practical issues in both nuclear industry and national energy policy. After Fukushima accident, several countries stopped the construction and the operation of NPPs, other countries which is maintaining the NPPs are being strongly asked to assess the risk for multi-unit NPPs at the same site. Because of Korean geographical characteristics, the number of NPPs which are above average level or number of plants per site in the world is being constructed and operated at a single site. The population density nearby each site is considered to be higher than that of other countries.

  9. Current status of temporomandibular joint arthroscopy in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sangeetha M; Matthews, N Shaun

    2012-10-01

    In an era during which minimally invasive procedures are increasingly becoming the norm, arthroscopy of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) seems to be infrequently used for diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the TMJ. The reasons for this are not clear. The purpose of this study was to find out the current state of arthroscopy of the TMJ in the UK and, more specifically, how often it is used, the indications for its use, the level of experience of practising surgeons, and the reasons for not using it. Information was gathered between 2009 and 2010 from a postal and e-mail questionnaire to all oral and maxillofacial consultants in the UK. Of the 346 consultants, 215 (60%) responded to the questionnaire. Forty-two said that they currently used arthroscopy of the TMJ, and 33 of those (81%) have more than 5 years' experience. During the past year, a total of 8 consultants nationally have done 20 arthroscopies or more. Thirty-three of the procedures (81%) were done for both diagnosis and treatment. Lack of perceived need of patients and lack of interest in this specialty were the main reasons given for not doing arthroscopy, lack of training being a key secondary reason. The Storz and Olympus systems were the most commonly used within the UK. Results seem to support the opinion that arthroscopy of the TMJ is under-used, and consideration should be given to ensuring that trainees are instructed in its use, which is important in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the TMJ.

  10. Impacts of social economic status on higher education opportunity and graduate employment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Dong-mao

    2006-01-01

    Based on a nation-wide survey of higher education graduates,this paper analyzes the impact of family background,using paternal occupation and education as indicators,on their scores in the National College Entrance Examination,the level and type of higher education institutions they attend,their employment after graduation,and the income they receive from their first job.It has been found that there are wide disparities among students with different family backgrounds in both access to higher education and their potential employment in China nowadays.This paper also studies how those influences happen.

  11. Job monitoring on the WLCG scope: Current status and new strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Andreeva, J; Belov, S; Casey, J; Dvorak, F; Gaidioz, B; Karavakis, E; Kodolova, O; Kokoszkiewicz, L; Krenek, A; Lanciotti, E; Maier, J; Mulac, M; Rocha Da Cunha Rodrigues, D F; Rocha, R; Saiz, P; Sidorova, I; Sitera, J; Tikhonenko, E; Vaibhav, K; Vocu, M

    2010-01-01

    Job processing and data transfer are the main computing activities on the WLCG infrastructure. Reliable monitoring of the job processing on the WLCG scope is a complicated task due to the complexity of the infrastructure itself and the diversity of the currently used job submission methods. The paper will describe current status and the new strategy for the job monitoring on the WLCG scope, covering primary information sources, job status changes publishing, transport mechanism and visualization.

  12. Current Status and Control Measures of Ecological Restoration in Karst Rocky Desertification Area of Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to analyze the current status and control measures of ecological restoration in Karst rocky desertification area of Guizhou.[Method] The current status and existing problems of ecological restoration in Karst rocky desertification area of Guizhou were studied firstly,and main control measures were put forward according to existing problems.[Result] At present,Karst rocky desertification area in Guizhou has suitable ecological environment,obvious control results and rich control exper...

  13. Nanotechnology in neurology: Genesis, current status, and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paurush Ambesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a promising, novel field of technological development. There is great potential in research and clinical applications for neurological diseases. Here we chronicle the inception of nanotechnology, discuss its integration with neurology, and highlight the challenges in current application. Some of the problems involving practical use of neuronanotechnology are direct biological toxicity, visualization of the nanodevice, and the short life expectancy of nanomachinery. Neuron cell therapy is an upcoming field for the treatment of challenging problems in neurology. Peptide nanofibers based on amphiphilic molecules have been developed that can autoregulate their structure depending on the conditions of the surrounding milieu. Such frameworks are promising for serving as drug delivery systems or communication bridges between damaged neurons. For common disabling diseases such as Alzheimer′s disease (AD, Parkinson′s disease (PD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, and multiple sclerosis (MS, recent developments have seen revolutionary nanotech-based novelties, which are discussed here in detail. Bioimaging integrated with nanoneuromedicine has opened up new doors for cancer and infection therapeutics.

