WorldWideScience

Sample records for current economic environment

  1. IS Audit Considerations in Respect of Current Economic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Svata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Accountancy organizations, regulatory bodies, standard setters, and other international organizations have developed guidance, articles, frameworks and resources on issues related to the global financial crisis. Now there is a clear and widely accepted need for more rigorous governance over companies´ systems of internal control. Historically there exist many different activities aiming to support effective enterprise governance (legislative acts, best practices, standards, frameworks. But all these activities may have reinforced the already-existing focus on enterprise governance, but they did not necessarily bring clarity to the topic. Therefore we can currently notice some changes aiming to improve the adoption and adaptation of best practices and standards within the area of enterprise governance. The paper discusses the changes in the Enterprise Governance of IT/IS, audit/assurance evolution, and intended Cobit improvements.

  2. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF COSTS - THE MAIN TOOL OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORINA MICULESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Both global and national hipercompetiţia and globalization are two phenomena that generate complexity and instability in the business. Therefore, the economic context in which organizations operate has changed a lot, the current environment characterized by globalization, increased competition, rapidly changing, market segmentation, changes in technology, demand volatility, the importance of information. These phenomena not only create a state of turmoil and turbulence in the competitive environment and generate changes in market conditions, but require changes and development in organizations. In these circumstances organizations worldwide are forced to adapt constantly, products and services to market needs to turn its attention to customer satisfaction, they need sophisticated production processes, internal processes flexible to respond quickly to changes environment.Therefore to achieve any competitive advantage, organizations must take the current economic environment strategies that integrate environmental opportunities, market and technology advantages in the most efficient way. In this context the question of modernization, the transformation cost information system, an adaptation to the realities and requirements of this, to change tools, processes and methods to meet current scientific and technical progress.

  3. Energy, Economics & Environment

    OpenAIRE

    David James

    1997-01-01

    Energy-economic-environment (EEE) interactions can be expected to play a crucial role in the development process. Energy is a critical resourced underpinning economic growth. Countries in SE Asia have reached different levels of economic welfare, and this is reflected in their energy use patterns. Some of the countries are well endowed with energy resources - to the extent of being major exporters of energy. Others face serious poverty, accompanied by low levels of energy use. To achieve impr...

  4. THE ANALYSIS OF THE REAL ESTATE INVESTMENTS IN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT

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    Hristea Anca Maria

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Real estate investments are one of the most attractive business opportunities in the context of the contemporary economy, generally marked by economic recession and especially by monetary and financial instability. Last years international reporting concluded that deepening the global economic crisis determined an increase of the real estate request, while despite all expectations one did not assist a crash of the prices. Economic reality showed that real estate assets value (buildings, land kept proportions with economic reality over time. A comparison between stock exchange market and the real estate market shows that while an movables investor (investments in stocks, bonds or life insurance might lose completely his initial investment, the investments in real estate assets, such as buildings, would keep their quality as goods and would also keep a value to better resist shocks and thus allowing an increase of the capital. When appreciating the value of an investment the first things to analyze are the return, liquidity and risk criteria, which are essential in real estate investments too. Stimulating real estate market must be not only a wish but also a reality of global economy, since it can correct many of the aggregated indicators of a country. Containing scientifically detached from economic practice, this article is addressed to readers with interests in real estate investment. The language is usually referred particularly to the qualitative side of the real estate market approach. The feasibility of the real estate investments is being conditioned by their capacity to generate important profits, on the background of the reduction of the duration of recovery of their value. The economic instability from the last couple of years has generated fears and failures but, paraphrasing Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, courage is a mixture of genius, magic and power that helps us succeed in everything we set our mind to. The investments on the real

  5. APPROACHES TO EUROPEAN UNION MILITARY COLLABORATION IN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC AUSTERITY ENVIRONMENT

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    Maria CONSTANTINESCU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the economic crisis on European countries has led to serious cuts of the defense budgets and a perceived reduction in the EU’s ability to provide capabilities required by other allies, especially the US. Cooperation, in the form of pooling and sharing may not be an easy and “ready to use” solution to Europe’s defense issues generated by the budget austerity and economic downturn, but it may provide ways to lessen the defense cuts impact on the military capabilities. Nonetheless, the success of the initiative is strongly related to the degree of political and military commitment of the EU countries to put into practice the concept.

  6. Educating Medical Laboratory Technologists: Revisiting Our Assumptions in the Current Economic and Health-Care Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Linder

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Health care occupies a distinct niche in an economy struggling to recover from recession. Professions related to the care of patients are thought to be relatively resistant to downturns, and thus become attractive to students typically drawn to more lucrative pursuits. Currently, a higher profile for clinical laboratory technology among college students and those considering career change results in larger and better prepared applicant pools. However, after decades of contraction marked by closing of programs, prospective students encounter an educational system without the capacity or vigor to meet their needs. Here discussed are some principles and proposals to allow universities, partnering with health-care providers, government agencies, and other stakeholders to develop new programs, or reenergize existing ones to serve our students and patients. Principles include academic rigor in biomedical and clinical science, multiple points of entry for students, flexibility in format, cost effectiveness, career ladders and robust partnerships.

  7. [Economic theory and the environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yachir, F

    1992-01-01

    The environment, on the eve of a new century, has become a major theme for reflection and action in both developed and developing countries. Economists and economic theory have until recently neglected the environment and have implicitly assumed that nature offers unlimited space for expansion and an inexhaustible supply of resources. Among natural resources, economists have always distinguished between those whose supply is in no way related to human labor and which are therefore common property, such as air and water, and those whose effective supply depends on labor and for which the appropriation can be private, such as the products of the soil and subsoil. The founders of the discipline of economics defined economic goods as those resulting from the application of labor to nature and which formally belong to a specific individual or group. It has become increasingly clear, however, that economic activity can reduce the effective availability of resources not considered "economic." The growing scarcity of these common goods may then induce their privatization. The inability of economic science to conceive of the exhaustibility of natural resources or the possibility of their permanent reduction in quality through human activity reflects the specific historic and philosophic context of the development of economics as a science. England in the late 18th and 19th centuries, where economics largely originated, was a colonial power able to expand outward in its quest for resources. Industrial requirements for nonrenewable resources remained relatively limited in the early years of industrialization. Most significantly, the growing technological capability was accompanied by a new belief that human beings could be in control of nature. A critique of economic theory from an environmental perspective must therefore begin with a critique of its philosophical assumptions. A new vision of interaction between the economy and nature must be developed which acknowledges the

  8. Environment, energy, and economic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberndorfer, Ulrich

    2009-09-25

    This thesis analyzes the relationship between environmental regulation as well as energy market developments on the one hand, and economic performance on the other. Due to its economic effects environmental regulation is controversially disputed. The thesis shows, however, that the economic impacts of the recently adopted climate policy in Europe, namely of the implementation of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme, have been modest at most. Consistent with economic theory, the low stringency of this regulatory measure that is aimed at combating man-made climate change is identified as one important driver of this result. Moreover, results presented in this thesis also indicate the important role which the political economy plays for the design of environmental regulation in general. These mechanisms are shown to be a driver of the low stringency and, consequently, of the small economic effects during the first phase of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme. The thesis highlights the role of investment stimulation if the goal of environmental regulation is not only the protection of the environment, but also the compatibility with economic goals. This thesis also provides new insights into the role of energy market developments for the economy. In this respect, the relevance of the EU carbon market for the financial market performance of European electricity generators is shown. Besides, this thesis particularly demonstrates the paramount importance of oil market developments for the economy as a whole. It suggests that amongst all natural resources, oil is the most relevant one to the pricing of Eurozone energy stocks. It is also shown that besides oil prices, oil volatility plays an important role for stock market development. Finally, the thesis highlights the relevance of oil market developments to the overall economy, in showing that unemployment in Germany is strongly affected by oil price shocks. In this respect, it also opposes claims that the

  9. Ecotourism, Economics and the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    1994-01-01

    With growing interest in conservation and growing incomes, nature-based tourism has grown rapidly. However, there are some differences in views about what constitutes nature-based tourism or ecotourism and these are briefly discussed. Then some estimates of the economic value of ecotourism are given and possible socio-economic benefits of it are listed. But these benefits are not certain, e.g., in some cases, there are considerable economic 'leakages' from expenditure by tourists and the loca...

  10. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION RELATIONSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPESCU CONSTANTIN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The social and economical development must be approached in such a way that it minimizes the effects of the economic activity over the deterioration of resources and to discourage waste. The pollution control depends on humans’ ability to understand the seriousness of the ecological lack of balance.The sustainable lasting development, being a long term economical development, is possible by efficiently using the economical instruments (cost, profit; the political, juridical and social ones, which utter signals for the economic agents, so that they can become aware of the limited character of natural resources and of the damage caused to the environment.

  11. Economic measurement of environment damages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.

    1980-05-01

    The densities, energy consumption, and economic development of the increasing population exacerbate environmental degradation. Air and water pollution is a major environmental problem affecting life and health, outdoor recreation, household soiling, vegetation, materials, and production. The literature review indicated that numerous studies have assessed the physical and monetary damage to populations at risk from excessive concentrations of major air and water pollutants-sulfur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter, oxidants, and carbon monoxide in air; and nutrients, oil, pesticides, and toxic metals and others in water. The measurement of the damages was one of the most controversial issues in pollution abatement. The methods that have been used to estimate the societal value of pollution abatement are: (1) chain of effects, (2) market approaches, and (3) surveys. National gross damages of air pollution of $20.2 billion and of water pollution of $11.1 billion for 1973 are substantial. These best estimates, updated for the economic and demographic conditions, could provide acceptable control totals for estimating and predicting benefits and costs of abating air and water pollution emissions. The major issues to be resolved are: (1) lack of available noneconomic data, (2) theoretical and empirical difficulties of placing a value on human life and health and on benefits such as aesthetics, and (3) lack of available demographic and economic data.

  12. Consumption and environment - ecological economic perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2006-01-01

    Consumption and environment – ecological economic perspectives Summary Research on issues related to consumption and environment has grown rapidly since the middle of the 1990s, and several disciplines as well as transdisciplinary fields have contributed to this development. The present papers...... constitute a small part of this wave of interest, and they are mostly framed as belonging to ecological economics. The collection starts with an introduction to the field of consumption research within ecological economics and then follows a series of papers on more specific issues. The introductionary...... overview outlines the background and the characteristics of the new wave of consumption and environment studies with a specific focus on ecological economic contributions. First, the roots in environmental research are described, and the breakthrough for the interest in consumption. Then the specific...

  13. Current research directions definition of economic security

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    Anna Falovych

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article features the topical issue of the established level of the enterprise's economic security. The objective of this article is to research, to base and to supplement the tendency for generalization of the categorical system in order to clarify the matter meaning of the enterprise's economic security. The systematized analyses of the matter meaning of the enterprise's economic security were done by domestic and foreign scientists-economists. The results of the study were expounded and also some vital approaches to the definition of the enterprise's economic security were presented and proved particularly: strategically, resource-functional, marketable, combined, deductive, systematic and criminal.Based on the analyzed content-conceptual interpretations and detailed characteristics of each approach to the definition of this meaning, there was proposed its own meaning of the interpretation of the enterprise's economic security. A systematic approach was adopted due to the matters concerning enterprise's economic security. As in this approach the vital economic interests of thee enterprise were stipulated, also gained the topicality in the current crisis economic conditions

  14. Economic aid and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, R

    1990-01-01

    Approximately 1/3 of the signatories of the Montreal Protocol on ozone depletion were developing countries lacking the resources to pay for its implementation. Germany announced at 25% reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by 2005, the Netherlands, the UK, and Japan promised similar steps. The southern hemisphere has to reduce emissions with improved technology from the northern hemisphere, as 45% of greenhouse gases are generated there. There is need to finance such initiatives: $20-50 billion a year is required by 2000 to help these countries. The world Resources Institute proposed a green investment fund for the environment or Ecovest. It was first proposed in eastern Europe by the Nordic Environmental Finance Corporation (NEFCO) in 1990 with an initial capital of $47 million. The US Overseas Private Investment Corporation set up a $100 million for-profit Environmental Investment Fund for eastern Europe and the developing world for sustainable agriculture, forest management, eco-tourism, renewable energy, and pollution prevention. Debt-for-nature swaps between nongovernmental agencies and governments to purchase debt at discount have been paid in bonds for nature conservation in Bolivia, Ecuador, Costa Rica, the Philippines, Zambia, and Madagascar. $69 million of Costa Rica's debt was converted in 2 years to save parks, protected areas, and finance reforestation. The debts of some African countries have been written off by donor countries. The Bush Administration proposed to write off parts of Latin America's $7 billion debt. The Global Environment Fund of the World Bank proposed to lend $300-400 million a year for environmental projects in developing countries and in eastern Europe. The main goals are to protect the ozone layer, prevent deforestation and desertification, and clean up pollution. Some companies finance reforestation in Guatemala to offset their own emissions.

  15. The impact of the economic environment on financial reports

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    Valentin Burcă

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Financial reporting represents a current issue of economic environment, given globalization and the recent economic crisis. Accounting -as profession - along with the investors and state institutions have started a comprehensive project of accounting convergence designed to improve the comparability of accounting information released by financial statements synthesis. The success of the project can only be provided by taking into account several constraints imposed by the economic environment, and not only. Therefore, attention must be paid to the voice of capital markets and large multinational corporations regarding the future development of financial reporting.

  16. Current Economic Situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina

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    Goran Mirascic

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the current economic situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Beginning in the second half of 2008, macroeconomic conditions in B&H began precipitating a decline in economic activity. While the global financial crisis was among the factors contributing to this decline, it was far from the only factor. Problematic macroeconomic conditions were also a result of B&H’s own structural and political problems, caused largely by the shortcomings of a political entity comprising two autonomous entities. Due to such problems, the governments of B&H turned to the International Monetary Fund for assistance. This article analyzes the effects of the first two “stand by” arrangements made between the IMF and B&H and discusses implications for further, ongoing stand by arrangements made between the IMF and B&H. This paper also examines the lack of unified economic space between The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and The Republic of Srpska, which has resulted not only in ineffective monetary policy but also in different fiscal and taxation systems between the two entities. While various existing analyses claim that B&H has little hope of resolving its economic woes due to its current political and economic structure, this article offers solutions and measures that, if successfully implemented, would lead to more efficient recovery and self-sustainable economic growth.

  17. Environment as the Stage for Economic Actors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John E Coulter; Shi Lei; Samantha Jenkins

    2007-01-01

    The relative importance of economics and environment in debate may soon be reversed due to the influence of three factors. Firstly, in the global economy it is hard to hide the unwanted products of economic processes. Secondly, huge advances in science will reduce the imperfect knowledge of markets, making some monitoring and analyzing tools show the design of sensible and equitable livelihood in communities, which is more important than the motivation of maximising profits for some individuals or fums. Thirdly, China, as the last major player on the planet to take on economic growth, comes from traditions fundamentally different from those economies that have experienced the Industrial Revolution previously. Its challenges with sustainability and environmental conservation predate Western economics by millennia,and it is implementing policies domestically and starting to work on the world stage that acknowledges that the surroundings are the host for any economic and socio-political system.

  18. The Economic Component of National Security – Current Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Constantinescu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to underline the main current approaches regarding the economic component of national security, with conclusions focused on the globalization effects on the national economies and the national security of the states. The dynamics of the unfolding political and economic events determines the need for the analysis – further developed in the paper - of the relevant variables and of the way these are involved in the intricate equations describing the current political, economic and social environment. One of the main results of the analysis is that national security represents a goal for any country wishing to provide sustainable welfare for its citizens, and this sustainable welfare cannot be achieved without sustainable economic security and development

  19. Economic Environment as a Predictor of Effective Sport Marketing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic Environment as a Predictor of Effective Sport Marketing in Nigeria. ... Environment as a Predictor of Effective Sport Marketing in Nigeria. E Akarah ... Nigeria economic environment would significantly predict effective sport marketing.

  20. How is an analysis of the enterprise economic environment done?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Parodi Trece

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The proper interpretation of the evolution of the economy is a useful tool to improve corporate decision-making. The aim of this paper is to explain, with examples applied to the current economic reality, how an analysis of the economic environment is made and how it serves for the corporate strategic planning. To do this, after the explanation of the overall conceptual framework; gross domestic product, inflation and external deficit as indicators, key in the "language" used by analysts are defined. These are economic indicators, related, that depend on domestic policy and exogenous shocks, defined as events that are out of the hands of economic policy designers, but that influence the three variables, such as the international financial crisis. Following it, the formalization through macroeconomic identities is made, in order to finally explain "how is the economy" through them; and the relationship between the internal to the external economic environment. Bringing the economy to business should be a priority in an increasingly integrated context, characterized by the fact that the positive and the negative of what happens in the world economy is transmitted through various channels, to companies located in different countries. Hence, companies should broaden their vision, as the economic environment does not only include what happens within the country, but the future of the world economy.

  1. Bargaining with Claims in Economic Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero, Carmen

    1998-01-01

    In this paper a reconstruction of the theory of bargaining with claims in economic environments is addressed. The spirit of that reconstruction is similar to that of the standard bargaining theory made by Roemer. En este trabajo se aborda el problema de la reconstrucción de la teoría de negociación con derechos en entornos económicos. El espíritu de la reconstrucción y las técnicas son semejantes a las de Roemer para el problema clásico de negociación.

  2. USA between the Greatest Economic Crisis and Current Economic Crisis

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    Adina Liana Camarda

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available American business system might be defined trough its decentralized character, a capitalist one, based on private property and free will. Federalauthorities’ intercession to economy exhibits throughout budgetary and monetary policies strategy. Meantime federal budget gets a constituent referring toinvestment in cereals. American economic legislation acknowledges government involvement in business practice control, American Government acting aseconomical increase supervisor.

  3. The Current Global Economic Crisis: Gleaning from History

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    Ettah B. Essien

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study seeks to demonstrate how the knowledge of economic thought could help in explaining and managing the current global economic crisis. The current economic meltdown has affected nations of the world by differing degrees but adversely. Many analysts argue that the adoption of the Washington Consensusfinancial liberalization-gave vent to the crisis. The Washington Consensus discourages government involvement but promotes the operation of the market forces in economic and financial operations. However, the financial and economic devastation caused by the current economic crisis has prompted governments of various nations across the world to intervene through massive stimulus plans in order to rescue their economies from the meltdown situation. This suggests that the role of government in the economy is pertinent, and that the market forces are no substitutes but complement. This, therefore, suggests a fair balance of the government and the market forces in the operations of the economy.

  4. THE EVOLUTION OF ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION DURING THE CURRENT GLOBAL CRISIS

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    Sabina Tuca

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis constitutes a serious test for the process of globalization. The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of the current global crisis on economic globalization. To assess the impact of the current crisis on economic globalization, this paper examines the KOF Index of Globalization, before and during the crisis. The findings generally support the idea that economic globalization has been, in fact, weakened, after the onset of the current crisis. However, there is evidence that suggest that economic globalization has resumed the upward trend that characterized it before the crisis. Despite the fact the global crisis has shaken the process of globalization, we cannot talk of an end of globalization, as some predictions have indicated.

  5. Discourse as none-economic business environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittenhofer, Iris

    Theories on strategy development are read as cultural expressions. The focus is directed towards coporate enviornment as well as the relations between corporation and environment.......Theories on strategy development are read as cultural expressions. The focus is directed towards coporate enviornment as well as the relations between corporation and environment....

  6. CONSISTENCY VERSUS INCONSISTENCY IN THE CURRENT ACADEMIC ECONOMIC PARADIGM

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    Dumitru MIRON

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The current academic economic paradigm is shaped by the actual economic schools of thoughts and the systems of generating economic knowledge – universities, research institutions, academic publishing actors and business elites. The cumulated contributions of these actors have transformed economics into a mature science whose practical and governance implications were tested by the 2008 world financial crisis. The challenges faced in these times by governments, households and businesses have severely questioned both orthodox and non orthodox economic wisdom and the legitimacy of the economist as a professional. Irrespective of their economic orientation, most economists have agreed that the models of socio-economic development should be revisited, with a high need of a focus on the moral and ethical standards of the human, economic and political actions. The purpose of this paper is to analyse some of the major inconsistencies that the current academic economic paradigm is perpetuating through its systems of generating economic knowledge, mainly universities and research institutions. From the methodological point of view this paper uses a qualitative analysis, based on a conceptual and highly explorative approach.

  7. Consumption and environment - ecological economic perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2006-01-01

    -intensive alternatives? Three groups of explanations are explored: socio-economic, socio-psychological and socio-technical explanations. The paper concludes with some reflections on the political implications of the analysis. The search for driving forces is carried on in the paper New technology in everyday life...... economic research on consumption deals with five broad questions: a. How can consumption be conceptualized? b. What are the environmental impacts of consumption? c. What are the driving forces behind growing consumption? d. How does consumption relate to the quality of life? e. How can consumption patterns....... However, from a sociological viewpoint it can make sense to refer to different domains of everyday life, such as the domains related to work and to the home, respectively, and this understanding lies behind the more empirically based discussion in the paper concerning work-related consumption drivers...

  8. INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT - BASIC REQUIREMENT OF ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS

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    ADRIAN TĂNASE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that institutions play a key role in facilitating private investment and that institutional quality is the most important factor that explains why capital does not flow from developed countries, where it has a lower return, to developing countries where it has a higher returnThe importance of institutions is not restricted to the legal framework. Government attitudes toward markets and freedoms and the efficiency of its operations are also very important: excessive bureaucracy and red tape, overregulation, corruption, dishonesty in dealing with public contracts, lack of transparency and trustworthiness, or the political dependence of the judicial system impose significant economic costs to businesses and slow down the process of economic development.The paper approaches thus a topic of present utmost interest, rising the interest of specialists, media and, last but not least, the interest of entrepreneurs, irrespective of their domain of activity.

  9. INTERRELATIONSHIP S BETWEEN HEALTH, ENVIRONMENT QUALITY AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITY: WHAT CONSEQUENCES FOR ECONOMIC CONVERGENCE?

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    Alassane Drabo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the link between health indicators, environmental variables and economic development, and th e consequences of this relationship on economic convergence for a large sample of rich and poor countries. While in economic literature income and environment are seen to have an inverted-U shaped relationship (Environment Kuznets Curve hypothesis, it is also well established that an improvement in environmental quality is positively related to health. Our study focuses on the implications of this relationship for economic convergence. In the early stage of economic development, the gain from income growth could be cancelled or mitigated by environmental degradation through populations' health (and other channels and create a vicious circle in economic activity unlike in developed countries. This in turn could slow down economic convergence. To empirically assess these issues, we proceeded to an econometric analysis through three equations: a growth equation, a health equation and an environment equation. We found that health is a channel through which environment impacts economic growth. When we take into account the effect of environment quality on economic growth, the speed of convergence tends to increase slightly. This shows that environmental quality could be considered as a constraint for economic convergence.

  10. SYNTHESIS OF ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT AND CLASSIFICATION LEVELS OF DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammedelkhatim Ibrahim Mustafa SHARFELDIN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic environment is actual and influences business activities significantly. Economic environment includes microeconomic and macroeconomic factors. These factors assist in encouraging business and promote trade and investment activities. This work aims to illustrate those factors, their characteristics and how do they support international business activities. This paper also is intended to reveal the indicators used to classify countries’ development for instance BOP, GNI, GDP and GNP. As a result, it also demonstrates the indicators’ characteristics and how these indexes work.

  11. Choosing the direction : Investment, the environment and economic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Maria, C.

    2006-01-01

    Is technological change good for the environment in a globalized world, or does it rather lead to more pollution? Do climate policies represent worthy attempts to preserve the environment for future generations, or are they just pointless burdens on economic systems? Do efforts to increase the level

  12. Importance Of Business Planning In An Environment Lacking Economic Predictability

    OpenAIRE

    Ciumara Tudor

    2010-01-01

    The importance of business planning in an environment that lacks economic predictability is enhanced because it increases the ability of firms to be proactive. It is however necessary to accept the fundamental assumption that planning activity is conducted in a turbulent environment, where unpredictable events occur frequently. Planning is possible even when changes are common and difficult to predict, by adopting a flexible model to address all significant aspects.

  13. CURRENT ACCOUNT DEFICIT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN ARMENIA

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    Arus Tunian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of the problem of economic growth in Armenia. It is identified the nature of the balance of payments of the country, indicating a net debtor position, which leads to inherent deterioration of the international investment position. A small open economy of Armenia moves to a new phase of development, in the frame of the integration processes within the Customs Union and the Eurasian Economic Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. One of the main characteristics of the Armenian economy vulnerability remains a negative balance in foreign trade, which continues to grow, despite the export growth. Economic growth is provided, as before, mostly due to the sale of raw materials - non-ferrous metals and metal ores, both in the primary as well as in the previous preprocessing. Estimating the econometric VAR models revealed that the negative current account impacts on GDP growth negatively.

  14. Goals and priorities of socio-economic reforms with consideration of the current economic situation

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    Dykha Mariya V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article defines goals and priorities of reforms in Ukraine with consideration of the current situation in economy and social sphere. It marks the necessity of changing strategic goals and giving realistic orientation to the process of reformation. The author marks the necessity of development of institutional grounds of state management, activation of internal reserves of development of socio-economic processes, development of science intensive technologies and innovation activity, development of the weighted socio-economic policy, refusal from the paternalistic model and consequent establishment of conditions for activation of possibilities of the population to solve their social problems independently. The article provides a strategic contour of participation of the state in achievement of goals of socio-economic development, which includes a strategic analysis and identification of goals, strategic and tactical levels of goal-setting, strategic control and regulation of socio-economic development.

  15. Using ecosystem services to represent the environment in hydro-economic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momblanch, Andrea; Connor, Jeffery D.; Crossman, Neville D.; Paredes-Arquiola, Javier; Andreu, Joaquín

    2016-07-01

    Demand for water is expected to grow in line with global human population growth, but opportunities to augment supply are limited in many places due to resource limits and expected impacts of climate change. Hydro-economic models are often used to evaluate water resources management options, commonly with a goal of understanding how to maximise water use value and reduce conflicts among competing uses. The environment is now an important factor in decision making, which has resulted in its inclusion in hydro-economic models. We reviewed 95 studies applying hydro-economic models, and documented how the environment is represented in them and the methods they use to value environmental costs and benefits. We also sought out key gaps and inconsistencies in the treatment of the environment in hydro-economic models. We found that representation of environmental values of water is patchy in most applications, and there should be systematic consideration of the scope of environmental values to include and how they should be valued. We argue that the ecosystem services framework offers a systematic approach to identify the full range of environmental costs and benefits. The main challenges to more holistic representation of the environment in hydro-economic models are the current limits to understanding of ecological functions which relate physical, ecological and economic values and critical environmental thresholds; and the treatment of uncertainty.

  16. Environment protection: The current challenge in radioecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréchignac, F.

    2012-04-01

    Radioecology, a multifaceted scientific discipline which addresses environmental issues relevant to radioprotection, has for a long time been focused on environmental transfers through the environment to feed the needs of human radioprotection. This quite anthropocentric initial scope is now moving to a more ecocentric view capable of assessing ecological risk mediated by ionising radiation. The central issue consists in reaching an ability to understand the effects of radiation on the environment components, from individual organisms up to populations of species and ecosystems, together with their interaction with the abiotic compartments. Dominated by operational goals, the system of radiological protection of the environment which is under development emphasises a concept based upon reference organisms supported by traditional toxicological data on individual organisms. Whilst there are immediate advantages to this approach (pragmatism, consistency with other approaches in use for man and biota), there are also clear limitations which need to be acknowledged and further considered. The most important probably is to rely on effects data gathered almost exclusively for individual organisms to meet protection goals which are usually set at population and ecosystem levels. Overcoming this limitation leads to scientific and methodological approaches featuring the ecosystem concept.

  17. Environment protection: The current challenge in radioecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bréchignac F.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Radioecology, a multifaceted scientific discipline which addresses environmental issues relevant to radioprotection, has for a long time been focused on environmental transfers through the environment to feed the needs of human radioprotection. This quite anthropocentric initial scope is now moving to a more ecocentric view capable of assessing ecological risk mediated by ionising radiation. The central issue consists in reaching an ability to understand the effects of radiation on the environment components, from individual organisms up to populations of species and ecosystems, together with their interaction with the abiotic compartments. Dominated by operational goals, the system of radiological protection of the environment which is under development emphasises a concept based upon reference organisms supported by traditional toxicological data on individual organisms. Whilst there are immediate advantages to this approach (pragmatism, consistency with other approaches in use for man and biota, there are also clear limitations which need to be acknowledged and further considered. The most important probably is to rely on effects data gathered almost exclusively for individual organisms to meet protection goals which are usually set at population and ecosystem levels. Overcoming this limitation leads to scientific and methodological approaches featuring the ecosystem concept.

