WorldWideScience

Sample records for current empirical evidence

  1. Analysis of consumption behaviour concerning current income and lags consumption: Empirical evidence from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Qayyum Khan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As in other economies, consumption expenditure is the largest component of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP of Pakistan economy. The figure has been estimated around 80 percent of the GDP and demonstrates that historically, Pakistan’s economic growth is characterized as consumption-led growth. The present paper aims to explore the relationship between income and consumption using annual time series data for the period: 1975 to 2012 in Pakistan. For empirical investigation the linear regression model and the method of Least Squares is used as analytical techniques. Empirical results support the existence of a significant positive relationship between income and consumption. The finding suggests that long term committed planning is indispensable to enhance the productive capacity of the economy, employment opportunities and reduce poverty levels more effectively.

  2. Realism And Empirical Evidence

    CERN Document Server

    Schmelzer, I

    1997-01-01

    We define realism using a slightly modified version of the EPR criterion of reality. This version is strong enough to show that relativity is incomplete. We show that this definition of realism is nonetheless compatible with the general principles of causality and canonical quantum theory as well as with experimental evidence in the (special and general) relativistic domain. We show that the realistic theories we present here, compared with the standard relativistic theories, have higher empirical content in the strong sense defined by Popper's methodology.

  3. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy versus Traditional Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Current Empirical Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Controversy remains about the empirical status of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and its presumably different characteristics relative to traditional cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). The current study aims to shed some light in this respect by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of the studies that have empirically compared ACT versus CBT. Sixteen studies comparing differential outcomes (N= 954) of ACT versus CBT in diverse problems were identified following several s...

  4. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years spurred by examples where evidence indicated that certain treatments recommended by expert opinions increased death rates. We suggest that scientific evidence should also take priority over expert opinion in the regulation of genetically modified crops (GM). Examples of regulatory data requirements that are not justified based on the mass of evidence are described, and it is suggested that expertise in risk assessment should guide evidence-based regulation of GM crops. PMID:24637724

  5. Empirical Evidence for Narrative Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James Paul; Grosjean, Francois

    1984-01-01

    Used experimental tasks--spontaneous telling of a story, reading, and parsing--to determine whether empirical data reflect narrative structure of stories. It was concluded that spontaneous pausing reflects the narrative structure and can be used as a guide to constructing theories of narrative structure and deciding between competing theories.…

  6. African American Homeschooling Practices: Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazama, Ama

    2016-01-01

    Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…

  7. Practice management: observations, issues, and empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, H M; Braithwaite, J

    2001-02-01

    The primary objective of this study is to provide objective, empirical, evidence-based practice management information. This is a hitherto under-researched area of considerable interest for both the practitioner and educator. A questionnaire eliciting a mix of structured and free text responses was administered to a random sample of 480 practitioners who are members of the American Academy of Periodontology. Potential respondents not in private practice were excluded and the next listed person substituted. The results provide demographic and descriptive information about some of the main issues and problems facing practice managers, central to which are information technology (IT), financial, people management, and marketing. Human resource and marketing management appear to represent the biggest challenges. Periodontists running practices would prefer more information, development, and support in dealing with IT, finance, marketing, and people management. The empirical evidence reported here suggests that although tailored educational programs on key management issues at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels have become ubiquitous, nevertheless some respondents seek further training opportunities. Evidence-based practice management information will be invaluable to the clinician considering strategic and marketing planning, and also for those responsible for the design and conduct of predoctoral and postdoctoral programs.

  8. Models of social entrepreneurship: empirical evidence from Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Wulleman, Marine; Hudon, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to improve the understanding of social entrepreneurship models based on empirical evidence from Mexico, where social entrepreneurship is currently booming. It aims to supplement existing typologies of social entrepreneurship models. To that end, building on Zahra et al. (2009) typology it begins by providing a new framework classifying the three types of social entrepreneurship. A comparative case study of ten Mexican social enterprises is then elaborated using that framework...

  9. Computational mate choice: theory and empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Sergio; Cadeddu, Giorgia; Cermelli, Paolo

    2012-06-01

    The present review is based on the thesis that mate choice results from information-processing mechanisms governed by computational rules and that, to understand how females choose their mates, we should identify which are the sources of information and how they are used to make decisions. We describe mate choice as a three-step computational process and for each step we present theories and review empirical evidence. The first step is a perceptual process. It describes the acquisition of evidence, that is, how females use multiple cues and signals to assign an attractiveness value to prospective mates (the preference function hypothesis). The second step is a decisional process. It describes the construction of the decision variable (DV), which integrates evidence (private information by direct assessment), priors (public information), and value (perceived utility) of prospective mates into a quantity that is used by a decision rule (DR) to produce a choice. We make the assumption that females are optimal Bayesian decision makers and we derive a formal model of DV that can explain the effects of preference functions, mate copying, social context, and females' state and condition on the patterns of mate choice. The third step of mating decision is a deliberative process that depends on the DRs. We identify two main categories of DRs (absolute and comparative rules), and review the normative models of mate sampling tactics associated to them. We highlight the limits of the normative approach and present a class of computational models (sequential-sampling models) that are based on the assumption that DVs accumulate noisy evidence over time until a decision threshold is reached. These models force us to rethink the dichotomy between comparative and absolute decision rules, between discrimination and recognition, and even between rational and irrational choice. Since they have a robust biological basis, we think they may represent a useful theoretical tool for

  10. Current evidence for osteoarthritis treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandacoomarasamy, Ananthila; March, Lyn

    2010-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and the leading cause of chronic disability among older people. The burden of the disease is expected to rise with an aging population and the increasing prevalence of obesity. Despite this, there is as yet no cure for OA. However, in recent years, a number of potential therapeutic advances have been made, in part due to improved understanding of the underlying pathophysiology. This review provides the current evidence for symptomatic management of OA including nonpharmacological, pharmacological and surgical approaches. The current state of evidence for disease-modifying therapy in OA is also reviewed.

  11. AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF CURRENT RATIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanas Delev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to address problems of liquidity and in particular the values and factors that influenced the values of the coefficient of total liquidity sixty Bulgarian public companies for the period 2013 - 2007 year. In the analysis it was found that some businesses fail to achieve favorable values of the ratio between current assets and current liabilities. It was found that plants have a low level of total liquidity, which can create problems in repayment of short-term liabilities. It can be seen that there are companies with very high liquidity, which is not so good phenomenon, ie the retention of a high level of resources required. Businesses should conduct a thorough analysis and implement appropriate measures to correct adverse changes. The financial management of the companies surveyed had worked towards improving the state of the enterprise, thereby seeking to reduce liquidity risk.

  12. On the Empirical Evidence of Mutual Fund Strategic Risk Taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goriaev, A.P.; Nijman, T.E.; Werker, B.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    We reexamine empirical evidence on strategic risk-taking behavior by mutual fund managers.Several studies suggest that fund performance in the first semester of a year influences risk-taking in the second semester.However, we show that previous empirical studies implicitly assume that idiosyncratic

  13. Managerial Career Patterns: A Review of the Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkenburg, Claartje J.; Weber, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Despite the ubiquitous presence of the term "career patterns" in the discourse about careers, the existing empirical evidence on (managerial) career patterns is rather limited. From this literature review of 33 published empirical studies of managerial and similar professional career patterns found in electronic bibliographic databases, it is…

  14. On the Empirical Evidence of Mutual Fund Strategic Risk Taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goriaev, A.P.; Nijman, T.E.; Werker, B.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    We reexamine empirical evidence on strategic risk-taking behavior by mutual fund managers.Several studies suggest that fund performance in the first semester of a year influences risk-taking in the second semester.However, we show that previous empirical studies implicitly assume that idiosyncratic

  15. Cheerleading and Cynicism of Effective Mentoring in Current Empirical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutcher, Paul A.; Naseem, Samina

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a review of current empirical research of effective practices in teacher mentoring. Compiling literature published since 2000 in peer-reviewed journals, we examine arguments for mentoring practices to improve teacher candidate and novice teacher experiences and skills. The emergent "effective"…

  16. Empirical evidence for policy in telecommunication, copyright & broadcasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poort, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation contains nine articles with an empirical focus in copyright, telecommunication, and broadcasting. These articles address different research questions and employ a variety of methodological approaches. They all share an economic foundation and the aim to contribute to evidence based

  17. A Review of Empirical Evidence on Scaffolding for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Chiang; Hsu, Ying-Shao; Lin, Shu-Sheng; Changlai, Maio-Li; Yang, Kun-Yuan; Lai, Ting-Ling

    2012-01-01

    This content analysis of articles in the Social Science Citation Index journals from 1995 to 2009 was conducted to provide science educators with empirical evidence regarding the effects of scaffolding on science learning. It clarifies the definition, design, and implementation of scaffolding in science classrooms and research studies. The results…

  18. PATENTS AND RESEARCH INVESTMENTS: ASSESSING THE EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budish, Eric; Roin, Benjamin N.; Williams, Heidi L.

    2016-01-01

    A well-developed theoretical literature — dating back at least to Nordhaus (1969) — has analyzed optimal patent policy design. We re-present the core trade-off of the Nordhaus model and highlight an empirical question which emerges from the Nordhaus framework as a key input into optimal patent policy design: namely, what is the elasticity of R&D investment with respect to the patent term? We then review the — surprisingly small — body of empirical evidence that has been developed on this question over the nearly half century since the publication of Nordhaus's book. PMID:27239058

  19. Learning Analytics and Educational Data Mining in Practice: A Systematic Literature Review of Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papamitsiou, Zacharoula; Economides, Anastasios A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to provide the reader with a comprehensive background for understanding current knowledge on Learning Analytics (LA) and Educational Data Mining (EDM) and its impact on adaptive learning. It constitutes an overview of empirical evidence behind key objectives of the potential adoption of LA/EDM in generic educational strategic…

  20. Learning Analytics and Educational Data Mining in Practice: A Systematic Literature Review of Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papamitsiou, Zacharoula; Economides, Anastasios A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to provide the reader with a comprehensive background for understanding current knowledge on Learning Analytics (LA) and Educational Data Mining (EDM) and its impact on adaptive learning. It constitutes an overview of empirical evidence behind key objectives of the potential adoption of LA/EDM in generic educational strategic…

  1. Crop Diversification and Child Health: Empirical Evidence From Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Lovo, Stefania; Veronesi, Marcella

    2014-01-01

    Malnutrition is recognized as a major issue among low-income households in developing countries with long-term implications for economic development. Recently, crop diversification has been recognized as a strategy to improve nutrition and health, and as a risk coping strategy used by farmers in the face of climate change. However, there is no systematic empirical evidence on the role played by crop diversification in improving human health. We use the Tanzania National Panel Survey to invest...

  2. Empirical Evidences in Citation-Based Search Engines: Is Microsoft Academic Search dead?

    OpenAIRE

    Orduna-Malea, Enrique; Ayllon, Juan Manuel; Martin-Martin, Alberto; Lopez-Cozar, Emilio Delgado

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this working paper is to summarize the main empirical evidences provided by the scientific community as regards the comparison between the two main citation based academic search engines: Google Scholar and Microsoft Academic Search, paying special attention to the following issues: coverage, correlations between journal rankings, and usage of these academic search engines. Additionally, selfelaborated data is offered, which are intended to provide current evidence about the popul...

  3. The Role of Students’ Emotional Intelligence: Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalio Extremera Pacheco

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Emotional intelligence (EI has attracted great interest in the field of education as a vehicle to improve the socioemotional development of students. The first publications that appeared made a great number of claims about the positive influence of emotional intelligence in the classroom. The only problem was that not all these claims were coupled with empirical research to show, on the one hand, the predictive level of EI, and on the other hand, the actual role of EI in different areas of life. It has been only recently that the effect of a high level of EI exercises on people has been investigated. The object of this article is to examine the most relevant empirical research done within the educational setting, in order to collect the existing evidence for the influence of EI, evaluated by different instruments, in the personal, social and scholastic functioning of students.

  4. Phillips and Wage Curves: Empirical Evidence from Bosnia and Herzegovina

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    Edo Omerčević

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is an empirical examination of the existence and characteristics of the Phillips curve and the wage curve in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The findings indicate that there is no evidence of the existence of the short-term Phillips curve. Instead, the data suggests that in the short-term an increase in inflation leads to an increase in unemployment. The estimated wage curves indicate that only increases in real payment increase employment. The conclusion of this study is that increases in inflation might have a negative short-term impact on the level of employment in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  5. Dragon-kings: mechanisms, statistical methods and empirical evidence

    CERN Document Server

    Sornette, D; 10.1140/epjst/e2012-01559-5

    2012-01-01

    This introductory article presents the special Discussion and Debate volume "From black swans to dragon-kings, is there life beyond power laws?" published in Eur. Phys. J. Special Topics in May 2012. We summarize and put in perspective the contributions into three main themes: (i) mechanisms for dragon-kings, (ii) detection of dragon-kings and statistical tests and (iii) empirical evidence in a large variety of natural and social systems. Overall, we are pleased to witness significant advances both in the introduction and clarification of underlying mechanisms and in the development of novel efficient tests that demonstrate clear evidence for the presence of dragon-kings in many systems. However, this positive view should be balanced by the fact that this remains a very delicate and difficult field, if only due to the scarcity of data as well as the extraordinary important implications with respect to hazard assessment, risk control and predictability.

  6. Evidence-based Nursing Education - a Systematic Review of Empirical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiber, Karin

    2011-01-01

    The project "Evidence-based Nursing Education - Preparatory Stage", funded by the Landesstiftung Baden-Württemberg within the programme Impulsfinanzierung Forschung (Funding to Stimulate Research), aims to collect information on current research concerned with nursing education and to process existing data. The results of empirical research which has already been carried out were systematically evaluated with aim of identifying further topics, fields and matters of interest for empirical research in nursing education. In the course of the project, the available empirical studies on nursing education were scientifically analysed and systematised. The over-arching aim of the evidence-based training approach - which extends beyond the aims of this project - is the conception, organisation and evaluation of vocational training and educational processes in the caring professions on the basis of empirical data. The following contribution first provides a systematic, theoretical link to the over-arching reference framework, as the evidence-based approach is adapted from thematically related specialist fields. The research design of the project is oriented towards criteria introduced from a selection of studies and carries out a two-stage systematic review of the selected studies. As a result, the current status of research in nursing education, as well as its organisation and structure, and questions relating to specialist training and comparative education are introduced and discussed. Finally, the empirical research on nursing training is critically appraised as a complementary element in educational theory/psychology of learning and in the ethical tradition of research.This contribution aims, on the one hand, to derive and describe the methods used, and to introduce the steps followed in gathering and evaluating the data. On the other hand, it is intended to give a systematic overview of empirical research work in nursing education. In order to preserve a holistic

  7. Whole-body cryotherapy: empirical evidence and theoretical perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Chris M; Bieuzen, François; Davison, Gareth W; Costello, Joseph T

    2014-01-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) involves short exposures to air temperatures below −100°C. WBC is increasingly accessible to athletes, and is purported to enhance recovery after exercise and facilitate rehabilitation postinjury. Our objective was to review the efficacy and effectiveness of WBC using empirical evidence from controlled trials. We found ten relevant reports; the majority were based on small numbers of active athletes aged less than 35 years. Although WBC produces a large temperature gradient for tissue cooling, the relatively poor thermal conductivity of air prevents significant subcutaneous and core body cooling. There is weak evidence from controlled studies that WBC enhances antioxidant capacity and parasympathetic reactivation, and alters inflammatory pathways relevant to sports recovery. A series of small randomized studies found WBC offers improvements in subjective recovery and muscle soreness following metabolic or mechanical overload, but little benefit towards functional recovery. There is evidence from one study only that WBC may assist rehabilitation for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. There were no adverse events associated with WBC; however, studies did not seem to undertake active surveillance of predefined adverse events. Until further research is available, athletes should remain cognizant that less expensive modes of cryotherapy, such as local ice-pack application or cold-water immersion, offer comparable physiological and clinical effects to WBC. PMID:24648779

  8. [Empirical evidence for the use of anticonvulsants in personality disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieberer, M; Emrich, H M

    2009-03-01

    There is a common practice of polypharmacy and an increased use of mood stabilizers in personality disorders (PD). This paper reviews all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of anticonvulsants to evaluate the evidence base supporting their use in treatment of PD. German and English language literature cited in Medline and published between 1970 and 2008 was searched using the following terms: Borderline/personality disorder, anticonvulsant, mood stabilizer, carbamazepine, felbamate, gabapentin, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, phenytoine, pregabalin, tiagabine, topiramate, and valproate. Twelve RCTs were identified which included anticonvulsants in treatment of personality disorders. The anticonvulsants valproate and topiramate appeared to have the most empirical support for having a favorable effect on symptoms of borderline personality disorder. Evidence for the use of other anticonvulsants in patients with PD is sparse. Valproate and topiramate, probably also lamotrigine, carbamazepine, and oxcarbazepine as well, were useful in treating symptoms of affective dysregulation and impulsive aggression in PD. However, further RCTs of anticonvulsants are greatly needed as clinical use of these agents has risen without sufficient evidence supporting their efficacy and safety in personality disorders.

  9. ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND FINANCIAL ANALYSIS INTERDEPENDENCES - EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Serdarević

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents empirical evidence on applied analysis interdependences with created accounting policies and estimates within Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH private commercial entities, in specific, targeting practice oriented relevance of financial indicators, non-financial indicators, enterprise resource planning and management account-ting insight frequencies. Recently, standard setters (International Accounting Standards Board and International Federation of Accountants have published outcomes of an internationally organized research on financial reports usefulness, recommending enforced usage of enterprise relevant information, non-financial indicators and risks implications in assets and liabilities positions. These imply litigation and possible income smoothening. In regard to financial reporting reliability, many authors suggest accounting conservatism as a measure to compose risk assessment and earnings response ratio. Author argues that recently suggested financial management measures involving cash and assets management, liquidity ratios and turns do not directly imply accounting information quality, prior computed within applied accounting conservatism.

  10. Symposium: Organizational Health Intervention Research: Current Empirical Developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine; Jenny, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    This symposium is one of three symposia submitted by the "International organizational health intervention research partnership". The aim of this symposium is to present new empirical developments based on participatory intervention models. All five studies have developed and applied intervention...

  11. Whole-body cryotherapy: empirical evidence and theoretical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bleakley CM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chris M Bleakley,1 François Bieuzen,2 Gareth W Davison,1 Joseph T Costello3 1Sport and Exercise Science Research Institute, Faculty of Life and Health Sciences, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, Northern Ireland; 2Research Department, Laboratory of Sport, Expertise and Performance, French National Institute of Sport (INSEP, Paris, France; 3School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences and Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia Abstract: Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC involves short exposures to air temperatures below –100°C. WBC is increasingly accessible to athletes, and is purported to enhance recovery after exercise and facilitate rehabilitation postinjury. Our objective was to review the efficacy and effectiveness of WBC using empirical evidence from controlled trials. We found ten relevant reports; the majority were based on small numbers of active athletes aged less than 35 years. Although WBC produces a large temperature gradient for tissue cooling, the relatively poor thermal conductivity of air prevents significant subcutaneous and core body cooling. There is weak evidence from controlled studies that WBC enhances antioxidant capacity and parasympathetic reactivation, and alters inflammatory pathways relevant to sports recovery. A series of small randomized studies found WBC offers improvements in subjective recovery and muscle soreness following metabolic or mechanical overload, but little benefit towards functional recovery. There is evidence from one study only that WBC may assist rehabilitation for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. There were no adverse events associated with WBC; however, studies did not seem to undertake active surveillance of predefined adverse events. Until further research is available, athletes should remain cognizant that less expensive modes of cryotherapy, such as local ice-pack application or cold-water immersion, offer comparable

  12. Demand Response in U.S. Electricity Markets: Empirical Evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Kathan, David

    2009-06-01

    Empirical evidence concerning demand response (DR) resources is needed in order to establish baseline conditions, develop standardized methods to assess DR availability and performance, and to build confidence among policymakers, utilities, system operators, and stakeholders that DR resources do offer a viable, cost-effective alternative to supply-side investments. This paper summarizes the existing contribution of DR resources in U.S. electric power markets. In 2008, customers enrolled in existing wholesale and retail DR programs were capable of providing ~;;38,000 MW of potential peak load reductions in the United States. Participants in organized wholesale market DR programs, though, have historically overestimated their likely performance during declared curtailments events, but appear to be getting better as they and their agents gain experience. In places with less developed organized wholesale market DR programs, utilities are learning how to create more flexible DR resources by adapting legacy load management programs to fit into existing wholesale market constructs. Overall, the development of open and organized wholesale markets coupled with direct policy support by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has facilitated new entry by curtailment service providers, which has likely expanded the demand response industry and led to product and service innovation.

  13. The Empirical Evidence for Telemedicine Interventions in Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashshur, Rashid L; Shannon, Gary W; Bashshur, Noura; Yellowlees, Peter M

    2015-12-01

    This research derives from the confluence of several factors, namely, the prevalence of a complex array of mental health issues across age, social, ethnic, and economic groups, an increasingly critical shortage of mental health professionals and the associated disability and productivity loss in the population, and the potential of telemental health (TMH) to ameliorate these problems. Definitive information regarding the true merit of telemedicine applications and intervention is now of paramount importance among policymakers, providers of care, researchers, payers, program developers, and the public at large. This is necessary for rational policymaking, prudent resource allocation decisions, and informed strategic planning. This article is aimed at assessing the state of scientific knowledge regarding the merit of telemedicine interventions in the treatment of mental disorders (TMH) in terms of feasibility/acceptance, effects on medication compliance, health outcomes, and cost. We started by casting a wide net to identify the relevant studies and to examine in detail the content of studies that met the eligibility criteria for inclusion. Only studies that met rigorous methodological criteria were included. Necessary details include the specific nature and content of the intervention, the research methodology, clinical focus, technological configuration, and the modality of the intervention. The published scientific literature on TMH reveals strong and consistent evidence of the feasibility of this modality of care and its acceptance by its intended users, as well as uniform indication of improvement in symptomology and quality of life among patients across a broad range of demographic and diagnostic groups. Similarly, positive trends are shown in terms of cost savings. There is substantial empirical evidence for supporting the use of telemedicine interventions in patients with mental disorders.

  14. Fever management: Evidence vs current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Radhi, A Sahib Mehdi

    2012-12-08

    Fever is a very common complaint in children and is the single most common non-trauma-related reason for a visit to the emergency department. Parents are concerned about fever and it's potential complications. The biological value of fever (i.e., whether it is beneficial or harmful) is disputed and it is being vigorously treated with the belief of preventing complications such as brain injury and febrile seizures. The practice of alternating antipyretics has become widespread at home and on paediatric wards without supporting scientific evidence. There is still a significant contrast between the current concept and practice, and the scientific evidence. Why is that the case in such a common complaint like fever The article will discuss the significant contrast between the current concepts and practice of fever management on one hand, and the scientific evidence against such concepts and practice.

  15. Climate Change and Maize Production: Empirical Evidence from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Madukwe

    yield reduction due to drought stress (Bolonos and Edmeades, 1993). Drought at ... series data pose several challenges as empirical work, including causality tests of. Granger and Sims .... Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin Volume 18.

  16. Empirical methods for systematic reviews and evidence-based medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Enst, W.A.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-Based Medicine is the integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values. Systematic reviews have become the cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, which is reflected in the position systematic reviews have in the pyramid of evidence-based medicine. Systematic

  17. 228 Empirical Analysis of Fiscal Policy Shocks and Current Account ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2013-01-28

    Jan 28, 2013 ... extension by Obstfeld and Rogoff, (1995) in open economy macroeconomics .... worsens the U.S. current account deficit by 47 cents by using Romer and ..... crowding-out hypothesis in Pakistan's manufacturing industry. The.

  18. Entrepreneurship Education in Schools: Empirical Evidence on the Teacher's Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruskovaara, Elena; Pihkala, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Different approaches and methodologies for entrepreneurship education have been introduced for schools. However, a better theoretical and empirical understanding of the antecedents of entrepreneurship education is needed. The authors analyze what entrepreneurship education practices are used in schools and what role the school and the teacher are…

  19. Entrepreneurship Education in Schools: Empirical Evidence on the Teacher's Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruskovaara, Elena; Pihkala, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Different approaches and methodologies for entrepreneurship education have been introduced for schools. However, a better theoretical and empirical understanding of the antecedents of entrepreneurship education is needed. The authors analyze what entrepreneurship education practices are used in schools and what role the school and the teacher are…

  20. Current clinical evidence on pioglitazone pharmacogenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina eKawaguchi-Suzuki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pioglitazone is the most widely used thiazolidinedione and acts as an insulin-sensitizer through activation of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ (PPARγ. Pioglitazone is approved for use in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but its use in other therapeutic areas is increasing due to pleiotropic effects. In this hypothesis article, the current clinical evidence on pioglitazone pharmacogenomics is summarized and related to variability in pioglitazone response. How genetic variation in the human genome affects the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of pioglitazone was examined. For pharmacodynamic effects, hypoglycemic and anti-atherosclerotic effects, risks of fracture or edema, and the increase in body mass index in response to pioglitazone based on genotype were examined. The genes CYP2C8 and PPARG are the most extensively studied to date and selected polymorphisms contribute to respective variability in pioglitazone pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. We hypothesized that genetic variation in pioglitazone pathway genes contributes meaningfully to the clinically observed variability in drug response. To test the hypothesis that genetic variation in PPARG associates with variability in pioglitazone response, we conducted a meta-analysis to synthesize the currently available data on the PPARG p.Pro12Ala polymorphism. The results showed that PPARG 12Ala carriers had a more favorable change in fasting blood glucose from baseline as compared to patients with the wild-type Pro12Pro genotype (p=0.018. Unfortunately, findings for many other genes lack replication in independent cohorts to confirm association; further studies are needed. Also, the biological functionality of these polymorphisms is unknown. Based on current evidence, we propose that pharmacogenomics may provide an important tool to individualize pioglitazone therapy and better optimize therapy in patients with T2DM or other conditions for which pioglitazone

  1. Selection Bias in Educational Transition Models: Theory and Empirical Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Jæger, Mads

    Most studies using Mare’s (1980, 1981) seminal model of educational transitions find that the effect of family background decreases across transitions. Recently, Cameron and Heckman (1998, 2001) have argued that the “waning coefficients” in the Mare model are driven by selection on unobserved...... the United States, United Kingdom, Denmark, and the Netherlands shows that when we take selection into account the effect of family background variables on educational transitions is largely constant across transitions. We also discuss several difficulties in estimating educational transition models which...... variables. This paper, first, explains theoretically how selection on unobserved variables leads to waning coefficients and, second, illustrates empirically how selection leads to biased estimates of the effect of family background on educational transitions. Our empirical analysis using data from...

  2. Growth-finance nexus: Empirical evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    Tanzeem HASNAT; Shahid ASHRAF; Umer J. BANDAY

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between financial development and economic growth has attracted considerable attention of policymakers and researchers alike. The present study aims to empirically examine the relationship between economic growth and financial development in the post-reform period, from 1992-1993 to 2014-2015. The period witnessed reforms towards financial liberalisation like deregulation of interest rates, lowering reserve requirements, removal of financial markets imperfectio...

  3. Financial Liberalization and Economic Growth in Nigeria: An Empirical Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Orji; Jonathan E. Ogbuabor; Onyinye I. Anthony-Orji

    2015-01-01

    The liberalization thesis has generated a lot of debate in theoretical and empirical literature. In this paper we construct an index of financial liberalization from 1981 to 2012 to investigate its impact on economic growth in Nigeria using the McKinnon–Shaw framework. The ordinary least squares methodology and cointegration analysis are adopted in the study. The result reveals that financial liberalization (FINDEX) and private investment (PINV) have significant positive impact on economic gr...

  4. Credit risk determinants analysis: Empirical evidence from Chinese commercial banks

    OpenAIRE

    LU, ZONGQI

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In order to investigate the potential determinants of credit risk in Chinese commercial banks, a panel dataset includes 342 bank-year observations from 2003 to 2012 in Chinese commercial banks are used to quantify the relationship between the selected variables and Chinese bank’s credit risk. Based on several robust test, the empirical results suggest the inflation rate and loan loss provision is significantly positive to Chinese commercial banks’ credit risk, on the other hand, m...

  5. On perishability and Vertical Price Transmission: empirical evidences from Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Gaetano Santeramo; Stephan von Cramon-Taubadel

    2017-01-01

    Studies on the causes for asymmetries in vertical price transmission date back to decades ago, but the attention of theorists and empirical economists is still vivid. In particular the role of perishability is not fully defined. We investigate the vertical price transmission for a heterogeneous group of fruits and vegetables that differ for their degree of perishability. The error correction model we estimate allows to conclude that asymmetries in vertical price transmission tend to vanish fo...

  6. On perishability and Vertical Price Transmission: empirical evidences from Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Gaetano Santeramo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the causes for asymmetries in vertical price transmission date back to decades ago, but the attention of theorists and empirical economists is still vivid. In particular the role of perishability is not fully defined. We investigate the vertical price transmission for a heterogeneous group of fruits and vegetables that differ for their degree of perishability. The error correction model we estimate allows to conclude that asymmetries in vertical price transmission tend to vanish for perishable products.

  7. Factors affecting adoption of mobile banking in Pakistan: Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Kabeer Kazi

    2016-01-01

    Hyderabad of the province Sindh, in Pakistan using judgement sampling method. This study empirically concluded that consumers’ intention to adopt mobile banking services was significantly influenced by social influence, perceived risk, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use. The most significant positive impact was of social influence on consumers’ intention to adopt mobile banking services. The paper concluded with discussion on results, and several business implications for the banking industry of Pakistan.

  8. Growth-finance nexus: Empirical evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    Tanzeem HASNAT; Ashraf, Shahid; Umer J. BANDAY

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between financial development and economic growth has attracted considerable attention of policymakers and researchers alike. The present study aims to empirically examine the relationship between economic growth and financial development in the post-reform period, from 1992-1993 to 2014-2015. The period witnessed reforms towards financial liberalisation like deregulation of interest rates, lowering reserve requirements, removal of financial markets imperfectio...

  9. Innovation and productivity: empirical evidence for Brazilian industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Carvalho

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this paper is to carry out an empirical investigation into the relationship between innovation and the productive performance of Brazilian businesses measured by Work Productivity and Total Factor Productivity. Data taken from the Research of Innovation and estimated cross section models and panel data was used. The results suggest that innovation produces an incipient impact on competition in the national industry, reflected in the small magnitude of coefficients associated with the diverse indicators of innovation.

  10. Corporate Governance and Firm Value: Empirical Evidence in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Mabel Yunn Ru

    2009-01-01

    Well governed firms have been noted to have higher firm performance. However, this is still an empirical question in the context of Malaysia. This paper aims to examine the effect of corporate governance practices on firm value among 151 public listed companies on Bursa Malaysia Main Board between 2006 and 2008. We use the overall governance practice scores (CGS) to measure the level of compliance carried out by the sample firms. The results find that better corporate governance is highly cor...

  11. Determinants of firm entries: empirical evidence for Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijana Močnik

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We empirically investigate the determinants of new firm formations on Slovenian data set for the 6-year period across statistical regions. Analyzed are the relationships of the determinants classified into five groups: demand, unemployment, industrial restructuring, local financial capital, and knowledge concentration. We find a positive and significant impact of GDP p.c., unemployment rate, productivity growth and a negative relationship for employment density. Results show that some regions have significantly worse conditions for start-up firms than others. Practical implications of this study would allow policy makers to better understand the dynamics in new firm formations.

  12. Determinants of Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Russian Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Ledyaeva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A modification of Barro and Sala-i-Martin empirical framework of growth model is specified to examine determinants of per capita growth in 74 Russian regions during period of 1996-2005. We utilize both panel and cross-sectional data. Results imply that in general regional growth in 1996-2005 is explained by the initial level of region's economic development, the 1998 financial crisis, domestic investments, and exports. Growth convergence between poor and rich regions in Russia was not found for the period studied.

  13. Ratio Versus Regression Analysis: Some Empirical Evidence in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Carneiro Affonso da Costa Jr.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This work compares the traditional methodology for ratio analysis, applied to a sample of Brazilian firms, with the alternative one of regression analysis both to cross-industry and intra-industry samples. It was tested the structural validity of the traditional methodology through a model that represents its analogous regression format. The data are from 156 Brazilian public companies in nine industrial sectors for the year 1997. The results provide weak empirical support for the traditional ratio methodology as it was verified that the validity of this methodology may differ between ratios.

  14. Factors affecting adoption of mobile banking in Pakistan: Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Kabeer Kazi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper we investigated the determinants likely to influence the adoption of mobile banking services, with a special focus on under banked/unbanked low-income population of Pakistan. For this purpose, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM was used, with additional determinants of perceived risk and social influence. We designed a questionnaire for this research; data was collected by surveying 372 respondents from the two largest cities (Karachi and Hyderabad of the province Sindh, in Pakistan. This study empirically concluded that consumers’ intention to adopt mobile banking services was significantly influenced by social influence, perceived risk, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use. The most significant positive influence was of social influence on consumers’ intention to adopt mobile banking services. The paper concluded with discussion on results, and several business implications for the banking industry of Pakistan.

  15. AN EMPIRICAL EXAMINATION OF ENTREPRENEURIAL ORIENTATION. EVIDENCE FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru CONSTANGIOARA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the desired performances and the increased value added to the final consumer, organizations need not only to integrate their core businesses and align them to business strategy but also to develop essential entrepreneurial competences. After presenting the dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation and their specificity in a supply chain, we propose an empirical research using a working dataset of 64 firms from various industries to analyze the Romanian entrepreneurial supply chains. Structural equations are employed to estimate the complex relationships between organizational performances and entrepreneurial orientation in supply chains at national level. Results show that entrepreneurial orientation influences organizational competences only in the framework of the supply chain management strategic approach to operational excellence.

  16. The growth of business firms: theoretical framework and empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dongfeng; Pammolli, Fabio; Buldyrev, S V; Riccaboni, Massimo; Matia, Kaushik; Yamasaki, Kazuko; Stanley, H Eugene

    2005-12-27

    We introduce a model of proportional growth to explain the distribution P(g)(g) of business-firm growth rates. The model predicts that P(g)(g) is exponential in the central part and depicts an asymptotic power-law behavior in the tails with an exponent zeta = 3. Because of data limitations, previous studies in this field have been focusing exclusively on the Laplace shape of the body of the distribution. In this article, we test the model at different levels of aggregation in the economy, from products to firms to countries, and we find that the predictions of the model agree with empirical growth distributions and size-variance relationships.

  17. Rationale for hedging initiatives: Empirical evidence from the energy industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanarajata, Srirajata

    Theory offers different rationales for hedging including (i) financial distress and bankruptcy cost, (ii) capacity to capture attractive investment opportunities, (iii) information asymmetry, (iv) economy of scale, (v) substitution for hedging, (vi) managerial risk aversion, and (vii) convexity of tax schedule. The purpose of this dissertation is to empirically test the explanatory power of the first five theoretical rationales on hedging done by oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) companies. The level of hedging is measured by the percentage of production effectively hedged, calculated based on the concept of delta and delta-gamma hedging. I employ Tobit regression, principal components, and panel data analysis on dependent and raw independent variables. Tobit regression is applied due to the fact that the dependent variable used in the analysis is non-negative. Principal component analysis helps to reduce the dimension of explanatory variables while panel data analysis combines/pools the data that is a combination of time-series and cross-sectional. Based on the empirical results, leverage level is consistently found to be a significant factor on hedging activities, either due to an attempt to avoid financial distress by the firm, or an attempt to control agency cost by debtholders, or both. The effect of capital expenditures and discretionary cash flows are both indeterminable due possibly to a potential mismatch in timing of realized cash flow items and hedging decision. Firm size is found to be positively related to hedging supporting economy of scale hypothesis, which is introduced in past literature, as well as the argument that large firm usually are more sophisticated and should be more willing and more comfortable to use hedge instruments than smaller firms.

  18. Empirical evidence of study design biases in randomized trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Page, Matthew J.; Higgins, Julian P. T.; Clayton, Gemma

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To synthesise evidence on the average bias and heterogeneity associated with reported methodological features of randomized trials. Design: Systematic review of meta-epidemiological studies. Methods: We retrieved eligible studies included in a recent AHRQ-EPC review on this topic (late...

  19. Determinants of voluntary CSR disclosure: Empirical evidence from Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gamerschlag (Ramin); K. Möller (Klaus); F.H.M. Verbeeten (Frank)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCurrently, companies spend a great deal of effort on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) disclosures. CSR disclosure relates to the provision of information on companies' environmental and social performance. From an economic perspective, companies might disclose this information to

  20. Taxation of Insolvent Companies: Empirical Evidence in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina dos Santos Arromba Dinis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the issue of taxation of insolvent companies in Portugal, particularly regarding the Portuguese tax on revenue of legal entities (IRC. For this purpose, first, some considerations on the legal framework of insolvent companies are woven and, second, their tax regime is analyzed. Then, a brief review of the main studies that, in the international context, analyze and debate major issues derived from the tax regime of insolvent companies is conducted, particularly in Brazil, Spain, United States, and Italy. Finally, there are the results of an empirical study conducted in Portugal, in 2013, which evaluates and compares the opinions of insolvency administrators (IA, the tax and customs authority (TA, and court magistrates (CM, in order to contribute to a better solution concerning business taxation under this regime. Respondents (IA, TA, CM demonstrate objective thinking about the fact they believe it is very important that the Portuguese Code of Insolvency and Business Recovery (CIRE and the Portuguese Code of Tax on Revenue of Legal Entities (CIRC are modified, now to make clear whether the settlement of property ownership of an insolvent estate is liable to the IRC, then to assign a chapter specifically devoted to the subject of taxation on insolvency in Portugal.

  1. Grasping intentions: from thought experiments to empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eBecchio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Skepticism has been expressed concerning the possibility to understand others’ intentions by simply observing their movements: Since a number of different intentions may have produced a particular action, motor information – it has been argued - might be sufficient to understand what an agent is doing, but not her remote goal in performing that action. Here we challenge this conclusion by showing that in the absence of contextual information, intentions can be inferred from body movement. Based on recent empirical findings, we shall contend that: i intentions translate into differential kinematic patterns; ii observers are especially attuned to kinematic information and can use early differences in visual kinematics to anticipate the intention of an agent in performing a given action; iii during interacting activities, predictions about the future course of others’ actions tune online action planning; iv motor activation during action observation subtends a complementary understanding of what the other is doing. These findings demonstrate that intention understanding is deeply rooted in social interaction: by simply observing others’ movements, we might know what they have in mind to do and how we should act in response.

  2. Measuring intangibles' productivity. Empirical evidence from Spanish firms

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveras, Ester; Castillo, David

    2008-01-01

    As companies and shareholders begin to note the potential repercussions of intangible assets upon business results, the inability of the traditional financial statement model to reflect these new ways of creating business value has become evident. Companies have widely adopted new management tools, covering in this way the inability of the traditional financial statement model to reflect these new ways of creating business value. However, there are few prior studies measuring on a quantifiabl...

  3. It's personal: biology instructors prioritize personal evidence over empirical evidence in teaching decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Tessa C; Lemons, Paula P

    2015-03-02

    Despite many calls for undergraduate biology instructors to incorporate active learning into lecture courses, few studies have focused on what it takes for instructors to make this change. We sought to investigate the process of adopting and sustaining active-learning instruction. As a framework for our research, we used the innovation-decision model, a generalized model of how individuals adopt innovations. We interviewed 17 biology instructors who were attempting to implement case study teaching and conducted qualitative text analysis on interview data. The overarching theme that emerged from our analysis was that instructors prioritized personal experience-rather than empirical evidence-in decisions regarding case study teaching. We identified personal experiences that promote case study teaching, such as anecdotal observations of student outcomes, and those that hinder case study teaching, such as insufficient teaching skills. By analyzing the differences between experienced and new case study instructors, we discovered that new case study instructors need support to deal with unsupportive colleagues and to develop the skill set needed for an active-learning classroom. We generated hypotheses that are grounded in our data about effectively supporting instructors in adopting and sustaining active-learning strategies. We also synthesized our findings with existing literature to tailor the innovation-decision model.

  4. Does Missing Classes Decelerate Student Exam Performance Progress? Empirical Evidence and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tin-Chun

    2014-01-01

    A total of 389 business students in undergraduate introductory microeconomics classes in spring 2007, 2009, and 2011, and fall 2012 participated in an exam performance progress study. Empirical evidence suggested that missing classes decelerates and hampers high-performing students' exam performance progress. Nevertheless, the evidence does…

  5. Empirical evidence in consumer law cases: what are 'up to' claims up to?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luzak, J.; Heiderhoff, B.; Schulze, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution I argue that in certain consumer law cases providing empirical evidence is necessary and that specific standards of proof should then apply. Only through analysing evidence of actual consumer behaviour as well as of trader’s commercial practices courts and enforcement authoritie

  6. Efficiency, R&D and ownership - some empirical evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dilling-Hansen, Mogens; Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar

    2003-01-01

    Investments in R&D create an immaterial capital asset, which is expected to have a positive influence on firms' efficiency and consequently on their profit. Nonetheless, the short-term effects of current investments in R&D are difficult to prove. Therefore, this paper focuses on analyses based...

  7. Determinants of voluntary CSR disclosure: Empirical evidence from Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gamerschlag (Ramin); K. Möller (Klaus); F.H.M. Verbeeten (Frank)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCurrently, companies spend a great deal of effort on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) disclosures. CSR disclosure relates to the provision of information on companies' environmental and social performance. From an economic perspective, companies might disclose this information to av

  8. Sleep and academic success: mechanisms, empirical evidence, and interventional strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Wiebe, Sabrina T; Wells, Samantha Ashley; Cassoff, Jamie; Monson, Eva

    2010-12-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that sleep is beneficial for learning, memory, attention, and academic success. However, the importance of sleep in these contexts has rarely been addressed in programs aimed at optimizing academic performance. This review aims to describe the role that sleep plays in processes pertaining to academic achievement. We first describe the basic sleep processes and their role with respect to cognitive and behavioral/emotional systems important for academic performance. We next review studies conducted to assess the association between sleep and academic performance, concluding by describing interventional programs being used to optimize sleep in the context of academic success.

  9. ARE THERE GOODWIN EMPLOYMENT-DISTRIBUTION CYCLES? INTERNATIONAL EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario García Molina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Goodwin´s predator-prey model predicts clockwise cycles in the employment-distribution space. Qualitative evidence is provided in favour of nonlinear dynamic behaviour for a sample of 67 countries, some of which have cycles similar to those predicted by the model. Predicted centres lie outside actual circles. The kind of cycle (clockwise, counter clockwise or atypical appears to be related to the kind of capitalism of the country. Countries with Market or European capitalism, as well as transition economies, do not tend to have demand cycles; developing countries with a Mediterranean capitalism do not tend to have Goodwin cycles.

  10. Market Power in the Nordic Wholesale Electricity Market: A Survey of the Empirical Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Fridolfsson, Sven-Olof; Tangerås, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    We review the recent empirical research concerning market power on the Nordic wholesale market for electricity, Nord Pool. There is no evidence of blatant and systematic exploitation of system level market power on Nord Pool. However, generation companies seem from time to time able to take advantage of capacity constraints in transmission to wield regional market power. Market power can manifest itself in a number of ways which have so far escaped empirical scrutiny. We discuss investment in...

  11. The institutional determinants of CEO compensation: An international empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhfakh, H.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance literature suggests that the relationship between CEO effort and outcomes such as firm performance is highly uncertain due to the influence of numerous organizational and environmental contingencies that are outside CEOs’ control. The major focus of this study is to determine whether institutional factors explain cross-sectional differences in CEO pay structure and sensitivity to performance and luck. Thus, we address three ultimate questions; Are CEOs rewarded for luck? Does institutional features matter for CEO pay for luck? How do systematic incentive effect is sensitive to luck’s nature? Ordinary Least Squares (OLS and Instrumental Variables (I.V. estimations based on a sample of 300 publicly traded firms covering four countries from the Anglo-American and Euro-Continental corporate governance models between 2004 and 2008 show that the answers to the two first questions are a surrounding yes. Robustness check tests relying to the third question provide evidence that pay for luck is asymmetric. That is, executives are rewarded for good luck but they are safe of bad luck.

  12. Efficiency, R&D and ownership - some empirical evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dilling-Hansen, Mogens; Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar

    2003-01-01

    on the technical efficiency methodology using a stochastic frontier approach in order to investigate the influence of R&D activities on the technical efficiency of the firms. Using a sample of 2370 Danish firms, the analysis suggests that R&D-active firms are significantly more efficient than other firms......Investments in R&D create an immaterial capital asset, which is expected to have a positive influence on firms' efficiency and consequently on their profit. Nonetheless, the short-term effects of current investments in R&D are difficult to prove. Therefore, this paper focuses on analyses based....... The legal form of ownership also affects the efficiency significantly, whereas firms owned by large shareholders - who are expected to exert a disciplinary influence on the managers of the firm - do not seem to be more efficient than other firms. Udgivelsesdato: JAN 25...

  13. Empirical evidence of senescence in adult damselflies (Odonata: Zygoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherratt, T N; Laird, R A; Hassall, C; Lowe, C D; Harvey, I F; Watts, P C; Cordero-Rivera, A; Thompson, D J

    2010-09-01

    1. Age-dependent increases in mortality have been documented in a variety of species of insect under laboratory conditions. However, while strong statistical evidence has been presented for senescence in vertebrate populations in the wild, we know little about the rate and shape of senescence in wild populations of insects. 2. Odonates (damselflies and dragonflies) provide excellent candidate species for evaluating demographic senescence as they are large enough to be marked individually and they are easily re-sighted without recapture. The prevailing opinion - based entirely on qualitative examination of the declines in log numbers alive with time since marking - is that odonates exhibit age-independent daily survivorship. 3. Here, we examine mark-recapture data on the Azure Damselfly Coenagrion puella over two consecutive seasons. For the first time, we evaluate and compare the fit of quantitative models that not only account for weather-dependent daily variation in daily re-sighting rates, but also age-dependent variation in daily survivorship. 4. Models with age-dependent declines in daily survivorship provide a more parsimonious explanation for the data than similar models without these age-dependent effects. In general, models in which mortality increases in an exponential (Gompertz) fashion explain the mark-recapture sequences more efficiently than a range of alternative models, including those in which mortality increases as a power function (Weibull) or reaches a plateau (logistic). These results are indicative of a general senescent decline in physiological functioning, which is particularly marked after 15 days as a mature adult. 5. Weather (temperature, sun and precipitation) and initial mite load influenced the probability of daily re-sighting. Weather and mite load also influenced daily survivorship, but their effects differed between seasons. 6. Overall, fitting models with age as an explicit covariate demonstrates that odonates do indeed senesce

  14. An Empirical Study on Public Debt's Determinants: Evidence from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilen Gabriel PIRTEA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The need for coordinating economic and budgetary policies in the Economic and Monetary Union, the awareness that pile of high public debt threatens future generations, increasing tax burden on a globalized market and the impact of population aging process on public finances has led to controversial opinions. Continuously borrowing resources and maintaining them consistently over time means to have a sustainable public debt, an important objective of any state fiscal policy. A sustainable public debt is the result of trade and monetary policy and budgetary decisions. The national debt is at the center of the current crisis of the Peripheral European countries. The objective of the paper is to provide a better understanding of public debt dynamics in Romania in the period 2000 to 2011. We decompose the changes in public debt to GDP ratio into macroeconomic components attributable to primary fiscal deficits, real interest rate, real GDP growth, and to the variations on foreign currency denominated debt. The research findings suggest that the reaction of the public debt to GDP ratio to the real growth rate of the output increased after the financial crisis. The real interest rate on government bonds remained a significant determinant of public debt in the entire sample period. Also, we find little effectiveness of monetary policy as an automatic stabilizer through the entire sample period.

  15. IPO timing determinants: empirical evidence on the Polish capital market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Meluzín

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the determinants influencing the IPO timing by enterprises under the conditions in force on the Polish capital market. In the study we asked CFOs Polish enterprises divided into two groups to formulate their insights in the area of IPO timing. The first group consisted of the entities that have previously executed an initial public offering, the second one included the entities that have not executed an IPO (but considered doing so in the past or were candidates for doing it in the future. The survey results can be summarised as follows. First, in choosing an opportune time for an IPO, both subsamples of companies take into considerations the current need of external equity capital for continuing their growth. Second, managers also take advantage of macroeconomic development and effort conducting IPOs when present and projected state of the national and global economy is favorable. Overall stock market conditions, conditions in the business sector and investors´ interest in the business sector were identified as determinants of IPOs timing with a very strong support. Finally, Polish CFOs attach less importance to the interest that other companies operating in the same type of business may have in IPOs. The interest that firms from other business sectors may have in going public does not have an appreciable effect on timing as well.

  16. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence: the precautionary principle applied to GM crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years spurred by examples where evidence indicated that certain treatments recommended by expert opinions increased death rates. We suggest that scientific evidence should also take priority over expert opinion in the regulation of genetically modified crops (GM). Examples of regulatory data requirements that are not justified based on the mass of evidence are described, and it is suggested that expertise in risk assessment should guide evidence-based regulation of GM crops.

  17. Does Access to Finance Lower Firms’ Cost of Capital? Empirical Evidence from International Manufacturing Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lashitew, Addisu A.

    2011-01-01

    Lack of access to finance is argued to be one of the most binding constraints for firm growth. There is, however, limited empirical evidence on the relationship between access to finance and the cost of capital. This paper uses international manufacturing data to analyze the effect of access to fina

  18. Does Access to Finance Lower Firms’ Cost of Capital? Empirical Evidence from International Manufacturing Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lashitew, Addisu A.

    2011-01-01

    Lack of access to finance is argued to be one of the most binding constraints for firm growth. There is, however, limited empirical evidence on the relationship between access to finance and the cost of capital. This paper uses international manufacturing data to analyze the effect of access to fina

  19. Outcome (competency) based education: an exploration of its origins, theoretical basis, and empirical evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørcke, Anne Mette; Dornan, Tim; Eika, Berit

    2013-01-01

    and professional attributes as ‘‘competencies’’. OBE has been adopted by consensus in the face of weak empirical evidence. OBE, which has been advocated for over 50 years, can contribute usefully to defining requisite knowledge and skills, and blueprinting assessments. Its applicability to more complex aspects...

  20. A Systematic Literature Review of Empirical Evidence on Computer Games and Serious Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Thomas M.; Boyle, Elizabeth A.; MacArthur, Ewan; Hainey, Thomas; Boyle, James M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the literature on computer games and serious games in regard to the potential positive impacts of gaming on users aged 14 years or above, especially with respect to learning, skill enhancement and engagement. Search terms identified 129 papers reporting empirical evidence about the impacts and outcomes of computer games and…

  1. Does risk management contribute to IT project success? A meta-analysis of empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bakker, K.F.C.; Boonstra, A.; Wortmann, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    The question whether risk management contributes to IT project success is considered relevant by people from both academic and practitioners' communities already for a long time. This paper presents a meta-analysis of the empirical evidence that either supports or opposes the claim that risk managem

  2. Competition and quality indicators in the health care sector : Empirical evidence from the Dutch hospital sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croes, Ramsis; Krabbe, Yvonne; Mikkers, Misja

    2017-01-01

    There is much debate about the effect of competition in healthcare and especially the effect of competition on the quality of healthcare, although empirical evidence on this subject is mixed. The Netherlands provides an interesting case in this debate. The Dutch system could be characterized as a

  3. Competition and quality indicators in the health care sector: empirical evidence from the Dutch hospital sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croes, R.R.; Krabbe-Alkemade, Y.J.F.M.; Mikkers, M.C.

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThere is much debate about the effect of competition in healthcare and especially the effect of competition on the quality of healthcare, although empirical evidence on this subject is mixed. The Netherlands provides an interesting case in this debate. The Dutch system could be

  4. Changes in Anatomy Instruction and USMLE Performance: Empirical Evidence on the Absence of a Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Monica M.; Swanson, David B.; Drake, Richard L.; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy instruction has evolved over the past two decades as many medical schools have undergone various types of curricular reform. To provide empirical evidence about whether or not curricular changes impact the acquisition and retention of anatomy knowledge, this study investigated the effect of variation in gross anatomy course hours,…

  5. The Political Economy of International Emission Trading Scheme Choice: Empirical Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, J.T.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol allows emissions trading. It does however not specify how this is to take place and the discussion on the design of an emissions trading scheme is ongoing. In this paper, we give some empirical evidence on the preference of industry and environmental organizations...

  6. Gathering Empirical Evidence Concerning Links between Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musta'amal, Aede Hatib; Norman, Eddie; Hodgson, Tony

    2009-01-01

    Discussion is often reported concerning potential links between computer-aided designing and creativity, but there is a lack of systematic enquiry to gather empirical evidence concerning such links. This paper reports an indication of findings from other research studies carried out in contexts beyond general education that have sought evidence…

  7. A Systematic Literature Review of Empirical Evidence on Computer Games and Serious Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Thomas M.; Boyle, Elizabeth A.; MacArthur, Ewan; Hainey, Thomas; Boyle, James M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the literature on computer games and serious games in regard to the potential positive impacts of gaming on users aged 14 years or above, especially with respect to learning, skill enhancement and engagement. Search terms identified 129 papers reporting empirical evidence about the impacts and outcomes of computer games and…

  8. The Political Economy of International Emission Trading Scheme Choice: Empirical Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, J.T.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol allows emissions trading. It does however not specify how this is to take place and the discussion on the design of an emissions trading scheme is ongoing. In this paper, we give some empirical evidence on the preference of industry and environmental organizations...

  9. Parenthood and Happiness: A Review of Folk Theories versus Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews and compares folk theories and empirical evidence about the influence of parenthood on happiness and life satisfaction. The review of attitudes toward parenthood and childlessness reveals that people tend to believe that parenthood is central to a meaningful and fulfilling life, and that the lives of childless people are…

  10. Mostly Heterosexual as a Distinct Sexual Orientation Group: A Systematic Review of the Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin-Williams, Ritch C.; Vrangalova, Zhana

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed empirical evidence regarding whether mostly heterosexual exists as a sexual orientation distinct from two adjacent groups on a sexual continuum--exclusively heterosexual and substantially bisexual. We addressed the question: Do mostly heterosexuals show a unique profile of sexual and romantic characteristics that distinguishes them as…

  11. Current evidence supporting "letrozole" for ovulation induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Kar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatase inhibitor "letrozole" was first introduced as a potential ovulation induction (OI drug almost a decade back. Large number of studies has been published using letrozole for OI: In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS women, clomiphene citrate (CC resistant women, for intrauterine insemination and also in various protocols of mild stimulation for in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI. Letrozole appears to be a good option, with its oral route of administration, cost, shorter half-life and negligible side effects. However, the verdict on efficacy and safety of letrozole is still uncertain. This review explores the current scientific data supporting letrozole for OI.

  12. Current clinical evidence on topiramate pharmacokinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Mihajlo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Topiramate is biochemically classified as a fructopyranose sulphamate. Discovered as early as 1979, during middle 1980's it was approved in many countries for the treatment of epilepsies and migraine prevention. More recently, in the experimental stage, possible new indications have been disclosed: treatment of obesity, bipolar disorder, also cessation of smoking, neuropathic pain, cerebral pseudotumour, bulimia, periventricular leucomalatia in preterm infants and alcohol addiction. Most epileptologists consider it to be the first choice antiepileptic drug in severe pharmacoresistant epilepsies. A substantial corpus of evidence in paediatric population has been accumulated that confirms its efficiency in the treatment of generalised tonic-clonic seizures, Lenox-Gestaut syndrome, partial, absence and combined seizures. Having a unique monosaccharide chemical structure among other anticonvulsant drugs, characterizes it with special pharmacokinetic features. This substance exhibits a low interindividual variability in plasma levels and hence it features predictable pharmacokinetics. A steady state plasma concentration of topiramate increases linearly with higher dosages. Serum protein binding is approximately 15%, and biologic half-life in healthy volunteers is considered to range from 20 to 30 hours. Mean expected distribution volume rates from 0.55-0.8 l/kg, and accordingly, the drug shows a low and saturable binding capacity toward erythrocytes. It has not been present at the market for a sufficiently long time that would enable us to speak about a significant accumulation of data on its metabolism based on post-registration 4th stage clinical trials. For this purpose, we have done a literature review in order to summarise so far reported experience on topiramate pharmacokinetics in patients and healthy adults. Deeper understanding of its pharmacokinetic profile could enable a better technological design of the produced drug and the choice of

  13. More Health Expenditure, Better Economic Performance? Empirical Evidence From OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhmei Wang PhD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent economic downturns have led many countries to reduce health spending dramatically, with the World Health Organization raising concerns over the effects of this, in particular among the poor and vulnerable. With the provision of appropriate health care, the population of a country could have better health, thus strengthening the nation’s human capital, which could contribute to economic growth through improved productivity. How much should countries spend on health care? This study aims to estimate the optimal health care expenditure in a growing economy. Applying the experiences of countries from the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD over the period 1990 to 2009, this research introduces the method of system generalized method of moments (GMM to derive the design of the estimators of the focal variables. Empirical evidence indicates that when the ratio of health spending to gross domestic product (GDP is less than the optimal level of 7.55%, increases in health spending effectively lead to better economic performance. Above this, more spending does not equate to better care. The real level of health spending in OECD countries is 5.48% of GDP, with a 1.87% economic growth rate. The question which is posed by this study is a pertinent one, especially in the current context of financially constrained health systems around the world. The analytical results of this work will allow policymakers to better allocate scarce resources to achieve their macroeconomic goals.