  14. Alternatives to animal testing: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebsch, Manfred; Grune, Barbara; Seiler, Andrea; Butzke, Daniel; Oelgeschläger, Michael; Pirow, Ralph; Adler, Sarah; Riebeling, Christian; Luch, Andreas

    2011-08-01

    On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the Center for Alternative Methods to Animal Experiments (ZEBET), an international symposium was held at the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) in Berlin. At the same time, this symposium was meant to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of the book "The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique" by Russell and Burch in 1959 in which the 3Rs principle (that is, Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement) has been coined and introduced to foster the development of alternative methods to animal testing. Another topic addressed by the symposium was the new vision on "Toxicology in the twenty-first Century", as proposed by the US-National Research Council, which aims at using human cells and tissues for toxicity testing in vitro rather than live animals. An overview of the achievements and current tasks, as well as a vision of the future to be addressed by ZEBET@BfR in the years to come is outlined in the present paper.

  15. Current status and future directions of pharmacological therapy for acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Moisés; Espinosa, Etual; Ramírez, Claudia

    2016-09-01

    Acromegaly is a chronic systemic disorder caused in the vast majority of cases by a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma and resulting in significant morbidity and mortality if left untreated. The treatment of choice is the trans-sphenoidal resection of the adenoma, and although 80% of patients with microadenomas or confined macroadenomas achieve biochemical remission, the surgical success rate for patients harboring tumors with extrasellar extension is below 50%. Thus, a considerable proportion of patients will require some form of adjuvant treatment. Acromegaly can be approached pharmacologically by inhibiting GH secretion by the tumor (somatostatin analogues, dopamine agonists) or by antagonizing GH actions at its target tissues (GH receptor antagonists). The primary pharmacological treatment of acromegaly is increasingly gaining acceptance by both physicians and patients. The decision to use primary pharmacological treatment has to take into account the clinical characteristics of the patient (presence of comorbidities that significantly increase the surgical risk) and the biological nature of the adenoma (tumor size and location), as well as other aspects such as the availability of a pituitary surgeon and the cost of medications. This review provides a critical summary and update of the pharmacological treatment of acromegaly focusing both, on well-established agents and strategies as well as on novel compounds that are currently being developed.

  16. Mediterranean limnology: current status, gaps and the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel ALVAREZ COBELAS

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The current ecosystem paradigm in limnology is represented by the cold temperate, stratifying lake and the single-channelled river. However, the variety of inland water ecosystems is much higher, and so is the ecological complexity of many of them. Most Mediterranean limnosystems are quite distinct from the contemporary limnological paradigm. This overview will deal with the striking and exciting differences between Mediterranean and other temperate limnosystems. For example, most are very small, their catchment area is much larger than their size, and they experience both a longer vegetation period and a strong seasonality in water supply which occurs outside the hot season, often from groundwater sources. In addition, we encourage research on the often poorly known limnological processes taking place in Mediterranean regions by pointing at insufficiently covered research fields. Furthermore, competition for water among different users, arising from population increase in fertile and/or tourist areas, is certainly limiting the ability of many Mediterranean limnosystems to survive at present and in the near future, particularly in the face of the harsher environmental conditions that climatic change is triggering. A new paradigm on Mediterranean limnology is thus necessary. This will enable us to predict and mitigate more accurately the unstoppable effects of man-made change in these beautiful and still largely ignored ecosystems.

  17. The Evolution of Process Safety: Current Status and Future Direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannan, M Sam; Reyes-Valdes, Olga; Jain, Prerna; Tamim, Nafiz; Ahammad, Monir

    2016-06-01

    The advent of the industrial revolution in the nineteenth century increased the volume and variety of manufactured goods and enriched the quality of life for society as a whole. However, industrialization was also accompanied by new manufacturing and complex processes that brought about the use of hazardous chemicals and difficult-to-control operating conditions. Moreover, human-process-equipment interaction plus on-the-job learning resulted in further undesirable outcomes and associated consequences. These problems gave rise to many catastrophic process safety incidents that resulted in thousands of fatalities and injuries, losses of property, and environmental damages. These events led eventually to the necessity for a gradual development of a new multidisciplinary field, referred to as process safety. From its inception in the early 1970s to the current state of the art, process safety has come to represent a wide array of issues, including safety culture, process safety management systems, process safety engineering, loss prevention, risk assessment, risk management, and inherently safer technology. Governments and academic/research organizations have kept pace with regulatory programs and research initiatives, respectively. Understanding how major incidents impact regulations and contribute to industrial and academic technology development provides a firm foundation to address new challenges, and to continue applying science and engineering to develop and implement programs to keep hazardous materials within containment. Here the most significant incidents in terms of their impact on regulations and the overall development of the field of process safety are described.