  18. Library macro-environment: New technological and economic rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Štular-Sotošek

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast and flexible adaptation to changes in the macro-environment is also crucial for libraries, which have to review them, respond to them and become a part of them. Consequently, the application of marketing science and tools helps libraries to find out how to survive in the competitive world and how to become better and stronger. The article, which draws from marketing, economic and information disciplines, introduces the main principles in the technological and economic environment of libraries and finds the knowledge about these disciplines to be most crucial for successful management of modern libraries, especially on the pretentious publishing market and on the market of information suppliers. Within the technological and economic environment, the cooperation is the only logical solution, which benefits the producers of information services and products as well as libraries. The following text finds that libraries will achieve long-term success and will be proactive in developing partnerships only by using relationship marketing. This relatively new approach offers libraries new ways for successful and long-term management of alliances between partners.

  19. ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE STRATEGIES IN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana, TALMACIU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the main strategies for implementing organizational changes in the current social and economic context, characterized by an unprecedented dynamism. As a result, the paper presents the results of the research that have led to the identification of the factors determining the application of a particular strategy or even the usage of their mix. To achieve the established objectives set we have used as a research method the content analysis of various Romanian and foreign authors' work.

  20. New approaches to business cycle theory in current economic science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica DOBRESCU

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In modern economies, current research generally acknowledges that the central issues in macroeconomics are essentially the same as those identified by Keynes in the General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money. One way or the other, economists are trying to address the same macroeconomic issues that they did seven decades ago: How can we account for the different growth rates and various fluctuations observed in national economies? Which are the economic policies most suitable to solve the issues of growth and cyclic behavior? Both the new classicals and the new Keynesians have made considerable progress within their research paradigms: to explain economic fluctuations, the new classicals focus on technological perturbations, the intertemporal substitution of leisure and real business cycles; on the other hand, the new Keynesians speak in terms of monopolistic competition, menu costs or efficiency wages. On the whole, the new classicals believe that the business cycle can best be understood within the market-clearing model, whereas the new keynesians believe that business fluctuations are due to certain market failures of various sorts.The present paper focuses on the main directions of research of the new classical school on the business cycle, given that the theoretical progress in this field has been significant and relevant for economic policy during the past four decades.

  1. Mathematical modeling in economics, ecology and the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Hritonenko, Natali

    2013-01-01

    Updated to textbook form by popular demand, this second edition discusses diverse mathematical models used in economics, ecology, and the environmental sciences with emphasis on control and optimization. It is intended for graduate and upper-undergraduate course use, however, applied mathematicians, industry practitioners, and a vast number of interdisciplinary academics will find the presentation highly useful. Core topics of this text are: ·         Economic growth and technological development ·         Population dynamics and human impact on the environment ·         Resource extraction and scarcity ·         Air and water contamination ·         Rational management of the economy and environment ·         Climate change and global dynamics The step-by-step approach taken is problem-based and easy to follow. The authors aptly demonstrate that the same models may be used to describe different economic and environmental processes and that similar invest...

  2. Economic evaluations of personalized medicine: existing challenges and current developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabaruddin FH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatiha H Shabaruddin,1 Nigel D Fleeman,2 Katherine Payne3 1Department of Pharmacy, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Liverpool Reviews and Implementation Group (LRiG, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK; 3Institute of Population Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK Abstract: Personalized medicine, with the aim of safely, effectively, and cost-effectively targeting treatment to a prespecified patient population, has always been a long-time goal within health care. It is often argued that personalizing treatment will inevitably improve clinical outcomes for patients and help achieve more effective use of health care resources. Demand is increasing for demonstrable evidence of clinical and cost-effectiveness to support the use of personalized medicine in health care. This paper begins with an overview of the existing challenges in conducting economic evaluations of genetics- and genomics-targeted technologies, as an example of personalized medicine. Our paper illustrates the complexity of the challenges faced by these technologies by highlighting the variations in the issues faced by diagnostic tests for somatic variations, generally referring to genetic variation in a tumor, and germline variations, generally referring to inherited genetic variation in enzymes involved in drug metabolic pathways. These tests are typically aimed at stratifying patient populations into subgroups on the basis of clinical effectiveness (response or safety (avoidance of adverse events. The paper summarizes the data requirements for economic evaluations of genetics and genomics-based technologies while outlining that the main challenges relating to data requirements revolve around the availability and quality of existing data. We conclude by discussing current developments aimed to address the challenges of assessing the cost-effectiveness of genetics and genomics-based technologies, which revolve around two central issues that are

  3. The Current Economic Crisis: Effects, Consequences, Measures and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana-Antonela BONTA (cas. MITEA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present research project is the current economiccrisis, its effects, consequences but especially the measures and the solutions that we can find to resolve this situation. A key problem preoccupying developing countries today is the global economic crisis and how they can address it. The epicenter of the crisis is in the developed countries, especially the USA. But the developing countries that have no role in causing the crisis have suffered the most severe “collateral damage”. I will try to present the similarities with other periods of recession that we have crossed-over time. I will propose a few measures to remedy this situation, both long-term and short-term, referring of course to Romania and EU as well.

  4. Economic Education in Korea: Current Status and Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Jinsoo; Jang, Kyungho

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe key aspects of precollege and undergraduate economic education in Korea. They show that precollege students seem to have low economics literacy due to problems with the curriculum and insufficient training of teachers. At the undergraduate level, they show that economics departments have more male students than female students…

  5. ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE ROMANIAN ECONOMIC FIELD AND BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT: A NECESSITY OR A FAD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Condruz-Bacescu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present article is to analyse the influence of anglicisms in the Romanian economic field and business environment. English influence in Romanian, very pronounced in the current European languages, is accomplished both by taking massive lexical elements and by assigning meanings of English borrowings to Romanian words. The emergence of English words’ borrowings in our country is due to the current socio-political conditions and widening of economic-financial relations with the Western world, the English words being used by specialists for communication and information in all fields, as well as speakers who tend to practice English as the international language of communication. Major transformations in the international social-economic organization imposed the development of modern disciplines: finance, statistics, management, marketing, business administration, whose languages are subordinated to the economic field. The research is intended to provide examples of English borrowings used in the economic language. English terms, specialized or not, especially in the form of a borrowing, penetrate directly in all economic subdomains, by virtue of an interference trend (manifested internationally concerning terminologies and the relations of specialized vocabulary with the usual one. One way of English terms entering the Romanian language is the specialised texts. The article also points out terminology concerning conditions of delivery and international business transactions. The written or spoken media contributes greatly to the spread of anglicisms that inform the public on various issues and developments in the social, political, cultural and economic aspects, nationally and internationally, having an important role in English vocabulary’ modernization by borrowing from English. The conclusion of the article is that with all the difficulties of adapting to the linguistic system of the Romanian language, the English

  6. Electronic commerce environment: (Economic Drivers and Security Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davuluri Nageswara Rao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the development situation and a lot of issues in E-commerce at present, inc luding trade safety issue and pertains to trading in goods and services through the electronic medium.Overa ll, the study provides improv edunderstanding of a growing awareness among the business community in global about the opportunities offered by e-commerce. This artic le is based on a literature review that e mphasizes the need for increased security and privacy measures in current E-commerce environment.

  7. ELECTRONIC COMMERCE ENVIRONMENT: (ECONOMIC DRIVERS AND SECURITY ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davuluri Nageswara Rao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the development situation and a lot of issues in E-commerce at present, including trade safety issue and pertains to trading in goods and services through the electronic medium. Overall, the study provides improved understanding of a growing awareness among the business community in global about the opportunities offered by e-commerce. This article is based on a literature review that emphasizes the need for increased security and privacy measures in current E-commerce environment.

  8. The Economic Discourse of the Current Reform Aimed at Business Optimization in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purdenko Olena A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the strengths and weaknesses of the current reforms and provide appropriate recommendations and proposals to improve the regulatory and economic business environment. The article analyzes the introduced reforms in the aspect of the regulatory field and the active current system of taxation with the detailing of the type and content of the basic implemented measures. There have been justified the advantages and disadvantages of the introduced system of taxation with respect to the main budget forming taxes, such as the enterprise income taxes, value added tax, individual income tax considering changes in the administering of unified social tax (UST and war tax, excise duty. On the basis of the results of the study it has been found that the introduced reforms only partially improved the tax administration system and in no way reduced the announced tax burden, the time spending of business for preparing the current report was not significantly reduced.

  9. UNEMPLOYMENT – AN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CURRENT PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA CORINA SLUSARIUC

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis had recoiled on enterprises, families and citizens in all over the European Union. In Europe there are over 20 million unemployed people, and the situation has no perspective to improve. European cohesion policy helps European national and regional authorities fight together against unemployment. Accordingly, the Strategy Europe 2020 proposes a vision for the social market economy of Europe in the next decade and it’s based on three priority domains, which intersect and mutually stimulate: intelligent economic growth, development of an economy based on knowledge and innovation, durable economic growth, promotion of a competitive economy, with low carbon emissions and an efficient use of resources, also inclusive economic growth, promotion of an economy with a high level of labour force absorption which will generate social and territorial cohesion.

  10. Entrepreneurship and its Economical Value in a very Dynamic Business Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Grigore

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to enrich the vision regarding the connection between entrepreneurship and economic growth, focusing upon an economy in transition to a market economy. The authors of the present paper have developed an empirical model – based on a constant preoccupation to observe the impact of the entrepreneurial phenomenon on the free, emerging market in Romania – model which uses a number of variables which are believed to influence the critical mass of viable business existing in a dynamic environment. The proposed model identifies the factors that need to be activated in the current context to transfer the theoretical importance of SME’s in the truly complex world of an economy that desires to be prosperous. Then, the model was exposed to the test of the objective statistical and mathematical testing, starting from the results obtained from a survey of 536 entrepreneurs. The methodological approach makes use both of regression models, which use the relevant aspects from the survey, turned into quantitative or qualitative variables, and of the analysis of variance, with the aim of explaining the way in which the considered variables have managed to determine the economic growth, as well as of determining their importance and their influence. Finally, several conclusions have been outlined, regarding the economic policy measures that are needed and feasible in order to make the business environment in Romania more predictable and more friendly and, thus, to encourage entrepreneurship.

  11. Current and emergent strategies for disinfection of hospital environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Ana C; Tavares, Rafaela R; Borges, Anabela; Mergulhão, Filipe; Simões, Manuel

    2013-12-01

    A significant number of hospital-acquired infections occur due to inefficient disinfection of hospital surfaces, instruments and rooms. The emergence and wide spread of multiresistant forms of several microorganisms has led to a situation where few compounds are able to inhibit or kill the infectious agents. Several strategies to disinfect both clinical equipment and the environment are available, often involving the use of antimicrobial chemicals. More recently, investigations into gas plasma, antimicrobial surfaces and vapour systems have gained interest as promising alternatives to conventional disinfectants. This review provides updated information on the current and emergent disinfection strategies for clinical environments.

  12. CORPORATE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT AS A SET OF ECONOMIC CONDITIONS FOR BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana A. Gusar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual resources are widely used in the formation of corporate business environment. This environment is a new phenomenon in the system of socio-economic relations. The corporate business environment is a set of economic conditions for the development of entrepreneurship, business life. In this environment, exercise more incentives to work, increasing the level of economic freedom, including the freedom of movement of the resource, including intellectual, production components. It is therefore important and necessary to give its definition from the perspective of both economic and organizational-administrative relations, which is a key objective of this research. In addition, the article carried out a comprehensive assessment of how the corporate environment for the development of regional business and knowledge of the mechanisms of the effect of factors internal and external environment for the development of corporate business environment.

  13. Energy, Economics, and the Environment: Case Studies and Teaching Activities for Middle School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.

    Educators are faced with the task of teaching students to be responsible stewards of the world's natural resources. This curriculum focuses on three interrelated topics in this area: energy, economics, and the environment. The goal of this book is to: (1) teach students basic knowledge and concepts about energy, the environment, and economics; (2)…

  14. Into the twenty-first century: harmonizing energy policy, environment, and sustainable economic growth. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    59 papers are presented under the following headings: energy and environment - roundtable on East Europe; policy issues - automobiles and the environment; empirical studies of energy-efficient behaviour; electric power and economic development; energy prices and aggregate economic behaviour; energy policy; oil and gas issues; electricity; economic development and the environment; energy and the environment; automobile use of gasoline and alternative fuels; energy markets and policy in Russia and the Baltics; balancing emissions reductions and economic growth - regional studies; frontiers in energy modelling; natural gas markets; economic liberalisation and political reform - the impact on energy; greenhouse gas policy in developing economics; evaluation of utility demand-side management programs; consequences of electricity policy reform; regional efficiency of energy use; oil reserves, taxation and wealth; risks and rents in electric power; and estimating energy demand behaviour.

  15. Management of Energy Costs for Sme’s, Evidence From Kosova Economic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valon Kastrati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with issues of strategic management, particularly strategic planning of energy costs and their effect on the overall performance of businesses. It is based on empirical results of the original research survey Enterprise Surveys data for Republic of Kosova,. performed via questionnaire surveys by the World Bank in three rounds during years 2005, 2009 and 2013. The analyses presented in the paper were conducted on the third round sample of  organizations operating mostly in the SME sector in the Republic of Kosova.Among typical obstacles to the economic environment we found also the energy problem, specifically the power outages that increase further the costs of power supply for SME’s.  These phenomena not only create a state of turmoil and turbulence in the competitive environment and generate changes in market conditions, but require changes and development in organizations. In these circumstances organizations are forced to adapt costly solutions, like generators or other tools to guarantee  the customer satisfaction.Therefore to achieve any competitive advantage, organizations must take in consideration the current economic environment.The interdependence between the level of energy costs and enterprise performance criteria is examined with the use of some hypotheses. The results are commented and discussed.Keywords: energy costs, business strategy, performance criteria, questionnaire research,   

  16. Impact of socio-economic home environment on student learning achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Jolita Dudaitė

    2016-01-01

    Surveys on education intended to test student learning achievement often analyse which educational environment factors have the biggest impact on student achievement. Determination of such factors and assessment of their impact is important in order to control the change in student achievement. Most surveys showed that student achievement is influenced by economic home environment factors, and student’s socio-economic status. The purpose of this article is to analyse impact of socio-economic ...

  17. An Innovative Economic Incentive Model for Improvement of the Working Environment in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian

    1997-01-01

    The design of economic incentive schemes to promote working environment embetterment has proven complicated. The contribution list some central preconditions and tools of an economic incentive model for improving the working environment. The economic incentive is proposed built into the compulsory...... for small enterprises, a marketing label and low interest investment aid. It is finally discussed what contrains the implementation of such a scheme can be confronted with....

  18. Current methodological issues in the economic assessment of personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annemans, Lieven; Redekop, Ken; Payne, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for methodological scrutiny in the economic assessment of personalized medicine. In this article, we present a list of 10 specific issues that we argue pose specific methodological challenges that require careful consideration when designing and conducting robust model-based economic evaluations in the context of personalized medicine. Key issues are related to the correct framing of the research question, interpretation of test results, data collection of medical management options after obtaining test results, and expressing the value of tests. The need to formulate the research question clearly and be explicit and specific about the technology being evaluated is essential because various test kits can have the same purpose and yet differ in predictive value, costs, and relevance to practice and patient populations. The correct reporting of sensitivity/specificity, and especially the false negatives and false positives (which are population dependent), of the investigated tests is also considered as a key element. This requires additional structural complexity to establish the relationship between the test result and the consecutive treatment changes and outcomes. This process involves translating the test characteristics into clinical utility, and therefore outlining the clinical and economic consequences of true and false positives and true and false negatives. Information on treatment patterns and on their costs and outcomes, however, is often lacking, especially for false-positive and false-negative test results. The analysis can even become very complex if different tests are combined or sequentially used. This potential complexity can be handled by explicitly showing how these tests are going to be used in practice and then working with the combined sensitivities and specificities of the tests. Each of these issues leads to a higher degree of uncertainty in economic models designed to assess the added value of personalized medicine compared

  19. PERSPECTIVES OF INFLATION TARGETING, IN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COROIU SORINA IOANA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the context of economic crisis, monetary policy makers are facing a number of challenges, including the selection and implementation of the best monetary policy. In this paper, we want to see if inflation targeting is or is not a solution to exit the economic crisis. If the answer is positive, then what would be the optimal level of inflation? Many central banks target an inflation rate of 2%. In this paper we intend to show that, in certain circumstances, a very low level of inflation can significantly reduce the stabilizing effects of monetary policy. A slightly higher value of inflation targeting would reduce the constraints on monetary policy, caused by the appearance of liquidity trap. The risk for the interest rates of monetary policy to achieve zero level is related to the central banks’ choise of the appropriate inflation target. We believe that an increase in the inflation target of 2% to 4% would ease monetary policy constraints arising from the liquidity trap problem. If inflation targeting is not a solution to exit the crisis, then are there other strategies that would be a better alternative? Following this analysis, no obvious alternatives were identified, so far, there is no clear reason for that to abandon inflation targeting.

  20. Economic evaluation guidelines in Latin America: a current snapshot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustovski, Federico; Garay, Osvaldo Ulises; Pichon-Riviere, Andres; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Caporale, Joaquín E

    2010-10-01

    Economic evaluation guidelines are widespread in developed countries with fourth hurdle systems but as of yet not in Latin America. In the present article, a systematic search was conducted in order to retrieve regional guidelines in PubMed, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) and the gray literature. Four national guidelines were found: Brazil, Colombia, Cuba and Mexico. We report a thorough review of these documents, as well as a comparison among them. We conclude that, despite some differences found, they are broadly similar, and are broadly in accordance with international documents. The existence of these documents, together with other experiences in the region that explicitly use economic evaluation information for health decision making clearly shows that this global tendency is gaining momentum in Latin America, although there is still a long way to go. In the near future we will be able to see if these documents were successfully used and applied for transparent and evidence-based decision making.

  1. The environment of coal mining areas and the economic evaluation of the land reclamation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志宏; 肖兴田; 何志强

    2001-01-01

    The environment impact of the coal resources mining was analyzed. The method of economic evaluation for the coal mining was established to analyze land destruction. The opportunity cost method was used to quantitatively analyze and estimate the economic loss of the land destruction by coal mining. At the same time, the dump land reclamation of the Yuanbaoshan. Open Pit was taken as an example to evaluate environmental and economical benefit with the method of economic evaluation for the coal mining areas land reclamation.

  2. THE CAPITAL MARKET IN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN RADU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available For nearly a century now, economists have studied the advantages and disadvantages of financial systems based on either banks or financial markets in their attempt to forward economic growth and a better capital resources allocation. Nevertheless, the effects of the financial crisis that began in 2007 over the capital market are not only numerous, but also affect financial institutions, the stock exchange volume and list, the behaviour of market investors and not least such generate the need for capital market regulations to be amended. Even so, due to measures that have been taken, in Romania the stock exchange works on profit, while the effects of the financial crisis over such still fail to occur.

  3. Small modular reactors: current status, economic aspects and licensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimbron E, E. [Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Santa Fe, Av. Carlos Lazo No. 100, Santa Fe, 01389 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Puente E, F., E-mail: erick.zimbron@gmail.com [ININ, Direccion de Investigacion Cientifica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    Interest for nuclear energy had resurgence since the beginning of the new century. This was a consequence of the new world conditions and needs: increasing energy demands (mainly from developing countries), awareness of the importance of energetic security and the necessity of limiting carbon emissions. In this nuclear boom, Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) develop and start to consolidate as a viable option for the present energy market. Their modular characteristics, lower initial capital cost, passive safety features and their niche applications, situate them as a technology with various advantages. The following study will present and analysis that will help to comprehend the SMRs present status. Information will show planned reactors, reactors in construction and in operation, advantages and challenges of their implementation, relevant economic aspects and important licensing factors that need to be highlighted. The analysis showed that the SMR technology is still in an initial stage that could reach and important development point in the next ten years. In this period, many of the reactors that are in design stage or that are through their licensing process might be constructed and could be getting ready for a commercial status. On the other hand, it has been observed that there are two main economic factors that need to be considered for any SMRs implementation project. First, the costs (initial, operation, maintenance, fuel and decommissioning) and second their possible niche market applications. Additionally, it has been noted that the licensing process is one of the greatest challenges for SMR general development. Licensing is mainly related to topic such as Emergency Planning Zone, first-of-a-kind engineering, passive safety features, proliferation resistance, multiple module designs and staffing. Previous information will serve as a base for carrying out a feasibility assessment analysis for SMR in Mexico. This part will be the last section of the project

  4. Current understanding of organically bound tritium (OBT) in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S B; Baglan, N; Davis, P A

    2013-12-01

    It has become increasingly recognized that organically bound tritium (OBT) is the more significant tritium fraction with respect to understanding tritium behaviour in the environment. There are many different terms associated with OBT; such as total OBT, exchangeable OBT, non-exchangeable OBT, soluble OBT, insoluble OBT, tritiated organics, and buried tritium, etc. A simple classification is required to clarify understanding within the tritium research community. Unlike for tritiated water (HTO), the environmental quantification and behaviour of OBT are not well known. Tritiated water cannot bio-accumulate in the environment. However, it is not clear whether or not this is the case for OBT. Even though OBT can be detected in terrestrial biological materials, aquatic biological materials and soil samples, its behaviour is still in question. In order to evaluate the radiation dose from OBT accurately, further study will be required to understand OBT measurements and determine OBT fate in the environment. The relationship between OBT speciation and the OBT/HTO ratio in environmental samples will be useful in this regard, providing information on the previous tritium exposure conditions in the environment and the current tritium dynamics. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Stigmas, Work Environment, and Economic Discrimination Against Homosexuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoffier, Jeffrey

    1975-01-01

    Homosexuals must begin to examine the unique economic oppression involved in gay identity. Psychological dangers of passing are discussed. Presented at Homosexual Community Counseling Center Conference on Vocational Guidance and Gay Lifestyles, Riverside Church, New York, New York, October 26, 1974. (Author)

  6. Health, "illth," and economic growth: medicine, environment, and economics at the crossroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Garry

    2009-07-01

    Economic growth has been the single biggest contributor to population health since the Industrial Revolution. The growth paradigm, by definition, is dynamic, implying similar diminishing returns on investment at both the macro- and the micro-economic levels. Changes in patterns of health in developing countries, from predominantly microbial-related infectious diseases to lifestyle-related chronic diseases (e.g., obesity, type 2 diabetes) beyond a point of economic growth described as the epidemiologic transition, suggest the start of certain declining benefits from further investment in the growth model. These changes are reflected in slowing improvements in some health indices (e.g., mortality, infant mortality) and deterioration in others (e.g., disability-associated life years, obesity, chronic diseases). Adverse environmental consequences, such as climate change from economic development, are also related to disease outcomes through the development of inflammatory processes due to an immune reaction to new environmental and lifestyle-related inducers. Both increases in chronic disease and climate change can be seen as growth problems with a similar economic cause and potential economic and public health-rather than personal health-solutions. Some common approaches for dealing with both are discussed, with a plea for greater involvement by health scientists in the economic and environmental debates in order to deal effectively with issues like obesity and chronic disease.

  7. Credit Market Behavior during Turbulent Economic Environments: An Example for a Latin American Country Credit Market Behavior during Turbulent Economic Environments: An Example for a Latin American Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Mena

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The variability of the economy's growth in Latin American Countries (LACs tends to far exceed that found in developed nations. Huge recessions are frequent in LACs. Typically, these recessions are accompanied by major exchange-rate-policy breakdowns. In turn, these output and exchange rate changes drastically alter private expectations concerning the future behavior of these variables. As a result, discrete and significant changes in private behavioral functions occur. This typically affects crucial monetary policy indicators, such as interest rates and credit. This turbulent economic environment makes it particularly troublesome for econometricians to test theoretical propositions dealing with credit market behavior, as well as for policymakers to interpret and forecast credit and interest rate behavior. This paper illustrates this issue using Chile as a case study. A simple theoretical model of business credit is developed, which is then used to interpret the developments in Chile's credit market during 1980-1986. Using a partial equilibrium analysis, it is shown how the contemporaneous correlation between output and credit demand can change sign, whenever the economy is subject to unanticipated recessions and devaluations. The analysis is a timely one for policymakers in many LDCs, who are currently on the path of transforming their economies to free-market open-economies. The variability of the economy's growth in Latin American Countries (LACs tends to far exceed that found in developed nations. Huge recessions are frequent in LACs. Typically, these recessions are accompanied by major exchange-rate-policy breakdowns. In turn, these output and exchange rate changes drastically alter private expectations concerning the future behavior of these variables. As a result, discrete and significant changes in private behavioral functions occur. This typically affects crucial monetary policy indicators, such as interest rates and credit. This

  8. Okavango: a river supporting its people, environment and economic development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kgathi, DL

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available important sources of livelihoods for people in the basin. Pressures from livelihoods and development are already impacting on the environment. These pressures may increase in the future due to the rapid increase in population, the peace process...

  9. The Development of Forms of Corporate Social Responsibility in Russia in the Current Economic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Arzumanova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the characteristic features of modern trends in the formation and implementation of corporate social responsibility in Russia in the current economic conditions, which is based on the fact that reasonable economic interests oriented business not only on maximizing profits, but also to improve their own macro - socio-economic, natural, political, through voluntary investment profits in the respective areas.

  10. Renewing the Dutch economics syllabus for higher secondary education: educational reforms from past to current databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rol, Menno

    2015-01-01

    Dutch secondary school economics education was never at rest. It currently finds itself once more in an interesting phase of transition. New developments of behavioural economics have been incorpo-rated into the exam subject matter while the deletion of Keynesian model making from the corpus

  11. DSM shareholder incentives: Current designs and economic theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoft, S.; Eto, J.; Kito, S.

    1995-01-01

    This report reviews recent DSM shareholder incentive designs and performance at 10 US utilities identifies opportunities for regulators to improve the design of DSM shareholder incentive mechanisms to increase the procurement of cost-effective DSM resources. We develop six recommendations: (1) apply shared-savings incentives to DSM resource programs; (2) use markup incentives for individual programs only when net benefits are difficult to measure, but are known to be positive; (3) set expected incentive payments based on covering a utility`s {open_quotes}hidden costs,{close_quotes} which include some transitional management and risk-adjusted opportunity costs; (4) use higher marginal incentives rates than are currently found in practice, but limit total incentive payments by adding a fixed charge; (5) mitigate risks to regulators and utilities by lowering marginal incentive rates at high and low performance levels; and (6) use an aggregate incentive mechanism for all DSM resource programs, with limited exceptions (e.g., information programs where markups are more appropriate).

  12. Economic and Banking Environment in Romania and E.U.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA GEORGETA PANAIT

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the overall picture of Europe's economic prospects, strained relations within the European area. Also presents the evolution of the banking system in Romania in the context of situations in Europe, which returned to profit and record high levels of solvency and liquidity, while the NPL ratio continued to decline. Due to the difficulty of forecasting medium business, and to the macroeconomic context, banks avoid risk taking associated finance investment projects in the long term, preferring financing in the medium term, so that more than half of home loans granted in Romania are for term funding short and medium.

  13. Corporate boards, ownership structure and firm performance in an environment of severe political and economic crisis

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between board and ownership structures and firm performance in an environment of severe political and economic crisis. Using panel data from the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange (ZSE) for the period 2000-2005, we split the period into prepresidential election period (2000-2002) (a relatively stable political and economic period) and post-presidential election period (2003-2005) (a hostile political and economic period) to capture the differences in the political an...

  14. Prioritizing social and economic effects of sport places on Urban Environment (A case study: Yazd City)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Extended Abstract1- IntroductionSport facilities and sport places as one of important land uses in urban environment can have positive and negative effects on their surroundings, of which the most important can be addressed to economic and social ones. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify, assess and prioritize the social and economic effects of sport places on the urban environment. Based on these objectives, five typical sport places (Shahid Sadoughi, Shahid Paak Nejad, Shahid Na...

  15. Prioritizing social and economic effects of sport places on Urban Environment (A case study: Yazd City)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Soltanhosseini; Salimi, M; M Lotfi

    2013-01-01

    Extended Abstract1- IntroductionSport facilities and sport places as one of important land uses in urban environment can have positive and negative effects on their surroundings, of which the most important can be addressed to economic and social ones. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify, assess and prioritize the social and economic effects of sport places on the urban environment. Based on these objectives, five typical sport places (Shahid Sadoughi, Shahid Paak Nejad, Shahid Na...

  16. Effects of the Current Economic Crisis on the Fiscal Variables in EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Viorel BRAŞOVEANU

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Our paper aims to capture the effects of the current economic and financial crisis on fiscal variables, the 27 EU Member States, based on macroeconomic developments until 2010 and projected for 2011. Starting from the economic recession, from the increase of unemployment and the relative stability of prices in the EU overall (macroeconomic developments that characterize the current crisis, we analyze the effects of those developments on the public revenues and expenditures, on the conventional deficit and public debt, which are macroeconomic variables that comprise the pentagon of economic macro stabilization.