  14. More Health Expenditure, Better Economic Performance? Empirical Evidence From OECD Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuhmei

    2015-01-01

    Recent economic downturns have led many countries to reduce health spending dramatically, with the World Health Organization raising concerns over the effects of this, in particular among the poor and vulnerable. With the provision of appropriate health care, the population of a country could have better health, thus strengthening the nation's human capital, which could contribute to economic growth through improved productivity. How much should countries spend on health care? This study aims to estimate the optimal health care expenditure in a growing economy. Applying the experiences of countries from the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) over the period 1990 to 2009, this research introduces the method of system generalized method of moments (GMM) to derive the design of the estimators of the focal variables. Empirical evidence indicates that when the ratio of health spending to gross domestic product (GDP) is less than the optimal level of 7.55%, increases in health spending effectively lead to better economic performance. Above this, more spending does not equate to better care. The real level of health spending in OECD countries is 5.48% of GDP, with a 1.87% economic growth rate. The question which is posed by this study is a pertinent one, especially in the current context of financially constrained health systems around the world. The analytical results of this work will allow policymakers to better allocate scarce resources to achieve their macroeconomic goals. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Determinants of Financing Decisions in Innovative Firms: A Review on Theoretical Backgrounds and Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Diaconu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We review some of the main aspects highlighted in the literature on financing innovation. Thetheoretical background related to the distinctive features of innovative firms impacting theirfinancing decisions and the empirical evidence is reviewed. The growing literature on the financingof innovation shows that the theoretical and empirical work are not always constant across thevarious samples and situations faced by firms as a result of generating new findings. We highlightthe interaction between financing choices for innovation and changing internal and externalcondition firms operate.

  16. A Survey on Agricultural Trade Policies in Bangladesh: theoretical Insights and empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Talukder

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review the theoretical insights and empirical evidence on agricultural trade policies and their impacts on the Bangladesh’s economy, with a view to presenting both, the positive and negative effects of trade liberalization. Theoretically, while advocates of trade liberalization argue that free trade is an engine of growth and protection leads to wasteful use of resources, critics argue that openness has its costs and sometimes it could be detrimental to the economic development. The empirical evidence in Bangladesh was consistent with the ongoing debate on the effects of trade liberalization on economic development. The evidence remained mixed and loaded with criticisms on the grounds of choice of liberalization determinants, model specifications and methodology, as well as other measurement shortcomings. The review suggests that the literature is inconclusive and outcomes are largely case-specific

  17. The impact of child health and nutrition on education in developing countries: theory, econometric issues, and recent empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glewwe, Paul

    2005-06-01

    Analysis of the impact of child health and nutrition on subsequent school performance is hampered by many difficulties. Research using retrospective data is complicated by the possibility that unobserved factors may determine both nutrition and education outcomes, which will generate correlation between these two outcomes that is not necessarily causal. Randomized trials offer a clearer method for identifying causal relationships, but they are relatively rare and encounter several difficulties in practice. This paper examines theory, estimation strategies, and recent empirical evidence to assess the current state of knowledge on the impact of child health and nutrition on education outcomes in developing countries.

  18. Clinical utility of eslicarbazepine: current evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaccara G

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Gaetano Zaccara,1 Fabio Giovannelli,1,2 Massimo Cincotta,1 Alessia Carelli,3 Alberto Verrotti31Department of Medicine, Unit of Neurology, Florence Health Authority, Florence, Italy; 2Department of Neuroscience, Psychology, Pharmacology and Child Health (NEUROFARBA, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 3Department of Pediatrics, University of Perugia, Perugia, ItalyAbstract: Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL is a new antiepileptic drug whose mechanism of action is blockade of the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC. However, in respect to carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine, the active ESL metabolite (eslicarbazepine affects slow inactivation of VGSC and has a similar affinity for the inactivated state and a lower affinity for the resting state of the channel. This new antiepileptic drug has been recently approved in Europe (trade name Zebinix and in the United States (trade name Stedesa for adjunctive treatment in adult subjects with partial-onset seizures, with or without secondary generalization. Following oral administration, ESL is rapidly and extensively metabolized by hepatic esterases to eslicarbazepine. This active metabolite has a linear pharmacokinetic profile, a low binding to plasma proteins (<40%, and a half-life of 20–24 hours and is mainly excreted by kidneys in an unchanged form or as glucuronide conjugates. ESL is administered once a day and has a low potential for drug–drug interactions. Efficacy and safety of this drug in patients with focal seizures have been assessed in four randomized clinical trials, and responder rates (percentage of patients with a ≥50% improvement of their seizures ranged between 17% and 43%. Adverse events were usually mild to moderate, and the most common were dizziness, somnolence, diplopia, abnormal coordination, blurred vision, vertigo, headache, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. ESL may be considered an interesting alternative to current antiepileptic drugs for the treatment of drug-resistant focal

  19. How can the regulator show evidence of (no) risk selection in health insurance markets? Conceptual framework and empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Wynand P M M; van Vliet, René C J A; van Kleef, Richard C

    2017-03-01

    If consumers have a choice of health plan, risk selection is often a serious problem (e.g., as in Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, the United States of America, and Switzerland). Risk selection may threaten the quality of care for chronically ill people, and may reduce the affordability and efficiency of healthcare. Therefore, an important question is: how can the regulator show evidence of (no) risk selection? Although this seems easy, showing such evidence is not straightforward. The novelty of this paper is two-fold. First, we provide a conceptual framework for showing evidence of risk selection in competitive health insurance markets. It is not easy to disentangle risk selection and the insurers' efficiency. We suggest two methods to measure risk selection that are not biased by the insurers' efficiency. Because these measures underestimate the true risk selection, we also provide a list of signals of selection that can be measured and that, in particular in combination, can show evidence of risk selection. It is impossible to show the absence of risk selection. Second, we empirically measure risk selection among the switchers, taking into account the insurers' efficiency. Based on 2-year administrative data on healthcare expenses and risk characteristics of nearly all individuals with basic health insurance in the Netherlands (N > 16 million) we find significant risk selection for most health insurers. This is the first publication of hard empirical evidence of risk selection in the Dutch health insurance market.

  20. THE LEGAL INDEBTEDNESS CAPACITY OF ROMANIAN LOCAL GOVERNMENTS - THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL EVIDENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilan Irina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The factual, not only formal capacity of local governments to appeal to borrowed resources is, considering the current conditions, a prerequisite for ensuring economic and social development of local communities. In this paper we intend to position the main theoretical and empirical evidences on local governments indebtedness capacity, mainly focusing on its sizing according to Romanian regulatory framework. With respect to previous research, the issue approached is one of great interest as it has not been, in the Romanian literature on local public finances, subject to a separate analysis of proportions. The undertaken analysis comprises a quantitative dimension, based on processed data from the consolidated general budget of Romanian local governments for 2007-2009, in permanent conjunction with monitoring and analysis of the involved qualitative aspects. To ensure the relevance of the research results, the analysis undertaken refers to the legal framework in function throughout the considered period of time, without involving the legislative changes operated in mid-2010. The main conclusions drawn from our analysis indicate that, considering the current Romanian socio-economic environment, under the impact of specific factors of different nature, the legal indebtedness capacity is far from being well valued, thus bringing its benefits to local communities development. This conclusion is valid from a global perspective as well as for different types of local communities. This appears to be inconsistent with the permanently claimed need to fund important local public investments, mainly in infrastructure, indicating, despite the high legal indebtedness capacity, the lack of factual access to borrowed resources. We suggest, therefore, to introduce the concept of effective indebtedness capacity, the result of a particularized correlation for different local governments between legal indebtedness capacity and the manifestation of several factors

  1. Relative prices and economic development: an analysis of the empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. ERCOLANI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines empirical evidence on the evolution of relative prices and the long-run differences between countries with different levels of per-capita income. The price indicators employed are derived from national accounts aggregates, with the aim of drawing useful information on the relationship between changes in the structure of production and economic development. After a brief review of the literature, long-term data of eight developed countries is examined, as well as cross-sectional data from 1975 of a large group of countries with different levels of development. Some limitations of previous analyses are then presented and direct indications are advanced to explain the empirical evidence. Finally, the author highlights the consequences that international differences in relative prices entail in the cross-section analysis of the sectoral distribution of production.

  2. Comparison of empirical magnetic field models and global MHD simulations: The near-tail currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, T. I.; Baker, D. N.; Walker, R. J.; Raeder, J.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.

    1995-01-01

    The tail currents predicted by empirical magnetic field models and global MHD simulations are compared. It is shown that the near-Earth currents obtained from the MHD simulations are much weaker than the currents predicted by the Tsyganenko models, primarily because the ring current is not properly represented in the simulations. On the other hand, in the mid-tail and distant tail the lobe field strength predicted by the simulations is comparable to what is observed at about 50 R(sub E) distance, significantly larger than the very low lobe field values predicted by the Tsyganenko models at that distance. Ways to improve these complementary approaches to model the actual magnetospheric configuration are discussed.

  3. Compliance costs caused by agency action? Empirical evidence and implications for tax compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Eichfelder, Sebastian; Kegels, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    The compliance costs of private taxpayers are not only affected by the tax law itself but also by its implementation through the tax authorities. In this paper we analyze the effect of the tax authorities on the burden of complying with tax regulations. Using survey data of Belgian businesses and controlling for potential endogeneity, we find empirical evidence that tax authority behavior is an important cost driver. According to our estimate, a customer-unfriendly tax administration increase...

  4. EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS AND THE ROMANIAN STOCK MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iamandi Irina Eugenia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on empirical studies and theoretical evidence, the paper investigates the relationship between mergers and acquisitions in Romania and Romanian stock market, described by the BET and BET-C indexes. By using the Granger causality test for the number of mergers and acquisitions, the research results suggest that, for the market and period considered, one way and both ways relationships are present.

  5. Capital flows and asset prices: empirical evidence from emerging and developing economies

    OpenAIRE

    Taguchi, Hiroyuki; Sahoo, Pravakar; Nataraj, Geethanjali

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at providing empirical evidence on the effect of capital flows on asset prices including its channel under different currency regimes, focusing on ten emerging and developing economies in the world with data availability and stationarity for the 2000s, by a generalized impulse response analysis under a vector auto-regression model. The main findings are as  follows. Portfolio capital inflows have a significantly positive effect on stock prices in all sample economies except tw...

  6. Exogenous empirical-evidence equilibria in perfect-monitoring repeated games yield correlated equilibria

    KAUST Repository

    Dudebout, Nicolas

    2014-12-15

    This paper proves that exogenous empirical-evidence equilibria (xEEEs) in perfect-monitoring repeated games induce correlated equilibria of the associated one-shot game. An empirical-evidence equilibrium (EEE) is a solution concept for stochastic games. At equilibrium, agents\\' strategies are optimal with respect to models of their opponents. These models satisfy a consistency condition with respect to the actual behavior of the opponents. As such, EEEs replace the full-rationality requirement of Nash equilibria by a consistency-based bounded-rationality one. In this paper, the framework of empirical evidence is summarized, with an emphasis on perfect-monitoring repeated games. A less constraining notion of consistency is introduced. The fact that an xEEE in a perfect-monitoring repeated game induces a correlated equilibrium on the underlying one-shot game is proven. This result and the new notion of consistency are illustrated on the hawk-dove game. Finally, a method to build specific correlated equilibria from xEEEs is derived.

  7. State-of-Art Empirical Modeling of Ring Current Plasma Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, C.; Ma, Q.; Wang, C. P.; Bortnik, J.; Thorne, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    The plasma pressure in the inner magnetosphere plays a key role in plasma dynamics by changing magnetic field configurations and generating the ring current. In this study, we present our preliminary results of empirically constructing 2D equatorial ring current pressure and pressure anisotropy spatial distributions controlled by Dst based on measurements from two particle instruments (HOPE and RBSPICE) onboard Van Allen Probes. We first obtain the equatorial plasma perpendicular and parallel pressures for different species including H+, He+, O+ and e- from 20 eV to ~1 MeV, and investigate their relative contributions to the total plasma pressure and pressure anisotropy. We then establish empirical equatorial pressure models within ~ 6 RE using a state-of-art machine learning technique, Support Vector Regression Machine (SVRM). The pressure models predict equatorial perpendicular and parallel plasma thermal pressures (for each species and for total pressures) and pressure anisotropy at any given r, MLT, Bz/Br (equivalent Z distance), and Dst within applicable ranges. We are currently validating our model predictions and investigating how the ring current pressure distributions and the associated pressure gradients vary with Dst index.

  8. Impact of quality of evidence on the strength of recommendations: an empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trikalinos Thomas A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence is necessary but not sufficient for decision-making, such as making recommendations by clinical practice guideline panels. However, the fundamental premise of evidence-based medicine (EBM rests on the assumed link between the quality of evidence and "truth" and/or correctness in making guideline recommendations. If this assumption is accurate, then the quality of evidence ought to play a key role in making guideline recommendations. Surprisingly, and despite the widespread penetration of EBM in health care, there has been no empirical research to date investigating the impact of quality of evidence on the strength of recommendations made by guidelines panels. Methods The American Association of Blood Banking (AABB has recently convened a 12 member panel to develop clinical practice guidelines (CPG for the use of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP for 6 different clinical indications. The panel was instructed that 4 factors should play a role in making recommendation: quality of evidence, uncertainty about the balance between desirable (benefits and undesirable effects (harms, uncertainty or variability in values and preferences, and uncertainty about whether the intervention represents a wise use of resources (costs. Each member of the panel was asked to make his/her final judgments on the strength of recommendation and the overall quality of the body of evidence. "Voting" was anonymous and was based on the use of GRADE (Grading quality of evidence and strength of recommendations system, which clearly distinguishes between quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. Results Despite the fact that many factors play role in formulating CPG recommendations, we show that when the quality of evidence is higher, the probability of making a strong recommendation for or against an intervention dramatically increases. Probability of making strong recommendation was 62% when evidence is "moderate", while it was only 23% and 13

  9. It’s Personal: Biology Instructors Prioritize Personal Evidence over Empirical Evidence in Teaching Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Tessa C.; Lemons, Paula P.

    2015-01-01

    Despite many calls for undergraduate biology instructors to incorporate active learning into lecture courses, few studies have focused on what it takes for instructors to make this change. We sought to investigate the process of adopting and sustaining active-learning instruction. As a framework for our research, we used the innovation-decision model, a generalized model of how individuals adopt innovations. We interviewed 17 biology instructors who were attempting to implement case study teaching and conducted qualitative text analysis on interview data. The overarching theme that emerged from our analysis was that instructors prioritized personal experience—rather than empirical evidence—in decisions regarding case study teaching. We identified personal experiences that promote case study teaching, such as anecdotal observations of student outcomes, and those that hinder case study teaching, such as insufficient teaching skills. By analyzing the differences between experienced and new case study instructors, we discovered that new case study instructors need support to deal with unsupportive colleagues and to develop the skill set needed for an active-learning classroom. We generated hypotheses that are grounded in our data about effectively supporting instructors in adopting and sustaining active-learning strategies. We also synthesized our findings with existing literature to tailor the innovation-decision model. PMID:25713092

  10. Food parenting: a selective review of current measurement and an empirical examination to inform future measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R; Kiefner, Allison

    2013-08-01

    Interactions between parents and children in regard to food are an important part of the development of food preferences and intake patterns for children. The measurement of this complex and multidimensional construct is very challenging. This article examines the current status of measurement in this domain in a selective review, considers qualitative input from parents and adolescents in an empirical examination of the topic, and makes concrete recommendations for the future. Qualitatively, there were important differences between what the adolescents reported that their parents did to impact their eating habits, what parents of younger children report they currently do, and what researchers typically measure in research on parental feeding practices. On the basis of these empirical findings and our review of the literature, we recommend that food parenting be measured on three levels: Feeding styles (e.g., authoritative), food parenting practices (e.g., restriction), and specific feeding behaviors (e.g., putting food out of the child's reach). Specific recommendations for future study are given for each level of measurement.

  11. Empirically supported treatments in psychotherapy: towards an evidence-based or evidence-biased psychology in clinical settings?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Castelnuovo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The field of research and practice in psychotherapy has been deeply influenced by two different approaches: the empirically supported treatments (ESTs movement, linked with the evidence-based medicine (EBM perspective and the “Common Factors” approach, typically connected with the “Dodo Bird Verdict”. About the first perspective, since 1998 a list of ESTs has been established in mental health field. Criterions for “well-established” and “probably efficacious” treatments have arisen. The development of these kinds of paradigms was motivated by the emergence of a “managerial” approach and related systems for remuneration also for mental health providers and for insurance companies. In this article ESTs will be presented underlining also some possible criticisms. Finally complementary approaches, that could add different evidence in the psychotherapy research in comparison with traditional EBM approach, are presented.

  12. Advancing Empirical Approaches to the Concept of Resilience: A Critical Examination of Panarchy, Ecological Information, and Statistical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kharrazi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite its ambiguities, the concept of resilience is of critical importance to researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers in dealing with dynamic socio-ecological systems. In this paper, we critically examine the three empirical approaches of (i panarchy; (ii ecological information-based network analysis; and (iii statistical evidence of resilience to three criteria determined for achieving a comprehensive understanding and application of this concept. These criteria are the ability: (1 to reflect a system’s adaptability to shocks; (2 to integrate social and environmental dimensions; and (3 to evaluate system-level trade-offs. Our findings show that none of the three currently applied approaches are strong in handling all three criteria. Panarchy is strong in the first two criteria but has difficulty with normative trade-offs. The ecological information-based approach is strongest in evaluating trade-offs but relies on common dimensions that lead to over-simplifications in integrating the social and environmental dimensions. Statistical evidence provides suggestions that are simplest and easiest to act upon but are generally weak in all three criteria. This analysis confirms the value of these approaches in specific instances but also the need for further research in advancing empirical approaches to the concept of resilience.

  13. Spontaneous fungal peritonitis: Epidemiology, current evidence and future prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Marco; Leone, Sebastiano

    2016-09-14

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a complication of ascitic patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD); spontaneous fungal peritonitis (SFP) is a complication of ESLD less known and described. ESLD is associated to immunodepression and the resulting increased susceptibility to infections. Recent perspectives of the management of the critically ill patient with ESLD do not specify the rate of isolation of fungi in critically ill patients, not even the antifungals used for the prophylaxis, neither optimal treatment. We reviewed, in order to focus the epidemiology, characteristics, and, considering the high mortality rate of SFP, the use of optimal empirical antifungal therapy the current literature.

  14. Managing the Services Supply Chain in the Department of Defense: Empirical Study of the Current Management Practices in the Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-21

    Managing the Services Supply Chain in the Department of Defense: Empirical Study of the Current Management Practices in the Army 21 September...Managing the Services Supply Chain in the Department of Defense: Empirical Study of the Current Management Practices in the Army 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...Service Supply Chain , Services Acquisition, Service Lifecycle, Contract Management, Project Management, Program Management = = ^Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ

  15. Evidenzbasierte Pflegeausbildung - ein systematisches Review zur empirischen Forschungslage [Evidence-based Nursing Education - a Systematic Review of Empirical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiber, Karin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] The project „Evidence-based Nursing Education – Preparatory Stage“, funded by the Baden-Württemberg within the programme (Funding to Stimulate Research, aims to collect information on current research concerned with nursing education and to process existing data. The results of empirical research which has already been carried out were systematically evaluated with aim of identifying further topics, fields and matters of interest for empirical research in nursing education. In the course of the project, the available empirical studies on nursing education were scientifically analysed and systematised. The over-arching aim of the evidence-based training approach – which extends beyond the aims of this project - is the conception, organisation and evaluation of vocational training and educational processes in the caring professions on the basis of empirical data. The following contribution first provides a systematic, theoretical link to the over-arching reference framework, as the evidence-based approach is adapted from thematically related specialist fields. The research design of the project is oriented towards criteria introduced from a selection of studies and carries out a two-stage systematic review of the selected studies. As a result, the current status of research in nursing education, as well as its organisation and structure, and questions relating to specialist training and comparative education are introduced and discussed. Finally, the empirical research on nursing training is critically appraised as a complementary element in educational theory/psychology of learning and in the ethical tradition of research.This contribution aims, on the one hand, to derive and describe the methods used, and to introduce the steps followed in gathering and evaluating the data. On the other hand, it is intended to give a systematic overview of empirical research work in nursing education. In order to preserve a holistic view of

  16. Industry trade-balance and domestic merger policy : some empirical evidence from the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Clougherty, Joseph A.

    2003-01-01

    The literature on antitrust in an open-economy setting is inconclusive with respect to the role played by trade-balance on the tenor of domestic merger policy. Using a panel data set composed of US merger reviews by industrial sector over the 1997-2001 period, I empirically test the impact of sectoral trade balance on the level of antitrust scrutiny. The results suggest that larger trade balances lead to more vigorous antitrust scrutiny; thus, ‘strategic’ merger policy does not appear evident...

  17. The Current State of Empirical Support for the Pharmacological Treatment of Selective Mutism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, John S.; Mitchell, Angela D.; Segool, Natasha

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the current state of evidence for the psychopharmacological treatment of children diagnosed with selective mutism within the context of its link to social anxiety disorder. An increased focus on potential medication treatment for this disorder has resulted from significant monetary and resource limitations in typical practice,…

  18. Empirical compensation function for eddy current effects in pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X X; Macdonald, P M

    1995-05-01

    An empirical compensation function for the correction of eddy current effects in the Stejskal-Tanner pulsed-gradient spin-echo (PGSE) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments has been established. Eddy currents may arise as a result of the application of sharp and strong gradient pulses and may cause severe distortion of the NMR signals. In this method, the length of one gradient pulse is altered to compensate for the eddy current effects. The compensation is considered to be ideal when the position and the phase of the spin-echo maximum obtained from an aqueous solution of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is the same in the presence and absence of a gradient pulse in the PGSE pulse sequence. We first characterized the functional dependence of the length of the required compensation on the three principal variables in the PGSE experiment: the gradient strength, the duration of the gradient pulse, and the interval between the two gradient pulses. Subsequently, we derived a model which successfully describes the general relationship between these variables and the size of the induced eddy current. The parameters extracted from fitting the model to the experimental compensation data may be used to predict the correct compensation for any combination of the three principal variables.

  19. Bacterial clonal diagnostics as a tool for evidence-based empiric antibiotic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchesnokova, Veronika; Avagyan, Hovhannes; Rechkina, Elena; Chan, Diana; Muradova, Mariya; Haile, Helen Ghirmai; Radey, Matthew; Weissman, Scott; Riddell, Kim; Scholes, Delia; Johnson, James R; Sokurenko, Evgeni V

    2017-01-01

    Despite the known clonal distribution of antibiotic resistance in many bacteria, empiric (pre-culture) antibiotic selection still relies heavily on species-level cumulative antibiograms, resulting in overuse of broad-spectrum agents and excessive antibiotic/pathogen mismatch. Urinary tract infections (UTIs), which account for a large share of antibiotic use, are caused predominantly by Escherichia coli, a highly clonal pathogen. In an observational clinical cohort study of urgent care patients with suspected UTI, we assessed the potential for E. coli clonal-level antibiograms to improve empiric antibiotic selection. A novel PCR-based clonotyping assay was applied to fresh urine samples to rapidly detect E. coli and the urine strain's clonotype. Based on a database of clonotype-specific antibiograms, the acceptability of various antibiotics for empiric therapy was inferred using a 20%, 10%, and 30% allowed resistance threshold. The test's performance characteristics and possible effects on prescribing were assessed. The rapid test identified E. coli clonotypes directly in patients' urine within 25-35 minutes, with high specificity and sensitivity compared to culture. Antibiotic selection based on a clonotype-specific antibiogram could reduce the relative likelihood of antibiotic/pathogen mismatch by ≥ 60%. Compared to observed prescribing patterns, clonal diagnostics-guided antibiotic selection could safely double the use of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and minimize fluoroquinolone use. In summary, a rapid clonotyping test showed promise for improving empiric antibiotic prescribing for E. coli UTI, including reversing preferential use of fluoroquinolones over trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The clonal diagnostics approach merges epidemiologic surveillance, antimicrobial stewardship, and molecular diagnostics to bring evidence-based medicine directly to the point of care.

  20. A Guide to Visual Multi-Level Interface Design From Synthesis of Empirical Study Evidence

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Heidi

    2010-01-01

    Displaying multiple levels of data visually has been proposed to address the challenge of limited screen space. Although many previous empirical studies have addressed different aspects of this question, the information visualization research community does not currently have a clearly articulated consensus on how, when, or even if displaying data at multiple levels is effective. To shed more light on this complex topic, we conducted a systematic review of 22 existing multi-level interface studies to extract high-level design guidelines. To facilitate discussion, we cast our analysis findings

  1. Delivering patient decision aids on the Internet: definitions, theories, current evidence, and emerging research areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Aubri S; Volk, Robert J; Saarimaki, Anton; Stirling, Christine; Li, Linda C; Härter, Martin; Kamath, Geetanjali R; Llewellyn-Thomas, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    In 2005, the International Patient Decision Aids Standards Collaboration identified twelve quality dimensions to guide assessment of patient decision aids. One dimension-the delivery of patient decision aids on the Internet-is relevant when the Internet is used to provide some or all components of a patient decision aid. Building on the original background chapter, this paper provides an updated definition for this dimension, outlines a theoretical rationale, describes current evidence, and discusses emerging research areas. An international, multidisciplinary panel of authors examined the relevant theoretical literature and empirical evidence through 2012. The updated definition distinguishes Internet-delivery of patient decision aids from online health information and clinical practice guidelines. Theories in cognitive psychology, decision psychology, communication, and education support the value of Internet features for providing interactive information and deliberative support. Dissemination and implementation theories support Internet-delivery for providing the right information (rapidly updated), to the right person (tailored), at the right time (the appropriate point in the decision making process). Additional efforts are needed to integrate the theoretical rationale and empirical evidence from health technology perspectives, such as consumer health informatics, user experience design, and human-computer interaction. As of 2012, the updated theoretical rationale and emerging evidence suggest potential benefits to delivering patient decision aids on the Internet. However, additional research is needed to identify best practices and quality metrics for Internet-based development, evaluation, and dissemination, particularly in the areas of interactivity, multimedia components, socially-generated information, and implementation strategies.

  2. Why do women choose or reject careers in academic medicine? A narrative review of empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Laurel D; Ovseiko, Pavel V; Shepperd, Sasha; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Frith, Peggy; Roberts, Nia W; Pololi, Linda H; Buchan, Alastair M

    2016-12-10

    Women are under-represented in academic medicine. We reviewed the empirical evidence focusing on the reasons for women's choice or rejection of careers in academic medicine. Using a systematic search, we identified 52 studies published between 1985, and 2015. More than half had methodological limitations and most were from North America. Eight main themes were explored in these studies. There was consistent evidence for four of these themes: women are interested in teaching more than in research; participation in research can encourage women into academic medicine; women lack adequate mentors and role models; and women experience gender discrimination and bias. The evidence was conflicting on four themes: women are less interested in research than men; women lose commitment to research as their education and training progress; women are deterred from academic careers by financial considerations; and women are deterred by concerns about work-life balance. Inconsistency of findings across studies suggests significant opportunities to overcome barriers by providing a more enabling environment. We identified substantial gaps in the scientific literature that could form the focus of future research, including shifting the focus from individuals' career choices to the societal and organisational contexts and cultures within which those choices are made; extending the evidence base to include a wider range of countries and settings; and testing the efficacy of interventions.

  3. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders: an update on the empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczkurkin, Antonia N; Foa, Edna B

    2015-09-01

    A large amount of research has accumulated on the efficacy and effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders including posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia. The purpose of the current article is to provide an overview of two of the most commonly used CBT methods used to treat anxiety disorders (exposure and cognitive therapy) and to summarize and discuss the current empirical research regarding the usefulness of these techniques for each anxiety disorder. Additionally, we discuss the difficulties that arise when comparing active CBT treatments, and we suggest directions for future research. Overall, CBT appears to be both efficacious and effective in the treatment of anxiety disorders, but dismantling studies are needed to determine which specific treatment components lead to beneficial outcomes and which patients are most likely to benefit from these treatment components.

  4. EVIDENCE ON THE NEXUS BETWEEN ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH THROUGH EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION OF UGANDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamofokeng MOTLOKOA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the electricity consumption -economic growth nexus in Uganda for the period 1982 to 2013, with a view to contributing to the body of literature on this topic and informing energy policy design in Uganda. Using capital stock as an intermittent variable in the causality framework, the paper employs Johansen-Juselius (1988, 1995 multivariate cointegration and VECM based Granger causality tests and finds a bidirectional causality between electricity consumption and economic growth in the long-term and distinct causal flow from economic growth to electricity consumption in the short-run, and short-term and long-term Granger causality from capital stock to economic growth, with short-run feedback in the opposite direction. Therefore, it implies that firstly, the Government of Uganda (GoU can implement conservation policies only through reducing energy intensity and promoting efficient energy use to avoid decline in output and secondly, that the GoUshould intensify its efforts towards capital accumulation in order to realize sustainable economic growth. Lastly, the empirical evidence that electricity consumption influences some short-term capital accumulation supports the GoU’s efforts to allow private sector investment in the electricity sector in an effort to increase electricity supply.

  5. Climate change and the collapse of the Akkadian empire: Evidence from the deep sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, H.M.; Menocal, P.B. de; Hemming, S.; Hemming, G.; Brown, F.H.; Guilderson, T.; Sirocko, F.

    2000-04-01

    The Akkadian empire ruled Mesopotamia from the headwaters of the Tigris-Euphrates Rivers to the Persian Gulf during the late third millennium B.C. Archeological evidence has shown that this highly developed civilization collapsed abruptly near 4,170 {+-} 150 calendar yr B.P., perhaps related to a shift to more arid conditions. Detailed paleoclimate records to test this assertion from Mesopotamia are rare, but changes in regional aridity are preserved in adjacent ocean basins. The authors document Holocene changes in regional aridity using mineralogic and geochemical analyses of a marine sediment core from the Gulf of Oman, which is directly downwind of Mesopotamian dust source areas and archeological sites. Results document a very abrupt increase in eolian dust and Mesopotamian aridity, accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon dates to 4,025 {+-} 125 calendar yr B.P., which persisted for {approximately} 300 yr. Radiogenic (Nd and Sr) isotope analyses confirm that the observed increase in mineral dust was derived from Mesopotamian source areas. Geochemical correlation of volcanic ash shards between the archeological site and marine sediment record establishes a direct temporal link between Mesopotamian aridification and social collapse, implicating a sudden shift to more arid conditions as a key factor contributing to the collapse of the Akkadian empire.

  6. Religious Europe, Russia and Serbia: Past and present (Arguments of empirical evidence: The case of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Mirko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The author has envisaged to publish three articles in three issues of "Philosophy and Society" magazine in which, relying on the empirical scientific evidence, plans to reveal the scope and level of religiousness in some European countries, then to study the case of Russia in a separate text and finally to analyze religiousness of people in Serbia and their attachment to the church and religion. This sequence of publication has its own logics looking forward to the empirical research called "European Values Study" - a longitudinal and international comparative survey of human values - in almost all European countries including, for the first time, Serbia in 2008, the author first aims to present results of previous sociological research which are representative for the area of Europe, and then for the Orthodox area in the country with the highest number of Orthodox believers in the world. Therefore, in the last article the author will be able to compare the religious situation in Serbia not only with the (non-religious Europe but the (non-religious Orthodox Russia as well.

  7. Empirical evidence for tidal spin-up in transiting planetary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pont, Frederic

    2008-01-01

    Most transiting planets orbit very close to their parent star, causing strong tidal forces between the two bodies. Tidal interaction can modify the dynamics of the system through orbital alignment, circularisation and synchronisation, and orbital decay by exchange of angular moment. Evidence for tidal circularisation in close-in giant planet is well-known. Here we review the evidence for tidal spin-up of the parent stars due to the pull of tidal forces towards spin-orbit synchronisation. We find suggestive empirical evidence for such a process in the present sample of transiting planetary systems. The corresponding angular momentum exchange would imply that some planets have spiralled towards their star by substantial amounts since the dissipation of the protoplanetary disc. We show that this could quantitatively account for the observed mass-period relation of close-in gas giants. Finally, we discuss how this scenario can be further tested and point out some consequences for theoretical studies of tidal inte...

  8. Institutions and the finance–growth nexus: Empirical evidence from MENA countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaouthar Gazdar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of institutional quality on the finance–growth nexus. To this end, an empirical model with linear interaction between financial development and institutional quality is estimated. Our main findings show that, while most indicators of financial development have a significantly negative effect on economic growth, the sign of the coefficients of interaction variables are significantly positive. This provides strong evidence that institutional quality mitigates the negative effect of financial development on economic growth. Looking to the subcomponents of our institutional index, our findings show a development of the banking sector in a country with an important score in Law and Order, Bureaucracy and Investment Profile facilitate growth. Also, countries, with an important score of investment profile, can benefit from stock market development in terms of economic growth. These results suggest that, in order to benefit from financial development, financial systems in MENA countries must be embedded within a sound institutional framework.

  9. The Efficiency of the Chinese Commodity Futures Markets: Development and Empirical Evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Xin; Gongmeng Chen; Michael Firth

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the efficiency of the Chinese metal futures (i.e. copper and aluminum) traded on China's Shanghai Futures Exchange. First, we thoroughly analyze the development of China's commodity futures markets, which provides a fundamental background. Then we examine the random walk and unbiasedness hypotheses for two metal futures during 1999-2004. Based on the empirical evidence, we argue that China's copper and aluminum futures markets are efficient, and that they aid the process of price discovery because futures prices can be considered as unbiased predictors of future spot prices. We attribute this efficiency to the regulatory changes made in 1999 and the increased financial skills and acumen of the participants in the market.

  10. Evaluation of Urban Infrastructure Investment Efficiency: Empirical Evidence from Heilongjiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of urban infrastructure investment in China has brought with it some serious problems that cannot be ignored, such as low investment efficiency and faulty investment decision-making. Therefore, based on the latest research findings related to infrastructure efficiency evaluation theory and evaluation methods, this paper uses empirical evidence from Heilongjiang province to analyze urban infrastructure investment efficiency. To analyze investment efficiency in the province, a new infrastructure investment efficiency evaluation model is developed known as the SDEA-Malmquist model. The model reveals that urban infrastructure investment projects in Heilongjiang province are relatively effective and stable but that the efficiency of such investments varies according to the city in which they are made. Overall efficiency is consistent with the TFC (total final consumption index, but the index fluctuates within a narrow range between cities due to technological differences.

  11. Management and prevention of neonatal anemia: current evidence and guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lindern, Jeannette S; Lopriore, Enrico

    2014-04-01

    Neonatal anemia is a common disorder, particularly in (very) preterm neonates. Management of neonatal anemia is based principally on red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Although the use of blood products is nowadays widespread in neonatal medicine, evidence on the potential benefit is extremely limited. Recent studies suggest that RBC transfusions in newborns may be associated with an increased risk for necrotizing enterocolitis, transfer of infectious agents and negative effects on neurodevelopmental outcome. Whether the benefits of RBC transfusions outweigh the risks is controversial and requires further studies. In this review, we summarize the current evidence on the management of neonatal anemia and compare the various international guidelines. In addition, we discuss the various strategies to prevent neonatal anemia and reduce the need for RBC transfusions and discuss important trials currently enrolling patients to improve the management in neonatal anemia.

  12. Current Evidence on Atypical Odontalgia: Diagnosis and Clinical Management

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshihiro Abiko; Hirofumi Matsuoka; Itsuo Chiba; Akira Toyofuku

    2012-01-01

    Patients with atypical odontalgia (AO) complain of medically unexplained toothache. No evidence-based diagnostic criteria or treatment guidelines are yet available. The present paper addresses seven clinical questions about AO based on current knowledge in the literature and discusses diagnostic criteria and guidelines for treatment and management. The questions are (i) What is the prevalence of AO in the community? (ii) What psychological problems are experienced by patients with AO? (iii) A...

  13. The current state of evidence-based pediatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostlie, Daniel J; St Peter, Shawn D

    2010-10-01

    The efficiency of medical care in the United States has become intensely scrutinized with expectations from patients, families, payors, lawmakers, and, currently, the President. The most effective vehicle to bring more efficient care is the employment of evidence-based medicine whenever possible. Evidence-based medicine is dependent on best evidence, and best evidence is generated from prospective trials. To evaluate current state of evidence based practice in pediatric surgery we reviewed the literature for trials conducted in our field the past 10 years. All randomized controlled trials from January 1999 through December 2009 published in the English literature were identified through a literature search using PubMed (www.pubmed.com). We included only those in pediatric general surgery excluding transplant, oncology, and the other nongeneral subspecialties. The search criteria produced 56 manuscripts, of which 51 described appropriate randomization techniques. A definitive trial design with a sample size calculation was utilized in only 19 studies (34%). A statistically significant difference between treatment arms was identified in 29 of the 56 (52%) trials. There were 26 different journals of publication, with the Journal of Pediatric Surgery being most common (20) followed by Pediatric Surgery International (7). The combined total publications from January 1999 through December 2009 for the 26 journals these randomized trials represent 0.04% of all publications. Appendicitis was the most common condition that was studied (n = 10) followed by pyloric stenosis (n = 4). Trials originated in 19 different countries led by the United States (28%), United Kingdom (14%), and Turkey (12%). There was a generally progressive increase in published trials from 1999 to 2009, however, the percentage of prospective articles published in pediatric surgery was similar to a previous review published in 1999. The current state of evidence-based surgery in pediatric surgery has

  14. Systematic review of the empirical evidence of study publication bias and outcome reporting bias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Dwan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increased use of meta-analysis in systematic reviews of healthcare interventions has highlighted several types of bias that can arise during the completion of a randomised controlled trial. Study publication bias has been recognised as a potential threat to the validity of meta-analysis and can make the readily available evidence unreliable for decision making. Until recently, outcome reporting bias has received less attention. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We review and summarise the evidence from a series of cohort studies that have assessed study publication bias and outcome reporting bias in randomised controlled trials. Sixteen studies were eligible of which only two followed the cohort all the way through from protocol approval to information regarding publication of outcomes. Eleven of the studies investigated study publication bias and five investigated outcome reporting bias. Three studies have found that statistically significant outcomes had a higher odds of being fully reported compared to non-significant outcomes (range of odds ratios: 2.2 to 4.7. In comparing trial publications to protocols, we found that 40-62% of studies had at least one primary outcome that was changed, introduced, or omitted. We decided not to undertake meta-analysis due to the differences between studies. CONCLUSIONS: Recent work provides direct empirical evidence for the existence of study publication bias and outcome reporting bias. There is strong evidence of an association between significant results and publication; studies that report positive or significant results are more likely to be published and outcomes that are statistically significant have higher odds of being fully reported. Publications have been found to be inconsistent with their protocols. Researchers need to be aware of the problems of both types of bias and efforts should be concentrated on improving the reporting of trials.

  15. Image guided robotic surgery: Current evidence for effectiveness in urology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anum Pervez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Discussion of the evolution of image guided surgery (IGS and its fundamental components and current evidence for effectiveness of IGS in clinical urology. Methods: Literature search for image-guided robotic urology. Results: Current literature in image-guided robotic urology with its use in robot assisted radical prostatectomy and robot assisted partial nephrectomy are shown. Conclusions: Image guided surgery can be a useful aid to improve visualisation of anatomy and subsurface structures during minimally invasive surgery. Soft-tissue deformation makes it difficult to implement IGS in urology but current studies have shown an attempt to address this issue. The feasibility of IGS requires randomised control trials assessing in particular its accuracy and affect on clinical outcome.

  16. Uncoupling of reading and IQ over time: empirical evidence for a definition of dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Emilio; Shaywitz, Bennett A; Holahan, John M; Marchione, Karen; Shaywitz, Sally E

    2010-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is defined as an unexpected difficulty in reading in individuals who otherwise possess the intelligence and motivation considered necessary for fluent reading, and who also have had reasonable reading instruction. Identifying factors associated with normative and impaired reading development has implications for diagnosis, intervention, and prevention. We show that in typical readers, reading and IQ development are dynamically linked over time. Such mutual interrelationships are not perceptible in dyslexic readers, which suggests that reading and cognition develop more independently in these individuals. To our knowledge, these findings provide the first empirical demonstration of a coupling between cognition and reading in typical readers and a developmental uncoupling between cognition and reading in dyslexic readers. This uncoupling was the core concept of the initial description of dyslexia and remains the focus of the current definitional model of this learning disability.

  17. Impact of climate change on human infectious diseases: Empirical evidence and human adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoxu; Lu, Yongmei; Zhou, Sen; Chen, Lifan; Xu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Climate change refers to long-term shifts in weather conditions and patterns of extreme weather events. It may lead to changes in health threat to human beings, multiplying existing health problems. This review examines the scientific evidences on the impact of climate change on human infectious diseases. It identifies research progress and gaps on how human society may respond to, adapt to, and prepare for the related changes. Based on a survey of related publications between 1990 and 2015, the terms used for literature selection reflect three aspects--the components of infectious diseases, climate variables, and selected infectious diseases. Humans' vulnerability to the potential health impacts by climate change is evident in literature. As an active agent, human beings may control the related health effects that may be effectively controlled through adopting proactive measures, including better understanding of the climate change patterns and of the compound disease-specific health effects, and effective allocation of technologies and resources to promote healthy lifestyles and public awareness. The following adaptation measures are recommended: 1) to go beyond empirical observations of the association between climate change and infectious diseases and develop more scientific explanations, 2) to improve the prediction of spatial-temporal process of climate change and the associated shifts in infectious diseases at various spatial and temporal scales, and 3) to establish locally effective early warning systems for the health effects of predicated climate change.

  18. The necrophagous fly anthrax transmission pathway: empirical and genetic evidence from wildlife epizootics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Jason K; Van Ert, Matthew; Mullins, Jocelyn C; Hadfield, Ted L; Hugh-Jones, Martin E

    2014-08-01

    Early studies confirmed Bacillus anthracis in emesis and feces of flies under laboratory conditions, but there is little empirical field evidence supporting the roles of flies in anthrax transmission. We collected samples during outbreaks of anthrax affecting livestock and native and exotic wildlife on two ranches in West Texas (2009-2010). Sampling included animal carcasses, maggots, adult flies feeding on or within several meters of carcasses, and leaves from surrounding vegetation. Microbiology and PCR were used to detect B. anthracis in the samples. Viable B. anthracis and/or PCR-positive results were obtained from all represented sample types. Genetic analysis of B. anthracis samples using multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) confirmed that each ranch represented a distinct genetic lineage. Within each ranch, we detected the same genotype of B. anthracis from carcasses, maggots, and adult flies. The results of this study provide evidence supporting a transmission cycle in which blowflies contaminate vegetation near carcasses that may then infect additional browsing animals during anthrax outbreaks in the shrubland environment of West Texas.

  19. Solar Radiation Alters Toxicity of Carbofuran: Evidence from Empirical Trials with Duttaphyrnus melanostictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R.Wijesinghe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigated the potential of natural solar radiation to alter the toxicity of a commonly used carbamate pesticide, carbofuran, on tadpoles of the Common Asian Toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus. A single exposure trial was conducted over 96 hrs with three concentrations (150, 250 and 500 µgl-1 of photo-irradiated and non-irradiated carbofuran. Results show that photo-irradiation markedly reduced the toxicity of carbofuran as evident by its effects on three end points, i.e. mortality, growth and swimming activity. The mortality of tadpoles exposed to irradiated carbofuran was significantly lower than those exposed to the non-irradiated pesticide. Both treatment and control tadpoles showed a hormetic response for mortality. Tadpoles in irradiated tanks were also larger and more active than those in the control tanks. Photo-altered toxicity was evident at all three tested concentrations. The results of this study therefore signals caution when directly linking results of empirical trials to field scenarios and highlight the necessity to evaluate toxic effects of compounds under variable environmental conditions.

  20. Host specificity in vascular epiphytes: a review of methodology, empirical evidence and potential mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Katrin; Mendieta-Leiva, Glenda; Zotz, Gerhard

    2015-01-06

    Information on the degree of host specificity is fundamental for an understanding of the ecology of structurally dependent plants such as vascular epiphytes. Starting with the seminal paper of A.F.W. Schimper on epiphyte ecology in the late 19th century over 200 publications have dealt with the issue of host specificity in vascular epiphytes. We review and critically discuss this extensive literature. The available evidence indicates that host ranges of vascular epiphytes are largely unrestricted while a certain host bias is ubiquitous. However, tree size and age and spatial autocorrelation of tree and epiphyte species have not been adequately considered in most statistical analyses. More refined null expectations and adequate replication are needed to allow more rigorous conclusions. Host specificity could be caused by a large number of tree traits (e.g. bark characteristics and architectural traits), which influence epiphyte performance. After reviewing the empirical evidence for their relevance, we conclude that future research should use a more comprehensive approach by determining the relative importance of various potential mechanisms acting locally and by testing several proposed hypotheses regarding the relative strength of host specificity in different habitats and among different groups of structurally dependent flora.

  1. A MACROPRUDENTIAL SUPERVISION MODEL. EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM THE CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trenca Ioan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the positive effects of the financial crises is the increasing concern of the supervisors regarding the financial system’s stability. There is a need to strengthen the links between different financial components of the financial system and the macroeconomic environment. Banking systems that have an adequate capitalization and liquidity level may face easier economic and financial shocks. The purpose of this empirical study is to identify the main determinants of the banking system’s stability and soundness in the Central and Eastern Europe countries. We asses the impact of different macroeconomic variables on the quality of capital and liquidity conditions and examine the behaviour of these financial stability indicators, by analyzing a sample of 10 banking systems during 2000-2011. The availability of banking capital signals the banking system’s resiliency to shocks. Capital adequacy ratio is the main indicator used to assess the banking fragility. One of the causes of the 2008-2009 financial crisis was the lack of liquidity in the banking system which led to the collapse of several banking institutions and macroeconomic imbalances. Given the importance of liquidity for the banking system, we propose several models in order to determine the macroeconomic variables that have a significant influence on the liquid reserves to total assets ratio. We found evidence that GDP growth, inflation, domestic credit to private sector, as well as the money and quasi money aggregate indicator have significant impact on the banking stability. The empirical regression confirms the high level of interdependence of the real sector with the financial-banking sector. Also, they prove the necessity for an effective macro prudential supervision at country level which enables the supervisory authorities to have an adequate control over the macro prudential indicators and to take appropriate decisions at the right time.

  2. Evidence for current diagnostic criteria of diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ritesh; Kumar[1; Lakshmana; Perumal; Nandhini[1; Sadishkumar; Kamalanathan[1; Jayaprakash; Sahoo[1; Muthupillai; Vivekanadan[1

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a non-communicable metabolic derangement afflicting several millions of individuals globally. It is associated with several micro and macrovascular complications and is also a leading cause of mortality. The unresolved issue is that of definition of the diagnostic threshold for diabetes. The World Health Organization and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) have laid down several diagnostic criteria for diagnosing diabetes and prediabetes based on the accumulating body of evidence.This review has attempted to analyse the scientific evidence supporting the justification of these differing criteria. The evidence for diagnosing diabetes is strong, and there is a concordance between the two professional bodies.The controversy arises when describing the normal lower limit of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) with little evidence favouring the reduction of the FPG by the ADA. Several studies have also shown the development of complications specific for diabetes in patients with prediabetes as defined by the current criteria though there is a significant overlap of such prevalence in individuals with normoglycemia. Large multinational longitudinal prospective studies involving subjects without diabetes and retinopathy at baseline will ideally help identify the threshold of glycemic measurements for future development of diabetes and its complications.

  3. Current Treatment of Toxoplasma Retinochoroiditis: An Evidence-Based Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Harrell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To perform an evidence-based review of treatments for Toxoplasma retinochoroiditis (TRC. Methods. A systematic literature search was performed using the PubMed database and the key phrase “ocular toxoplasmosis treatment” and the filter for “controlled clinical trial” and “randomized clinical trial” as well as OVID medline (1946 to May week 2 2014 using the keyword ‘‘ocular toxoplasmosis’’. The included studies were used to evaluate the various treatment modalities of TRC. Results. The electronic search yielded a total of 974 publications of which 44 reported on the treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis. There were 9 randomized controlled studies and an additional 3 comparative studies on the treatment of acute TRC with systemic or intravitreous antibiotics or on reducing the recurrences of TRC. Endpoints of studies included visual acuity improvement, inflammatory response, lesion size changes, recurrences of lesions, and adverse effects of medications. Conclusions. There was conflicting evidence as to the effectiveness of systemic antibiotics for TRC. There is no evidence to support that one antibiotic regimen is superior to another so choice needs to be informed by the safety profile. Intravitreous clindamycin with dexamethasone seems to be as effective as systemic treatments. There is currently level I evidence that intermittent trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prevents recurrence of the disease.

  4. Evidence for current diagnostic criteria of diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ritesh; Nandhini, Lakshmana Perumal; Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar; Sahoo, Jayaprakash; Vivekanadan, Muthupillai

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a non-communicable metabolic derangement afflicting several millions of individuals globally. It is associated with several micro and macrovascular complications and is also a leading cause of mortality. The unresolved issue is that of definition of the diagnostic threshold for diabetes. The World Health Organization and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) have laid down several diagnostic criteria for diagnosing diabetes and prediabetes based on the accumulating body of evidence.This review has attempted to analyse the scientific evidence supporting the justification of these differing criteria. The evidence for diagnosing diabetes is strong, and there is a concordance between the two professional bodies. The controversy arises when describing the normal lower limit of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) with little evidence favouring the reduction of the FPG by the ADA. Several studies have also shown the development of complications specific for diabetes in patients with prediabetes as defined by the current criteria though there is a significant overlap of such prevalence in individuals with normoglycemia. Large multinational longitudinal prospective studies involving subjects without diabetes and retinopathy at baseline will ideally help identify the threshold of glycemic measurements for future development of diabetes and its complications. PMID:27660696

  5. Current evidence and insights about genetics in thoracic aorta disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisleri, Gianluigi; Bagozzi, Lorenzo; Muneretto, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysms have been historically considered to be caused by etiologic factors similar to those implied in abdominal aortic aneurysms. However, during the past decade, there has been increasing evidence that almost 20% of thoracic aortic aneurysms may be associated with a genetic disease, often within a syndromic or familial disorder. Moreover, the presence of congenital anomalies, such as bicuspid aortic valve, may have a unique common genetic underlying cause. Finally, also sporadic forms have been found to be potentially associated with genetic disorders, as highlighted by the analysis of rare variants and expression of specific microRNAs. We therefore sought to perform a comprehensive review of the role of genetic causes in the development of thoracic aortic aneurysms, by analyzing in detail the current evidence of genetic alterations in syndromes such as Marfan, Loeys-Dietz, and Ehler-Danlos, familial or sporadic forms, or forms associated with bicuspid aortic valve.

  6. Current Evidence and Insights about Genetics in Thoracic Aorta Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Bisleri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic aortic aneurysms have been historically considered to be caused by etiologic factors similar to those implied in abdominal aortic aneurysms. However, during the past decade, there has been increasing evidence that almost 20% of thoracic aortic aneurysms may be associated with a genetic disease, often within a syndromic or familial disorder. Moreover, the presence of congenital anomalies, such as bicuspid aortic valve, may have a unique common genetic underlying cause. Finally, also sporadic forms have been found to be potentially associated with genetic disorders, as highlighted by the analysis of rare variants and expression of specific microRNAs. We therefore sought to perform a comprehensive review of the role of genetic causes in the development of thoracic aortic aneurysms, by analyzing in detail the current evidence of genetic alterations in syndromes such as Marfan, Loeys-Dietz, and Ehler-Danlos, familial or sporadic forms, or forms associated with bicuspid aortic valve.

  7. [Intervention for the promotion of sexual health through the internet: theory, empirical evidence and application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Azy; Fisher, William A

    2009-09-01

    The current article suggests that the core characteristics of the Internet--its anonymity, accessibility, affordability, privacy, and acceptability--make it ideally suited as an efficient and effective channel for delivery of sexual and reproductive health promotion interventions. The authors analysis also asserts that it is essential to create Internet-based sexual and reproductive health promotion efforts that are based upon comprehensive and empirically validated models of the initiation and maintenance of health behavior change. Accumulated research shows that the Internet is indeed a widely used and important resource for information concerning sexuality for many individuals, with particularly widespread utilization among younger individuals. In this context, numerous successful attempts have been made to exploit the Internet for the promotion of behaviors essential to sexuality and reproductive health, although these effects have often been limited in scope. The current discussion concludes with theoretical and practical illustrations of Internet-based sexual and reproductive health interventions, employing a theoretical foundation, the Information- motivation-behavioral skills model of sexual and reproductive health, and an internet delivery vehicle, www.sexualityandu.ca, that is based upon it.

  8. Mentalizing and its role as a mediator in the relationship between childhood experiences and adult functioning: Exploring the empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macintosh Heather Beth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of the concept of mentalizing into psychoanalytic discourse has provided researchers with an important tool for beginning to understand the mechanisms mediating the relationships between childhood experiences and later psychological functioning. Researchers have made strong statements regarding the strength of this mediational relationship in their movement toward the building of novel and efficacious intervention approaches. The goal of this systematic review was to critically examine the empirical evidence for these statements. Five unique studies were identified that assessed the relationships between the variables of attachment and/or childhood adversity, mentalizing and adult functioning. Some preliminary evidence for the role of mentalizing as an important mediator variable was identified. However, researchers were cautioned to continue to engage in further empirical study to ensure that theoretical explorations do not overstate or move too far beyond the empirical research findings.

  9. Current Evidence on Atypical Odontalgia: Diagnosis and Clinical Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Abiko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with atypical odontalgia (AO complain of medically unexplained toothache. No evidence-based diagnostic criteria or treatment guidelines are yet available. The present paper addresses seven clinical questions about AO based on current knowledge in the literature and discusses diagnostic criteria and guidelines for treatment and management. The questions are (i What is the prevalence of AO in the community?\t(ii What psychological problems are experienced by patients with AO? (iii Are there any comorbidities of AO? (iv Is local anesthesia effective for the relief of pain in AO? (v Are there any characteristic symptoms of AO other than spontaneous pain? (vi Are antidepressants effective for treatment of AO? (vii Are anticonvulsants effective for treatment of AO? Our literature search provided answers for these questions; however, there is insufficient evidence-based data to establish guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of AO. Overall, some diagnostic criteria for neuropathic pain and persistent dentoalveolar pain disorder may be applied to AO patients. The patient's psychogenic background should always be considered in the treatment and/or management of AO. The clinicians may need to treat AO patients using Patient-Oriented Evidence that Matters approach.