  18. Current status in the treatment options for esophageal achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Seng-Kee; Chiu, Chien-Hua; Tai, Wei-Chen; Lee, Jyong-Hong; Lu, Hung-I; Changchien, Chi-Sin; Tseng, Ping-Huei; Wu, Keng-Liang

    2013-09-07

    Recent advances in the treatment of achalasia include the use of high-resolution manometry to predict the outcome of patients and the introduction of peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM). The first multicenter randomized, controlled, 2-year follow-up study conducted by the European Achalasia Trial group indicated that laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) was not superior to pneumatic dilations (PD). Publications on the long-term success of laparoscopic surgery continue to emerge. In addition, laparoscopic single-site surgery is applicable to advanced laparoscopic operations such as LHM and anterior fundoplication. The optimal treatment option is an ongoing matter of debate. In this review, we provide an update of the current progress in the treatment of esophageal achalasia. Unless new conclusive data prove otherwise, LHM is considered the most durable treatment for achalasia at the expense of increased reflux-associated complications. However, PD is the first choice for non-surgical treatment and is more cost-effective. Repeated PD according to an "on-demand" strategy based on symptom recurrence can achieve long-term remission. Decision making should be based on clinical evidence that identifies a subcategory of patients who would benefit from specific treatment options. POEM has shown promise but its long-term efficacy and safety need to be assessed further.

  19. Drugs from the seas - current status and microbiological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proksch, P; Edrada, R A; Ebel, R

    2002-07-01

    The oceans are the source of a large group of structurally unique natural products that are mainly accumulated in invertebrates such as sponges, tunicates, bryozoans, and molluscs. Several of these compounds (especially the tunicate metabolite ET-743) show pronounced pharmacological activities and are interesting candidates for new drugs primarily in the area of cancer treatment. Other compounds are currently being developed as an analgesic (ziconotide from the mollusc Conus magus) or to treat inflammation. Numerous natural products from marine invertebrates show striking structural similarities to known metabolites of microbial origin, suggesting that microorganisms (bacteria, microalgae) are at least involved in their biosynthesis or are in fact the true sources of these respective metabolites. This assumption is corroborated by several studies on natural products from sponges that proved these compounds to be localized in symbiotic bacteria or cyanobacteria. Recently, molecular methods have successfully been applied to study the microbial diversity in marine sponges and to gain evidence for an involvement of bacteria in the biosynthesis of the bryostatins in the bryozoan Bugula neritina.

  20. Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery: current status and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richter GM

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Grace M Richter,1,2 Anne L Coleman11UCLA Stein Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2USC Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery aims to provide a medication-sparing, conjunctival-sparing, ab interno approach to intraocular pressure reduction for patients with mild-to-moderate glaucoma that is safer than traditional incisional glaucoma surgery. The current approaches include: increasing trabecular outflow (Trabectome, iStent, Hydrus stent, gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy, excimer laser trabeculotomy; suprachoroidal shunts (Cypass micro-stent; reducing aqueous production (endocyclophotocoagulation; and subconjunctival filtration (XEN gel stent. The data on each surgical procedure for each of these approaches are reviewed in this article, patient selection pearls learned to date are discussed, and expectations for the future are examined. Keywords: MIGS, microincisional glaucoma surgery, trabecular stent, Schlemm’s canal, suprachoroidal shunt, ab interno

  1. Phytochemicals for breast cancer therapy: current status and future implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Jawed Akhtar; Singh, Aru; Chagtoo, Megha; Singh, Nidhi; Godbole, Madan Madhav; Chakravarti, Bandana

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies among women, representing nearly 30% of newly diagnosed cancers every year. Till date, various therapeutic interventions, including surgery, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and radiotherapy are available and are known to cause a significant decline in the overall mortality rate. However, therapeutic resistance, recurrence and lack of treatment in metastasis are the major challenges that need to be addressed. Increasing evidence suggests the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in heterogeneous population of breast tumors capable of selfrenewal and differentiation and is considered to be responsible for drug resistance and recurrence. Therefore, compound that can target both differentiated cancer cells, as well as CSCs, may provide a better treatment strategy. Due to safe nature of dietary agents and health products, investigators are introducing them into clinical trials in place of chemotherapeutic agents.This current review focuses on phytochemicals, mainly flavonoids that are in use for breast cancer therapy in preclinical phase. As phytochemicals have several advantages in breast cancer and cancer stem cells, new synthetic series for breast cancer therapy from analogues of most potent natural molecule can be developed via rational drug design approach.