  17. Monitoring of current assets of enterprises in increasing level of economic security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Ruzhytskyi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article it is reasonably argued that complex of theoretical and methodological principles for approaches to management of current assets with regard to their influence on the current and future state of the economic security of enterprises and monitoring scheme is proposed as a way of organizing management activities. As part of this goal, solved the following research objectives: monitoring scheme is proposed as a way of organizing management activities; methodical approaches to formation control system of current assets with regard to its effect on the current and future state of economic security; have been proposed a scientific approach to select management alternatives that can simultaneously takes account the status of current assets and changing economic security for different time horizons. Have been generalized a role in enterprise management of current assets the economic security mechanism. Have been proposed a matrix of management alternatives depending on the matrix and current assets use of forms and types of calculations depending on the type of policy, management of current assets. The result of the comprehensive study have been proposed a matrix of management alternatives depending on the status of current assets and the use of matrix forms and types of calculations depending on the type of policy management of current assets.

  18. Plant Thermoregulation: Energetics, Trait-Environment Interactions, and Carbon Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaletz, Sean T; Weiser, Michael D; Zhou, Jizhong; Kaspari, Michael; Helliker, Brent R; Enquist, Brian J

    2015-12-01

    Building a more predictive trait-based ecology requires mechanistic theory based on first principles. We present a general theoretical approach to link traits and climate. We use plant leaves to show how energy budgets (i) provide a foundation for understanding thermoregulation, (ii) explain mechanisms driving trait variation across environmental gradients, and (iii) guide selection on functional traits via carbon economics. Although plants are often considered to be poikilotherms, the data suggest that they are instead limited homeotherms. Leaf functional traits that promote limited homeothermy are adaptive because homeothermy maximizes instantaneous and lifetime carbon gain. This theory provides a process-based foundation for trait-climate analyses and shows that future studies should consider plant (not only air) temperatures.

  19. An Evaluation of the Economic Theoretical Potential of the Rural Environment Mismanged During 1956-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentin Gabriel Niculescu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Under the context of the essential role and growing importance of the rural environment in the development of a country, we focus on evaluating the economic theoretical potential of the rural environment that we consider to have been mismanaged during 1956-2010. For this purpose, in this paper we define, describe and explain the main concepts, as to be able to evaluate the economic potential of the rural development and further contribute to its improvement. The study focuses on the correlations between the population of working age, occupancy, unemployment and the wasted economic potential, putting forward a new concept, statistically valid, demographic named the absolute able overpopulation.

  20. Management of the assisted instruction environment in economic higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana REVEIU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The world has entered the Knowledge Age. Information Technology is gradually turning the world into an Information Highway Network. The development of technology has greatly accelerated the international flow of information, capital and commodities and speeded the growth of economic integration. At the same time, the cycle of technological development and commercialization is becoming shorter and shorter [Zhouying, 1999]. Information technology is bringing rapid and profound changes to higher education, as it has to virtually every process in our society. Productivity often suffers because is difficult and timeconsuming to conduct a team effort. A portal solution base on SharePoint Portal Server can greatly facilitate the process of bringing knowledge teachers together as a team to achieve educational goals by providing a single point to access: automated essential day-to-day email communication, management of contacts, calendars, and instant messages, shared facilities to allow small teams of teachers to contribute to team and project-focused Web site, track tasks and events, shortened web-publishing cycles by linking collaboration and publishing processes.

  1. Forecasting rates of hydrocarbon discoveries in a changing economic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Attanasi, E.D.

    1984-01-01

    A method is presented for the estimation of undiscovered oil and gas resources in partially explored areas where economic truncation has caused some discoveries to go unreported; therefore distorting the relationship between the observed discovery size distribution and the parent or ultimate field size distribution. The method is applied to the UK's northern and central North Sea provinces. A discovery process model is developed to estimate the number and size distribution of undiscovered fields in this area as of 1983. The model is also used to forecast the rate at which fields will be discovered in the future. The appraisal and forecasts pertain to fields in size classes as small as 24 million barrels of oil equivalent (BOE). Estimated undiscovered hydrocarbon resources of 11.79 billion BOE are expected to be contained in 170 remaining fields. Over the first 500 wildcat wells after 1 January 1983, the discovery rate in this areas is expected to decline by 60% from 15 million BOE per wildcat well to six million BOE per wildcat well. ?? 1984.

  2. Economic analyses of the Dutch greenhouse chain in a changing environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verreth, D.M.I.

    2013-01-01

    Horticultural greenhouse firms operate in a changing environment. This thesis has investigated the socio-economic consequences of market environment changes on supply, demand and prices throughout the Dutch greenhouse horticulture chain. The following market changes were studied: the increasing need

  3. Cash Flow and the Economic Environment in the Risaralda service companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Eduardo Escobar Arias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To relate cashflow to the economic environment in which a business exists it is important to study and how the environment forms a context for investment, finance and operational decisions. The main aim is to determine the relationship between cashflow in certain service companies in Risaralda and the behaviour of the economic environment of the region over the period 2002-2011. Cashflow for businesses in the sector is shown and compared with macro-variables. The results show no correlation between cashflows and macro-variables.

  4. Sleeping with the enemy? On Hayek, constructivist thought, and the current economic crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessler, Oliver

    The current economic crisis challenges the constitutive rules of global finance. Despite its various roots, dynamics, and consequences, the current reform debate is surprisingly limited in scope: it focuses on possible changes of Basle II and thus banking regulation only. This article suggests that

  5. Romanian Business Environment in the Context of Economic Competitiveness Based on Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion STEGAROIU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The changes of production factors priorities affect more and more the evolution of global economy, requiring reorientation of development policies both at company level and at national economies level to adapt to the phenomenon called: “the new economy” or “knowledge economy”. If for classical economy the ability to compete - competitiveness- depends largely on the quantity or the amount of production factors, at the present, has gained importance the efficiency of their use. The idea of making this article appeared both from the necessity of a systematic research to approach the Romanian competitive environment and the desire to stoop to this important conference theme. We can certainly say that the actual business environment is characterized by a particularly dynamic due to changes that occur within it, especially under the impact of technical and scientific revolution which brought to the fore the knowledge as an essential element of achieving a high competitiveness. It is intended that the proposed theme of this article to have an economic importance for the actual information and adequacy of the current economy in Romania.

  6. Clean energy development is a win-win-win for jobs, economic growth and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Learner, H.A. [Environmental Law and Policy Center, IL (United States)

    2003-07-01

    The Environmental Law and Policy Center of Illinois has recently released several publications promoting clean energy development to improve environmental quality and public health for the Midwest. This presentation emphasized how the clean energy development plan can create new jobs and stimulate economic growth. For example, the electric power industry is currently relying on 1950's energy technology. Modernizing the electricity industry would be good for both the economy and the environment. Repowering the industry would promote energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. The presentation also compared a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario and a clean energy development plan scenario for 2010 and 2020. It was suggested that policy changes may be required to ensure change. In the BAU scenario, electricity demand would increase annually, large additions of natural gas capacity would be used to meet the demand, and coal plants would increase their output. Under the clean energy development plan, electricity demand would flatten out, coal and nuclear plants would be replaced with renewables (mostly wind) or clean, natural gas generation. Under the clean energy development plan NOx would be reduced by 71 per cent, SOx by 56 per cent, mercury by 50 per cent, and carbon dioxide by 51 per cent. The clean energy development plan improves the environment by reducing air and water pollution and improves electricity reliability. 8 tabs., 20 figs.

  7. Reducing Risk for Substance Use by Economically Disadvantaged Young Men: Positive Family Environments and Pathways to Educational Attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Monica J; Conger, Rand D; Sitnick, Stephanie L; Masarik, April S; Forbes, Erika E; Shaw, Daniel S

    2015-01-01

    Using prospective, longitudinal data spanning 10 years (age = 10-20) from a study of 295 economically disadvantaged males, the current investigation evaluated a developmental model that links early family environment and later educational aspirations, extracurricular activities, and educational attainment to substance use in early adulthood. The results indicate that a positive family environment during adolescence (low family conflict, high family warmth, and effective child management) predicted educational involvements during adolescence that promoted educational attainment during early adulthood. Finally, higher levels of educational attainment were associated with less substance use in early adulthood, even after controlling for adolescent substance use. These findings suggest that positive parenting promotes educational achievements that increase resilience to substance use for economically disadvantaged males.

  8. Economic Thresholds in Soybean-Integrated Pest Management: Old Concepts, Current Adoption, and Adequacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, A F; Paula-Moraes, S V; Gazzoni, D L; Pomari, A F

    2013-10-01

    Increasing global demands for food underline the need for higher crop yields. The relatively low costs of the most commonly used insecticides in combination with increasing soybean market prices led growers and technical advisors to debate the adequacy of recommended economic thresholds (ETs). The adoption of ETs and pest sampling has diminished in Brazil, leading to excessive pesticide use on soybean. The reduced efficacy of natural biological control, faster pest resurgence, and environment contamination are among the side-effects of pesticide abuse. To address these problems and maximize agricultural production, pest control programs must be guided by a proper integrated pest management (IPM) approach, including the ET concept. Therefore, the most appropriate time to initiate insecticide spraying in soybean is indicated by the available ETs which are supported by experiments over the last 40 years in different edapho-climatic conditions and regions with distinct soybean cultivars. Published scientific data indicate that preventive insecticide use is an expensive and harmful use of chemicals that increases the negative impact of pesticides in agroecosystems. However, the established ETs are for a limited number of species (key pests), and they only address the use of chemicals. There is a lack of information regarding secondary pests and other control strategies in addition to insecticides. It is clear then that much progress is still needed to improve ETs for pest management decisions. Nevertheless, using the current ETs provides a basis for reducing the use of chemicals in agriculture without reducing yields and overall production, thereby improving sustainability.

  9. Operating a railway system within a challenging environment: Economic history and experiences of Zimbabwe’s national railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Mbohwa

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a historical background to the development of the railways in Zimbabwe and then discusses their current state. Besides being a landlocked country in Southern Africa, Zimbabwe has since 2000 been saddled with socio-economic and political challenges which have seen a decline in all economic indices, hence posing some challenges to its railways. This article discusses the challenges faced by the railways as a result of high inflation, unstable currency exchange rate, brain drain, poor management, government interference in management, customs border delays, and energy shortage. The problems have been addressed in unique ways and unusual solutions are proposed. These include customer financing for maintenance and spares and the resuscitation of steam locomotives. The presented solutions, lessons and issues from this experience contribute to discussions and study of railway logistics in challenging environments. Finally, current and future research issues, which have a global appeal, are presented.

  10. The environment of coal mining areas and the economic evaluation of the land reclamation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-hong; XIAO Xing-tian; HE Zhi-qiang

    2001-01-01

    The environment impact of the coal resources mining was analyzed. The method of economic evaluation for the coal mining was established to analyze lan d destruction. The opportunity cost method was used to quantitatively analyze an d estimate the economic loss of the land destruction by coal mining. At the same time, the dump land reclamation of the Yuanbaoshan Open Pit was taken as an exa mple to evaluate environmental and economical benefit with the method of economi c evaluation for the coal mining areas land reclamation.

  11. [Changing economic environment of hospitals: management challenges of the 1990s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotstein, Z; Noy, S; Goldman, B; Shani, M

    1990-12-16

    The modern hospital is an organization which is influenced by the external environment in which it functions. A major relevant area is the economic environment. In recent years the western world has been facing the challenge of rising costs of health care and an increase in their proportion to the gross national product of most countries. Consequently, hospitals as major providers of health care are under pressure from governments and health insurance companies to cut costs and to "produce" more efficiently. Since hospitals worldwide are finding it hard and painful to function in the new environment in which attitudes to hospitals are changing, a potential managerial-economic crisis may be the next phase. How can the hospital adapt to these changes? First, by adopting managerial attitudes and the tools of the business sector. These include: the strategic planning process, hospital operative autonomy, creating medical-economic responsibility centers as departments, cost-accounting for medical procedures, and case-mix budgeting. Management information systems are necessary during the transition. The hospital information system should include functions at the operative level, such as outpatient visits, and admissions and discharges of patients; and also clinical, diagnostic and laboratory procedures related to the patient case-mix. The second level is a management information system which includes salaries of personnel, case-mix budgeting with variance analysis, prices of procedures and epidemiological data. The authors believe that only the managerial approach combining medical and economic disciplines can meet the challenges of the changing modern economic environment.

  12. Prioritizing social and economic effects of sport places on Urban Environment (A case study: Yazd City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Soltanhosseini

    2013-01-01

    effects (by three AHP, TOPSIS, and SAW methods and analyzing data by one sample t-test, it was found that of the social effect items, the sport places increased the residents’ tendency to watch matches, tendency to do exercises, their happiness and freshness, and collective and sport cooperation among them, respectively. In general, and considering the social variables, although the obtained mean of views was higher than the average, this difference was not significant. In addition, other results from the study indicated that sport places did not influence all economic variables as well as none of their components.4- ConclusionThe results showed sport places do not have much influence on the improvement of economic components in their surroundings. At present, sport industry is considered as the most profitable one in the world, however, it is in the hands of the countries provided its requirements, regarded it as a profitable resource, and dealt with it based on scientific studies, while the lack of suitable facilities and economic goals will result in nothing but losses and damages. On the other hand, the results from the present study and most of current studies show that sport places and their increased per capita budget will result in social positive effects in different dimensions such as increased healthiness, freshness, and vitality.5- SuggestionsThe followings are recommended based on the results from the study:Increasing advertising through media and etc. in order to inform people about the sport’s advantages, since it will result in more acceptance by people and more social positive effects by sport places.Paying more attention to land selection in urban environment including sport needs assessment.Cultivating and promoting sport among enthusiasts and spectators in different ways, resulting in the reduction of social disorders arising from a variety of sports events.Keywords: Sport places, social effects (impacts, economic effects, urban environment

  13. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS - SOLUTION OR VICTIM OF THE CURRENT ECONOMIC CRISIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MINA Laura

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available It is already a well known fact that public-private partnerships (PPPs are considered to be a solution for world wide governments facing insufficient public budgets. In the context of the current economic crisis, many voices promote public-private part

  14. Current economic downturn and supply chain : The significance of demand and inventory smoothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cannella, S.; Ashayeri, J.; Miranda, P.A.; Bruccoleri, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse and quantify the effects of demand and inventory smoothing into supply-chain performance, facing the extreme volatility and impetuous alteration of the market produced by the current economic recession. To do so, we model a traditional serial three-stage supply

  15. The Role of Education in Economic Growth: Theory, History and Current Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Theodore R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This paper was prepared to address the issue of whether current levels of public expenditures on education are cost-effective in countries with widely differing average levels of education. Purpose: The paper examines the role of education in economic growth from a theoretical and historic perspective, addresses why education has been…

  16. Current economic downturn and supply chain : The significance of demand and inventory smoothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cannella, S.; Ashayeri, J.; Miranda, P.A.; Bruccoleri, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse and quantify the effects of demand and inventory smoothing into supply-chain performance, facing the extreme volatility and impetuous alteration of the market produced by the current economic recession. To do so, we model a traditional serial three-stage supply

  17. Random recurrence equations and ruin in a Markov-dependent stochastic economic environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collamore, Jeffrey F.

    2009-01-01

    We develop sharp large deviation asymptotics for the probability of ruin in a Markov-dependent stochastic economic environment and study the extremes for some related Markovian processes which arise in financial and insurance mathematics, related to perpetuities and the ARCH(1) and GARCH(1,1) time...

  18. Polish economic clusters and their efforts to protect the environment – selected examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyrda-Muskus Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the benefits they can obtain business which aim to protect the environment. The environment protection has found its place and affects the process of systemic change of the Polish economy. This article assumes that building a competitive economy and enterprise development based on the principle of sustainable development requires the development of mechanisms for mutual benefits. These will be the economic mechanisms, technical and technological, and social. All these mechanisms are concentrated in clusters. Pursue sustainable development policies, an emphasis on environmental protection will be the general element for them a competitive advantage. Sustainable development will in this case be both the agent and the goal of economic and entrepreneurship development. Basing on the assumption that economic development is possible through the achievement of competitive advantage, sustainable development should be treated as its source.

  19. Changing attitudes in tourism - a possible way to win the battle with the current economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albu, R. G.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis should be viewed as an opportunity to make the changes needed for improving the tourism industry. These changes are necessary for the tourism industry and must be undertaken considering the necessity of transforming the economy into a Green Economy based on the sustainable development principles. This approach will ensure the sustainable development for the Tourism Industry. The purpose of the paper is to highlight the importance and the necessity of change in tourism, especially in the present context of economic and financial crisis.

  20. Microplastics in the marine environment: Current trends and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Luís Gabriel Antão; Gimenez, Barbara Carolina Garcia

    2015-08-15

    Over the last decade, the presence of microplastics on marine environments has become an important environmental concern and focus of interest of many researches. Thus, to provide a more integrated view of the research trends regarding this topic, we use a scientometric approach to systematically assess and quantify advances in knowledge related to microplastics in the marine environment. The papers that we used for our assessment were obtained from the database Thomson Reuters (ISI Web of Science), between 2004 and 2014. Our results reveal the overall research performance in the study area of microplastics present in the marine environment over the past decade as a newly developed research field. It has been recognized that there are several important issues that should be investigated. Toward that end, based on the suggested directions on all papers reviewed, we point out areas/topics of interest that may guide future work in the coming years.

  1. Gene-environment interactions and alcohol use and dependence: current status and future challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaluw, C.S. van der; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    To discuss the current status of gene-environment interaction research with regard to alcohol use and dependence. Further, we highlight the difficulties concerning gene-environment studies. Overview of the current evidence for gene-environment interactions in alcohol outcomes, and of the associated

  2. Josephson current through a molecular transistor in a dissipative environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novotny, T; Rossini, Gianpaolo; Flensberg, Karsten

    2005-01-01

    We study the Josephson coupling between two superconductors through a single correlated molecular level, including Coulomb interaction on the level and coupling to a bosonic environment. All calculations are done to the lowest, i.e., the fourth, order in the tunneling coupling and we find a suppr...

  3. Investigation and Research on Current Economic Environment Problems in Rural Areas in More Developed Towns--Take Hu'nan Shaodong Liuze Town as an example%当前经济较发达地区农村乡镇环境问题的调查与研究--以湖南省邵东县流泽镇为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈波; 曾方荣

    2014-01-01

    With the development of urbanization, industrialization, the rural environment pollution problem increasingly prominent. In order to further understand the current rural environment pollution and treatment status. We have investigated the weeklong on Liu Ze town in Shao Dong County of Hunan province. Through the survey found that as the economy is relatively developed township rural pollution increasing, the performance in pollution sources is increasing, living garbage, pollutant treatment facilities and other issues, the cause of these problems is, etc. In view of the current rural environmental problems, the countermeasures we should strengthen management, strict law enforcement, increasing investment, to award to promote governance and the comprehensive improvement of multi-pronged.%随着城镇化、工业化发展,农村环境污染问题日益突出。为进一步了解当前农村环境污染和整治状况,我们对湖南省邵东县流泽镇进行了为期一星期的调查。通过调查发现,作为经济较发达乡镇农村污染不断加剧,表现在污染源日益增多、生活垃圾困扰大、污染物处理设施落后等问题,造成这些问题原因是多方面的。针对当前农村环境问题,解决对策应从加强管理、严格执法、加大投入、以奖促治、综合整治等多管齐下入手。

  4. Evaluation on the Function and Result of FI under the New Economic Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiangcun; CHEN Shaogang

    2004-01-01

    Beginning with analyzing the accomplishment of FI affecting Chinese economy,the text analyzes and tests the effect ofFI on our economy by using regression analysis and more simple equation.It turns out that the variety of the total sum of FI is consistent with the development of China's economy.It discusses the disadvantages of foreign investment which is not used appropriately on economics.According to this,some proposition that how to allure FI and the intensity of alluring FI are probed into under the new economic environment.It provides theoretical basis for government formulating the policy and project of development of economy.

  5. Economic Research on Ecological Environment of Frigid Region with Black Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun’e; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Suihua City in Heilongjiang Province is located in the heart of the frigid region with black earth and it has created abundant green property resources. However,the environmental issue of this place has caused wide attention,so the government should make full use of various means to solve the environment problem and protect the ecology in this region. Among the measures taken by the government,the tax means is the most effective economic device to solve the environmental problem. Economic means supplemented by lawful and administrative measures should be adopted to solve the ecological environmental problems in the frigid region with black earth.

  6. The current economic situation in China and its impact on the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Stverkova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many companies try to enter to the international sector and to extend here their activity. Their international cooperation is an integral part of the action; it is necessary to know the cultural differences. Therefore it is important to understand the social development including the Social Progress Index and the secondary analysis of an economic situation in China; and its subsequent impact on the economy not only in the Czech Republic based on evaluation of Czech-Chinese business relations. China was in the last five years the male rotor of the world economic growth and became a significant importer of commodities. Last year, the Chinese economic growth rate slowed down, which could have negative consequences on other economies. This is also the possible reason for some Czech companies leaving the Chinese market; they transfer their production parts back to Europe or India. A presumption of high living standard, which all countries of the world and their inhabitants want to achieve, is according to the current paradigm of economic science the economic growth. The economy does not take pace in a vertical line, but at the horizontal level as the meaning of sharing in the net among the individuals. And the cooperation does not take place in the horizontal line but in the vertical line, which essentially changes the way of people's working.

  7. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  8. Theoretical Grounds of Economic Assessment of the Current Level of Innovation Receptivity of Engineering Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yemelianov Oleksandr Yu.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article studies and generalises existing approaches to identification of criteria of assessment of innovation receptivity of subjects of economic activity and also marks out main groups of methods of this assessment. It provides a chain of competences of an enterprise in the sphere of management of its innovation activity, which meets its passive and active innovation receptivity, which lies in the foundation of formation of the multiplicative approach to assessment of the current level of innovation receptivity of an enterprise. The article offers complex qualitative and quantitative indicators of active and also passive innovation receptivity of an enterprise. Further studies of the issue of assessment of the current level of innovation receptivity of economic subjects require clarification of capabilities of a more complete consideration of influence of the obtained financial results from the enterprise innovation activity upon this level.

  9. Current automation environment of PETROBRAS offshore production units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, C.H.W.; Mendes, F.M.R.; Silva Filho, J.A.P.; Loureiro, P. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    This paper aims to show the evolution of automation in PETROBRAS` off-shore production units during the last decade. It also displays the currently used standard architecture, describing the main aspects of each sub-system which is part of the entire automation system. The changes in PETROBRAS` purchasing policy, and their consequences, are also discussed. 2 figs.

  10. EVOLUTION OF THE ROMANIAN RESIDENTIAL MARKET AFTER OUTBREAK OF THE CURRENT ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRISIS

    OpenAIRE

    Şteliac Nela

    2013-01-01

    The residential market is one of the market sectors seriously affected by the current economic and financial crisis. This is mirrored both in the fall of real estate trading prices and in the decreased number of transactions and cutback of newly built constructions. This trend is applicable to the entire spectrum of the residential market (luxury properties and homes destined to average-income customers). Romania is no exception from this European and world-wide state of affairs. This paper a...

  11. Food safety and ecologization: practical solutions to problems at the regional level in current economic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysochenko Alla, A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring food security and greening both at the level of the country, and at the level of regions are main objectives of modern agroeconomic policy. The state support creates favorable conditions for dynamic development of agrarian and industrial complex, raises investment opportunities and competitiveness of agricultural producers. A realization of the actions directed on assistance to the enterprises making import-substituting production of the regional agro-industrial complex is actual in modern economic conditions. The solution of this problem consists of investment projects implementation and production expansion of the operating enterprises. Considering new economic conditions, the ensuring financial stability of agricultural producers, availability of the food to needy segments of the population, production of valeologically safe food, and also increase efficiency of use of natural resources and conditions along with preservation of quality of environment at the local, regional and global levels are particularly acute challenges. State regulation of development of an agrofood complex of Russia remains a necessary condition for its reproduction functioning, and the social and economic policy has to provide economic availability of the food to all groups of the population that causes need of standard and legal fixing of mechanisms offood security achievement at the regional level.

  12. Challenges for the Romanian Public Pensions System in the Current Economic and Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Sava

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address the challenges for the Romanian public pensions system in the current economic and financial crisis. Firstly, are presented the defining indicators of the Romanian public pension system, such as number of pensioners, the number of taxpayers, the dependency ratio pensioners/contributors, public pension expenditure as a percentage of GDP, etc. The article illustrates the challenges regarding the sustainability of the pension system to the aging population and the main predictions of specialized financial institutions on public pension expenditure for the next period. It also presents the current abuses of public pension system and the measures taken by the Romanianauthorities to reform it.

  13. EVOLUTION OF THE ROMANIAN RESIDENTIAL MARKET AFTER OUTBREAK OF THE CURRENT ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şteliac Nela

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The residential market is one of the market sectors seriously affected by the current economic and financial crisis. This is mirrored both in the fall of real estate trading prices and in the decreased number of transactions and cutback of newly built constructions. This trend is applicable to the entire spectrum of the residential market (luxury properties and homes destined to average-income customers. Romania is no exception from this European and world-wide state of affairs. This paper aims to briefly outline the trends on the Romanian residential market in the aftermath of the current crisis.

  14. Limitations of eddy current testing in a fast reactor environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Bowler, John R.

    2016-02-01

    The feasibility of using eddy current probes for detecting flaws in fast nuclear reactor structures has been investigated with the aim of detecting defects immersed in electrically conductive coolant including under liquid sodium during standby. For the inspections to be viable, there is a need to use an encapsulated sensor system that can be move into position with the aid of visualization tools. The initial objective being to locate the surface to be investigated using, for example, a combination of electromagnetic sensors and sonar. Here we focus on one feature of the task in which eddy current probe impedance variations due to interaction with the external surface of a tube are evaluated in order to monitor the probe location and orientation during inspection.

  15. Regional economic impacts of current and proposed management alternatives for Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Lynne; Sexton, Natalie; Ishizaki, Asuka; Ritten, John

    2013-01-01

    The National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997 requires all units of the National Wildlife Refuge System to be managed under a Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP). The CCP must describe the desired future conditions of a refuge and provide long-range guidance and management direction to achieve refuge purposes. Charles M. Russell (CMR) National Wildlife Refuge, located in north-central Montana, is in the process of developing a range of management goals, objectives, and strategies for the CCP. The CCP for the Refuge must contain an analysis of expected effects associated with current and proposed refuge-management strategies. For refuge CCP planning, an economic analysis provides a means of estimating how current management (No Action Alternative) and proposed management activities (Alternatives) affect the local economy. This type of analysis provides two critical pieces of information: (1) it illustrates a refuge’s contribution to the local community; and (2) it can help in determining whether economic effects are or are not a real concern in choosing among management alternatives. It is important to note that the economic value of a refuge encompasses more than just the impacts on the regional economy. Refuges also provide substantial nonmarket values (values for items not exchanged in established markets) such as maintaining endangered species, preserving wetlands, educating future generations, and adding stability to the ecosystem (Carver and Caudill, 2007). However, quantifying these types of nonmarket values is beyond the scope of this study. This report first presents a description of the local community and economy near the Refuge. Next, the methods used to conduct a regional economic impact analysis are described. An analysis of the final CCP management strategies that could affect stakeholders and residents and the local economy is then presented. The refuge management activities of economic concern in this analysis are:

  16. Study on Relevance between Social Economic Environment and Resistance to Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Ji

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Social, life and belongings lost in natural disasters are caused by the disaster itself and the ability of resistance to it. The loss extent caused by the same disaster is obviously different in different social economic environment. Based on data of 1991-2010, relationship between social economic environment and resistance to natural disasters is studied by panel data regression models. Furthermore, the social economic environmental factors which are likely to influence loss extent of natural disasters are analyzed. It is empirically shown that increase of Real GDP per capita, rural per capita net income, population of tertiary industry in GDP and number of doctors per thousand people all can decrease loss extent of natural disasters notably. However, increase of social fixed asset investment and increment speed of GDP cannot influence the loss extent prominently. Increase of disposable income decreases the death toll and the number of people affected by the disasters but enhances direct economic losses. Therefore, the influence of disposable income on the loss is not certain.

  17. Global energy and environmental security in the current global economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosov Yuri

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problems of the environmental impact of energy. Further reduction of this impact on the global environment can be achieved two ways. The short-term one implies the increase in energy efficiency. In the next 15—20 years, the increase in efficiency should become a priority of the energy policy of all states. The long-term one is based on the gradual expansion of renewable energy. This method is aimed to avoid further economic and energy crises. At the same time, it has an important environmental aspect. Experts claim that the new area of global energy should be less costly than the traditional ones.