  10. Current Evidence on Atypical Odontalgia: Diagnosis and Clinical Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiko, Yoshihiro; Matsuoka, Hirofumi; Chiba, Itsuo; Toyofuku, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Patients with atypical odontalgia (AO) complain of medically unexplained toothache. No evidence-based diagnostic criteria or treatment guidelines are yet available. The present paper addresses seven clinical questions about AO based on current knowledge in the literature and discusses diagnostic criteria and guidelines for treatment and management. The questions are (i) What is the prevalence of AO in the community? (ii) What psychological problems are experienced by patients with AO? (iii) Are there any comorbidities of AO? (iv) Is local anesthesia effective for the relief of pain in AO? (v) Are there any characteristic symptoms of AO other than spontaneous pain? (vi) Are antidepressants effective for treatment of AO? (vii) Are anticonvulsants effective for treatment of AO? Our literature search provided answers for these questions; however, there is insufficient evidence-based data to establish guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of AO. Overall, some diagnostic criteria for neuropathic pain and persistent dentoalveolar pain disorder may be applied to AO patients. The patient's psychogenic background should always be considered in the treatment and/or management of AO. The clinicians may need to treat AO patients using Patient-Oriented Evidence that Matters approach. PMID:22844283

  11. E-shopping and its relationship with in-store shopping : empirical evidence from the Netherlands and the USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farag, Sendy; Krizek, K.J.; Dijst, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Despite considerable examination of the impact of telecommunications on travel, little empirical evidence sheds light on the impact of e-shopping on travel—a recent and increasingly popular form of telecommunications. This paper analyses determinants of online buying and their relationship with

  12. E-shopping and its relationship with in-store shopping : empirical evidence from the Netherlands and the USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farag, Sendy; Krizek, K.J.; Dijst, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Despite considerable examination of the impact of telecommunications on travel, little empirical evidence sheds light on the impact of e-shopping on travel—a recent and increasingly popular form of telecommunications. This paper analyses determinants of online buying and their relationship with in-s

  13. Do People Overestimate Their Information Literacy Skills? A Systematic Review of Empirical Evidence on the Dunning-Kruger Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review has analyzed 53 English language studies that assessed and compared peoples' self-reported and demonstrated information literacy (IL) skills. The objective was to collect empirical evidence on the existence of Dunning-Kruger Effect in the area of information literacy. The findings clearly show that this theory works in this…

  14. E-shopping and its relationship with in-store shopping : empirical evidence from the Netherlands and the USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farag, Sendy; Krizek, K.J.; Dijst, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Despite considerable examination of the impact of telecommunications on travel, little empirical evidence sheds light on the impact of e-shopping on travel—a recent and increasingly popular form of telecommunications. This paper analyses determinants of online buying and their relationship with in-s

  15. THE CONSIDERATION AND PURPOSE OF BORROWING: AN EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM INDONESIA LISTED COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ventje Ilat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Debt often graced in most of capital structure of companies, particularly in financial statement and became issues in context of trade off theory and pecking order theory in most studies. Debt usually related with profit matter, because it is always want to be achieved by every companies. It started when companies own equity is insufficient to create investment in company’s assets for making profit, then it make debt is one alternative fund for financing investments aimed at achieving the desired profit. The objective of this study is to give answers as empirical evidence for the questions about why companies need debt and what is the relevance capital structure theory to explain this behavioral tendency in these period of observation. Conducting path analysis with trimming model as method of analysis, the results shows that, degree of operating leverage is negatively significant to debt equity ratio and debt equity ratio is negatively significant to return on equity. The implication of this findings shows the application of pecking order theory, because most of companies depend their funding from internal, which is make them have more stable cash flow and beside that, the consideration of business risk is very important so they keep the capital structure in optimum debt that make them have low probability of bankruptcy.

  16. Literary and Documentary Evidence for Lay Medical Practice in the Roman Republic and Empire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draycott, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The majority of surviving ancient medical literature was written by medical practitioners and produced for the purpose of ensuring the effective diagnosis and treatment of their patients, suggesting an audience of medical professionals ranging from instructors to students. This has led historians to concentrate on the professional medical practitioner and their theories, methods and practices, rather than on lay medical practitioners, or even patients themselves. This chapter seeks to redress this imbalance, and examine the ancient literary and documentary evidence for lay medical theories, methods and practices in the Roman Republic and Empire in an attempt to reconstruct the experiences of lay medical practitioners and their patients. The Roman agricultural treatises of Cato, Varro and Columella, papyri and ostraca from Egypt, and tablets from Britain are investigated, and it is established that the individual's personal acquisition of knowledge and expertise, not only from medical professionals and works of medical literature, but also from family members and friends, and through trial and error, was considered fundamental to domestic medical practice.

  17. Do modified audit opinions have economic consequences? Empirical evidence based on financial constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Lin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a framework and empirical evidence to explain why, on average, 11% of listed firms in China received modified audit opinions (MAOs between 1992 and 2009. We argue that there are two reasons for this phenomenon: strong earnings management incentives lower firms’ financial reporting quality and soft budget constraints weaken the information and governance roles of audit opinions. We find that firms’ financial constraints eased after receiving MAOs, which suggests that MAOs have limited economic consequences. Further analysis shows that this phenomenon predominantly exists in government-controlled firms and firms that receive MAOs for the first time. We also find that MAOs have not influenced financial constraints after 2006. Finally, we find that MAOs did not affect borrowing cash flows from banks until 2005, suggesting that MAOs did not start affecting bank financing until that year. We also find that firms receive more related-party financing after receiving MAOs. Our results indicate that a limited effect on bank financing and increased related-party financing reduce the effect of MAOs on financial constraints.

  18. The role of sleep hygiene in promoting public health: A review of empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, Leah A; Kline, Christopher E; Gunn, Heather E; Buysse, Daniel J; Hall, Martica H

    2015-08-01

    The ineffectiveness of sleep hygiene as a treatment in clinical sleep medicine has raised some interesting questions. If it is known that, individually, each specific component of sleep hygiene is related to sleep, why wouldn't addressing multiple individual components (i.e., sleep hygiene education) improve sleep? Is there still a use for sleep hygiene? Global public health concern over sleep has increased demand for sleep promotion strategies accessible to the population. However, the extent to which sleep hygiene strategies apply outside clinical settings is not well known. The present review sought to evaluate the empirical evidence for sleep hygiene recommendations regarding exercise, stress management, noise, sleep timing, and avoidance of caffeine, nicotine, alcohol, and daytime napping, with a particular emphasis on their public health utility. Thus, our review is not intended to be exhaustive regarding the clinical application of these techniques, but rather to focus on broader applications. Overall, though epidemiologic and experimental research generally supported an association between individual sleep hygiene recommendations and nocturnal sleep, the direct effects of individual recommendations on sleep remains largely untested in the general population. Suggestions for clarification of sleep hygiene recommendations and considerations for the use of sleep hygiene in nonclinical populations are discussed.

  19. Empirical evidence about inconsistency among studies in a pair-wise meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Kirsty M; Turner, Rebecca M; Higgins, Julian P T

    2016-12-01

    This paper investigates how inconsistency (as measured by the I(2) statistic) among studies in a meta-analysis may differ, according to the type of outcome data and effect measure. We used hierarchical models to analyse data from 3873 binary, 5132 continuous and 880 mixed outcome meta-analyses within the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Predictive distributions for inconsistency expected in future meta-analyses were obtained, which can inform priors for between-study variance. Inconsistency estimates were highest on average for binary outcome meta-analyses of risk differences and continuous outcome meta-analyses. For a planned binary outcome meta-analysis in a general research setting, the predictive distribution for inconsistency among log odds ratios had median 22% and 95% CI: 12% to 39%. For a continuous outcome meta-analysis, the predictive distribution for inconsistency among standardized mean differences had median 40% and 95% CI: 15% to 73%. Levels of inconsistency were similar for binary data measured by log odds ratios and log relative risks. Fitted distributions for inconsistency expected in continuous outcome meta-analyses using mean differences were almost identical to those using standardized mean differences. The empirical evidence on inconsistency gives guidance on which outcome measures are most likely to be consistent in particular circumstances and facilitates Bayesian meta-analysis with an informative prior for heterogeneity. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. State ownership and firm performance: Empirical evidence from Chinese listed companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available While the relationship between state ownership and firm performance has been widely researched, the empirical evidence has provided mixed results. This study applies panel data regression techniques to 10,639 firm-year observations of non-financial Chinese listed firms during 2003–2010 to examine the relationship between state ownership and firm performance. The results show that state ownership has a U-shaped relationship with firm performance. The Split Share Structure Reform in 2005–2006 played a positive role in enhancing the relationship between state ownership and firm profitability ratios. Although state ownership decreased significantly after 2006, it remains high in strategically important industry sectors such as the oil, natural gas and mining sector and the publishing, broadcasting and media sector. The findings reveal that a higher level of state ownership is superior to a dispersed ownership structure due to the benefits of government support and political connections. The Split Share Structure Reform made previously non-tradable shares legally tradable, improving corporate governance and reducing the negative effect of non-tradable state shares.

  1. Hypnosis Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Comprehensive Review of the Empirical Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsson, Olafur S

    2015-10-01

    Hypnotherapy has been investigated for 30 years as a treatment for gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. There are presently 35 studies in the published empirical literature, including 17 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have assessed clinical outcomes of such treatment. This body of research is reviewed comprehensively in this article. Twenty-four of the studies have tested hypnotherapy for adult irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and 5 have focused on IBS or abdominal pain in children. All IBS hypnotherapy studies have reported significant improvement in gastrointestinal symptoms, and 7 out of 10 RCTs in adults and all 3 RCTs in pediatric patient samples found superior outcomes for hypnosis compared to control groups. Collectively this body of research shows unequivocally that for both adults and children with IBS, hypnosis treatment is highly efficacious in reducing bowel symptoms and can offer lasting and substantial symptom relief for a large proportion of patients who do not respond adequately to usual medical treatment approaches. For other GI disorders the evidence is more limited, but preliminary indications of therapeutic potential can be seen in the single randomized controlled trials published to date on hypnotherapy for functional dyspepsia, functional chest pain, and ulcerative colitis. Further controlled hypnotherapy trials in those three disorders should be a high priority. The mechanisms underlying the impact of hypnosis on GI problems are still unclear, but findings from a number of studies suggest that they involve both modulation of gut functioning and changes in the brain's handling of sensory signals from the GI tract.

  2. Do modified audit opinions have economic consequences? Empirical evidence based on financial constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiwei; Lin; Yihong; Jiang; Yixuan; Xu

    2011-01-01

    We present a framework and empirical evidence to explain why,on average,11%of listed firms in China received modified audit opinions(MAOs)between 1992 and 2009.We argue that there are two reasons for this phenomenon:strong earnings management incentives lower firms’financial reporting quality and soft budget constraints weaken the information and governance roles of audit opinions.We find that firms’financial constraints eased after receiving MAOs,which suggests that MAOs have limited economic consequences.Further analysis shows that this phenomenon predominantly exists in government-controlled firms and firms that receive MAOs for the first time.We also find that MAOs have not influenced financial constraints after 2006.Finally,we find that MAOs did not affect borrowing cash flows from banks until 2005,suggesting that MAOs did not start affecting bank financing until that year.We also find that firms receive more related-party financing after receiving MAOs.Our results indicate that a limited effect on bank financing and increased related-party financing reduce the effect of MAOs on financial constraints.

  3. Competition and quality indicators in the health care sector: empirical evidence from the Dutch hospital sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croes, R R; Krabbe-Alkemade, Y J F M; Mikkers, M C

    2017-01-03

    There is much debate about the effect of competition in healthcare and especially the effect of competition on the quality of healthcare, although empirical evidence on this subject is mixed. The Netherlands provides an interesting case in this debate. The Dutch system could be characterized as a system involving managed competition and mandatory healthcare insurance. Information about the quality of care provided by hospitals has been publicly available since 2008. In this paper, we evaluate the relationship between quality scores for three diagnosis groups and the market power indicators of hospitals. We estimate the impact of competition on quality in an environment of liberalized pricing. For this research, we used unique price and production data relating to three diagnosis groups (cataract, adenoid and tonsils, bladder tumor) produced by Dutch hospitals in the period 2008-2011. We also used the quality indicators relating to these diagnosis groups. We reveal a negative relationship between market share and quality score for two of the three diagnosis groups studied, meaning that hospitals in competitive markets have better quality scores than those in concentrated markets. We therefore conclude that more competition is associated with higher quality scores.

  4. The lending channel and budget balance: empirical evidences from Central and Eastern European economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan-Gabriel MOINESCU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to deepen the analysis on the indirect dependence of government budget balance on private sector credit flow in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The added value of this approach consists of two elements. First, the analysis suggests developing the traditional analytical framework of assessing risks to public finance stability by including second round effects of negative fiscal impulses on credit to private sector during recession periods. Second, the study provides empirical evidence on the importance of economic growth transmission channel for the impact of credit accelerator effects on primary deficit. At the same time, nonperforming loans channel proved to be insignificant, especially in relation to the persistency of last year’s budget deficit and the effects of budget allocations pro-cyclicality. However, loan portfolio quality seems to be more relevant in the case of public debt service, through its influence on the evolution of the yield on long-term government securities that is closely related to sovereign risk premium. Nevertheless, strengthening the financial safety net by the introduction of resolution funds will most probably break the link investors saw between credit portfolio quality and the impending increase in budget spending. This expected development across not only CEE countries, but at the EU level also, will facilitate the isolation of sovereign risk premium from non-performing loans’ dynamics.

  5. The Empirical Foundations of Telepathology: Evidence of Feasibility and Intermediate Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashshur, Rashid L; Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Weinstein, Ronald S; Dunn, Matthew R; Bashshur, Noura

    2017-03-01

    Telepathology evolved from video microscopy (i.e., "television microscopy") research in the early 1950s to video microscopy used in basic research in the biological sciences to a basic diagnostic tool in telemedicine clinical applications. Its genesis can be traced to pioneering feasibility studies regarding the importance of color and other image-based parameters for rendering diagnoses and a series of studies assessing concordance of virtual slide and light microscopy diagnoses. This article documents the empirical foundations of telepathology. A selective review of the research literature during the past decade (2005-2016) was conducted using robust research design and adequate sample size as criteria for inclusion. The evidence regarding feasibility/acceptance of telepathology and related information technology applications has been well documented for several decades. The majority of evidentiary studies focused on intermediate outcomes, as indicated by comparability between telepathology and conventional light microscopy. A consistent trend of concordance between the two modalities was observed in terms of diagnostic accuracy and reliability. Additional benefits include use of telepathology and whole slide imaging for teaching, research, and outreach to resource-limited countries. Challenges still exist, however, in terms of use of telepathology as an effective diagnostic modality in clinical practice.

  6. Delivering patient decision aids on the Internet: definitions, theories, current evidence, and emerging research areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2005, the International Patient Decision Aids Standards Collaboration identified twelve quality dimensions to guide assessment of patient decision aids. One dimension—the delivery of patient decision aids on the Internet—is relevant when the Internet is used to provide some or all components of a patient decision aid. Building on the original background chapter, this paper provides an updated definition for this dimension, outlines a theoretical rationale, describes current evidence, and discusses emerging research areas. Methods An international, multidisciplinary panel of authors examined the relevant theoretical literature and empirical evidence through 2012. Results The updated definition distinguishes Internet-delivery of patient decision aids from online health information and clinical practice guidelines. Theories in cognitive psychology, decision psychology, communication, and education support the value of Internet features for providing interactive information and deliberative support. Dissemination and implementation theories support Internet-delivery for providing the right information (rapidly updated), to the right person (tailored), at the right time (the appropriate point in the decision making process). Additional efforts are needed to integrate the theoretical rationale and empirical evidence from health technology perspectives, such as consumer health informatics, user experience design, and human-computer interaction. Despite Internet usage ranging from 74% to 85% in developed countries and 80% of users searching for health information, it is unknown how many individuals specifically seek patient decision aids on the Internet. Among the 86 randomized controlled trials in the 2011 Cochrane Collaboration’s review of patient decision aids, only four studies focused on Internet-delivery. Given the limited number of published studies, this paper particularly focused on identifying gaps in the empirical evidence base and

  7. Impact of Agricultural Extension Services on Technology Adoption and Crops Yield: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhter Ali

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the rice-wheat area of Pakistani Punjab. The data for the study was collected from three main districts of central Punjab Province i.e. Gujranwala, Sheikhupura and Hafizabad. In total 234 farmers were interviewed. The impact of agricultural extension services was estimated on adoption of new improved technologies and crop yields. The propensity score matching approach for impact evaluation was employed in the current study to correct for potential sample selection biasedness that may arise due to systematic differences between the farmers having benefited from agricultural extension services and not benefited from agricultural extension services. The empirical results indicate that agricultural extension services play a significant role in adoption of improved agricultural technologies like laser leveling, rice and wheat varieties. The farmers having benefitted from agricultural extension services were also getting higher rice and wheat yields. The results also indicates that mostly the large farmers are getting benefits from agricultural extension services and small scale farmers have less access to agricultural extension services.

  8. Are smokers rational addicts? Empirical evidence from the Indonesian Family Life Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thabrany Hasbullah

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indonesia is one of the largest consumers of tobacco in the world, however there has been little work done on the economics addiction of tobacco. This study provides an empirical test of a rational addiction (henceforth RA hypothesis of cigarette demand in Indonesia. Methods Four estimators (OLS, 2SLS, GMM, and System-GMM were explored to test the RA hypothesis. The author adopted several diagnostics tests to select the best estimator to overcome econometric problems faced in presence of the past and future cigarette consumption (suspected endogenous variables. A short-run and long-run price elasticities of cigarettes demand was then calculated. The model was applied to individuals pooled data derived from three-waves a panel of the Indonesian Family Life Survey spanning the period 1993-2000. Results The past cigarette consumption coefficients turned out to be a positive with a p-value Conclusions Health policymakers should redesign current public health campaign against cigarette smoking in the country. Given the demand for cigarettes to be more prices sensitive for the long run (and female than the short run (and male, an increase in the price of cigarettes could lead to a significant fall in cigarette consumption in the long run rather than as a constant source of government revenue.

  9. Reflexivity, expectations feedback and almost self-fulfilling equilibria: economic theory, empirical evidence and laboratory experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss recent work on bounded rationality and learning in relation to Soros’ principle of reflexivity and stress the empirical importance of non-rational, almost selffulfilling equilibria in positive feedback systems. As an empirical example, we discuss a behavioral asset pricing model with hete

  10. Access to data and material for research: Putting empirical evidence into perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to put into critical perspective the empirical findings on secrecy and withholding in research. In other words, by taking existing empirical literature into account, it is intended that a crucial question is answered: Is secrecy and withholding in research harmful or innoc

  11. Empirical Evidence for the Relation between Customer Satisfaction and Business Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van der Wiele (Ton); J.P.P.E.F. Boselie (Paul); M. Hesselink

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on the analysis of empirical data on customer satisfaction and the relationship with hard organisational performance data. The organisation is a Flexcompany with its headquarters in The Netherlands, but also operating in other countries in Europe. The empirical data on

  12. Empirical Evidence of Priming, Transfer, Reinforcement, and Learning in the Real and Virtual Trillium Trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, M. C. R.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, there has been a debate on the effectiveness of virtual reality used for learning with young children, producing many ideas but little empirical proof. This empirical study compared learning activity in situ of a real environment (Real) and a desktop virtual reality (Virtual) environment, built with video game technology,…

  13. Empirical Evidence for the Relation between Customer Satisfaction and Business Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van der Wiele (Ton); J.P.P.E.F. Boselie (Paul); M. Hesselink

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on the analysis of empirical data on customer satisfaction and the relationship with hard organisational performance data. The organisation is a Flexcompany with its headquarters in The Netherlands, but also operating in other countries in Europe. The empirical data on

  14. Evidences of a coastal current in the Campeche Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Valdes, J.; Ruiz-Castillo, E.; Rioja-Nieto, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Campeche Bank is the largest continental shelf of the Gulf of Mexico. It is located at the north edge of the Yucatan peninsula. In this paper, we present some evidences of a coastal current that flows westward trough the bank. The analysis of the climatology of sea surface temperature obtained from a 23-year record of Advanced Very High Resolution (AVHRR) data unveiled an alongshore cold-water band which origin is in the Yucatan Channel. The cold-water band, which is visible from May to October, is in the coastal zone where turbulence is the dominant mixing mechanism. In addition, shipboard observations were carried out in September 2002, April 2005, August 2007, and July 2009 in order to observe the temporal and spatial variability of the water mass structure in the bank. Under the assumption of geostrophy, a westward flow trough the bank is deduced from the conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) data. The westward current occurs in the entire water column with a velocity of the order of 20 cm/s at 10 m depth. The most likely forcing mechanism for this coastal current is the wind. The analysis of the climatology of sea surface winds obtained from a 23-year record of cross-calibrated, multiplatform (CCMP) data revealed a strong semiannual fluctuation of the trade winds over the bank. From May to October the trade winds are parallel to the coast and in the rest of the year its direction changes. The relationship between current and wind is examined using coastal continental shelf models. SST mean in the Campeche Bank. Solid lines indicate isobaths.

  15. Current evidence and applications of photodynamic therapy in dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Marilyn T; Lin, Jennifer Y

    2014-01-01

    In photodynamic therapy (PDT) a photosensitizer – a molecule that is activated by light – is administered and exposed to a light source. This leads both to destruction of cells targeted by the particular type of photosensitizer, and immunomodulation. Given the ease with which photosensitizers and light can be delivered to the skin, it should come as no surprise that PDT is an increasingly utilized therapeutic in dermatology. PDT is used commonly to treat precancerous cells, sun-damaged skin, and acne. It has reportedly also been used to treat other conditions including inflammatory disorders and cutaneous infections. This review discusses the principles behind how PDT is used in dermatology, as well as evidence for current applications of PDT. PMID:24899818

  16. Facts and values in psychotherapy-A critique of the empirical reduction of psychotherapy within evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Henrik; Slaattelid, Rasmus

    2017-10-01

    This paper addresses an implicit presupposition in research-supported psychological treatments and evidence-based practice in psychology. It argues that the notion of research-supported psychological treatments is based on a reductive conceptualisation of psychotherapy. Research-supported psychological treatments hinge upon an empirical reduction where psychotherapy schools become conceptualized as mere collections of empirical propositions. However, this paper argues that the different psychotherapy schools have distinct ethoses that are constituted by normative claims. Consequently, the evaluation of the different psychotherapy schools and the practice of psychotherapy should include the underlying normative claims of these ethoses. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Prevention of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder After Trauma: Current Evidence and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wei; Gevonden, Martin; Shalev, Arieh

    2016-02-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a frequent, tenacious, and disabling consequence of traumatic events. The disorder's identifiable onset and early symptoms provide opportunities for early detection and prevention. Empirical findings and theoretical models have outlined specific risk factors and pathogenic processes leading to PTSD. Controlled studies have shown that theory-driven preventive interventions, such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), or stress hormone-targeted pharmacological interventions, are efficacious in selected samples of survivors. However, the effectiveness of early clinical interventions remains unknown, and results obtained in aggregates (large groups) overlook individual heterogeneity in PTSD pathogenesis. We review current evidence of PTSD prevention and outline the need to improve the disorder's early detection and intervention in individual-specific paths to chronic PTSD.

  18. DNA evidence: current perspective and future challenges in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sunil K; Goswami, Gajendra K

    2014-08-01

    Since the discovery of DNA fingerprinting technology in 1985 it has been used extensively as evidence in the court of law world-wide to establish the individual identity both in civil and criminal matters. In India, the first case of parentage dispute solved by the use of DNA fingerprinting technology was in 1989. Since then till date, the DNA technology has been used not only to resolve the cases of paternity and maternity disputes, but also for the establishment of individual identity in various criminal cases and for wildlife forensic identification. Since last half a decade, India is exercising to enact legislation on the use of DNA in the judicial realm and the draft 'Human DNA Bill-2012' is pending in the parliament. Largely, the promoters of forensic DNA testing have anticipated that DNA tests are nearly infallible and DNA technology could be the greatest single advance step in search for truth, conviction of the perpetrator, and acquittal of the innocent. The current article provides a comprehensive review on the status of DNA testing in India and elucidates the consequences of the admissibility of DNA as 'evidence' in the judicial dominion. In this backdrop of civil and criminal laws and changing ethical and societal attitudes, it is concluded that the DNA legislation in India and world-wide needs to be designed with utmost care.

  19. Migraine and Risk of Stroke: Review of Current Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Context Migraine is a kind of primary headache that affects 10% to 20% of people worldwide. Recent studies have shown that migraines can be involved in strokes incidences, especially ischemic strokes.Hence, the current study aimed to review evidence in relation to migraine and risk of stroke. Evidence Acquisition A literature search was done for related articles dated between 1993 and 2013 on PubMed, Science Direct, Embase, Web of Science and Scopus for both English and non-English language articles by entering “migraine”, “migraine with aura”, “headache” and “ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke” as keywords. Results In most evaluated studies, there was a positive association between migraine with aura (MA and strokes incidences, especially ischemic strokes. Moreover, patients with high frequency of migraine attacks had greater odds of having a stroke compared with those who had low frequency of migraine attacks. Also, the association between migraine and stroke was more significant in subjects under 45 years old. Some migraine symptoms such as vomiting and nausea had a protective role in the development of ischemic strokes. Conclusions Migraine, especially MA, is a risk factor for incidences of strokes, especially ischemic strokes. However, due to conflicting results on the association between different types of migraine and stroke, more studies are needed in this field.

  20. Vascular interventional radiology. Current evidence in endovascular surgery. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowling, Mark G. (ed.) [Univ. Hospital North Staffordshire, Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology

    2012-11-01

    Succinct chapters that will allow readers to identify quickly the information that they need. Ideally sized book for storage and use in the interventional suite. Contains sufficient detail for trainees in endovascular therapy/interventional radiology to gain a thorough grasp of the relevant issues. Fully updated to reflect recent advances. This new edition of Vascular Interventional Radiology: Current Evidence in Endovascular Surgery provides a thorough yet succinct and accessible review of the latest knowledge in the field of endovascular surgery. All chapters have been updated to reflect the advances that have occurred during the past five years, and new chapters are included on carotid artery stenting and day case intervention. The chapter on lower limb veno-occlusive disease has been expanded to include management of deep venous thrombosis. Among the other topics considered are the endovascular treatment options in different arterial territories, aneurysm repair techniques, and the management of venous stenosis and venous insufficiency. The aim throughout is to tackle issues of evidence-based practice in order to assist trainees and experienced practitioners in making and implementing treatment decisions. This book will be an invaluable source of information for both interventional radiologists and vascular surgeons with an interest in endovascular techniques.

  1. Role of Information Professionals in Knowledge Management Programs: Empirical Evidence from Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    la Ajiferuke

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of a knowledge management program in an organization has the potential of im-proving customer services, quickly bringing new products to market, and reducing cost of business operations. Information technologies are often used in knowledge management programs in informing clients and employees of latest innovation/development in the business sector as well as sharing knowledge among the employees. The key professionals involved in knowledge management programs are information technologists and human resource managers but the information professionals also have a role to play as they are traditionally known as good managers of explicit knowledge. Hence, the aim of this study is to provide empirical evidence of the role of information professionals in knowledge management programs. 386 information professionals working in Canadian organizations were selected from the Special Libraries Association's Who's Who in Special Libraries 2001/2002, and a questionnaire with a stamped self-addressed envelope for its return was sent to each one of them. 63 questionnaires were completed and returned, and 8 in-depth interviews conducted. About 59% of the information professionals surveyed are working in organizations that have knowledge management programs with about 86% of these professionals being involved in the programs. Factors such as gender, age, and educational background (i.e. highest educational qualifications and discipline did not seem to have any relationship with involvement in knowledge management programs. Many of those involved in the programs are playing key roles, such as the design of the information architecture, development of taxonomy, or con-tent management of the organization's intranet. Others play lesser roles, such as providing information for the intranet, gathering competitive intelligence, or providing research services as requested by the knowledge management team.

  2. Consumer Perceived Risk, Attitude and Online Shopping Behaviour; Empirical Evidence from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sylvester, Michele; Zakuan, Norhayati; Ismail, Khalid; Mat Ali, Kamarudin

    2014-06-01

    The development of e-commerce has increased the popularity of online shopping worldwide. In Malaysia, it was reported that online shopping market size was RM1.8 billion in 2013 and it is estimated to reach RM5 billion by 2015. However, online shopping was rated 11th out of 15 purposes of using internet in 2012. Consumers' perceived risks of online shopping becomes a hot topic to research as it will directly influence users' attitude towards online purchasing, and their attitude will have significant impact to the online purchasing behaviour. The conceptualization of consumers' perceived risk, attitude and online shopping behaviour of this study provides empirical evidence in the study of consumer online behaviour. Four types of risks - product risk, financial, convenience and non-delivery risks - were examined in term of their effect on consumers' online attitude. A web-based survey was employed, and a total of 300 online shoppers of a Malaysia largest online marketplace participated in this study. The findings indicated that product risk, financial and non-delivery risks are hazardous and negatively affect the attitude of online shoppers. Convenience risk was found to have positive effect on consumers' attitude, denoting that online buyers of this site trusted the online seller and they encountered less troublesome with the site. It also implies that consumers did not really concern on non-convenience aspect of online shopping, such as handling of returned products and examine the quality of products featured in the online seller website. The online buyers' attitude was significantly and positively affects their online purchasing behaviour. The findings provide useful model for measuring and managing consumers' perceived risk in internet-based transaction to increase their involvement in online shopping and to reduce their cognitive dissonance in the e-commerce setting.

  3. Wertheim's hypothesis on 'highway hypnosis': empirical evidence from a study on motorway and conventional road driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezuela, Gemma Pastor; Tejero, Pilar; Chóliz, Mariano; Chisvert, Mauricio; Monteagudo, M José

    2004-11-01

    This paper aims to study the phenomenon known as 'highway hypnosis' or 'driving without attention mode', which has been defined as a state showing sleepiness signs and attention slip resulting from driving a motor vehicle for a long period in a highly predictable environment with low event occurrence, this being the case with motorways and very familiar roads [Highway hypnosis: a theoretical analysis. In: Gale, A.G., Brown, I.D., Haslegrave, C.M., Moorhead, I., Taylor, S. (Eds.), Vision in Vehicles-III. Elsevier, North-Holland, pp. 467-472]. According to Wertheim's hypothesis on 'highway hypnosis', long-term driving on motorways and conventional roads, e.g. main roads, secondary roads--implies differences in the predictability of the movement pattern of the visual stimulation, in the eye musculature activity and in the type of feedback used in visual information processing (mostly extra-retinal on motorways and retinal and extra-retinal on conventional roads). All this ultimately leads to alertness differences between both road types. Our research is intended to provide empirical evidence from the hypothesis, based on the data recorded during the actual driving experience of a group of subjects on a motorway and a conventional road. We studied whether or not significant alertness differences were found-measured by EEG data relative to time periods of on-target eye-tracking performance--between motorway and conventional road driving. Our results partially support the hypothesis, as drowsiness proved to be higher on motorways than on conventional roads during the final driving period but not during the starting stage, when the opposite trend was noticed. This result could be explained by the fact that during the first driving periods the effects of the stimulus movement predictability had not yet become apparent, since they tend to show after a long drive.

  4. Price formation and intertemporal arbitrage within a low-liquidity framework. Empirical evidence from European natural gas markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick, Sebastian

    2013-08-15

    In this study, the informational efficiency of the European natural gas market is analyzed by empirically investigating price formation and arbitrage efficiency between spot and futures markets. Econometric approaches are specified that explicitly account for nonlinearities and the low liquidity framework of the considered gas hubs. The empirical results reveal that price discovery takes place on the futures market, while the spot price subsequently follows the futures market price. Furthermore, there is empirical evidence of significant market frictions hampering intertemporal arbitrage. UK's NBP seems to be the hub at which arbitrage opportunities are exhausted most efficiently, although there is convergence in the degree of intertemporal arbitrage efficiency over time at the hubs investigated.

  5. Intermediation by Banks and Economic Growth: A Review of Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Bađun

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of empirical research on the link between financial intermediation by banks and economic growth. Special attention is paid to the issues of causality, non-linearity, time perspective, financial intermediation proxies, and interaction terms. The review shows that there are still quite a few unresolved issues in empirical research, which causes scepticism towards prioritizing financial sector policies in order to cause economic growth. Progress in the finance and growth literature is slow and researchers seem to go round in circles. A possibly fruitful direction for future empirical research is the relationship between government and banks, especially from the standpoint of political economy.

  6. Empirical modeling of the storm time innermost magnetosphere using Van Allen Probes and THEMIS data: Eastward and banana currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, G. K.; Sitnov, M. I.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Roelof, E. C.; Tsyganenko, N. A.; Le, G.

    2016-01-01

    The structure of storm time currents in the inner magnetosphere, including its innermost region inside 4RE, is studied for the first time using a modification of the empirical geomagnetic field model TS07D and new data from Van Allen Probes and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms missions. It is shown that the model, which uses basis-function expansions instead of ad hoc current modules to approximate the magnetic field, consistently improves its resolution and magnetic field reconstruction with the increase of the number of basis functions and resolves the spatial structure and evolution of the innermost eastward current. This includes a connection between the westward ring current flowing largely at and the eastward ring current concentrated at resulting in a vortex current pattern. A similar pattern coined `banana current' was previously inferred from the pressure distributions based on the energetic neutral atom imaging and first-principles ring current simulations. The morphology of the equatorial currents is dependent on storm phase. During the main phase, it is complex, with several asymmetries forming banana currents. Near SYM-H minimum, the banana current is strongest, is localized in the evening-midnight sector, and is more structured compared to the main phase. It then weakens during the recovery phase resulting in the equatorial currents to become mostly azimuthally symmetric.

  7. Exposing Piaget's scheme: Empirical evidence for the ontogenesis of coordination in learning a mathematical concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamson, Dor; Shayan, Shakila; Bakker, Arthur; Van Der Schaaf, Marieke F.

    2016-01-01

    The combination of two methodological resources-natural-user interfaces (NUI) and multimodal learning analytics (MMLA)-is creating opportunities for educational researchers to empirically evaluate seminal models for the hypothetical emergence of concepts from situated sensorimotor activity. 76

  8. The Role of Guanxi Networks in Vegetable Supply Chains: Empirical Evidence from P.R. China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu Hualiang,; Trienekens, J.H.; Omta, S.W.F.; Feng, S.

    2009-01-01

    This study attempts to empirically investigate how the concepts of relationship marketing affect market performance in Chinese vegetable sector. We interviewed 167 vegetable farmers and 84 processing and exporting companies to test our conceptual relationship model. Results demonstrate that personal

  9. Exposing Piaget's scheme: Empirical evidence for the ontogenesis of coordination in learning a mathematical concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamson, Dor; Shayan, Shakila; Bakker, Arthur; Van Der Schaaf, Marieke F.

    2016-01-01

    The combination of two methodological resources-natural-user interfaces (NUI) and multimodal learning analytics (MMLA)-is creating opportunities for educational researchers to empirically evaluate seminal models for the hypothetical emergence of concepts from situated sensorimotor activity. 76 parti

  10. The Impact of Human Capital on Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Khalafalla Ahmed Mohamed Arabi; Suliman Zakaria Suliman Abdalla

    2013-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the impact of human capital on economic growth in Sudan for the period 1982-2009 by using a simultaneous equation model that links human capital i.e. school attainment; and investment in education and health to economic growth, total productivity, foreign direct investment, and human development index. Based on three-stage least squares technique, the empirical results of the paper show that quality of the education has a determinant role in the economic gr...

  11. Institutions and foreign direct investment (FDI) in Malaysia: empirical evidence using ARDL model

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Karim, Zulkefly; Zaidi, Mohd Azlan Shah; Ismail, Mohd Adib; Abdul Karim, Bakri

    2011-01-01

    Since 1990’s, institution factors have been regarded as playing important roles in stimulating foreign direct investments (FDI). However, empirical studies on their importance in affecting FDI are still lacking especially for small open economies. This paper attempts to investigate the role of institutions upon the inflow of foreign direct investment (FDI) in a small open economy of Malaysia. Using bounds testing approach (ARDL model), the empirical findings reveal that there exists a long ru...

  12. Is Project Based Learning More Effective than Direct Instruction in School Science Classrooms? An Analysis of the Empirical Research Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dann, Clifford

    An increasingly loud call by parents, school administrators, teachers, and even business leaders for "authentic learning", emphasizing both group-work and problem solving, has led to growing enthusiasm for inquiry-based learning over the past decade. Although "inquiry" can be defined in many ways, a curriculum called "project-based learning" has recently emerged as the inquiry practice-of-choice with roots in the educational constructivism that emerged in the mid-twentieth century. Often, project-based learning is framed as an alternative instructional strategy to direct instruction for maximizing student content knowledge. This study investigates the empirical evidence for such a comparison while also evaluating the overall quality of the available studies in the light of accepted standards for educational research. Specifically, this thesis investigates what the body of quantitative research says about the efficacy of project-based learning vs. direct instruction when considering student acquisition of content knowledge in science classrooms. Further, existing limitations of the research pertaining to project based learning and secondary school education are explored. The thesis concludes with a discussion of where and how we should focus our empirical efforts in the future. The research revealed that the available empirical research contains flaws in both design and instrumentation. In particular, randomization is poor amongst all the studies considered. The empirical evidence indicates that project-based learning curricula improved student content knowledge but that, while the results were statistically significant, increases in raw test scores were marginal.

  13. Sublingual administration of tacrolimus: current trends and available evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doligalski, Christina Teeter; Liu, Esther C; Sammons, Chelsea M; Silverman, Andrew; Logan, Angela Tong

    2014-11-01

    Widespread anecdotal use of sublingual tacrolimus administration has arisen, although little literature exists to guide practice. Given the paucity of data, we conducted a survey to evaluate the practice of sublingual tacrolimus administration at transplant centers across the United States and evaluated the literature that is currently available. A 10-question online survey assessing the current state of sublingual tacrolimus use was distributed to pharmacists at transplant centers that each performed more than 100 solid organ transplantations in 2013. In addition, a literature review was performed by searching the PubMed database to identify available evidence for the sublingual administration of tacrolimus. The online survey was completed by 59 (65.6%) of the 90 targeted transplant centers, representing 51.3% of all solid organ transplantations performed in 2013. Sublingual administration of tacrolimus was used in all solid organ transplant populations, with ~67% of lung transplant centers using this route for tacrolimus. The most common dose conversion was 2 mg oral to 1 mg sublingual, with 92% of centers opening oral capsules and administering the contents sublingually. Home use of sublingual administration and use in the pediatric population was uncommon. Seven peer-reviewed reports and one abstract were identified in the literature review. Seven of the eight publications reported favorably on sublingual administration, although no consistent dose conversion or method of administration was elucidated. The majority of the transplant centers surveyed found sublingual tacrolimus a viable alternative when oral administration is unavailable. A large robust prospective evaluation of sublingual administration of tacrolimus is imperative to provide the most effective care to solid organ transplant recipients and to ensure optimal safety for both patients and providers who administer the drug.

  14. Empirical Evidence for Various Evolutionary Hypotheses on Species Demonstrating Increasing Mortality with Increasing Chronological Age in the Wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacinto Libertini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Many species show a significant increase in mortality with increasing chronological age in the wild. For this phenomenon, three possible general hypotheses are proposed, namely that: (1 it has no adaptive meaning; (2 it has an adaptive meaning; (3 the ancestry is the pivotal determinant. These hypotheses are evaluated according to their consistency with the empirical evidence. In particular, (1 the existence of many species with a constant, or almost constant, mortality rate, especially the so-called “animals with negligible senescence”; (2 the inverse correlation, observed in mammals and birds in the wild, between extrinsic mortality and the proportion of deaths due to intrinsic mortality; (3 the existence of highly sophisticated, genetically determined, and regulated mechanisms that limit and modulate cell duplication capacities and overall cell functionality. On the whole, the hypothesis of an adaptive meaning appears to be consistent with the empirical evidence, while the other two hypotheses hardly appear compatible.

  15. [Hierarchy of evidence: levels of evidence and grades of recommendation from current use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manterola, Carlos; Asenjo-Lobos, Claudla; Otzen, Tamara

    2014-12-01

    There are multiple proposals and classifications that hierarchize evidence, which may confuse those who are dedicated to generate it both in health technology assessments, as for the development of clinical guidelines, etc. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the most commonly used classifications of levels of evidence and grades of recommendation, analyzing their main differences and applications so that the user can choose the one that better suits your needs and take this health decisions basing their practice on the best available evidence. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed and MEDLINE databases and in Google, Yahoo and Ixquick search engines. A wealth of information concerning levels of evidence and degrees recommendation was obtained. It was summarized the information of the 11 proposals more currently used (CTFPHC, Sackett, USPSTF, CEBM, GRADE, SIGN, NICE, NHMRC, PCCRP, ADA y ACCF/AHA), between which it emphasizes the GRADE WORKING GROUP, incorporated by around 90 national and international organizations such as the World Health Organization, The Cochrane Library, American College of Physicians, American Thoracic Society, UpToDate, etc.; and locally by the Ministry of Health to create clinical practice guidelines.

  16. Healthy Variability in Organizational Behavior: Empirical Evidence and New Steps for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, José; Rueff-Lopes, Rita

    2015-10-01

    The healthy variability thesis suggests that healthy systems function in a complex manner over time. This thesis is well-established in fields like physiology. In the field of organizational behavior, however, this relation is only starting to be explored. The objective of this article is threefold: First, we aim to provide a comprehensive review of the healthy variability thesis including some of the most important findings across different fields, with a focus on evidences from organizational research in work motivation and performance. Second, we discuss an opposite pattern, unhealthy stability, i.e., the relationship between unhealthy behaviors and lower variability. Again, we provide evidence from diverse areas, from affective processes to disruptive organizational comportments like mobbing. Third, we provide a critical evaluation of current methodological trends and highlight what we believe to be the main factors that are stopping organizational research from advancing in the field. Theoretical, methodological and epistemological implications are discussed. To conclude, we draw a compilation of the lessons learned, which hopefully provide insights for prolific research avenues. Our main purpose is to raise awareness of the healthy variability thesis and to enthuse organizational researchers to consider it in order to advance existing knowledge, revisit old theories and create new ones.

  17. Preventing skin cancer through reduction of indoor tanning: current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Meg; Holman, Dawn M; Fox, Kathleen A; Guy, Gery P; Seidenberg, Andrew B; Sampson, Blake P; Sinclair, Craig; Lazovich, DeAnn

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from indoor tanning devices (tanning beds, booths, and sun lamps) or from the sun contributes to the risk of skin cancer, including melanoma, which is the type of skin cancer responsible for most deaths. Indoor tanning is common among certain groups, especially among older adolescents and young adults, adolescent girls and young women, and non-Hispanic whites. Increased understanding of the health risks associated with indoor tanning has led to many efforts to reduce use. Most environmental and systems efforts in the U.S. (e.g., age limits or requiring parental consent/accompaniment) have occurred at the state level. At the national level, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Federal Trade Commission regulate indoor tanning devices and advertising, respectively. The current paper provides a brief review of (1) the evidence on indoor tanning as a risk factor for skin cancer; (2) factors that may influence use of indoor tanning devices at the population level; and (3) various environmental and systems options available for consideration when developing strategies to reduce indoor tanning. This information provides the context and background for the companion paper in this issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, which summarizes highlights from an informal expert meeting convened by the CDC in August 2012 to identify opportunities to prevent skin cancer by reducing use of indoor tanning devices.

  18. Current evidence on perinatal home visiting and intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharps, Phyllis W; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Baty, Marguerite L; Walker, Keisha S; Bair-Merritt, Megan H

    2008-01-01

    To describe current evidence on home visiting interventions for pregnant or postpartum women with specific intimate partner violence assessment and content. Online bibliographic databases including PubMed, CINAHL Plus, and Web of Science and a hand search of bibliographies of relevant articles. Original research and intervention studies were included that contained (a) a well-described prenatal and/or postpartum home visitation; (b) an assessment of perinatal intimate partner violence; and (c) quantitative data describing health outcomes for the women and their infants. The search yielded 128 articles, and 8 relevant articles met all of the inclusion criteria. Nonresearch, nonintervention, and international articles were excluded. No perinatal home visiting interventions were designed to address intimate partner violence. Programs that screened for intimate partner violence found high rates, and the presence of intimate partner violence limited the ability of the intervention to improve maternal and child outcomes. Perinatal home visitation programs likely improve pregnancy and infant outcomes. Home visiting interventions addressing intimate partner violence in nonperinatal population groups have been effective in minimizing intimate partner violence and improving outcomes. This suggests that perinatal home visiting programs adding specific intimate partner violence interventions may reduce intimate partner violence and improve maternal and infant health. Continued rigorous research is needed.

  19. Targeted temperature management: Current evidence and practices in critical care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Saigal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeted temperature management (TTM in today′s modern era, especially in intensive care units represents a promising multifaceted therapy for a variety of conditions. Though hypothermia is being used since Hippocratic era, the renewed interest of late has been since early 21 st century. There have been multiple advancements in this field and varieties of cooling devices are available at present. TTM requires careful titration of its depth, duration and rewarming as it is associated with side-effects. The purpose of this review is to find out the best evidence-based clinical practice criteria of therapeutic hypothermia in critical care settings. TTM is an unique therapeutic modality for salvaging neurological tissue viability in critically ill patients viz. Post-cardiac arrest, traumatic brain injury (TBI, meningitis, acute liver failure and stroke. TTM is standard of care in post-cardiac arrest situations; there has been a lot of controversy of late regarding temperature ranges to be used for the same. In patients with TBI, it reduces intracranial pressure, but has not shown any favorable neurologic outcome. Hypothermia is generally accepted treatment for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in newborns. The current available technology to induce and maintain hypothermia allows for precise temperature control. Future studies should focus on optimizing hypothermic treatment to full benefit of our patients and its application in other clinical scenarios.

  20. Infant Nutrition and Later Health: A Review of Current Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Fall

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing recognition of the need for a lifecourse approach to understanding the aetiology of adult disease, and there is now significant evidence that links patterns of infant feeding to differences in health outcomes, both in the short and longer term. Breastfeeding is associated with lower rates of infection in infancy; in high-income populations, it is associated with reductions in blood pressure and total blood cholesterol, and lower risks of obesity and diabetes in adult life. Breastfeeding rates are suboptimal in many countries, and strategies to promote breastfeeding could therefore confer important benefits for health at a population level. However, there are particular challenges in defining nutritional exposures in infancy, including marked social gradients in initiation and duration of breastfeeding. In recent studies of low and middle-income populations of children and young adults, where the influences on infant feeding practice differ, beneficial effects of breastfeeding on blood pressure, BMI and risk of diabetes have not been confirmed, and further information is needed. Little is currently known about the long-term consequences of differences in the timing and nature of the weaning diet. Future progress will depend on new studies that provide detailed prospective data on duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding together with appropriate characterisation of the weaning diet.

  1. Medicinal mushroom science: Current perspectives, advances, evidences, and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon P Wasser

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main target of the present review is to draw attention to the current perspectives, advances, evidences, challenges, and future development of medicinal mushroom science in the 21 st century. Medicinal mushrooms and fungi are thought to possess approximately 130 medicinal functions, including antitumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, radical scavenging, cardiovascular, anti-hypercholesterolemic, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-parasitic, antifungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic effects. Many, if not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active compounds in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. The data on mushroom polysaccharides and different secondary metabolites are summarized for approximately 700 species of higher hetero- and homobasidiomycetes. Numerous bioactive polysaccharides or polysaccharide-protein complexes from the medicinal mushrooms described appear to enhance innate and cell-mediated immune responses, and exhibit antitumor activities in animals and humans. Whilst the mechanism of their antitumor actions is still not completely understood, stimulation and modulation of key host immune responses by these mushroom compounds appear central. Polysaccharides and low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites are particularly important due to their antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Several of the mushroom compounds have been subjected to Phase I, II, and III clinical trials, and are used extensively and successfully in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases. Special attention is given to many important unsolved problems in the study of medicinal mushrooms.

  2. Advancing Empirical Approaches to the Concept of Resilience: A Critical Examination of Panarchy, Ecological Information, and Statistical Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Kharrazi; Fath, Brian D.; Harald Katzmair

    2016-01-01

    Despite its ambiguities, the concept of resilience is of critical importance to researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers in dealing with dynamic socio-ecological systems. In this paper, we critically examine the three empirical approaches of (i) panarchy; (ii) ecological information-based network analysis; and (iii) statistical evidence of resilience to three criteria determined for achieving a comprehensive understanding and application of this concept. These criteria are the ability: (...

  3. Country risk premium: theoretical determinants and empirical evidence for latin american countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selmo Aronovich

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the behavior of the country risk premium for Argentina, Brazil and Mexico, from June 1997 to September 1998. It shows that the level of country risk premium is determined by different factors: the US dollar bond market structure; restrictions on the acquisition of emerging market bonds imposed by developed nations regulators; the credit risk measured by the notion of implied risk-neutral probability default; the different ways agents react to country risk due to asymmetric and imperfect information. The empirical investigation shows: the worse the country credit rating, the greater is the impact on international borrowing cost, which implies that negative expectations have greater impact on lower rated Latin American nations' bonds; country risk yield spreads overreacted to changes in the US dollar interest rates in the sample period.Este artigo investiga o comportamento do conceito de prêmio de risco-país para Argentina, Brasil e México, de junho de 1997 até setembro de 1998. Mostra-se que tal prêmio é determinado pelos seguintes fatores: a estrutura do mercado de títulos de dívida em dólares norte-americanos; as restrições à aquisição de títulos de dívida impostas por agentes reguladores de países desenvolvidos; o risco de crédito mensurado pelo conceito de probabilidade de inadimplência risco-nêutra implícita; o modo como os agentes reagem à informação assimétrica ou imperfeita. A evidência empírica revela que: quanto pior a classificação de risco de crédito, maior é o impacto esperado sobre as condições de captação externa, implicando que expectativas desfavoráveis afetam de forma mais acentuada países com baixa classificação de crédito; o valor do spread representativo do risco-país mostrou-se superelástico à variação da taxa de juros de longo prazo do Tesouro norte-americano no período da amostra.

  4. EXPORTS, FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM MALAYSIA (1971-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Haseeb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to empirically investigate the relationship between exports, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI and the economic growth in Malaysia. Records of annual time series data from the year 1971 till 2013 have been utilized for this purpose. Upon testing the data for stationarity, the Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL model has been applied for the purpose of empirical investigation. The empirical results indicate that the productivity factor and externality effect of exports on the non-export sector are found to be statistically, positively significant, with the exports also having a positive impact on the economic growth and FDI of the country. The results support Exports Led Growth (ELG and FDI-Led economic Growth (FLG in Malaysia. The finding further suggests that Malaysia should continuous pursue exports promotion and a liberal investment economic policy in order to maintain and bolster overall economic growth.

  5. The urban health transition hypothesis: empirical evidence of an avian influenza Kuznets curve in Vietnam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, James Herbert

    2013-04-01

    The literature on development has focused on the concept of transition in understanding the emergent challenges facing poor but rapidly developing countries. Scholars have focused extensively on the health and urban transitions associated with this change and, in particular, its use for understanding emerging infectious diseases. However, few have developed explicit empirical measures to quantify the extent to which a transitions focus is useful for theory, policy, and practice. Using open source data on avian influenza in 2004 and 2005 and the Vietnam Census of Population and Housing, this paper introduces the Kuznets curve as a tool for empirically estimating transition and disease. Findings suggest that the Kuznets curve is a viable tool for empirically assessing the role of transitional dynamics in the emergence of new infectious diseases.

  6. An Empirical Analysis of the Default Rate of Informal Lending—Evidence from Yiwu, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Yu, Xiaobo; Du, Juan; Ji, Feng

    This study empirically analyzes the underlying factors contributing to the default rate of informal lending. This paper adopts snowball sampling interview to collect data and uses the logistic regression model to explore the specific factors. The results of these analyses validate the explanation of how the informal lending differs from the commercial loan. Factors that contribute to the default rate have particular attributes, while sharing some similarities with commercial bank or FICO credit scoring Index. Finally, our concluding remarks draw some inferences from empirical analysis and speculate as to what this may imply for the role of formal and informal financial sectors.

  7. Application of lipoarabinomannan antigen in tuberculosis diagnostics: current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Pronoti; Biswas, Debasis; Sindhwani, Girish; Rawat, Jagdish; Kotwal, Aarti; Kakati, Barnali

    2014-03-01

    Tests based on the detection of mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigen in urine have emerged as potential point-of-care tests for tuberculosis (TB). We aimed to assimilate the current evidence regarding the diagnostic performance of LAM assays and to ascertain their clinical indication in settings with high and low prevalence of HIV-TB co-infection. Owing to suboptimal sensitivity, the urinary LAM assays are unsuitable as general screening tests for TB. However, unlike traditional diagnostic methods, they demonstrate improved sensitivity in HIV-TB co-infection which further increases with low CD4 counts. Accordingly, these assays are indicated as rule-in tests for TB in patients with advanced HIV-induced immunosuppression, and facilitate the early initiation of antituberculous treatment in them. They also offer incremental sensitivity and specificity when used as adjunct tests to smear microscopy and chest radiography in HIV-TB co-infection. They obviate the biohazards associated with sputum samples and provide an alternative diagnostic tool in sputum-scarce patients. Notwithstanding these advantages, the specificity of these assays is variable, which is mostly attributable to misclassification bias and cross-reactivity with non-tuberculous mycobacteria or other commensal flora. Furthermore, the inability to detect low titres of antigen in HIV-uninfected patients makes these assays unsuitable for use in settings with a low HIV prevalence. Future research targeted towards inclusion of specific monoclonal antibodies and more sensitive immunoassay platforms might help to improve the diagnostic performance of these assays and extend their applicability to the general population of patients with TB.

  8. Mitochondrial dysfunction in psychiatric morbidity: current evidence and therapeutic prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toker L

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lilach Toker,1 Galila Agam2,3 1Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 2Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel; 3Mental Health Center, Beer-Sheva, Israel Abstract: Cumulating evidence for the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in psychiatric disorders leaves little to no doubt regarding the involvement of this pathology in mood disorders. However, mitochondrial abnormalities are also observed in a wide range of disorders spanning from cancer and diabetes to various neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s, autism, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The apparent lack of specificity questions the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in psychiatric disorders, in general, and in mood disorders, in particular. Is mitochondrial dysfunction a general phenomenon, simplistically rendering brain cells to be more vulnerable to a variety of disease-specific perturbations? Or is it an epiphenomenon induced by various disease-specific factors? Or possibly, the severity and the anatomical region of the dysfunction are the ones responsible for the distinct features of the disorders. Whichever of the aforementioned ones, if any, is correct, “mitochondrial dysfunction” became more of a cliché than a therapeutic target. In this review, we summarize current studies supporting the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in different psychiatric disorders. We address the question of specificity and causality of the different findings and provide an alternative explanation for some of the aforementioned questions. Keywords: bipolar disorder, psychiatric disorders, schizophrenia, Stanley Foundation Brain Collection

  9. [DGRW-update: neurology--from empirical strategies towards evidence based interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupp, W

    2011-12-01

    Stroke, Multiple Sclerosis (MS), traumatic brain injuries (TBI) and neuropathies are the most important diseases in neurological rehabilitation financed by the German Pension Insurance. The primary goal is vocational (re)integration. Driven by multiple findings of neuroscience research the traditional holistic approach with mainly empirically derived strategies was developed further and improved by new evidence-based interventions. This process had been, and continues to be, necessary to meet the health-economic pressures for ever shorter and more efficient rehab measures. Evidence-based interventions refer to symptom-oriented measures, to team-management concepts, as well as to education and psychosocial interventions. Drug therapy and/or neurophysiological measures can be added to increase neuroregeneration and neuroplasticity. Evidence-based aftercare concepts support sustainability and steadiness of rehab results.Mirror therapy, robot-assisted training, mental training, task-specific training, and above all constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) can restore motor arm and hand functions. Treadmill training and robot-assisted training improve stance and gait. Botulinum toxine injections in combination with physical and redressing methods are superior in managing spasticity. Guideline-oriented management of associated pain syndromes (myofascial, neuropathic, complex-regional=dystrophic) improve primary outcome and quality of life. Drug therapy with so-called co-analgetics and physical therapy play an important role in pain management. Swallowing disorders lead to higher mortality and morbidity in the acute phase; stepwise diagnostics (screening, endoscopy, radiology) and specific swallowing therapy can reduce these risks and frequently can restore normal eating und drinking.In our modern industrial societies communicative and cognitive disturbances are more impairing than the above mentioned disorders. Speech and language therapy (SLT) is dominant in

  10. An empirical model for salt removal percentage in water under the effect of different current intensities of current carrying coil at different flow rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameen S. AbdelHady

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic treatment of hard water is an alternative, simple approach by which the hard water that needs to be treated flows through a magnetic field. This field is created by inducing current in a coil wrapped around a pipe. Consequently some of its properties, such as total dissolved salts (TDS, conductivity (Ec and PH change. The primary purpose of hard water treatment is to decrease TDS in the incoming liquid stream. Using performance data from the application of different magnetic field densities on the different flow levels of water, empirical mathematical models were developed relating the salt removal percentage (SRP to operating flow rate and current of the coil. The obtained experimental results showed that the SRP increased with increasing the current at low flow rates (up to 0.75 ml/s.

  11. The Dividend and Share Repurchase Policies of Canadian Firms : Empirical Evidence based on New Research Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, A.; van Dijk, R.; Veld, C.H.

    2000-01-01

    We empirically investigate dividend and share repurchase policies of Canadian firms. We use several logit regression analyses to test the structure and determinants of the dividend and share repurchase choice. We have sent a questionnaire to the 500 largest non-financial Canadian companies listed on

  12. Time to reject the privileging of economic theory over empirical evidence? A reply to Lawson

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    these strong features of the data. Furthermore, I argue that a strong empirical methodology that allows data to speak freely about economic mechanisms, such as the CVAR, would ensure that important signals in the data are not silenced by prior restrictions. Adequately applied such models would provide us...... with an early warning system signalling when the economy is moving seriously out of equilibrium....