  2. Current status of Indian medicinal plants with aphrodisiac potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramandeep Singh; Ashraf Ali; G Jeyabalan; Alok Semwal

    2013-01-01

    In India, indigenous remedies have been used in treatment of sexual dysfunction since the time of Charaka and Sushruta. Plants have been always an exemplary source of drugs and many of the currently available drugs have been derived directly or indirectly from them. An aphrodisiac is defined as an agent that arouses sexual desire. Erectile dysfunction or sexual dysfunction (ED or SD) or male impotence is defined as the inability of a man to achieve and maintain an erection sufficient for mutually satisfactory intercourse with his partner. Sexual health and function are important determinants of quality of life. To overcome the problem of male sexual (or) erectile dysfunction, various Indian natural aphrodisiac plants potentials were preferred. The ethnobotanical information reports that about 200 plants possess aphrodisiac potential. Out of several Indian medicinal plants, 33 plants were reviewed. In this review, studies on Indian medicinal plants were reviewed and their possible therapeutic applications were discussed. This review discusses about aphrodisiac potential of Indian medicinal plants, its botanical name, common name, family, extract, models used, part used and references, which are helpful for researchers to develop new herbal aphrodisiac formulations. In the recent years, interest in drugs of plant origin has been progressively increased.

  3. Aldosterone synthase inhibitors in hypertension: current status and future possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Hargovan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The renin-angiotensin aldosterone system is a critical mechanism for controlling blood pressure, and exerts most of its physiological effects through the action of angiotensin II. In addition to increasing blood pressure by increasing vascular resistance, angiotensin II also stimulates aldosterone secretion from the adrenal gland. Aldosterone acts to cause an increase in sodium and water reabsorption, thus elevating blood pressure. Although treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors initially lowers circulating aldosterone, with chronic treatment aldosterone levels increase back to baseline, a phenomenon termed aldosterone escape; aldosterone blockade may therefore give added value in the treatment of hypertension. The first mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist developed was spironolactone, but its use has been severely hampered by adverse (notably oestrogenic effects. The more recently developed mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist eplerenone exhibits a better adverse effect profile, although it is not devoid of effects similar to spironolactone. In addition, aldosterone activates non-genomic receptors that are not inhibited by either eplerenone or spironolactone. It is believed that deleterious organ remodelling is mediated by aldosterone via such non-genomic pathways. A new class of drugs, the aldosterone synthase inhibitors, is currently under development. These may offer a novel therapeutic approach for both lowering blood pressure and preventing the non-genomic effects of aldosterone. Here, we will review the cardiovascular effects of aldosterone and review the drugs available that target this hormone, with a particular focus on the aldosterone synthase inhibitors.

  4. Aldosterone synthase inhibitors in hypertension: current status and future possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargovan, Milan; Ferro, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin aldosterone system is a critical mechanism for controlling blood pressure, and exerts most of its physiological effects through the action of angiotensin II. In addition to increasing blood pressure by increasing vascular resistance, angiotensin II also stimulates aldosterone secretion from the adrenal gland. Aldosterone acts to cause an increase in sodium and water reabsorption, thus elevating blood pressure. Although treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors initially lowers circulating aldosterone, with chronic treatment aldosterone levels increase back to baseline, a phenomenon termed aldosterone escape; aldosterone blockade may therefore give added value in the treatment of hypertension. The first mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist developed was spironolactone, but its use has been severely hampered by adverse (notably oestrogenic) effects. The more recently developed mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist eplerenone exhibits a better adverse effect profile, although it is not devoid of effects similar to spironolactone. In addition, aldosterone activates non-genomic receptors that are not inhibited by either eplerenone or spironolactone. It is believed that deleterious organ remodelling is mediated by aldosterone via such non-genomic pathways. A new class of drugs, the aldosterone synthase inhibitors, is currently under development. These may offer a novel therapeutic approach for both lowering blood pressure and preventing the non-genomic effects of aldosterone. Here, we will review the cardiovascular effects of aldosterone and review the drugs available that target this hormone, with a particular focus on the aldosterone synthase inhibitors.