  18. CURRENT ENVIRONMENT STATE OF COASTAL MARINE WATER OF DAGESTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Guseinova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We analysed current environmental state of the Dagestan coast of the Caspian Sea. Data on the spatial variability of contaminants in the coastal areas of the Dagestan segment of the Caspian Sea from the northern districts (Lopatin to the central (Sulak coastal land and, further, to the southern district (within Russian subsoil management confirm that it is caused by irregular contamination of the sea by above-ground sources. Location. Dagestan coastal area of the Caspian SeaMethods. Concentration analysis of background contamination of chemical agents in the Dagestan coastal water from northern districts (Lopatin to southern (Sulak coastal land during the period between 2004 and 2007.Results. Data on the spatial variability of contaminants in the coastal areas of the Dagestan segment of the Caspian Sea from the northern districts (Lopatin to the central (Sulak coastal land and, further, to the southern district (within Russian subsoil management confirm that it is caused by irregular contamination of the sea by above-ground sources.Main conclusions. The envisaged large-scale hydrocarbon resource development requires regular monitoring of sea currents on Makhachkala, Izberbash and Derbent roads.

  19. The Phenomenon of Financial Economics: Russia and the World Are in Current Global Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine P. Akinina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of the current situation on the global financial arena, analyzing the chain of cause and effect of the origins of the economic crisis and providing its possible logical outcomes. We are trying to prove here that the way the world economic situation develops will lead to either further growth or stagnation of national economies and define their position in the global business, financial, and social spheres.

    We provide an analysis of the serious transformations financial economics have been undergoing at the end of the 20th and beginning of the 21st centuries. All these changes, such as the development of international fusions on financial markets, the creation of new financial instruments, products and services, and others, have been caused largely by (and also have led to significant events in the global political arena. However, regardless of the transformations, world leadership remains in the hands of US government and business and that of their closest partners, while those societies that are not willing to support the “Americanized” world order end up on the blacklist of the World Bank, the IMF, and other international financial institutions.

    Finally, the article provides our views of the possible ways of dealing with the global economic stagnation. We highlight the importance of the strong and careful supervision of any global as well as national financial activities, the education of the public on the issues of wise investments, and the dangers of living on credit.

  20. GRAPEVINE VIRUS DISEASES:ECONOMIC IMPACT AND CURRENT ADVANCES IN VIRAL PROSPECTION AND MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS FERNANDO BASSO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Grapevine (Vitis spp. is a major vegetative propagated fruit crop with high socioeconomic importance worldwide. It is susceptible to several graft-transmitted agents that cause several diseases and substantial crop losses, reducing fruit quality and plant vigor, and shorten the longevity of vines. The vegetative propagation and frequent exchanges of propagative material among countries contribute to spread these pathogens, favoring the emergence of complex diseases. Its perennial life cycle further accelerates the mixing and introduction of several viral agents into a single plant. Currently, approximately 65 viruses belonging to different families have been reported infecting grapevines, but not all cause economically relevant diseases. The grapevine leafroll, rugose wood complex, leaf degeneration and fleck diseases are the four main disorders having worldwide economic importance. In addition, new viral species and strains have been identified and associated with economically important constraints to grape production. In Brazilian vineyards, eighteen viruses, three viroids and two virus-like diseases had already their occurrence reported and were molecularly characterized. Here, we review the current knowledge of these viruses, report advances in their diagnosis and prospection of new species, and give indications about the management of the associated grapevine diseases.

  1. Copper hydrometallurgy-current status,preliminary economics,future direction and positioning versus smelting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Peacey; GUO Xian-jian; E.Robles

    2004-01-01

    The heap leaching of oxide copper ores with copper cathode recovery by solvent extraction and electrowinning is now well established as a low-cost method of copper recovery. This technology has recently been applied successfully to mixed oxide and chalcocite ores, notably in Chile at Cerro Colorado, Quebrada Blanca and Zaldivar.Currently, there are significant development efforts underway to try to extend heap leaching to chalcopyrite ores.The success of heap leaching/SX/EW has also led to a revival in the development of hydrometallurgical processes to recover copper from chalcopyrite and other copper concentrates. The current status of copper hydrometallurgy is reviewed and the most commercially attractive potential applications are explored. The advantages and disadvantages of the hydrometallurgical treatment of chalcopyrite concentrates and its preliminary economics are compared with those for the current best practices in copper smelting and refining.

  2. Influence of social-economic institutions on innovative environment development: Russian case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chistyakova Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the important questions for innovative environment development is social-economic institutions, which help to decrease transaction cost and risks in small and medium size enterprises (SMEs. Basic institutional framework is represented by a set of specific institutions, which form the innovation environment of the region and have an impact on the activities of the innovation system actors. The proposed set of institutions is divided into two groups: those institutions that directly affect the development of innovative environment and institutions, which influence is indirect, but nevertheless important. The result of analysis of institutions development of Tomsk region and five more innovation-oriented areas of the Russian Federation is given in the article.

  3. Health Economics Studies Information Exchange; Reports of Current Research in Health Economics, and Medical Care Administration. Publication No. 1719.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Arlington, VA. Home Economics Branch.

    The first volume of a continuing series reporting research in progress in health economics and medical care organization and administration was compiled by contacting (1) graduate schools offering degrees in the health professions, sociology, economics, public administration, and public health, (2) charitable foundations indicating an interest in…

  4. Economic Instruments and the Environment: Can Natural Resources be Maneged Exclusively by the Market?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Júlio Vitral Amaro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The advent of industrial economies coincides with the emergence of the economy as an autonomous discipline and with the question, not hitherto placed on the “value of nature”. As the basis of any theory of the first economists was the statement that every "value" is the work of man, was a fragile theoretical nature of the classics, since this is not the result of human labor. So, to circumvent the problem of fixing the "values​​" intrinsic to nature, environmental economics, in its most widespread version, part of the statement that assigns what is "value" is not exactly the environment or environmental resources but people's preferences in relation to changes in quality or quantity supplied of natural resource. The idea of ​​transaction rights on the environment (in fact, the right to pollute found resonance in the United States with "certified environmental" measures to better control pollution. They are traded for several polluting companies that can, in turn, trade them in the market for environmental permits. Remember that in any arrangement in which disputing parties settle in reaction conditions supposedly equal, makes a big difference the presence of those more able to lobby and power to influence public opinion. It is seen, even with the refinement that achieves economic analysis by incorporating as legitimate rights of non pollution, yet there is no guarantee the order of environmental damage if the whole issue be restricted to the context of the economic approach simply.

  5. The Impact of the Global Economic Crisis on the Business Environment:Recent European Experience and Support Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela ROMAN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our paper is to underline the main characteristics of the business and economical environment and emphasise the negative implications of the recent economic crisis on a panel of EU member countries, namely:Bulgaria, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania and Romania. The results of our research are pointing out the challenges and difficulties that the business environment from the panel countries is facing and also the need for the decision and policy makers to intensify their preoccupations and efforts in order to help and stimulate the enhancement of the business environment and thus achieve a sustainable long term economic growth.

  6. Economic Growth and the Environment - or the Extinction of the GDP-dinosaur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    1997-01-01

    to develop different terms and to manoeuvre in the direction of other goals than growth in the GDP. The argument will be set out on two levels. First, the arguments of especially the World Bank will be considered directly on their own terms. Second, the conventional use of concepts will be questioned......, and as a consequence, it has been questioned whether an ever-increasing GDP is compatible with overall environmental improvement. The prevailing answer is clearly affirmative, and the adherents of this position can refer to very influential sources. First of all, the Brundtland report from 1987 states that economic...... growth in industrial countries is necessary both to combat environmental problems and to improve the conditions of life in developing countries. Since then, some of the main international economic organizations have dealt with the question. Examples are the OECD report "The State of the Environment" from...

  7. Trends and corresponding policies related to population, resources, environment and economic development in northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Zhu, L

    1994-01-01

    A model is presented of the interaction between population, resources, environment, and the economic system in the northwest region of China. Population pressure is yielding important impacts on the environment. Development should be guided by effective population control and continuous agricultural development. Alternative strategies include: 1) Identify effective ways to curb population growth, e.g., investment in social and economic development, and formation of a social environment with social security assurances conducive to population control. Public campaigns need to address the links between poverty and population, to awaken people's sense of responsibility, and to change people's desire for more children. 2) Give education a priority as a means of upgrading the quality of rural labor. Mass media must popularize elementary school education and nine years of education. 3) Encourage migration out of the northwest. 4) Use technology to protect and correct land resources. Local regulations are needed on land management to guarantee proper planning, use, protection, and conservation of land. 5) Upgrade agricultural structures, develop forestry and grasslands, protect water and soil, and improve the ecological conditions. 6) Invest capital in such farm constructions as irrigation systems. 7) Increase investments in agriculture in order to assure productivity and reserves and to speed the transition to modern agricultural practices. 8) Raise land efficiency by increasing imports of grain and cereals from outside the region. 9) Develop township enterprises and the rural economy.

  8. Marketing of Public and Business Affairs Subsystems of Socio-Economic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Grigorescu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian society is crossing one of the most important stages of its transition toward the integration in the European Union started with January 1st, 2007; this will define the final processes bound for the socio-economic reconstruction. Based on the previous experiences, an assumption rose up that, at this moment in the Romanian society there are two systems business and public administration, placed on opposite, antagonistic, unfriendly sides. At the same time, there is the opinion that a proper public and private marketing could be the link between them. The link between these systems should make the relation useful to create and handle the cooperation and cooperation climate in these two environments. The paper aims to present the systems, their characteristics, the opinion about the other, the identified link components, and to propose a solution for the link improvement. A small survey of the members opinions, in both systems, will be the base of the analysis. The first stage is to analyze each environment as an independent system: business system (BSy and public administration system (PASy. We will present the structure, characteristics, interactions with other socio-economic components, etc. The second stage will focus on the role of public and private marketing as tools of feedback reaction of the systems to the general environment dynamics. The marketing behavior is typical for the BSy and its level of marketing knowledge is higher than the poor level of marketing knowledge in PASy lacking the marketing attitude about public services.

  9. ECOLOGY-ECONOMICAL ASSESSMENT OF NEW RECLAMATION METHOD FOR CURRENTLY WORKING TECHNOGENIC MASSIFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Strizhenok

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most relevant problems of the mining industry is the need to reduce the negative impact of technogenic massifs formed by wastes of extraction and processing of mineral raw materials. This problem has a significant meaning for currently used massifs, because traditional ways of reclamation are not suitable for them. The article describes the results of a scientific study on the development of the most efficient reclamation method for currently used technogenic massifs. Described in detail the main results of the field observations, methods and equipment of laboratory experiments conducted to determine agro-chemical properties of the soil and optimal composition of binder agent. The article also provides ecological and economic assessment of the proposed method of reclamation. The study was conducted on the example of the real technogenic massif, formed by wastes of phosphorus ore processing.

  10. [Spatial coupling characteristics of eco-environment quality and economic poverty in Lüliang area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-Yi; Wang, Yan-Hui

    2014-06-01

    It is one of the important strategies during the poverty alleviation to maintain a basic balance between the eco-environment and economic development in poor areas. Taking the whole 20 counties in Lüliang national contiguous special poverty-stricken areas and the surrounding 36 counties as multi-type and multi-scale typical study areas, the relationship between eco-environment quality and poverty in the poverty-stricken areas was explored in this paper. Firstly, the region's ecological poverty index system was systematically built, and by integrated use of the subjective and objective weighting method, the ecological environment quality was evaluated in the perspective of natural environment. Then, the coupling coordination degree was calculated by coupling the ecological environment quality index and the average disposable income. Finally, the spatial variation was analyzed in detail respectively at provincial, city and county scales. Results showed that as a whole, the spatial autocorrelation coefficient of coupling coordination degree was relatively higher in the study area, and the coupling coordination degree in the eastern part was higher than that in the western part; the whole coupling coordination degree in Shanxi Province was slightly higher than in Shaanxi Province; the national poverty counties presented a state of recession, and their coordinated development degrees were far lower than that of non-national poverty counties.

  11. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  12. Survey of Attitudes towards Curriculum Reforms among Medical Teachersin Different Socio-economic and Cultural Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mads Ronald

    2007-01-01

    towards medical curriculum reform in post-communist transition countries, but not in Western European schools, was younger age, as well as female gender in Bosnia and Herzegovina,. Factors influencing faculty attitudes may not be easy to identify and may be specific for different settings......Curriculum reforms in medical schools require cultural and conceptual changes from the faculty. We assessed attitudes towards curriculum reforms in different academic, economic, and social environments among 776 teachers from 2 Western European medical schools (Belgium and Denmark) and 7 medical...

  13. Random recurrence equations and ruin in a Markov-dependent stochastic economic environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collamore, Jeffrey F.

    2009-01-01

    We develop sharp large deviation asymptotics for the probability of ruin in a Markov-dependent stochastic economic environment and study the extremes for some related Markovian processes which arise in financial and insurance mathematics, related to perpetuities and the ARCH(1) and GARCH(1,1) time...... series models.  Our results build upon work of Goldie, who has developed tail asymptotics applicable for independent sequences of random variables subject to a random recurrence equation.  In contrast, we adopt a general approach based on the theory of Harris recurrent Markov chains and the associated...

  14. AN ENVIRON-ECONOMICAL MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF WATER POLLUTION IMPACT ASSESSMENT IN REFERENCE TO INDIAN SCENARIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant PATHAK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of the mathematical modeling to such a specific area as environ-economical interaction in prospect of big countries like India. A model of mutual interaction of dirty drinking water resulting water borne diseases, badly affected economy is proposed. For the description of some of these models illustrates drinking water resources, incapable municipal water treatment consequently expansion of diseases, World Bank loan, affected biggest labour forces (mankind and ultimate results in the form of decrease in GDP. These mathematical models may be used in the solving of similar type problems exist in south and eastern Asian economies.

  15. Gender Bias in the Current Economic Recovery? Declining Employment Rates for Women in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Boushey; Dean Baker; David Rosnick

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares the current economic recovery - post-2001 recession up to mid-2005 - with its performance in the prior four economic recoveries. It examines how weak job growth has affected older versus younger workers, and how the impact has differed between men and women.

  16. Environment and Economic Growth. Is Technical Change the Key to Decoupling?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galeotti, M. [Universita di Milano, Milan (Italy)

    2003-09-01

    The relationship between economic growth and pollution is very complex, depending upon a host of different factors. Thus the study of this phenomenon represents a challenging endeavor. While most economics papers begin with theory and support that theory with econometric evidence, the literature on Environmental Kuznets Curves has proceeded in the opposite direction: first developing an empirical observation about the world, and then attempting to supply appropriate theories. A number of papers have aimed at providing the theoretical underpinnings to the Environmental Kuznets Curve. Prominent here is the class of optimal growth models. These are usually studied from the point of view of the analytical conditions that must hold in order to obtain an inverted-U functional relationship between pollution and growth. These models are however seldom confronted with the data. In this paper we take one popular optimal growth model designed for climate change policy analysis and carry out a few simulation exercises with the purpose of characterizing the relationship between economic growth and emissions. In particular, we try to assess the relative contribution of the ingredients of the well-known decomposition of the environment-growth relationship put forth by Grossman (1995): according to it, the presumed inverted-U pattern results from the joint effect of scale, composition, and technology components. We do this focusing on the developed regions of the world and on a global pollutant, CO2 emissions.

  17. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  18. Environment contamination by mycotoxins and their occurrence in food and feed: Physiological aspects and economical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capcarova, Marcela; Zbynovska, Katarina; Kalafova, Anna; Bulla, Jozef; Bielik, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The contamination of food and feed by mycotoxins as toxic metabolites of fungi is a risk not only for consumers resulting in various embarrassment regarding health status and well-being, but also for producers, companies and export market on the ground of economic losses and ruined stability of economic trade. As it is given in historical evidence, the contamination of food by mycotoxins is a topic as old as a history of mankind, finding some evidence even in the ancient books and records. Nowadays, the mycotoxins are used in modern biotechnological laboratories and are considered an agent for targeting the specific cells (e.g., defected cells to eliminate them). However, this promising procedure is only the beginning. More concern is focused on mycotoxins as abiotic hazard agents. The dealing with them, systematic monitoring, and development of techniques for their elimination from agricultural commodities are worldwide issues concerning all countries. They can be found alone or in co-occurrence with other mycotoxins. Thus, this review aims to provide widened information regarding mycotoxins contamination in environment with the consequences on health of animals and humans. The inevitability for more data that correctly determine the risk points linked to mycotoxins occurrence and their specific reactions in the environment is demonstrated. This review includes various symptoms in animals and humans that result from mycotoxin exposure. For better understanding of mycotoxin's impact on animals, the sensitivities of various animal species to various mycotoxins are listed. Strategies for elimination and preventing the risks of mycotoxins contamination as well as economical approach are discussed. To complete the topic, some data from past as historical evidences are presented.

  19. From geospatial observations of ocean currents to causal predictors of spatio-economic activity using computer vision and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Florin; Ayache, Stephane; Escalera, Sergio; Baró Solé, Xavier; Capponi, Cecile; Panciatici, Patrick; Guyon, Isabelle

    2016-04-01

    The big data transformation currently revolutionizing science and industry forges novel possibilities in multi-modal analysis scarcely imaginable only a decade ago. One of the important economic and industrial problems that stand to benefit from the recent expansion of data availability and computational prowess is the prediction of electricity demand and renewable energy generation. Both are correlates of human activity: spatiotemporal energy consumption patterns in society are a factor of both demand (weather dependent) and supply, which determine cost - a relation expected to strengthen along with increasing renewable energy dependence. One of the main drivers of European weather patterns is the activity of the Atlantic Ocean and in particular its dominant Northern Hemisphere current: the Gulf Stream. We choose this particular current as a test case in part due to larger amount of relevant data and scientific literature available for refinement of analysis techniques. This data richness is due not only to its economic importance but also to its size being clearly visible in radar and infrared satellite imagery, which makes it easier to detect using Computer Vision (CV). The power of CV techniques makes basic analysis thus developed scalable to other smaller and less known, but still influential, currents, which are not just curves on a map, but complex, evolving, moving branching trees in 3D projected onto a 2D image. We investigate means of extracting, from several image modalities (including recently available Copernicus radar and earlier Infrared satellites), a parameterized representation of the state of the Gulf Stream and its environment that is useful as feature space representation in a machine learning context, in this case with the EC's H2020-sponsored 'See.4C' project, in the context of which data scientists may find novel predictors of spatiotemporal energy flow. Although automated extractors of Gulf Stream position exist, they differ in methodology

  20. 乌克兰社会经济发展现状对投资环境影响分析%The Analysis of the Influence of the Current state of the Social-economic Development of Ukraine on the Country’ s Investment Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐林实; 伊万诺夫

    2016-01-01

    乌克兰脱离苏联成为独立的主权国家只有25年,暂短的发展历程不可能对世界经济长期发展过程中的兴衰变化有完整的切身体验。这些年来,乌克兰的经济发展阶段更多的时间是在萧条中度过,并且对比苏联解体前的发展水平很多指标都出现了退步。东部军事动荡对乌克兰的社会经济影响很大。 GDP负增长,通货膨胀,居民收入下降;进出口额减少和赤字率上升,国家债务风险巨大;企业停产减产,创新投入少,资金外逃等,严重影响企业再生产。乌克兰社会经济发展存在着重大威胁,需要制定有效措施控制恶化发展趋势。%It has been only 25 years since Ukraine has separated from former USSR and has become an independent sovereign country.In this short period of development, Ukraine did not experience the fluctuations of the global economy with its highs and lows.In recent years, Ukraine's eco-nomic development has been stagnant; moreover, the level of the country's economic development has dropped lower than the level of the economic development of the former USSR.The military unrest in the Eastern region of the country has greatly influenced the social economy of the country:negative growth of GDP, inflation of the currency, decrease in income, decrease of import and export industry, continuously growing deficit, great risk of the national debt.The companies in various industries either have stopped production or reduced the production capacity, the investment into the innovation has been reduced, and many capitals have been moved abroad.All these factors have impacted negatively on the business reproduc-tion.There is a enormous threat posed to the social-economic development in Ukraine, and there should be effective measures put in place to con-trol the negative trend of its development.

  1. Employment and employment conditions in the current economic crisis in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Vukšić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to analyze developments in employment and employment characteristics during the current crisis in Croatia. The main findings can be summarized as follows: (1 The primary (aggregate mode of adjustment to the crisis was a decline in employment. There are, however, considerable differences in adjustment patterns across economic activities. (2 During the crisis, jobs were lost in the, more dynamic, private sector, while the number of jobs in the public sector (entities in state ownership slightly increased. (3 Economic activities with comparatively larger shares of women in employment have experienced fewer employment cuts and the aggregate employment share of women rose during the crisis, especially in activities with a larger share of public sector workers.(4 There has been a declining share of younger workers during the crisis, justifying policy actions to facilitate their employment. (5 Employees with comparatively lower educational attainment face severe challenges in the labor market, which is a longer term trend, not specific to the crisis period. There are indications that this group of employees enjoys a higher level of protection in the public sector. (6 Analysis also shows a rising significance of more flexible forms of employment: increasing shares of fixed term employees (during the last two observed years, and of part time workers. (7 Working hours do not exhibit any strong trends specific to the crisis, except for the diminishing number of overtime hours per worker.

  2. Macro-economic assessment of flood risk in Italy under current and future climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Lorenzo; Koks, Elco; Mysiak, Jaroslav; Aerts, Jeroen; Standardi, Gabriele

    2014-05-01

    This paper explores an integrated methodology for assessing direct and indirect costs of fluvial flooding to estimate current and future fluvial flood risk in Italy. Our methodology combines a Geographic Information System spatial approach, with a general economic equilibrium approach using a downscaled modified version of a Computable General Equilibrium model at NUTS2 scale. Given the level of uncertainty in the behavior of disaster-affected economies, the simulation considers a wide range of business recovery periods. We calculate expected annual losses for each NUTS2 region, and exceedence probability curves to determine probable maximum losses. Given a certain acceptable level of risk, we describe the conditions of flood protection and business recovery periods under which losses are contained within this limit. Because of the difference between direct costs, which are an overestimation of stock losses, and indirect costs, which represent the macro-economic effects, our results have different policy meanings. While the former is relevant for post-disaster recovery, the latter is more relevant for public policy issues, particularly for cost-benefit analysis and resilience assessment.

  3. The impact of regional economic reliance on the tobacco industry on current smoking in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingzhong; Barnett, Ross; Rockett, Ian R H; Yang, Xiaozhao Y; Wu, Dan; Zheng, Weijun; Li, Lu

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary assessment of province of residence and other contextual factors on the likelihood of being a current smoker in China. A cross-sectional, multistage sampling process was used to recruit participants, and their smoking status and sociodemographic characteristics were obtained through face-to-face interviews. The contextual variables were retrieved from a national database. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the impact of provincial economic reliance on the tobacco industry, as well as individual-level characteristics, on the likelihood of being a current smoker. Participants totaled 20,601 from 27 cities located in 26 of the 31 municipalities/provinces in China. Overall smoking prevalence was 31.3% (95% CI: 19.3-33.2%), with rates being highest in Yinchuan City in Ningxia Province (49.8%) and lowest in Shanghai (21.6%). The multilevel analysis showed an excess likelihood of being a current smoker for individuals living in provinces with the highest rate of cigarette production relative to those with the smallest (pmarketing of tobacco products in China. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Organizational and economic backgrounds for the formation of innovation-enabling environment at the enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.S. Shypulina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. Under the conditions of constant changes in the external environment which are constantly accelerating, an innovative way of development of both separate organizations (companies and organizations and national economies is most effective. Hence, there is a need in developing of effective mechanism for formation of innovation-enabling environment at the enterprise. This problem is vital for industry, since industry influences the pace and direction of development in almost all spheres of social production and human activity in general. The goal of this article is the systematic analysis of organizational economic backgrounds, and scientific study of approaches to advancement of theoretical and methodological principles of formation of innovation-enabling environment in industry.The results of the analysis. A comparative analysis of the innovation activity of Ukraine, the EU and other countries of the world was produced. The results showed systematic lag of Ukraine by the majority of items, with the exception of human capital, knowledge, technology and inventions, as well as the education system. A paradoxical situation composed in Ukraine a high position in terms of the ability to innovate, but only 71st position in the Global Competitiveness Index. This testifies that the existing potential for innovative development path is not used.It is appointed that in Ukraine the environment of innovation is outlined by methods of state regulation and incentives is unfavorable. Conditions of most enterprises do not contribute to the creation and implementation of their innovations.The author proposed the definition of innovation-enabling environment, stated the basic elements of this environment and identified the methods of its formation and development. Among them are methods of state regulation and stimulation of innovations, creation and introduction of innovations, the development of innovative culture society and separate

  5. Impacts of the current economic crisis on Southeast Asian labour markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Walsh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis has caused most of the western world to fall into recession because of the credit crunch and the collapse of much of the under-regulated and over-confident banking industry. However, in most of Asia, especially developing Asia, the crisis has affected manufacturing and, hence, employment rather than the finance sectors, especially because the latter had already been restructured following the 1997 Asian Crisis. This paper considers the impact of the crisis on the range of labour markets across the region and assesses the ongoing relevance of the development model that is posited on low labour cost manufacturing aimed at assisting export industries. Impacts considered include migration flows of labour, the possibility of augmenting added value to existing production and the need to upgrade skills and competencies.

  6. Long Term Environment and Economic Impacts of Coal Liquefaction in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, Jerald [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2014-03-31

    The project currently is composed of six specific tasks – three research tasks, two outreach and training tasks, and one project management and communications task. Task 1 addresses project management and communication. Research activities focused on Task 2 (Describe and Quantify the Economic Impacts and Implications of the Development and Deployment of Coal-to-Liquid Facilities in China), Task 3 (Development of Alternative Coal Gasification Database), and Task 4 (Geologic Carbon Management Options). There also were significant activities related to Task 5 (US-China Communication, Collaboration, and Training on Clean Coal Technologies) as well as planning activity performed in support of Task 6 (Training Programs).

  7. Analysis on the coupling law between economic development and the environment in (U)rümqi city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HongWei; ZHANG XiaoLei; WEI ShanFeng; KANG Hong

    2007-01-01

    The inter-coupling relationship between urban economic development and the ecological environment refers to the total of interactive, inter-influenced and other non-linear relations between economic and environmental systems in the course of economic development. Taking (U)rümqi, an oasis city in arid region, as an example, we collected the data of environmental quality & pollutants discharge and information on economic development in the 20 years, analyzed the correlation between the two, conducted a fitted regression with quadratic and cubic equations, and acquired 14 mathematic models that could describe the relationship between the environment and economic development. The results show that there exists a coordinated and interactive relationship between the environment and economic development. On the basis of these quantity analyses, conceptional frame model is built to explain the fundamental basis of this environmental coupling in (U)rümqi city. Both a quantitative analysis of the coupling law and a good command of the internal law between them are useful for making comprehensive decisions about the environment and economic development and harmonizing the urban sustainable development.

  8. Economic and agricultural transformation through large-scale farming : impacts of large-scale farming on local economic development, household food security and the environment in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekele, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined impacts of large-scale farming in Ethiopia on local economic development, household food security, incomes, employment, and the environment. The study adopted a mixed research approach in which both qualitative and quantitative data were generated from secondary and primary sourc

  9. 76 FR 38399 - Assessing the Current Research, Policy, and Practice Environment in Public Health Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Assessing the Current Research, Policy, and..., and other information helpful to assess the current research, policy, and practice environment in... Control and Prevention (CDC) has worked to integrate genomics into public health research, policy,...

  10. TLBO based Voltage Stable Environment Friendly Economic Dispatch Considering Real and Reactive Power Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, H. K.; Mafidar, P.

    2013-09-01

    In view of growing concern towards environment, power system engineers are forced to generate quality green energy. Hence the economic dispatch (ED) aims at the power generation to meet the load demand at minimum fuel cost with environmental and voltage constraints along with essential constraints on real and reactive power. The emission control which reduces the negative impact on environment is achieved by including the additional constraints in ED problem. Presently, the power system mostly operates near its stability limits, therefore with increased demand the system faces voltage problem. The bus voltages are brought within limit in the present work by placement of static var compensator (SVC) at weak bus which is identified from bus participation factor. The optimal size of SVC is determined by univariate search method. This paper presents the use of Teaching Learning based Optimization (TLBO) algorithm for voltage stable environment friendly ED problem with real and reactive power constraints. The computational effectiveness of TLBO is established through test results over particle swarm optimization (PSO) and Big Bang-Big Crunch (BB-BC) algorithms for the ED problem.

  11. The current situation of impact of coal mine developing on environment in China and government proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Yang [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Ministry of Land and Resources

    2005-07-01

    Current environmental problems caused by coal mining in China, the importance of management of the environment, impact of coal mining on land and water resources, and upcoming coal development are discussed. It is suggested that the government should act in two ways: take responsibility for management of reclamation of mines existing before 1986, and set up mechanisms to protect the environment, starting with the publishing of relevant laws and regulations. Methods for solving environmental issues include: prepare a practical plan, establish an environmental control fund, establish a special fund to protect the environment, and develop new ways to combine protection of the biological environment and land reclamation. 5 refs., 3 tabs.