  13. Time to Reject the Privileging of Economic Theory over Empirical Evidence? A Reply to Lawson (2009)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    features of the data. Furthermore, I argue that a strong empirical methodology that allows data to speak freely about economic mechanisms, such as the CVAR, would ensure that important information in the data is not over heard when needed. Adequately applied such models would provide us with an early...... warnings system signalling that the economy is moving seriously out of equilibrium....

  14. The Determinants of Banking Performance: Empirical evidence from Tunisian Listed Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalfaoui Hamdi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the determinants of performance of the Tunisian banking sector. The results found, following an empirical study using panel data of Tunisian banks listed on the stock market over the period 2000-2013, show that credit risk, liquidity, total assets and disclosure of information relating to credit are the main determinants of banking performance.

  15. The Rise of Obesity in Transition: Theory and Empirical Evidence from Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huffman, S.K.; Rizov, M.I.

    2010-01-01

    This paper integrates theoretical and empirical models to study the rise of human obesity in Russia during the transition from a planned to a market economy. To test our hypotheses we use recent individual-level data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey for 1995 and 2004 capturing represe

  16. Consumer trust in food safety--a multidisciplinary approach and empirical evidence from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Fang

    2008-12-01

    Food scandals that happened in recent years have increased consumers' risk perceptions of foods and decreased their trust in food safety. A better understanding of the consumer trust in food safety can improve the effectiveness of public policy and allow the development of the best practice in risk communication. This study proposes a research framework from a psychometric approach to investigate the relationships between the consumer's trust in food safety and the antecedents of risk perceptions of foods based on a reflexive modernization perspective and a cultural theory perspective in the hope of benefiting the future empirical study. The empirical results from a structural equation modeling analysis of Taiwan as a case in point reveal that this research framework based on a multidisciplinary perspective can be a valuable tool for a growing understanding of consumer trust in food safety. The antecedents in the psychometric research framework comprised reflexive modernization factors and cultural theory factors have all been supported in this study except the consumer's perception of pessimism toward food. Moreover, the empirical results of repeated measures analysis of variance give more detailed information to grasp empirical implications and to provide some suggestions to the actors and institutions involved in the food supply chain in Taiwan.

  17. Innovation Forms and Firm Export Performance: Empirical Evidence from ECA Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Cieślik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this paper is to verify empirically the relationship between various forms of innovation and export performance of firms from European and Central Asian (ECA countries. Research Design & Methods: In our empirical approach we refer to the self-selection hypothesis derived from the Melitz (2003 model which proposed the existence of a positive relationship between firm productivity and the probability of exporting. We argue that innovation activities should be regarded as a key element that can increase the level of firm productivity. We focus our analysis on four forms of innovation activities: product, process, marketing, organizational and managerial innovation. The empirical implementation of our analytical framework is based on the probit model, applied to the fifth edition of the BEEPS firm level dataset covering 2011-2014. Findings: Our empirical results indicate that the probability of exporting is positively related to both product and process innovations. The marketing and managerial innovations do not seem to affect positively export performance of firms from ECA countries. Implications & Recommendations: It is recommended to develop innovation supporting mechanisms that would target both product and process innovations rather than other forms of innovation in the ECA countries. Contribution & Value Added: The originality of this work lies in the use of the multi-country firm level dataset that allows distinguishing between various forms of innovations in the ECA countries.

  18. Freedom from Racial Barriers: The Empirical Evidence on Vouchers and Segregation. School Choice Issues in Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Greg

    2006-01-01

    This report collects the results of all available studies using valid empirical methods to compare segregation in public and private schools, both in general and in the context of school voucher programs. Examining the widespread claims that private schools have high segregation levels and vouchers will lead to greater segregation, this report…

  19. Are CEOs incentivized to avoid Corporate Taxes? - Empirical Evidence on Managerial Bonus Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Schmittdiel (Heiner)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this paper, we test empirically whether there is a relationship between corporate income taxes and CEO bonus payments. Using Compustat and ExecuComp data from 1992 to 2010, we find mixed results. Looking at the whole sample, the average bonus contract rewards tax sav

  20. Policy, competence and participation: empirical evidence for a multilevel health promotion model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rütten, A.; Lengerke, T. von; Abel, T.; Kannas, L.; Lüschen, G.; Rodríguez Diaz, J.A.; Vinck, J.; Zee, J. van der

    2000-01-01

    This paper uses data from a European health promotion evaluation study (MAREPS) to empirically test some fundamental assumptions of health promotion theory. Analysis shows that both the competence of individual actors and the opportunities provided for by health-promoting policies are significant pr

  1. The Dividend and Share Repurchase Policies of Canadian Firms : Empirical Evidence based on New Research Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, A.; van Dijk, R.; Veld, C.H.

    2000-01-01

    We empirically investigate dividend and share repurchase policies of Canadian firms. We use several logit regression analyses to test the structure and determinants of the dividend and share repurchase choice. We have sent a questionnaire to the 500 largest non-financial Canadian companies listed on

  2. Behavioural processes in marketing channel relationships: Review and integration of empirical evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nils Bøgelund; Skytte, Hans

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews the empirical research on behavioural processes in marketing channel relationships. Systematically examining nine international journals, we find 49 papers on behavioural processes. On the basis of the hypothesis tests in the papers, we discuss the results and integrate...

  3. Students' Misconceptions of Statistical Inference: A Review of the Empirical Evidence from Research on Statistics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotos, Ana Elisa Castro; Vanhoof, Stijn; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Onghena, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    A solid understanding of "inferential statistics" is of major importance for designing and interpreting empirical results in any scientific discipline. However, students are prone to many misconceptions regarding this topic. This article structurally summarizes and describes these misconceptions by presenting a systematic review of publications…

  4. Public Disaster Communication and Child and Family Disaster Mental Health: a Review of Theoretical Frameworks and Empirical Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, J Brian; First, Jennifer; Spialek, Matthew L; Sorenson, Mary E; Koch, Megan

    2016-06-01

    Children have been identified as particularly vulnerable to psychological and behavioral difficulties following disaster. Public child and family disaster communication is one public health tool that can be utilized to promote coping/resilience and ameliorate maladaptive child reactions following an event. We conducted a review of the public disaster communication literature and identified three main functions of child and family disaster communication: fostering preparedness, providing psychoeducation, and conducting outreach. Our review also indicates that schools are a promising system for child and family disaster communication. We complete our review with three conclusions. First, theoretically, there appears to be a great opportunity for public disaster communication focused on child disaster reactions. Second, empirical research assessing the effects of public child and family disaster communication is essentially nonexistent. Third, despite the lack of empirical evidence in this area, there is opportunity for public child and family disaster communication efforts that address new domains.

  5. Relationship between Fiscal Subsidies and CO2 Emissions: Evidence from Cross-Country Empirical Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacchidananda Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries disburse subsidies with various motivations, for example, to promote industrial development, facilitate innovation, support national champions, and ensure redistribution. The devolution of subsidies may however also encourage economic activities leading to climate change related concerns, reflected through higher greenhouse gases (GHGs emissions, if such activities are conducted beyond sustainable point. Through a cross-country empirical analysis involving 131 countries over 1990–2010, the present analysis observes that higher proportional devolution of budgetary subsidies leads to higher CO2 emissions. The countries with higher CO2 emissions are also characterized by higher per capita GDP, greater share of manufacturing sector in their GDP, and higher level of urbanization. In addition, the empirical findings underline the importance of the type of government subsidy devolution on CO2 emission pattern. The analysis underlines the importance of limiting provision of subsidies both in developed and developing countries.

  6. Corporate tax savings when hiring a Big 4 auditor: Empirical evidence for Belgium.

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Jos Boudewijn; Hylke VANDENBUSSCHE; Crabbé, Karen

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we show that hiring a Big 4 auditor results in substantial corporate income tax savings, compared to hiring a non-Big 4 auditor. Our results are obtained from an empirical model that controls for other factors that may affect companies’ income tax burdens. We use a population of larger Belgian firms between 1993 and 2002. The findings suggest that Big 4 audited firms provide (explicitly or implicitly) additional tax expertise which is transferred to their clients and lowers thei...

  7. The demand for gambling: Empirical evidence from state-operated lotteries and football pools in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    There are several arguments why the economic analysis of gambling seems to be very interesting. Gambling is a very important economic industry from which either local or national governments obtain resources due to some sort of fiscal imposition on gambling participation. On the other hand, the consumption of gambling seems to violate the premises of economic theory (risk aversion, maximizing and rational conduct). The empirical literature on this field has tried to answer several questions t...

  8. The Characteristics and Determinants of Capital Structure in Shariah-compliant Firms: Empirical Evidence from Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Law, Poh Kim

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to find out whether the prevailing capital structure theories (trade-off, pecking order and agency theory) are applicable on Malaysian Shariah-compliant firms. The impact of Malaysia Shariah Advisory Council (SAC)’s Shariah screening guideline and dual banking system in Malaysia on capital structure will also be examined. The empirical results show that profitability is the most dominant determinant of debt policy with significant negative relationships found with all measures...

  9. Oil Risks and Firm Attributes in Oil Share Prices: Empirical Evidence from Bursa Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Safian, Dayana

    2010-01-01

    This research aims to analyze the oil risks and firm attributes that could affect the share prices of oil and gas companies in Malaysia. Most of the studies conducted in regards to the oil and gas sector takes into account the contributing factors such as the condition of oil futures in NYMEX and focuses on prominent oil exporting and importing countries. In contrast, this paper empirically assesses the dynamics of global, national and company level factors that could influence the share p...

  10. Do monetary rewards undermine intrinsic motivations of volunteers? Some empirical evidence for Italian volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorillo, Damiano

    2007-01-01

    Empirical studies show that intrinsic motivations increase the volunteer labour supply. This paper studies how monetary rewards to volunteers affect their intrinsic motivations. Using a sample of Italian volunteers, allowing to distinguish the type of volunteer, the paper shows that monetary rewards (extrinsic motivations) influence positively the choice to donate voluntary hours, while a low intrinsic motivation seems to decrease hours per week. Moreover, monetary rewards increase the hours ...

  11. Do monetary rewards undermine intrinsic motivations of volunteers? Some empirical evidence for Italian volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorillo, Damiano

    2007-01-01

    Empirical studies show that intrinsic motivations increase the volunteer labour supply. This paper studies how monetary rewards to volunteers affect their intrinsic motivations. Using a sample of Italian volunteers, allowing to distinguish the type of volunteer, the paper shows that monetary rewards (extrinsic motivations) influence positively the choice to donate voluntary hours, while a low intrinsic motivation seems to decrease hours per week. Moreover, monetary rewards increase the hours ...

  12. The scale-dependent market trend: Empirical evidences using the lagged DFA method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daye; Kou, Zhun; Sun, Qiankun

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we make an empirical research and test the efficiency of 44 important market indexes in multiple scales. A modified method based on the lagged detrended fluctuation analysis is utilized to maximize the information of long-term correlations from the non-zero lags and keep the margin of errors small when measuring the local Hurst exponent. Our empirical result illustrates that a common pattern can be found in the majority of the measured market indexes which tend to be persistent (with the local Hurst exponent > 0.5) in the small time scale, whereas it displays significant anti-persistent characteristics in large time scales. Moreover, not only the stock markets but also the foreign exchange markets share this pattern. Considering that the exchange markets are only weakly synchronized with the economic cycles, it can be concluded that the economic cycles can cause anti-persistence in the large time scale but there are also other factors at work. The empirical result supports the view that financial markets are multi-fractal and it indicates that deviations from efficiency and the type of model to describe the trend of market price are dependent on the forecasting horizon.

  13. AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH OF SOCIAL IMPACT OF DEBT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH. EVIDENCE FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SMĂRĂNDOIU (SANDA LUANA ALEXANDRA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Today’s economic reality contains a certain degree of uncertainty that often prevail economic rationality, affecting economic growth. Recent European and political agendas put a robust emphasis on the importance of social dimension of growth and try to shift the focus from economic evidence to social outcomes. The debt is currently a sensitive issue for most European countries and ordinary individuals, thus creating significant imbalances regarding perceived economic wealth and wellbeing at national and individual level. But debt is also associated with fast money and short term prosperity that can engine business and support living, thus economic growth. The paper makes a repositioning evaluation of the social domain into European political agendas, towards a smart, sustainable and inclusive growth for the Europeans. It encompasses an evaluation of the relevance of European growth on its economic development and sustainability. Rebalancing finance and economic priorities with a strong commitment to social priorities is the main reorientation target of the political agenda. There’s a growing need for shifting the focus to qualitative facets of growth and European testimonials, for an ascending journey to smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, representing a continuing approach of EU’s root ideals. Thus, the paper proposes an analysis of GDP evolution in relation to debt to GDP ratio indicator and social factors, as an alternative impact evaluation played by the social system and debt for a country’s performance, representing an alternative way for assessing economic growth in relation to wellbeing. The results show a significant dependence of growth to debt to GDP ratio and social indicators such as population at risk to poverty rate, unemployment rate, life expectancy and expected years of schooling

  14. Ground Forces Battle Casualty Rate Patterns: Current Rate Projections Compared to the Empirical Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    in terms of rate severity levels. The first kind of disrupted front may be illustrated by the German Kharkov and Donbas defensives in early 1943...kind of disrupted front is an exploitation phase which does not witness serious encirclement. At Donbas , two German divisions were briefly...Sandomierz [2nd 10 days] Kharkov Donbas 10 10 10 All < 9-14 DF-1 DF-1 DF-1 Ardennes ("Bulge") [1st 10 days] 10 CF (Def) Central Europe [November

  15. Postpartum family planning: current evidence on successful interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blazer C

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cassandra Blazer, Ndola Prata Bixby Center for Population, Health, and Sustainability, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA Abstract: We reviewed existing evidence of the efficacy of postpartum family planning interventions targeting women in the 12 months postpartum period in low- and middle-income countries. We searched for studies from January 1, 2004 to September 19, 2015, using the US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations to assess evidence quality. Our search resulted in 26 studies: 11 based in sub-Saharan Africa, six in the Middle East and North Africa, and nine in Asia. Twenty of the included studies assessed health facility-based interventions. Three were focused on community interventions, two had community and facility components, and one was a workplace program. Overall quality of the evidence was moderate, including evidence for counseling interventions. Male partner involvement, integration with other service delivery platforms, such as prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and immunization, and innovative product delivery programs may increase knowledge and use during the postpartum period. Community-based and workplace strategies need a much stronger base of evidence to prompt recommendations. Keywords: postpartum period, family planning, birth spacing, interventions, systematic review, contraception, less developed countries

  16. Collectivism and coping: current theories, evidence, and measurements of collective coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ben C H

    2013-01-01

    A burgeoning body of cultural coping research has begun to identify the prevalence and the functional importance of collective coping behaviors among culturally diverse populations in North America and internationally. These emerging findings are highly significant as they evidence culture's impacts on the stress-coping process via collectivistic values and orientation. They provide a critical counterpoint to the prevailing Western, individualistic stress and coping paradigm. However, current research and understanding about collective coping appear to be piecemeal and not well integrated. To address this issue, this review attempts to comprehensively survey, summarize, and evaluate existing research related to collective coping and its implications for coping research with culturally diverse populations from multiple domains. Specifically, this paper reviews relevant research and knowledge on collective coping in terms of: (a) operational definitions; (b) theories; (c) empirical evidence based on studies of specific cultural groups and broad cultural values/dimensions; (d) measurements; and (e) implications for future cultural coping research. Overall, collective coping behaviors are conceived as a product of the communal/relational norms and values of a cultural group across studies. They also encompass a wide array of stress responses ranging from value-driven to interpersonally based to culturally conditioned emotional/cognitive to religion- and spirituality-grounded coping strategies. In addition, this review highlights: (a) the relevance and the potential of cultural coping theories to guide future collective coping research; (b) growing evidence for the prominence of collective coping behaviors particularly among Asian nationals, Asian Americans/Canadians and African Americans/Canadians; (c) preference for collective coping behaviors as a function of collectivism and interdependent cultural value and orientation; and (d) six cultural coping scales. This

  17. A review of current evidence for the causal impact of attentional bias on fear and anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bockstaele, B.; Verschuere, B.; Tibboel, H.; de Houwer, J.; Crombez, G.; Koster, E.H.W.

    2014-01-01

    Prominent cognitive theories postulate that an attentional bias toward threatening information contributes to the etiology, maintenance, or exacerbation of fear and anxiety. In this review, we investigate to what extent these causal claims are supported by sound empirical evidence. Although differen

  18. A psychological flexibility-based intervention for modulating the impact of stigma and prejudice: a descriptive review of empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Masuda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there have been growing efforts to understandand modulate stigma and prejudice from the standpoint of the psychological flexibility model, a pragmatic model of complex human behavior. The present paper provides an overview of the empirical evidence on the applicability of the psychological flexibility model, and its applied strategy, acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT, to stigma and prejudice. Preliminary findings suggest that the psychological flexibility model and ACT are promising avenues for reducing stigma and prejudice; however, further investigation and refinement of the model and ACT are crucial for significantly ameliorating human suffering related to stigma and prejudice.

  19. Growth-corruption-health triaca and environmental degradation: empirical evidence from Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Qayyum

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the impact of economic growth, corruption, health, and poverty on environmental degradation for three countries from ASEAN, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand using annual data over the period of 1994-2014. The relationship between environmental degradation (pollution) by carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and economic growth is examined along with some other variables, namely health expenditure, poverty, agriculture value added growth, industrial value added growth, and corruption. The ordinary least squares (OLS) method is applied as an analytical technique for parameter estimation. The empirical results reveal that almost all variables are statistically significant at the 5% level of significance, whereby test rejects the null hypotheses of non-cointegration, indicating that all variables play an important role in affecting the environment across countries. Empirical results also indicate that economic growth has significant positive impact, while health expenditures show significantly negative impact on the environment. Corruption has significant positive effect on environment in the case of Malaysia; while in the case of Indonesia and Thailand, it has insignificant results. However, for the individual analysis across countries, the regression estimate suggests that economic growth has a significant positive relationship with environment for Indonesia, while it is found insignificantly negative and positive in the case of Malaysia and Thailand, respectively, during the period under the study. Empirical findings of the study suggest that policy-makers require to make technological-friendly environment sequentially to surmount unregulated pollution, steady population transfers from rural areas to urban areas are also important, and poverty alleviation and better health provision can also help to improve the environment.

  20. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL DETERMINANTS OF COMMERCIAL BANKS PROFITABILITY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM BULGARIA AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIRTESCU BOGDAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study focuses on commercial banks which are operating in Bulgaria and Romania, two countries whose banking sectors have registered major structural changes in the transition to a market economy and which are showing some similarities. Similar to other EU countries, the financial system from Bulgaria and Romania is dominated by the banking sector, which holds the largest share of total assets. Thus, we can say that health, strength and performance of the banking sector are of major importance for the sustainable economic development of states, but also for efficient transmission of monetary policy decisions on the real economy. The paper aims to identify the key factors that affect bank profitability and to evaluate empirically their contribution to a sample of 29 commercial banks in Bulgaria and Romania, for the period 2003-2012. Our research is based on data from the Bureau Van Dijk database, the World Bank and the European Central Bank and uses panel data estimation techniques. The dependent variable used in our study is the bank profitability, which is measured by two representative indicators the Return on Average Assets (ROAA and Return on Average Equity (ROAE. Regarding the independent variables, our analysis includes capital adequacy, the loan loss reserve rate, cost to income ratio, the ratio of liquid assets to total assets, the interest expenses to deposits ratio, the non-interest income over total gross revenues, bank size, the GDP per capita growth, inflation rate, domestic bank credit to private sector and banking industry concentration. The results of our empirical study shows that among the variables considered, the loan loss reserve rate, the ratio of cost to income, GDP per capita growth and domestic bank credit to the private sector, have a significant impact on bank profitability, results in line with our expectations, but also with the results of other empirical studies.

  1. Institutional quality and economic growth: Empirical evidence from the Sudanese economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexiou Constantinos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the extent to which conventional methods used in the majority of relevant growth studies can successfully interpret the economic performance of a highly underdeveloped African country such as Sudan. Applying an ARDL boundstesting approach to cointegration proposed by Pesaran et al. (2001, we look into the short-run as well as long-run relationships between institutional and various other key economic variables and economic growth over the period 1972-2008. The empirical results obtained suggest that, for the Sudanese economy, the quality of the institutional environment is one of the most important factors in defining economic prosperity.

  2. AN INSTITUTIONAL AND NETWORK PERSPECTIVE OF ORGANISATIONAL LEGITIMACY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM CHINA′S TELECOMMUNICATIONS MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Low

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This perspective paper combines institutional and industrial network theory to develop a framework for analysing organisational legitimacy. The main subject, Nokia China, is found to be sensitive to network-legitimating initiatives, with consequences that accommodate multiple, conflicting stakeholders′ interests in China′s politically sensitive and protective telecommunications market. This paper offers new insights into institutional isomorphism that is manifested empirically as incremental conformity to regulative processes, institutional norms and cognitive knowledge and meanings within the environment, thereby extending commonly held views of institutional theory to include organisational legitimacy in industrial networks.

  3. EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE ON THE EFFECTS OF SOCIAL WELFARE AND TAXATION ON INSURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FEKETE SZILVESZTER

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is realized an empirical analysis of the influence of social welfare and taxation on insurance. The analysis is performed on a sample of 36 countries and a horizon of 3 years (2005, 2007 and 2008, being tested 4 linear regression models (life premium subscribed, non-life premiums subscribed, number of companies and number of employees in the insurance sector. The results of study confirm a relationship between the development level of countries and insurance, but exclude the existence of the relationship between taxation and insurance.

  4. Does corporate governance affect financial communication transparency? Empirical evidence in the Tunisian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maali Kachouri Ben Saad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focused on investigating the relationship between intentional governance mechanisms (Directors’ boards, Ownership structure and audit quality and financial communication transparency. For this purpose, a model is used and applied to Tunisian firms’ sample observed over the period 2006–2013. The achieved results reveal that intentional governance mechanisms are positively related to a higher transparency level noticeable in financial communication (voluntary disclosure and quality information. In addition, empirical tests indicate that financial communication transparency is highly dependent on the board size, ownership concentration, as well as on audit quality.

  5. Innovation in clean coal technologies: Empirical evidence from firm-level patent data

    OpenAIRE

    Kruse, Jürgen; Wetzel, Heike

    2016-01-01

    This article empirically analyzes supply-side and demand-side factors expected to affect innovation in clean coal technologies. Patent data from 93 national and international patent offices is used to construct new firm-level panel data on 3,648 clean coal innovators over the time period 1978 to 2009. The results indicate that on the supply-side a firm's history in clean coal patenting and overall propensity to patent positively affects clean coal innovation. On the demand-side we find strong...

  6. Corruption, income, and rule of law: empirical evidence from developing and developed economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Ferreira de Mendonça

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an empirical analysis based on cross-country data concerned with two points regarding corruption: (i its effects on income; and (ii how to mitigate corruption. The findings can be highlighted in two points. Firstly the idea that corruption is intrinsically connected with income is confirmed. Secondly, the traditional argument that an increase in rule of law represents a good strategy in the fight against corruption is valid for developing countries. Furthermore, this study reveals that the search for increasing the human development index represents a rule of thumb for high levels of income and to control corruption.

  7. Is the public sector of your country a diffusion borrower? Empirical evidence from Brazil

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    Rocha, Leno S; Souza, Thársis T P

    2016-01-01

    We propose a diffusion process to describe the global dynamic evolution of credit operations at a national level given observed operations at a subnational level in a sovereign country. Empirical analysis with a unique dataset from Brazilian federate constituents supports the conclusions. Despite the heterogeneity observed in credit operations at a subnational level, the aggregated dynamics at a national level were accurately described with the proposed model. Results may guide management of public finances, particularly debt manager authorities in charge of reaching surplus targets.

  8. Empirical evidence of the game-based learning advantages for online students persistence

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    A. Imbellone

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the empirical results obtained from a study conducted on a game-based online course that took place in 2014 with 47 participants. The study evidenced the benefits of the learning games mechanics on learners’ willingness to continue the course. Assuming the interest for the subject of the course as a fundamental condition for student persistence within the course, it is shown how it can be significantly enhanced by the presence of both ludic and narrative game-based elements.

  9. Management, Organization, Structure. Theoretical Considerations and Empirical Evidence on Changes in the Management of Educational Organizations

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    Thorsten Peetz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on a critique of rather narrow, economy-centered concepts of management, this article develops an alternative conceptualization that focuses on function-specific solutions to the problem of coordination in organizations. Drawing on Niklas LUHMANN's theory of organization we describe management in structural terms as related to organizational programs, channels of communication, persons and positions. We conclude by analyzing transformations of management in educational organizations and demonstrate how our re-conceptualization of management can be applied in empirical research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1003252

  10. Factors Influencing Customer Loya lty of Mobile Phone Service: Empirical Evidence from Koreans

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    Hyung Seok Lee

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to verify the relationships among service quality, perceived value, customer satisfaction, and customer loyalty in mobile phone service. The study conducted an empirical research. A total of 384 mobile phone users’ responses were collected from Seoul in Korea. The findi ngs show that service quality positively influences customer loyalty. In addition, perceived value and customer satisfaction positively affects customer loyalty respectively. For customers with high perceived service quality, perceived value, and satisf action, they have a strong loyalty

  11. Factors Determining the Mode of Overseas R&D by Multinationals: Empirical Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Banri; Wakasugi, Ryuhei

    2007-01-01

    The large expansion of MNCs' overseas R&D is noteworthy. This paper investigates the factors affecting the expansion of support-oriented R&D and knowledge sourcing R&D by using qualitative data which indicate the modes of R&D conducted at a plant site and a laboratory. The empirical results suggest that (1) the export propensity of affiliate firms, relative abundance of human resources for R&D, and accumulated technological knowledge have a positive effect on both the modes of R&D at a plant ...

  12. CAN QUALITY STANDARDS INDIRECTLY IMPROVE EMPLOYEE'S WAGE: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCES FROM MONTENEGRO

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    Tatjana Stanovcic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the indirect effect of ISO 9000 adoption on employees' wage. Actually, the adoption of quality standards induces firm's re-organization, underlying improvement of work environment and employees' involvement. Therefore, in this paper, we analyze how work environment and employees' involvement are associated with employees' wage. Our empirical results based on Montenegrin employee database from two quality certified firms indicate that better work environment has no influence on employees' wage while employee involvement is positively associated with higher wages.

  13. What drives the profitability of the banking sector? An Empirical evidence from Bosnia &Herzegovina

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    Mehmed Ganić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the relationship between the key banks' specific variables of regression models in determination of bank profitability in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H. For the purposes of econometric modeling, quarterly indicators of the banking sector based on country's aggregate data over the period 2000q1 to 2014q2, including one macroeconomic indicator (GDP growth rate were employed. The key findings of this research showed that there was a positive and statistically significant relationship between (ROAA, the three of explanatory variables (LATA, TLTD and CRR and a negative and statistically significant relationship with CEF and CAR. The results of our study have shown that higher bank's profitability measured by ROAA was possible if the banks increase the employment of capital, effectively manage operating costs, increase the share of deposits in financing loans, and improve non lending operation. More specifically, ROAE was significantly influenced by only two variables: cost efficiency and management of credit risk. Our findings of Model 2 and statistically insignificant relationships of six explanatory variables with ROAE can be explained by the consequences of global financial crisis. This influenced the profitability since more economic factors were affected abnormally during analyzed periods. The paper is structured as follows: Section 2 deals with the literature review; Section 3 contains an explanation of the data and methodology and Section 4 deals with empirical findings. The findings and discussion presented in previous sections of this paper end with conclusions in section 5.

  14. DETERMINANTS OF ECONOMIC EXPOSURE: AN EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM THE MISCELLANEOUS COMPANIES IN INDONESIA

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    M. Shabri Abd. Majid

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research empirically measures the economic exposure of 11 selected miscellaneous companies in Indonesia. It also attempts to empirically explore the influence of firm size, export, liquidity, and leverage on the economic exposure of those companies. Annual data from 2007 to 2010, which was collected from the www.idx.co.id and www.bi.go.id were used and analyzed by the multiple linear regression to measure the economic exposure and examine the influences of the firm size, export, liquidity, and leverage on the economic exposure. Both partial (t-test and simultaneous (F-test hypotheses were constructed and tested using the software of SPSS for Windows. The research documented that, with the exception of the liquidity, which has a negative and significant effect partially on the economic exposure, all other variables, i.e., the firm size, export, and leverage were found to have insignificant effects. Meanwhile, based on the F-test, the research found that the firm size, export, liquidity, and leverage affected simultaneously and significantly the economic exposure of the companies. These findings imply that in order to manage their economic exposure, the companies should control these variables, especially the liquidity.

  15. Factors Influencing the Identification of Sustainable Opportunities by SMEs: Empirical Evidence from Zambia

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    Progress Choongo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the model of Patzelt and Shepherd (2011 to examine the factors influencing the identification of sustainable opportunities among SMEs in a developing country, Zambia. The factors under investigation include knowledge of the natural/social environment, perception of threats to the natural/social environment, altruism towards others and entrepreneurial knowledge. We interviewed 220 owner-managers in the trading and service sector who supply goods and services to the mining industry in Zambia. We found that altruism towards others was partially supported by our empirical results while the positive effects of knowledge of the natural/social environment and perception of threats to the natural/social environment on the identification of sustainable opportunities were not supported. Contrary to our expectations, entrepreneurial knowledge does not positively moderate the relationship between explanatory variables and the identification of sustainable opportunities. In sum, we found only limited empirical support for the model of Patzelt and Shepherd (2011 concerning the identification of sustainable opportunities. Our findings contribute to literature on entrepreneurship and sustainable opportunity identification by showing what factors influence the identification of sustainable opportunities. This can help us to create awareness among entrepreneurs regarding the effects of entrepreneurial activities on the environment and society; consequently, stimulating entrepreneurs to identify sustainable opportunities.

  16. Empirical analysis of university-industry R&D collaboration: Evidence from Pakistan

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    Saqib Mehmood Afzal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available University-industry collaboration plays a vital role in nation’s innovation system. This study presents an empirical analysis of R&D collaboration between university and industry. The literature focused on the all those factors including firm size, firm’s innovation activity and openness of the firm affecting university-industry collaboration. Primary data is used and sample contains 15 industrial sectors of Pakistan according to market capitalization at the time of data collection. The empirical results of the study suggest that firm’s size, number of employees and openness of the firm have positive impact on uni-industry collaboration for R&D projects. Whilst annual budget of the firms is found to have negative relationship with R&D collaborations and larger firms are found to be less efficient in taking advantages of R&D collaboration with universities because larger firms have more spending on their fixed costs as they have participated in so many R&D activities.

  17. The ascent of man: Theoretical and empirical evidence for blatant dehumanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kteily, Nour; Bruneau, Emile; Waytz, Adam; Cotterill, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    Dehumanization is a central concept in the study of intergroup relations. Yet although theoretical and methodological advances in subtle, "everyday" dehumanization have progressed rapidly, blatant dehumanization remains understudied. The present research attempts to refocus theoretical and empirical attention on blatant dehumanization, examining when and why it provides explanatory power beyond subtle dehumanization. To accomplish this, we introduce and validate a blatant measure of dehumanization based on the popular depiction of evolutionary progress in the "Ascent of Man." We compare blatant dehumanization to established conceptualizations of subtle and implicit dehumanization, including infrahumanization, perceptions of human nature and human uniqueness, and implicit associations between ingroup-outgroup and human-animal concepts. Across 7 studies conducted in 3 countries, we demonstrate that blatant dehumanization is (a) more strongly associated with individual differences in support for hierarchy than subtle or implicit dehumanization, (b) uniquely predictive of numerous consequential attitudes and behaviors toward multiple outgroup targets, (c) predictive above prejudice, and (d) reliable over time. Finally, we show that blatant-but not subtle-dehumanization spikes immediately after incidents of real intergroup violence and strongly predicts support for aggressive actions like torture and retaliatory violence (after the Boston Marathon bombings and Woolwich attacks in England). This research extends theory on the role of dehumanization in intergroup relations and intergroup conflict and provides an intuitive, validated empirical tool to reliably measure blatant dehumanization.

  18. Sustainable Leadership Practices Driving Financial Performance: Empirical Evidence from Thai SMEs

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    Suparak Suriyankietkaew

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many managers and researchers alike are asking: What does an enterprise need to do to generate a proper balance between economic, social, and ecological objectives while gaining superior corporate financial performance, resilience, and sustainability? Several leadership concepts for enhancing organizational sustainability have emerged in recent years, but none provides an integrative approach, with the exception of Sustainable Leadership (SL. However, empirical research examining the effects of various SL practices on financial performance and other business outcomes is lacking. This article addresses this gap by empirically investigating the relationships between 23 SL practices and financial performance. Using a cross-sectional survey, data stem from 439 managers in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in Thailand. Of the 23 SL practices in SL, 16 were significantly associated with corporate financial performance. Four SL practices, in particular—amicable labor relations, valuing employees, social responsibility, plus strong and shared vision—were significant drivers, and positive predictors, of enhanced long-term firm performance. Lastly, implications, limitations, and future directions are discussed.

  19. Current evidence on dietary pattern and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Bernice H K; Ho, Ivan C H; Chan, Ruth S M; Sea, Mandy M M; Woo, Jean

    2014-01-01

    With global aging population, age-related cognitive decline becomes epidemic. Lifestyle-related factor is one of the key preventative measures. Dietary pattern analysis which considers dietary complexity has recently used to examine the linkage between nutrition and cognitive function. A priori approach defines dietary pattern based on existing knowledge. Results of several dietary pattern scores were summarized. The heterogeneity of assessment methods and outcome measurements lead to inconsistent results. Posteriori approach derives a dietary pattern independently of the existing nutrition-disease knowledge. It showed a dietary pattern abundant with plant-based food, oily fish, lower consumption of processed food, saturated fat, and simple sugar which appears to be beneficial to cognitive health. Despite inconclusive evidence from both approaches, diet and exercise, beneficial for other diseases, remains to be the two key modifiable factors for cognitive function. Large-scale prospective studies in multiethics population are required to provide stronger evidence in the future.

  20. Current Evidence and Insights about Genetics in Thoracic Aorta Disease

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysms have been historically considered to be caused by etiologic factors similar to those implied in abdominal aortic aneurysms. However, during the past decade, there has been increasing evidence that almost 20% of thoracic aortic aneurysms may be associated with a genetic disease, often within a syndromic or familial disorder. Moreover, the presence of congenital anomalies, such as bicuspid aortic valve, may have a unique common genetic underlying cause. Finally, also s...

  1. Capnography during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: Current evidence and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavani Shankar Kodali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Capnography continues to be an important tool in measuring expired carbon dioxide (CO 2 . Most recent Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS guidelines now recommend using capnography to ascertain the effectiveness of chest compressions and duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. Based on an extensive review of available published literature, we selected all available peer-reviewed research investigations and case reports. Available evidence suggests that there is significant correlation between partial pressure of end-tidal CO 2 (PETCO 2 and cardiac output that can indicate the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC. Additional evidence favoring the use of capnography during CPR includes definitive proof of correct placement of the endotracheal tube and possible prediction of patient survival following cardiac arrest, although the latter will require further investigations. There is emerging evidence that PETCO 2 values can guide the initiation of extracorporeal life support (ECLS in refractory cardiac arrest (RCA. There is also increasing recognition of the value of capnography in intensive care settings in intubated patients. Future directions include determining the outcomes based on capnography waveforms PETCO 2 values and determining a reasonable duration of CPR. In the future, given increasing use of capnography during CPR large databases can be analyzed to predict outcomes.

  2. [A review of current concepts in evidence-based radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Valadez, Ernesto; Lee, Angel; Jiménez-Corona, Aída; Vega-González, Iván; Martínez-López, Manuel; Vázquez-LaMadrid, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    It has been noted that "Good doctors use both individual clinical expertise and the best available external evidence, and neither alone is enough. " Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is defined as the process of systematically finding, critically appraising, and using contemporary research published in the medical literature as a basis to make decisions regarding individual patient care and health care policy. In radiology, including its diagnostic and interventional aspects, the principles and practice of EBM have not been thoroughly studied. In this brief review article, we describe key aspects of evidence-based radiology (EBR), concepts and steps followed in EBM and meta-analysis. The skills required to practice EBR are identified, and the roles of EBR in radiologic practice, education, and research are discussed. The application of EBM principles to diagnostic imaging facilitates the interpretation of imaging studies and produces a sound and comprehensive radiologic evaluation. This review could be useful for radiologists and clinicians at any stage of their training or career. It encourages the practice of EBM and EBR especially in developing countries.

  3. The Intertemporal Approach to the Current Account: Evidence for Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A. Salas Landeau

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the existence of "excess" current-account imbalances in Chile in the 1960-1999 period. This phenomenon is modelled using present value tests that allow for variable interest rates and exchange rate fluctuations. Despite its simplicity, most of the observed imbalances in the current account are accounted for by the model. Results suggest that using models where agents behave as forward-looking rational agents, is a valid framework. Moreover, the analysis highlights the rel-evance of variable interest rates and exchange rates. Results also imply that capital controls, that were widely used in the period under study, were not effective.

  4. Current trends in the empirical study of cognitive remediation for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saperstein, Alice M; Kurtz, Matthew M

    2013-06-01

    Cognitive remediation (CR) for schizophrenia is a learning-based behavioural skills training intervention designed to enhance neuro and (or) social cognitive skills, with the ultimate goal of generalization to improve psychosocial outcomes. This review summarizes conceptual approaches to CR for schizophrenia and the evidence for efficacy in clinical research settings. Four issues are at the forefront of ongoing research: the identification of techniques that produce the largest cognitive change, delineation of techniques that enhance transfer of cognitive skills to functional skills, the identification of CR methods that can be personalized to meet the specific cognitive and functional needs of each individual, and, all the while, ensuring that when CR methods are developed in a research setting, they remain scalable for delivery in the larger clinical community. In response to these issues, 3 prominent research trends have emerged: the rise of a new generation of computerized restorative cognitive training, the integration of CR with skills training to promote generalization, and the application of techniques to enhance motivation and learning during CR. As data on the neural basis of learning in people with schizophrenia become available, new technologies that harness the ability of the brain to make sustainable, functional changes may be integrated within a therapeutic context that promotes a personalized approach to learning. The development of transportable and scalable methods of CR that maximize the ability of people with schizophrenia to improve cognition will help them achieve personal goals for recovery.

  5. The causal relationship between Foreign Direct Investment and Current Account: an empirical investigation for Pakistan economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad ASIM

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates relationship between FDI and current account (CA in Pakistan using the Johansen-Juselius cointegration technique and the Granger causality test. The study results indicate that FDI and CA are cointegrated and thus exhibit a reliable long run relationship. The Granger causality test findings indicate that the causality between FDI and CA is uni-directional. However, there is no short run causality from FDI to CA and vice versa. Therefore, as a policy implication that FDI inflows may cause to the deterioration of the balance of payments in the long run should be taken into account when policy makers decide to implement policies to attract foreign investors.

  6. Impact of the IFRS Adoption on Financial Assets and Liabilities. Empirical Evidence from Bucharest Stock Exchange

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    Maria Carmen HUIAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the impact of the transition to IFRS on financial assets and liabilities reported by non-financial companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange. It uses data from the individual financial statements for the comparative year 2011, prepared under both Romanian accounting standards (RAS and IFRS. Through a set of financial ratios involving information from balance sheet, income statement and cash flow statement, we study how the IFRS adoption affected financial assets and liabilities. We also test the empirical correlation between profitability (measured by ROE and financial assets/ liabilities before and after the transition to IFRS. We find that financial instruments are very little affected by the change in the accounting system. However, the association between ROE and financial assets/ liabilities is of greater intensity for the IFRS data.

  7. A holistic approach to corporate social responsibility as a prerequisite for sustainable development: Empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatanović Dejana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing importance of sustainable development and corporate social responsibility (CSR for contemporary organizations demands appropriate holistic tools. The paper highlights how Soft Systems Methodology (SSM, a relevant holistic, i.e., soft systems approach, supports the conceptualization and management of the complex issues of CSR and sustainable development. The SSM’s key methodological tools are used: rich picture, root definitions, and conceptual models. Empirical research compares a selected sample of enterprises in the automotive industry in the Republic of Serbia, to identify possible systemically desirable and culturally feasible changes to improve their CSR behaviour through promoting their sustainable development. Some limitations of this research and of SSM application are discussed. Combining SSM with some other systems approaches, such as System Dynamics or Critical Systems Heuristics, is recommended for future research.

  8. What factors drive interest rate spread of commercial banks? Empirical evidence from Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Were

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper empirically investigates the determinants of interest rate spread in Kenya's banking sector based on panel data analysis. The findings show that bank-specific factors play a significant role in the determination of interest rate spreads. These include bank size, credit risk as measured by non-performing loans to total loans ratio, return on average assets and operating costs, all of which positively influence interest rate spreads. On the other hand, higher bank liquidity ratio has a negative effect on the spreads. On average, big banks have higher spreads compared to small banks. The impact of macroeconomic factors such as real economic growth is insignificant. The effect of the monetary policy rate is positive but not highly significant. The results largely reflect the structure of the banking industry, in which a few big banks control a significant share of the market.

  9. Text structures in medical text processing: empirical evidence and a text understanding prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, U; Romacker, M

    1997-01-01

    We consider the role of textual structures in medical texts. In particular, we examine the impact the lacking recognition of text phenomena has on the validity of medical knowledge bases fed by a natural language understanding front-end. First, we review the results from an empirical study on a sample of medical texts considering, in various forms of local coherence phenomena (anaphora and textual ellipses). We then discuss the representation bias emerging in the text knowledge base that is likely to occur when these phenomena are not dealt with--mainly the emergence of referentially incoherent and invalid representations. We then turn to a medical text understanding system designed to account for local text coherence.

  10. From Strategic Planning to City Branding: Some Empirical Evidence in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Rizzi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In a globalized world where places compete with each other, the image of the city plays a crucial role to attract tourists and investors, and to make citizens stay with satisfaction and avoid their moving away. By exploring the connections and implications between theory and empirical outcomes of some Italian cities as to its attractiveness for tourists and investors, this paper intends to offer a useful overview both for academicians and practitioners. The purpose is not only to go through the extensive literature on strategic planning place marketing and city branding, but to focus specifically on some Italian cases (Turin, Genoa, Venice, Piacenza, where the application of the above mentionedinstruments has provided interesting results to compare.

  11. The relationship between energy and economic growth: Empirical evidence from 66 countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Susan Sunila [School of Accounting, Economics and Finance, Faculty of Business and Law, 70 Elgar Road, Burwood, 3125 Victoria, Melbourne (Australia)

    2010-11-15

    In this study, we use dynamic panel data models to examine the impact of electricity and non-electricity variables on economic growth for a global panel consisting of 66 countries. The time component of our dataset is 1986-2005 inclusive. We also estimate this relationship for four regional panels; namely, East/South Asian and the Pacific region, Europe and Central Asian region, Latin America and Caribbean region, and Sub-Saharan, North Africa and Middle Eastern region. In total, we use six proxies for energy. The empirical analysis is based on a sound theoretical framework, in that we draw on growth theory and augment the classical growth model, which consists of inflation, capital stock, labour force and trade, with energy. Generally, the results on the impact of energy are mixed. (author)

  12. Empirical evidence of contrasting soil moisture-precipitation feedbacks across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Samuel; Salvucci, Guido

    2016-05-01

    Soil moisture influences fluxes of heat and moisture originating at the land surface, thus altering atmospheric humidity and temperature profiles. However, empirical and modeling studies disagree on how this affects the propensity for precipitation, mainly owing to the difficulty in establishing causality. We use Granger causality to estimate the relationship between soil moisture and occurrence of subsequent precipitation over the contiguous United States using remotely sensed soil moisture and gauge-based precipitation observations. After removing potential confounding effects of daily persistence, and seasonal and interannual variability in precipitation, we find that soil moisture anomalies significantly influence rainfall probabilities over 38% of the area with a median factor of 13%. The feedback is generally positive in the west and negative in the east, suggesting dependence on regional aridity.

  13. Open Innovation: A New Mechanism For Adoption Of Organizational Innovation Empirical Evidence From Algerian Companies

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    Khayra Aichouche

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available  The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between the openness degree of companies and organizational innovation. The openness degree is defined as the use of purposive inflows and outflows of knowledge to accelerate internal Innovation, and to expend markets for external use of innovation (Chesbrough, 2006. The research utilizes causality models and suggests a conceptual schema subsequent to a comprehensive analysis of the literature linked to open innovation field. A sample of 120 managers and employees of Algerian pharmaceutical company is used. The SEM is used to analyze and approve the proposal of the conceptual schema. Results of the empirical research show that open innovation is positively and significantly related to organizational innovation, on the other hand, these results indicate that there is a positive and significant impact of organizational innovation on organizational performance.

  14. Locating eating pathology within an empirical diagnostic taxonomy: evidence from a community-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbush, Kelsie T; South, Susan C; Krueger, Robert F; Iacono, William G; Clark, Lee Anna; Keel, Pamela K; Legrand, Lisa N; Watson, David

    2010-05-01

    Existing structural models of psychopathology need to be expanded to include additional diagnostic constructs beyond mood, anxiety, substance use, and antisocial behavior disorders. The goal of this study was to locate eating disorders within a hierarchical structural model of psychopathology that is anchored by broad Internalizing and Externalizing factors. Participants were female adolescent twins (N = 1,434) from the Minnesota Twin Family Study. The authors compared the fit of 4 models in which eating disorders (a) defined their own diagnostic class, (b) represented a subclass within Internalizing, (c) formed a subclass within Externalizing, and (d) were allowed to cross-load on both Internalizing and Externalizing. In the best fitting model, eating disorders formed a subfactor within Internalizing. These findings underscore the value of developing more comprehensive empirically based models of psychopathology to increase researchers' understanding of diverse mental disorders.

  15. How does auditors’ work stress affect audit quality? Empirical evidence from the Chinese stock market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanmin Yan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With reference to the Job Demands–Control Model, we empirically examine the effect of auditors’ work stress on audit quality using a sample of Chinese A-share listed companies and their signature auditors from 2009 to 2013. The results show that (1 there is generally no pervasive deterioration in audit quality resulting from auditors’ work stress; (2 there is a significant negative association between work stress and audit quality in the initial audits of new clients; and (3 the perception of work stress depends on auditors’ individual characteristics. Auditors from international audit firms and those in the role of partner respond more strongly to work stress than industry experts. Auditors tend to react more intensively when dealing with state-owned companies. We suggest that audit firms attach more importance to auditors’ work stress and rationalize their allocation of audit resources to ensure high audit quality.

  16. WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF ISO 9000 CERTIFICATION? EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM FRENCH MICRO-DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Pekovic

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The ISO 9000 certification is often associated with quality approach, and activities that are by now widely diffused throughout business. The statistical research shows that quality management practice is one of the most utilized tools because in 1997, more than a third of industrial firms have received the quality certification. Regarded like an investment in a diploma, investment in quality norms can at the same time be a function of improvement of the company's competence and can also make a signal on the market. In our research, we want to understand those two functions of the ISO 9000 certification and to see how they act in the company and on the market. The paper will explore two possible functions of the certification and will analysis the consequences for the firms. The research will use national statistics sources and case research for the empirical investigation to identify the internal characteristics of ISO 9000 adoption. Also, it will use C.O.I database (Organizational Changes and Computerization of 1997 and E.A.E. database (Annual Survey of Industry. In this research, the empirical results show that ISO certification has a part of increase the level of firm's export. Moreover, the firms that have recently adopted the ISO certification invest more in quality than those that have adopted ISO certification more ago. The results show that the firms from same sector of activity "are pushed" to adopt certification. At the end, the results show that, the probability that the firm adopt ISO certification increase with firm's size.

  17. Is there evidence that friends influence body weight? A systematic review of empirical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Solveig A; Vaquera, Elizabeth; Maturo, Claire C; Narayan, K M Venkat

    2012-10-01

    Researchers and policymakers from diverse fields are engaged in efforts to understand the biological and social causes of obesity in order to develop policies, interventions, and recommendations to stop or reverse increases in obesity. One potentially promising approach is to harness influence from social contacts. An important foundation for this approach involves critically analyzing available data regarding whether and how body weight can be affected by close social contacts, especially friends. This systematic review examines evidence from published studies addressing the influences of friends on body weight. The majority of the sixteen studies conclude that there is evidence of influence: six reported that friends influence body weight and ten reported evidence of influence in some circumstances or specifications. However, this literature sheds little light on mechanisms of influence. There is limited evidence that friends' communication about weight is associated with weight status and no compelling evidence that friends' behaviors affect one's weight. Many of the studies best designed to examine influence were the ones that did not explore mechanisms of influence. A priority for future research is to understand how, when, and how much friends affect the risk of obesity.

  18. Revisiting reflexology: Concept, evidence, current practice, and practitioner training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embong, Nurul Haswani; Soh, Yee Chang; Ming, Long Chiau; Wong, Tin Wui

    2015-10-01

    Reflexology is basically a study of how one part of the human body relates to another part of the body. Reflexology practitioners rely on the reflexes map of the feet and hands to all the internal organs and other human body parts. They believe that by applying the appropriate pressure and massage certain spots on the feet and hands, all other body parts could be energized and rejuvenated. This review aimed to revisit the concept of reflexology and examine its effectiveness, practices, and the training for reflexology practitioners. PubMed, SCOPUS, Google Scholar, and SpringerLink databases were utilized to search the following medical subject headings or keywords: foot massage, reflexology, foot reflexotherapy, reflexological treatment, and zone therapy. The articles published for the last 10 years were included. Previous systematic reviews failed to show concrete evidence for any specific effect of reflexology in any conditions. Due to its non-invasive, non-pharmacological complementary nature, reflexology is widely accepted and anecdotal evidence of positive effect reflexology in a variety of health conditions are available. Adequate training for practitioners is necessary to ensure the consistency of service provided.

  19. Voice rest after vocal fold surgery: current practice and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, A C; Carswell, A J; Tierney, P A

    2013-08-01

    Voice rest is commonly recommended after vocal fold surgery, but there is a lack of evidence base and no standard protocol. The aim of this study was to establish common practice regarding voice rest following vocal fold surgery. An online survey was circulated via e-mail invitation to members of the ENT UK Expert Panel between October and November 2011. The survey revealed that 86.5 per cent of respondents agreed that 'complete voice rest' means no sound production at all, but there was variability in how 'relative voice rest' was defined. There was no dominant type of voice rest routinely recommended after surgery for laryngeal papillomatosis or intermediate pathologies. There was considerable variability in the duration of voice rest recommended, with no statistically significant, most popular response (except for malignant lesions). Surgeons with less than 10 years of experience were more likely to recommend fewer days of voice rest. There is a lack of consistency in advice given to patients after vocal fold surgery, in terms of both type and length of voice rest. This may arise from an absence of robust evidence on which to base practice.

  20. Level of evidence and citation index in current neurosurgical publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothoerl, Ralf D; Klier, Joerg; Woertgen, Chris; Brawanski, A

    2003-10-01

    Systematic clinical reviews or meta-analyses offer scientifically valid sources of clinical information. They provide information in a concise form and can contribute to clinical quality management. Such studies, however, are only able to reflect the quality of the articles reviewed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of the neurosurgical literature according to evidence-based medicine (EBM) standards. We reviewed all articles published in 1999 in three major neurosurgical journals. These articles were subdivided according to the level of evidence (LOE) scale (from 0 to V), article type, and citation index. Nine hundred eighty-two articles were published in these journals in 1999. Of these, 346 (35%) were clinical studies, 287 (29%) case reports, 153 (16%) experimental studies, 122 (13%) technical reports, and 74 ( 8%) other types. Subdivision according to LOE was: Ia 0.3%, Ib 2.5%, IIa 0.2%, IIb 4.3%, IIc 9.5%, IIIa 0.1%, IIIb 3.9%, IV 22.4%, and V 1.6%. Fifty-five percent of all published studies were case reports, experimental studies, technical reports, or others and thus could not be subdivided according to the EBM standards. The number of articles published with high LOE seems to be rather low in 1999. If these data reflect overall publication practice, it seems unclear whether enough articles with high LOE are published to propose scientifically sound clinical treatment suggestions according to EBM standards.

  1. Revisiting reflexology: Concept, evidence, current practice, and practitioner training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Haswani Embong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Reflexology is basically a study of how one part of the human body relates to another part of the body. Reflexology practitioners rely on the reflexes map of the feet and hands to all the internal organs and other human body parts. They believe that by applying the appropriate pressure and massage certain spots on the feet and hands, all other body parts could be energized and rejuvenated. This review aimed to revisit the concept of reflexology and examine its effectiveness, practices, and the training for reflexology practitioners. PubMed, SCOPUS, Google Scholar, and SpringerLink databases were utilized to search the following medical subject headings or keywords: foot massage, reflexology, foot reflexotherapy, reflexological treatment, and zone therapy. The articles published for the last 10 years were included. Previous systematic reviews failed to show concrete evidence for any specific effect of reflexology in any conditions. Due to its non-invasive, non-pharmacological complementary nature, reflexology is widely accepted and anecdotal evidence of positive effect reflexology in a variety of health conditions are available. Adequate training for practitioners is necessary to ensure the consistency of service provided.

  2. Ebola Virus Shedding and Transmission: Review of Current Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Pauline; Fischer, William A; Schibler, Manuel; Jacobs, Michael; Bausch, Daniel G; Kaiser, Laurent

    2016-10-15

     The magnitude of the 2013-2016 Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa was unprecedented, with >28 500 reported cases and >11 000 deaths. Understanding the key elements of Ebola virus transmission is necessary to implement adequate infection prevention and control measures to protect healthcare workers and halt transmission in the community.  We performed an extensive PubMed literature review encompassing the period from discovery of Ebola virus, in 1976, until 1 June 2016 to evaluate the evidence on modes of Ebola virus shedding and transmission.  Ebola virus has been isolated by cell culture from blood, saliva, urine, aqueous humor, semen, and breast milk from infected or convalescent patients. Ebola virus RNA has been noted in the following body fluids days or months after onset of illness: saliva (22 days), conjunctiva/tears (28 days), stool (29 days), vaginal fluid (33 days), sweat (44 days), urine (64 days), amniotic fluid (38 days), aqueous humor (101 days), cerebrospinal fluid (9 months), breast milk (16 months [preliminary data]), and semen (18 months). Nevertheless, the only documented cases of secondary transmission from recovered patients have been through sexual transmission. We did not find strong evidence supporting respiratory or fomite-associated transmission. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Evidence-based stillbirth prevention strategies: combining empirical and theoretical paradigms to inform health planning and decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Mary Lou; Aden, Amna; Tapa, Stephany; Jumah, Reem; Khan, Salma

    2014-08-01

    A global health project undertaken in Qatar on the Arabian Peninsula immersed undergraduate nursing students in hands-on learning to address the question: What strategies are effective in preventing stillbirth? Worldwide stillbirth estimates of 2.6 million per year and the high rate in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of 27 per 1,000 total live births provided the stimulus for this inquiry. We used a dual empirical and theoretical approach that combined the principles of evidence-based practice and population health planning. Students were assisted to translate pre-appraised literature based on the 6S hierarchical pyramid of evidence. The PRECEDE-PROCEED (P-P) model served as an organizing template to assemble data extracted from the appraisal of 21 systematic literature reviews ± meta-analyses, 2 synopses of synthesized reports, and 9 individual studies summarizing stillbirth prevention strategies in low, middle, and high income countries. Consistent with elements of the P-P model, stillbirth prevention strategies were classified as social, epidemiological, educational, ecological, administrative, or policy. Ten recommendations with clear evidence of effectiveness in preventing stillbirth in low, middle, or high income countries were identified. Several other promising interventions were identified with weak, uncertain, or inconclusive evidence. These require further rigorous testing. Two complementary paradigms--evidence-based practice and an ecological population health program planning model--helped baccalaureate nursing students transfer research evidence into useable knowledge for practice. They learned the importance of comprehensive assessments and evidence-informed interventions. The multidimensional elements of the P-P model sensitized students to the complex interrelated factors influencing stillbirth and its prevention. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  4. Screening for prostate cancer: the current evidence and guidelines controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomella, Leonard G; Liu, Xiaolong S; Trabulsi, Edouard J; Kelly, Wm Kevin; Myers, Ronald; Showalter, Timothy; Dicker, Adam; Wender, Richard

    2011-10-01

    Prostate cancer presents a global public health dilemma. While screening with prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to more men diagnosed with prostate cancer than in previous years, the potential for negative effects from over-diagnosis and treatment cannot be ignored. We reviewed Medline for recent articles that discuss clinical trials, evidence based recommendations and guidelines from major medical organizations in the United States and worldwide concerning prostate cancer screening. Results from the European Randomized Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC), the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial, and Göteborg Swedish trials regarding prostate screening are controversial with the ERSPC and Göteborg showing a reduction in prostate cancer mortality and the PLCO trial showing no benefit. Recommendations from the American Urological Association (AUA), Japanese Urological Association (JUA), and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) have recommended that all men obtain a baseline PSA beginning at age 40. The American Cancer Society (ACS) stratifies screening recommendations based on age and risk, but states that screening should take place only after an informed discussion between provider and patient. The United States Preventative Health Service Task Force (USPSTF) states that evidence is insufficient to assess the risks and benefits of prostate cancer screening in men younger than 75 years. Other major international health organizations offer a similar reserved approach or recommend against screening for prostate cancer. Most groups indicate that screening to determine who should undergo prostate biopsy typically includes both a serum PSA and digital rectal examination, with the latest ACS publications noting that the rectal exam is optional. A common theme from all groups is that an informed discussion with the patients is strongly recommended and that screening does increase the number of men diagnosed with non

  5. Climate change and respiratory health: current evidence and knowledge gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaro, Tim K; Knowlton, Kim; Balmes, John R

    2013-08-01

    Climate change is a key driver of the accelerating environmental change affecting populations around the world. Many of these changes and our response to them can affect respiratory health. This is an expert opinion review of recent peer-reviewed literature, focused on more recent medical journals and climate-health relevant modeling results from non-biomedical journals pertaining to climate interactions with air pollution. Global health impacts in low resource countries and migration precipitated by environmental change are addressed. The major findings are of respiratory health effects related to heat, air pollution, shifts in infectious diseases and allergens, flooding, water, food security and migration. The review concludes with knowledge gaps and research need that will support the evidence-base required to address the challenges ahead.