  5. Medical treatment of radiation injuries-Current US status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarrett, D.G. [OSA - CBD and CDP, 3050 Defense Pentagon, Room 3C257, Washington, DC 20301-3050 (United States)], E-mail: david.jarrett@us.army.mil; Sedlak, R.G.; Dickerson, W.E. [Uniformed Services University, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States); Reeves, G.I. [Northrop Grumman IT, 8211 Terminal Road, Lorton, VA 22079-1421 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    A nuclear incident or major release of radioactive materials likely would result in vast numbers of patients, many of whom would require novel therapy. Fortunately, the numbers of radiation victims in the United States (USA) have been limited to date. If a mass-casualty situation occurs, there will be a need to perform rapid, accurate dose estimates and to provide appropriate medications and other treatment to ameliorate radiation injury. The medical management of radiation injury is complex. Radiation injury may include acute radiation sickness (ARS) from external and/or internal radiation exposure, internal organ damage from incorporated radioactive isotopes, and cutaneous injury. Human and animal data have shown that optimal medical care may nearly double the survivable dose of ionizing radiation. Current treatment strategies for radiation injuries are discussed with concentration on the medical management of the hematopoietic syndrome. In addition, priority areas for continuing and future research into both acute deterministic injuries and also long-term stochastic sequelae of radiation exposure have been identified. There are several near-term novel therapies that appear to offer excellent prognosis for radiation casualties, and these are also described.

  6. Molecular ultrasound imaging: current status and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, N. [Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Needles, A. [Visualsonics, Toronto (Canada); Willmann, J.K., E-mail: willmann@stanford.ed [Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound (molecular ultrasound) is an emerging imaging strategy that combines ultrasound technology with novel molecularly-targeted ultrasound contrast agents for assessing biological processes at the molecular level. Molecular ultrasound contrast agents are nano- or micro-sized particles that are targeted to specific molecular markers by adding high-affinity binding ligands onto the surface of the particles. Following intravenous administration, these targeted ultrasound contrast agents accumulate at tissue sites overexpressing specific molecular markers, thereby enhancing the ultrasound imaging signal. High spatial and temporal resolution, real-time imaging, non-invasiveness, relatively low costs, lack of ionising irradiation and wide availability of ultrasound systems are advantages compared to other molecular imaging modalities. In this article we review current concepts and future directions of molecular ultrasound imaging, including different classes of molecular ultrasound contrast agents, ongoing technical developments of pre-clinical and clinical ultrasound systems, the potential of molecular ultrasound for imaging different diseases at the molecular level, and the translation of molecular ultrasound into the clinic.

  7. The current status of bone scintigraphy in malignant diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgeb, Bahar; Mulligan, Michael H; Kim, Chun K

    2007-12-01

    For the past few decades, planar bone scintigraphy has been the most frequently performed imaging study in the evaluation of metastatic bone disease. Although scintigraphic findings alone are often nonspecific for skeletal pathologies, this technique reportedly has an exquisite sensitivity. However, recently accumulated data on the efficacy of positron emission tomography with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose and fluorine-18 sodium fluoride as well as magnetic resonance imaging for evaluating skeletal metastatic disease now indicate that conventional planar bone scintigraphy is not very sensitive in the detection of metastatic bone lesions in selected malignancies. Nevertheless, bone scintigraphy still remains the primary imaging modality for evaluation of metastatic bone disease owing mainly to its cost effectiveness and wide availability. In addition, recently introduced hybrid imaging systems combining single-photon emission computed tomography and spiral computed tomography, although not widely available yet, increase considerably both the sensitivity and specificity of bone scintigraphy. This article focuses primarily on the current role of bone scintigraphy and its strengths and weaknesses in assessing different types of malignant diseases relative to other imaging modalities in selected malignancies.

  8. The current status of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prokar Dasgupta; Roger S.Kirby

    2009-01-01

    Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) is a rapidly evolving technique for the treatment of localized prostate cancer.In the United States,over 65% of radical prostatectomies are robot-assisted,although the acceptance of this technology in Europe and the rest of the world has been somewhat slower.This article reviews the current literature on RARP with regard to oncological,continence and potency outcomes-the so-called 'trifecta'.Preliminary data appear to show an advantage of RARP over open prostatectomy,with reduced blood loss,decreased pain,early mobilization,shorter hospital stay and lower margin rates.Most studies show good postoperative continence and potency with RARP;however,this needs to be viewed in the context of the paucity of randomized data available in the literature.There is no definitive evidence to show an advantage over standard laparoscopy,but the fact that this technique has reached parity with laparoscopy within 5 years is encouraging.Finally,evolving techniques of single-port robotic prostatectomy,laserguided robotics,catheter-free prostatectomy and image-guided robotics are discussed.

  9. Current status of radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Radiotherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer has been extensively explored in the past. Along with the comprehensive understanding of the biology of prostate cancer and rapid advances in terms of technology, the outcome of treatment for the patients with prostate cancer has improved. The authors review radiotherapy as the primary treatment for the disease, with particular emphasis on the technological advances from both the radiobiological and radiophysics aspects. Nonconventional fractionated irradiation like hyper- or hypo-fractionation has been implemented in the clinic, the final results still need to be confirmed in the future. Technological advances like IMRT, IGRT,in the last two decades have significantly improved the delivery of external radiotherapy to the prostate. This has resulted in an overall increase in the total dose that can be safely delivered to the prostate, which has led to modest improvements in the biochemical outcome. However, establishing the standard therapy for prostate cancer remains controversial. It is hoped that the next decades will bring continued advances in the development of biologicals that will further improve current clinical outcomes.