  12. The current state of accounting and analytical system of economic management in emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Gritsishen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviewed the current state of organizational and methodological regulations from the perspective of regulation and specific to domestic enterprises. It was established that the accounting system is governed by a set of regulations at different levels and different areas of law. In connection with what was presented to an approach that involves systematizing legal regulation in terms of impact on the object, the subject and the elements method of accounting. It studied the system of analytical indicators calculated on the investigated companies. The research was conducted by examining the analytical reports analysts, internal auditors and the audit report in partial use of analytical procedures. The study was conducted in the following areas: evaluation of the effectiveness of fixed assets, estimation of efficiency of current assets, assessment of the efficiency of the production process, factor analysis and consideration of the effects of emergencies, methods of economic analysis of consequences of emergency measures and the effectiveness of their prevention and elimination.

  13. The economic burden of systemic lupus erythematosus in Asia: the current state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, A

    2010-10-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disorder which imposes considerable negative impact on patients' function and quality of life, and it appears to entail substantial loss of work productivity and healthcare cost. Although much has been studied regarding the epidemiology, pathogenesis, disease activity, disease damage and pharmacological treatment of SLE, publications on the economic burden of lupus are scarce. As the majority of lupus patients are residing in the Asia Pacific region where many are financially and socially deprived, and, from what we know from the current literature, work disability of lupus patients in Asia is substantial, cost-of-illness studies on SLE are thus particularly relevant in countries around the region. Reliable data from properly conducted prospective SLE cost studies are imperative for policymakers to efficiently distribute healthcare resources, especially in Asia where limited resources are unable to cope with the huge population. In this paper, we review the current state of cost-of-illness research on lupus in Asia and analyze the reasons why such studies are urgently required in the Asia Pacific region.

  14. Regional economic effects of current and proposed management alternatives for Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this study was to provide the economic analysis needed for the Arrowwood NWR CCP by evaluating the regional economic impacts associated with the...

  15. Incorporation of future costs in health economic analysis publications: current situation and recommendations for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Blanca; Soto Álvarez, Javier; Ángel Casado, Miguel

    2015-06-01

    Future costs are not usually included in economic evaluations. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of published economic analyses that incorporate future costs. A systematic review was conducted of economic analyses published from 2008 to 2013 in three general health economics journals: PharmacoEconomics, Value in Health and the European Journal of Health Economics. A total of 192 articles met the inclusion criteria, 94 of them (49.0%) incorporated future related medical costs, 9 (4.2%) also included future unrelated medical costs and none of them included future nonmedical costs. The percentage of articles including future costs increased from 2008 (30.8%) to 2013 (70.8%), and no differences were detected between the three journals. All relevant costs for the perspective considered should be included in economic evaluations, including related or unrelated, direct or indirect future costs. It is also advisable that pharmacoEconomic guidelines are adapted in this sense.

  16. Survey of Attitudes towards Curriculum Reforms among Medical Teachersin Different Socio-economic and Cultural Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mads Ronald

    2007-01-01

    schools in 3 countries in post-communist transition (Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina). The survey included a 5-point Likert-type scale on attitudes towards reforms in general and towards reforms of medical curriculum (10 items each). Teaching staff from medical schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina......Curriculum reforms in medical schools require cultural and conceptual changes from the faculty. We assessed attitudes towards curriculum reforms in different academic, economic, and social environments among 776 teachers from 2 Western European medical schools (Belgium and Denmark) and 7 medical...... had more positive attitude towards reforms of medical curriculum (mean score 36.8 out of maximum 50 [95% CI 36.1 to 37.3]) than those from medical schools in Croatia or Slovenia (30.7 [29.8 to 31.6]) or Western Europe (27.7 [27.1 to 28.3]) (Pattitudes...

  17. Offshore produced water management: A review of current practice and challenges in harsh/Arctic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jisi; Chen, Bing; Thanyamanta, Worakanok; Hawboldt, Kelly; Zhang, Baiyu; Liu, Bo

    2016-03-15

    Increasing offshore oil and gas exploration and development in harsh/Arctic environments require more effective offshore produced water management, as these environments are much more sensitive to changes in water quality than more temperate climates. However, the number and scope of studies of offshore produced water management in harsh/Arctic environments are limited. This paper reviews the current state of offshore produced water management, impacts, and policies, as well as the vulnerability, implications and operational challenges in harsh/Arctic environments. The findings show that the primary contaminant(s) of concern are contained in both the dissolved oil and the dispersed oil. The application of emerging technologies that can tackle this issue is significantly limited by the challenges of offshore operations in harsh/Arctic environments. Therefore, there is a need to develop more efficient and suitable management systems since more stringent policies are being implemented due to the increased vulnerability of harsh/Arctic environments.

  18. Elements of Adaptation of Organizational and Economic Mechanism of Vegetable Companies to the External Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikov Dmitriy Aleksandrovich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors note that the priorities of improving the organizational and economic mechanism of agricultural enterprises specializing in vegetable production belong to the sphere of management. It is connected with the need to adapt their management systems to dynamic environmental conditions in order to minimize the risk factors. On the basis of the systematic approach and such scientific methods as analysis, synthesis and simulation, the authors elaborate a model of adaptation of management system of vegetable-growing enterprises to the external environment. The model includes three elements: 1 the principles of adaptation; 2 the elements of adaptation mechanism, including specific functions and structural features of monitoring; 3 assessment indicators. They explain why the essence of management should be considered in the unity of its two aspects: the process (general and specific control functions and structure (hierarchy and organization of management system of vegetable-growing enterprises. Within the context of the process approach they prove the need to supplement the general and specific management functions by the complementary risk management procedures, which provide the adaptivity of control system to risky environmental conditions. They give the substantial characteristics of the proposed procedures and methods of risk management, which complete the specific control function in the context of the three stages of the management cycle – adoption, implementation and monitoring of management decisions realization. The proposed approach links the technological aspects of management to its basic manifestations as functions realized in the environment of mutual influence of external (macroeconomic and industrial environment and internal (sphere of interaction of managing and managed subsystems risks. They complete the principles of structural optimization of management system by strengthening the role of elements that

  19. Problems of software financial resources agrarian sector in the current economic conditions of management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grischuk Nadiya Viktorivna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research of financial science on questions providing of financial resources does not exhaust and needs a further study that acquires new descriptions and vectors of development constantly, what costing illuminations in the conditions of present time. Research of the state of provision of financial resources agrarian to the sector of economy with allocating of main segment – loan and attracted financial resources, today topically. In the article the essence funds are considered sources of agricultural enterprises financial resources and problems associated with the formation and use of financial resources in the modern world. Also the problems arising in improving the process of raising funds agricultural enterprises. Revealed that an effective tool to attract financial resources is the issue of convertible bonds and the introduction of agricultural receipts. It is well-proven that in the conditions of unstable environment forward development of the system of agrarian relations must be carried out on the basis of the government programs, and normatively-legal adjusting that take into account not only the existent state of affairs at the market of agroindustrial products but also economic provision of enterprises national agrarian to the sector.

  20. The Law of Entropy – the Most Economical of All Natural Laws. Current Manifestations of World Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niţă DOBROTĂ

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The last three centuries have witnessed a specific social evolution, one much more dynamical than those of the previous era. The general vector of this dynamics is represented by the progress in technology and science that had taken place in all arrays of social action, a phenomenon largely manifested throughout Western European countries and North America. It is against this general setup that the world saw the formation and development of both European national communities and of the capitalist market economies, two of the historical causes that lead to the fall of the feudal social and economical system.

  1. Clinical compliance of viewing conditions in radiology reporting environments against current guidelines and standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, S.; Rainford, L.; Butler, M. L.

    2014-03-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the importance of environmental conditions in the radiology reporting environment, with many indicating that incorrect parameters could lead to error and misinterpretation. Literature is available with recommendations as to the levels that should be achieved in clinical practice, but evidence of adherence to these guidelines in radiology reporting environments is absent. This study audited the reporting environments of four teleradiologist and eight hospital based radiology reporting areas. This audit aimed to quantify adherence to guidelines and identify differences in the locations with respect to layout and design, monitor distance and angle as well as the ambient factors of the reporting environments. In line with international recommendations, an audit tool was designed to enquire in relation to the layout and design of reporting environments, monitor angle and distances used by radiologists when reporting, as well as the ambient factors such as noise, light and temperature. The review of conditions were carried out by the same independent auditor for consistency. The results obtained were compared against international standards and current research. Each radiology environment was given an overall compliance score to establish whether or not their environments were in line with recommended guidelines. Poor compliance to international recommendations and standards among radiology reporting environments was identified. Teleradiology reporting environments demonstrated greater compliance than hospital environments. The findings of this study identified a need for greater awareness of environmental and perceptual issues in the clinical setting. Further work involving a larger number of clinical centres is recommended.

  2. The top 50 commodity chemicals: Impact of catalytic process limitations on energy, environment, and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonkovich, A.L.Y.; Gerber, M.A.

    1995-08-01

    The production processes for the top 50 U.S. commodity chemicals waste energy, generate unwanted byproducts, and require more than a stoichiometric amount of feedstocks. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has quantified this impact on energy, environment, and economics for the catalytically produced commodity chemicals. An excess of 0.83 quads of energy per year in combined process and feedstock energy is required. The major component, approximately 54%, results from low per-pass yields and the subsequent separation and recycle of unreacted feedstocks. Furthermore, the production processes, either directly or through downstream waste treatment steps, release more than 20 billion pounds of carbon dioxide per year to the environment. The cost of the wasted feedstock exceeds 2 billion dollars per year. Process limitations resulting from unselective catalysis and unfavorable reaction thermodynamic constraints are the major contributors to this waste. Advanced process concepts that address these problems in an integrated manner are needed to improve process efficiency, which would reduce energy and raw material consumption, and the generation of unwanted byproducts. Many commodity chemicals are used to produce large volume polymer products. Of the energy and feedstock wasted during the production of the commodity chemicals, nearly one-third and one-half, respectively, represents chemicals used as polymer precursors. Approximately 38% of the carbon dioxide emissions are generated producing polymer feedstocks.

  3. Effect of the electromagnetic environment on current fluctuations in driven tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Moritz; Grabert, Hermann

    2016-07-01

    We examine current fluctuations in tunnel junctions driven by a superposition of a constant and a sinusoidal voltage source. In standard setups, the external voltage is applied to the tunneling element via an impedance providing an electromagnetic environment of the junction. The modes of this environment are excited by the time-dependent voltage and are the source of Johnson-Nyquist noise. We determine the autocorrelation function of the current flowing in the leads of the junction in the weak tunneling limit up to terms of second order in the tunneling Hamiltonian. The driven modes of the electromagnetic environment are treated exactly by means of a unitary transformation introduced recently. Particular emphasis is placed on the spectral function of the current fluctuations. The spectrum is found to comprise three contributions: a term arising from the Johnson-Nyquist noise of the environmental impedance, a part due to the shot noise of the tunneling element, and a third contribution which comes from the cross correlation between fluctuations caused by the electromagnetic environment and fluctuations of the tunneling current. All three parts of the spectral function occur already for devices under dc bias. The spectral function of ac driven tunneling elements can be determined from the result for a dc bias by means of a photoassisted tunneling relation of the Tien-Gordon type. Specific results are given for an Ohmic environment and for a junction driven through a resonator.

  4. Neighborhood built environment and socio-economic status in relation to multiple health outcomes in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-García, Javier; Queralt, Ana; Adams, Marc A; Conway, Terry L; Sallis, James F

    2017-08-29

    The study aim was to examine associations of neighborhood built environment and neighborhood socio-economic status (SES) with multiple physical activity (PA) behaviors, sedentary time, and obesity indicators among adolescents. Cross-sectional study of 325 adolescents aged 14-18years recruited from schools in Valencia, Spain. Participants' home neighborhoods were classified according to walkability and SES levels. Walkability was defined as an index of three built environment characteristics (i.e., residential density, land use mix, and street connectivity) based on geographic information system data. Moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary time were assessed using accelerometers. Active commuting to school, leisure-time PA, and time in specific sedentary activities were evaluated by questionnaire. Objectively measured weight and height were used to calculate body mass index, and percent body fat was analyzed by bioelectrical impedance. Data were collected in 2013-15. Mixed model regression analyses were performed. Analyses showed an SES-by-walkability interaction for MVPA on weekends. MVPA was highest in high-SES/high-walkable neighborhoods. Another SES-by-walkability interaction was found for sedentary minutes per weekend day. The lowest average sedentary minutes were found in high-SES/high-walkable areas. Neighborhood SES was positively related to participation in sports teams/PA classes and, negatively to time spent in sedentary behaviors. Adolescents living in lower-SES neighborhoods spent more time watching TV and had more obesity and body fat. Present findings strengthen the rationale for targeting neighborhood built and SES environments as health promotion interventions for adolescents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. The Effects of the Current Global Economic and Financial Crisis on the EU Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina DORNEAN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the main effects of the current global financial and economic crisis on the European Union budget and the measures that were taken in order to support the EU member states with the purpose of limiting and counteracting its effects. The focus will be on the budgetary expenditure and on the new Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance. For this purpose, we developed a regression model using the Least Square method with three significant variables: a dependent variable – EU budgetary expenditure and two independent variables – budgetary deficit and unemployment rate of member states. According to our analysis, the crisis determined the increase of the EU budgetary expenditure, which was due especially to the increase of the budgetary deficit and rising unemployment in the EU member states. Our findings suggested that the budgetary deficit and the unemployment rate had a highly significant influence on community expenditure growth during the crisis, while the GDP growth and the public debt did not have any significance for the community expenditure growth.

  6. Influence of macro and micro economical environments of energetical effectiveness for business activity of renewable power sources in the Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Antošová

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Goal of the contribution is to explain evaluation of economical environment that firms must respect during their business activity.External environment of mining firm includes except others technological development, economical situation, legislative by the wayof regulation, but in last time also stimulations from the government, competition behavior and other. Contribution is dealing also withenergetical effectiveness in the frame of economical evaluation applied in conditions of Slovak republic.The renewable energy sources are domestic sources of energy that help to enhance the safety of energy suppliesand the diversification of energy sources. The renewable energy is proved to be commercially viable for a growing list of consumersand uses. The renewable energy technologies provide many benefits that go well beyond the energy alone. More and more,the renewable energies contribute to the three pillars of the sustainable development in the economy, environment and the society.

  7. Dynamic Knowledge Capitalization through Annotation among Economic Intelligence Actors in a Collaborative Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Okunoye, Olusoji; Odumuyiwa, Victor

    2010-01-01

    The shift from industrial economy to knowledge economy in today's world has revolutionalized strategic planning in organizations as well as their problem solving approaches. The point of focus today is knowledge and service production with more emphasis been laid on knowledge capital. Many organizations are investing on tools that facilitate knowledge sharing among their employees and they are as well promoting and encouraging collaboration among their staff in order to build the organization's knowledge capital with the ultimate goal of creating a lasting competitive advantage for their organizations. One of the current leading approaches used for solving organization's decision problem is the Economic Intelligence (EI) approach which involves interactions among various actors called EI actors. These actors collaborate to ensure the overall success of the decision problem solving process. In the course of the collaboration, the actors express knowledge which could be capitalized for future reuse. In this pap...

  8. Meeting energy demand in a developing economy without damaging the environment. A case study in Sabah, Malaysia, from technical, environmental and economic perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Siong Lee; Lim, Yun Seng [Department of Physical Science, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tunku Abdul Rahman University (Malaysia)

    2010-08-15

    The challenges faced by the developing countries are unique in that they need to meet the increasing energy demands for their economic growths at a competitive price without damaging the environments. In this paper, a case study on the electricity demand issue in Sabah, Malaysia, is presented to investigate potential solutions in addressing this current need for a typical developing economy from the technical, economical and environmental perspectives. Sabah, one of the 13 states in Malaysia, is currently experiencing a serious power shortage, especially at the east coast. A 300 MW coal plant is proposed by the electricity utility company. However, the proposal has been rejected in the past several years due to the negative environmental impacts of the plant. In this paper, a number of alternative solutions were evaluated and proposed with respect to the viability of technologies, financial return and minimum environmental impact in terms of GHG emission. (author)

  9. Current process and future path for health economic assessment of pharmaceuticals in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumi, Mondher; Rémuzat, Cécile; El Hammi, Emna; Millier, Aurélie; Aballéa, Samuel; Chouaid, Christos; Falissard, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The Social Security Funding Law for 2012 introduced the Economic and Public Health Assessment Committee (Commission Evaluation Economique et de Santé Publique, or CEESP) in the Social Security Code as a specialised committee affiliated with the Haute Autorité de Santé in charge of providing recommendations and health economic opinions. This article provides an in-depth description of the CEESP's structure and working methods, and analyses the impact of health economic assessment on market access of drugs in France. It also points out the areas of uncertainty and the conflicting rules following the introduction of the health economic assessment in France. The authors also provide their personal opinion on the likely future of health economic assessment of drugs in France, including the possible merge of the CEESP and the Transparency Committee, the implementation of a French threshold, and the extension of health economic assessment to a larger number of products.

  10. Threats to the National Economic Security of Ukraine at the Current Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuharskaya Natalia A.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It is substantiated that the most important factor of the national economic security of the country is to match both the economic and the industrial relations systems to the economic development of the country. The article provides detailed consideration of the particularities of occurrence of threats to the national economic security of Ukraine by allocating seven major structural blocks, in which threats were not overcome during the years of independence, and some of them even became intensified: 1 institutional sphere; 2 social sphere; 3 financial sphere; 4 shadowing and corruptness of economy; 5 a high level of physical wear and tear of fixed assets and of the production infrastructure; 6 de-industrialization of economy; 7 innovative development. The main components of the national economic security, which would assist in overcoming these threats, have been developed.

  11. Current Global Pricing For Human Papillomavirus Vaccines Brings The Greatest Economic Benefits To Rich Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Niamh; Hutubessy, Raymond; Jit, Mark

    2016-02-01

    Vaccinating females against human papillomavirus (HPV) prior to the debut of sexual activity is an effective way to prevent cervical cancer, yet vaccine uptake in low- and middle-income countries has been hindered by high vaccine prices. We created an economic model to estimate the distribution of the economic surplus-the sum of all health and economic benefits of a vaccine, minus the costs of development, production, and distribution-among different country income groups and manufacturers for a cohort of twelve-year-old females in 2012. We found that manufacturers may have received economic returns worth five times their original investment in HPV vaccine development. High-income countries gained the greatest economic surplus of any income category, realizing over five times more economic value per vaccinated female than low-income countries did. Subsidizing vaccine prices in low- and middle-income countries could both reduce financial barriers to vaccine adoption and still allow high-income countries to retain their economic surpluses and manufacturers to retain their profits.

  12. Dynamic Analysis of Coupling Relationship between Economic Development and Ecological Environment Based on Entropy Method——A Case Study of Xi an City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the coupling relationship between economic development and ecological environment. [Method] Firstly, the evaluation index system for the coupling system of economic development and ecological environment in Xi'an City was established, then the dynamic variation of coupling relationship between economic development and ecological environment in Xi'an City from 2001 to 2010 was analyzed by using entropy method, finally some corresponding suggestions were put forward according ...

  13. Cost Sensitivity Analysis for Consolidated Interim Storage of Spent Fuel: Evaluating the Effect of Economic Environment Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumberland, Riley M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Kent Alan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jarrell, Joshua J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Joseph, III, Robert Anthony [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report evaluates how the economic environment (i.e., discount rate, inflation rate, escalation rate) can impact previously estimated differences in lifecycle costs between an integrated waste management system with an interim storage facility (ISF) and a similar system without an ISF.

  14. The Reality of Economic Growth towards Green Environment: A Study of Selected OECD Countries 1990-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpi Gupta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth and green environment has a direct relation with health, habitat and well being of our society which depends largely on the natural environment. But on the other side the society is neglecting and often ignoring the benefits that nature provides for economic prosperity. This paper studies the role of environment in economic growth, the role of environmental policy in achieving improved environmental results, closely examine the evidence of decoupling production from environmental damages and discuss decoupling in the context of global economy. In order to study these aspects, we explored our comparative research with special reference to selected eight OECD nations namely-France, Germany, Ireland, Japan, Portugal, Turkey, UK and USA with coverage period of 1990-2010. The selection of the countries is based on their prominence in industrialised world and their close economic bounding with each other over a considerable period. The coverage period in the study is 20 years because some of the emission data are available till 2013 and some only up to 2010. In order to do a comparative research on various dimensions we take in to our study period between1990-2010. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11065 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 78-88

  15. Regional economic analysis of current and proposed management alternatives for Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this study was to assess the regional economic implications associated with draft CCP management strategies for Rappahannock River Valley NWR. This...

  16. Ecological economics of soil erosion: a review of the current state of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Bhim; Nadella, Karthik

    2011-02-01

    The economics of land degradation has received relatively little attention until recent years. Although a number of studies have undertaken valuation of ecosystem services ranging from the global to the micro level, and quite a few studies have attempted to quantify the costs of soil erosion, studies that address the full costs of land degradation are still scarce. In this review, we attempt to analyze different land resource modeling and valuation techniques applied in earlier research and the type of data used in these analyses, and to assess their utility for different forms of land resource and management appraisal. We also report on the strengths and weaknesses of different valuation techniques used in studies on the economics of soil erosion, and the relevance of these valuation techniques. We make a case for the need for more appropriate models that can make the analysis more robust in estimating the economic costs of land degradation while recognizing the spatial heterogeneity in biophysical and economic conditions.

  17. Impacts of the current economic crisis on Southeast Asian labour markets

    OpenAIRE

    John Walsh

    2010-01-01

    Southeast Asian labour markets are characterized by the diversity of the countries of which they are part and by the historical antecedents of colonialism that have largely given them their nature. Most have adopted a form of the export-oriented, import-substituting low labour cost manufacturing paradigm of economic development known as the East Asian Economic Model (EAEM). Having already passed through the Asian Financial Crisis of 1997 and its disruptive effects, workers in the region are f...

  18. Process Design Report for Wood Feedstock: Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Desing and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis Current and Futuristic Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooley, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheehan, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibsen, Kelly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Majdeski, Henry [Delta-T Corporation, Lexington, KY (United States); Galves, Adrian [Delta-T Corporation, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has undertaken a complete review and update of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process based on co-current dilute acid prehydrolysis, along with simultaneous saccharification (enzymatic) and co-fermentation. The process design includes the core technologies being researched by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE): prehydrolysis, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, and cellulase enzyme production.

  19. The historical aspects and current issues of the development of Russian-Lithuanian economic relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretinin Gennady

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on development of Russian-Lithuanian economic ties. The research and practical significance of this study lies in the identification of the sources of modern Russian-Lithuanian economic cooperation and the prospects of future mutually beneficial economic relations. The first attempt at establishing economic relations was made in 1919. However, young Lithuanian Republic gravitated towards the West, severing ties with the Russian market. However, the initiatives of Lithuanian authorities did not result in successful state building, and the economic situation remained unchanged. The USSR leadership made an effort to improve the living conditions in post-war Lithuania. There were some mistakes made in the relations with the local population that resulted in Lithuanians’ resistance to sovietisation. However, in the conditions of post-war restoration of national economy and acute deficit of material and human resources, the Soviet leadership managed not only to reform and develop a socialistic economy in Lithuania but also to turn it into an industrial republic with developed agriculture and modern manufacturing facilities, whose major industries manufactured products used in nuclear and space technologies, aviation and navigation. The research shows that the post-Soviet period led to a dramatic change in Russian-Lithuanian economic relations; however, these relations retained potential for future development.

  20. Economic costs of achieving current conservation goals in the future as climate changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, M Rebecca; Klausmeyer, Kirk; Cameron, D Richard; Mackenzie, Jason; Roehrdanz, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Conservation of biologically diverse regions has thus far been accomplished largely through the establishment and maintenance of protected areas. Climate change is expected to shift climate space of many species outside existing reserve boundaries. We used climate-envelope models to examine shifts in climate space of 11 species that are representative of the Mount Hamilton Project area (MHPA) (California, U.S.A.), which includes areas within Alameda, Santa Clara, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, Merced, and San Benito counties and is in the state's Central Coast ecoregion. We used Marxan site-selection software to determine the minimum area required as climate changes to achieve a baseline conservation goal equal to 80% of existing climate space for all species in the MHPA through 2050 and 2100. Additionally, we assessed the costs associated with use of existing conservation strategies (land acquisition and management actions such as species translocation, monitoring, and captive breeding) necessary to meet current species-conservation goals as climate changes. Meeting conservation goals as climate changes through 2050 required an additional 256,000 ha (332%) of protected area, primarily to the south and west of the MHPA. Through 2050 the total cost of land acquisition and management was estimated at US$1.67-1.79 billion, or 139-149% of the cost of achieving the same conservation goals with no climate change. To maintain 80% of climate space through 2100 required nearly 380,000 additional hectares that would cost $2.46-2.62 billion, or 209-219% of the cost of achieving the same conservation goals with no climate change. Furthermore, maintaining 80% of existing climate space within California for 27% of the focal species was not possible by 2100 because climate space for these species did not exist in the state. The high costs of conserving species as the climate changes-that we found in an assessment of one conservation project-highlights the need for tools that will aid

  1. ROMANIAN MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATIONS CLIENTS’ CONSUMPTION BEHAVIOUR WITHIN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC-FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghisan Georgeta-Madalina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper will analyze the consumption behaviour of the Orange mobile telephony company’s clients towards its services’ characteristics within the current economic financial crisis, taking into consideration the following elements: the low tariffs (for calls/ subscriptions/ other services, the quality of calls/ of sound, the network coverage within the territory, the company’s reputation, the negotiated offer, the quality and availability of the customer care service, the diversity of the auxiliary services, the range and prices of the mobile telephones, the costs that pay those who make calls towards this network, the loyalty programs, the usage of a last generation technology, the friends have subscriptions in the same network and the promotional offers. For a thorough research we will divide the operator’s clients into natural persons clients and legal persons clients, each group having its specificities. The data gathering method was the questionnaire sent by post office to all the Orange Romania branches (a total of 225 branches. We received a number of 64 responses, what means a responses rate of 28.4%, which were analyzed using the SPSS informatics program focusing on the correlation analysis and factor analysis. The main results emphasize the fact that the fight to attract clients becomes more and more powerful. The very competitive market leads to the growth of the importance of the price in choosing a provider. The operators’ short term gains from the clients that prefer low prices represent a long term risk of image. Choosing some services packages is sometimes very difficult due to the complexity of the offer. The clients expect the service to work, be simple and easy to use. They want to benefit from rapid and efficient assistance if errors occur and the operator respects the clauses of the contract. The results obtained through this study, allowed us to make an opinion on the perspective that the

  2. The development of customers’ satisfaction in the banking sector of Slovakia in the turbulent economic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Belás

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Satisfaction of bank’s customers presents important area of building of long-term relationships with the client, which significantly determines the financial performance of commercial banks through successful business. Satisfied customer buy bank’s products, is willing to pay also higher price for the product or service and represents some form of free advertising and considerable less effort, time and money needed for keep him, than to get a new one. This article presents current situation in the banking sector in Slovakia and quantifies changes in the area of customer satisfaction, which occurred during the financial and economic crisis. Customer satisfaction research has been conducted through a questionnaire survey. First research has been carried out on the first half of 2008 on the sample of 298 respondents, ie. the time before the financial crisis. In that time, the greatest satisfaction has been assigned to the availability of bank’s products and services, and the greatest dissatisfaction has been expressed by respondents to the prices of banking products and services. In 2012, this research has been conducted on the sample of 320 respondents. The change of satisfaction factors, respectively dissatisfied bank’s customers compared with 2008 has been investigated by standard statistical methods. Results of our research in 2012 showed satisfaction reduction of bank customers and also changes in respondents’ preferences of the perception of satisfaction factors, respectively dissatisfaction in relation to commercial banks.

  3. Analysis of the impact of economic growth factors to resources and environment in Jiangsu Province – Based on Commoner model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Min

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to response to the increasingly polluted environment, maintain sustainable economic and social development in Jiangsu province, the author calculated the index of the resource environment in Jiangsu, using LMDI(logarithmic-mean Divisia index decomposition method based on the Commoner model(we can see from formula(2,(5,(6&(7, to reflect the three major influencing factors of cumulative effects. In table 2 and figure 3, the research results show the expansion of the size of economy and growth of population make resources consumption increase and environmental pollution aggravate, while technological progress reduce the pressure of resources and environment. According to the findings, the paper proposes the policy recommendations, such as develop circular economy, promote technological innovation and strengthen regional cooperation mechanism and so on to reduce the environmental pollution while economic developing. These will be useful to the policymakers.