  6. Cellular phones and their hazards: the current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, Anusheel; Jalali, Rakesh

    2002-01-01

    The past decade has seen an exponential increase globally in the use of cellular phones (popularly known as mobile or cell phones). These phones are convenient and trendy. Discarding the wire means that the communication is through electromagnetic waves, which could have potential hazards. Alarmist reports in the lay press and high profile lawsuits, particularly in the West, have attracted attention to the possible harmful effects of cellular phones. Adverse effects investigated by various clinical trials include the possible link to increased risk of vehicular accidents, leukaemias, sleep disturbances and the more serious brain tumours. Available level II evidence suggests that the only proven side-effect is an increased risk of vehicular accidents. So far, all studies have consistently negated any association between cellular phones and brain tumours. Yet, the final word remains to be said.

  7. Current Scientific Evidence for a Polarized Cardiovascular Endurance Training Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydren, Jay R; Cohen, Bruce S

    2015-12-01

    Recent publications have provided new scientific evidence for a modern aerobic or cardiovascular endurance exercise prescription that optimizes the periodization cycle and maximizes potential endurance performance gains in highly trained individuals. The traditional threshold, high volume, and high-intensity training models have displayed limited improvement in actual race pace in (highly) trained individuals while frequently resulting in overreaching or overtraining (physical injury and psychological burnout). A review of evidence for replacing these models with the proven polarized training model seems warranted. This review provides a short history of the training models, summarizes 5 key studies, and provides example training programs for both the pre- and in-season periods. A polarized training program is characterized by an undulating nonlinear periodization model with nearly all the training time spent at a "light" (≤13) and "very hard" (≥17) pace with very limited time at "hard" (14-16) or race pace (6-20 Rating of Perceived Exertion [RPE] scale). To accomplish this, the polarization training model has specific high-intensity workouts separated by one or more long slow distance workouts, with the exercise intensity remaining below ventilatory threshold (VT) 1 and/or blood lactate of less than 2 mM (A.K.A. below race pace). Effect sizes for increasing aerobic endurance performance for the polarized training model are consistently superior to that of the threshold training model. Performing a polarized training program may be best accomplished by: going easy on long slow distance workouts, avoiding "race pace" and getting after it during interval workouts.

  8. The Impact of Skills Development on Competitiveness: Empirical Evidence from a Cross-Country Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsomu, Eldah N.; Ngware, Moses W.; Manda, Damiano K.

    2010-01-01

    In the past half-century, most countries have emphasized the development of human capital as an instrument for economic growth, sustainable development, and improved global competitiveness. However, limited evidence exists on the link between skills development and a country's competitiveness. This paper examines the contribution and association…

  9. Why so few women on boards of directors? Empirical evidence from Danish companies 1997-2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Nina; Parrotta, Pierpaolo

    of the board of directors tend to have significantly fewer other non-staff board members. We find clear evidence of a tokenism behavior in Danish companies. Having one non-staff woman on the board is negatively related to the chance of hiring another woman for the board of directors. Finally, the pipeline...

  10. Comparative effectiveness research: using systematic reviews and meta-analyses to synthesize empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katapodi, Maria C; Northouse, Laurel L

    2011-01-01

    The increased demand for evidence-based health care practices calls for comparative effectiveness research (CER), namely the generation and synthesis of research evidence to compare the benefits and harms of alternative methods of care. A significant contribution of CER is the systematic identification and synthesis of available research studies on a specific topic. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of methodological issues pertaining to systematic reviews and meta-analyses to be used by investigators with the purpose of conducting CER. A systematic review or meta-analysis is guided by a research protocol, which includes (a) the research question, (b) inclusion and exclusion criteria with respect to the target population and studies, (c) guidelines for obtaining relevant studies, (d) methods for data extraction and coding, (e) methods for data synthesis, and (f) guidelines for reporting results and assessing for bias. This article presents an algorithm for generating evidence-based knowledge by systematically identifying, retrieving, and synthesizing large bodies of research studies. Recommendations for evaluating the strength of evidence, interpreting findings, and discussing clinical applicability are offered.

  11. Empirical evidence for differential organ reductions during trans-oceanic bird flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battley, PF; Piersma, T; Dietz, MW; Tang, SX; Dekinga, A; Hulsman, K

    2000-01-01

    Since the early 1960s it has been held that migrating birds deposit and use only fat as fuel during migratory flight, with the non-fat portion of the body remaining homeostatic. Recent evidence from field studies has shown large changes in organ sizes in fuelling birds, and theory on fuel use sugges

  12. Evidence for benefit? Reviewing empirical research on the use of digital tools in mathematics education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijvers, P.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    A recent OECD study has raised the question of which evidence we have for the benefit of using digital technology in mathematics education. To investigate this, we focus on experimental and quantitative studies, and revisit the main recent review studies in this domain. The results show significant

  13. Competition and Innovation in Telecom Sector: Empirical Evidence from OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Taher ABU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze the effect of competition and innovation in OECD next-generation mobile phones (as a proxy for telecom sector by examining factors affecting the diffusion pattern. A rigorous econometric model is estimated using the mobile telecommunications panel dataset comprised with the 19 OECD countries where at least 80% data are covered. The econometric model categorizes the variables as: (1 GDP per capita income and mobile user cost, (2 competition policies (3 telecom infrastructure (4 technological innovations (5 others such as role of MVNO (mobile virtual network operators, multiple standards for 3G as for the appropriateness of the outcome. The study represents country specific influence in terms of mobile contents and technological innovations. A new and important empirical finding is that there are still many opportunities available for mobile network operators (MNO in this region by providing better telecom infrastructure to support technological innovations and to upheaval decreasing trend of average revenue per user (ARPU. Besides, the most important factors are identified as high speeds and necessary time require for porting mobile number.

  14. Empirical evidences of owners’ managerial behaviour - the case of small companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobontiu, G.; Banica, M.; Ravai-Nagy, S.

    2017-05-01

    In a small firm, the founder or the owner-manager often leaves his or her own personal “stamp” on the way things are done, finding solutions for the multitude of problems the firm faces, and maintaining control over the firm’s operations. The paper aims to investigate the degree to which the owner-managers are controlling the operations of their firm on a day-to-day basis or even getting involved into the management of the functional areas. Our empirical research, conducted on a sample of 200 small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) from the North-Western Romania, Maramures (NUTS3 level - RO114), shows that owner-managers tend to be all-powerful, making decisions based on their experience. Furthermore, the survey highlights the focus of owner-managers on two functional areas, namely the production, and sales and marketing. Finally, the correlation analysis states that in the case of small firms, the owner-manager is more involved in managing the functional areas of the firm, as compared to the medium-ones.

  15. The impact structure of social capital on corporate performance: Empirical evidence from listed companies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Junwei; FU Haiyan; HU Lijun

    2007-01-01

    Vertical relationships with the government, particular relational capital and organizational social network capital, constitute corporate social capital (CSC). Using the empirical data of 97 listed companies in China, this paper examines the impact of CSC on corporate performance, finds that CSC has a positive impact on sales revenue but an insignificant impact on the improvement of ROA. More specifically, when a firm enlarges its sales revenue, the function of organizational network capital is stronger than that of a particular relational capital and that of governmental connections. The paper also finds that state-owned enterprises (SOEs) have more advantages in using governmental connections, therefore leading to better social status than non-SOEs do, who have fewer advantages in using any particular relational capital. The article suggests that managers should appraise carefully the effectiveness of CSC, and combine it with other resources; firms should distinguish the structure of the impact of CSC on performance improvement in a dynamic way. With respect to the implication of this paper, it could help in analyzing firm behaviors in the transitional China.

  16. The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on the Export Performance: Empirical Evidence for Western Balkan Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Nasir Selimi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently there are many authors that have studied and analyzed the impact of foreign direct investments (FDI on the export performance. They have different opinions about the effect of foreign direct investments on the export performance. Some of them in their papers conclude that FDI have positive effect on the export performance and some not. There are also findings that FDI do not have any impact on the export performance. Of course for economic benefit of host country it is not important only the amount of FDI, but also their structure. To measure the effect of FDI on the export performance is not easy. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to analyze empirically the foreign direct investments and exports performance during the period of 1996-2013 in Western Balkan countries. The paper also investigates for the fixed effects and individual heterogeneity across countries and years. Based on the panel regression techniques and Least Square Dummy Variable (LSDV regression method, FDI positively affect export performance in the sample countries in various model specifications. The results and conclusions of this paper we hope that will help everybody who are interested and studying this matter, especially the policy makers.  The last ones have the obligation to facilitate and promote the export if they award confirm that FDI contribute on developing their economy.

  17. Does Technology Transfer Help Small and Medium Companies? Empirical Evidence from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Hwan Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We challenge the view that technology transfer from big companies to small and medium (SM size companies helps SM companies to prosper. With a large dataset of SM companies in Korea, we utilize the stochastic production frontier (SPF model to examine the productivity of inputs and the generalized linear model (GLM to compare business performance between two groups of SM companies: SM companies that receive technology transfer and those that do not receive technology transfer from big companies. The empirical results demonstrate that the transfer of technology from big companies to SM companies help SM companies to enjoy productivity of capital. Nonetheless, SM companies receiving technology transfer were found to underperform in terms of labor productivity and profit margin compared to their counterparts. We further investigate the reasons why SM companies receiving technology transfer from big companies underperform relative to their counterparts, and our findings shows that the former do not export much of their product and face more difficulties such as lower price for their products imposed by big companies than the latter. By identifying the negative rather than the conventionally assumed positive effect of technology transfer, this paper contributes to the literature on the relationship between technology transfer and SM companies’ prosperity in the case of Korea. Our findings have important implications for how SM companies should strategize and rethink about the clauses embedded in the transfer of technology that they receive from big companies because technology transfer plays as a barrier to their prosperity.

  18. Nexus between Government Expenditure on Education and Economic Growth: Empirical Evidences from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet CHANDRA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Education being an important component of human capital has always attracted the attention from economists, researchers and policy makers. Governments are trying to improve the human capital by pumping more investments in education. Education increases an individual’s earning potential, but also produces a ‘ripple effect” throughout the economy by way of series of positive externalities (Michaelowa, 2000. But the issue that whether improved level of education resulting from more education spending can promote economic growth has been a topic of debate. Some economists and researchers have supported the bi-directional relation between these two variables, while it has also been suggested that it is the economic growth that stimulates governments spend more on education, not the other way. Considering this research issue, the present paper uses linear and non-linear Granger Causality methods to investigate the relationship between education spending and economic growth in India for the period 1951-2009. In lines with findings of Kyrtsou and Labys (2006 Parmani (2009 and Pradhan (2009, the results of the present paper indicate that economic growth affects the level of government spending on education irrespective of any lag effects, but investments in education also tend to influence economic growth with time-lag. The results are particularly useful in theoretical and empirical research by economists, regulators and policy makers.

  19. Re-Thinking the Role of Compensation in Urban Land Acquisition: Empirical Evidence from South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Johnson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Planned efforts to relocate human populations often entail protracted struggles over the terms on which local populations may be compensated for the loss of land, assets and livelihoods. In many instances, compensation has been established on the basis of historical market value, which in effect excludes stakeholders (e.g., encroachers, landless laborers, sharecroppers, etc. whose livelihoods are adversely affected by land acquisition. Establishing ways of recognizing and compensating the loss of informal land and livelihood is therefore a pressing policy priority. This paper explores the challenge of compensating losses incurred as a result of rapid urban land acquisition in the Indian State of West Bengal. Drawing upon 6 months of empirical field research, it explores (1 the ways in which national and local development authorities have structured processes of land acquisition in areas surrounding Kolkata; (2 the rights and entitlements that have been used in compensating losses incurred as a result of land acquisition; (3 the degree to which local populations have been incorporated into this process; and (4 the extent to which public policy may be used in strengthening the rights of vulnerable populations to basic forms of entitlement, such as housing, employment, and social assistance.

  20. Impact of exchange rate depreciation on the balance of payments: Empirical evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Iyoboyi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the impact of exchange rate depreciation on the balance of payments (BOP in Nigeria over the period 1961–2012. The analysis is based on a multivariate vector error correction framework. A long-term equilibrium relationship was found between BOP, exchange rate and other associated variables. The empirical results are in favour of bidirectional causality between BOP and other variables employed. Results of the generalized impulse response functions suggest that one standard deviation innovation on exchange rate reduces positive BOP in the medium and long term, while results of the variance decomposition indicate that a significant variation in Nigeria’s BOP is not due to changes in exchange rate movements. The policy implication is that exchange rate depreciation which has been preponderant in Nigeria since the mid-1980s has not been very useful in promoting the country’s positive BOP. It is recommended that growth in the real sector should be improved to enhance exports, create employment, curb inflation and reduce poverty, while cutting non-productive imports, attracting foreign private investment and implementing well coordinated macroeconomic policies that impact inflation positively and stimulate exchange rate stability.

  1. Maastricht Criteria Targeting and Credit Growth: Empirical Evidences for the New EU Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan-Gabriel Moinescu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate the impact of credit growth on the Maastricht criteria targeting process in the new member states of the European Union. The methodological framework is based on a two-compenent transmission mechanism represented by the output gap and the nonperforming loans. The empirical analysis consists of a set of simplified econometric models, built by panel estimates using annual data from 2000 to 2011. Statistical results revealed the existence of a reaction of long term interest rates to the developments in sovereign risk premium, determined, in turn, by the impact of the mutual reinforcing between lending rate and output gap on the loan portfolio quality dynamics. Strengthening prudential conduct of monetary policy with a conservative macro-prudential policy is a critical need for increased resilience of nominal convergence to exogenous shocks, given that containing the volatility of economic activity depends in a decisive way, on succeding to maintain credit growth levels close to economic growth potential.

  2. A confirmatory factor analysis of the Resilience Scale adapted to chronic pain (RS-18): new empirical evidence of the protective role of resilience on pain adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Párraga, Gema T; López-Martínez, Alicia E; Esteve, Rosa; Ramírez-Maestre, Carmen; Wagnild, Gail

    2015-05-01

    Recent attention has focused on resilience as an important process in the experience and management of chronic pain. In this context, resilience is considered as a psychological factor that promotes adaptive responses to pain and pain-related life adversities. Current research suggests that it is a relevant variable in the prediction of pain adjustment among chronic pain patients. Recently, it was adapted the Resilience Scale to patients suffering chronic musculoskeletal pain (RS-18). The aims of this study were to confirm the internal structure of the RS-18 and to present new empirical evidence regarding its validity. A sample of 592 patients with chronic musculoskeletal back pain completed a battery of instruments to assess resilience, anxiety sensitivity, catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, hypervigilance, pain acceptance, and pain adjustment variables (pain intensity, emotional distress, functional impairment, and daily functioning). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the validity of the RS-18 and a single-factor solution. A series of moderated multiple regression analysis showed that resilience is a relevant psychological variable that not only independently predicts better pain adjustment, but also moderates the relationships between several psychological pain-related variables and pain adjustment variables. These findings give empirical support to the consideration of resilience as a protective variable in chronic pain adjustment and highlight the consideration that improving resilient behaviour could be an important target for the treatment of pain patients.

  3. Micronutrients and Leptospirosis: A Review of the Current Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Heather S.; Mehta, Saurabh; Cárdenas, Washington B.; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses and represents a major threat to human health. Due to the high burden of disease, limitations in diagnostics, and limited coverage and availability of effective human and veterinary vaccines, leptospirosis remains an important neglected zoonotic disease. Improved surveillance and identification of modifiable risk factors for leptospirosis are urgently needed to inform preventive interventions and reduce the risk and severity of Leptospira infection. Methodology/Principal Findings This review was conducted to examine the evidence that links micronutrient status and Leptospira infection. A total of 56 studies were included in this review: 28 in vitro, 17 animal, and 11 observational human studies. Findings indicated that Leptospira infection is associated with higher iron and calcium concentrations and hypomagnesemia. Conclusions/Significance Few prospective studies and no randomized trials have been conducted to date to examine the potential role of micronutrients in Leptospira infection. The limited literature in this area constrains our ability to make specific recommendations; however, the roles of iron, calcium, and magnesium in leptospirosis represent important areas for future research. The role of micronutrients in leptospirosis risk and severity needs to be elucidated in larger prospective human studies to inform public health interventions. PMID:27387046

  4. Target Therapies for Uterine Carcinosarcomas: Current Evidence and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Giovanni Vitale

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Carcinosarcomas (CS in gynecology are very infrequent and represent only 2–5% of uterine cancers. Despite surgical cytoreduction and subsequent chemotherapy being the primary treatment for uterine CS, the overall five-year survival rate is 30 ± 9% and recurrence is extremely common (50–80%. Due to the poor prognosis of CS, new strategies have been developed in the last few decades, targeting known dysfunctional molecular pathways for immunotherapy. In this paper, we aimed to gather the available evidence on the latest therapies for the treatment of CS. We performed a systematic review using the terms “uterine carcinosarcoma”, “uterine Malignant Mixed Müllerian Tumors”, “target therapies”, “angiogenesis therapy”, “cancer stem cell therapy”, “prognostic biomarker”, and “novel antibody-drug”. Based on our results, the differential expression and accessibility of epithelial cell adhesion molecule-1 on metastatic/chemotherapy-resistant CS cells in comparison to normal tissues and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2 open up new possibilities in the field of target therapy. Nevertheless, future investigations are needed to clarify the impact of these new therapies on survival rate and medium-/long-term outcomes.

  5. HDL and glucose metabolism: current evidence and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebel, Andrew L; Heywood, Sarah Elizabeth; Kingwell, Bronwyn A

    2015-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) and its principal apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) have now been convincingly shown to influence glucose metabolism through multiple mechanisms. The key clinically relevant observations are that both acute HDL elevation via short-term reconstituted HDL (rHDL) infusion and chronically raising HDL via a cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor reduce blood glucose in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). HDL may mediate effects on glucose metabolism through actions in multiple organs (e.g., pancreas, skeletal muscle, heart, adipose, liver, brain) by three distinct mechanisms: (i) Insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells, (ii) Insulin-independent glucose uptake, (iii) Insulin sensitivity. The molecular mechanisms appear to involve both direct HDL signaling actions as well as effects secondary to lipid removal from cells. The implications of glucoregulatory mechanisms linked to HDL extend from glycemic control to potential anti-ischemic actions via increased tissue glucose uptake and utilization. Such effects not only have implications for the prevention and management of diabetes, but also for ischemic vascular diseases including angina pectoris, intermittent claudication, cerebral ischemia and even some forms of dementia. This review will discuss the growing evidence for a role of HDL in glucose metabolism and outline related potential for HDL therapies.

  6. Anesthesia and cancer recurrences: The current knowledge and evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical removal of solid tumors is of utmost importance as total resection can be curative. The surgical insult however itself may result in tumor micrometastasis coupled with depression of cell-mediated immunity culminating in tumor recurrence. Recent research suggests that few anesthetic agents or procedures can influence pathophysiology of metastasis in the postoperative period. Whereas opioids and volatile anesthetics have been implicated in angiogenesis and immunosuppression, evidences accumulated over the recent years have undoubtedly highlighted the attenuation of immunosuppression by regional anesthetic agents thereby making it superior over general anesthesia in preventing cancer recurrence. As anesthetic drugs are given at that time when patient is at the maximum risk of spread of metastasis, thus an understanding of the effect of anesthesia drugs and their impact on tumor metastasis is important so that appropriate anesthetic strategy can be made to improve long term survival in these patients. The purpose of the present review is therefore to emphasize the pivotal role of various anesthetic agents and anesthesia techniques in preventing tumor recurrence after surgery.

  7. Botulinum toxins: Pharmacology and its current therapeutic evidence for use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthane U

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum toxins are, as a group, among the most potent neuromuscular toxins known, yet they are clinically useful in the management of conditions associated with muscular and glandular over-activity. Botulinum toxins act by preventing release of acetylcholine into the neuromuscular junction. While botulinum toxin type A is commonly available, different manufacturers produce specific products, which are not directly interchangeable and should not be considered as generically equivalent formulations. Type B is also available in the market. Each formulation of botulinum toxin is unique with distinct dosing, efficacy and safety profiles for each use to which it is applied. Botulinum toxin type A is the treatment of choice based on its depth of evidence in dystonias and most other conditions. Botulinum toxin type A is established as useful in the management of spasticity, tremors, headache prophylaxis and several other neurological conditions. Active research is underway to determine the parameters for which the type B toxin can be used in these conditions, as covered in this review. Botulinum toxin use has spread to several fields of medicine.

  8. Dietary copper and human health: Current evidence and unresolved issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bost, Muriel; Houdart, Sabine; Oberli, Marion; Kalonji, Esther; Huneau, Jean-François; Margaritis, Irène

    2016-05-01

    Although copper (Cu) is recognized as an essential trace element, uncertainties remain regarding Cu reference values for humans, as illustrated by discrepancies between recommendations issued by different national authorities. This review examines human studies published since 1990 on relationships between Cu intake, Cu balance, biomarkers of Cu status, and health. It points out several gaps and unresolved issues which make it difficult to assess Cu requirements. Results from balance studies suggest that daily intakes below 0.8 mg/day lead to net Cu losses, while net gains are consistently observed above 2.4 mg/day. However, because of an incomplete collection of losses in all studies, a precise estimation of Cu requirements cannot be derived from available data. Data regarding the relationship between Cu intake and potential biomarkers are either too preliminary or inconclusive because of low specificity or low sensitivity to change in dietary Cu over a wide range of intakes. Results from observation and intervention studies do not support a link between Cu and a risk of cardiovascular disease, cognitive decline, arthritis or cancer for intakes ranging from 0.6 to 3mg/day, and limited evidence exists for impaired immune function in healthy subjects with a very low (0.38 mg/day) Cu intake. However, data from observation studies should be regarded with caution because of uncertainties regarding Cu concentration in various foods and water. Further studies that accurately evaluate Cu exposure based on reliable biomarkers of Cu status are needed.

  9. Finding current evidence: search strategies and common databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Lesley Diane; Gillespie, William John

    2003-08-01

    With more than 100 orthopaedic, sports medicine, or hand surgery journals indexed in MEDLINE, it is no longer possible to keep abreast of developments in orthopaedic surgery by reading a few journals each month. Electronic resources are easier to search and more current than most print sources. We provide a practical approach to finding useful information to guide orthopaedic practice. We focus first on where to find the information by providing details about many useful databases and web links. Sources for identifying guidelines, systematic reviews, and randomized controlled trials are identified. The second section discusses how to find the information, from the first stage of formulating a question and identifying the concepts of interest, through to writing a simple strategy. Sources for additional self-directed learning are provided.

  10. Immunotherapy in prostate cancer: review of the current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-García, E M; Vera-Badillo, F E; Perez-Valderrama, B; Matos-Pita, A S; Duran, I

    2015-05-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common male malignancy in the Western world. Once it metastasizes, it is incurable. The current gold standard for metastatic disease is the combined docetaxel/prednisone regimen. Prostate cancer shows several characteristics that make it a suitable candidate for immunotherapy, as recently exemplified by the approval of sipuleucel-T, the first vaccine to treat any malignancy. Here, we review different tumor-associated antigen immunotherapy strategies currently being investigated, from a humanized radiolabeled monoclonal antibody (J-591) that targets radiation into tumor cells, moving on to vaccines and through to immunomodulator agents such as anti-CPLA-4 and anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies that activate T-cell responses via immune checkpoint inhibition. We explore different opinions on the best approach to integrate immunotherapy into existing standard therapies, such as androgen-deprivation therapy, radiotherapy or chemotherapy, and review different combination sequences, patient types and time points during the course of the disease to achieve a lasting immune response. We present data from recent phase III clinical trials that call for a change in trial endpoint design with immunotherapy agents, from the traditional tumor progression to overall survival and how such trials should include immune response measurements as secondary or intermediate endpoints to help identify patient clinical benefit in the earlier phases of treatment. Finally, we join in the recent questioning on the validity of RECIST criteria to measure response to immunotherapeutic agents, as initial increases in the size of tumors/lymph nodes, which are part of a normal immune response, could be categorized as disease progression under RECIST.

  11. Agricultural commercialization and nutrition revisited: Empirical evidence from three African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carletto, Calogero; Corral, Paul; Guelfi, Anita

    2017-02-01

    The transition from subsistence to commercial agriculture is key for economic growth. But what are the consequences for nutritional outcomes? The evidence to date has been scant and inconclusive. This study contributes to the debate by revisiting two prevailing wisdoms: (a) market participation by African smallholders remains low; and (b) the impact of commercialization on nutritional outcomes is generally positive. Using nationally representative data from three African countries, the analysis reveals high levels of commercialization by even the poorest and smallest landholders, with rates of market participation as high as 90%. Female farmers participate less, but tend to sell larger shares of their production, conditional on participation. Second, we find little evidence of a positive relationship between commercialization and nutritional status. As countries and international agencies prioritize the importance of nutrition-sensitive agriculture, better understanding of the transmission channels between crop choices and nutritional outcomes should remain a research priority.

  12. Causality between Foreign Direct Investment and Tourism : Empirical Evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    Saroja Selvanathan; Selvanathan, E.A.; Brinda Viswanathan

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the causal link between foreign direct investment and tourism in India by employing the Granger causality test under a VAR framework. A one-way causality link is found from foreign direct investment to tourism in India. This evidence once again adds to the need for appropriate policies and plans to further expand and develop tourism given that FDI flow into India is expected to be strong in the coming years, bringing along a demand for tourism as well.

  13. A Social Psychological Approach to Sexual Orientation: Theory and Empirical Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Preciado, Mariana Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Sexual orientation has two key aspects: actual sexual experiences (e.g., attraction, fantasy, and behavior) and beliefs about those sexual experiences (self-perceived sexual orientation). It is self-perceived sexual orientation that is most often measured and used to understand the mental, physical, and behavioral correlates of sexual orientation. While evidence suggests that features of the social context (e.g., social norms) are related to self-perceived sexual orientation, to date there is...

  14. CEO origin, CEO tenure, and earnings quality: empirical evidence from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurmayanti M Poppy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether CEO origin and tenure affect earnings quality. Using firms listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange between 2012 and 2014, we provide evidence that firms with insider CEOs report earnings of higher quality relative to those with outsider CEOs. We further show that as CEO tenure increases and CEOs obtain more experience, the effect of CEO origin on earnings quality becomes less significant.

  15. An empirical analysis of UK imports: Is there evidence of hysteresis?

    OpenAIRE

    Penkova, Emilia

    2005-01-01

    The paper re-examines the validity of the hysteresis hypothesis by applying it to the UK import volume from the world's five largest economies: Germany, France, Italy, Japan and the USA, over the period 1975 to 1994. Disaggregated bilateral data (4-digit ISIC) are used and hysteresis is captured by dummy variable which is an extension of work by Parsley and Wei (1993). Panel estimation is undertaken and the Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) technique is employed. There is evidence that hys...

  16. Evidence-based architectural and space design supports Magnet® empirical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecoff, Laurie; Brown, Caroline E

    2010-12-01

    This department expands nursing leaders' knowledge and competencies in health facility design. The editor of this department, Dr Jaynelle Stichler, asked guest authors, Drs Ecoff and Brown, to describe the process of using the conceptual models of a nursing evidence-based practice model and the Magnet Recognition Program® as a structured process to lead decision making in the planning and design processes and to achieve desired outcomes in hospital design.

  17. The effects of evidence bounds on decision-making: theoretical and empirical developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxiang

    2012-01-01

    Converging findings from behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging studies suggest an integration-to-boundary mechanism governing decision formation and choice selection. This mechanism is supported by sequential sampling models of choice decisions, which can implement statistically optimal decision strategies for selecting between multiple alternative options on the basis of sensory evidence. This review focuses on recent developments in understanding the evidence boundary, an important component of decision-making raised by experimental findings and models. The article starts by reviewing the neurobiology of perceptual decisions and several influential sequential sampling models, in particular the drift-diffusion model, the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model and the leaky-competing-accumulator model. In the second part, the article examines how the boundary may affect a model's dynamics and performance and to what extent it may improve a model's fits to experimental data. In the third part, the article examines recent findings that support the presence and site of boundaries in the brain. The article considers two questions: (1) whether the boundary is a spontaneous property of neural integrators, or is controlled by dedicated neural circuits; (2) if the boundary is variable, what could be the driving factors behind boundary changes? The review brings together studies using different experimental methods in seeking answers to these questions, highlights psychological and physiological factors that may be associated with the boundary and its changes, and further considers the evidence boundary as a generic mechanism to guide complex behavior.

  18. The effects of evidence bounds on decision-making: theoretical and empirical developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxiang eZhang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Converging findings from behavioral, neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies suggest an integration-to-boundary mechanism governing decision formation and choice selection. This mechanism is supported by sequential sampling models of choice decisions, which can implement statistically optimal decision strategies for selecting between multiple alternative options on the basis of sensory evidence. This review focuses on recent developments in understanding the evidence boundary, an important component of decision-making raised by experimental findings and models. The article starts by reviewing the neurobiology of perceptual decisions and several influential sequential sampling models, in particular the drift-diffusion model, the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model and the leaky-competing-accumulator model. In the second part, the article examines how the boundary may affect a model’s dynamics and performance and to what extent it may improve a model’s fits to experimental data. In the third part, the article examines recent findings that support the presence and site of boundaries in the brain. The article considers two questions: 1 whether the boundary is a spontaneous property of neural integrators, or is controlled by dedicated neural circuits; 2 if the boundary is variable, what could be the driving factors behind boundary changes? The review brings together studies using different experimental methods in seeking answers to these questions, highlights psychological and physiological factors that may be associated with the boundary and its changes, and further considers the evidence boundary as a generic mechanism to guide complex behavior.

  19. Virtuous States and Virtuous Traits: How the Empirical Evidence Regarding the Existence of Broad Traits Saves Virtue Ethics from the Situationist Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawickreme, Eranda; Meindl, Peter; Helzer, Erik G.; Furr, R. Michael; Fleeson, William

    2014-01-01

    A major objection to the study of virtue asserts that the empirical psychological evidence implies traits have little meaningful impact on behavior, as slight changes in situational characteristics appear to lead to large changes in virtuous behavior. We argue in response that the critical evidence is not these effects of situations observed in…

  20. Program experience with micronutrient powders and current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, Jee Hyun; dePee, Saskia; Kraemer, Klaus; Steiger, Georg; Bloem, Martin W; Spiegel, Paul; Wilkinson, Caroline; Bilukha, Oleg

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of micronutrient powders (MNP) in the treatment of anemia in moderately anemic children aged 6-24 mo has been clearly demonstrated. The evidence of the effectiveness of MNP in large-scale programs, however, is scarce. This article describes the program experience and findings of large-scale MNP distribution in refugee camps and in an emergency context in Bangladesh, Nepal, and Kenya. The MNP contained 15-16 micronutrients as per the WHO/World Food Programme/UNICEF joint statement, whereas the iron content was reduced to 2.5 mg from NaFeEDTA in a malaria-endemic area in Kenya. Hundreds of thousands of children aged 6-59 mo and pregnant and lactating women were targeted to consume MNP either daily or every other day over an extended period of time. Extensive social marketing campaigns were undertaken to promote regular use of the product. A number of studies were embedded in the programs to assess the impact of MNP on the nutritional status of target beneficiaries. Some improvements in anemia prevalence estimates were observed in particular subgroups, but other results did not show significant improvements. A significant decrease in the prevalence of stunting was observed in Nepal and Kenya but not in Bangladesh. Diarrhea episodes decreased significantly among children receiving MNP in Nepal. A key challenge is to ensure high MNP acceptance and adherence among beneficiaries. Investigation of non-nutritional causes of anemia is warranted in settings with high compliance but no improvement in hemoglobin status. Further investigation into the most appropriate manner to use MNP in malaria endemic settings is warranted.

  1. Empirical Evidence of Fiscal Policy Impact on Endogenous Models of Economic Growth - the Case of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olta Milova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available According to Mankiw (2000, fiscal policy in major macroeconomic models adversely affects the behavior of private agents as consumers and firms and they affect economic growth through investment and savings decisions. Increasing government spending will increase the aggregate demand for goods and services and money demand in the money market leading to an increase of interest rates while markets tend towards equilibrium. The increased interest rates affect negatively the level of private investment. To assess the effect of fiscal policy on economic growth generally are used the endogenous growth models, which include technological progress as an integrated part of this model. These models were called endogenous because they were taking into account long-term economic growth and were using endogenous mechanisms to explain its main source which is the technological progress. Endogenous growth models developed by Barro (1990, Mendosa, Milesi-Ferreti and Asea (1997 or even by other economists, predict that the fiscal policy can affect the level of product and the long run economic growth. This conclusion is analysed in the theory of Barro (1990, which extends the model by including the fiscal policy. The Barro’s model is the model used in this paper to analyse the effect of the fiscal policy on economic growth in the case of Albania. The empirical work shows that all the variables, except inflation which according to theoretical expectations should have a negative effect, affect positively the economic growth. This positive relation between these variables can be explained by investments in infrastructure and other priority sectors that the government has done during all this period.

  2. Interpreting the dynamic nexus between energy consumption and economic growth: Empirical evidence from Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yuejun, E-mail: zyjmis@126.co [School of Management and Economics, Beijing Institute of Technology (BIT), 5 South Zhongguancun Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China) and Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Research on the nexus between energy consumption and economic growth is a fundamental topic for energy policy making and low-carbon economic development. Russia proves the third largest energy consumption country in the world in recent years, while little research has shed light upon its energy consumption issue till now, especially its energy-growth nexus. Therefore, this paper empirically investigates the dynamic nexus of the two variables in Russia based on the state space model. The results indicate that, first of all, Russia's energy consumption is cointegrated with its economic growth in a time-varying way though they do not have static or average cointegration relationship. Hence it is unsuitable to merely portrait the nexus in an average manner. Second, ever since the year of 2000, Russia's energy efficiency has achieved much more promotion compared with that in previous decades, mainly due to the industrial structure adjustment and technology progress. Third, among BRIC countries, the consistency of Russia's energy consumption and economic growth appears the worst, which suggests the complexity of energy-growth nexus in Russia. Finally, there exists bi-directional causality between Russia's energy consumption and economic growth, though their quantitative proportional relation does not have solid foundation according to the cointegration theory. - Research highlights: {yields}This study investigates the dynamic nexus of energy consumption and economic growth in Russia. {yields} Russia's energy consumption is cointegrated with its economic growth in a time-varying way though they do not have static or average cointegration relationship. {yields} Ever since 2000, Russia's energy efficiency has achieved much more promotion compared with that in previous decades. {yields} Among BRIC countries, the consistency of Russia's energy consumption and economic growth appears the worst. {yields} There exists bi-directional causality

  3. City Green Economy Evaluation: Empirical Evidence from 15 Sub-Provincial Cities in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baofeng Shi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available City green economy plays an important role in the development of low-carbon economy and the achievement of sustainable development of economy, society and ecological environment. From the perspective of economy, society, environment and resources, the evaluation of the green economy in urban areas tends to offer us a new insight into the green economy of cities. This paper is about the creation of a novel urban green economy evaluation model and its application. First of all, we established a city green economy evaluation index system based on R cluster analysis and coefficient of variation. Secondly, based on the nonlinear weighted utilizing entropy weight method, a city green economy evaluation model is established based on inferior constraints. Thirdly, by comparing the differences between evaluation rankings under inferior constraints and non-inferior constraints, the advantageous factors and the disadvantageous ones in urban green economy development are obtained. The proposed model has been verified with the data on 15 sub-provincial cities in China. Empirical analysis results show that: (1 The proposed approach can accurately find out the advantageous and disadvantageous factors for each sub-provincial city; (2 In the evaluation of green economy development, the order of importance of the three criterion layers is X1 Economy development > X2 Social livelihood of the people > X3 Resources and environment; (3 Local governments should implement differential, reasonable policies in order to improve their green economy development. Moreover, our research is not only significant for developing green economy in China’s sub-provincial cities, but also serves as a reference for the development of green economy in other cities in the world.

  4. Web 2.0 for health promotion: reviewing the current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wen-ying Sylvia; Prestin, Abby; Lyons, Claire; Wen, Kuang-yi

    2013-01-01

    As Web 2.0 and social media make the communication landscape increasingly participatory, empirical evidence is needed regarding their impact on and utility for health promotion. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, we searched 4 medical and social science databases for literature (2004-present) on the intersection of Web 2.0 and health. A total of 514 unique publications matched our criteria. We classified references as commentaries and reviews (n = 267), descriptive studies (n = 213), and pilot intervention studies (n = 34). The scarcity of empirical evidence points to the need for more interventions with participatory and user-generated features. Innovative study designs and measurement methods are needed to understand the communication landscape and to critically assess intervention effectiveness. To address health disparities, interventions must consider accessibility for vulnerable populations.

  5. Bariatric emergencies: current evidence and strategies of management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The demand for bariatric surgery is increasing and the postoperative complications are seen more frequently. The aim of this paper is to review the current outcomes of bariatric surgery emergencies and to formulate a pathway of safe management. Methods The PubMed and Google search for English literatures relevant to emergencies of bariatric surgery was made, 6358 articles were found and 90 papers were selected based on relevance, power of the study, recent papers and laparoscopic workload. The pooled data was collected from these articles that were addressing the complications and emergency treatment of bariatric patients. 830,998 patients were included in this review. Results Bariatric emergencies were increasingly seen in the Accident and Emergency departments, the serious outcomes were reported following complex operations like gastric bypass but also after gastric band and the causes were technical errors, suboptimal evaluation, failure of effective communication with bariatric teams who performed the initial operation, patients factors, and delay in the presentation. The mortality ranged from 0.14%-2.2% and increased for revisional surgery to 6.5% (p = 0.002). Inspite of this, mortality following bariatric surgery is still less than that of control group of obese patients (p = value 0.01). Conclusions Most mortality and catastrophic outcomes following bariatric surgery are preventable. The awareness of bariatric emergencies and its effective management are the gold standards for best outcomes. An algorithm is suggested and needs further evaluation. PMID:24373182

  6. Performance management and cost effectiveness of public services : empirical evidence from Dutch municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de H.; Hulst, van B.L.

    2011-01-01

    The performance of public organizations is one of the key topics in public administration research. Cost-effectiveness as a dimension of performance has hardly been studied in this literature, however. Many governments currently are cutting budgets on an unprecedented scale after the world-wide fina

  7. Soccer and stock market risk: empirical evidence from the Istanbul Stock Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berument, M Hakan; Ceylan, Nildag Basak

    2013-06-01

    There is an emerging but important literature on the effects of sport events such as soccer on stock market returns. After a soccer team's win, agents discount future events more favorably and increase risk tolerance. Similarly, after a loss, risk tolerance decreases. This paper directly assesses risk tolerance after a sports event by using daily data from the three major soccer teams in Turkey (Beşiktaşç Fenerbahge and Galatasaray). Results provide evidence that risk tolerance increases after a win, but similar patterns were not found after a loss.

  8. Sex based subgroup differences in randomized controlled trials: empirical evidence from Cochrane meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Joshua D; Sullivan, Patrick G; Trepanowski, John F; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Ioannidis, John P A

    2016-11-24

     To evaluate the frequency, validity, and relevance of statistically significant (PUpToDate, an online physician-authored clinical decision support resource, suggested differential management of men and women for one of these sex-treatment interactions.  Statistically significant sex-treatment interactions are only slightly more frequent than what would be expected by chance and there is little evidence of subsequent corroboration or clinical relevance of sex-treatment interactions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. When health policy and empirical evidence collide: the case of cigarette package warning labels and economic consumer surplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Anna V; Brown, Paul; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-02-01

    In its graphic warning label regulations on cigarette packages, the Food and Drug Administration severely discounts the benefits of reduced smoking because of the lost "pleasure" smokers experience when they stop smoking; this is quantified as lost "consumer surplus." Consumer surplus is grounded in rational choice theory. However, empirical evidence from psychological cognitive science and behavioral economics demonstrates that the assumptions of rational choice are inconsistent with complex multidimensional decisions, particularly smoking. Rational choice does not account for the roles of emotions, misperceptions, optimistic bias, regret, and cognitive inefficiency that are germane to smoking, particularly because most smokers begin smoking in their youth. Continued application of a consumer surplus discount will undermine sensible policies to reduce tobacco use and other policies to promote public health.

  10. Do confessions taint perceptions of handwriting evidence? An empirical test of the forensic confirmation bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukucka, Jeff; Kassin, Saul M

    2014-06-01

    Citing classic psychological research and a smattering of recent studies, Kassin, Dror, and Kukucka (2013) proposed the operation of a forensic confirmation bias, whereby preexisting expectations guide the evaluation of forensic evidence in a self-verifying manner. In a series of studies, we tested the hypothesis that knowing that a defendant had confessed would taint people's evaluations of handwriting evidence relative to those not so informed. In Study 1, participants who read a case summary in which the defendant had previously confessed were more likely to erroneously conclude that handwriting samples from the defendant and perpetrator were authored by the same person, and were more likely to judge the defendant guilty, compared with those in a no-confession control group. Study 2 replicated and extended these findings using a within-subjects design in which participants rated the same samples both before and after reading a case summary. These findings underscore recent critiques of the forensic sciences as subject to bias, and suggest the value of insulating forensic examiners from contextual information.

  11. Phenomenological study of decline of personal health records: Empirical evidence from thematic analyses of blogs’ content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Chinta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the current state of personal health records (PHRs in electronic health care. Surveys report that the PHR usage is generally increasing, and yet, even an influential organization such as the Google decided to end its “Google Health” venture. If the potential for use and future growth is high, why are there so many obstacles to the adoption of PHRs? We analyze comments to articles and blogs related to PHRs in order to identify the current status, barriers to adoption, and future potential of PHRs. This study identifies issues of PHRs clustering mainly around certain key ideas: trust, communication, markets, standards, usability, politics, usefulness, and data ownership. It appears that disparity among the multiple stakeholders as to the expected benefits is the main barrier to its adoption.

  12. Integrating ergonomics into engineering: Empirical evidence and implications for the ergononomist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    2007-01-01

    importance than the professional training. The implications for industrial ergonomists might be an acknowledgement of the role as change agent when trying to integrate ergonomics into engineering. In do-ing so, they need also to acknowledge that engineers are widely different. They have different background...... and ‘sensitivity’ to ergonomics depending on their cur-rent engineering domain, tasks, organizational position and the industrial branch of their organization....

  13. AN EMPIRICAL EXAMINATION OF QUALITY TOOLS IMPACT ON FINANCIAL PERFORMANCES: EVIDENCE FROM SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Spasojević Brkić

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of quality tools on financial performances using a sample of 119Serbian industrial firms. Factor and reliability analysis are used to show that quality tools may beclassified into three primary categories: quality tools for reviewing current conditions (for decisionmaking, quality tools for analyzing current conditions (for problems solving and quality tools forproduction planning and control (for improvement. The relationships between these 3 groups ofquality tools and financial performances were tested using the stepwise regression analysis. It wasconcluded that the first group of quality tools (quality tools for reviewing current condition, e.g. fordecision making has significant impact on most of the dimensions of financial performances, whilefor the second and third group there is no statistical support. Influence of the first group of qualitytools on sales revenue is statistically significant at a p<0.01 significance level while it`s influence oncompany profit and total revenue per employee are statistically significant at p<0.05 significancelevel. The model ranged from 4% to 7%.

  14. Empirical Evidence for Self-Organized Patterns in California Wildfire Sizes: Implications for Landscape Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povak, N. A.; Hessburg, P. F.

    2009-05-01

    Wildfires are an important disturbance in many western US ecosystems and are integral in shaping spatial and temporal vegetation patterns. Ecological resilience has been described as the amount of disturbance that an ecosystem could withstand without changing self-organized processes and structures. Inherent in resilient systems are observable self-organized patterns in vegetation and processes on the landscape. It is theorized that self-organized systems are capable of withstanding a large range of disturbance sizes and intensities without significantly changing the resultant distribution of vegetation patch sizes over time. Past research has used power-law statistics to describe self-organization in wildfire behavior, and we extend this research using several different methods to identify evidence for landscape resilience over a large geographic area. We used a catalogue of California wildfires (>1ha; 1950-2007) grouped at multiple levels within Bailey's hierarchy of ecoregions to (1) identify self-organized patterns in wildfire size distributions across the state, (2) identify lower and upper limits on self-organized behavior, and (3) find links between these patterns and top-down and bottom-up processes. Within most ecoregions we found reliable evidence for self-organized behavior in wildfire size distributions. Evidence included good fits of: (1) 2-3 parameter statistical distributions within the Pareto and Generalized Beta II (P/GB2) family of distributions over the entire range of fire event sizes; these distributions all have in common a power-law tail, (2) the Pareto I (power-law) distribution to the right-tail of the fire-size distributions, and (3) broken-stick regression models to the inverse cumulative distribution functions for fire sizes. For most ecoregions, self-organized properties were generally limited to fires within 100 to 10000 ha, indicating that meso-scale processes controlling fire sizes likely are acting at this scale. Scaling parameters

  15. Empirically Driven Software Engineering Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombach, Dieter

    Software engineering is a design discipline. As such, its engineering methods are based on cognitive instead of physical laws, and their effectiveness depends highly on context. Empirical methods can be used to observe the effects of software engineering methods in vivo and in vitro, to identify improvement potentials, and to validate new research results. This paper summarizes both the current body of knowledge and further challenges wrt. empirical methods in software engineering as well as empirically derived evidence regarding software typical engineering methods. Finally, future challenges wrt. education, research, and technology transfer will be outlined.

  16. Empirical Evidence on the Link Between Compliance with Governance of Best Practice and Firms' Operating Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tek B. Lama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study provides robust evidence in support of the agency theory argument that corporate governancematters for a firm’s operating performance. Using the corporate governance ratings as the governance proxyfrom Horwath 2006 Corporate Governance Report (mid-sized Australian ASX companies andMid-CapCorporate Governance Report 2007 (The University of Newcastle 2006; 2007, I examine 60 sample firms toreveal that a firm’s governance is positively and significantly related to firm performance as measured by returnon equity, earning yield and return on assets. This study extends the findings of these two reports which founda disturbing trend in the corporate governance practice of Australian mid-cap companies – both a decrease incompanies with excellent corporate governance, and an increase in companies with significant corporategovernance deficiencies. The findings of this study suggest that those mid-size companies who have allowedcorporate governance to deteriorate have adversely affected their shareholder returns.

  17. Investigating the Simultaneity of Corporate Hedging and Debt Policies: Empirical Evidence from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Sofian Suriawinata

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this paper is to investigate the simultaneity of corporate hedging and debt policies. Using a pooled sample of Indonesian non-financial listed firms covering the periods of 1996-2001, the present study finds evidence that corporate hedging and debt policies are simultaneously determined. That is, the use of debts motivate firms to hedge; but simultaneously, hedging increases debt capacity and induces firms to borrow more in order to take advantage of the tax benefits arising from additional debt capacity. Another important finding is that financially distressed firms –as indicated by their debt restructuring programs– are less motivated to hedge, because such firms will see that the option values of their equity will increase as their cash-flow volatilities increase. Therefore, financially distressed firms tend not to hedge; or at least, hedge lesser compared to those of firms that do not experience financial distress.

  18. The convergence of health care financing structures: empirical evidence from OECD-countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Andrea M; Theurl, Engelbert

    2012-02-01

    The convergence/divergence of health care systems between countries is an interesting facet of the health care system research from a macroeconomic perspective. In this paper, we concentrate on an important dimension of every health care system, namely the convergence/divergence of health care financing (HCF). Based on data from 22 OECD countries in the time period 1970-2005, we use the public financing ratio (public financing in % of total HCF) and per capita public HCF as indicators for convergence. By applying different concepts of convergence, we find that HCF is converging. This conclusion also holds when we look at smaller subgroups of countries and shorter time periods. However, we find evidence that countries do not move towards a common mean and that the rate of convergence is decreasing over time.

  19. HERDING BEHAVIOR UNDER MARKETS CONDITION: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE ON THE EUROPEAN FINANCIAL MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moatemri Ouarda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents four main contributions to the literature of behavior herding. Firstly, it extends the behavioral researches of herding of the investors on a developed market and mainly on a European market as a whole. Secondly, we are interested in examination of herding behavior at the level of sectors by using data at the levels of companies. Thirdly, this document estimates the implications of herding behavior in terms of returns, volatility and volume of transaction. Fourthly, the herding behavior is revealed as well during the period of the recent global financial crisis in 2007-2008 and of Asian crisis. Our results reveal a strong evidence of herding behavior sharply contributed to a bearish situation characterized by a strong volatility and a trading volume. The repercussion of herding during the period of the recent financial crisis is clearly revealed for the sectors of the finance and the technology.

  20. Empirical Evidence of Entrepreneurial Competencies and Firm Performance: A Study of Women Entrepreneurs of Nigeria

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    Mohammed Kabir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of current study is to investigate the effects of entrepreneurial competencies on firm performance of businesses owned by Nigerian women entrepreneurs. The 200 respondents of this study are women entrepreneurs operating micro-business units in Kaduna state, Nigeria. Survey questions was used to collect data. The study utilises SPSS and SmartPLS 2.0 to analyse the data. The findings indicated that strategic, opportunity and organizing competencies significantly affect the firm performance of women entrepreneurs in Nigeria.

  1. Willingness to pay for excreta pellet fertilizer: Empirical evidence from Ghana

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    JOHN K. M. Kuwornu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined farmers’ willingness to pay for excreta pellet fertilizer in Ghana. Primary data was obtained from 461 farmers in 10 districts in the Western and Greater Accra regions of Ghana through randomized questionnaire administration. The contingent valuation method was used in eliciting the farmers’ willingness to pay decisions (WTP and maximum amount they are willing to pay. The Tobit regression model results revealed that being a household head, unit cost of current fertilizer used, and farm size positively influenced the willingness to pay amount whereas previous use of organic fertilizer influenced the willingness to pay amount negatively.

  2. Is economic growth sufficient for poverty alleviation? Empirical evidence from Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Dullah Mulok; Mori Kogid; Rozilee Asid; Jaratin Lily

    2012-01-01

    Malaysia’s success story has been highlighted by the remarkable social transformation and poverty reduction accompanying rapid economic growth. Some three decades ago, more than half of the population was poor, the number of illiterates was high, and the average person could only hope to live until the age of 48. The proportion of poor people is currently down to 5.6 percent, 90 percent of adults are literate, and life expectancy is up to 68 years. Although Malaysia’s population has increased...

  3. Valuing Climate Change Impacts on Human Health: Empirical Evidence from the Literature

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    Anil Markandya

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a broad consensus that climate change will increase the costs arising from diseases such as malaria and diarrhea and, furthermore, that the largest increases will be in developing countries. One of the problems is the lack of studies measuring these costs systematically and in detail. This paper critically reviews a number of studies about the costs of planned adaptation in the health context, and compares current health expenditures with MDGs which are felt to be inadequate when considering climate change impacts. The analysis serves also as a critical investigation of the methodologies used and aims at identifying research weaknesses and gaps.

  4. Effects of Selected Corporate Governance Characteristics on Firm Performance: Empirical Evidence from Kenya

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    Vincent Okoth Ongore

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the interrelations among ownership, board and manager characteristics and firm performance in a sample of 54 firms listed at the Nairobi Stock Exchange (NSE. These governance characteristics, designed to minimize agency problems between principals and agents are operationalized in terms of ownership concentration, ownership identity, board effectiveness and managerial discretion. The typical ownership identities at the NSE are government, foreign, institutional, manager and diverse ownership forms. Firm performance is measured using Return on Assets (ROA, Return on Equity (ROE and Dividend Yield (DY. Using PPMC, Logistic Regression and Stepwise Regression, the paper presents evidence of significant positive relationship between foreign, insider, institutional and diverse ownership forms, and firm performance. However, the relationship between ownership concentration and government, and firm performance was significantly negative. The role of boards was found to be of very little value, mainly due to lack of adherence to board member selection criteria. The results also show significant positive relationship between managerial discretion and performance. Collectively, these results are consistent with pertinent literature with regard to the implications of government, foreign, manager (insider and institutional ownership forms, but significantly differ concerning the effects of ownership concentration and diverse ownership on firm performance.

  5. Liquidity and the business cycle: Empirical evidence from the Greek banking sector

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    Vogiazas Sophocles

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the global financial turmoil the negative market sentiment and the challenging macroeconomic environment in Greece have severely affected the banking sector, which faces funding and liquidity challenges, deteriorating asset quality, and weakening profitability. This paper aims to investigate how banks’ liquidity interacted with solvency and the business cycle during the period 2004-2010. To this end a panel of 17 Greek banks is utilized which, in conjunction with cointegrating techniques and one-way static and dynamic panel models, explores the presence and the strength of the relationship between banks’ liquidity and the business cycle, while allowing for the role of banks’ solvency. Addressing the liquidity risk of the Greek banking sector and the liquidity-solvency nexus remains largely an uncharted area. The results generated provide clear-cut evidence on the linkages between banks’ market liquidity and the business cycle, as reflected in the real GDP and the effective exchange rate. Yet the results display a transmission channel that runs from banks’ solvency to liquidity and from country risk to bank risk.

  6. Testing Capital Asset Pricing Model: Empirical Evidences from Indian Equity Market

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    Kapil CHOUDHARY

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM for the Indian stock market using monthly stock returns from 278 companies of BSE 500 Index listed on the Bombay stock exchange for the period of January 1996 to December 2009. The findings of this study are not substantiating the theory’s basic result that higher risk (beta is associated with higher levels of return. The model does explain, however, excess returns and thus lends support to the linear structure of the CAPM equation. The theory’s prediction for the intercept is that it should equal zero and the slope should equal the excess returns on the market portfolio. The results of the study lead to negate the above hypotheses and offer evidence against the CAPM. The tests conducted to examine the nonlinearity of the relationship between return and betas bolster the hypothesis that the expected return-beta relationship is linear. Additionally, this study investigates whether the CAPM adequately captures all-important determinants of returns including the residual variance of stocks. The results exhibit that residual risk has no effect on the expected returns of portfolios.

  7. Moral hazard and supplier-induced demand: empirical evidence in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Christel E; van den Berg, Bernard; Verheij, Robert A; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Groenewegen, Peter P; de Bakker, Dinny H

    2013-03-01

    Changes in cost sharing and remuneration system in the Netherlands in 2006 led to clear changes in financial incentives faced by both consumers and general practitioner (GPs). For privately insured consumers, cost sharing was abolished, whereas those socially insured never faced cost sharing. The separate remuneration systems for socially insured consumers (capitation) and privately insured consumers (fee-for-service) changed to a combined system of capitation and fee-for-service for both groups. Our first hypothesis was that privately insured consumers had a higher increase in patient-initiated GP contact rates compared with socially insured consumers. Our second hypothesis was that socially insured consumers had a higher increase in physician-initiated contact rates. Data were used from electronic medical records from 32 GP-practices and 35336 consumers in 2005-2007. A difference-in-differences approach was applied to study the effect of changes in cost sharing and remuneration system on contact rates. Abolition of cost sharing led to a higher increase in patient-initiated utilisation for privately insured consumers in persons aged 65 and older. Introduction of fee-for-service for socially insured consumers led to a higher increase in physician-initiated utilisation. This was most apparent in persons aged 25 to 54. Differences in the trend in physician-initiated utilisation point to an effect of supplier-induced demand. Differences in patient-initiated utilisation indicate limited evidence for moral hazard.