  10. BANK DEPOSIT CONTRACT: CURRENT STATUS OF LEGISLATION AND LAW ENFORCEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Kozhevnikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 347.734The relevance of the study is determined by the debates around legal rules devoted to the bank deposit contract, as well as an extensive judicial practice, revealing the problems of existing legislation. Purpose: to systematize the main problems of enforcement related to the bank deposit contract and to suggest ways of improving the current legislation. Meth-ods: general and special scientific methods (systemic, comparative, formal-logical and other are used. Results: on the basis of the comparative experience of Belarus, Kazakhstan and other foreign countries, analysis of judicial practice proposals to improve existing legislation are presented (including types of contract, investigation of deposits, bail-in.The authors conclude, it is necessary to supplement Chapter 44 of Russian Civil Code by rules on types of bank deposit agreement, establish the order of registration of the deposit and deposited funds with the remote technology, by list of requirements as to the form of deposit and savings certificates, by details and peculiarities of treatment, as well as consolidate the definition of "interest capitalization" and establish the list of cases of restriction of the rights of depositors for disposal of deposits. Procedural rules on the investigation of the deposits, determining the jurisdiction of cases on the protection of investors, are also should be improved.

  11. Companion diagnostics in oncology - current status and future aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Jan Trøst

    2013-01-01

    A large number of targeted anticancer drugs are currently under development and most of them will have a companion diagnostic linked to their use. If a diagnostic assay is developed in conjunction with a targeted anticancer drug, such an assay will later end up determining the conditions for the use of the drug after its approval. The assay then becomes a kind of 'gatekeeper' in relation to which patients should be treated with the drug in question. This 'gatekeeper' role implies that companion diagnostic assays must live up to the same regulatory standards and requirements known from drug development. The assays must have proven to be analytically robust and reliable and to have demonstrated clinical utility before they are routinely used in the clinic. In the drug-diagnostic codevelopment model, several 'traditional' study designs have been used to demonstrate clinical utility. However, if we are to benefit from the increasing knowledge provided by molecular oncology, new ways should be developed to demonstrate the clinical utility of drug-diagnostic combinations. The development of such an approach will require a rethinking at different levels and is likely to include a number of ethical, regulatory and practical challenges.

  12. "The current status of work on the origin of life"

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Work on the Origin of Life is poised to converge onto a fourth phase and, many of us hope, success. The first phase concerned prebiotic synthesis of the small molecules, amino acids, nucleotides, lipids and others, essential for life and spanned some forty years. The second overlapping phase was inspired by the symmetric of the DNA or RNA double helix, presumed that life must necessarily be based on some form of template replication of one strand by ligation of free nucleotides to create the second strand, melting of the two strands and cycling again. Spearheaded by L. Orgel, but with many others, this effort has, to date, failed. The third phase begins with the discovery that RNA molecules can act as enzymes, and posited the RNA world, in which RNA molecules dominated. This has led to slightly successful efforts to evolve an RNA sequence able to template replicate itself. Current success is an evolved ribozyme able to do so for 14 nucleotides. The forth phase is converging around four ideas: 1) liposomes, h...

  13. Effect-directed analysis: Current status and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seongjin; Giesy, John P.; Lee, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Khim, Jong Seong

    2016-09-01

    Effect-directed analysis (EDA) has become useful for identification of toxicant(s) that occur in mixtures in the environment, especially those that are causative agents of specific adverse effects. Here, we summarize and review EDA methodology including preparation of samples, biological analyses, fractionations, and instrumental analyses, highlighting key scientific advancements. A total of 63 documents since 1999 (Scopus search) including 46 research articles, 13 review papers, and 4 project descriptions, have been collected and reviewed in this study. At the early stage (1999-2010), most studies that applied EDA focused on organic extracts of freshwater and coastal contaminated sediments and wastewater. Toxic effects were often measured using cell-based bioassays ( in vitro) and the causative chemicals were identified by use of low resolution gas chromatography with mass selective detector (GCMSD). More recently (2010-present), EDA has been extended to various matrices such as biota, soil, crude oil, and suspended solids and techniques have been improved to include determination of bioavailability in vivo. In particular, methods for non-target screenings of organic chemicals in environmental samples using cutting-edge instrumentation such as time of flight-mass spectrometry (ToF-MS), Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR), and Orbitrap mass spectrometer have been developed. This overview provides descriptions of recent improvements of EDA and suggests future research directions based on current understandings and limitations.