  4. Evaluation of resources and environment carrying capacity and socio-economic pressure in typical ecological regions, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiusen, Huang; Xinyi, Xu

    2017-04-01

    Since the reform and opening up, the socio-economic pressures have led to increasingly tight resource constraints and serious environmental pollution problems in China, especially for typical ecological regions. The ecological system is under a severe situation and resource and environmental issues have become the bottleneck of economic development. Taking the Chen Barag Banner which has been considered as typical ecological regions as an example, the evaluation indexes system of resources and environment carrying capacity was divided into three subsystems: natural driving force, socio-economic pressure and ecological health. On the basis of the indexes system and related data of Chen Barag Banner in 2014, the evaluation model of resources and environment carrying capacity based on spring model were proposed to analysis the state of resources and environment carrying, and an assessment of influence of socio-economic pressure on the resources and environment system has been conducted by using the discretization method of socio-economic data. The results showed that:(1) The resources and environment system of Baorixile Town, Huhenuoer Town and Bayankuren Town were overloaded among the ten towns, the values of Resources and Environment Carrying Capacity(RECC) / Resources and Environment Carrying State(RECS) were 9.86, 1.37 and 1.22, respectively;(2) The natural driving force index of Xiwuzhuer Town, Hadatu state-owned farm and Bayanhada Town were 0.40, 0.42 and 0.43, respectively, which were lower than others and indicated that the natural conditions in these areas were better than others;(3) The situation of ecological environment Ewenke Town, Hadatu state-owned farm and Tenihe state-owned farm were the best due to the result that the ecological health index of these three towns were 0.21, 0.22 and 0.26, respectively, which were lower than others;(4) The influence of socio-economic pressure on the system of resources and environment in Baorixile Town, Hadatu state

  5. Conductor of high electrical current at high temperature in oxygen and liquid metal environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, IV, Adam Clayton; Pati, Soobhankar; Derezinski, Stephen Joseph; Lau, Garrett; Pal, Uday B.; Guan, Xiaofei; Gopalan, Srikanth

    2016-01-12

    In one aspect, the present invention is directed to apparatuses for and methods of conducting electrical current in an oxygen and liquid metal environment. In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for production of metals from their oxides comprising providing a cathode in electrical contact with a molten electrolyte, providing a liquid metal anode separated from the cathode and the molten electrolyte by a solid oxygen ion conducting membrane, providing a current collector at the anode, and establishing a potential between the cathode and the anode.

  6. The average direct current offset values for small digital audio recorders in an acoustically consistent environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Bruce E; Lacey, Douglas S

    2014-07-01

    In this research project, nine small digital audio recorders were tested using five sets of 30-min recordings at all available recording modes, with consistent audio material, identical source and microphone locations, and identical acoustic environments. The averaged direct current (DC) offset values and standard deviations were measured for 30-sec and 1-, 2-, 3-, 6-, 10-, 15-, and 30-min segments. The research found an inverse association between segment lengths and the standard deviation values and that lengths beyond 30 min may not meaningfully reduce the standard deviation values. This research supports previous studies indicating that measured averaged DC offsets should only be used for exclusionary purposes in authenticity analyses and exhibit consistent values when the general acoustic environment and microphone/recorder configurations were held constant. Measured average DC offset values from exemplar recorders may not be directly comparable to those of submitted digital audio recordings without exactly duplicating the acoustic environment and microphone/recorder configurations.

  7. Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends

    OpenAIRE

    Richard C. Thompson; Moore, Charles J.; Frederick S Vom Saal; Swan, Shanna H.

    2009-01-01

    Plastics have transformed everyday life; usage is increasing and annual production is likely to exceed 300 million tonnes by 2010. In this concluding paper to the Theme Issue on Plastics, the Environment and Human Health, we synthesize current understanding of the benefits and concerns surrounding the use of plastics and look to future priorities, challenges and opportunities. It is evident that plastics bring many societal benefits and offer future technological and medical advances. However...

  8. Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Richard C.; Moore, Charles J.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Swan, Shanna H.

    2009-01-01

    Plastics have transformed everyday life; usage is increasing and annual production is likely to exceed 300 million tonnes by 2010. In this concluding paper to the Theme Issue on Plastics, the Environment and Human Health, we synthesize current understanding of the benefits and concerns surrounding the use of plastics and look to future priorities, challenges and opportunities. It is evident that plastics bring many societal benefits and offer future technological and medical advances. However...

  9. Effect of ecological environments on subspecies characteristics and economic traits in filial generations of cross between indica and japonica rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai XU; Wenfu CHEN; Hongguang LIU; Chunjie ZHU; Li YANG; Yanhua GUO; Jiayu WANG; Qianhua YANG; Zhengjin XU; Jiakui ZHENG

    2008-01-01

    Two recombinant inbred lines (RILs) populations, RILSA derived from the cross between "Zhongyouzao8" (indica) and "Toyonihiki" (japonica) rice cultivars, and RILSB derived from the cross between "Qishanzhan" (indica) and "Akihikari" (japonica) rice cultivars, were grown in Liaoning and Sichuan Provinces, China to understand the effects of ecological environments on the subspecies characteristics and economic traits in filial generations of cross between indica and japonica. The results showed that both the subspecies characteristics and economic traits changed significantly. The effects of ecological environments on Cheng's index and six subspecies characteristics were different on the basis of populations or characteristics. The distribution of Cheng's index in RILSA was japonicalinous in Liaoning and Sichuan. The distribution of Cheng's index in RILSB approached to normal distribution in Liaoning, but it wasjaponicalinous in Sichuan. As a whole, the two populations were more japonicalious in Sichuan than in Liaoning. The panicle number, seed setting rate and per-thousand-grain weight were decreased significantly in Sichuan. The grain number per panicle showed no significant change. A significant positive correlation was found between Cheng's index and the economic traits, including six subspe-cies traits. It suggested that the reason that the filial genera-tion of cross between indica and japonica in northern China showed japonieanous subspecies characteristics might be the artificial selection by breeders on the economic traits. In addition, indica-japonica differentiation and the relationship with ecological environments were discussed.

  10. THE CURRENT FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC CRISIS AS A NEW STAGE OF TRANSFORMATION OF THE GLOBAL ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that modern economic science failed to foresee the financial and economic crisis of 2008-2009. However it is appear that there is still a lack of understanding fundamental causes of this crush and its aftermath. The available standard forecasting models and theories for the growth of the global economy are barely able to make correct forecasts in a crisis period and treat this crisis as a cyclical one. Moreover the nature of this crisis and its long-run effect on the...

  11. CURRENT ECONOMIC AND MEDICAL REFORMS IN THE ROMANIAN HEALTH CARE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoi Mihaela Cristina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of health has always been, both in social reality and in academia and research, a sensitive topic considering the relationship each individual has with his own health and the health care system as a public policy. At public opinion levels and not only, health care is the most important sector demanding the outmost attention, considering that individual health is the fundamental prerequisite for well-being, happiness and a satisfying life. The ever present research and practical question is on the optimal financing of the health care system. Any answer to this question is also a political decision, reflecting the social-economic value of health for a particular country. The size of the resource pool and the criteria and methods for resource allocation are the central economic problems for any health system. This paper takes into consideration the limited resources of the national health care system (the rationalization of health services, the common methods of health financing, the specificity of health services market (the health market being highly asymmetric, with health professionals knowing most if not all of the relevant information, such as diagnosis, treatment options and costs and consumers fully dependent on the information provided in each case and the performance of all hospitals in Romania, in order to assess the latest strategic decisions (introduction of co-payment and merging and reconversion of hospitals taken within the Romanian health care system and their social and economic implications. The main finding show that, even though the intention of reforming and transforming the Romanian health care system into a more efficient one is obvious, the lack of economic and demographic analysis may results into greater discrepancies nationwide. This paper is aimed to renew the necessity of joint collaboration between the economic and medical field, since the relationship between health and economic development runs both ways

  12. The Current Attack on Women's Rights: A Political-Economic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, June

    The right-wing attack on women's rights in the United States manifests itself in the regulation of reproductive rights, the family, and the workplace and corresponds to the changing needs of capital in an era of social and economic crises. Against this background, anti-abortion legislation, the Family Protection Act, and discrimination in the…

  13. WETLANDS AND WATER QUALITY TRADING: REVIEW OF CURRENT SCIENCE AND ECONOMIC PRACTICES WITH SELECTED CASE STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study evaluates the technical, economic, and administrative aspects of establishing water quality trading (WQT) programs where the nutrient removal capacity of wetlands is used to improve water quality. WQT is a potentially viable approach for wastewater dischargers to cost-e...

  14. Student Loan Debt and Economic Outcomes. Current Policy Perspective No. 14-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Daniel; Wang, J. Christina

    2014-01-01

    This policy brief advances the growing literature on how student loan debt affects individuals' other economic decisions. Specifically, it examines the impact of student loan liabilities on individuals' homeownership status and wealth accumulation. The analysis employs a rich set of financial and demographic control variables that are not…

  15. THE CURRENT FINANCIAL – ECONOMIC CRISIS – DEEP BREAK THAT CHALLENGES AND IMPOSES A NEW PARADIGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negucioiu Aurel

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The most important sign of the times we are living is certainly the global economic crisis. Far from being an illusion, even though we cannot deny the true that she generates not a few illusions; it is a reality that cannot be denied. It – the crisis – ex

  16. THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COORDINATES OF DEVELOPING A SPORT ENTREPRENEURSHIP INDEX – CURRENT CHALLENGES AND PREREQUISITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNTEANU SEBASTIAN MADALIN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Focussing on the consideration of the multivariate relationship between sport and economics, the present study is based on the sport potential of supporting economic growth through the enhancement of the relatively new domain of “sport entrepreneurship”. The brief revision of the specialized literature regarding the development of sport entrepreneurship in general terms is followed by a series of fundamental factors for the innovative proposal of a sport entrepreneurship index (SEI in the European Union member countries. The methodological issues concerning the structure of the index represent the main novelty aspect of this research, which aims to be a prerequisite of a future thorough analysis regarding the micro- and macro-economic implications of developing a sport entrepreneurship index (SEI in EU countries. The main identified challenge is a scientific one and it resides in the summative assessment of the elements representing entrepreneurship, sport and culture in the SEI, whereas the necessity of determining such an index appears because of economic and social reasons.

  17. WETLANDS AND WATER QUALITY TRADING: REVIEW OF CURRENT SCIENCE AND ECONOMIC PRACTICES WITH SELECTED CASE STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study evaluates the technical, economic, and administrative aspects of establishing water quality trading (WQT) programs where the nutrient removal capacity of wetlands is used to improve water quality. WQT is a potentially viable approach for wastewater dischargers to cost-e...

  18. Economic evaluations of pharmacogenetic approaches in infectious diseases: a review of current approaches and evaluation of critical aspects affecting their quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Meoni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacogenetics holds great potential for improving the effectiveness of treatment modalities in infectious diseases by taking into account the genetic determinants of both the host and infectious agents’ individuality. Better utilization of resources and improved therapeutic efficiency are the expected outcomes of personalized medicine using pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomics information made available by technological advances. However, there has been growing concern in the clinical community regarding the evaluation of the true benefits of these approaches. This perception is partly due to the limited number and perceived poor quality of economic evaluations in this field, and initiatives aimed at harmonizing and communicating strategies improving the quality of these studies and their acceptance by the clinical community are greatly needed. This paper reviews current literature of economic evaluations of pharmacogenetics interventions guiding pharmacotherapy in infectious diseases. PubMed and the NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases were searched using a combination of five broad research terms related to pharmacogenetic approaches, and papers relative to economic evaluations of pharmacogenetic interventions in infectious diseases retained for further analysis. Using these criteria, a total of 14 papers were included in this review. The area of economic evaluation of pharmacogenetic interventions in infectious diseases remains understudied and would benefit from greater harmonization. The main weaknesses of evaluations reviewed in this paper seem to be represented by poor evidence of pharmacogenetic marker validation, inconsistencies in the selection of costs and utility included in the economic models and the choice of sensitivity analysis. All these factors limit the overall transparency of the studies, greater acceptance of their results and applicability to diverse and possibly resourcelimited environments where these

  19. North Atlantic Current and European environments during the declining stage of the last interglacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Ulrich C.; Kukla, George J.

    2004-12-01

    This paper provides a tentative reconstruction of environmental shifts in Europe associated with changes of the North Atlantic Current and related meridional sea-surface temperature (SST) gradients. During most of the Eemian interglacial (ca. 126 115 ka), the North Atlantic Current extended far north into the Nordic Seas and European environments were comparable to those of the Holocene. However, ca. 115 ka an SST drop in the Nordic Seas marked a southward displacement of the North Atlantic Current. This hydrographic shift was associated with substantial cooling in northern Europe and drier conditions in the Mediterranean region. The polar timberline retreated southward from 69°N in northernmost Scandinavia to 52°N in central Europe, and thermophilous deciduous trees became extinct north of the 48th parallel. Woodlands persisted in southern Europe for another 5 k.y. well into marine isotope substage 5d. These conditions indicate steep vegetation and climate gradients at the inception of the last glacial.

  20. A method for economic optimization of energy performance and indoor environment in the design of sustainable buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sanne; Vanhoutteghem, Lies

    2012-01-01

    Future tightening of the energy requirements increases focus on design of new and better performing buildings with good indoor environment and only limited extra cost compared to new buildings today. This paper presents a method for economic optimization of the design of new low energy dwellings...... in the dynamic simulation tool WinDesign. If any changes have to be made to ensure a good indoor thermal environment, iteration between the two programs must be performed. An example is used to illustrate this process. It indicates that the method can be used from the early design phases to ensure...... that takes into account the indoor thermal environment. By use of the criterion of cost of conserved energy implemented in a Microsoft Excel sheet, a cost optimal design according to a targeted energy frame can be found. The resulting indoor thermal environment is then evaluated based on parametric analysis...

  1. Policy, economic, and industry repercussions of current e-business diffusion rate In European food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Vlachos, Ilias

    2005-01-01

    European policy is focussed on promoting the business techniques and new ways of working which will provide the economic and social foundation of the information society in Europe. To help policy makers define their programmes, and to monitor the effectiveness of these policies, it is essential to examine progress as well as identify areas requiring active support. This study examined the repercussions of e-business progress in the food sector based on the findings of a large quantitative sur...

  2. Some current dimensions of the behavioral economics of health-related behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Warren K; Moody, Lara; Higgins, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    Health-related behaviors such as tobacco, alcohol and other substance use, poor diet and physical inactivity, and risky sexual practices are important targets for research and intervention. Health-related behaviors are especially pertinent targets in the United States, which lags behind most other developed nations on common markers of population health. In this essay we examine the application of behavioral economics, a scientific discipline that represents the intersection of economics and psychology, to the study and promotion of health-related behavior change. More specifically, we review what we consider to be some core dimensions of this discipline when applied to the study health-related behavior change. Behavioral economics (1) provides novel conceptual systems to inform scientific understanding of health behaviors, (2) translates scientific understanding into practical and effective behavior-change interventions, (3) leverages varied aspects of behavior change beyond increases or decreases in frequency, (4) recognizes and exploits trans-disease processes and interventions, and (5) leverages technology in efforts to maximize efficacy, cost effectiveness, and reach. These dimensions are overviewed and their implications for the future of the field discussed.

  3. Tourism Environment Cost Economics Interpretation%旅游环境成本的经济学诠释

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄强叶

    2011-01-01

    Based on the perspective of environment cost of tourism development of unsustainable phenomenon from externality is analyzed, and the basic attribute of tourism environment cost, combining with the special properties of the tourism industry, Combining tourism environment cost the historical evolution and economics cost attributes, analyzes tourism environment cost economic meaning. Put forward the tourism carrying capacity utilization point of view, Think tourism environment cost biochemistry inside is the key to solve an externality.%基于环境成本视角对旅游发展中的不可持续现象进行分析,从外部性这一旅游环境成本的基本属性出发,结合旅游环境成本的历史演变和经济学的成本属性,剖析旅游环境成本的经济涵义,提出旅游容量资源化的观点,认为旅游环境成本内生化是解决外部性问题的关键.

  4. The influence of changes in the market environment on economic production characteristics of Pangasius farming in the Mekong Delta (Vietnam)

    OpenAIRE

    Tu, V.B.; D'Haese, M.; Speelman, S.; D'Haese, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Mekong Delta in Vietnam has become an important production area for pangasius. The importance of the sector in providing an income to many households means that it is relevant to study its economic production characteristics. In this article we use a stochastic cost frontier model to assess the adaptability of the sector. We are particularly interested in the effect of the changing market environment and the exponential growth of the sector on the evolution of production characteristics. ...

  5. AN IMPACT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROCESSES OF THE REGION ON THE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa B. Kalmykova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach to assessment of a stability of socio-economic development of the region with use of elasticity coefficients is given in the article. On the basis of correlation and regression analysis the author constructs the dependence equations between the indicators of the region’s development and environment’s conditions. That makes it possible to evaluate the influence of social and economic processes on the ecosystem of the region.

  6. Society's nature: Ecological economics and the combined challenge of environment and distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2010-01-01

    The paper introduces the emerging field of ecological economics and evaluates its potential for addressing some of the concerns within development studies. It takes as its point of departure the study of the relationship between nature and society that emerged in the wake of the environmental......, in particular the combination of the environmental and distributional issues and the challenges therein. Finally, the paper reflects on the persuasive potential of ecological economics in relation to politics....

  7. Acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements in coastal and estuarine environments: examples from the Tay Estuary, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wewetzer, Silke F. K.; Duck, Robert W.; Anderson, James M.

    1999-08-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) provide a means to measure the components of water current velocities in three dimensions. Such instruments have been used widely by the oil industry in deep offshore waters but their application to nearshore coastal and estuarine environments has been principally confined to the USA. Using examples of ADCP datasets acquired from the macrotidal Tay Estuary, eastern Scotland, the principles of field deployment, data acquisition and forms of output are critically summarised. It is shown, for the first time in the Tay Estuary, that vertical current velocities are significant and are particularly so in downwelling zones associated with the development and passage of axially convergent tidal fronts. The improved understanding of three-dimensional water and suspended sediment dynamics in coastal and estuarine waters is crucial to, inter alia, the sustainable management of effluent discharges and, in more general terms, it is predicted on the basis of the Tay case study, that ADCP measurements afford significant opportunities to refine understanding of geomorphological processes in a variety of aquatic environments worldwide.

  8. The burden of migraine in the United States: current and emerging perspectives on disease management and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazard, Elisabeth; Munakata, Julie; Bigal, Marcelo E; Rupnow, Marcia F T; Lipton, Richard B

    2009-01-01

    Migraine is often perceived as a low-impact condition that imposes a limited burden to society and the health-care system. This study reviews the current understanding of the burden of migraine in the U.S., the history of economic understanding of migraine treatment and identifies emergent trends for future studies evaluating clinical and economic outcomes of migraine treatment. This study traced the history of economic articles published on migraine by performing a literature search using PubMed MEDLINE database and ancestral searches of relevant articles. The intention was not to provide an exhaustive review of every article or adjudicate between studies with different findings. Migraine affects millions of individuals worldwide, generally during the most productive years of a person's life. Studies show that migraineurs are underdiagnosed, undertreated, and experience substantial decreases in functioning and productivity, which in turn translates into diminished quality of life for individuals, and financial burdens to both health-care systems and employers. Economic evaluations of migraine therapies have evolved with new clinical developments beginning with cognitive-behavioral therapy, introduction of triptans, concern over medication overuse, and emergence of migraine prophylaxis. Now recent clinical studies suggest that migraine may be a progressive disease with cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and long-term neurologic effects. Migraine imposes a substantial burden on patients, families, employers and societies. The economic standards by which migraine and treatment are evaluated have evolved in response to clinical developments. Emerging evidence suggests that migraine is a chronic and progressive disease. If confirmed, approaches to acute and prophylactic treatments and economic evaluations of migraine treatment may require major reconsideration.

  9. The impact of green logistic based on financial economic, social and environment activities on sustainable monetary expansion indicators of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris Alshubiri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine green logistic activities by three axes (financial economic, social and environment activities and how these activities affect on sustainable monetary expansion indicators as an evidence of Sultanate of Oman. Design/methodology/approach: This study began by definition elements of logistic green and how evolution of this concept in recent years. This concept analyzed after survey of previous studies on green logistic. The independent variables of green logistic  are includes of three components of financial economic , social and environment and applies these components to clarify the impact on expansionary monetary policy indicators ( broad , narrow and reserve money as a important signals  in determining a country's economy. This study used data published in statistical annual report of central bank of Oman as representative of country economic of sultanate of Oman from the period 2008 to 2015.  Findings: The results found two variables of government support to electricity sector (GSE and subsidy on soft loans to private sector and housing (SSLPH based on environment activities are statistical significant 1% and 5%. Only one variable of transport and communication (TC in financial economic activates is statistical significant at 1% and 5% , but all variables community, social and personal (CSP , cultural and religious affairs (CRA and social security and welfare (SSW in social activities are statistical significant at 1% 5% and 10% , finally , also the multiple regression test run of all variables of green logistics activities and each monetary expansion indicators and found there are a statistical significant at 1% and 5%, .The study recommends that should be attention with financial economic activities as a quantitative standard contributes to build the green logistic by diagnosed the priorities and existing economic and financial system that contributes of  sustainable development system in

  10. 金融生态环境的新制度经济学分析%Analysis on Financial Ecological Environment from the Perspective of Modern Institutional Economics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁礼广; 洪利

    2012-01-01

      金融生态环境具有复杂系统性和动态演化性,健康的金融生态环境对经济社会的发展具有强大的驱动作用。透视政府治理、经济基础、金融发展和制度文化四大子环境系统,多种指标分析折射出当前金融生态系统的脆弱性。对此,要优化金融生态环境,基于新制度经济学视角的精细化制度安排和渐进式制度供给显得尤为重要,要着力清除政府治理、经济基础、金融发展和制度文化中干扰金融生态系统平衡的成分。%  Financial ecological environment is a complex and dynamical system. A healthy financial ecological environment has powerful effects on the development of economy. By analy sing related data in the subsystems of government management, eco-nomic foundation, financial development and institutional culture, the study finds that the current financial ecological environ-ment is not healthy. In order to optimize the financial ecological environment, it is important to establish fine institutions, to remove the obstacles in government management, economic foundation, financial development and institutional culture.

  11. Review of current activities to model and measure the orbital debris environment in low-earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R. C.

    A very active orbital debris program is currently being pursued at the NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC), with projects designed to better define the current environment, to project future environments, to model the processes contributing to or constraining the growth of debris in the environment, and to gather supporting data needed to improve the understanding of the orbital debris problem and the hazard it presents to spacecraft. This paper is a review of the activity being conducted at JSC, by NASA, Lockheed Engineering and Sciences Company, and other support contractors, and presents a review of current activity, results of current research, and a discussion of directions for future development.

  12. Acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation of corn stover: current production methods, economic viability and commercial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Nawa R; Slutzky, Lauren; Shah, Ajay; Ezeji, Thaddeus C; Cornish, Katrina; Christy, Ann

    2016-03-01

    Biobutanol is a next-generation liquid biofuel with properties akin to those of gasoline. There is a widespread effort to commercialize biobutanol production from agricultural residues, such as corn stover, which do not compete with human and animal foods. This pursuit is backed by extensive government mandates to expand alternative energy sources. This review provides an overview of research on biobutanol production using corn stover feedstock. Structural composition, pretreatment, sugar yield (following pretreatment and hydrolysis) and generation of lignocellulose-derived microbial inhibitory compounds (LDMICs) from corn stover are discussed. The review also discusses different Clostridium species and strains employed for biobutanol production from corn stover-derived sugars with respect to solvent yields, tolerance to LDMICs and in situ solvent recovery (integrated fermentation). Further, the economics of cellulosic biobutanol production are highlighted and compared to corn starch-derived ethanol and gasoline. As discussed herein, the economic competitiveness of biobutanol production from corn stover largely depends on feedstock processing and fermentation process design.

  13. Analysis of China's Renewable Energy Development under the Current Economic and Technical Circumstances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Shi

    2009-01-01

    At present, the development of renewable energy relies mainly on government support. The government invests in a considerable number of projects to improve public welfare and to assist in poverty relief. If China is to replace fossil fuels on a large scale with renewable energy sources, the production costs und prices of renewable energy must he brought down. All countries are facing the challenge of moving to a more secure and low-carbon energy system without weakening economic and social development. In this regard, China is facing an even greater challenge in terms of economic cost, as cheap coal remains the main energy form. Technical innovation and industrialization in the area of renewable energy is an important means of lowering cost. China is in for a period of high-speed development of its economy and the rising demand for energy is irreversible. If the technical progress and development speed of renewable energy lags behind the growth in demand, it will be difficult to realize the improvement of its energy structure.

  14. Regional economic effects of current and proposed management alternatives for Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report first provides a description of the local community and economy near Sand Lake NWR. An analysis of current and proposed management strategies that could...

  15. Socio-economic development of the Sumy region: cultural environment, its development, innovations and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.F. Kozolup

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of cultural environment of Sumy region, its measure, innovation and prospect is examined in the article. Basic tasks, aims, problems, priority directions, are analyzed.

  16. HIGH-RESOLUTION MONITORING OF CURRENT RAPID TRANSFORMATIONS ON GLACIAL AND PERIGLACIAL ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Carturan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glacial and periglacial environments are highly sensitive to climatic changes. Processes of cryosphere degradation may strongly impact human activities and infrastructures, and need to be monitored for improved understanding and for mitigation/adaptation. Studying glacial and periglacial environments using traditional techniques may be difficult or not feasible, but new remote sensing techniques like terrestrial and aerial laser scanner opened new possibilities for cryospheric studies. This work presents an application of the terrestrial laser scanner (TLS for monitoring the current rapid changes occurring on the Montasio Occidentale glacier (Eastern Italian alps, which is representative of low-altitude, avalanche-fed and debris-cover glaciers. These glaciers are quite common in the Alps but their reaction to climate changes is still poorly known. The mass balance, surface velocity fields, debris cover dynamics and effects of meteorological extremes were investigated by repeat high-resolution TLS scanning from September 2010 to October 2012. The results were encouraging and shed light on the peculiar response of this glacier to climatic changes, on its current dynamics and on the feedback played by the debris cover, which is critical for its preservation. The rapid transformations in act, combined with the unstable ice mass, large amount of loose debris and channeled runoff during intense rainfalls, constitute a potential area for the formation of large debris flows, as shown by field evidences and documented by the recent literature.

  17. The significance of personal learning environments (PLEs) in nursing education: Extending current conceptualizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Christopher; Stephens, Moira; Chiang, Vico; Price, Ann M; Work, Fiona; Snelgrove-Clarke, Erna

    2017-01-01

    Personal learning environments (PLEs) have been shown to be a critical part of how students negotiate and manage their own learning. Understandings of PLEs appear to be constrained by narrow definitions that focus primarily on technological engagement with a range of web tools and associated applications. This paper addresses a gap in the literature around PLEs for students currently enrolled in undergraduate nursing degrees. To provide in-depth insights into how undergraduate students of nursing manage and experience their learning. This was an international multi-site qualitative study, utilizing focus groups. A schedule of 10 questions and nominal group techniques were used. Whilst the focus groups took place in very different geographical locations, there were strong similarities in student understandings of effective PLEs. These went well beyond current technological definitions. Findings were organized into three major themes; technologies, learning modalities and influencing factors. We propose a broader understanding of PLEs that acknowledges individual personal and cultural contexts which we call the personally significant learning environment (PSLE). There is a need for greater investigation of how students understand and systematize their PSLE. This paper and our findings will be of interest to educators, researchers and institutions for developing appropriate frameworks that may maximize learning outcomes, encourage cultural sensitivities and facilitate greater understandings of how to support students to create appropriate PSLEs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Recombinant plant-derived pharmaceutical proteins: current technical and economic bottlenecks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabalza, Maite; Christou, Paul; Capell, Teresa

    2014-12-01

    Molecular pharming is a cost-effective platform for the production of recombinant proteins in plants. Although the biopharmaceutical industry still relies on a small number of standardized fermentation-based technologies for the production of recombinant proteins there is now a greater awareness of the advantages of molecular pharming particularly in niche markets. Here we discuss some of the technical, economic and regulatory barriers that constrain the clinical development and commercialization of plant-derived pharmaceutical proteins. We also discuss strategies to increase productivity and product quality/homogeneity. The advantages of whole plants should be welcomed by the industry because this will help to reduce the cost of goods and therefore expand the biopharmaceutical market into untapped sectors.

  19. GENDER DISPARITIES REGARDING WAGE AS A MOTIVATIONAL TOOL IN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEMYEN SUZANA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The deepening process of globalization, negative trends regarding demographic evolution both nationally and internationally, also the emigration phenomenon and the long-term effects of the economic crisis, are the main challenges in terms of creating a general support and to encourage a fair and effective management of human resources, regardless of the industry they are developing their activity. Motivation consists in a series of problems that need to be solved in order to generate both individual and team performance, and wage is seen as one of the most important motivational tools. Though we have witnessed a less serious gap between wages according to the gender criterion, still there can be identified certain issues that need to be solved regardless the most recent trends in management

  20. [Economic profitability: current aspects of X-ray contrast diagnosis in urology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukolov, V A; Perepanova, T S; Grigor'ev, A A

    2005-01-01

    A diversity of X-ray contrast diagnostic techniques used in urology provides a way of using different groups of X-ray contrast materials (XCMs) in accordance of the set tasks. Many years' experience in handling water-soluble triiodinated XCMs while examining the kidneys and urinary tract provides evidence for their diagnostic effectiveness and safety. The new Triombrast (OAO "Farmac", Kiev) synthesized on the basis of the Spanish substance (Justesa Imagen SA) has successfully undergone clinical trials and meets the high requirements made by the specialized urological facilities is economically profitable. The paper has been prepared, by using the reports on the results of preclinical studies of the agent and the experience of its use in the clinic of the Research Institute of Urology and City Clinical Hospital No. 47, Moscow.