  8. Hindsight bias and investment decisions making empirical evidence form an emerging financial market

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    Muntazir Hussain

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied the hindsight bias and investor decision making by employing the novel approach asset selection effect and sign of return effect. The study investigated the hindsight bias and investor decision making through questionnaires. The respondents are divided into three groups namely bank financial managers, stock market investors and students. The statistical significance of the asset selection effect and sign of return effect is tested by proportional z-test. Furthermore, the correlation of the memory error and recall error is also determined. The overall perceived error (hindsight bias relationship is checked with the confidence in recall and confidence in estimate. We found strong evidence of hindsight bias in all respondents groups and its worst consequence on investment decision making. The bank financial managers were found less exposed to hindsight bias in comparison to stock market investors in asset selection effect. However, in sign of return effect the financial managers were more hindsight biased than the stock market investors. The relationship of hindsight bias and confidence in recall and confidence in estimate also confirms that all the respondents were hindsight biased and more confident in their estimate and less confident in their recall. All the respondents claim that they knew the phenomenon all along are wrong in their estimate. The respondents were unable to learn from previous errors and unable to detect their errors in estimate and recall. This error in prediction leads the investor to bear the risk above their accepted level which is harmful to their wealth.

  9. Globalization and Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence on the Role of Complementarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samimi, Parisa; Jenatabadi, Hashem Salarzadeh

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of economic globalization on economic growth in OIC countries. Furthermore, the study examined the effect of complementary policies on the growth effect of globalization. It also investigated whether the growth effect of globalization depends on the income level of countries. Utilizing the generalized method of moments (GMM) estimator within the framework of a dynamic panel data approach, we provide evidence which suggests that economic globalization has statistically significant impact on economic growth in OIC countries. The results indicate that this positive effect is increased in the countries with better-educated workers and well-developed financial systems. Our finding shows that the effect of economic globalization also depends on the country’s level of income. High and middle-income countries benefit from globalization whereas low-income countries do not gain from it. In fact, the countries should receive the appropriate income level to be benefited from globalization. Economic globalization not only directly promotes growth but also indirectly does so via complementary reforms. PMID:24721896

  10. Globalization and economic growth: empirical evidence on the role of complementarities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Samimi

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of economic globalization on economic growth in OIC countries. Furthermore, the study examined the effect of complementary policies on the growth effect of globalization. It also investigated whether the growth effect of globalization depends on the income level of countries. Utilizing the generalized method of moments (GMM estimator within the framework of a dynamic panel data approach, we provide evidence which suggests that economic globalization has statistically significant impact on economic growth in OIC countries. The results indicate that this positive effect is increased in the countries with better-educated workers and well-developed financial systems. Our finding shows that the effect of economic globalization also depends on the country's level of income. High and middle-income countries benefit from globalization whereas low-income countries do not gain from it. In fact, the countries should receive the appropriate income level to be benefited from globalization. Economic globalization not only directly promotes growth but also indirectly does so via complementary reforms.

  11. Globalization and economic growth: empirical evidence on the role of complementarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samimi, Parisa; Jenatabadi, Hashem Salarzadeh

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of economic globalization on economic growth in OIC countries. Furthermore, the study examined the effect of complementary policies on the growth effect of globalization. It also investigated whether the growth effect of globalization depends on the income level of countries. Utilizing the generalized method of moments (GMM) estimator within the framework of a dynamic panel data approach, we provide evidence which suggests that economic globalization has statistically significant impact on economic growth in OIC countries. The results indicate that this positive effect is increased in the countries with better-educated workers and well-developed financial systems. Our finding shows that the effect of economic globalization also depends on the country's level of income. High and middle-income countries benefit from globalization whereas low-income countries do not gain from it. In fact, the countries should receive the appropriate income level to be benefited from globalization. Economic globalization not only directly promotes growth but also indirectly does so via complementary reforms.

  12. Social Responsibility and Professional Ethics in Management: Some Empirical Evidences at Country Levels

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    Cene Bavec

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the presented exploratory study, we demonstrated some empiricalevidences on relations between social responsibility of business, managerialethics, and economic environment at county levels. We conducteddesk research on 41 countries using different secondary informationsources. We confirmed hypotheses, which associate higher socialresponsibility and ethics to openness and competitiveness of peopleand management, enhanced economic performance, higher economicfreedom, and lower level of corruption. The rationale behind the researchhypothesis is disputed question if socially responsible and ethicallymanaged business is economically more successful and sustainable.Evidently, in the most developed countries unsocial and unethicalbusiness behavior is not generally acceptable. However, in less developedeconomies profit is so high on the priority list that social responsibilityand ethics are academic questions.We hypothesize that companiesconsciously select where it is beneficial to be socially responsibleand ethical, and where it is more profitable to make business ruthlessly.We also tested the hypothesis that social responsibility contributes tothe resilience of economy. This hypothesis was partially confirmed andpartially rejected. Finally, we addressed a question if our results aremeaningful for individual organizations, as well.We could just say thatmore developed countries have a larger proportion of businesses thatbehave affirmatively regarding social and ethical issues, which meansthat they find it beneficial also at individual level.

  13. Empirical evidence for differential organ reductions during trans-oceanic bird flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battley, P F; Piersma, T; Dietz, M W; Tang, S; Dekinga, A; Hulsman, K

    2000-01-22

    Since the early 1960s it has been held that migrating birds deposit and use only fat as fuel during migratory flight, with the non-fat portion of the body remaining homeostatic. Recent evidence from field studies has shown large changes in organ sizes in fuelling birds, and theory on fuel use suggests protein may be a necessary fuel during flight. However, an absence of information on the body condition of migrants before and after a long flight has hampered understanding of the dynamics of organs during sustained flight. We studied body condition in a medium-sized shorebird, the great knot (Calidris tenuirostris), before and after a flight of 5400 km from Australia to China during northward migration. Not only did these birds show the expected large reduction in fat content after migration, there was also a decrease in lean tissue mass, with significant decreases in seven organs. The reduction in functional components is reflected in a lowering of the basal metabolic rate by 42% [corrected]. Recent flight models have tried to separate the 'flexible' part of the body from the constant portion. Our results suggest that apart from brains and lungs no organs are homeostatic during long-distance flight. Such organ reductions may be a crucial adaptation for long-distance flight in birds.

  14. IS IT WORTH GOING GREEN IN CROATIA? EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM SMEs

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    Dubravka Pekanov Starčević

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Technological progress and innovations in production are the basis for increasing productivity and reducing operating costs. On the other hand, rapid development accompanied by neglected environmental issues has resulted in adverse effects on the environment, and thus on the entire society. The consequences on the environment occur in the form of natural disasters, climate change and global warming. In order to reduce the adverse effects on the environment, states have introduced legal provisions, such as pollution charges. Such charges represent the costs incurred by the company that consequently burden its financial result. On the other hand, those charges can be lower for companies that apply more efficient production methods. The question is whether it is worth for a company to be “green” and hence pay a lower charge, or not to take into account “green business” and pay a higher charge for using inefficient production methods. This paper will explore whether it is worth being green, i.e. whether improving production efficiency results in a reduction of production costs. The emphasis is thereby placed on small and medium-sized enterprises as generators of economic growth and green jobs. In order to give an adequate review of green business and green market in Croatia, authors will analyse the Eurobarometer survey Flash Eurobarometer 426, focusing on Croatian data (n=502. It is evident that “green business” is one of the main business areas in the context of sustainable and socially responsible business.

  15. Monetary policy efficiency in the euro zone: some empirical evidence of money demand stability and endogeneity

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    Kapounek, S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary target of most central banks in developed economies is to maintain price stability. When there is no threat to the fulfilment of the primary target, the central bank focuses on its secondary target which is defined as support of a sustainable economic growth and full employment. Even though, a substantial part of the discussions regarding the targets of the central banks focus on price stability, the real target is to support a sustainable economic growth, especially to stabilize the fluctuation in the economic activity.This paper focuses on the current problems of monetary policy implementation in the Eurozone. Firstly, the author focus on the money demand function estimation and its stability. Another problem lies in the Postkeynesians´ assumptions of money endogeneity. Although central banks may have certain control over the money supply, they cannot fix the stock of money in a country. Different trends in monetary aggregates fluctuation contribute to reject the money exogeneity hypothesis.

  16. Control Mechanism and Value of Firm: Empirical Evidence from Indonesia Capital Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Herdinata

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research discusses about the roles of institutional ownership and leverage as control mechanism over agency conflict and how it affects corporate performance. Agency conflict is a result of expropriation via tunneling on asset utilization. This study uses panel data with a sample of 136 companies in Indonesia between 2001-2012. Simultaneous model testing using Three Stage Least Square estimation technique is also used in this study. Results suggest that institutional ownership and leverage have a non-linear effect on asset utilization. Institutional ownership can be used as a control mechanism at higher levels of ownership. However, when the ownership surpasses certain level, institutional owners will be able to conduct expropriation through tunneling. Low-level leverage will result in expropriation through tunneling by institutional owners. On the other hand, higher level of leverage makes it possible to use leverage as control mechanism. This study also suggests that there is a substitutional correlation between the implementation of control mechanism and leverage. This research also proves that the effect of control mechanism on asset utilization will improve corporate performance. This research does not specifically investigate the proportions of institutional ownership and leverage as borderline threshold which shows that the two variables can be used as control mechanism. It also implies that the control mechanism over agency conflict which happens as a result of expropriation through tunneling can be done using institutional ownership and leverage. Institutional ownership and leverage must, in this case, be conducted properly to-wards asset utilization so that it can improve corporate performance. This research provides evidence and solutions for agency conflicts that happen as a result of expropriation through tunneling. This study also contributes to the agency theory testing model by using simultaneous equation and considering non

  17. Control Mechanism and Value of Firm: Empirical Evidence from Indonesia Capital Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Herdinata

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research discusses about the roles of institutional ownership and leverage as control mechanism over agency conflict and how it affects corporate performance. Agency conflict is a result of expropriation via tunneling on asset utilization. This study uses panel data with a sample of 136 companies in Indonesia between 2001-2012. Simultaneous mo-del testing using Three Stage Least Square estimation technique is also used in this study. Results suggest that institutional ownership and le-verage have a non-linear effect on asset utilization. Institutional ownership can be used as a control mechanism at higher levels of ownership. However, when the ownership surpasses certain level, institutional owners will be able to conduct expropriation through tunneling. Low-level leverage will result in expropriation through tunneling by institutional owners. On the other hand, higher level of leverage makes it possible to use leverage as control mechanism. This study also sug-gests that there is a substitutional correlation between the implementation of control mechanism and leverage. This research also proves that the effect of control mechanism on asset utilization will improve corporate performance. This research does not specifically investigate the proportions of institutional ownership and leverage as borderline threshold which shows that the two variables can be used as control mechanism. It also implies that the control mechanism over agency conflict which happens as a result of expropriation through tunneling can be done using institutional ownership and leverage. Institutional ownership and leverage must, in this case, be conducted properly towards asset utilization so that it can improve corporate performance. This research provides evidence and solutions for agency conflicts that happen as a result of expropriation through tunneling. This study also contributes to the agency theory testing model by using simultaneous equation and considering

  18. Empirical evidence of Rayleigh waves in Norcia (central Italy) and their quantitative contribution to ground motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffagni, Enrico; Cattaneo, Marco; Bordoni, Paola

    2016-04-01

    Spectral ratio techniques, such as the Horizontal-to-Vertical (HV) and Standard (SSR) may exhibit different trends in specific frequency bands when conducted in alluvial basins. A possible explanation of this discrepancy can be provided by the presence of Rayleigh oscillations, that are considered responsible of an amplification of the vertical component with respect to the horizontal. We propose a new methodology for the identification of Rayleigh waves arrivals, to test on small-size basins. With this procedure, candidate Rayleigh waves are localized in time-frequency domain on an instantaneous polarization plane which is constructed by defining the instantaneous maximum vertical and horizontal spectral amplitudes. Validation of the candidate Rayleigh arrivals is performed by evaluating the instantaneous ellipticity. This step yields to a quantitative measure of the polarization, providing an indicator of the Rayleigh contribution to ground motion. We tested this methodology in the Norcia basin (central Italy) using a 18 selected earthquakes (2.0 L'Aquila sequence (2009). We demonstrate the robustness of our methodology by localizing evidences of Rayleigh wave arrivals immediately from (1 s) up to 30 s after the first S-wave group, even for low-magnitude events (Ml < 3.0). The generation of the detected Rayleigh waves analyzed in time-frequency range, appears to be magnitude-dependent and in function of the location in the basin. Our quantitative estimate of the Rayleigh polarization resulted to be comparable to the HV response value in specific frequency bands, for example in deamplification, demonstrating a plausible connection with Rayleigh oscillations. The authors encourage the usage or implementation of similar procedures conducted in basin studies, in order to determine quantitatively the Rayleigh contribution to ground motion, for a better characterization of the local seismic response.

  19. Empirical evidence on the use and effectiveness of telepsychiatry via videoconferencing: implications for forensic and correctional psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonacci, Diana J; Bloch, Richard M; Saeed, Sy Atezaz; Yildirim, Yilmaz; Talley, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    A growing body of literature now suggests that use of telepsychiatry to provide mental health services has the potential to solve the workforce shortage problem that directly affects access to care, especially in remote and underserved areas. Live interactive two-way audio-video communication-videoconferencing-is the modality most applicable to psychiatry and has become synonymous with telepsychiatry involving patient care, distance education, and administration. This article reviews empirical evidence on the use and effectiveness of videoconferencing in providing diagnostic and treatment services in mental health settings that serve child, adolescent, and adult populations. Descriptive reports, case studies, research articles, and randomized controlled trials related to clinical outcomes were identified and reviewed independently by two authors. Articles related to cost-effectiveness, technological issues, or legal or ethical aspects of telepsychiatry were excluded. The review of the evidence broadly covers mental health service provision in all settings, including forensic settings. Given the sparse literature on telepsychiatry in forensic settings, we discuss implications for mental health care across settings and populations and comment on future directions and potential uses in forensic or correctional psychiatry.

  20. Including values in evidence-based policy making for breast screening: An empirically grounded tool to assist expert decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa

    2017-07-01

    Values are an important part of evidence-based decision making for health policy: they guide the type of evidence that is collected, how it is interpreted, and how important the conclusions are considered to be. Experts in breast screening (including clinicians, researchers, consumer advocates and senior administrators) hold differing values in relation to what is important in breast screening policy and practice, and committees may find it difficult to incorporate the complexity and variety of values into policy decisions. The decision making tool provided here is intended to assist with this process. The tool is modified from more general frameworks that are intended to assist with ethical decision making in public health, and informed by data drawn from previous empirical studies on values amongst Australian breast screening experts. It provides a structured format for breast screening committees to consider and discuss the values of themselves and others, suggests relevant topics for further inquiry and highlights areas of need for future research into the values of the public. It enables committees to publicly explain and justify their decisions with reference to values, improving transparency and accountability. It is intended to act alongside practices that seek to accommodate the values of individual women in the informed decision making process for personal decision making about participation in breast screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Does Beta Explain Global Equity Market Volatility – Some Empirical Evidence

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    Radosław Kurach

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to assess the diversification benefits resulting from international asset allocation. In this study, we examine Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM in its international context (ICAPM using the monthly equity returns for 26 countries (18 developed and 8 emerging markets between July 1996 and June 2011 and adopting the US investor’s perspective. We verify the beta-return trade-off employing two approaches: the unconditional trade-off and the conditional relationship. In this latter case, we find the country beta to be a significant variable explaining the cross-country variation of returns. Next, we test the degree of market integration in the light of the ICAPM. The results of this test indicate that country-idiosyncratic risks are generally not priced. In the subsidiary outcomes of our verification procedure, we argue that country betas are time-varying and that currently, global factors are the dominant source of equity market volatility. Consequently, the opinion regarding emerging market assets and their role in global portfolio management should be reconsidered. The results of the entire study may provide essential implications for fund managers because the decreasing international diversification gains have been identified.

  2. ACCOUNTING MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY INFORMATION: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM THE PORT AUTHORITY OF VALENCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Giner Fillol

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ports that have good geographical location, efficient management and value-added services have potential for international leadership, as is the case with the Valencia Port Authority, which figures prominently in the international ranking of container ports. Information systems should stimulate the curiosity of organizations, facilitate the process of participatory decision-making and enhance the ability of the organization to cope with changes in the environment. Changes occurring in the environment fully affect the organization and therefore its computer systems.Through the study of the Business Intelligence Systems at the Valencia Port Authority, we seek to reaffirm the assumptions of the various authors analyzed. In summary, we would like to highlight that for accounting information, in both financial accounting and management accounting, to add value to the strategic processes of firms, it must successfully contribute to the strategic processes of the organization, selecting those aspects of accounting management that are relevant to the strategy of the organization (Álvarez-Dardet et al., 1999. The evolution and transformation undergone by firms in recent decades, with regard to technological progress and variation in production methods, suggests the possible obsolescence of so-called conventional cost systems. These traditional systems do not take into account the impact of the production process automation and the changes occurring in the relative importance of the different components of the cost of the product. Organizations have to develop accounting information towards a strategic orientation in order to provide support for the strategic business processes,evolving the current information supply of financial accounting and incorporating the information provided by management accounting. In this way the accounting information available to organizations will support their strategic processes more efficiently.

  3. Cue-induced craving in pathological buying: empirical evidence and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotzke, Patrick; Starcke, Katrin; Pedersen, Anya; Brand, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Pathological buying is associated with marked distress and impaired functioning in important life domains. It is currently under debate whether pathological buying can be considered a behavioral addiction. In analogy to results reported in addicted individuals, craving reactions elicited by addiction-related cues might be an underlying mechanism for the etiology and pathogenesis of pathological buying. In the present study, 30 pathological buyers and 30 matched control participants were examined with a cue-reactivity paradigm consisting of shopping and control cues. Skin conductance responses, as well as subjective ratings for arousal, valence, and urge to buy, were assessed. Subjective craving reactions were measured before and after the cue-reactivity paradigm. On a physiological level, skin conductance responses toward shopping cues were higher in pathological buyers (mean [M; standard deviation {SD}] = 0.26 [0.13]) compared with control participants (M [SD] = 0.19 [0.09]; t(58) = 2.29, p = .025, d = 0.60). On a behavioral level, the individuals with pathological buying rated the shopping cues as more arousing and more positive, and reported a greater urge to buy compared with control participants and with control cues. An increase in subjective craving after completing the cue-reactivity paradigm was observed only in the pathological buyers (Mpre [SD] = 1.95 [1.47], Mpost [SD] = 2.87 [1.79]; t(29) = 5.07, p craving might be potential correlates for the development and maintenance of pathological buying. The results demonstrate similarities between pathological buying and substance or behavioral addictions and provide implications for clinical treatment.

  4. Current concepts on posterior meniscal root lesion: A treatment algorithm based on the currently available evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Yang Song

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Meniscal root lesion is defined as an avulsion of the tibial insertion of the meniscus or a radial tear close to the meniscal insertion, which is commonly observed at the posterior region in the clinical practice. Although a number of biomechanical and clinical studies have shown the importance of the integrity of the posterior meniscal roots, the appropriate treatment is still controversial. The purposes of this review are to develop a current understanding of how the posterior meniscal root functions and to review the available treatment options for posterior meniscal root lesion.

  5. Whither voluntary communities of co-located patients in Vietnam? Empirical evidence from a 2016 medical survey dataset

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    Quan-Hoang Vuong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empirical evidence on quality of life of poor patients falls short for policy-making in Vietnam. Financial burdens and isolation give rise to Vietnamese voluntary co-location clusters where patients seek to rely on each other. These communities, although important, have been under-researched. Increasingly, there are questions about their sustainability. Aim & Objectives: This study aims to identify factors that affect sustainability of such co-location clusters, seeking to measure the community prospect through critical determinants as seen by member patients. An in-depth analysis is expected to yield insights that help shape future policies contributing to improvement of healthcare systems.  Material & Method: A dataset containing responses from 336 patients living in four clusters in Hanoi was obtained from a survey during 2015Q4-2016Q1. The processing of data is performed using R 3.2.3, employing baseline category logit models (BCL. Coefficients are estimated to compute empirical probabilities. Results: 1 There is a 50% probability that a patient seeing his/her benefits as unsatisfactory views the community prospect as dim; 2 The more a patient contributes time/effort, the less he/she believes in future growth; 3 There is a 80.8% probability that a patient who makes a significant financial contribution and receives back in-kind benefits predicts no growth. Conclusion: Patients predict community growth when receiving what they need/expect. There exists a kind of “liquidity preference”. Only 14% and 32% make significant financial and labor contributions, respectively. There exists a “risk aversion” attitude, viewing contribution as certain while future benefits to be uncertain.

  6. Music therapy with disorders of consciousness: current evidence and emergent evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Wendy L; O'Kelly, Julian

    2015-03-01

    Patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (PDOC) stemming from acquired brain injury present one of the most challenging clinical populations in neurological rehabilitation. Because of the complex clinical presentation of PDOC patients, treatment teams are confronted with many medicolegal, ethical, philosophical, moral, and religious issues in day-to-day care. Accurate diagnosis is of central concern, relying on creative approaches from skilled clinical professionals using combined behavioral and neurophysiological measures. This paper presents the latest evidence for using music as a diagnostic tool with PDOC, including recent developments in music therapy interventions and measurement. We outline standardized clinical protocols and behavioral measures to produce diagnostic outcomes and examine recent research illustrating a range of benefits of music-based methods at behavioral, cardiorespiratory, and cortical levels using video, electrocardiography, and electroencephalography methods. These latest developments are discussed in the context of evidence-based practice in rehabilitation with clinical populations. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Under-performance of listed companies? Real earnings management and M&A: Chinese empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqiao Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine whether acquiring firms attempt to adopt real earnings management strategy to upward reported earnings in the period of M&A announcement and provide an explanation for the underperformance of post-M&A in share payment M&A affairs occurring in China’s capital market from 2008-2010. Design/methodology/approach: The author uses Roychowdhury’s(2006 methodology to measure the magnitude of real earnings management of acquiring firms in stock for stock M&A by exploiting financial date from 2006 to 2011. The methodology includes three models, which are cash ?ow from operations, production costs and discretionary expenditures, respectively. Findings: It was found that firms using stock as a financing medium exhibit significant negative abnormal cash flows and abnormal discretionary expenses yet abnormal production costs significantly positive during the current period of M&A. Moreover, it was also documented that acquiring firms use real activities manipulation to overstate earnings for the purpose of improving market confidence. Finally, a negative association was found between REM and under-performance of post-M&A. Research limitations/implications: To some extent, these results explain the puzzle of performance decline over the following period of post-M&A. Meanwhile, our study adds to prior literature that capital market pressures induce acquiring firms inflate reported earnings by manipulating real activities in stock-financed M&A occurring in China’s capital market. Practical implications: The author’s result imply that investors, analysts and regulators cannot ignore more undetectable opportunism behaviors underlying reported earnings than accrual-based earnings management and the impact on the performance of post-M&A when they use financial statements to evaluate acquiring firms. Social implications: Our study plays important role in making public policies. Furthermore, it is necessary to

  8. Quantifying and qualifying terroir: Empirical evidence linking climate, vineyards, and people across scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Kimberly

    2014-05-01

    Climate affects the geographic range, yield, price, and biochemical composition of winegrapes. At the regional scale, historical climate and yield data were successfully used to develop simple models of crop yields using two or three monthly climate parameters for twelve major California crops, including winegrapes. These crop models were used to project the impact of future climate change on crop yields, showing that greater warming would increasingly push highly suitable areas for viticulture outside of their current range. Correlating temperature with price for Pinot noir throughout its growing range in California demonstrated higher prices for grapes grown in cooler climates, whereas prices dropped off rapidly above a ripening temperature threshold, indicating the vulnerability of grape price to climate change. At the vineyard scale, a three-year field study of eleven Pinot noir vineyards in California's North Coast showed that warm temperatures early in the growing season were correlated with increased phenolic compounds (anthocyanins and tannins), which likely benefits wine quality, but warmer periods later in the ripening process appeared to offset these effects. At the microclimate scale, high light intensities were measured on Pinot noir fruit in vertically shoot positioned vineyards, indicating a potential for changing canopy management to provide more optimal ripening conditions. Vineyards are highly managed, and there are many opportunities for viticulturists to shape the micro- and meso-climate that vines experience, thereby influencing the biophysical drivers of terroir through their site selection and vineyard planting and farming choices. An analysis of the precision agriculture and management strategies used by winegrowers in California and Australia showed that growers tend to rely more on short-term farming actions for adapting to environmental stresses; these may have considerable potential to enhance adaptive capacity, and are easier to

  9. Evidências empirícas sobre a relação entre EVA e Retorno Acionário nas empresas brasileiras - Empirical evidence on the relationship beween EVA and Stock Returns in brazilian firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otavio Ribeiro de Medeiros

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo fornece evidências empíricas sobre a relação entre Valor Econômico Adicionado (EVA e retornos acionários de empresas brasileiras. A relação entre essas variáveis têm sido motivo de controvérsia nos últimos anos, com alguns autores encontrando associações significativas entre elas, enquanto outros não encontrando nenhuma. A hipótese de que o EVA afeta os retornos acionários é testada através de regressão linear, utilizando-se modelos alternativos. A amostra é composta de empresas negociadas na mais importante bolsa de valores brasileira. Uma comparação entre os resultados deste estudo com os de estudos anteriores mostram que resultados significativos dependem da determinação das variáveis apropriadas (retornos acionários versus preços das ações, bem como da correta relação dinâmica entre a variável dependente e a independente. This paper provides empirical evidence on the relationship between Economic Value Added (EVA and stock returns in Brazilian firms. This relationship between these variables has been subject to controversy in recent years, with some authors finding significant associations between them while others find none. The hypothesis that EVA affects stock returns is tested through linear regression, using alternative models. The sample is comprised of companies that are traded on the most important Brazilian stock exchange. A comparison of the outcomes of our study with those of previous studies shows that significant results depend on determination of the appropriate variables (stock returns versus stock prices, as well as of the correct dynamic structure between the dependent and the explanatory variable.

  10. Quick evidence reviews using Epistemonikos: a thorough, friendly and current approach to evidence in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Rada

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Those who make decisions on healthcare should do so informed by the best scientific evidence at one’s disposal. During the last few years, it has become undeniable that identifying and synthesizing all scientific studies that respond a question constitutes an unapproachable challenge for a clinician. The quantity of information has increased excessively, some facts are not available, investigations are of either bad quality or even fraudulent, and the methods for achieving a combination and synthesis of all studies are each time more sophisticated. Moreover, if this inaccurate process is carried out, there exists a high risk of arriving at a biased conclusion.

  11. Educating physicians in evidence based medicine: current practices and curricular strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maggio, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence based medicine (EBM) is “the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients.” The practice of EBM is an expectation of professional healthcare and requisite component in many medical school curricula. Yet, despite

  12. Educating physicians in evidence based medicine: current practices and curricular strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maggio, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence based medicine (EBM) is “the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients.” The practice of EBM is an expectation of professional healthcare and requisite component in many medical school curricula. Yet, despite

  13. Regional heterogeneity in consumption due to current income shocks: New evidence from the Permanent Income Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo

    In the light of new theoretical and empirical work on the Permanent Income Hypothesis we tackle earlier findings for German data, which reject its validity given a large fraction of liquidity constrained consumers. Starting from a standard short run approach we do not find evidence for excess...... borrow from the literature on Poolability tests and search for macro regional clusters with similar adjustment paths. The findings show that for the sample of West German states between 1970 and 2006 both for short and long run parameters the assumption of poolability of the data cannot be rejected...

  14. Empirical evidence of a comprehensive model of school effectiveness : A multilevel study in mathematics in the 1st year of junior general education in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Robert; Westerhof, KJ; Kruiter, JH

    2004-01-01

    In the field of school effectiveness and school improvement, scholars as well as practitioners often complain about the absence of theory to guide their work. To fill this gap, Creemers (1994) developed a comprehensive model of educational effectiveness. In order to gain empirical evidence, we teste

  15. Empirical evidence of a comprehensive model of school effectiveness : A multilevel study in mathematics in the 1st year of junior general education in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Robert; Westerhof, KJ; Kruiter, JH

    2004-01-01

    In the field of school effectiveness and school improvement, scholars as well as practitioners often complain about the absence of theory to guide their work. To fill this gap, Creemers (1994) developed a comprehensive model of educational effectiveness. In order to gain empirical evidence, we teste

  16. Sensitivity is not an intrinsic property of a diagnostic test: empirical evidence from histological diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrilho Carla

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to provide empirical evidence of how spectrum effects can affect the sensitivity of histological assessment of Helicobacter pylori infection, which may contribute to explain the heterogeneity in prevalence estimates across populations with expectedly similar prevalence. Methods Cross-sectional evaluation of dyspeptic subjects undergoing upper digestive endoscopy, including collection of biopsy specimens from the greater curvature of the antrum for assessment of H. pylori infection by histopathological study and polymerase chain reaction (PCR, from Portugal (n = 106 and Mozambique (n = 102 following the same standardized protocol. Results In the Portuguese sample the prevalence of infection was 95.3% by histological assessment and 98.1% by PCR. In the Mozambican sample the prevalence was 63.7% and 93.1%, respectively. Among those classified as infected by PCR, the sensitivity of histological assessment was 96.2% among the Portuguese and 66.3% among the Mozambican. Among those testing positive by both methods, 5.0% of the Portuguese and 20.6% of the Mozambican had mild density of colonization. Conclusions This study shows a lower sensitivity of histological assessment of H. pylori infection in Mozambican dyspeptic patients compared to the Portuguese, which may be explained by differences in the density of colonization, and may contribute to explain the heterogeneity in prevalence estimates across African settings.

  17. The role of confidence in the evolution of the Spanish economy: empirical evidence from an ARDL model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Castellanos García

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to verify the existence and to determine the nature of long-term relationships between economic agents’ confidence, measured by the Economic Sentiment Index (ESI, with some of the "fundamentals" of the Spanish economy. In particular, by modeling this type of relations, we try to determine whether confidence is a dependent (explained or independent (explanatory variable. Along with confidence, in our model we incorporate variables such as risk premium of sovereign debt, financial market volatility, unemployment, inflation, public and private debt and the net lending/net borrowing of the economy. For the purpose of obtaining some empirical evidence on the exogenous or endogenous character of the above mentioned variables an ARDL (Autoregressive-Distributed Lag model is formulated. The model is estimated with quarterly data of the Spanish economy for the period 1990-2012. Our findings suggest that: (a unemployment is the dependent variable, (b there is an inverse relationship between ESI in Spain and unemployment; and (c the Granger causality goes from confidence to unemployment.

  18. The influence of cognitive and motivational biases in managerial decision making: empirical evidence from a Brazilian construction company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Barros Feitosa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The heuristics and the biases affect the decision making process allowing the manager to take high complexity decisions under simplified conditions with the benefit of time saving. Although they are useful, making the information processing more efficient by directing the managers to relevancies and common urgencies to the decision making process, the use of heuristics can lead to induced inconsistencies by biases or lapses of decisions, which persistent and predictable generate patterns of behavior. Against that, the object of this research consists in diagnose possible cognitive and motivational biases, in special, the confidence excess, the optimism and the anchorage, in managers of a great Brazilian construction company. In order to achieve that objective, a structured questionary with selected tools into the literature on decision process was submitted to 120 managers of a big Brazilian construction company, however, only 84 questionaries were obtained, tabled and analyzed. As from the parametric and non-parametric tests, univariate and bivariate, it was found that the managers of the analyzed company: (1 are excessively confidents in their estimates; (2 seem more optimists than other economic agent groups; (3 are totally influenced by bosses in theirs estimates. The results confirm empirical evidences, emanated from the literature on heuristics and cognitive and emotional biases, particularly with concepts of Prospect Theory, and are opposed to the concepts derived from the literature that addresses the rational model of decision making, more specifically, the Expected Utility Theory.

  19. Empirical Evidence from Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... Onyango G .M. - Department of Urban and Regional Planning, School of. Earth Sciences ... pricing, which influences performance of the locally manufactured sugar from the six ... experiences in trade in different regions of the world. ... To assess the relationship between domestic sugar retail prices and.

  20. Therapeutic use of prebiotics, probiotics, and postbiotics to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis: what is the current evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ravi Mangal; Denning, Patricia Wei

    2013-03-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, and preventive therapies that are both effective and safe are urgently needed. Current evidence from therapeutic trials suggests that probiotics are effective in decreasing NEC in preterm infants, and probiotics are currently the most promising therapy for this devastating disease. However, concerns regarding safety and optimal dosing have limited the widespread adoption of routine clinical use of probiotics in preterm infants. This article summarizes the current evidence regarding the use of probiotics, prebiotics, and postbiotics in the preterm infant, including their therapeutic role in preventing NEC.

  1. Green Infrastructure Design for Stormwater Runoff and Water Quality: Empirical Evidence from Large Watershed-Scale Community Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Green infrastructure (GI design is advocated as a new paradigm for stormwater management, whereas current knowledge of GI design is mostly based on isolated design strategies used at small-scale sites. This study presents empirical findings from two watershed-scale community projects (89.4 km2 and 55.7 km2 in suburban Houston, Texas. The GI development integrates a suite of on-site, infiltration-based stormwater management designs, and an adjacent community development follows conventional drainage design. Parcel data were used to estimate the site impervious cover area. Observed streamflow and water quality data (i.e., NO3-N, NH3-N, and TP were correlated with the site imperviousness. Results show that, as of 2009, the impervious cover percentage in the GI site (32.3% is more than twice that of the conventional site (13.7%. However, the GI site’s precipitation-streamflow ratio maintains a steady, low range, whereas this ratio fluctuates substantially in the conventional site, suggesting a “flashy” stream condition. Furthermore, in the conventional site, annual nutrient loadings are significantly correlated with its impervious cover percentage (p < 0.01, whereas in the GI site there is little correlation. The study concludes that integrated GI design can be effective in stormwater runoff reduction and water quality enhancement at watershed-scale community development.

  2. Empirical evidence for musical syntax processing? Computer simulations reveal the contribution of auditory short-term memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel eBigand

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, it has been argued that 1 music processing involves syntactic representations similar to those observed in language, and 2 that music and language share similar syntactic-like processes and neural resources. This claim is important for understanding the origin of music and language abilities and, furthermore, it has clinical implications. The Western musical system, however, is rooted in psychoacoustic properties of sound, and this is not the case for linguistic syntax. Accordingly, musical syntax processing could be parsimoniously understood as an emergent property of auditory memory rather than a property of abstract processing similar to linguistic processing. To support this view, we simulated numerous empirical studies that investigated the processing of harmonic structures, using a model based on the accumulation of sensory information in auditory memory. The simulations revealed that most of the musical syntax manipulations used with behavioral and neurophysiological methods as well as with developmental and cross-cultural approaches can be accounted for by the auditory memory model. This led us to question whether current research on musical syntax can really be compared with linguistic processing. Our simulation also raises methodological and theoretical challenges to study musical syntax while disentangling the confounded low-level sensory influences. In order to investigate syntactic abilities in music comparable to language, research should preferentially use musical material with structures that circumvent the tonal effect exerted by psychoacoustic properties of sounds.

  3. Empirical evidence for musical syntax processing? Computer simulations reveal the contribution of auditory short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigand, Emmanuel; Delbé, Charles; Poulin-Charronnat, Bénédicte; Leman, Marc; Tillmann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, it has been argued that (1) music processing involves syntactic representations similar to those observed in language, and (2) that music and language share similar syntactic-like processes and neural resources. This claim is important for understanding the origin of music and language abilities and, furthermore, it has clinical implications. The Western musical system, however, is rooted in psychoacoustic properties of sound, and this is not the case for linguistic syntax. Accordingly, musical syntax processing could be parsimoniously understood as an emergent property of auditory memory rather than a property of abstract processing similar to linguistic processing. To support this view, we simulated numerous empirical studies that investigated the processing of harmonic structures, using a model based on the accumulation of sensory information in auditory memory. The simulations revealed that most of the musical syntax manipulations used with behavioral and neurophysiological methods as well as with developmental and cross-cultural approaches can be accounted for by the auditory memory model. This led us to question whether current research on musical syntax can really be compared with linguistic processing. Our simulation also raises methodological and theoretical challenges to study musical syntax while disentangling the confounded low-level sensory influences. In order to investigate syntactic abilities in music comparable to language, research should preferentially use musical material with structures that circumvent the tonal effect exerted by psychoacoustic properties of sounds.

  4. Empirical evidence for musical syntax processing? Computer simulations reveal the contribution of auditory short-term memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigand, Emmanuel; Delbé, Charles; Poulin-Charronnat, Bénédicte; Leman, Marc; Tillmann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, it has been argued that (1) music processing involves syntactic representations similar to those observed in language, and (2) that music and language share similar syntactic-like processes and neural resources. This claim is important for understanding the origin of music and language abilities and, furthermore, it has clinical implications. The Western musical system, however, is rooted in psychoacoustic properties of sound, and this is not the case for linguistic syntax. Accordingly, musical syntax processing could be parsimoniously understood as an emergent property of auditory memory rather than a property of abstract processing similar to linguistic processing. To support this view, we simulated numerous empirical studies that investigated the processing of harmonic structures, using a model based on the accumulation of sensory information in auditory memory. The simulations revealed that most of the musical syntax manipulations used with behavioral and neurophysiological methods as well as with developmental and cross-cultural approaches can be accounted for by the auditory memory model. This led us to question whether current research on musical syntax can really be compared with linguistic processing. Our simulation also raises methodological and theoretical challenges to study musical syntax while disentangling the confounded low-level sensory influences. In order to investigate syntactic abilities in music comparable to language, research should preferentially use musical material with structures that circumvent the tonal effect exerted by psychoacoustic properties of sounds. PMID:24936174

  5. National systems of innovation: determinants and industrial policy measures, empirical evidence for OECD; Sistemas nacionales de innovacion: determinantes y acciones de politica industrial. Evidencia empirica para la OCDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hervas, J. L.; Rojas, R.; Sempere, F.; Albors, J.

    2012-11-01

    The paper presents an attempt to tackle the main gaps in the national innovation systems (NIS) literature: the problem specifying the boundaries of the NIS and the lack of connection between theory and empirics. For this purpose, the paper uses 55 countries as sample and constructs an NIS index based on a factor analysis of 28 variables. Empirical evidence shows that a firm's strategies, technology infrastructure, government governance, education and linkages are the main components of the NIS. The implications are important for policy-makers and the academia. (Author) 49 refs.

  6. Evidence for breathing modes in direct current, pulsed, and high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yuchen [State Key Lab for Materials Processing and Die & Mold Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Zhou, Xue [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150000 (China); Liu, Jason X. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Anders, André, E-mail: aanders@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-01-18

    We present evidence for breathing modes in magnetron sputtering plasmas: periodic axial variations of plasma parameters with characteristic frequencies between 10 and 100 kHz. A set of azimuthally distributed probes shows synchronous oscillations of the floating potential. They appear most clearly when considering the intermediate current regime in which the direction of azimuthal spoke motion changes. Breathing oscillations were found to be superimposed on azimuthal spoke motion. Depending on pressure and current, one can also find a regime of chaotic fluctuations and one of stable discharges, the latter at high current. A pressure-current phase diagram for the different situations is proposed.

  7. Managing the services supply chain in the Department of Defense: an empirical study of current management practices / by Aruna U. Apte, Uday M. Apte, and Rene G. Rendon.

    OpenAIRE

    Apte, Aruna U.; Uday M. Apte; Rendon, Rene G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of our ongoing research on the management of services acquisition in the Department of Defense. In this empirical study we developed and used a web-based survey to collect data on the acquisition strategy, procurement methods, and contract types used at Air Force and Navy installations. Specifically, we studied the current management practices in such areas as life cycle approach, project management, organization/management structure, and training provided to s...

  8. Central bank transparency, private information and the predictability of monetary policy in the financial markets : theoretical, experimental and empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middeldorp, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Central banks worldwide have become considerably more communicative about their policies and forecasts. An important reason is that democratic societies expect such transparency from public institutions. Central bankers, supported by a significant body of empirical research, also believe that sharin

  9. Central bank transparency, private information and the predictability of monetary policy in the financial markets : theoretical, experimental and empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middeldorp, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Central banks worldwide have become considerably more communicative about their policies and forecasts. An important reason is that democratic societies expect such transparency from public institutions. Central bankers, supported by a significant body of empirical research, also believe that

  10. MEDICAL FEE REFORMS, CHANGES IN MEDICAL SUPPLY DENSITIES, AND SUPPLIER-INDUCED DEMAND: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM JAPAN

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This study empirically investigates whether several negative income shocks to medical suppliers lead them to provide patients with unnecessary and/or excessive treatments. We use a variable that is objectively assessed as representing inducement: the amount of fraudulent and/or incorrect claims detected during the bill inspection processes. The empirical results indicate that medical suppliers increase inducement by 7.5 percent in response to a 1 percent medical fee reduction, but that change...

  11. Therapeutic Use of Prebiotics, Probiotics, and Postbiotics to Prevent Necrotizing Enterocolitis: What is the Current Evidence?

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality and preventative therapies that are both effective and safe are urgently needed. Current evidence from therapeutic trials suggests that probiotics are effective in decreasing NEC in preterm infants and probiotics are currently the most promising therapy on the horizon for this devastating disease. However, concerns regarding safety and optimal dosing have limited the widespread adoption of routine clinical ...

  12. A review of current evidence for the causal impact of attentional bias on fear and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bockstaele, Bram; Verschuere, Bruno; Tibboel, Helen; De Houwer, Jan; Crombez, Geert; Koster, Ernst H W

    2014-05-01

    Prominent cognitive theories postulate that an attentional bias toward threatening information contributes to the etiology, maintenance, or exacerbation of fear and anxiety. In this review, we investigate to what extent these causal claims are supported by sound empirical evidence. Although differences in attentional bias are associated with differences in fear and anxiety, this association does not emerge consistently. Moreover, there is only limited evidence that individual differences in attentional bias are related to individual differences in fear or anxiety. In line with a causal relation, some studies show that attentional bias precedes fear or anxiety in time. However, other studies show that fear and anxiety can precede the onset of attentional bias, suggesting circular or reciprocal causality. Importantly, a recent line of experimental research shows that changes in attentional bias can lead to changes in anxiety. Yet changes in fear and anxiety also lead to changes in attentional bias, which confirms that the relation between attentional bias and fear and anxiety is unlikely to be unidirectional. Finally, a similar causal relation between interpretation bias and anxiety has been documented. In sum, there is evidence in favor of causality, yet a strict unidirectional cause-effect model is unlikely to hold. The relation between attentional bias and fear and anxiety is best described as a bidirectional, maintaining, or mutually reinforcing relation.

  13. Regional heterogeneity in consumption due to current income shocks: New evidence from the Permanent Income Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo

    In the light of new theoretical and empirical work on the Permanent Income Hypothesis we tackle earlier findings for German data, which reject its validity given a large fraction of liquidity constrained consumers. Starting from a standard short run approach we do not find evidence for excess...... interpret this specification as a solution to a consumer’s optimization problem with habit persistence. Different from earlier findings changes of income growth measuring the excess sensitivity of consumption with respect to income changes and thus the degree of liquidity constrained households turn....... However, we find a clear distinction in the short run path of the East German states since 1991 (which nevertheless converge to the same long run co-integration as the Western counter...

  14. Evidence of current impact of climate change on life : A walk from genes to the biosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penuelas, Josep; Sardans, Jordi; Estiarte, Marc; Ogaya, Roma; Carnicer, Jofre; Coll, Marta; Barbeta, Adria; Rivas-Ubach, Albert; Llusia, Joan; Garbulsky, Martin; Filella, Iolanda; Jump, Alistair S.

    We review the evidence of how organisms and populations are currently responding to climate change through phenotypic plasticity, genotypic evolution, changes in distribution and, in some cases, local extinction. Organisms alter their gene expression and metabolism to increase the concentrations of

  15. Therapeutic Use of Prebiotics, Probiotics, and Postbiotics to Prevent Necrotizing Enterocolitis: What is the Current Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ravi Mangal; Denning, Patricia Wei

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality and preventative therapies that are both effective and safe are urgently needed. Current evidence from therapeutic trials suggests that probiotics are effective in decreasing NEC in preterm infants and probiotics are currently the most promising therapy on the horizon for this devastating disease. However, concerns regarding safety and optimal dosing have limited the widespread adoption of routine clinical use of probiotics in preterm infants. In addition, prebiotics and postbiotics may be potential alternatives or adjunctive therapies to the administration of live microorganisms, although studies demonstrating their clinical efficacy in preventing NEC are lacking. This review summarizes the current evidence regarding the use of probiotics, prebiotics and postbiotics in the preterm infant, including its therapeutic role in preventing NEC. PMID:23415261

  16. Effects of people-centred factors on enterprise resource planning implementation project success: empirical evidence from Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Vathsala; Gunawardena, Vathsala

    2010-08-01

    Extant literature suggests people-centred factors as one of the major areas influencing enterprise resource planning (ERP) implementation project success. Yet, to date, few empirical studies attempted to validate the link between people-centred factors and ERP implementation project success. The purpose of this study is to empirically identify people-centred factors that are critical to ERP implementation projects in Sri Lanka. The study develops and empirically validates a framework for people-centred factors that influence the success of ERP implementation projects. Survey research methodology was used and collected data from 74 ERP implementation projects in Sri Lanka. The people-centred factors of 'project team competence', 'rewards' and 'communication and change' were found to predict significantly the ERP implementation project success.

  17. Body image disturbance in children and adolescents with eating disorders. Current evidence and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Thiemann, Pia; Vocks, Silja

    2014-01-01

    Body image is multifaceted and incorporates perceptual, affective, and cognitive components as well as behavioral features. Only few studies have examined the character of body-image disturbance in children/adolescents with eating disorders. It is unknown whether body-image disturbances in children/adolescent with eating disturbances are comparable to those of adult patients with eating disorders. Body-image disturbance might differ quantitatively and qualitatively according to the cognitive developmental status and the age of the individual. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence for body-image disturbance in children/adolescents with eating disorders, and how they compare with those adults with eating disorders. Current evidence indicates that older adolescent patients show similar deficits as adult patients with eating disorders, in particular for the attitudinal body-image component. However, evidence for a perceptual body-image disturbance in adolescent patients, in particular anorexia nervosa, is not conclusive. Reliable statements for childhood can hardly be made because clinical studies are not available. Investigations of body-image disturbance in children have focused on the predictive value for eating disorders. Limitations of the current evidence are discussed, and future directions for research and therapy are indicated.

  18. Organizational Flexibility for Hypercompetitive Markets : Empirical Evidence of the Composition and Context Specificity of Dynamic Capabilities and Organization Design Parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.P. van der Weerdt (Niels)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis research project, which builds on the conceptual work of Henk Volberda on the flexible firm, empirically investigates four aspects of organizational flexibility. Our analysis of data of over 1900 firms and over 3000 respondents shows (1) that several increasing levels of

  19. Effects of Work Environment on Transfer of Training: Empirical Evidence from Master of Business Administration Programs in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Nga T. P.; Segers, Mien S. R.; Gijselaers, Wim H.

    2013-01-01

    Practical application of newly gained knowledge and skills, also referred to as transfer of training, is an issue of great concern in training issues generally and in Master of Business Administration (MBA) programs particularly. This empirical study examined the influence of the trainees' work environment on their transfer of training, taking…

  20. Sensory expectations based on product-extrinsic food cues: An interdisciplinary review of the empirical evidence and theoretical accounts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piqueras Fiszman, B.; Spence, C.

    2015-01-01

    This article constitutes a state-of-the-art review of the literature on the effects of expectations on the sensory perception of food and drink by humans. In the ‘Introduction’, we summarize the theoretical models of expectations that have been put forward. In the ‘Empirical research utilizing direc

  1. Use of Evidence-Based Practice Resources and Empirically Supported Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among University Counseling Center Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juel, Morgen Joray

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt was made to determine the degree to which psychologists at college and university counseling centers (UCCs) utilized empirically supported treatments with their posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) clients. In addition, an attempt was made to determine how frequently UCC psychologists utilized a number of…

  2. Organizational Flexibility for Hypercompetitive Markets : Empirical Evidence of the Composition and Context Specificity of Dynamic Capabilities and Organization Design Parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.P. van der Weerdt (Niels)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis research project, which builds on the conceptual work of Henk Volberda on the flexible firm, empirically investigates four aspects of organizational flexibility. Our analysis of data of over 1900 firms and over 3000 respondents shows (1) that several increasing levels of organizatio

  3. Fasting therapy for treating and preventing disease - current state of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalsen, Andreas; Li, Chenying

    2013-01-01

    Periods of deliberate fasting with restriction of solid food intake are practiced worldwide, mostly based on traditional, cultural or religious reasons. There is large empirical and observational evidence that medically supervised modified fasting (fasting cure, 200-500 kcal nutritional intake per day) with periods of 7-21 days is efficacious in the treatment of rheumatic diseases, chronic pain syndromes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. The beneficial effects of fasting followed by vegetarian diet in rheumatoid arthritis are confirmed by randomized controlled trials. Further beneficial effects of fasting are supported by observational data and abundant evidence from experimental research which found caloric restriction and intermittent fasting being associated with deceleration or prevention of most chronic degenerative and chronic inflammatory diseases. Intermittent fasting may also be useful as an accompanying treatment during chemotherapy of cancer. A further beneficial effect of fasting relates to improvements in sustainable lifestyle modification and adoption of a healthy diet, possibly mediated by fasting-induced mood enhancement. Various identified mechanisms of fasting point to its potential health-promoting effects, e.g., fasting-induced neuroendocrine activation and hormetic stress response, increased production of neurotrophic factors, reduced mitochondrial oxidative stress, general decrease of signals associated with aging, and promotion of autophagy. Fasting therapy might contribute to the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases and should be further evaluated in controlled clinical trials and observational studies.

  4. A review of empirical evidence on different uncanny valley hypotheses: support for perceptual mismatch as one road to the valley of eeriness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari eKätsyri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The uncanny valley hypothesis, proposed already in the 1970s, suggests that almost but not fully humanlike artificial characters will trigger a profound sense of unease. This hypothesis has become widely acknowledged both in the popular media and scientific research. Surprisingly, empirical evidence for the hypothesis has remained inconsistent. In the present article, we reinterpret the original uncanny valley hypothesis and review empirical evidence for different theoretically motivated uncanny valley hypotheses. The uncanny valley could be understood as the naïve claim that any kind of human-likeness manipulation will lead to experienced negative affinity at close-to-realistic levels. More recent hypotheses have suggested that the uncanny valley would be caused by artificial–human categorization difficulty or by a perceptual mismatch between artificial and human features. Original formulation also suggested that movement would modulate the uncanny valley. The reviewed empirical literature failed to provide consistent support for the naïve uncanny valley hypothesis or the modulatory effects of movement. Results on the categorization difficulty hypothesis were still too scarce to allow drawing firm conclusions. In contrast, good support was found for the perceptual mismatch hypothesis. Taken together, the present review findings suggest that the uncanny valley exists only under specific conditions. More research is still needed to pinpoint the exact conditions under which the uncanny valley phenomenon manifests itself.

  5. Cognitive behavioral therapy in anxiety disorders: current state of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Christian

    2011-01-01

    A plethora of studies have examined the efficacy and effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for adult anxiety disorders. In recent years, several meta-analyses have been conducted to quantitatively review the evidence of CBT for anxiety disorders, each using different inclusion criteria for studies, such as use of control conditions or type of study environment. This review aims to summarize and to discuss the current state of the evidence regarding CBT treatment for panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Overall, CBT demonstrates both efficacy in randomized controlled trials and effectiveness in naturalistic settings in the treatment of adult anxiety disorders. However, due to methodological issues, the magnitude of effect is currently difficult to estimate. In conclusion, CBT appears to be both efficacious and effective in the treatment of anxiety disorders, but more high-quality studies are needed to better estimate the magnitude of the effect.

  6. Evidence for large-area superemission into a high-current glow discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, W.; Dominic, V.; Kirkman, G. F.; Gundersen, M. A.

    1988-10-01

    This letter presents evidence for large-area (≊1 cm2) cathode superemission (˜10 000 A/cm2) into a high-current glow discharge in a pseudospark or back lighted thyratron switch. Cathodes studied with a scannning electron microscope following operation at 6-8 kA, ≊1 μs pulse length, and 105 pulses in a low-pressure H2 discharge show evidence of melting of a thin surface layer within a radius of ˜4 mm, indicating that the discharge is a superdense glow with a cross-sectional area of the order of 1 cm2, rather than an arc. Further supporting evidence is provided by streak camera data. An ion beam present during the avalanche phase of the discharge is responsible for heating the cathode surface resulting in a significant field-enhanced thermionic emission.

  7. Asthma and obesity in children: current evidence and potential systems biology approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, U; Latzin, P; Usemann, J; Maccora, J; Zumsteg, U; Kriemler, S

    2015-01-01

    Both obesity and asthma are highly prevalent, complex diseases modified by multiple factors. Genetic, developmental, lung mechanical, immunological and behavioural factors have all been suggested as playing a causal role between the two entities; however, their complex mechanistic interactions are still poorly understood and evidence of causality in children remains scant. Equally lacking is evidence of effective treatment strategies, despite the fact that imbalances at vulnerable phases in childhood can impact long-term health. This review is targeted at both clinicians frequently faced with the dilemma of how to investigate and treat the obese asthmatic child and researchers interested in the topic. Highlighting the breadth of the spectrum of factors involved, this review collates evidence regarding the investigation and treatment of asthma in obese children, particularly in comparison with current approaches in 'difficult-to-treat' childhood asthma. Finally, the authors propose hypotheses for future research from a systems-based perspective.

  8. Current knowledge on evidence-based shockwave treatments for shoulder pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Daniel; Ramón, Silvia; Guiloff, Leonardo; Gerdesmeyer, Ludger

    2015-12-01

    Shoulder pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal pathologies. Treatment by ESWT (extracorporeal shockwave therapy) has emerged as an alternative when conservative treatment fails in rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy, prior to invasive procedures. The clinical efficacy of ESWT in non-calcific tendinopathy remains controversial. The good results in the treatment of rotator cuff calcifications, have led to indications of ESWT being expanded to other shoulder pathologies. We review the current state of indications and evidence based practice.

  9. Quantized current blockade and hydrodynamic correlations in biopolymer translocation through nanopores: evidence from multiscale simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Bernaschi, Massimo; Succi, Sauro; Fyta, Maria; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2008-01-01

    We present a detailed description of biopolymer translocation through a nanopore in the presence of a solvent, using an innovative multi-scale methodology which treats the biopolymer at the microscopic scale as combined with a self-consistent mesoscopic description for the solvent fluid dynamics. We report evidence for quantized current blockade depending on the folding configuration and offer detailed information on the role of hydrodynamic correlations in speeding-up the translocation process.

  10. Who are the Relevants Stakeholders to the Local Government Context? Empirical Evidences on Environmental Influences in the Decision-Making Process of English Local Authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Corrêa Gomes

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents empirical evidence of stakeholding in the local government context. It is the result of a survey carried out with English Local Authorities in 2001. It outlines the arena in which local government make decisions by pinpointing the relevant stakeholders in the process as well as the amount of power they areperceived to represent by chief executives. The investigation has its theoretical basis in resource dependence and institutional theories, which are commonly used for explaining an organization’s behaviour and performance as influenced by its environment. As an empirical contribution, the article proposes a stakeholder map for any kind of local government organizations that will help in identifying strategies for managing stakeholders.

  11. The Beta Lactam Antibiotics as an Empirical Therapy in a Developing Country: An Update on Their Current Status and Recommendations to Counter the Resistance against Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakuria, Bhaskar; Lahon, Kingshuk

    2013-06-01

    In a developing country like India, where the patients have to bear the cost of their healthcare, the microbiological culture and the sensitivity testing of each and every infection is not feasible. Moreover, there are lacunae in the data storage, management and the sharing of knowledge with respect to the microorganisms which are prevalent in the local geographical area and with respect to the antibiotics which are effective against them. Thus, an empirical therapy for treating infections is imperative in such a setting. The beta lactam antibiotics have been widely used for the empirical treatment of infections since the the discovery of penicillin. Many generations of beta lactams have been launched with, the claims of a higher sensitivity and less resistance, but their sensitivity has drastically decreased over time. Thus, the preference for beta lactams, especially the cephalosporins, as an empirical therapy, among the prescribers was justified initially, but the current sensitivity patterns do not support their empirical use in hospital and community acquired infections. There is a need for increasing the awareness and the attitudinal change among the prescribers, screening of the antibiotic prescriptions, the strict implementation of antibiotic policies in hospital settings, restricting the hospital supplies and avoiding the prescriptions of beta lactams, a regular census of the local sensitivity patterns to formulate and update the antibiotic policies, upgradation of the laboratory facilities for a better and faster detection of the isolates, proper collection, analyses and sharing of the data and the encouragement of the research and development of newer antibiotics with novel mechanisms of action.