  14. Current status of outcome measure development in vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Peter A; Aydin, Sibel Z; Boers, Maarten; Cornell, Christina; Direskeneli, Haner; Gebhart, Don; Hatemi, Gulen; Luqmani, Raashid; Matteson, Eric L; Milman, Nataliya; Robson, Joanna; Seo, Philip; Tomasson, Gunnar

    2014-03-01

    The conduct of randomized controlled trials for vasculitis, especially for the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides [AAV, granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) and microscopic polyangiitis], has been greatly advanced by the development, use, and acceptance of validated outcome measures. Trials have subsequently provided the opportunity to validate and refine reliable, valid outcome measures for these multisystemic and relapsing rare diseases. The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Vasculitis Working Group was formed in 2004 to foster development of validated and widely accepted outcomes in vasculitis using data-driven analyses, a dedication to building consensus, and adherence to, and guidance by, the principles of the OMERACT approach. This work led to the endorsement by OMERACT of the core set of domains and associated outcome measures for AAV. Next steps for the study of existing outcome tools in AAV include better definition of response criteria through development of more data-driven weighting of the elements of activity and damage assessment. The Working Group is now also embarking on a series of linked projects to develop validated patient-reported outcomes for use in clinical research in vasculitis. Additionally, the Working Group is studying how current methods of disease assessment and plans for new outcomes can be informed by the conceptual framework of the International Classification of Function of the World Health Organization. The success of the Group's work in AAV has also led to a formal process for developing outcomes for the large vessel vasculitides (Takayasu arteritis and giant cell arteritis) and Behçet disease.

  15. The current status of orbital experiments for UHECR studies

    CERN Document Server

    Panasyuk, M I; Garipov, G K; Ebisuzaki, T; Gorodetzky, P; Khrenov, B A; Klimov, P A; Morozenko, V S; Sakaki, N; Saprykin, O A; Sharakin, S A; Takizawa, Y; Tkachev, L G; Yashin, I V; Zotov, M Yu

    2015-01-01

    Two types of orbital detectors of extreme energy cosmic rays are being developed nowadays: (i) TUS and KLYPVE with reflecting optical systems (mirrors) and (ii) JEM-EUSO with high-transmittance Fresnel lenses. They will cover much larger areas than existing ground-based arrays and almost uniformly monitor the celestial sphere. The TUS detector is the pioneering mission developed in SINP MSU in cooperation with several Russian and foreign institutions. It has relatively small field of view (+/-4.5 deg), which corresponds to a ground area of 6.4x10^3 sq.km. The telescope consists of a Fresnel-type mirror-concentrator (~2 sq.m) and a photo receiver (a matrix of 16x16 photomultiplier tubes). It is to be deployed on the Lomonosov satellite, and is currently at the final stage of preflight tests. Recently, SINP MSU began the KLYPVE project to be installed on board of the Russian segment of the ISS. The optical system of this detector contains a larger primary mirror (10 sq.m), which allows decreasing the energy thr...

  16. Current status of oral health research in Africa: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoute, Aïda; Faye, Daouda; Bourgeois, Denis

    2012-12-01

    Research in oral health contributes effectively to decisions and strategies aimed at improving the oral health of populations. Further contributions to enhance current knowledge of oral health in Africa are required. The principal objective of this study was to produce an analysis of oral health research published from different subregions of Africa and to estimate bilateral and multilateral international cooperation in oral health research during the period 2005-2010. The PubMed database was searched for published articles on topics related to oral health in Africa. A total of 935 oral health-related articles were retrieved during April and May 2011. Publications emanating from Nigeria and South Africa accounted for a striking 68% of all oral health-related material published from Africa during the study period. Researchers from 30 different countries had participated in collaboration on at least one published article. A total of 262 journals had published at least one item examining oral health in Africa, but only 29 journals had published more than seven articles. These 29 journals accounted for 66% of all published material and induced non-African reviews (26%) and African reviews (40%). This study shows strong variation among countries in the production of articles on oral health whereby rich countries produce greater quantities of published research and poorer nations more frequently develop research partnerships with other countries. © 2012 FDI World Dental Federation.