  1. Annual Financial Statements as Way of Communicate the Accounting Information in the Economic Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidia DOINEA

    2008-01-01

    The accounting synthesis documents represents an informing social system created for the satisfaction of the informing user’s needs, needs determined by political and social purposes. The financial informing policies described by the annual synthesis accounting documents architecture are different in accordance with their needs. The official documents for presenting the financial – economical situation are the annual financial statements.

  2. The Interaction between Higher Education and Labour Market in Changing Economic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravite, Aija

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores challenges higher education institutions face while ensuring one of the quality assurance criteria--meeting the demands of labour market. The relationship between labour market and higher education institutions becomes even more complicated during the periods of rapid changes in labour market caused by economic collisions. In…

  3. What Does "Natural Capital" Do? The Role of Metaphor in Economic Understanding of the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerman, Maria

    2005-01-01

    At the time of its introduction at the end of the 1980s, the concept of natural capital represented new, more ecologically aware thinking in economics. As a symbol of novel thinking, the metaphor of natural capital stimulated a debate between different disciplinary traditions on the definitions of the concept and research priorities and methods.…

  4. Economic Growth and the Environment - or the Extinction of the GDP-dinosaur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    1997-01-01

    Abstract Market economies are fundamentally characterized by economic growth. Growth rates may be higher or lower, but the GDP seldom stagnates or diminishes - and when it does, this is considered a symptom of crisis. During the past few decades environmental problems have caused increasing conce...

  5. Ranking current and prospective NO2 pollution mitigation strategies: An environmental and economic modelling investigation in Oxford Street, London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanjean, A P R; Gallagher, J; Monks, P S; Leigh, R J

    2017-03-21

    Air pollution continues to be a problem in the urban environment. A range of different pollutant mitigation strategies that promote dispersion and deposition exist, but there is little evidence with respect to their comparative performance from both an environmental and economic perspective. This paper focuses on examining different NO2 mitigation strategies such as trees, buildings facades coated with photocatalytic paint and solid barriers in Oxford Street in London. The case study findings will support ranking the environmental and economic impacts of these different strategies to improve personal exposure conditions on the footpath and on the road in a real urban street canyon. CFD simulations of airflow and NO2 dispersion in Oxford Street in London were undertaken using the OpenFOAM software platform with the k-ε model, taking into account local prevailing wind conditions. Trees are shown to be the most cost-effective strategy, with a small reduction in NO2 concentrations of up to 0.7% on the road. However, solid barriers with and without the application of photocatalytic paint and an innovative material (20 times more expensive than trees) can improve air quality on the footpaths more substantially, up to 7.4%, yet this has a significant detrimental impact on NO2 concentrations (≤23.8%) on the road. Photocatalytic paint on building surfaces presented a minimal environmental reductions (1.2%) and economic (>100 times more expensive than trees) mitigation strategy. The findings recognised the differences between footpath and road concentrations occurred and that a focused examination of three pollution hotspots can provide more cost effective pollution mitigation. This study considers how a number of pollutant mitigation measures can be applied in a single street canyon and demonstrates the strengths and weaknesses of these strategies from economic and environmental perspectives. Further research is required to extrapolate the findings presented here to

  6. Can individual conditions during childhood mediate or moderate the long-term cognitive effects of poor economic environments at birth?

    OpenAIRE

    Fritze, Thomas; Doblhammer, Gabriele; Gerard J. van den Berg

    2014-01-01

    Recent analyses revealed that the business cycle at the time of birth influences cognitive functioning at older ages, and that those individuals born during economic boom periods on average display better cognitive functioning later in life. The current study examines the impact of childhood conditions on late-life cognitive functioning and investigates whether they mediate or moderate the effects of the business cycle at the time of birth. The underlying purpose is to find potential starting...

  7. Global energy and environmental security in the current global economic crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Kosov Yuri; Mallon Vim

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the problems of energy sector environmental impact. Further reduction of the global energy sector impact on the global environment can be achieved by two methods. The first, short-term one implies the increase in energy efficiency. In the next 15—20 years, the increase in the efficiency should become a priority of the energy policy of all states. The second, long-term method is based on the gradual expansion of the scope of re-newable energy application. This method is ...

  8. Modeling the fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in the agricultural environment: current perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongeng, Duncan; Haberbeck, Leticia U; Mauriello, Gianluigi; Ryckeboer, Jaak; Springael, Dirk; Geeraerd, Annemie H

    2014-04-01

    The significance of fresh vegetable consumption on human nutrition and health is well recognized. Human infections with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica linked to fresh vegetable consumption have become a serious public health problem inflicting a heavy economic burden. The use of contaminated livestock wastes such as manure and manure slurry in crop production is believed to be one of the principal routes of fresh vegetable contamination with E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica at preharvest stage because both ruminant and nonruminant livestock are known carriers of E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica in the environment. A number of challenge-testing studies have examined the fate of E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica in the agricultural environment with the view of designing strategies for controlling vegetable contamination preharvest. In this review, we examined the mathematical modeling approaches that have been used to study the behavior of E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica in the manure, manure-amended soil, and in manure-amended soil-plant ecosystem during cultivation of fresh vegetable crops. We focused on how the models have been applied to fit survivor curves, predict survival, and assess the risk of vegetable contamination preharvest. The inadequacies of the current modeling approaches are discussed and suggestions for improvements to enhance the applicability of the models as decision tools to control E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica contamination of fresh vegetables during primary production are presented.

  9. What's Wrong with Plastic Trees?: Rationales for preserving rare natural environments involve economic, societal, and political factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, M H

    1973-02-02

    With some ingenuity, a transformation of our attitudes toward preservation of the environment will take place fairly soon. We will recognize the symbolic and social meanings of environments, not just their economic utility; we will emphasize their historical significance as well as the future generations that will use them. At the same time, we must realize that there are things we may not want to trade at all, except in the sense of letting someone else have his share of the environment also. As environments become more differentiated, smaller areas will probably be given greater significance, and it may be possible for more groups to have a share. It is likely that we shall want to apply our technology to the creation of artificial environments. It may be possible to create environments that are evocative of other environments in other times and places. It is possible that, by manipulating memory through the rewriting of history, environments will come to have new meaning. Finally, we may want to create proxy environments by means of substitution and simulation. In order to create substitutes, we must endow new objects with significance by means of advertising and by social practice. Sophistication about differentiation will become very important for appreciating the substitute environments. We may simulate the environment by means of photographs, recordings, models, and perhaps even manipulations in the brain (48). What we experience in natural environments may actually be more controllable than we imagine (49). Artificial prairies and wildernesses have been created, and there is no reason to believe that these artificial environments need be unsatisfactory for those who experience them. Rare environments are relative, can be created, are dependent on our knowledge, and are a function of policy, not only tradition. It seems likely that economic arguments will not be sufficient to preserve environments or to suggest how we can create new ones. Rather, conscious

  10. Ukrainian Economic Reforms: Current Status and Perspectives in the Face of Competition on European Union Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Marianna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The conflict in Ukraine since the beginning of 2014 has been the important in the history of Ukraine as an independent state. Despite the danger of economic collapse, the loss of Crimea, and war in its most industrialized region, Ukraine is still trying to conduct reforms and implement Western standards. Through persistent work Ukraine has been moving forward, despite all the difficulties. The society is staying together with the government to save the economy and defend the integrity of the whole country. This article outlines key processes in the Ukrainian reforms during 2014 and describes the cooperation of Ukraine with the European Union and international organizations in the field of financial support and reforms. The main goal of the article is to present the situation in various spheres of the country’s development, but it is also an attempt to present a wider perspective on both the achievements and shortcomings in the process of reforms. The authors focus on those aspects having a significant impact on the Ukrainian economy after February 2014.

  11. Emerging phytopathogen Macrophomina phaseolina: biology, economic importance and current diagnostic trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Surinder; Dhillon, Gurpreet Singh; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Vallad, Gary Edward; Chand, Ramesh; Chauhan, Vijay Bahadur

    2012-05-01

    Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. is an important phytopathogenic fungus, infecting a large number of plant species and surviving for up to 15 years in the soil as a saprophyte. Although considerable research related to the biology and ecology of Macrophomina has been conducted, it continues to cause huge economic losses in many crops. Research is needed to improve the identification and characterization of genetic variability within their epidemiological and pathological niches. Better understanding of the variability within the pathogen population for traits that influence fitness and soil survival will certainly lead to improved management strategies for Macrophomina. In this context, the present review discusses various biological aspects and distribution of M. phaseolina throughout the world and their importance to different plant species. Accurate identification of the fungus has been aided with the use of nucleic acid-based molecular techniques. The development of PCR-based methods for identification and detection of M. phaseolina are highly sensitive and specific. Early diagnosis and accurate detection of pathogens is an essential step in plant disease management as well as quarantine. The progress in the development of various molecular tools used for the detection, identification and characterization of Macrophomina isolates were also discussed.

  12. EU budget reform in the context of the current economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela POPA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The European Union regarded as an economic reenhancement force in Europe and in the world must fund the needs of 500 million citizens. To do that, it should possess an innovative budget adjusted to the new facts of globalization meant to meet present challenges and create various opportunities for the future.In order to improve budgetary procedures, the need to reform the community bugdet has emerged, namely to change the way it is designed and spent. The manner of setting and distributing the community budget has been changed several times whenever the context in member states has demanded. Thus, European institutions concluded in 1988 interinstitutional agreements which have been covering budgetary process and budget allocation ever since. Agreements are concluded for several years and bear the name of “financial prospects”. Other two agreements have been made (during 2007-2013 and, respectively, 2014- 2020 in compliance with Delors I and Delors II Packages.The present paper focuses on approaching the progress of budgetary indicators in the context of the multiannual financial framework where the European Union budget is set.

  13. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CHALLENGES IN A GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT. LABOUR MARKET CHANGES IN ROMANIA. FACTORS, CAUSES, ADJUSTMENT MECHANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina VASILE

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The reform of labour market and the modification of the human capital management model evolved unsteadily, much behind the demand from the economic and social environment. Labour market was pushed to a secondary plane, considering that the adjustment of the other markets would cause necessary changes for ensuring the functioning of the labour market. Now, Romania is involved in consolidating the market economy, which requires integrated procedures of dealing with the policies able to respond efficiently to challenges. Similarly to the economic reform, the chances in the labour market were gradual but there were no coherence and no correlation of the measures taken, which caused non-typical behaviours, often contrary to reforms.

  14. THE ADVANTAGES OF REGIONALIZATION BY TRANSFORMING THE CURRENT TERRITORIAL ECONOMIC AND STATISTICAL STRUCTURES INTO ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iordan Marioara

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the EU standards on statistics and administrative units, it is recommended that the Member States should develop relatively homogeneous territorial structures in terms of their size or the number of inhabitants, and "increasing", from smallsized regional structures to structures with a few million people. Considering the above-mentioned, the paper presents a brief description of the evolution of territorial-administrative organization of Romania, with the emphasis on the current existing regional structures. An extensive presentation of the pro and cons of transforming the current development regions from relatively limited instruments of implementing the regional policy, lacking legal status and effective levers, into real, de jure administrative units, adequately empowered to implement effectively the cohesion policy and make proper use of the European, national and local funding (public and private is also done. Finally, a possible re-aggregation of the counties that have common characteristics and potential for functional integration as administrative regions - adapted to the current realities on the ground and based on comprehensive criteria – is presented.

  15. THE ADVANTAGES OF REGIONALIZATION BY TRANSFORMING THE CURRENT TERRITORIAL ECONOMIC AND STATISTICAL STRUCTURES INTO ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iordan Marioara

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the EU standards on statistics and administrative units, it is recommended that the Member States should develop relatively homogeneous territorial structures in terms of their size or the number of inhabitants, and "increasing", from small-sized regional structures to structures with a few million people. Considering the above-mentioned, the paper presents a brief description of the evolution of territorial-administrative organization of Romania, with the emphasis on the current existing regional structures. An extensive presentation of the pro and cons of transforming the current development regions from relatively limited instruments of implementing the regional policy, lacking legal status and effective levers, into real, de jure administrative units, adequately empowered to implement effectively the cohesion policy and make proper use of the European, national and local funding (public and private is also done. Finally, a possible re-aggregation of the counties that have common characteristics and potential for functional integration as administrative regions-adapted to the current realities on the ground and based on comprehensive criteria – is presented.

  16. Quntitative [i.e. Quantitative] analysis of risky decision making in economic environments

    OpenAIRE

    Andraszewicz, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Risky economic decisions play an important role in everyone's life. This dissertation presents mathematical approaches to the analysis of these decisions. It discusses how statistical measures can describe properties of choice options, and how these properties can be used to describe the decision context. Also, this dissertation includes a practical tutorial on a Bayesian approach to the hierarchical regression analysis in management science. Therefore, the combined dissertation presents math...

  17. ADAPTATION TO THE ENVIRONMENT OF RUSTIC ANIMAL BREEDS IN BANAT WITH CO-ECONOMIC IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen-Luminita Matiuti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 19th and the 20th centuries, they developed in the Banat of Temeswar animalbreeds with economic performances comparable to those of other breeds in Europe.Traditionally, they also breed animal breeds and populations developed in Transylvania, amulti-cultural, multi-ethnic historical region that resembles the Banat of Temeswar verymuch from this point of view. Some of the rustic breeds from the Banat of Temeswar orfrom Transylvania are economically behind other specialised breeds. These rustic breedsare, in exchange, well adapted to the areas and they have genes that endow them withparticular disease-resistance. Reform of farm support policies in OECD countries is awelcome step which has led to a decline in the aggregate trade distortion coefficient from0.96 in 1986 to 0.74 in 2007. Climate change and increased biofuel production representmajor risks for long-term food security. Although countries in the Southern hemisphere arenot the main originators of climate change, they may suffer the greatest share of damage inthe form of declining yields and greater frequency of extreme weather events. Nowadays asustainable economy must become rural, based on Agrifood Biodiversity. Bioeconomy andEco-Economy scientifically applied to the rural economy, in the context of a sustainablerural development, the possibility exists to issue the following tentative terms forconsideration in the future: a. Bioeconomic sustainable development of the rural areas;b.Eco-Economic sustainable development of the agrifood production; c. Eco-Bioeconomicsustainable development of the agrifood green power.

  18. THE IMPACT OF PROMOTION CAMPAIGNS OVER THE COMPANIES IN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRÂNCU LAURENȚIU GABRIEL

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In an increasingly competitive business environment, promotion campaigns have a great significance in terms of market positioning of companies. The promotion campaigns are having a key role, sometimes even vital, because the companies depend on their results. An remarkable promotion campaign will lead to an increase in company sales and a better market positioning. The brand awareness will increase and the customers will become more loyal and may even be attracted new customers. This paper aims to analyze the impact of promotion campaigns over the courier companies from Romania. Thus, will be analysed the courier companies market and the competitive advantage in this market when it is used an efficient strategy of promotion campaigns.

  19. Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard C; Moore, Charles J; vom Saal, Frederick S; Swan, Shanna H

    2009-07-27

    Plastics have transformed everyday life; usage is increasing and annual production is likely to exceed 300 million tonnes by 2010. In this concluding paper to the Theme Issue on Plastics, the Environment and Human Health, we synthesize current understanding of the benefits and concerns surrounding the use of plastics and look to future priorities, challenges and opportunities. It is evident that plastics bring many societal benefits and offer future technological and medical advances. However, concerns about usage and disposal are diverse and include accumulation of waste in landfills and in natural habitats, physical problems for wildlife resulting from ingestion or entanglement in plastic, the leaching of chemicals from plastic products and the potential for plastics to transfer chemicals to wildlife and humans. However, perhaps the most important overriding concern, which is implicit throughout this volume, is that our current usage is not sustainable. Around 4 per cent of world oil production is used as a feedstock to make plastics and a similar amount is used as energy in the process. Yet over a third of current production is used to make items of packaging, which are then rapidly discarded. Given our declining reserves of fossil fuels, and finite capacity for disposal of waste to landfill, this linear use of hydrocarbons, via packaging and other short-lived applications of plastic, is simply not sustainable. There are solutions, including material reduction, design for end-of-life recyclability, increased recycling capacity, development of bio-based feedstocks, strategies to reduce littering, the application of green chemistry life-cycle analyses and revised risk assessment approaches. Such measures will be most effective through the combined actions of the public, industry, scientists and policymakers. There is some urgency, as the quantity of plastics produced in the first 10 years of the current century is likely to approach the quantity produced in the

  20. Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard C.; Moore, Charles J.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Swan, Shanna H.

    2009-01-01

    Plastics have transformed everyday life; usage is increasing and annual production is likely to exceed 300 million tonnes by 2010. In this concluding paper to the Theme Issue on Plastics, the Environment and Human Health, we synthesize current understanding of the benefits and concerns surrounding the use of plastics and look to future priorities, challenges and opportunities. It is evident that plastics bring many societal benefits and offer future technological and medical advances. However, concerns about usage and disposal are diverse and include accumulation of waste in landfills and in natural habitats, physical problems for wildlife resulting from ingestion or entanglement in plastic, the leaching of chemicals from plastic products and the potential for plastics to transfer chemicals to wildlife and humans. However, perhaps the most important overriding concern, which is implicit throughout this volume, is that our current usage is not sustainable. Around 4 per cent of world oil production is used as a feedstock to make plastics and a similar amount is used as energy in the process. Yet over a third of current production is used to make items of packaging, which are then rapidly discarded. Given our declining reserves of fossil fuels, and finite capacity for disposal of waste to landfill, this linear use of hydrocarbons, via packaging and other short-lived applications of plastic, is simply not sustainable. There are solutions, including material reduction, design for end-of-life recyclability, increased recycling capacity, development of bio-based feedstocks, strategies to reduce littering, the application of green chemistry life-cycle analyses and revised risk assessment approaches. Such measures will be most effective through the combined actions of the public, industry, scientists and policymakers. There is some urgency, as the quantity of plastics produced in the first 10 years of the current century is likely to approach the quantity produced in the

  1. STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT ON LAND—USE PLANNING—A Case Study of Changchun Economic and Technological Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGYan; SHANGJin-cheng; 等

    2002-01-01

    The study centers on the necessity,the workflow and the synthetically integrated methods (Principal Compo-nent Analysis(PCA),Andytical Hierarchy Process(AHP) and Fuzzy Comprerhensive Evaluation(FCE)of strategic environ-ment assessment(SEA)on land-use planning.The whole article includes three main parts:firstly,some attribute database,graphic-base and the spatial transform matrix,which reflect the change of regional land-use pattern,can be ob-tained by GIS technique;secondly,adopting fitting method of trend-suface analysis will convert environment monitoring data from scattered spots to regular control spots,based on which we can perform regional environment impact assess-ment;finally,Changchun Economic and Technological Developmen Zone is chosen as a case study on land-use planning.Through those efforts the results may be obtained as follows:1)according to transform matrix,the possibility of transforma-tion from one land-use to another can be obtained after the planning is carried out;2)environment ruality would change as a result of the change of land-use pattern;3)the SEA on land-use plan is an effective tool to make land-use pattern more reasonable.

  2. Regional economic effects of current and proposed management alternatives for Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Lynne; Lambert, Heather

    2005-01-01

    The National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997 requires all units of the National Wildlife Refuge System to be managed under a Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP). The CCP must describe the desired future conditions of a Refuge and provide long range guidance and management direction to achieve Refuge purposes. Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), located along the James River in east central North Dakota, is in the process of developing a range of management goals, objectives, and strategies for the CCP. The CCP for Arrowwood NWR must contain an analysis of expected effects associated with current and proposed Refuge management strategies.

  3. Regional economic effects of current and proposed management alternatives for Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Lynne; Lambert, Heather

    2005-01-01

    The National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997 requires all units of the National Wildlife Refuge System to be managed under a Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP). The CCP must describe the desired future conditions of a Refuge and provide long range guidance and management direction to achieve Refuge purposes. Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), located 27 miles northeast of Aberdeen, South Dakota, is in the process of developing a range of management goals, objectives, and strategies for the CCP. The CCP for Sand Lake NWR must contain an analysis of expected effects associated with current and proposed Refuge management strategies.

  4. Current Account Imbalances and Economic Growth: a two-country model with real-financial linkages

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Barbosa de Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    This paper builds a two-country stock-flow consistent model by com- bining a debt-led economy that emits the international reserve currency with an export-led economy. The model has two major implications. First, an initial trade deficit in the debt-led country leads to a perma- nent imbalance in the current account, even when the exchange rate is at parity. Second, different re-balancing mechanisms, namely a currency depreciation or the reduction of the propensity to import in the debt-led c...

  5. Extreme Environment Simulation - Current and New Capabilities to Simulate Venus and Other Planetary Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremic, Tibor; Vento, Dan; Lalli, Nick; Palinski, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Science, technology, and planetary mission communities have a growing interest in components and systems that are capable of working in extreme (high) temperature and pressure conditions. Terrestrial applications range from scientific research, aerospace, defense, automotive systems, energy storage and power distribution, deep mining and others. As the target environments get increasingly extreme, capabilities to develop and test the sensors and systems designed to operate in such environments will be required. An application of particular importance to the planetary science community is the ability for a robotic lander to survive on the Venus surface where pressures are nearly 100 times that of Earth and temperatures approach 500C. The scientific importance and relevance of Venus missions are stated in the current Planetary Decadal Survey. Further, several missions to Venus were proposed in the most recent Discovery call. Despite this interest, the ability to accurately simulate Venus conditions at a scale that can test and validate instruments and spacecraft systems and accurately simulate the Venus atmosphere has been lacking. This paper discusses and compares the capabilities that are known to exist within and outside the United States to simulate the extreme environmental conditions found in terrestrial or planetary surfaces including the Venus atmosphere and surface. The paper then focuses on discussing the recent additional capability found in the NASA Glenn Extreme Environment Rig (GEER). The GEER, located at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, is designed to simulate not only the temperature and pressure extremes described, but can also accurately reproduce the atmospheric compositions of bodies in the solar system including those with acidic and hazardous elements. GEER capabilities and characteristics are described along with operational considerations relevant to potential users. The paper presents initial operating results and concludes

  6. Energy, Environment, Economic Life Cycle Assessment of Cassava-based Ethanol Used as Automotive Fuel in Guangxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhi-yuan; ZHANG Cheng; PU Geng-qiang; WANG Cheng-tao

    2005-01-01

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) was carried out to compare the energy, environmental and economic impacts of converting cassava to fuel ethanol in Guangxi Province, China. The entire life cycle is a system that includes stages from cassava farming to ethanol fuel combustion. A computer-based model was developed to assess energy, environmental, and economic (EEE) life cycle implication of cassava-based ethanol fuel. The LCA results for fuel ethanol were compared to conventional gasoline (CG) as a base-line case. On the life-cycle bases, the use of cassava-based ethanol fuel in Guangxi may consume more energy but reduce greenhouse gas, VOC, and CO emissions. Life cycle cost results indicate that although fuel ethanol currently is not competitive compared to conventional gasoline, it has great potentials when there are subsidies and/or yields of cassava planting are improved. In terms of balancing the energy, environmental and economical, the introduction form of cassavabased ethanol fuel would be E10. The assessment results generated from this study provide an important reference for Guangxi policy makers to better understand the trade-offs among energy, environmental effects, and economics for the most effective using of regional energy resources.

  7. Economic environment of the Arctic natural gas supplies to Europe, "the Ukrainian crisis"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selin V. S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The current economic conjuncture of Russian gas supplies to the European market has been analyzed. It has been shown that it develops in a complex of two strategic factors: the first is the dominant role of Europe for Russian exports, the second – the European Union's policy on diversification of routes including the reduction of supplies from Russia. The objective impact of the recent "Ukrainian crisis" has influenced on the supply and has reduced reliability of the transit gas-transport complex. It has been noted that even in such circumstances the Russian natural gas exports to the European market in the coming five years may increase. Therefore, the transit system requires innovative solutions aimed at the reconstruction of pipeline systems and significant development of the production and transportation of liquefied natural gas. Произведен анализ современной экономической конъюнктуры поставок российского газа на европейский рынок. Показано, что она складывается в сложном переплетении двух стратегических факторов: первый обусловлен доминирующей ролью Европы для российского экспорта, второй – политикой Европейского союза, направленной на диверсификацию маршрутов, в том числе путем снижения поставок из России. На них наслаивается объективное влияние "украинского кризиса", что значительно снижает надежность транзитного газотранспортного комплекса. Отмечено, что даже в таких условиях российский экспорт природного газа на е

  8. Modelling the Choices of Romanian Consumers in the Context of the Current Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Balau

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Consumption is a key factor of the nowadays post-industrial society, while it is a real engine ofproduction, diversity of offer and demand, and motive for innovation. On the other side, consumption can beharmful to the same society and to environment if it develops in an un-sustainable way. That is why,understanding the consumer behaviour is of great importance not only to satisfy his or her needs but also tofind appropriate means to educate people and issue policies that can lead to sustainable consumption anddevelopment. The paper presents some models and theories regarding the consumer behaviour and proposesmeans to influence consumption characteristics and habits of people. The modelling approach isdeterministic, using Expectancy-Value theory, taking into account not only explicit (rational choices but alsohabits or incentives (non-rational choices, in a weighted quantitative model. The novelty of the approachconsists in the way non-rational choices are taken into consideration for the existing model, and on how it isused in determining directions for sustainable consumption. The study is developed on public data regardingconsumers of general goods in Romania.

  9. Public Debts Trends in the Current Economic Context, from Both National and International Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Dascalu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available . The article presents an analysis of the way public debt operates in Romania, in the context of states economies trends, of complex and topical financial environments. In the context of a functional market economy, the issues faced by certain states involving high public debt levels or potential budgetary pressure risks converge towards the idea that public finances sustainability needs to be a major challenge at the level of public policies. Considering this situation, the adequate policies to tackle public finances sustainability need to have, as a launching base, the overall strategy of the European Union, focused on the three component parts, namely abatement of public debt, increasing productivity and employment and last but not least, reforming the pension and healthcare systems. To ensure reasonably sustainable public debt levels, EU member states need to attain medium term strategic budgetary objectives, that would ensure a downward trend of public debt, a condition which can be fulfilled by compliance with budget policies rules, which ground development in the macroeconomic framework.

  10. Characterizing Economic and Social Properties of Trust and Reputation Systems in P2P Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Feng Wang; Yoshiaki Hori; Kouichi Sakurai

    2008-01-01

    Considering the fact that P2P (Peer-to-Peer) systems are self-organized and autonomous, social-control mechanism (like trust and reputation) is essential to evaluate the trustworthiness of participating peers and to combat the selfish, dishonest and malicious peer behaviors. So, naturally, we advocate that P2P systems that gradually act as an important information infrastructure should be multi-disciplinary research topic, and reflect certain features of our society. So, from economic and social perspective, this paper designs the incentive-compatible reputation feedback scheme based on well-known economic model, and characterizes the social features of trust network in terms of efficiency and cost. Specifically, our framework has two distinctive purposes: first, from high-level perspective, we argue trust system is a special kind of social network, and an accurate characterization of the structural properties of the network can be of fundamental importance to understand the dynamics of the system. Thus, inspired by the concept of weighted small-world, this paper proposes new measurements to characterize the social properties of trust system, that is, highg lobal and local efficiency, and low cost; then, from relative low-level perspective, we argue that reputation feedback is a special kind of information, and it is not free. So, based on economic model, VCG (Vickrey-Clarke-Grove)-like reputation remuneration mechanism is proposed to stimulate rational peers not only to provide reputation feedback, but truthfully offer feedback. Furthermore, considering that trust and reputation is subjective, we classify the trust into functional trust and referral trust, and extend the referral trust to include two factors: similarity and truthfulness, which can efficiently reduce the trust inference error. The preliminary simulation results show the benefits of our proposal and the emergence of certain social properties in trust network.

  11. Optical Estimation of Depth and Current in a Ebb Tidal Delta Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, R. A.; Stanley, J.

    2012-12-01

    A key limitation to our ability to make nearshore environmental predictions is the difficulty of obtaining up-to-date bathymetry measurements at a reasonable cost and frequency. Due to the high cost and complex logistics of in-situ methods, research into remote sensing approaches has been steady and has finally yielded fairly robust methods like the cBathy algorithm for optical Argus data that show good performance on simple barred beach profiles and near immunity to noise and signal problems. In May, 2012, data were collected in a more complex ebb tidal delta environment during the RIVET field experiment at New River Inlet, NC. The presence of strong reversing tidal currents led to significant errors in cBathy depths that were phase-locked to the tide. In this paper we will test methods for the robust estimation of both depths and vector currents in a tidal delta domain. In contrast to previous Fourier methods, wavenumber estimation in cBathy can be done on small enough scales to resolve interesting nearshore features.