  12. Implanting inequality: empirical evidence of social and ethical risks of implantable radio-frequency identification (RFID) devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Torin; Fisher, Jill A

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess empirically the social and ethical risks associated with implantable radio-frequency identification (RFID) devices. Qualitative research included observational studies in twenty-three U.S. hospitals that have implemented new patient identification systems and eighty semi-structured interviews about the social and ethical implications of new patient identification systems, including RFID implants. The study identified three primary social and ethical risks associated with RFID implants: (i) unfair prioritization of patients based on their participation in the system, (ii) diminished trust of patients by care providers, and (iii) endangerment of patients who misunderstand the capabilities of the systems. RFID implants may aggravate inequalities in access to care without any clear health benefits. This research underscores the importance of critically evaluating new healthcare technologies from the perspective of both normative ethics and empirical ethics.

  13. The Value Relevance of IFRS in the UAE Banking Industry: Empirical Evidence from Dubai Financial Market, 2008-2013

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the value relevance of accounting information for the banks listed in the Dubai Financial Market (DFM) for the period 2008 - 2013. Empirical tests are based on the return and the price models. Overall, the results show that accounting information is associated with market valuation. The earnings are positive and significantly related to stock prices and stock returns. Moreover results indicate that value relevance of accounting information has changed...

  14. Seasonality in Equity Rising on Stock Markets. Windows of Opportunity? Empirical Evidence from China, India, Brazil and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Empirical research has underlined high variability cases of equity-raising through the placing of shares in the primary market in the course of time, considering both new enterprises��� quotations, and increases for the already- quoted ones in regulated markets. Different periods and markets at different development stages have been taken in exam, resulting in the discovery of high concentration of such operations in specific time-slots. Focusing on China, India, Brazil and South Africa’s sto...

  15. The diffusion of smart meters in France: A discussion of the empirical evidence and the implications for smart cities

    OpenAIRE

    Kendel, Adnane; Lazaric, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This article studies Business Models (BM) for Smart Meters (SM) and discusses related issues in the French institutional context. Because SM introduce deregulation on both the demand and supply sides, we argue that they represent an opportunity to 'unlock' the system by enabling feedback to consumers. We discuss the empirical findings from the TICELEC (Technologies de l'Information pour une Consommation Electrique responsable-Information Technology for Sustainable Elec...

  16. A CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OIL PRICES CURRENT ACCOUNT DEFICIT, AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS FROM FRAGILE FIVE COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuksel BAYRAKTAR

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to determine the impact of oil prices in the Fragile-Five countries (Brazil, Indonesia, South Africa, India, and Turkey on current account deficit and growth. In this study, the method of panel data analysis was used and the period of 1980-2014 was examined. The Levin, Lin, & Chu panel; Im, Pesaran, and Shin W-stat; ADF-Fisher Chi-square; and PP-Fisher Chi-square unit root tests were used to determine the stability of data before panel data analysis. The results of the study can be expressed as follows. i There was a statistically meaningful relationship in oil prices with both GDP and the current account deficit. While there was a positive correlation between oil prices and GDP, there was a negative relationship between oil prices and current account deficit. ii No long-term relationship was found between GDP and oil prices; there was a long-term relationship between current account deficit and oil prices as determined by the cointegration tests. iii Causality test also showed the presence of a bidirectional relationship between GDP and oil prices.  Causality between oil prices and the current account deficit was one-way from the variable of oil price to the variable of current account deficit.

  17. Direct Evidence for Neutrino Flavor Transformation from Neutral-Current Interactions in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, Q R; Andersen, T C; Anglin, J D; Barton, J C; Beier, E W; Bercovitch, M; Bigu, J; Biller, S D; Black, R A; Blevis, I; Boardman, R J; Boger, J; Bonvin, E; Boulay, M G; Bowler, M G; Bowles, T J; Brice, S J; Browne, M C; Bullard, T V; Buhler, G; Cameron, J; Chan, Y D; Chen, H H; Chen, M; Chen, X; Cleveland, B T; Clifford, E T H; Cowan, J H M; Cowen, D F; Cox, G A; Dai, X; Dalnoki-Veress, F; Davidson, W F; Doe, P J; Doucas, G; Dragowsky, M R; Duba, C A; Duncan, F A; Dunford, M; Dunmore, J A; Earle, E D; Elliott, S R; Evans, H C; Ewan, G T; Farine, J; Fergani, H; Ferraris, A P; Ford, R J; Formaggio, J A; Fowler, M M; Frame, K; Frank, E D; Frati, W; Gagnon, N; Germani, J V; Gil, S; Graham, K; Grant, D R; Hahn, R L; Hallin, A L; Hallman, E D; Hamer, A S; Hamian, A A; Handler, W B; Haq, R U; Hargrove, C K; Harvey, P J; Hazama, R; Heeger, K M; Heintzelman, W J; Heise, J; Helmer, R L; Hepburn, J D; Heron, H; Hewett, J L; Hime, A; Howe, M; Hykawy, J G; Isaac, M C P; Jagam, P; Jelley, N A; Jillings, C; Jonkmans, G; Kazkaz, K; Keener, P T; Klein, J R; Knox, A B; Komar, R J; Kouzes, R; Kutter, T; Kyba, C C M; Law, J; Lawson, I T; Lay, M; Lee, H W; Lesko, K T; Leslie, J R; Levine, I; Locke, W; Luoma, S; Lyon, J; Majerus, S; Mak, H B; Maneira, J; Manor, J; Marino, A D; McCauley, N; McDonald, A B; McDonald, D S; McFarlane, K; McGregor, G; Meijer-Drees, R; Miin, C; Miller, G G; Milton, G; Moffat, B A; Moorhead, M E; Nally, C W; Neubauer, M S; Newcomer, F M; Ng, H S; Noble, A J; Norman, E B; Novikov, V M; O'Neill, M; Okada, C E; Ollerhead, R W; Omori, Mamoru; Orrell, J L; Oser, S M; Poon, A W P; Radcliffe, T J; Roberge, A; Robertson, B C; Robertson, R G H; Rosendahl, S S E; Rowley, J K; Rusu, V L; Saettler, E; Schaffer, K K; Schwendener, M H; Schülke, A; Seifert, H; Shatkay, M; Simpson, J J; Sims, C J; Sinclair, D; Skensved, P; Smith, A R; Smith, M W E; Spreitzer, T; Starinsky, N; Steiger, T D; Stokstad, R G; Stonehill, L C; Storey, R S; Sur, B; Tafirout, R; Tagg, N; Tanner, N W; Taplin, R K; Thorman, M; Thornewell, P M; Trent, P T; Tserkovnyak, Y; Van Berg, R; Van de Water, R G; Virtue, C J; Waltham, C E; Wang, J X; Wark, D L; West, N; Wilhelmy, J B; Wilkerson, J F; Wilson, J R; Wittich, P; Wouters, J M; Yeh, M

    2002-01-01

    Observations of neutral current neutrino interactions on deuterium in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory are reported. Using the neutral current, elastic scattering, and charged current reactions and assuming the standard 8B shape, the electron-neutrino component of the 8B solar flux is 1.76 +/-0.05(stat.)+/-0.09(syst.) x10^6/(cm^2 s), for a kinetic energy threshold of 5 MeV. The non-electron neutrino component is 3.41+/-0.45(stat.)+0.48,-0.45(syst.) x10^6/(cm^2 s), 5.3 standard deviations greater than zero, providing strong evidence for solar electron neutrino flavor transformation. The total flux measured with the NC reaction is 5.09 +0.44,-0.43(stat.)+0.46,-0.43(syst.)x10^6/(cm^2 s), consistent with solar models.

  18. Chest Pain of Suspected Cardiac Origin: Current Evidence-based Recommendations for Prehospital Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Brian Savino

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the United States, emergency medical services (EMS protocols vary widely across jurisdictions. We sought to develop evidence-based recommendations for the prehospital evaluation and treatment of chest pain of suspected cardiac origin and to compare these recommendations against the current protocols used by the 33 EMS agencies in the state of California. Methods: We performed a literature review of the current evidence in the prehospital treatment of chest pain and augmented this review with guidelines from various national and international societies to create our evidence-based recommendations. We then compared the chest pain protocols of each of the 33 EMS agencies for consistency with these recommendations. The specific protocol components that we analyzed were use of supplemental oxygen, aspirin, nitrates, opiates, 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG, ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI regionalization systems, prehospital fibrinolysis and β-blockers. Results: The protocols varied widely in terms of medication and dosing choices, as well as listed contraindications to treatments. Every agency uses oxygen with 54% recommending titrated dosing. All agencies use aspirin (64% recommending 325mg, 24% recommending 162mg and 15% recommending either, as well as nitroglycerin and opiates (58% choosing morphine. Prehospital 12- Lead ECGs are used in 97% of agencies, and all but one agency has some form of regionalized care for their STEMI patients. No agency is currently employing prehospital fibrinolysis or β-blocker use. Conclusion: Protocols for chest pain of suspected cardiac origin vary widely across California. The evidence-based recommendations that we present for the prehospital diagnosis and treatment of this condition may be useful for EMS medical directors tasked with creating and revising these protocols.

  19. Current data of targeted therapies for the treatment of triple-negative advanced breast cancer: empiricism or evidence-based?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrelli, Fausto; Cabiddu, Mary; Ghilardi, Mara; Barni, Sandro

    2009-10-01

    Approximately 10 - 15% of breast carcinomas (BCs) are known to be 'triple-negative (TN) receptor' (i.e., not expressing ER or PR and not exhibiting overexpression and/or gene amplification of HER2-neu). Triple-negative BCs comprise approximately 85% of all basal-type tumours. Classically, basal-like BCs have been characterised by low expression of ER, PR, and HER2 neu and high expression of CK5, CK14, caveolin-1, CAIX, p63, and EGFR (HER1), which reflects the mammary gland basal/myoepithelial cell component. Although there is no standard first-line chemotherapy regimen for metastatic TN BCs, anthracycline- and taxane-containing regimens are acceptable treatments. A large number of agents, including DNA-damaging agents, EGFR inhibitors, antiangiogenic agents and novel taxane formulations are currently being tested in clinical trials for first-line and pretreated patients. Limited experiences with platinum salts, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, cetuximab, bevacizumab and ixabepilone have been published in recent years and will be reported. Novel immunohistochemistry analysis for identification of basal like/TN phenotype are awaited to correctly select this population. The clinical trials investigating new agents have to be designed for a specific (and possibly large) subset of patients with BC. In the future, a gene array platform with greater sensitivity for distinguishing the various BC subtypes, as well as having the power to predict the molecular biology of the disease, will be an indispensible tool for treatment selection. Currently, treatment of TN BC is more empirical than evidence-based. The cornerstone of treatment is chemotherapy, but in the near future, novel target agents will emerge as possible partners.

  20. [Systematic review and evidence mapping of empirical studies on health status and medical care among refugees and asylum seekers in Germany (1990-2014)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Mohsenpour, Amir; Saure, Daniel; Stock, Christian; Loerbroks, Adrian; Joos, Stefanie; Schneider, Christine

    2016-05-01

    Owing to a lack of routine statistics on the health status and medical care of asylum seekers, empirical studies play a major role in the mapping of these aspects. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the research landscape in this area, synthesizing knowledge from empirical studies and identifying evidence gaps. A three-tiered search strategy included searching for empirical studies in national/international databases and on the internet, screening reference lists, and contacting experts. Studies meeting predefined inclusion criteria were thematically organized and described in a narrative synthesis. The searches generated 1,190 hits; 52 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 41 were quantitative studies (78.9 %), 10 qualitative (19.2 %), and 1 was a review (1.9 %). A total of 30 primary articles (58.9 %) analyzed mental health aspects, followed by infectious diseases (n = 12, 23.5 %). Qualitative studies, mainly ethnographies and case studies, explored mental health and social determinants of health, providing evidence for the impact of living conditions on health and medical care. Few studies analyzed chronic diseases (n = 3) or childhood illnesses (n = 6). No studies analyzed the health needs or medical care of asylum-seeking women during pregnancy and child birth. In 62.7 % of the primary studies, a single sampling point was used to recruit asylum seekers. Nationwide external validity was given in two quantitative studies. The priority research areas identified are chronic diseases and childhood and maternal health. The divergency and heterogeneity of the studies hamper a comprehensive and comparable acquisition of knowledgeand emphasize the  need for collaborative research to close the existing evidence gaps.

  1. PLASMA OXYTOCIN CONCENTRATION AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS: A REVIEW OF CURRENT EVIDENCE AND DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Suena H; Backes, Katherine A; Schuette, Stephanie A

    2016-04-01

    There is substantial recent interest in the role of oxytocin in social and affiliative behaviors-animal models of depression have suggested a link between oxytocin and mood. We reviewed literature to date for evidence of a potential relationship between peripheral oxytocin concentration and depressive symptoms in humans. Pubmed(®) and PsychINFO(®) were searched for biomedical and social sciences literature from 1960 to May 19, 2015 for empirical articles in English involving human subjects focused on the relationship between peripheral oxytocin concentration and depressive symptoms, excluding articles on the oxytocin receptor gene, or involving exogenous (i.e. intranasal) administration of oxytocin. Eight studies meeting criteria were identified and formally reviewed. Studies of pregnant women suggested an inverse relationship between oxytocin level and depressive symptom severity. Findings in nonpregnant women were broadly consistent with the role of oxytocin release in response to stress supported by animal studies. The relationship between oxytocin and depression in men appeared to be in the opposite direction, possibly reflecting the influence of gonadal hormones on oxytocinergic functioning found in other mammalian species. Overall, small sample sizes, heterogeneity in study designs, and other methodological limitations may account for inconsistent findings. Future research utilizing reliable oxytocin measurement protocols including measurements across time, larger sample sizes, and sample homogeneity with respect to multiple possible confounders (age, gender, race and ethnicity, ovarian status among women, and psychosocial context) are needed to elucidate the role of oxytocin in the pathogenesis of depression, and could guide the design of novel pharmacologic agents.

  2. Breast-Feeding Analgesia in Infants: An Update on the Current State of Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Britney; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Latimer, Margot; Campbell-Yeo, Marsha

    To provide an updated synthesis of the current state of the evidence for the effectiveness of breast-feeding and expressed breast milk feeding in reducing procedural pain in preterm and full-term born infants. A systematic search of key electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE) was completed. Of the 1032 abstracts screened, 21 were found eligible for inclusion. Fifteen studies reported on the use of breast-feeding or expressed breast milk in full-term infants and 6 reported on preterm infants. Direct breast-feeding was more effective than maternal holding, maternal skin-to-skin contact, topical anesthetics, and music therapy, and was as or more effective than sweet tasting solutions in full-term infants. Expressed breast milk was not consistently found to reduce pain response in full-term or preterm infants. Studies generally had moderate to high risk of bias. There is sufficient evidence to recommend direct breast-feeding for procedural pain management in full-term infants. Based on current evidence, expressed breast milk alone should not be considered an adequate intervention.

  3. Empirical studies of magnetosheath and tail field and current structure, and model comparisons. Ph.D. Thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaymaz, Z.

    1993-12-31

    In this dissertation, the authors present the observational results obtained with IMP-8 in the magnetosheath and magnetotail, and compare them with the results from the gas dynamic (GD) and global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models. Although the magnetotail has been investigated by many others, the magnetosheath is one of the least studied regions of space despite its importance in solar wind-magnetosphere coupling. In this study, by utilizing a large magnetometer data set obtained simultaneously from IMP-8 and ISEE-3, the authors construct average magnetic field vector maps of the magnetosheath and tail in the cross-sectional plane. They determine how this average structure is influenced by the IMF, the Earth`s dipole tilt angle, and geomagnetic activity. For equatorial IMF`s, the magnetosheath field drapes asymmetrically around the magnetosphere causing a rotation of the field draping pattern, the tail current sheet twists, and plasma sheet field lines cease to show north-south symmetry. The magnetic field structure for north/south IMF`s is also shown to exhibit different properties including irregularities in the sheath (for southward) and placement of the dipolar and flaring regions in the tail. An IMF related perturbation field is observed in the tail which is strongest on the plasma sheet dawn and dusk sides for equatorial IMF, and on the flanks for north-south IMF. The Earth`s dipole tilt with respect to the geomagnetic equator affects the magnetotail current structure by causing its displacement from the geomagnetic equator. The authors examine the structure of the current sheet shape and location extensively using 16-years of IMP-8 magnetic field data. They show how geomagnetic activity affects this displacement. Many other field and current properties of the tail structure are also investigated such as the spatial distribution of the current density vectors and the (J x B) forces.

  4. Fish, Mercury, Selenium and Cardiovascular Risk: Current Evidence and Unanswered Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariush Mozaffarian

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Controversy has arisen among the public and in the media regarding the health effects of fish intake in adults. Substantial evidence indicates that fish consumption reduces coronary heart disease mortality, the leading cause of death in developed and most developing nations. Conversely, concerns have grown regarding potential effects of exposure to mercury found in some fish. Seafood species are also rich in selenium, an essential trace element that may protect against both cardiovascular disease and toxic effects of mercury. Such protective effects would have direct implications for recommendations regarding optimal selenium intake and for assessing the potential impact of mercury exposure from fish intake in different populations. Because fish consumption appears to have important health benefits in adults, elucidating the relationships between fish intake, mercury and selenium exposure, and health risk is of considerable scientific and public health relevance. The evidence for health effects of fish consumption in adults is reviewed, focusing on the strength and consistency of evidence and relative magnitudes of effects of omega-3 fatty acids, mercury, and selenium. Given the preponderance of evidence, the focus is on cardiovascular effects, but other potential health effects, as well as potential effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins in fish, are also briefly reviewed. The relevant current unanswered questions and directions of further research are summarized.

  5. Complementary Medicine, Exercise, Meditation, Diet, and Lifestyle Modification for Anxiety Disorders: A Review of Current Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sarris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of complementary medicines and therapies (CAM and modification of lifestyle factors such as physical activity, exercise, and diet are being increasingly considered as potential therapeutic options for anxiety disorders. The objective of this metareview was to examine evidence across a broad range of CAM and lifestyle interventions in the treatment of anxiety disorders. In early 2012 we conducted a literature search of PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane Library, for key studies, systematic reviews, and metaanalyses in the area. Our paper found that in respect to treatment of generalized anxiety or specific disorders, CAM evidence revealed current support for the herbal medicine Kava. One isolated study shows benefit for naturopathic medicine, whereas acupuncture, yoga, and Tai chi have tentative supportive evidence, which is hampered by overall poor methodology. The breadth of evidence does not support homeopathy for treating anxiety. Strong support exists for lifestyle modifications including adoption of moderate exercise and mindfulness meditation, whereas dietary improvement, avoidance of caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine offer encouraging preliminary data. In conclusion, certain lifestyle modifications and some CAMs may provide a beneficial role in the treatment of anxiety disorders.

  6. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Modern Parenteral Nutrition: A Review of the Current Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klek, Stanislaw

    2016-03-07

    Intravenous lipid emulsions are an essential component of parenteral nutrition regimens. Originally employed as an efficient non-glucose energy source to reduce the adverse effects of high glucose intake and provide essential fatty acids, lipid emulsions have assumed a larger therapeutic role due to research demonstrating the effects of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on key metabolic functions, including inflammatory and immune response, coagulation, and cell signaling. Indeed, emerging evidence suggests that the effects of omega-3 PUFA on inflammation and immune response result in meaningful therapeutic benefits in surgical, cancer, and critically ill patients as well as patients requiring long-term parenteral nutrition. The present review provides an overview of the mechanisms of action through which omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA modulate the immune-inflammatory response and summarizes the current body of evidence regarding the clinical and pharmacoeconomic benefits of intravenous n-3 fatty acid-containing lipid emulsions in patients requiring parenteral nutrition.

  7. Foot orthoses for pediatric flexible flatfoot: evidence and current practices among Canadian physical therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Kyra

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the evidence for flatfoot intervention in children with gross motor delay of neurological origin, and to understand how physical therapists use foot orthoses (FOs) to treat this population. Thirty-four physical therapists employed in Canadian publicly funded pediatric centers were surveyed to explore current practices and beliefs related to FOs. Responses are discussed in the context of the research literature. Objective physical examination and differentiation between developmental and pathological flatfeet can help clinicians to identify suitable FO candidates, monitor foot posture over time, and evaluate treatment effectiveness. An evidence-informed approach to assessment and intervention has the potential to improve clinical outcomes for clients with pediatric flatfoot.

  8. Adolescent preventive health and team-games-tournaments: five decades of evidence for an empirically based paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarski, John S; Feit, Marvin D

    2011-01-01

    The problematic behaviors of teenagers and the subsequent negative consequences are extensive and well documented: unwanted pregnancy, substance abuse, violent behavior, depression, and social and psychological consequences of unemployment. In this article, the authors review an approach that uses a cooperative learning, empirically based intervention that employs peers as teachers. This intervention of choice is Teams-Games-Tournaments (TGT), a paradigm backed by five decades of empirical support. The application of TGT in preventive health programs incorporates elements in common with other prevention programs that are based on a public health orientation and constitute the essential components of health education, that is, skills training and practice in applying skills. The TGT intervention supports the idea that children and adolescents from various socioeconomic classes, between the ages of 8 and 18 and in classrooms or groups ranging in size from 4 to 17 members, can work together for one another. TGT has been applied successfully in such diverse areas as adolescent development, sexuality education, psychoactive substance abuse education, anger control, coping with depression and suicide, nutrition, comprehensive employment preparation, and family intervention. This article reviews the extensive research on TGT using examples of successful projects in substance abuse, violence, and nutrition. Issues are raised that relate to the implementation of preventive health strategies for adolescents, including cognitive aspects, social and family networks, and intervention components.

  9. Whole dairy matrix or single nutrients in assessment of health effects: current evidence and knowledge gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Bertram, Hanne Christine; Bonjour, Jean-Philippe; de Groot, Lisette; Dupont, Didier; Feeney, Emma; Ipsen, Richard; Lecerf, Jean Michel; Mackie, Alan; McKinley, Michelle C; Michalski, Marie-Caroline; Rémond, Didier; Risérus, Ulf; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; Tholstrup, Tine; Weaver, Connie; Astrup, Arne; Givens, Ian

    2017-04-12

    Foods consist of a large number of different nutrients that are contained in a complex structure. The nature of the food structure and the nutrients therein (i.e., the food matrix) will determine the nutrient digestion and absorption, thereby altering the overall nutritional properties of the food. Thus, the food matrix may exhibit a different relation with health indicators compared to single nutrients studied in isolation. The evidence for a dairy matrix effect was presented and discussed by an expert panel at a closed workshop, and the following consensus was reached: 1) Current evidence does not support a positive association between intake of dairy products and risk of cardiovascular disease (i.e., stroke and coronary heart disease) and type 2 diabetes. In contrast, fermented dairy products, such as cheese and yogurt, generally show inverse associations. 2) Intervention studies have indicated that the metabolic effects of whole dairy may be different than those of single dairy constituents when considering the effects on body weight, cardiometabolic disease risk, and bone health. 3) Different dairy products seem to be distinctly linked to health effects and disease risk markers. 4) Different dairy structures and common processing methods may enhance interactions between nutrients in the dairy matrix, which may modify the metabolic effects of dairy consumption. 5) In conclusion, the nutritional values of dairy products should not be considered equivalent to their nutrient contents but, rather, be considered on the basis of the biofunctionality of the nutrients within dairy food structures. 6) Further research on the health effects of whole dairy foods is warranted alongside the more traditional approach of studying the health effects of single nutrients. Future diet assessments and recommendations should carefully consider the evidence of the effects of whole foods alongside the evidence of the effects of individual nutrients. Current knowledge gaps and

  10. Fried Food Consumption and Cardiovascular Health: A Review of Current Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraka V. Gadiraju

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fried food consumption and its effects on cardiovascular disease are still subjects of debate. The objective of this review was to summarize current evidence on the association between fried food consumption and cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension and obesity and to recommend directions for future research. We used PubMed, Google Scholar and Medline searches to retrieve pertinent publications. Most available data were based on questionnaires as a tool to capture fried food intakes, and study design was limited to case-control and cohort studies. While few studies have reported a positive association between frequencies of fried food intake and risk of coronary artery disease, heart failure, diabetes or hypertension, other investigators have failed to confirm such an association. There is strong evidence suggesting a higher risk of developing chronic disease when fried foods are consumed more frequently (i.e., four or more times per week. Major gaps in the current literature include a lack of detailed information on the type of oils used for frying foods, stratification of the different types of fried food, frying procedure (deep and pan frying, temperature and duration of frying, how often oils were reused and a lack of consideration of overall dietary patterns. Besides addressing these gaps, future research should also develop tools to better define fried food consumption at home versus away from home and to assess their effects on chronic diseases. In summary, the current review provides enough evidence to suggest adverse health effects with higher frequency of fried food consumption. While awaiting confirmation from future studies, it may be advisable to the public to consume fried foods in moderation while emphasizing an overall healthy diet.

  11. Fried Food Consumption and Cardiovascular Health: A Review of Current Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadiraju, Taraka V; Patel, Yash; Gaziano, J Michael; Djoussé, Luc

    2015-10-06

    Fried food consumption and its effects on cardiovascular disease are still subjects of debate. The objective of this review was to summarize current evidence on the association between fried food consumption and cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension and obesity and to recommend directions for future research. We used PubMed, Google Scholar and Medline searches to retrieve pertinent publications. Most available data were based on questionnaires as a tool to capture fried food intakes, and study design was limited to case-control and cohort studies. While few studies have reported a positive association between frequencies of fried food intake and risk of coronary artery disease, heart failure, diabetes or hypertension, other investigators have failed to confirm such an association. There is strong evidence suggesting a higher risk of developing chronic disease when fried foods are consumed more frequently (i.e., four or more times per week). Major gaps in the current literature include a lack of detailed information on the type of oils used for frying foods, stratification of the different types of fried food, frying procedure (deep and pan frying), temperature and duration of frying, how often oils were reused and a lack of consideration of overall dietary patterns. Besides addressing these gaps, future research should also develop tools to better define fried food consumption at home versus away from home and to assess their effects on chronic diseases. In summary, the current review provides enough evidence to suggest adverse health effects with higher frequency of fried food consumption. While awaiting confirmation from future studies, it may be advisable to the public to consume fried foods in moderation while emphasizing an overall healthy diet.

  12. Screening for Maternal Thyroid Dysfunction in Pregnancy: A Review of the Clinical Evidence and Current Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donny L. F. Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies have demonstrated that maternal thyroid dysfunction and thyroid autoimmunity in pregnancy may be associated with adverse obstetric and fetal outcomes. Treatment of overt maternal hyperthyroidism and overt hypothyroidism clearly improves outcomes. To date there is limited evidence that levothyroxine treatment of pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism, isolated hypothyroxinemia, or thyroid autoimmunity is beneficial. Therefore, there is ongoing debate regarding the need for universal screening for thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy. Current guidelines differ; some recommend an aggressive case-finding approach, whereas others advocate testing only symptomatic women or those with a personal history of thyroid disease or other associated medical conditions.

  13. [Current state of digestive system robotic surgery in the light of evidence based medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Oshiro, Elena; Fernández-Represa, Jesús Alvarez

    2009-03-01

    The incorporation of robotics in minimally invasive surgery has had mixed reception in the different fields of digestive surgery. Nowadays we are exposed to a continuous stream of publications on robotic approach techniques and outcomes, which do not always provide objective criteria and whose value, through scientific evidence analysis, is sometimes arguable. With the aim of shedding light on current knowledge on digestive robotic surgery and giving an update of its possibilities, the authors analyse the abundant literature available on the different digestive robotic surgery procedures, and sum up their own experience.

  14. Clostridium difficile infection in children with inflammatory bowel disease: current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Pituch, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, immune-mediated disease of the gastrointestinal tract that develops in genetically susceptible individuals. Questions about the role of infections in the development and exacerbations of inflammatory bowel disease remain unanswered. Among numerous bacteria that have been linked to IBD, the most frequently associated is Clostridium difficile. Clinical symptoms of C. difficile infection and an exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease are often indistinguishable. In cases of diarrhea in patients with IBD and C. difficile infection, antibiotic treatment is recommended. This review attempts to summarize C. difficile infection's epidemiology and clinical features and describes current evidence on treatment of C. difficile infection in children with IBD.

  15. Empirical evidence reveals seasonally dependent reduction in nitrification in coastal sediments subjected to near future ocean acidification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braeckman, U.; Van Colen, C.; Guilini, K.; Van Gansbeke, D.; Soetaert, K.; Vincx, M.; Vanaverbeke, J.

    2014-01-01

    Research so far has provided little evidence that benthic biogeochemical cycling is affected by ocean acidification under realistic climate change scenarios. We measured nutrient exchange and sediment community oxygen consumption (SCOC) rates to estimate nitrification in natural coastal permeable

  16. Empirical evidence reveals seasonally dependent reduction in nitrification in coastal sediments subjected to near future ocean acidification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braeckman, U.; Van Colen, C.; Guilini, K.; Van Gansbeke, D.; Soetaert, K.; Vincx, M.; Vanaverbeke, J.

    2014-01-01

    Research so far has provided little evidence that benthic biogeochemical cycling is affected by ocean acidification under realistic climate change scenarios. We measured nutrient exchange and sediment community oxygen consumption (SCOC) rates to estimate nitrification in natural coastal permeable an

  17. Cytidine 5'-Diphosphocholine (Citicoline) in Glaucoma: Rationale of Its Use, Current Evidence and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberti, Gloria; Tanga, Lucia; Michelessi, Manuele; Quaranta, Luciano; Parisi, Vincenzo; Manni, Gianluca; Oddone, Francesco

    2015-11-30

    Cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine or citicoline is an endogenous compound that acts in the biosynthetic pathway of phospholipids of cell membranes, particularly phosphatidylcholine, and it is able to increase neurotrasmitters levels in the central nervous system. Citicoline has shown positive effects in Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, as well as in amblyopia. Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease currently considered a disease involving ocular and visual brain structures. Neuroprotection has been proposed as a valid therapeutic option for those patients progressing despite a well-controlled intraocular pressure, the main risk factor for the progression of the disease. The aim of this review is to critically summarize the current evidence about the effect of citicoline in glaucoma.

  18. Current Evidence Supporting the Link Between Dietary Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Shatha; Pu, Shuaihua; Jones, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    Lack of consensus exists pertaining to the scientific evidence regarding effects of various dietary fatty acids on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The objective of this article is to review current evidence concerning cardiovascular health effects of the main dietary fatty acid types; namely, trans (TFA), saturated (SFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA; n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Accumulating evidence shows negative health impacts of TFA and SFA; both may increase CVD risk. Policies have been proposed to reduce TFA and SFA consumption to less than 1 and 7 % of energy intake, respectively. Cardiovascular health might be promoted by replacing SFA and TFA with n-6 PUFA, n-3 PUFA, or MUFA; however, the optimal amount of PUFA or MUFA that can be used to replace SFA and TFA has not been defined yet. Evidence suggests of the potential importance of restricting n-6 PUFA up to 10 % of energy and obtaining an n-6/n-3 ratio as close as possible to unity, along with a particular emphasis on consuming adequate amounts of essential fatty acids. The latest evidence shows cardioprotective effects of MUFA-rich diets, especially when MUFA are supplemented with essential fatty acids; namely, docosahexaenoic acid. MUFA has been newly suggested to be involved in regulating fat oxidation, energy metabolism, appetite sensations, weight maintenance, and cholesterol metabolism. These favorable effects might implicate MUFA as the preferable choice to substitute for other fatty acids, especially given the declaration of its safety for up to 20 % of total energy.

  19. Women’s Empowerment through Self-help Groups and its Impact on Health Issues: Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assist. Prof. Sudipta De

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on an empirical study in West Bengal, this paper attempts toexamine whether women’s involvement in the microcredit programmethrough SHGs makes any positive change on women’s empowerment.From the assessment of various criteria of empowerment(power,autonomy and self-reliance, entitlement, participation and awarenessand capacity-building, the study suggests that if women participatingin the microcredit programme through SHGs sustain for some longerperiod (eight years or more, such programme might contribute tohigher level of women’s empowerment than women’s empowermentunder all types of control group. This paper also finds that women’searnings from saving and credit have positive and significant effect onnutritional status of the children of women members of SHGs and onthe protein-intake for their household compared with that of amongcontrol groups.

  20. Community Supported Agriculture in the Urban Fringe: Empirical Evidence for Project Feasibility in the Metropolitan Area of Naples (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Cicia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available  Urbanisation of city-side areas effects on farm land use and organisation are analysed in this study with the objective of seeking the most effective way to implement a Community Supported Agriculture (CSA scheme. Specifically, we used a theoretical framework to describe and assess the relationships between urbanization and farm-styles in the city belt. Our analysis is based on a case study in the protected area of the Campi Flegrei Regional Park situated in the north-western part of the Neapolitan metropolitan area, which is a peri-urban rural area with severe environmental management problems. Our results from the empirical analysis allowed us to distinguish the farms of the area into three behavioural-social groups on the basis of specific features, in order to identify the best suited type of farm for the strategic implementation of the CSA. A market scenario was predicted for each of them without any intervention

  1. Spatial Interaction Modelling of Cross-Region R&D Collaborations Empirical Evidence from the EU Framework Programmes

    CERN Document Server

    Scherngell, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study is on cross-region R&D collaboration networks in the EU Framework Programmes (FP's). In contrast to most other empirical studies in this field, we shift attention to regions as units of analysis, i.e. we use aggregated data on research collaborations at the regional level. The objective is to identify determinants of cross-region collaboration patterns. In particular, we are interested whether geographical and technological distances are significant determinants of interregional cooperation. Further we investigate differences between intra-industry networks and public research networks (i.e. universities and research organisations). The European coverage is achieved by using data on 255 NUTS-2 regions of the 25 pre-2007 EU member-states, as well as Norway and Switzerland. We adopt a Poisson spatial interaction modelling perspective to analyse these questions. The dependent variable is the intensity of collaborative interactions between two regions, the independent variables are reg...

  2. FUNDAMENTAL INFORMATION, EARNINGS QUALITY,AND FUTURE EARNINGS: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM CHINA's A-SHARE LISTED COMPANIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JianboZhou

    2004-01-01

    The earnings quality of listed companies is an issue of public concern. This paper conducts an in-depth and comprehensive analysis of how to measure the earnings quality of listed companies by using empirical methods. The indicators of earnings quality used in this paper include not only cash flow but also indicators that affect the growth of future earnings. We find that, firstly, in our stock return regressions, both specific and composite indicators of earnings quality have incremental explanatory power for stock returns after controlling for earnings per share, changes in earnings per share, and firm size. Secondly, in our future earnings regressions, both specific and composite indicators of earnings quality have incremental explanatory power for future earnings after controlling for earnings per share, changes in earnings per share, and firm size. Thirdly, listed companies with lower (higher) earnings quality have poorer (better) earnings performance in future years.

  3. Seasonality in Equity Rising on Stock Markets. Windows of Opportunity? Empirical Evidence from China, India, Brazil and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellonia Antonella

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Empirical research has underlined high variability cases of equity-raising through the placing of shares in the primary market in the course of time, considering both new enterprises��� quotations, and increases for the already- quoted ones in regulated markets. Different periods and markets at different development stages have been taken in exam, resulting in the discovery of high concentration of such operations in specific time-slots. Focusing on China, India, Brazil and South Africa’s stock markets trends between 2003 and 2011, the research aims to verify if: a The collected capitals are concentrated in years of high share indexes’ levels; b The collected capitals increase in presence of high market average’s price-earnings.

  4. INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL PERFORMANCE AND ITS IMPACT ON CORPORATE PERFORMANCE: AN EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM MODARABA SECTOR OF PAKISTAN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasim ul Rehman

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study of this is to examine the Intellectual Performance (IC of 12 Modaraba companies and its impact on corporate performance. This study examines the performance of three main components of VAIC™ i.e. Human Capital Efficiency (HCE, Structural Capital Efficiency (SCE and Capital Employed Efficiency (CEE and its impact on corporate performance by employing the predictive analysis. The empirical results reveal that one of the important components to strengthen the IC performance is Human Capital Efficiency (HCE which means investing more to boost the employees productive would increase the human efficiency of employees. The results show that HCE has significant relation at (P>0.1 with financial performance (ROE and EPS, SCE at (P >0.1 and (P>0.05 with financial performance (ROE and (EPS respectively. Whereas CEE has substantive effect with ROE and ROI at (P>0.05 and with (EPS at (P>0.1 respectively.

  5. Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion: A Perspective on Current Evidence and Clinical Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Habib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current published data regarding open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF in relation to minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF. Introduction. MI-TLIF, a modern method for lumbar interbody arthrodesis, has allowed for a minimally invasive method to treat degenerative spinal pathologies. Currently, there is limited literature that compares TLIF directly to MI-TLIF. Thus, we seek to discuss the current literature on these techniques. Methods. Using a PubMed search, we reviewed recent publications of open and MI-TLIF, dating from 2002 to 2012. We discussed these studies and their findings in this paper, focusing on patient-reported outcomes as well as complications. Results. Data found in 14 articles of the literature was analyzed. Using these reports, we found mean follow-up was 20 months. The mean patient study size was 52. Seven of the articles directly compared outcomes of open TLIF with MI-TLIF, such as mean duration of surgery, length of post-operative stay, blood loss, and complications. Conclusion. Although high-class data comparing these two techniques is lacking, the current evidence supports MI-TLIF with outcomes comparable to that of the traditional, open technique. Further prospective, randomized studies will help to further our understanding of this minimally invasive technique.

  6. Current Thoughts on Fat Grafting: Using the Evidence to Determine Fact or Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinno, Sammy; Wilson, Stelios; Brownstone, Nicholas; Levine, Steven M

    2016-03-01

    Autologous fat grafting is an increasingly popular procedure used for facial rejuvenation and body contouring. The purpose of this article is to perform an evidence-based review to determine fact from fiction for the hot topics in autologous fat grafting. A comprehensive literature search was performed. The following key words were then searched: "fat grafting," "autologous fat grafting," "autologous fat transfer," "lipotransfer," "liposculping," and "lipofilling." The authors then assessed each modality individually for the level of evidence that exists and whether the majority of evidence supports or refutes it. A review of the literature demonstrated that there is no standard test for determining fat viability or volume augmentation after grafting. Furthermore, there is no difference in cell viability seen between syringe aspiration and liposuction pump aspiration harvest techniques (Level II). The decision to wash or centrifuge the fat plays very little role in fat graft survival (Level III). There is no difference between cell viability as a function of harvest location (Level IV). Nearly all studies show no significant effect of local anesthesia on adipocyte cells (Level IV). There are excellent data that support the fact that low-shear devices maintain fat structural integrity (Level IV). There is quality evidence that supports longevity of fat grafted to the breast (Level III). Two studies support large-volume fat grafting longevity but fail to prove their results using objective measures or with sufficiently large sample sizes (Level IV). External preexpansion devices improve total graft survival rate (Level IV). There is quality evidence to support that fat should be injected soon after harvesting, as properties of fat begin to change after processing (Level IV). Microneedling (preconditioning) before fat grafting has been demonstrated to improve fat survival (Level III). Currently, the highest levels of evidence derive from human studies of clinical

  7. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy for inflammatory neuropathy: current evidence base and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabally, Yusuf A

    2014-06-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy is of proven effect in chronic inflammatory neuropathies, including chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). In more recent years, there have been a number of anecdotal case reports and small series, followed by a few trials of variable design, of subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy in these neuropathies. To date, limited evidence suggests that the subcutaneous route may be a more clinically effective, better-tolerated, at least cost-equivalent and a more patient-friendly option than the still more used intravenous alternative. Long-term efficacy is not as yet established in neuropathic indications by randomised controlled clinical trial evidence, and it is likely that the subcutaneous route may not be suitable in all cases with some hints to this effect appearing from the limited data available to date. Further studies are ongoing, including those of dose comparison, and more are likely to be planned in future. The literature on the use of subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy in chronic inflammatory neuropathy is reviewed here. The current use in clinical practice, day-to-day benefits, including quality of life measures and health economics as published thus far, are evaluated. The limitations of this form of treatment in CIDP and MMN are also analysed in the light of current literature and taking into account the remaining unknowns. Future prospects and research with this mode of immunoglobulin therapy administration are discussed.

  8. Vitamin E in Sarcopenia: Current Evidences on Its Role in Prevention and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shy Cian Khor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome that is characterized by gradual loss of muscle mass and strength with increasing age. Although the underlying mechanism is still unknown, the contribution of increased oxidative stress in advanced age has been recognized as one of the risk factors of sarcopenia. Thus, eliminating reactive oxygen species (ROS can be a strategy to combat sarcopenia. In this review, we discuss the potential role of vitamin E in the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia. Vitamin E is a lipid soluble vitamin, with potent antioxidant properties and current evidence suggesting a role in the modulation of signaling pathways. Previous studies have shown its possible beneficial effects on aging and age-related diseases. Although there are evidences suggesting an association between vitamin E and muscle health, they are still inconclusive compared to other more extensively studied chronic diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, we reviewed the role of vitamin E and its potential protective mechanisms on muscle health based on previous and current in vitro and in vivo studies.

  9. Vitamin E in Sarcopenia: Current Evidences on Its Role in Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Karim, Norwahidah; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah

    2014-01-01

    Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome that is characterized by gradual loss of muscle mass and strength with increasing age. Although the underlying mechanism is still unknown, the contribution of increased oxidative stress in advanced age has been recognized as one of the risk factors of sarcopenia. Thus, eliminating reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be a strategy to combat sarcopenia. In this review, we discuss the potential role of vitamin E in the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia. Vitamin E is a lipid soluble vitamin, with potent antioxidant properties and current evidence suggesting a role in the modulation of signaling pathways. Previous studies have shown its possible beneficial effects on aging and age-related diseases. Although there are evidences suggesting an association between vitamin E and muscle health, they are still inconclusive compared to other more extensively studied chronic diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, we reviewed the role of vitamin E and its potential protective mechanisms on muscle health based on previous and current in vitro and in vivo studies. PMID:25097722

  10. Current evidence does not support the use of Kinesio Taping in clinical practice: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia do Carmo Silva Parreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Questions: Is Kinesio Taping more effective than a sham taping/placebo, no treatment or other interventions in people with musculoskeletal conditions? Is the addition of Kinesio Taping to other interventions more effective than other interventions alone in people with musculoskeletal conditions? Design: Systematic review of randomised trials. Participants: People with musculoskeletal conditions. Intervention: Kinesio Taping was compared with sham taping/placebo, no treatment, exercises, manual therapy and conventional physiotherapy. Outcome measures: Pain intensity, disability, quality of life, return to work, and global impression of recovery. Results: Twelve randomised trials involving 495 participants were included in the review. The effectiveness of the Kinesio Taping was tested in participants with: shoulder pain in two trials; knee pain in three trials; chronic low back pain in two trials; neck pain in three trials; plantar fasciitis in one trial; and multiple musculoskeletal conditions in one trial. The methodological quality of eligible trials was moderate, with a mean of 6.1 points on the 10-point PEDro Scale score. Overall, Kinesio Taping was no better than sham taping/placebo and active comparison groups. In all comparisons where Kinesio Taping was better than an active or a sham control group, the effect sizes were small and probably not clinically significant or the trials were of low quality. Conclusion: This review provides the most updated evidence on the effectiveness of the Kinesio Taping for musculoskeletal conditions. The current evidence does not support the use of this intervention in these clinical populations. PROSPERO registration: CRD42012003436. [Parreira PdCS, Costa LdCM, Hespanhol Junior LC, Lopes AD, Costa LOP (2014 Current evidence does not support the use of Kinesio Taping in clinical practice: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 60: 31–39

  11. Legalising medical use of cannabis in South Africa: Is the empirical evidence sufficient to support policy shifts in this direction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Charles D H; Myers, Bronwyn J

    2014-03-12

    Inkatha Freedom Party MP Mario Oriani-Ambrosini's impassioned plea to legalise the medical use of cannabis must be understood in the context of his own condition as well as legislative changes in at least ten countries. This article argues that any decisions to shift policy must be based on a consideration of the evidence on the risks and benefits associated with the medical use of cannabis for the individual and broader society. It concludes that there are important gaps in the evidence base, particularly in human trials supporting the efficacy of cannabis use for treating and preventing medical conditions and alleviating negative symptoms associated with these conditions. South African researchers should be enabled actively to support development of the necessary evidence base actively by conducting preclinical and clinical research in this area. Human trials to establish the efficacy of the use of cannabis/cannabinoids in addressing AIDS wasting syndrome and other negative sequelae of HIV and AIDS are especially needed.

  12. Plantar fasciitis – to jab or to support? A systematic review of the current best evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uden H

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hayley Uden1, Eva Boesch1, Saravana Kumar1,21Division of Health Sciences, 2International Centre for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia, AustraliaBackground: Plantar fasciitis is a common condition routinely managed by podiatrists in the community and is widely treated conservatively. Two commonly used treatments for plantar fasciitis are customized functional foot orthoses and corticosteroid injections. While common to clinical practice, the evidence base underpinning these treatment strategies is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness and safety of customized functional foot orthoses and corticosteroid injections in the treatment of plantar fasciitis.Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted. Experimental studies, in English, from 1998 to 2010 were accepted for inclusion in this review. The PEDro quality assessment tool and the National Health and Medical Research Council's hierarchy of evidence were used to assess the quality of the included studies.Results: Six randomized controlled trials which met the selection criteria were included in this review. Four reported on customized functional foot orthoses and 2 on corticosteroid injections. Current best available evidence highlights that both customized functional foot orthoses and corticosteroid injections can lead to a decrease in pain associated with plantar fasciitis. Additionally, customized functional foot orthoses may also provide an additional benefit in terms of increased functional ability in patients with plantar fasciitis. Corticosteroid injections may have side effects, especially pain (from the injection.Conclusion: Both customized functional foot orthoses and corticosteroid injections can lead to reduction in pain associated with plantar fasciitis. While customized functional foot orthoses may increase the functional outcomes in patients with plantar fasciitis

  13. Direct Evidence for Neutrino Flavor Transformation from Neutral-Current Interactions in SNO

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, A. B.; Ahmad, Q. R.; Allen, R. C.; Andersen, T. C.; Anglin, J. D.; Barton, J. C.; Beier, E. W.; Bercovitch, M.; Bigu, J.; Biller, S. D.; Black, R. A.; Blevis, I.; Boardman, R. J.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.; Boulay, M. G.; Bowler, M. G.; Bowles, T. J.; Brice, S. J.; Browne, M. C.; Bullard, T. V.; Bühler, G.; Cameron, J.; Chan, Y. D.; Chen, H. H.; Chen, M.; Chen, X.; Cleveland, B. T.; Clifford, E. T. H.; Cowan, J. H. M.; Cowen, D. F.; Cox, G. A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Davidson, W. F.; Doe, P. J.; Doucas, G.; Dragowsky, M. R.; Duba, C. A.; Duncan, F. A.; Dunford, M.; Dunmore, J. A.; Earle, E. D.; Elliott, S. R.; Evans, H. C.; Ewan, G. T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Ferraris, A. P.; Ford, R. J.; Formaggio, J. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Frame, K.; Frank, E. D.; Frati, W.; Gagnon, N.; Germani, J. V.; Gil, S.; Graham, K.; Grant, D. R.; Hahn, R. L.; Hallin, A. L.; Hallman, E. D.; Hamer, A. S.; Hamian, A. A.; Handler, W. B.; Haq, R. U.; Hargrove, C. K.; Harvey, P. J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K. M.; Heintzelman, W. J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R. L.; Hepburn, J. D.; Heron, H.; Hewett, J.; Hime, A.; Howe, M.; Hykawy, J. G.; Isaac, M. C. P.; Jagam, P.; Jelley, N. A.; Jillings, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Kazkaz, K.; Keener, P. T.; Klein, J. R.; Knox, A. B.; Komar, R. J.; Kouzes, R.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C. C. M.; Law, J.; Lawson, I. T.; Lay, M.; Lee, H. W.; Lesko, K. T.; Leslie, J. R.; Levine, I.; Locke, W.; Luoma, S.; Lyon, J.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H. B.; Maneira, J.; Manor, J.; Marino, A. D.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, D. S.; McFarlane, K.; McGregor, G.; Meijer Drees, R.; Mifflin, C.; Miller, G. G.; Milton, G.; Moffat, B. A.; Moorhead, M.; Nally, C. W.; Neubauer, M. S.; Newcomer, F. M.; Ng, H. S.; Noble, A. J.; Norman, E. B.; Novikov, V. M.; O'Neill, M.; Okada, C. E.; Ollerhead, R. W.; Omori, M.; Orrell, J. L.; Oser, S. M.; Poon, A. W. P.; Radcliffe, T. J.; Roberge, A.; Robertson, B. C.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Rowley, J. K.; Rusu, V. L.; Saettler, E.; Schaffer, K. K.; Schwendener, M. H.; Schülke, A.; Seifert, H.; Shatkay, M.; Simpson, J. J.; Sims, C. J.; Sinclair, D.; Skensved, P.; Smith, A. R.; Smith, M. W. E.; Spreitzer, T.; Starinsky, N.; Steiger, T. D.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stonehill, L. C.; Storey, R. S.; Sur, B.; Tafirout, R.; Tagg, N.; Tanner, N. W.; Taplin, R. K.; Thorman, M.; Thornewell, P. M.; Trent, P. T.; Tserkovnyak, Y. I.; van Berg, R.; van de Water, R. G.; Virtue, C. J.; Waltham, C. E.; Wang, J.-X.; Wark, D. L.; West, N.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wilson, J. R.; Wittich, P.; Wouters, J. M.; Yeh, M.

    2002-12-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a 1,000 tonne heavy water Cerenkov-based neutrino detector situated 2,000 meters underground in INCO's Creighton Mine near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. For the neutrinos from 8B decay in the Sun SNO observes the Charged Current neutrino reaction sensitive only to electron neutrinos and others (Neutral Current and Elastic Scattering) sensitive to all active neutrino types and thereby can search for direct evidence of neutrino flavor change. Using these reactions and assuming the standard 8B shape, the ve component of the 8B solar flux is φe = 1.76- 0.05+0.05(stat.)- 0.09+0.09 (syst.) × 106 cm-2s-1 for a kinetic energy threshold of 5 MeV. The non-ve component is fgr μτ = 3.41- 0.45+0.45(stat.)- 0.45+0.48 (syst.) × 106 cm-2s-1, 5.3σ greater than zero, providing strong evidence for solar ve flavor transformation. The total flux measured with the NC reaction is fgr NC = 5.09- 0.43+0.44(stat.)- 0.43+0.46 (syst.) × 106 cm-2s-1, consistent with solar models. For charged current events, assuming an undistorted 8B spectrum, the night minus day rate is 14.0% +/- 6.3%-1.4+1.5% of the average rate. If the total flux of active neutrinos is additionally constrained to have no asymmetry, the ve asymmetry is found to be 7.0% +/- 4.9%-1.2+1.3%. A global solar neutrino analysis in terms of matter-enhanced oscillations of two active flavors strongly favors the Large Mixing Angle (LMA) solution.

  14. Scapulothoracic bursitis and snapping scapula syndrome: a critical review of current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warth, Ryan J; Spiegl, Ulrich J; Millett, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Symptomatic scapulothoracic disorders, such as painful scapular crepitus and/or bursitis, are uncommon; however, they can produce significant pain and disability in many patients. To review the current knowledge pertaining to snapping scapula syndrome and to identify areas of further research that may be helpful to improve clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction. Systematic review. We performed a preliminary search of the PubMed and Embase databases using the search terms "snapping scapula," "scapulothoracic bursitis," "partial scapulectomy," and "superomedial angle resection" in September 2013. All nonreview articles related to the topic of snapping scapula syndrome were included. The search identified a total of 167 unique articles, 81 of which were relevant to the topic of snapping scapula syndrome. There were 36 case series of fewer than 10 patients, 16 technique papers, 11 imaging studies, 9 anatomic studies, and 9 level IV outcomes studies. The level of evidence obtained from this literature search was inadequate to perform a formal systematic review or meta-analysis. Therefore, a critical review of current evidence is presented. Snapping scapula syndrome, a likely underdiagnosed condition, can produce significant shoulder dysfunction in many patients. Because the precise origin is typically unknown, specific treatments that are effective for some patients may not be effective for others. Nevertheless, bursectomy with or without partial scapulectomy is currently the most effective primary method of treatment in patients who fail nonoperative therapy. However, many patients experience continued shoulder disability even after surgical intervention. Future studies should focus on identifying the modifiable factors associated with poor outcomes after operative and nonoperative management for snapping scapula syndrome in an effort to improve clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction. © 2014 The Author(s).

  15. GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS AND UNIT-LINKED INSURANCE MARKETS EFFICIENCY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botoş Horia Mircea

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates the impact of the Global financial crisis on the efficiency of four Central and Eastern European emerging unit-linked insurance markets, applying the automatic variance ratio (AVR test of Kim (2009 and variance ratio tests using ranks and signs by Wright (2000 for entire, pre-crisis and crisis periods. This study contributes to the existing literature on efficient market hypothesis with several distinct features: it provides a systematic review of the weak-form market efficiency literature that examines return predictability of the daily ING unit-linked funds prices; also the article aims at monitoring any improvement in the degree of efficiency in time and also examines the relative efficiency of unit-linked insurance markets in pre-crisis and crisis periods. Unit linked insurance are life insurance policies with investment component. In the literature there are few studies investigating the effects of a financial crisis on the potential of predictability and implicitly on the degree of efficiency of financial markets. The occurrence of a market crash or financial crisis is a possible contributing factor of market inefficiency. Most of the studies are focused on the Asian crisis in 1997: Holden et al. (2005 examined the weak-form efficiency of eight emerging Asian stock markets using VR tests before, during and after the Asian crisis; Kim and Shamsuddin (2008 used three different types of multiple VR tests for nine Asian stock markets; the findings reported by Lim et al. (2008 are consistent with those reported by Cheong et al. (2007, in which the highest inefficiency occurs during the crisis period. Todea and Lazar (2010 investigated the effects of the Global crisis on the relative efficiency of ten CEE stock markets, using Generalized Spectral test of Escanciano and Velasco (2006. Wright (2000 proposes the alternative non-parametric variance ratio tests using ranks and signs of return and demonstrates that

  16. Long-distance travel and urban systems : Development of a theoretical and methodological framework and empirical evidence from Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limtanakool, N.

    2006-01-01

    It is evident in many countries worldwide that both the frequency and the distance of personal travel have grown concurrently with the proliferation of telecommunications that might substitute for travel. While the understanding of the determinants of long-distance travel is still limited in the lit

  17. Direct Evidence for Neutrino Flavor Transformation from Neutral-Current Interactions in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Q. R.; Allen, R. C.; Andersen, T. C.; Anglin, J. D.; Barton, J. C.; Beier, E. W.; Bercovitch, M.; Bigu, J.; Biller, S. D.; Black, R. A.; Blevis, I.; Boardman, R. J.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.; Boulay, M. G.; Bowler, M. G.; Bowles, T. J.; Brice, S. J.; Browne, M. C.; Bullard, T. V.; Bühler, G.; Cameron, J.; Chan, Y. D.; Chen, H. H.; Chen, M.; Chen, X.; Cleveland, B. T.; Clifford, E. T.; Cowan, J. H.; Cowen, D. F.; Cox, G. A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Davidson, W. F.; Doe, P. J.; Doucas, G.; Dragowsky, M. R.; Duba, C. A.; Duncan, F. A.; Dunford, M.; Dunmore, J. A.; Earle, E. D.; Elliott, S. R.; Evans, H. C.; Ewan, G. T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Ferraris, A. P.; Ford, R. J.; Formaggio, J. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Frame, K.; Frank, E. D.; Frati, W.; Gagnon, N.; Germani, J. V.; Gil, S.; Graham, K.; Grant, D. R.; Hahn, R. L.; Hallin, A. L.; Hallman, E. D.; Hamer, A. S.; Hamian, A. A.; Handler, W. B.; Haq, R. U.; Hargrove, C. K.; Harvey, P. J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K. M.; Heintzelman, W. J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R. L.; Hepburn, J. D.; Heron, H.; Hewett, J.; Hime, A.; Howe, M.; Hykawy, J. G.; Isaac, M. C.; Jagam, P.; Jelley, N. A.; Jillings, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Kazkaz, K.; Keener, P. T.; Klein, J. R.; Knox, A. B.; Komar, R. J.; Kouzes, R.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C. C.; Law, J.; Lawson, I. T.; Lay, M.; Lee, H. W.; Lesko, K. T.; Leslie, J. R.; Levine, I.; Locke, W.; Luoma, S.; Lyon, J.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H. B.; Maneira, J.; Manor, J.; Marino, A. D.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, A. B.; McDonald, D. S.; McFarlane, K.; McGregor, G.; Meijer Drees, R.; Mifflin, C.; Miller, G. G.; Milton, G.; Moffat, B. A.; Moorhead, M.; Nally, C. W.; Neubauer, M. S.; Newcomer, F. M.; Ng, H. S.; Noble, A. J.; Norman, E. B.; Novikov, V. M.; O'Neill, M.; Okada, C. E.; Ollerhead, R. W.; Omori, M.; Orrell, J. L.; Oser, S. M.; Poon, A. W.; Radcliffe, T. J.; Roberge, A.; Robertson, B. C.; Robertson, R. G.; Rosendahl, S. S.; Rowley, J. K.; Rusu, V. L.; Saettler, E.; Schaffer, K. K.; Schwendener, M. H.; Schülke, A.; Seifert, H.; Shatkay, M.; Simpson, J. J.; Sims, C. J.; Sinclair, D.; Skensved, P.; Smith, A. R.; Smith, M. W.; Spreitzer, T.; Starinsky, N.; Steiger, T. D.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stonehill, L. C.; Storey, R. S.; Sur, B.; Tafirout, R.; Tagg, N.; Tanner, N. W.; Taplin, R. K.; Thorman, M.; Thornewell, P. M.; Trent, P. T.; Tserkovnyak, Y. I.; van Berg, R.; van de Water, R. G.; Virtue, C. J.; Waltham, C. E.; Wang, J.-X.; Wark, D. L.; West, N.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wilson, J. R.; Wittich, P.; Wouters, J. M.; Yeh, M.