  17. Current status of auditory aging and anti-aging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Qingwei; Ma, Cheng; Zhang, Ruxin; Yu, Zhuowei

    2014-01-01

    The development of presbycusis, or age-related hearing loss, is determined by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The auditory periphery exhibits a progressive bilateral, symmetrical reduction of auditory sensitivity to sound from high to low frequencies. The central auditory nervous system shows symptoms of decline in age-related cognitive abilities, including difficulties in speech discrimination and reduced central auditory processing, ultimately resulting in auditory perceptual abnormalities. The pathophysiological mechanisms of presbycusis include excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, aging and oxidative stress-induced DNA damage that results in apoptosis in the auditory pathway. However, the originating signals that trigger these mechanisms remain unclear. For instance, it is still unknown whether insulin is involved in auditory aging. Auditory aging has preclinical lesions, which manifest as asymptomatic loss of periphery auditory nerves and changes in the plasticity of the central auditory nervous system. Currently, the diagnosis of preclinical, reversible lesions depends on the detection of auditory impairment by functional imaging, and the identification of physiological and molecular biological markers. However, despite recent improvements in the application of these markers, they remain under-utilized in clinical practice. The application of antisenescent approaches to the prevention of auditory aging has produced inconsistent results. Future research will focus on the identification of markers for the diagnosis of preclinical auditory aging and the development of effective interventions.

  18. Neuroprotection for Stroke: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kleinschnitz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuroprotection aims to prevent salvageable neurons from dying. Despite showing efficacy in experimental stroke studies, the concept of neuroprotection has failed in clinical trials. Reasons for the translational difficulties include a lack of methodological agreement between preclinical and clinical studies and the heterogeneity of stroke in humans compared to homogeneous strokes in animal models. Even when the international recommendations for preclinical stroke research, the Stroke Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR criteria, were followed, we have still seen limited success in the clinic, examples being NXY-059 and haematopoietic growth factors which fulfilled nearly all the STAIR criteria. However, there are a number of neuroprotective treatments under investigation in clinical trials such as hypothermia and ebselen. Moreover, promising neuroprotective treatments based on a deeper understanding of the complex pathophysiology of ischemic stroke such as inhibitors of NADPH oxidases and PSD-95 are currently evaluated in preclinical studies. Further concepts to improve translation include the investigation of neuroprotectants in multicenter preclinical Phase III-type studies, improved animal models, and close alignment between clinical trial and preclinical methodologies. Future successful translation will require both new concepts for preclinical testing and innovative approaches based on mechanistic insights into the ischemic cascade.

  19. Adrenal insufficiency and adrenal replacement therapy. Current status in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulinas, Anna; Casanueva, Felipe; Goñi, Fernando; Monereo, Susana; Moreno, Basilio; Picó, Antonio; Puig-Domingo, Manel; Salvador, Javier; Tinahones, Francisco J; Webb, Susan M

    2013-03-01

    Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is a rare endocrine disease, associated to increased mortality if left untreated. It can be due to a primary failure of the adrenal glands (primary AI) or malfunctioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) (secondary AI). The lack of data on incidence/prevalence of adrenal insufficiency in Spain complicates any evaluation of the magnitude of the problem in our country. Initial symptoms are non-specific, so often there is a delay in diagnosis. Current therapy with available glucocorticoids is associated with decreased quality of life in patients with treated AI, as well as with increased mortality and morbidity, probably related to both over-treatment and lack of hydrocortisone, associated with non-physiological peaks and troughs of the drug over the 24 hours. The availability of a new drug with a modified dual release (immediate and retarded), that requires one only daily dose, improves and simplifies the treatment, increases compliance as well as quality of life, morbidity and possibly mortality. This revision deals with the knowledge on the situation both globally and in Spain, prior to the availability of this new drug.

  20. Metabolic syndrome in the Mediterranean region: Current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Anagnostis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities including abdominal obesity, impaired fasting glucose, hypertension and dyslipidemia. It seems to affect about one-fourth to one-fifth of the Mediterranean population, and its prevalence increases with age, being similar for both sexes and depending on the region and the definition used, with the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel-III (NCEP-ATPIII definition being the most effective in the identification of glucose intolerance and cardiovascular risk. Except for these, MetS is associated with fatty liver disease, some forms of cancer, hypogonadism, and vascular dementia. The Mediterranean diet seems to be an ideal diet in patients with MetS, being rich in fibre, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, and low in animal protein; and decreases the prevalence of MetS and cardiovascular disease risk. Except for weight loss, multifactorial intervention including insulin resistance reduction and normoglycemia, management of dyslipidemia, optimizing blood pressure and administration of low-dose aspirin for patients at high or moderately high cardiovascular disease (CVD risk are additional targets. The present review provides current understanding about MetS in the Mediterranean region, focusing on its prevalence, clinical significance, and therapeutic strategy.