    2002-07-01

    Observations of neutral-current [nu] interactions on deuterium in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory are reported. Using the neutral current (NC), elastic scattering, and charged current reactions and assuming the standard (sup 8)B shape, the [nu]e component of the (sup 8)B solar flux is [phi]e=1.76(sup +0.05)-0.05( stat)(sup +0.09)-0.09( syst) x10(sup 6) cm(sup -2) s(sup -1) for a kinetic energy threshold of 5 MeV. The non-[nu]e component is [phi][mu][tau]=3.41(sup +0.45)-0.45)(stat(sup +0.48)-0.45)(syst x10(sup 6) cm(sup -2) s(sup -1) , 5.3[sigma] greater than zero, providing strong evidence for solar [nu]e flavor transformation. The total flux measured with the NC reaction is [phi]NC=5.09(sup +0.44)(sub -0.43 )(stat)(sup +0.46)(sub -0.43 )(syst) x10(sup 6) cm(sup -2) s(sup -1) , consistent with solar models.

  18. Direct evidence for neutrino flavor transformation from neutral-current interactions in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Q R; Allen, R C; Andersen, T C; D Anglin, J; Barton, J C; Beier, E W; Bercovitch, M; Bigu, J; Biller, S D; Black, R A; Blevis, I; Boardman, R J; Boger, J; Bonvin, E; Boulay, M G; Bowler, M G; Bowles, T J; Brice, S J; Browne, M C; Bullard, T V; Bühler, G; Cameron, J; Chan, Y D; Chen, H H; Chen, M; Chen, X; Cleveland, B T; Clifford, E T H; Cowan, J H M; Cowen, D F; Cox, G A; Dai, X; Dalnoki-Veress, F; Davidson, W F; Doe, P J; Doucas, G; Dragowsky, M R; Duba, C A; Duncan, F A; Dunford, M; Dunmore, J A; Earle, E D; Elliott, S R; Evans, H C; Ewan, G T; Farine, J; Fergani, H; Ferraris, A P; Ford, R J; Formaggio, J A; Fowler, M M; Frame, K; Frank, E D; Frati, W; Gagnon, N; Germani, J V; Gil, S; Graham, K; Grant, D R; Hahn, R L; Hallin, A L; Hallman, E D; Hamer, A S; Hamian, A A; Handler, W B; Haq, R U; Hargrove, C K; Harvey, P J; Hazama, R; Heeger, K M; Heintzelman, W J; Heise, J; Helmer, R L; Hepburn, J D; Heron, H; Hewett, J; Hime, A; Howe, M; Hykawy, J G; Isaac, M C P; Jagam, P; Jelley, N A; Jillings, C; Jonkmans, G; Kazkaz, K; Keener, P T; Klein, J R; Knox, A B; Komar, R J; Kouzes, R; Kutter, T; Kyba, C C M; Law, J; Lawson, I T; Lay, M; Lee, H W; Lesko, K T; Leslie, J R; Levine, I; Locke, W; Luoma, S; Lyon, J; Majerus, S; Mak, H B; Maneira, J; Manor, J; Marino, A D; McCauley, N; McDonald, A B; McDonald, D S; McFarlane, K; McGregor, G; Meijer Drees, R; Mifflin, C; Miller, G G; Milton, G; Moffat, B A; Moorhead, M; Nally, C W; Neubauer, M S; Newcomer, F M; Ng, H S; Noble, A J; Norman, E B; Novikov, V M; O'Neill, M; Okada, C E; Ollerhead, R W; Omori, M; Orrell, J L; Oser, S M; Poon, A W P; Radcliffe, T J; Roberge, A; Robertson, B C; Robertson, R G H; Rosendahl, S S E; Rowley, J K; Rusu, V L; Saettler, E; Schaffer, K K; Schwendener, M H; Schülke, A; Seifert, H; Shatkay, M; Simpson, J J; Sims, C J; Sinclair, D; Skensved, P; Smith, A R; Smith, M W E; Spreitzer, T; Starinsky, N; Steiger, T D; Stokstad, R G; Stonehill, L C; Storey, R S; Sur, B; Tafirout, R; Tagg, N; Tanner, N W; Taplin, R K; Thorman, M; Thornewell, P M; Trent, P T; Tserkovnyak, Y I; Van Berg, R; Van de Water, R G; Virtue, C J; Waltham, C E; Wang, J-X; Wark, D L; West, N; Wilhelmy, J B; Wilkerson, J F; Wilson, J R; Wittich, P; Wouters, J M; Yeh, M

    2002-07-01

    Observations of neutral-current nu interactions on deuterium in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory are reported. Using the neutral current (NC), elastic scattering, and charged current reactions and assuming the standard 8B shape, the nu(e) component of the 8B solar flux is phis(e) = 1.76(+0.05)(-0.05)(stat)(+0.09)(-0.09)(syst) x 10(6) cm(-2) s(-1) for a kinetic energy threshold of 5 MeV. The non-nu(e) component is phi(mu)(tau) = 3.41(+0.45)(-0.45)(stat)(+0.48)(-0.45)(syst) x 10(6) cm(-2) s(-1), 5.3sigma greater than zero, providing strong evidence for solar nu(e) flavor transformation. The total flux measured with the NC reaction is phi(NC) = 5.09(+0.44)(-0.43)(stat)(+0.46)(-0.43)(syst) x 10(6) cm(-2) s(-1), consistent with solar models.

  19. THE IMPACT OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT EXPENDITURES ON INNOVATION PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMIC GROWTH OF THE COUNTRY—THE EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Huňady

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is to empirically verify the relationship between research and development (R&D expenditures, innovation, and economic growth. Based on the correlation analysis, we examine the interdependencies between selected indicators. We have found that countries with an increase in innovation performance over the past years mostly experienced a higher economic growth in the year 2012.  Countries with higher research and development expenditures have not only more researchers, but as well more patents registration. Subsequently, the relationship between R&D expenditures and economic growth is examined based on econometric regression model of the panel data.  Input data used in the regression covers EU countries between the years 1999 and 2011.  Our results suggest the existence of positive effect of lagged R&D expenditures on economic growth in these countries. We have also identified positive impact of the flow of foreign direct investment (FDI in this model, which could be related to mechanism of technology diffusion across the countries.

  20. The Impact of Energy Consumption, Trade Openness and Financial Development on Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Turkey (1980–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Cetin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The developments in Turkish economy indicate that energy, trade openness and financial development are critical determinants of economic growth. This study aims to investigate the impact of energy consumption, trade openness and financial development on economic growth in case of Turkey over the sample period 1980-2014. The results of unit root tests reveal that the variables are integrated at I(1. The results of ARDL bounds test and Johansen-Juselius technique reveal that there exists a long-run relationship among energy consumption per capita, trade openness, domestic credit provided by banking sector and real GDP per capita. Energy consumption and financial development have a positive impact on economic growth while there do not a statistically significant relationship between trade openness and economic growth in the long run. The VECM Granger causality results show that there exist a uni-directional causal linkage running from energy consumption, trade openness and financial development to economic growth in the long run. The empirical findings can provide several policy implications for Turkish economy over the period.

  1. Empirical evidence and stability analysis of the linear car-following model with gamma-distributed memory effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Xin; Pan, Yan; Wang, Haixin; Wong, S. C.; Choi, Keechoo

    2016-05-01

    Car-following models, which describe the reactions of the driver of a following car to the changes of the leading car, are essential for the development of traffic flow theory. A car-following model with a stochastic memory effect is considered to be more realistic in modeling drivers' behavior. Because a gamma-distributed memory function has been shown to outperform other forms according to empirical data, in this study, we thus focus on a car-following model with a gamma-distributed memory effect; analytical and numerical studies are then conducted for stability analysis. Accordingly, the general expression of undamped and stability points is achieved by analytical study. The numerical results show great agreement with the analytical results: introducing the effect of the driver's memory causes the stable regions to weaken slightly, but the metastable region is obviously enlarged. In addition, a numerical study is performed to further analyze the variation of the stable and unstable regions with respect to the different profiles of gamma distribution.

  2. Understanding E-Book Continuance Intention: Empirical Evidence from E-Book Users in a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduku, Daniel K

    2017-01-01

    The book publishing industry is going through radical transformations that are driven by recent developments in information systems (IS). E-books are merely one of these developments. Notwithstanding the projections in the growth of e-book use, producers of these products contend with the issue of building user retention and loyalty through continued use. Extending the technology acceptance model (TAM), this study examined the impact of factors of perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, social influence, and facilitating conditions on e-book continuance intention among users. The subjects of this study were 317 students from five higher institutions of learning in South Africa. Empirical testing of the research model was carried out using structural equation modeling. The results indicate that 42 percent of the variance in e-book users' continuance intention is explained by perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and social influence. Interestingly, facilitating conditions have an influence, although indirectly, through perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and social influence. The study not only contributes to the existing IS literature by extending the TAM to explain continuance intention in the e-book IS domain in a developing country but also makes recommendations to practitioners who attempt to foster continuous use of this technology.

  3. Simulated vs. empirical weather responsiveness of crop yields: US evidence and implications for the agricultural impacts of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Malcolm N.; Wing, Ian Sue; De Cian, Enrica

    2017-07-01

    Global gridded crop models (GGCMs) are the workhorse of assessments of the agricultural impacts of climate change. Yet the changes in crop yields projected by different models in response to the same meteorological forcing can differ substantially. Through an inter-method comparison, we provide a first glimpse into the origins and implications of this divergence—both among GGCMs and between GGCMs and historical observations. We examine yields of rainfed maize, wheat, and soybeans simulated by six GGCMs as part of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project-Fast Track (ISIMIP-FT) exercise, comparing 1981-2004 hindcast yields over the coterminous United States (US) against US Department of Agriculture (USDA) time series for about 1000 counties. Leveraging the empirical climate change impacts literature, we estimate reduced-form econometric models of crop yield responses to temperature and precipitation exposures for both GGCMs and observations. We find that up to 60% of the variance in both simulated and observed yields is attributable to weather variation. A majority of the GGCMs have difficulty reproducing the observed distribution of percentage yield anomalies, and exhibit aggregate responses that show yields to be more weather-sensitive than in the observational record over the predominant range of temperature and precipitation conditions. This disparity is largely attributable to heterogeneity in GGCMs’ responses, as opposed to uncertainty in historical weather forcings, and is responsible for widely divergent impacts of climate on future crop yields.

  4. EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF THE PROFITABILITY AND INDEBTEDNESS IN LISTED COMPANIES – EVIDENCE FROM THE FEDERATION OF BIH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Gabrić

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on relationship between profitability and indebtedness is an interesting scientific and professional question because it is the basic criterion of performance and security in business. The aim of this paper is to examine and determine the level of correlation between profitability and indebtedness, and to research the differences in the level of indebtedness regarding company's profitability. The secondary data for the purposes of the empirical research were collected through the analysis of publicly available financial statements on a sample of companies listed on the quotation and free primary market on the Sarajevo Stock Exchange in the period from 2010. to 2013. The results of the correlation analysis indicate that there is a negative correlation between profitability indicators and indebtedness indicators within the researched companies in the observed period, which was specially indicated through the Total debt in the number of years and Interest coverage ratio. The results of testing the difference in indicators of indebtedness regarding profitability indicate that there is a difference in the indebtedness indicators measured by the Total debt in the number of years and Interest coverage ratio, between the companies that achieved positive financial result and the companies that achieved negative financial result.

  5. Impact of leadership styles on employees’ attitude towards their leader and performance: Empirical evidence from Pakistani banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asrar-ul-Haq

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the findings of a study examining the impact of managers’ leadership styles on subordinates’ performance. The impact of leadership styles on employee performance outcomes is explored theoretically and tested empirically in the Pakistani banking sector. The sample of the study consisted of 224 full-time employees in the banking sector of Pakistan. Findings of this study reveal that there exists a significant relationship between transformational leadership and employee performance outcomes. However, laissez-faire leadership style showed negative relationship with employee performance outcomes in terms of effectiveness, and employee satisfaction. Banking industry in Pakistan is prone to numerous challenges including employee turnover. Model presented in the study will be helpful for the human resource managers and top management to design effective leadership development programs. HRD department can be established and HRD professionals can be hired to assist the managers in organizing training and development programs. Further, it may help to design strategies to satisfy, retain and motivate the employees. Also, it will help the managers decide, which leadership style they should choose in terms of outcomes.

  6. How Biomedical Misconceptions May Arise and Affect Medical Students׳ Learning: A Review of Theoretical Perspectives and Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmi Badenhorst

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The debate on whether biomedical knowledge contributes significantly to the clinical reasoning process is on-going. Despite this debate, one cannot underestimate that subjects such as anatomy and physiology play a key role in the understanding of the human body. Misconceptions that exist or arise in biomedical subjects, such as physiology and anatomy, can impact on the learning processes of medical students. The present paper presents an overview of research in the field of biomedical misconceptions and consists of two parts. First, the authors draw on three theoretical frameworks, constructivism, concept formation and element interactivity in complex reasoning, to offer insight as to why misconceptions in biomedical subjects could potentially arise and exist. In the second part, the authors synthesize empirical studies on biomedical misconceptions that draw on similar theoretical frameworks. The limited research available in this field suggests that the three theories discussed in this paper do provide valuable insights into how misconceptions in anatomy and physiology can hamper coherent knowledge construction, and potentially play an obstructive role when students are required to perform complex cognitive tasks such as clinical reasoning.

  7. Measuring the Effectiveness of Mentoring as a Knowledge Translation Intervention for Implementing Empirical Evidence: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Ghadah; Rossy, Dianne; Ploeg, Jenny; Davies, Barbara; Higuchi, Kathryn; Sikora, Lindsey; Stacey, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    Background Mentoring as a knowledge translation (KT) intervention uses social influence among healthcare professionals to increase use of evidence in clinical practice. Aim To determine the effectiveness of mentoring as a KT intervention designed to increase healthcare professionals’ use of evidence in clinical practice. Methods A systematic review was conducted using electronic databases (i.e., MEDLINE, CINAHL), grey literature, and hand searching. Eligible studies evaluated mentoring of healthcare professionals responsible for patient care to enhance the uptake of evidence into practice. Mentoring is defined as (a) a mentor more experienced than mentee; (b) individualized support based on mentee's needs; and (c) involved in an interpersonal relationship as indicated by mutual benefit, engagement, and commitment. Two reviewers independently screened citations for eligibility, extracted data, and appraised quality of studies. Data were analyzed descriptively. Results Of 10,669 citations from 1988 to 2012, 10 studies were eligible. Mentoring as a KT intervention was evaluated in Canada, USA, and Australia. Exposure to mentoring compared to no mentoring improved some behavioral outcomes (one study). Compared to controls or other multifaceted interventions, multifaceted interventions with mentoring improved practitioners’ knowledge (four of five studies), beliefs (four of six studies), and impact on organizational outcomes (three of four studies). There were mixed findings for changes in professionals’ behaviors and impact on practitioners’ and patients’ outcomes: some outcomes improved, while others showed no difference. Linking Evidence to Action Only one study evaluated the effectiveness of mentoring alone as a KT intervention and showed improvement in some behavioral outcomes. The other nine studies that evaluated the effectiveness of mentoring as part of a multifaceted intervention showed mixed findings, making it difficult to determine the added effect

  8. Measuring the effectiveness of mentoring as a knowledge translation intervention for implementing empirical evidence: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Ghadah; Rossy, Dianne; Ploeg, Jenny; Davies, Barbara; Higuchi, Kathryn; Sikora, Lindsey; Stacey, Dawn

    2014-10-01

    Mentoring as a knowledge translation (KT) intervention uses social influence among healthcare professionals to increase use of evidence in clinical practice. To determine the effectiveness of mentoring as a KT intervention designed to increase healthcare professionals' use of evidence in clinical practice. A systematic review was conducted using electronic databases (i.e., MEDLINE, CINAHL), grey literature, and hand searching. Eligible studies evaluated mentoring of healthcare professionals responsible for patient care to enhance the uptake of evidence into practice. Mentoring is defined as (a) a mentor more experienced than mentee; (b) individualized support based on mentee's needs; and (c) involved in an interpersonal relationship as indicated by mutual benefit, engagement, and commitment. Two reviewers independently screened citations for eligibility, extracted data, and appraised quality of studies. Data were analyzed descriptively. Of 10,669 citations from 1988 to 2012, 10 studies were eligible. Mentoring as a KT intervention was evaluated in Canada, USA, and Australia. Exposure to mentoring compared to no mentoring improved some behavioral outcomes (one study). Compared to controls or other multifaceted interventions, multifaceted interventions with mentoring improved practitioners' knowledge (four of five studies), beliefs (four of six studies), and impact on organizational outcomes (three of four studies). There were mixed findings for changes in professionals' behaviors and impact on practitioners' and patients' outcomes: some outcomes improved, while others showed no difference. Only one study evaluated the effectiveness of mentoring alone as a KT intervention and showed improvement in some behavioral outcomes. The other nine studies that evaluated the effectiveness of mentoring as part of a multifaceted intervention showed mixed findings, making it difficult to determine the added effect of mentoring. Further research is needed to identify effective

  9. Immigration rates in fragmented landscapes--empirical evidence for the importance of habitat amount for species persistence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Püttker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The total amount of native vegetation is an important property of fragmented landscapes and is known to exert a strong influence on population and metapopulation dynamics. As the relationship between habitat loss and local patch and gap characteristics is strongly non-linear, theoretical models predict that immigration rates should decrease dramatically at low levels of remaining native vegetation cover, leading to patch-area effects and the existence of species extinction thresholds across fragmented landscapes with different proportions of remaining native vegetation. Although empirical patterns of species distribution and richness give support to these models, direct measurements of immigration rates across fragmented landscapes are still lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the Brazilian Atlantic forest marsupial Gray Slender Mouse Opossum (Marmosops incanus as a model species and estimating demographic parameters of populations in patches situated in three landscapes differing in the total amount of remaining forest, we tested the hypotheses that patch-area effects on population density are apparent only at intermediate levels of forest cover, and that immigration rates into forest patches are defined primarily by landscape context surrounding patches. As expected, we observed a positive patch-area effect on M. incanus density only within the landscape with intermediate forest cover. Density was independent of patch size in the most forested landscape and the species was absent from the most deforested landscape. Specifically, the mean estimated numbers of immigrants into small patches were lower in the landscape with intermediate forest cover compared to the most forested landscape. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results reveal the crucial importance of the total amount of remaining native vegetation for species persistence in fragmented landscapes, and specifically as to the role of variable immigration rates in

  10. Current Evidence on the Use of Antifilarial Agents in the Management of bancroftian Filariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumadhya Deepika Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many trials have explored the efficacy of individual drugs and drug combinations to treat bancroftian filariasis. This narrative review summarizes the current evidence for drug management of bancroftian filariasis. Diethylcarbamazine (DEC remains the prime antifilarial agent with a well-established microfilaricidal and some macrofilaricidal effects. Ivermectin (IVM is highly microfilaricidal but minimally macrofilaricidal. The role of albendazole (ALB in treatment regimens is not well established though the drug has a microfilaricidal effect. The combination of DEC+ALB has a better long-term impact than IVM+ALB. Recent trials have shown that doxycycline therapy against Wolbachia, an endosymbiotic bacterium of the parasite, is capable of reducing microfilaria rates and adult worm activity. Followup studies on mass drug administration (MDA are yet to show a complete interruption of transmission, though the infection rates are reduced to a very low level.

  11. Evidence for enhancement of critical current by intergrain Ag in YBaCuO-Ag ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwir, B.; Affronte, M.; Pavuna, D.

    1989-07-24

    We report the evidence for enhancement of critical current density /ital J//sub /ital c// by /similar to/50%, which occurs when /similar to/10 wt. % Ag is added to Y/sub 1/Ba/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7/minus//delta// ceramics. The maximal /ital J//sub /ital c// (/similar to/700 A/cm/sup 2/ at /ital T/=77 K) appears simultaneously with maximum YBaCuO compactness in the samples. The silver fills the intergranular space (holes) without Cu substitution, and the critical temperature /ital T//sub /ital c// is not reduced from the bulk value (/similar to/91 K). Normal-state resistivity of Ag-YBaCuO samples is decreased by an order of magnitude, and samples exhibit improved contact resistance and resistance to water. While the critical density is improved by adding /similar to/10 wt. % Ag, it decreases at higher Ag concentrations.

  12. Troponin elevations in patients with chronic cardiovascular disease: An analysis of current evidence and significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Archer K; Malhotra, Anita K; Sullivan, Breandan L; Ramakrishna, Harish

    2016-01-01

    Serum troponin elevation above the 99th percentile of the upper reference limit in healthy subjects (troponin laboratory assays) is required to establish the diagnosis the diagnosis of myocardial necrosis in acute cardiovascular syndromes, as well as guide prognosis and therapy. In the perioperative period, for patients with cardiac disease undergoing noncardiac surgery, it is a particularly critical biomarker universally used to assess the myocardial damage. The value of troponin testing and elevation (as well as its significance) in patients with chronic cardiac valvular, vascular, and renal disease is relatively less well understood. This evidence-based review seeks to examine the currently available data assessing the significance of troponin elevation in certain chronic valvular and other disease states.

  13. Cognitive rehabilitation after severe acquired brain injury: current evidence and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Rosaria; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Bramanti, Placido

    2016-07-25

    Severe acquired brain injury (SABI) is damage to the brain, occurring after birth from traumatic or non-traumatic causes, and often resulting in deterioration of physical, cognitive, and emotional functions. Cognitive rehabilitation (CR) is aimed to help brain-injured or otherwise cognitively impaired individuals to restore normal functioning, or to compensate for cognitive deficits. Over the last years, the development of new technologies in the field of CR has led to a growing use of computer-based cognitive tools in patients with SABI. This review aims to investigate the efficacy of CR in individuals suffering from SABI, and evaluates the role of virtual reality and other innovative technologies in improving behavioural and functional outcomes. The current evidence for CR in the treatment of SABI-related deficits does not allow conclusive results to be achieved and further research is needed to identity the patient and treatment factors that contribute to successful outcomes.

  14. “Non-Aviation” activities and the introduction of new thinking and ideas in the airport business: Empirical evidence from an Italian case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Fasone

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper aims to describe the main changes occurring in the airport industry with particular attention to the increasing relevance of the non-aviation activities. In fact, during the most recent decades, the airport business has evolved into a dynamic and competitive industry. In order to reduce their deficits airport management policies have progressively favoured the commercial aspects in order to produce greater profit margins. In many countries, greater management elasticity in business administration has occurred, and important modifications have been introduced in the national and international regulations according to a market oriented perspective.Design/methodology/approach: The method used is the case study approach and the analysis utilizes empirical data originating from the airport in Olbia.Findings: Findings show how the choice to invest in the non-aviation sector can be ascribed to the strategic orientation adopted by airport managers.Originality/value: Empirical evidence can highlight certain trends in the industry, whose values can lead to a core definition of the new paths of development for the airport business to follow in the non-aviation dimension, and identifying at the same time innovative business ideas for opening up new market scenarios.

  15. Evidence of current impact of climate change on life: a walk from genes to the biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñuelas, Josep; Sardans, Jordi; Estiarte, Marc; Ogaya, Romà; Carnicer, Jofre; Coll, Marta; Barbeta, Adria; Rivas-Ubach, Albert; Llusià, Joan; Garbulsky, Martin; Filella, Iolanda; Jump, Alistair S

    2013-08-01

    We review the evidence of how organisms and populations are currently responding to climate change through phenotypic plasticity, genotypic evolution, changes in distribution and, in some cases, local extinction. Organisms alter their gene expression and metabolism to increase the concentrations of several antistress compounds and to change their physiology, phenology, growth and reproduction in response to climate change. Rapid adaptation and microevolution occur at the population level. Together with these phenotypic and genotypic adaptations, the movement of organisms and the turnover of populations can lead to migration toward habitats with better conditions unless hindered by barriers. Both migration and local extinction of populations have occurred. However, many unknowns for all these processes remain. The roles of phenotypic plasticity and genotypic evolution and their possible trade-offs and links with population structure warrant further research. The application of omic techniques to ecological studies will greatly favor this research. It remains poorly understood how climate change will result in asymmetrical responses of species and how it will interact with other increasing global impacts, such as N eutrophication, changes in environmental N : P ratios and species invasion, among many others. The biogeochemical and biophysical feedbacks on climate of all these changes in vegetation are also poorly understood. We here review the evidence of responses to climate change and discuss the perspectives for increasing our knowledge of the interactions between climate change and life.

  16. Smoke exposure as a risk factor for asthma in childhood: a review of current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Giuliana; Antona, Roberta; Malizia, Velia; Montalbano, Laura; Corsello, Giovanni; La Grutta, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a common chronic multifactorial disease that affects >300 million people worldwide. Outdoor and indoor pollution exposure has been associated with respiratory health effects in adults and children. Smoking still represents a huge public health problem and millions of children suffer the detrimental effects of passive smoke exposure. This study was designed to review the current evidences on exposure to passive smoke as a risk factor for asthma onset in childhood. A review of the most recent studies on this topic was undertaken to provide evidence about the magnitude of the effect of passive smoking on the risk of incidence of asthma in children. The effects of passive smoking are different depending on individual and environmental factors. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is one of the most important indoor air pollutants and can interact with other air pollutants in eliciting respiratory outcomes during childhood. The increased risk of respiratory outcomes in children exposed to prenatal and early postnatal passive smoke might be caused by an adverse effect on both the immune system and the structural and functional development of the lung; this may explain the subsequent increased risk of incident asthma. The magnitude of the exposure is quite difficult to precisely quantify because it is significantly influenced by the child's daily activities. Because exposure to ETS is a likely cause for asthma onset in childhood, there is a strong need to prevent infants and children from breathing air contaminated with tobacco smoke.

  17. Role of Environmental Chemicals in Obesity: A Systematic Review on the Current Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to systematically review the experimental and human studies on obesogenic chemicals and their mechanisms of action to provide a comprehensive view on the multifactorial aspects of obesity. The literatures were searched in available databases. The relevant papers were selected in three phases. After quality assessment, two reviewers extracted the data while another checked their extracted data. In this review, we summarized information regarding environmental chemicals that can be associated with obesity. Most evidence comes from experimental and laboratory studies; however a growing number of human studies also support the role of obesogenic chemicals. The current evidence proposes that the systemic responses to exposure to environmental factors could potentially increase the risk of excess weight. The effects of exposure to these chemicals are of crucial importance during developmental phases of life, when preprogramming for an adipogenic outcome may occur. By considering the adverse transgenerational effects of obesogen chemicals on human health, the global obesity epidemic should be considered as a multifactorial complex disorder necessitating the emphasis of public health interventions for environmental protection.

  18. Effects of exercise training on chronic inflammation in obesity : current evidence and potential mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Tongjian; Arsenis, Nicole C; Disanzo, Beth L; Lamonte, Michael J

    2013-04-01

    Chronic, systemic inflammation is an independent risk factor for several major clinical diseases. In obesity, circulating levels of inflammatory markers are elevated, possibly due to increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines from several tissues/cells, including macrophages within adipose tissue, vascular endothelial cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Recent evidence supports that adipose tissue hypoxia may be an important mechanism through which enlarged adipose tissue elicits local tissue inflammation and further contributes to systemic inflammation. Current evidence supports that exercise training, such as aerobic and resistance exercise, reduces chronic inflammation, especially in obese individuals with high levels of inflammatory biomarkers undergoing a longer-term intervention. Several studies have reported that this effect is independent of the exercise-induced weight loss. There are several mechanisms through which exercise training reduces chronic inflammation, including its effect on muscle tissue to generate muscle-derived, anti-inflammatory 'myokine', its effect on adipose tissue to improve hypoxia and reduce local adipose tissue inflammation, its effect on endothelial cells to reduce leukocyte adhesion and cytokine production systemically, and its effect on the immune system to lower the number of pro-inflammatory cells and reduce pro-inflammatory cytokine production per cell. Of these potential mechanisms, the effect of exercise training on adipose tissue oxygenation is worth further investigation, as it is very likely that exercise training stimulates adipose tissue angiogenesis and increases blood flow, thereby reducing hypoxia and the associated chronic inflammation in adipose tissue of obese individuals.

  19. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Modern Parenteral Nutrition: A Review of the Current Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Klek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous lipid emulsions are an essential component of parenteral nutrition regimens. Originally employed as an efficient non-glucose energy source to reduce the adverse effects of high glucose intake and provide essential fatty acids, lipid emulsions have assumed a larger therapeutic role due to research demonstrating the effects of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA on key metabolic functions, including inflammatory and immune response, coagulation, and cell signaling. Indeed, emerging evidence suggests that the effects of omega-3 PUFA on inflammation and immune response result in meaningful therapeutic benefits in surgical, cancer, and critically ill patients as well as patients requiring long-term parenteral nutrition. The present review provides an overview of the mechanisms of action through which omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA modulate the immune-inflammatory response and summarizes the current body of evidence regarding the clinical and pharmacoeconomic benefits of intravenous n-3 fatty acid-containing lipid emulsions in patients requiring parenteral nutrition.

  20. Agomelatine beyond Borders: Current Evidences of Its Efficacy in Disorders Other than Major Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico De Berardis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Agomelatine, a melatonergic antidepressant with a rapid onset of action, is one of the most recent drugs in the antidepressant category. Agomelatine’s antidepressant actions are attributed to its sleep-promoting and chronobiotic actions mediated by MT1 and MT2 receptors present in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, as well as to its effects on the blockade of 5-HT2c receptors. Blockade of 5-HT2c receptors causes release of both noradrenaline and dopamine at the fronto-cortical dopaminergic and noradrenergic pathways. The combined actions of agomelatine on MT1/MT2 and 5-HT2c receptors facilitate the resynchronization of altered circadian rhythms and abnormal sleep patterns. Agomelatine appeared to be effective in treating major depression. Moreover, evidence exists that points out a possible efficacy of such drug in the treatment of bipolar depression, anxiety disorders, alcohol dependence, migraines etc. Thus, the aim of this narrative review was to elucidate current evidences on the role of agomelatine in disorders other than major depression.

  1. Empire Redux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercau, Ezequiel

    The Falklands War was shrouded in symbolism and permeated with imperial rhetoric, imagery and memories, bringing to the fore divergent conceptions of Britishness, kinship and belonging. The current dispute, moreover, is frequently framed in terms of national identity, and accusations of imperialism...... and neo-colonialism persist. Thus in dealing with the conflict, historians and commentators alike have often made references to imperial legacies, yet this has rarely been afforded much careful analysis. Views on this matter continue to be entrenched, either presenting the war as a throwback to nineteenth...... from the legacies of empire. Taking decolonization as a starting point, this thesis demonstrates how the idea of a ‘British world’ gained a new lease of life vis-à-vis the Falklands, as the Islanders adopted the rhetorical mantle of ‘abandoned Britons’. Yet this new momentum was partial and fractured...

  2. Empire Redux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercau, Ezequiel

    from the legacies of empire. Taking decolonization as a starting point, this thesis demonstrates how the idea of a ‘British world’ gained a new lease of life vis-à-vis the Falklands, as the Islanders adopted the rhetorical mantle of ‘abandoned Britons’. Yet this new momentum was partial and fractured......The Falklands War was shrouded in symbolism and permeated with imperial rhetoric, imagery and memories, bringing to the fore divergent conceptions of Britishness, kinship and belonging. The current dispute, moreover, is frequently framed in terms of national identity, and accusations of imperialism......, as evinced by the developments triggered by the Argentine invasion in 1982. Despite the apparent firmness of the British government’s commitment to the Islands, cracks and fissures over the meaning of Britishness were simultaneously magnified. The perceived temporal dislocation of defending loyal Britons...

  3. A review of the empirical evidence of the value of structuring and coding of clinical information within electronic health records for direct patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Kalra

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The case has historically been presented that structured and/or coded electronic health records (EHRs benefit direct patient care, but the evidence base for this is not well documented.Methods We searched for evidence of direct patient care value from the use of structured and/or coded information within EHRs. We interrogated nine international databases from 1990 to 2011. Value was defined using the Institute of Medicine’s six areas for improvement for healthcare systems: effectiveness, safety, patient-centredness, timeliness, efficiency and equitability. We included studies satisfying the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC group criteria.Results Of 5016 potentially eligible papers, 13 studies satisfied our criteria: 10 focused on effectiveness, with eight demonstrating potential for improved proxy and actual clinical outcomes if a structured and/or coded EHR was combined with alerting or advisory systems in a focused clinical domain. Three studies demonstrated improvement in safety outcomes. No studies were found reporting value in relation to patient-centredness, timeliness, efficiency or equitability.Conclusions We conclude that, to date, there has been patchy effort to investigate empirically the value from structuring and coding EHRs for direct patient care. Future investments in structuring and coding of EHRs should be informed by robust evidence as to the clinical scenarios in which patient care benefits may be realised.

  4. Government Regulation,Enforcement,and Economic Consequences in a Transition Economy:Empirical Evidence from Chinese Listed Companies Implementing the Split Share Structure Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dequan Jiang; Shangkun Liang; Donghua Chen

    2009-01-01

    In a changing transition economy, Chinese government regulations that adopt the relatively simple bright line rule formula are enforceable in practice. Taking the early reform-oriented policies of the China Securities Regulatory Commission(CSRC) as an example, we find that the CSRC did not consider local enthusiasm for reform when allocating IPO resources because of the high enforcement costs involved. We also find that CSRC listed company regulations were enforced due to the lower costs involved in verifying regulatory violations, and that listed companies that completed the reform process were given priority in public refinancing. We present empirical evidence supporting the theoretical basis for the hypotheses outlined above. We also conclude that companies that completed the reform process in 2005 were of significantly higher quality and that the SEO regulation did not affect stock market efficiency. These findings enhance our understanding of the efficiency of government regulation in a transition economy.

  5. Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ginger in Health and Physical Activity: Review of Current Evidence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nafiseh Shokri Mashhadi; Reza Ghiasvand; Gholamreza Askari; Mitra Hariri; Leila Darvishi; Mohammad Reza Mofid

    2013-01-01

    .... The health-promoting perspective of ginger is attributed to its rich phytochemistry. This study aimed to review the current evidence on ginger effects as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative. Methods...

  6. Fatty acid and vitamin interventions in adults with schizophrenia: a systematic review of the current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Siok Ching; Henry, Jeyakumar; Mok, Yee Ming; Honer, William G; Sim, Kang

    2015-12-01

    Current psychopharmacological approaches to reduce psychotic phenomenology in schizophrenia are associated with adverse effects including extrapyramidal and metabolic side effects. In view of the emerging data on nutritional supplementation interventions in schizophrenia which are not entirely consistent, we aimed to review existent studies focusing on fatty acid and vitamin interventions and summarise current evidence on such nutritional supplementations in schizophrenia. We searched the digital databases (ScienceDirect, Scopus, SpringerLINK, PubMed/Medline) for relevant studies pertaining to fatty acid and vitamin supplementation interventions in the management of psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia up to February 2015. Overall, there were more studies conducted on fatty acid over vitamin supplementations in patients with schizophrenia. There were more positive findings in support of fatty acid supplementation compared with vitamin supplementation in the context of specific intervention features (dose of nutrient supplementation, single versus combination nutritional interventions, specific antipsychotic), subject features (older age, long duration of illness, baseline polyunsaturated fatty acid levels) and clinical outcomes (improvements of psychotic symptoms and/or extrapyramidal side effects from antipsychotics). However, investigations of both supplementation modalities were limited by relatively small study sample sizes, short study duration, which precluded further segmentation of impact on more diverse patient subtypes and symptom profiles. Future studies may consider examining larger samples over a longer time period, recruiting younger subjects with shorter duration of illness, examination of different clinical features including specific cognitive domains, and use of single versus combination nutritional interventions.

  7. Treatment of gastric outlet obstruction that results fromunresectable gastric cancer: Current evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is a commoncondition that results from locally advanced malignanciesin the upper gastrointestinal tract, such aspancreatic, gastric, and other carcinomas. Two typesof procedures for malignant GOO, namely, gastrojejunostomy(GJ) with laparotomy or a laparoscopicapproach and endoscopic stenting (ES), are currentlyavailable. Although numerous previous reports haveclarified the benefits and drawbacks of each procedure,whether GJ or ES should be used in patients with GOOthat results from gastric cancer who may have a longerlife expectancy than patients with other malignancieshas not been determined. In this review, which focuseson gastric cancer-induced GOO, we analyzed the twosystematic reviews and a meta-analysis that comparedGJ and ES and outlined the current status of GOOtreatment. We also provide an updated review thatincludes laparoscopic GJ. Various data from 13 studiesin one review and 6 studies in another review wereanalyzed. Although the main results of the presentreview indicated that both GJ and ES were efficacioustreatments in patients with GOO that resulted fromgastric cancer, current evidence suggests that GJ maybe the preferable procedure given its good performancestatus and improved prognosis in gastric cancer patients.

  8. Direct evidence for local oscillatory current sources and intracortical phase gradients in turtle visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prechtl, J C; Bullock, T H; Kleinfeld, D

    2000-01-18

    Visual stimuli induce oscillations in the membrane potential of neurons in cortices of several species. In turtle, these oscillations take the form of linear and circular traveling waves. Such waves may be a consequence of a pacemaker that emits periodic pulses of excitation that propagate across a network of excitable neuronal tissue or may result from continuous and possibly reconfigurable phase shifts along a network with multiple weakly coupled neuronal oscillators. As a means to resolve the origin of wave propagation in turtle visual cortex, we performed simultaneous measurements of the local field potential at a series of depths throughout this cortex. Measurements along a single radial penetration revealed the presence of broadband current sources, with a center frequency near 20 Hz (gamma band), that were activated by visual stimulation. The spectral coherence between sources at two well-separated loci along a rostral-caudal axis revealed the presence of systematic timing differences between localized cortical oscillators. These multiple oscillating current sources and their timing differences in a tangential plane are interpreted as the neuronal activity that underlies the wave motion revealed in previous imaging studies. The present data provide direct evidence for the inference from imaging of bidirectional wave motion that the stimulus-induced electrical waves in turtle visual cortex correspond to phase shifts in a network of coupled neuronal oscillators.

  9. Local perceptions as a guide for the sustainable management of natural resources: empirical evidence from a small-scale society in Bolivian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Fernández-Llamazares

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on natural resource management suggests that local perceptions form the basis upon which many small-scale societies monitor availability and change in the stock of common-pool natural resources. In contrast, this literature debates whether local perceptions can be effective in guiding the sustainable management of natural resources. With empirical evidence on this matter still highly limited, we explored the role of local perceptions as drivers of harvesting and management behavior in a small-scale society in Bolivian Amazonia. We conducted structured interviews to capture local perceptions of availability and change in the stock of thatch palm (Geonoma deversa among the Tsimane', an indigenous society of foragers-horticulturalists (n = 296 adults in 13 villages. We analyzed whether perceptions of availability match estimates of abundance obtained from ecological data and whether differences in perception help to explain harvesting behavior and local management of thatch palm. Perceptions of availability of G. deversa are highly contingent upon the social, economic, and cultural conditions within which the Tsimane' have experienced changes in the availability of the resource, thus giving a better reflection of the historical, rather than of the ecological, dimensions of the changes undergone. Although local perceptions might fall short in precision when scrutinized from an ecological standpoint, their importance in informing sustainable management should not be underestimated. Our findings show that most of the harvesting and management actions that the Tsimane' undertake are, at least partially, shaped by their local perceptions. This paper contributes to the broader literature on natural resource management by providing empirical evidence of the critical role of local perceptions in promoting collective responses for the sustainable management of natural resources.

  10. Local perceptions as a guide for the sustainable management of natural resources: empirical evidence from a small-scale society in Bolivian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Guèze, Maximilien; Cabeza, Mar; Pyhälä, Aili; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2016-03-01

    Research on natural resource management suggests that local perceptions form the basis upon which many small-scale societies monitor availability and change in the stock of common-pool natural resources. In contrast, this literature debates whether local perceptions can be effective in guiding the sustainable management of natural resources. With empirical evidence on this matter still highly limited, this work explores the role of local perceptions as drivers of harvesting and management behavior in a small-scale society in Bolivian Amazonia. We conducted structured interviews to capture local perceptions of availability and change in the stock of thatch palm (Geonoma deversa) amongst the Tsimane', an indigenous society of foragers-horticulturalists (n = 296 adults in 13 villages). We analyzed whether perceptions of availability match estimates of abundance obtained from ecological data and whether differences in perception help to explain harvesting behavior and local management of thatch palm. Perceptions of availability of G. deversa are highly contingent upon the social, economic and cultural conditions within which the Tsimane' have experienced changes in the availability of the resource, thus giving a better reflection of the historical, rather than of the ecological, dimensions of the changes undergone. While local perceptions might fall short in precision when scrutinized from an ecological standpoint, their importance in informing sustainable management should not be underestimated. Our findings show that most of the harvesting and management actions that the Tsimane' undertake are, at least partially, shaped by their local perceptions. This paper contributes to the broader literature on natural resource management by providing empirical evidence of the critical role of local perceptions in promoting collective responses for the sustainable management of natural resources.

  11. Gene flow between wheat and wild relatives: empirical evidence from Aegilops geniculata, Ae. neglecta and Ae. triuncialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Nils; Guadagnuolo, Roberto; Lappe, Sylvain; Pasche, Sophie; Parisod, Christian; Felber, François

    2011-09-01

    Gene flow between domesticated species and their wild relatives is receiving growing attention. This study addressed introgression between wheat and natural populations of its wild relatives (Aegilops species). The sampling included 472 individuals, collected from 32 Mediterranean populations of three widespread Aegilops species (Aegilops geniculata, Ae. neglecta and Ae. triuncialis) and compared wheat field borders to areas isolated from agriculture. Individuals were characterized with amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting, analysed through two computational approaches (i.e. Bayesian estimations of admixture and fuzzy clustering), and sequences marking wheat-specific insertions of transposable elements. With this combined approach, we detected substantial gene flow between wheat and Aegilops species. Specifically, Ae. neglecta and Ae. triuncialis showed significantly more admixed individuals close to wheat fields than in locations isolated from agriculture. In contrast, little evidence of gene flow was found in Ae. geniculata. Our results indicated that reproductive barriers have been regularly bypassed during the long history of sympatry between wheat and Aegilops.

  12. An empirical approach to selecting community-based alcohol interventions: combining research evidence, rural community views and professional opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeshaft Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given limited research evidence for community-based alcohol interventions, this study examines the intervention preferences of rural communities and alcohol professionals, and factors that influence their choices. Method Community preferences were identified by a survey of randomly selected individuals across 20 regional Australian communities. The preferences of alcohol professionals were identified by a survey of randomly selected members of the Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and Other Drugs. To identify preferred interventions and the extent of support for them, a budget allocation exercise was embedded in both surveys, asking respondents to allocate a given budget to different interventions. Tobit regression models were estimated to identify the characteristics that explain differences in intervention preferences. Results Community respondents selected school programs most often (88.0% and allocated it the largest proportion of funds, followed by promotion of safer drinking (71.3%, community programs (61.4% and police enforcement of alcohol laws (60.4%. Professionals selected GP training most often (61.0% and allocated it the largest proportion of funds, followed by school programs (36.6%, community programs (33.8% and promotion of safer drinking (31.7%. Community views were susceptible to response bias. There were no significant predictors of professionals' preferences. Conclusions In the absence of sufficient research evidence for effective community-based alcohol interventions, rural communities and professionals both strongly support school programs, promotion of safer drinking and community programs. Rural communities also supported police enforcement of alcohol laws and professionals supported GP training. The impact of a combination of these strategies needs to be rigorously evaluated.

  13. Residents' Attitude to Pay for Urban River Restoration: Empirical Evidence from Cities in Yangtze Delta%Residents' Attitude to Pay for Urban River Restoration: Empirical Evidence from Cities in Yangtze Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yifei; LI Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Public willingness to pay (WTP) for urban rivers res- toration was investigated in Shanghai, Nanjing and Hangzhou in China with a sample of 1,285. The factors influencing positive WTP against zero WTP are analyzed using a binary logit model. The results indicate that income, Huff (residential registration) status, household size, home property ownership, riverfront access, and attitudes toward current water quality arc statistically signifi- cant in the likelihood of positive WTR It is also found that respon- dents without local Huff are less willingness to pay positively in pooled sample and Shanghai sample. In the group holding property right of house but without local Huff is less willingness to pay positively in Hangzhou. Respondents in Nanjing are more will- ingness to pay positively than those in Hangzhou. Most common arguments against to pay for the restoration are "government's duty", "low income", "non-local-Huji" and "lack of trust in the government in how it spends money". The results are generally consistent with the hypothesis and specific situations in China. The findings make some contributions to the non-market valua- tion studies as well as provide useful information for public policy making in China.

  14. Specialize or risk disappearance - empirical evidence of anisomerism based on comparative and developmental studies of gnathostome head and limb musculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Rui; Ziermann, Janine M; Linde-Medina, Marta

    2015-08-01

    William K. Gregory was one of the most influential authors defending the existence of an evolutionary trend in vertebrates from a higher degree of polyisomerism (more polyisomeric or 'serial' anatomical structures arranged along any body axis) to cases of anisomerism (specialization or loss of at least some original polyisomeric structures). Anisomerism was the subject of much interest during the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries, particularly due to the influence of the Romantic German School and the notion of 'primitive archetype' and because it was conceptually linked to other crucial biological issues (e.g. complexity, scala naturae, progress, modularity or phenotypic integration). However, discussions on anisomerism and related issues (e.g. Williston's law) have been almost exclusively based on hard tissues. Here we provide the first detailed empirical test, and discussion, of anisomerism based on quantitative data obtained from phylogenetic and comparative analyses of the head and forelimb muscles of gnathostomes. Our results strongly support the existence of such a trend in both forelimb and head musculature. For instance, the last common ancestor (LCA) of extant tetrapods likely had 38 polyisomeric muscles (PMs) out of a total of 70 forelimb muscles (i.e. 54%), whereas in the LCAs of extant amniotes and of mammals these numbers were 38/73 (52%) and 21/67 (31%), and in humans are 11/59 (19%). Interestingly, the number of PMs that became specialized during the forelimb evolutionary transition from the LCA of extant tetrapods to humans (13) is very similar to the number of PMs that became lost (14), indicating that both specialization and loss contributed equally to the trend towards anisomerism. By contrast, during the evolution of the head musculature from the LCA of gnathostomes to humans a total of 27 PMs were lost whereas only one muscle became specialized. Importantly, the evolutionary trend towards anisomerism is not related to a general

  15. The 'antisocial' person: an insight in to biology, classification and current evidence on treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajapakse Senaka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This review analyses and summarises the recent advances in understanding the neurobiology of violence and empathy, taxonomical issues on defining personality disorders characterised by disregard for social norms, evidence for efficacy of different treatment modalities and ethical implications in defining 'at-risk' individuals for preventive interventions. Methods PubMed was searched with the keywords 'antisocial personality disorder', 'dissocial personality disorder' and 'psychopathy'. The search was limited to articles published in English over the last 10 years (1999 to 2009 Results Both diagnostic manuals used in modern psychiatry, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association and the International Classification of Diseases published by the World Health Organization, identify a personality disorder sharing similar traits. It is termed antisocial personality disorder in the diagnostic and statistical manual and dissocial personality disorder in the International Classification of Diseases. However, some authors query the ability of the existing manuals to identify a special category termed 'psychopathy', which in their opinion deserves special attention. On treatment-related issues, many psychological and behavioural therapies have shown success rates ranging from 25% to 62% in different cohorts. Multisystemic therapy and cognitive behaviour therapy have been proven efficacious in many trials. There is no substantial evidence for the efficacy of pharmacological therapy. Currently, the emphasis is on early identification and prevention of antisocial behaviour despite the ethical implications of defining at-risk children. Conclusions Further research is needed in the areas of neuroendocrinological associations of violent behaviour, taxonomic existence of psychopathy and efficacy of treatment modalities.

  16. Assessing the Effect of Waterpipe Smoking on Cancer Outcome - a Systematic Review of Current Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Kamran Habib; Siddiqi, Kamran; Patil, Shankargouda; Hussain, Quratul Ann

    2017-02-01

    Background: Waterpipe smoking (WPS) is widely believed to be a safe and hazard-free tobacco habit. However, a number of studies have indicated that exposure to several toxicants and carcinogens through WPS is strongly related to serious health hazards. The current paper presents a narrative review on the effects of WPS on cancer outcome. Methods: The addressed focused question was “Is there an association between waterpipe smoking and cancer outcome?” PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane databases were searched until June 2015 using the key words “Waterpipe”, “Hookah”, “Narghileh”, “Shisha”, “Hubbly Bubbly” “cancer” in various combinations. Letters to the Editor, review articles, case-reports and unpublished articles were excluded. Results: A total of 16 studies were included: six on lung cancer, three on oesophageal cancer, two on gastric cancer, two on bladder cancer, and one each on nasopharyngeal, pancreatic and prostate cancers. Our search did not yield any study that evaluated the risk of oral cancer in WPS users. The available evidence showed a significant association of WPS with lung cancer (UOR 6.0, 95% CI 1.78–20.26); however, no association was observed with bladder, nasopharyngeal, pancreatic and prostate cancers. Gastric (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.7-7.1) and oesophageal cancers (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.41-2.44) were observed to have weak associations with WPS. Conclusion: Regardless of the limitations, there is sufficient evidence to suggest associations of WPS with cancer, particularly in the lung. Future well-designed studies are required to identify and quantify with confidence all the health effects of this form of smoking. Creative Commons Attribution License

  17. Non-medical prescribing by physiotherapists: issues reported in the current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Joanne H; Grimmer, Karen

    2014-02-01

    Physiotherapists should be proactive in preparing themselves to participate in innovative models of health care, which are emerging from the healthcare workforce reforms in Australia. One challenging outcome of workforce change is physiotherapy (non-medical) prescribing (NMP), which is part of the extension of scope of physiotherapy practice. This paper summarises the current evidence base for Australian physiotherapists seeking to obtain prescribing rights. A targeted literature review was undertaken through EBSCO Host, Cochrane, Medline, SportsDiscus, Cinahl, Healthsource and Google.com using broad search terms to identify peer-reviewed and grey literature pertaining to NMP by physiotherapists, nationally and internationally. No critical appraisal was undertaken however literature was structured into the NHMRC hierarchy of evidence. Themes raised in the included literature were reported descriptively. There were six relevant peer-reviewed articles, of hierarchy levels III_3 and IV. There was however, comprehensive and recent grey literature to inform Australian physiotherapy NMP initiatives. Themes included the need for standard National action in relation to legislative and regulatory/registration issues, appropriate education, credentialing and supervisory requirements for physiotherapy prescribing. Many lessons can be learnt from the literature, including the importance of planned, uniform National action (rather than piecemeal state-by-state initiatives). Essential elements include appropriate training and skills-based recognition within the discipline and the broader health team, and the need to overtly demonstrate effectiveness and safety. Regularly-evaluated service-delivery models which support NMP by physiotherapists are further required, to demonstrate efficiency, timeliness, patient centredness and equity. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationship between corporate social responsibility and competitive performance in Spanish SMEs: Empirical evidence from a stakeholders’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Herrera Madueño

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a financial economic scenario in which the corporate survival of small and medium enterprises (SMEs is more conditioned than ever by competitive performance, this paper aims to show that the strategic incorporation of socially responsible actions, more concerned and engaged with stakeholders, contributes to improve the competitiveness of these organizations. Thus, the existence of a direct or mediated relationship between the development of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR practices and competitive performance has been analyzed from a multi-stakeholder perspective. To accomplish this task, data were collected from a sample of 481 Spanish SMEs and the technique of partial least squares (PLS was used. Outcomes show that the development of CSR practices contributes to increase the competitive performance both directly and indirectly, through the ability of these organizations to manage their stakeholders. This study, therefore, supports the social impact hypothesis and offers evidence about some intangibles such as the relational capacity mediate the causal effect between CSR and competitive performance.

  19. Emergence Corporate Financial Distressin Emerging Market: Empirical Evidence from Indonesia Stock Exchange(IDX 2004-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koes Pranowo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Financial recovery is the most difficult in financial management. Therefore, this is important to study how a company in financially-distress can survive to rise up to a healthy financial condition (emergence financial distress. The research consists of 200 non financial companies which are listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX for the period of 2004-2008. This study focuses on management of working capital. How a company fulfill its current liabilities, and its sources in current assets which shall be cashed at the short term period. By using Multinomial logit, we analyzed the probability a financially-distress company rise up to emergence financial distress or stay of the status of financial distress and what are financial indicators affect to a company in the status of Non Financial Distress tend to Financial Distress. Thus, the important thing is to determine financial ratios which can be an indicator to determine of emergence financial distress. We find a positive relationship between Profit, efficiency and emergence financial distress and a negative relationship between leverage and emergence financial distress.   Keywords: Emergence Financial Distress, Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX, Multinomial Logit JEL Classification Codes: G 3

  20. Evidence-based guidelines on the therapeutic use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal; Antal, Andrea; Ayache, Samar S; Benninger, David H; Brunelin, Jérôme; Cogiamanian, Filippo; Cotelli, Maria; De Ridder, Dirk; Ferrucci, Roberta; Langguth, Berthold; Marangolo, Paola; Mylius, Veit; Nitsche, Michael A; Padberg, Frank; Palm, Ulrich; Poulet, Emmanuel; Priori, Alberto; Rossi, Simone; Schecklmann, Martin; Vanneste, Sven; Ziemann, Ulf; Garcia-Larrea, Luis; Paulus, Walter

    2017-01-01

    A group of European experts was commissioned by the European Chapter of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology to gather knowledge about the state of the art of the therapeutic use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) from studies published up until September 2016, regarding pain, Parkinson's disease, other movement disorders, motor stroke, poststroke aphasia, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, consciousness disorders, Alzheimer's disease, tinnitus, depression, schizophrenia, and craving/addiction. The evidence-based analysis included only studies based on repeated tDCS sessions with sham tDCS control procedure; 25 patients or more having received active treatment was required for Class I, while a lower number of 10-24 patients was accepted for Class II studies. Current evidence does not allow making any recommendation of Level A (definite efficacy) for any indication. Level B recommendation (probable efficacy) is proposed for: (i) anodal tDCS of the left primary motor cortex (M1) (with right orbitofrontal cathode) in fibromyalgia; (ii) anodal tDCS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) (with right orbitofrontal cathode) in major depressive episode without drug resistance; (iii) anodal tDCS of the right DLPFC (with left DLPFC cathode) in addiction/craving. Level C recommendation (possible efficacy) is proposed for anodal tDCS of the left M1 (or contralateral to pain side, with right orbitofrontal cathode) in chronic lower limb neuropathic pain secondary to spinal cord lesion. Conversely, Level B recommendation (probable inefficacy) is conferred on the absence of clinical effects of: (i) anodal tDCS of the left temporal cortex (with right orbitofrontal cathode) in tinnitus; (ii) anodal tDCS of the left DLPFC (with right orbitofrontal cathode) in drug-resistant major depressive episode. It remains to be clarified whether the probable or possible therapeutic effects of tDCS are clinically meaningful and how to optimally perform t