  12. Evolutionary Psychology: How Psychological Mechanisms Shaped by Natural Selection for Ancestral Environments Produce Current Behaviours

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles Crawford

    2009-01-01

    The central purpose of this paper is to explain how Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection can be used in understanding current human behaviour. First, Darwin's logic is briefly described. Development is an important issue when applying evolutionary theory to human behaviour. The notion of innate developmental orga-nization of psychological mechanisms is introduced. The possible social and political outcomes produced when differ-ent levels of innate developmental organization are paired with different beliefs about it are considered. The notion of psychological mechanisms as evolved adaptations is considered in some detail. Then I discuss different ways evo-htionists think about how genes are involved in the development of adaptations. The paper concludes with a frame-work for considering how ancestral adaptations function in current environments and outlines some ways of studying them. In China and many other parts of the world people desire a more harmonious society. Ⅰ hope that this paper will be of some small help in achieving this great task.

  13. 对我国海洋经济增长与环境治理的实证研究%The Empirical Analysis on Chinese Ocean Economic Growth and Environment Governance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑彦

    2011-01-01

    The problems of the ocean environment pollution in China have become more and more prominent in recent years as the ocean economy develops rapidly.Harmonizing the relationship between developing ocean economy and protecting ocean environment is a difficult problem Chinese ocean economic growth is facing up with currently.Conducting the relative and regression analysis on the statistical data of ocean industry value added,ocean governance investment and the area of the sea under the cleaning standard from 2000 to 2010 is helpful to get the relationship between ocean econo-mic growth and environment governance into shape.%近年在海洋经济快速发展的同时,我国海洋环境污染日显突出。处理好发展海洋经济

  14. The Social And Economic Impacts Of The Mile 1 Rumuwoji Market In Port Harcourt On Its Immediate Environs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibama Brown

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In recent years the development of standard markets and its impact on the environs has become a burning issue in the minds of many governments and people alike. Consequently this paper is poised to take a comprehensive look at the location of the Rumuwoji Mile 1 Market in Port Harcourt with respect to the social and economic impacts on the environs. The State Government has shown considerable interest in the location of the market and other ancillary activities and facilities around it. This led to considerable emphasis being placed on the relationship between the various land-uses viz residential commercial recreational transportation etc in most urban centers in like Port Harcourt. This has become imperative as there seem to be palpable hazards and effects being exacted on the environs daily by different socio-economic activities within and around the market. In the same vein this paper has taken special interest in identifying different hazards and the real and potential effects the Mile 1 Rumuwoji market has on its immediate environs as a segment of an urban city of Port Harcourt. The methodology employed in conducting the research was the Hazard and Effect Management Process HEMP to ascertain the hazards and effects posed by the market. From the research it was discovered that the market serves as a central place because it attracts people from different origin to the area and that properties in the area are of mixed uses. The market provides employment in the area. Noise and unhealthy sanitary practices are allowed to thrive there and inadequate parking spaces. To mitigate these challenges some of the recommendations includes the adoption of the social impact mitigation and enhancement framework provision of basic facilities and services the creation of more parking spaces. Sanitary laws and effective refuse collection and disposal should be put in place. If these are done the living conditions of the people living in the area

  15. Information on the Economic--Social Environment as Didactic Material for Bachelor's or Master's Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamosiunas, Teodoras

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the research is to investigate how particular information from the environment serves as didactic material for students of Siauliai University Faculty of Social Sciences in learning to carry out scientific analysis and theoretical generalization of data in their theses. Methodology: The main sources--Internet databases,…

  16. Hard or Easy? Difficulty of Entrepreneurial Startups in 107 Climato-Economic Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, Evert; Janssen, Onne; Van der Vegt, Gerben S.

    2016-01-01

    Driven by existential needs for thermal comfort, nutrition and health, human populations create cultural adaptations to environmental conditions. Entrepreneurs starting new businesses in more threatening or more challenging environments may be a case in point. In a secondary analysis of population-l

  17. Hard or Easy? Difficulty of Entrepreneurial Startups in 107 Climato-Economic Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, Evert; Janssen, Onne; Van der Vegt, Gerben S.

    2016-01-01

    Driven by existential needs for thermal comfort, nutrition, and health, human populations create cultural adaptations to environmental conditions. Entrepreneurs starting new businesses in more threatening or more challenging environments may be a case in point. In a secondary analysis of population-

  18. Economic analysis of pesticide use and environmental spillovers under a dynamic production environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skevas, T.

    2012-01-01

    Pesticides are used in agriculture to protect crops from pests and diseases, with indiscriminate pesticide use having several adverse effects on the environment. In an era of an increasing public awareness on pesticides’ environmental spillovers, the EU is trying to update its pesticide policy by

  19. What current literature tells us about sustainable diets: emerging research linking dietary patterns, environmental sustainability, and economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auestad, Nancy; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2015-01-01

    The concept of sustainable diets, although not new, is gaining increased attention across the globe, especially in relation to projected population growth and growing concerns about climate change. As defined by the FAO (Proceedings of the International Scientific Symposium, Biodiversity and Sustainable Diets 2010; FAO 2012), "Sustainable diets are those diets with low environmental impacts which contribute to food and nutrition security and to healthy life for present and future generations." Consistent and credible science that brings together agriculture, food systems, nutrition, public health, environment, economics, culture, and trade is needed to identify synergies and trade-offs and to inform guidance on vital elements of healthy, sustainable diets. The aim of this article is to review the emerging research on environmental and related economic impacts of dietary patterns, including habitual eating patterns, nutritionally balanced diets, and a variety of different dietary scenarios. Approaches to research designs, methodologies, and data sources are compared and contrasted to identify research gaps and future research needs. To date, it is difficult to assimilate all of the disparate approaches, and more concerted efforts for multidisciplinary studies are needed.

  20. THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS IN THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT. ECONOMIC AND MORAL PRINCIPLES FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ELENA PAICU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The economic communication is more than a decade a point of interest due to the communication supports development and the diversity of information, on one hand, and due to the need for documentation and knowledge, both at the individual level and at the level of society, on the other hand. Thus the freedom into thinking and expression led to the development of communication activities and collecting them in a new vision. The process of communication has become, in a relatively short time, one of the engines of the economy, but also an integral part of what is meant to be today, the psycho-sociology of modern human societies. In this context, we propose an analysis of the communicative process that takes place in the economic environment, since the information and communication technology is, at present, a real factor in sustainable development. We start the analysis from the tight interdependence between the economic communication and the development of human culture as a basic factor for efficient management and for sustainable development overall.

  1. STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT ON LAND-USE PLANNING-A Case Study of Changchun Economic and Technological Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The study centers on the necessity, the workflow and the synthetically integrated methods (Principal Component Analysis(PCA), AndyticalHierarchyProcess(AHP) andFuzzy ComprerhensiveEvaluation(FCE)) of strategic environment assessment (SEA) on land-use planning. The whole article includes three main parts: firstly, some attributedatabase, graphic-base and the spatial transform matrix, which reflect the change of regional land-use pattern, can be obtained by GIS technique; secondly, adopting fitting method of trend-surface analysis will convert environment monitoringdata from scattered spots to regular control spots, based on which we can perform regional environment impact assessment; finally, Changchun Economic and Technological Developmen Zone is chosen as a case study on land-use planning.Through those efforts the results may be obtained as follows: 1 ) according to transform matrix, the possibility of transformation from one land-use to another can be obtained after the planning is carried out; 2) environment quality would changeas a result of the change of land-nsc pattern; 3) the SEA on land-use plan is an effective tool to make land-use patternmore reasonable.

  2. Economic Efficiency of Artisanal Fishing Households under Oil Pollution Environment in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbigbi, TM.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish supplies more than 87% of the animal protein in Nigeria, and more than 90% of coastal communities depend solely on fishing and fisheries related activities for their survival. Available information however, shows that Nigeria's inland water bodies are producing less than 13% of their estimated fishery potential. And domestic demand for fish has never been met by dependence on output from available aquatic sources. Nigeria therefore imports over US$ 200 million worth of frozen fish per annum. The capacity of artisanal fisheries to play its role of bridging this food gap, providing employment and generating income, particularly for the coastal communities in Nigeria, will largely depend on the adoption of appropriate management strategies that will ensure efficiency and sustainability given their debilitating oil pollution environment. This study employed a Cobb- Douglas stochastic frontier cost function to measure the level of economic efficiency and its determinants among these households. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 160 respondents from whom input-output data, prices and socioeconomic characteristics were obtained. The results of the analysis showed that individual levels of economic efficiency ranged from 0.10 - 0.96 with a mean of 0.68. While age, household size and number of fishing trips made in a week decreased, access to credit, membership of co-operative society, and oil spill increased, significantly, the respondents' level of economic inefficiency. These observations particularly suggest that the farmers were yet to harness the potentials of farm credit and membership of cooperative societies in their farm business, perhaps as a result of poverty. We recommend training workshops and seminars to remedy this. There is also the need for policies that could compel oil companies to minimize oil spill within the farmers' fishing environment. The adverse effects of oil spill on the environment and the

  3. A socio-economic evaluation of the lunar environment and resources. I. Principles and overall system strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehricke, Krafft A.

    This first of several study papers, based on a fundamental paper presented in 1972, provides an independent conceptual analysis and evaluation of the lunar environment as industrial base and habitat. A selenosphere system strategy is outlined. The underlying concept is that of one or several lunar industrial zones for resource extraction and on-surface processing, integrated with a circumlunar zero-g processing capability, serving markets in geolunar space. A classification of lunar elements by utilization category is presented. Lunar oxygen is a prime candidate for being an initial economic "drawing card", because of its value for fast transportation in geolunar space, requiring significantly fewer ships for equal transfer capability per unit time than electric transports which, however, have value, especially between geosynchronous and lunar orbit. The reduced development difficulties of controlled fusion outside the atmosphere and its advantages for extracting oxygen and other elements in quantity are summarized. Examples of lunar cycle management as fundamental exoindustrial requirement for economic resource enhancement are presented. The principal initial socio-economic value of lunar industry lies in the use of lunar resources for exoindustrial products and operations designed to accelerate, intensify and diversify Earth-related benefits. In the longer run, lunar settlements are a highly suitable proving ground for studying and testing the complex matrix of technological, biological, cultural, social and psychological aspects that must be understood and manageable before large settlements beyond Earth can have a realistic basis for viability. The lunar environment is more suitable for experimentation and comparatively more "forgiving" in case of failures than is orbital space.

  4. The SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme: Current activities and future key tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylich, A. A.; Lamoureux, S. F.; Decaulne, A.

    2012-04-01

    Projected climate change in cold regions is expected to alter melt season duration and intensity, along with the number of extreme rainfall events, total annual precipitation and the balance between snowfall and rainfall. Similarly, changes to the thermal balance are expected to reduce the extent of permafrost and seasonal ground frost and increase active layer depths. These effects will undoubtedly change surface environments in cold regions and alter the fluxes of sediments, nutrients and solutes, but the absence of quantitative data and coordinated process monitoring and analysis to understand the sensitivity of the Earth surface environment is acute in cold climate environments. The International Association of Geomorphologists (I.A.G./A.I.G.)SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme was formed in 2005 to address this existing key knowledge gap. SEDIBUD currently has about 400 members worldwide and the Steering Committee of this international programme is composed of ten scientists from eight different countries: Achim A. Beylich (Chair) (Norway), Armelle Decaulne (Secretary) (France), John C. Dixon (USA), Scott F. Lamoureux (Vice-Chair) (Canada), John F. Orwin (Canada), Jan-Christoph Otto (Austria), Irina Overeem (USA), Thorsteinn Saemundsson (Iceland), Jeff Warburton (UK), Zbigniew Zwolinski (Poland). The central research question of this global group of scientists is to: Assess and model the contemporary sedimentary fluxes in cold climates, with emphasis on both particulate and dissolved components. Initially formed as European Science Foundation (ESF) Network SEDIFLUX (2004-2006), SEDIBUD has further expanded to a global group of researchers with field research sites located in polar and alpine regions in the northern and southern hemisphere. Research carried out at each of the close to 50 defined SEDIBUD key test sites varies by programme, logistics and available resources, but typically represent interdisciplinary collaborations of

  5. Integrated assessment of policy interventions for promoting sustainable irrigation in semi-arid environments: a hydro-economic modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Gutiérrez, Irene; Varela-Ortega, Consuelo; Purkey, David R

    2013-10-15

    Sustaining irrigated agriculture to meet food production needs while maintaining aquatic ecosystems is at the heart of many policy debates in various parts of the world, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. Researchers and practitioners are increasingly calling for integrated approaches, and policy-makers are progressively supporting the inclusion of ecological and social aspects in water management programs. This paper contributes to this policy debate by providing an integrated economic-hydrologic modeling framework that captures the socio-economic and environmental effects of various policy initiatives and climate variability. This modeling integration includes a risk-based economic optimization model and a hydrologic water management simulation model that have been specified for the Middle Guadiana basin, a vulnerable drought-prone agro-ecological area with highly regulated river systems in southwest Spain. Namely, two key water policy interventions were investigated: the implementation of minimum environmental flows (supported by the European Water Framework Directive, EU WFD), and a reduction in the legal amount of water delivered for irrigation (planned measure included in the new Guadiana River Basin Management Plan, GRBMP, still under discussion). Results indicate that current patterns of excessive water use for irrigation in the basin may put environmental flow demands at risk, jeopardizing the WFD's goal of restoring the 'good ecological status' of water bodies by 2015. Conflicts between environmental and agricultural water uses will be stressed during prolonged dry episodes, and particularly in summer low-flow periods, when there is an important increase of crop irrigation water requirements. Securing minimum stream flows would entail a substantial reduction in irrigation water use for rice cultivation, which might affect the profitability and economic viability of small rice-growing farms located upstream in the river. The new GRBMP could contribute

  6. The Okavango; a river supporting its people, environment and economic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kgathi, D. L.; Kniveton, D.; Ringrose, S.; Turton, A. R.; Vanderpost, C. H. M.; Lundqvist, J.; Seely, M.

    2006-11-01

    SummaryThe Okavango basin comprises the Cuito and Cubango active catchment areas in Angola, in addition to the Kavango-Okavango non-active catchment in northern Namibia and Botswana. The Okavango River water and its ecosystem resources are critically important sources of livelihoods for people in the basin. Pressures from livelihoods and development are already impacting on the environment. These pressures may increase in the future due to the rapid increase in population, the peace process and associated resettlement activities in Angola, and major development initiatives in Botswana and Namibia. For instance, possible future increase in water abstraction from the Okavango River may affect the long-term environmental sustainability of the Okavango Delta by minimizing channel shifting and thereby reducing spatial biodiversity. The paper argues that while conservation of the natural environment is critical, the pressing development needs must be recognized. The reduction of poverty within the basin should be addressed in order to alleviate adverse effects on the environment. The paper recommends that the development of sustainable tourism and community-based natural resource management initiatives may be appropriate strategies for reaching the Millennium Development Goals of poverty alleviation and achievement of environmental sustainability in the Okavango Basin. These initiatives have a comparative advantage in this area as demonstrated by the performance of the existing projects.

  7. The Neighborhood Environments of Mutual-help Recovery Houses: Comparisons by Perceived Socio-economic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Joseph R; Groh, David R; Jason, Leonard A

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the setting/House-level characteristics of 160 self-governed, mutual-support substance abuse recovery homes (OHs) across the U.S. These dwellings were located in four different neighborhood types: upper/middle class (n = 23 Houses), urban working/lower class (n = 71 Houses), suburban upper/middle-class (n = 39 Houses), and suburban working/lower class (n = 27 Houses). Interior dwelling characteristics and amenities located within a 2-block radius were similar across the four neighborhood types. However, Houses in urban, working, and lower class neighborhoods reported more alcohol/drug intoxicated persons. Most importantly, despite the greater potential for environmental temptations and easier access for substances, none of the neighborhood factors including neighborhood socio-economic status significantly predicted relapse rates over a 12 month period.

  8. Economic growth, energy demand and the environment. Empirical insights using time series and decomposition analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Dirk C.

    2011-07-01

    Industrialization and increasing mobility in developing countries like China and India are resulting in growing energy demand. This hunger for energy is largely satisfied by fossil fuels and thus accompanied by rising emissions. This book aims at empirically giving insights about the relationship between energy consumption, economic growth and CO{sub 2} emissions using recent panel cointegration and decomposition methods. The investigation is carried out for the top energy consumers and CO{sub 2} emitters worldwide with a special emphasis on the European Union and some focus countries for the detailed analysis of the industry and transport sector. The results confirm the need for a more sustainable energy system by implementing measures of energy efficiency and reducing carbon intensity of energy supply by shifting from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. (orig.)

  9. Converting citrus wastes into value-added products: Economic and environmently friendly approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kavita; Mahato, Neelima; Cho, Moo Hwan; Lee, Yong Rok

    2017-02-01

    Citrus fruits, including oranges, grapefruits, lemons, limes, tangerines, and mandarins, are among the most widely cultivated fruits around the globe. Its production is increasing every year due to rising consumer demand. Citrus-processing industries generate huge amounts of wastes every year, and citrus peel waste alone accounts for almost 50% of the wet fruit mass. Citrus waste is of immense economic value as it contains an abundance of various flavonoids, carotenoids, dietary fiber, sugars, polyphenols, essential oils, and ascorbic acid, as well as considerable amounts of some trace elements. Citrus waste also contains high levels of sugars suitable for fermentation for bioethanol production. However, compounds such as D-limonene must be removed for efficient bioethanol production. The aim of the present article was to review the latest advances in various popular methods of extraction for obtaining value-added products from citrus waste/byproducts and their potential utility as a source of various functional compounds.

  10. Issues on economics and environment of CO{sub 2} for enhanced oil recovery in Saskatchewan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M. [Saskatchewan Dept. of Energy and Mines, Regina, SK (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Energy and environmental issues facing government and petroleum industry decision makers with respect to the impact, use and economics of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions were discussed. Historical meetings of air pollution significance were described. The Toronto conference`s plans for CO{sub 2} emissions reductions were presented. Saskatchewan`s role in meeting the recommendations laid out at the Toronto conference were discussed from the petroleum industry`s perspective. Canadian environmental framework policies were reviewed. Potential impacts of legislation that places dollar values on emissions on enhanced oil recovery were discussed. It was concluded that the social and environmental impacts of using CO{sub 2} for enhanced oil recovery would be beneficially affected by the changes proposed in the legislation.

  11. Power grid operation in a market environment economic efficiency and risk mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book examines both system operation and market operation perspectives, focusing on the interaction between the two. It incorporates up-to-date field experiences, presents challenges, and summarizes the latest theoretic advancements to address those challenges. The book is divided into four parts. The first part deals with the fundamentals of integrated system and market operations, including market power mitigation, market efficiency evaluation, and the implications of operation practices in energy markets. The second part discusses developing technologies to strengthen the use of the grid in energy markets. System volatility and economic impact introduced by the intermittency of wind and solar generation are also addressed. The third part focuses on stochastic applications, exploring new approaches of handling uncerta nty in Security Constrained Unit Commitment (SCUC) as well as the reserves needed for power system operation. The fourth part provides ongoing efforts of utilizing transmission facilities ...

  12. [Coupling coordination evaluation method between eco-environment quality and economic development level in contiguous special poverty-stricken areas of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-hui; Li, Jing-yi

    2015-05-01

    It is one of the important strategies in the new period of national poverty alleviation and development to maintain the basic balance between the ecological environment and economic development, and to promote the coordinated sustainable development of economy and ecological environment. Taking six contiguous special poverty-stricken areas as the study areas, a coupling coordination evaluation method between eco-environment quality and economic development level in contiguous special poverty-stricken areas was explored in this paper. The region' s ecological poverty index system was proposed based on the natural attribute of ecological environment, and the ecological environment quality evaluation method was built up by using AHP weighting method, followed by the design of the coupling coordination evaluation method between the ecological environment indices and the county economic poverty comprehensive indices. The coupling coordination degrees were calculated and their spatial representation differentiations were analyzed respectively at district, province, city, and county scales. Results showed that approximately half of the counties in the study areas achieved the harmoniously coordinated development. However, the ecological environmental quality and the economic development in most counties could not be synchronized, where mountains, rivers and other geographic features existed roughly as a dividing line of the coordinated development types. The phenomena of dislocation between the ecological environment and economic development in state-level poor counties were more serious than those of local poor counties.

  13. Trust and management-to-employee communication in Slovenian companies: Some evidence from the current economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Makovec Brenčič

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the importance of trust and management-to-employee communication among top Slovenian employers from the Golden Thread Survey. The paper analyzes the changes and impact of the deteriorating external economic situation on (a company-employee relational trust, and on the (b perceived importance of “trust and long-term relationships with the company in the eyes of the customer” by respondent managers. Furthermore, our analysis also looks at the impact of management-to-employee communication on both trust perspectives. The results show a stable level of company-employee relational trust in the face of the current economic crisis, despite a high level of perceived organizational process changes and a sharp decline in financial performance. On the other hand, the perceived importance of “trust and long-term relationships with the company in the eyes of the customer” has increased substantially as the crisis has deepened, supporting our claim that relationships and the external relationship orientation gain importance in the time of crisis. There is also a strong link between the degree of open and frequent management-to-employee communication, and both perspectives of measured trust among top Slovenian employers.

  14. Current Economic and Financial Crisis – New Issues or Returning to the Old Problems? Paradigms, Causes, Effects and Solutions Adopted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix TOTIR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available At the ideological level, the current crisis, as the others in history, has triggered an intellectual debate among several applicable ideas: ultra-liberal theory of the "invisible hand" of Adam Smith, Keynes's theory of state interventionism and even neo-Marxist theories. Globalization, with all its core components, generates a chain reaction when the phenomenon occurs, either positive or negative. The origin of the current financial crisis should be sought in the effects of massive cross-border capital flows and the use of more complex derivatives. Reaching the saturation of the three engines of economic growth worldwide in the period after the collapse of the socialist bloc is another important cause of all the failures that currently exist worldwide. Acquisition of toxic assets from bank balance sheets, their recapitalization and takeover by the state, but also the reinforcement of the prudential supervision of capitalization, liquidity and risk management system, improved transparency and speed the process of evaluating or reinforcing authorities' response to risk, can be considered short or long term anti-crisis measures, as appropriate.

  15. 生态环境的外部性与环境经济政策%The Externality of Ecological Environment And Economical Policy of Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉玲

    2014-01-01

    生态环境是人类生存和发展的基本条件,是经济、社会发展的基础,生态环境问题已威胁到人类的生存和发展。将外部性概念引入环境保护领域,是为了寻找促使外部性问题内在化的有效方式,以解决日益严重的环境问题。与环境问题有关的外部性,主要是生产和消费的负外部性。环境经济政策是国家环境当局从影响成本-收益入手,引导经济当事人进行选择,以便最终有利于环境的一种政策手段,其主要目标之一是最大限度地减弱以至消除其外部性的影响,将外部性问题内在化。%Ecological environment is the fundamental condition for human survival and development as well as the foundation of economic and social development.Now environmental issues have threatened human survival and development.The introduction of externality to field of environmental protection is to find an effective way to promote the internalization of external problems to solve the increasingly serious environmental problems.Externalities related to environmental issues are mainly negative externalities of production and consumption. Economical policy of environmental is a policy tool from the national environmental authorities that starts from affecting the cost-income , then guides economic parties to make a choice to ultimately benefit the environment,whose main objective is to weaken or even eliminate the external influence and internalize the externalities.

  16. Economic crisis, world economy, economics and economic policy.

    OpenAIRE

    Sherstnev, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes the current discussions on the the state of economics with special focus on the interreletionships between key ideas of economic theories and real actions of economic policy in the course of the global economic crisis.

  17. Research on Foreign Economic Development and Ecological Environment%对外经济发展与生态环境研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖国强

    2005-01-01

    Since China's opening to the outside world a large amount of foreign investment has flowed into the country. The domestic economy has been full of vigor and vitality after adopting the socialist market economy, which contributes to a higher economic growth. However, ecological environment has a close relationship with the foreign economic development. The good ecological environment and natural resources are the foundation of foreign economic development. With the expansion of its market economy, China is confronted with a series of sustainable development challenges related to population, resources and environmental protection, etc. How we should prevent and control effectively the impact of economic development upon the environment and avoid serious effect and damages on environmental quality are the key points this paper will discuss.

  18. ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT TO MONITORIZE SOME BIOLOGICAL PROCESS OF ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE IN HONEYBEE COLONY AND ITS ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SICEANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The electronic hive is the result of the scientific researches carried out between2003-2006 by a research project funded by MEdC through the National ProgramRELANSIN, being accomplished by Institute for Beekeeping Research andDevelopment –Bucharest in cooperation with the Polytechnics University fromBucharest –The Center for Electronic Technology and Interconnection Techniquesand the Radio Consult CompanyTo achieve the great complexity of the electronic model adapted to the hive –the“smart” hive, it was necessary to establish the all electronic details which to makepossible to monitorize some very important information from the bee colony andits environment with the help of the honeybees and which to eliminate the errorsthat may occur in the information collection process.Thus, the project aimed to conceive the electronic system in order to collectinformation from inside the hive and from environment too, to storage andtransmit it to a data basis by GSM network in order to be analyzed and processedby users.By this complex electronic system, composed by electronic equipment and thehoney bee colony, which is dynamic and strong related with natural evolution ofvegetation correlated with the climate factors, is possible to identify instantaneousor periodically a large palette of aggression factors as well naturals (acids rains,extreme temperatures, calamities as anthropic factors –accidental chemical orbiologic pollution. The obtained data, electronically quantified and taken out intothe data basis, could offer accurate information about the moisturized areas atdifferent time intervals.

  19. „STABILITY AND GROWTH PACT, COMMUNITY DOCUMENT „REVIVED” IN THE CURRENT GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA-DANIELA PAUN

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes to make a reasoned radiography Stability and Growth Pact, EU document revived therefore need to strengthen financial discipline and budget 6 to 7 September 2010 meeting of the Economic and Financial Affairs Council (ECOFIN. He talked about the introduction of the Stability and Growth in a 'European quarter' which will be monitored in structural and fiscal policies of the Member States. He also held a first exchange of views about the possible introduction of a levy on banks and a tax on financial transactions. Thus, the European Union has moved to create the world's first supranational system of control over the financial markets, particularly in order to reduce the risk of global financial crisis. The system will act in early 2011. For the first time in history, European financial control agencies will have more seats than national governments. In addition, the European Central Bank will see a branch that will track the emergence of crisis risk.The financial crisis has diminished the EU's growth potential, and made it clear just how interdependent its members' economies are, particularly inside the eurozone. The most important priority now is to restore growth and create effective mechanisms for regulating financial markets - in Europe and internationally. In strengthening its system of economic governance, Europe must learn from previous shortcomings which have put the financial stability of the whole eurozone at risk:- poor observance of the EU's sound rules and procedures for economic policy coordination- insufficient reduction in public debt during the good times – with peer pressure proving an adequate incentive- failure to deal effectively with the build-up of macroeconomic imbalances - despite the Commission's warnings – resulting in high current account deficits, large external indebtedness and high public debt levels in a number of countries (above the official 60% limit for eurozone countries. Greater economic

  20. Knowledge-Intensive Business Services and Business Consulting Services in Romanian Changing Economic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacob Cătoiu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the knowledge based society, especially on knowledge intensive business services, proved to have a really significant influence on the development of services industry. Consultancy services are acknowledged as innovation-intensive and knowledge-intensive business services at the same time. On the base of qualitative and quantitative research, by combining the disparities analysis with logical ranking, critical assessments and explanatory associations, comparative analysis, and empirical research, this article aims to contribute to a better appreciation and understanding of the consultancy services sector in Romania, as part of the larger family of knowledge intensive business services. The regional differences of business and personalized consultancy services are considered for discussion and revealed in the specific of the national network that has a clearly defined center. The concentration of the consultancy companies and most employees in four regions reflects the theory according to which the supply of these services is unevenly distributed, following the potential clients from better developed areas of the country. In all four types of analyzed consultancy activities, the total profit is bigger than economic loss. The disparities between regions are also supported by the dynamic evolution of the consultancy sector in Romania.

  1. Environment degradation, economic growth and energy consumption nexus: A wavelet-windowed cross correlation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammazi, Rania; Aloui, Chaker

    2015-10-01

    This paper analyzes the interactive linkages between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, energy consumption (EC) and economic growth (EG) using a novel approach namely wavelet windowed cross correlation (WWCC) for six oil-exporting countries from the GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council) region over the period 1980-2012. Our empirical results show that there exists a bidirectional causal relationship between EC and EG. However, the results support the occurrence of unidirectional causality from EC to CO2 emissions without any feedback effects, and there exists a bidirectional causal relationship between EG and CO2 emissions for the region as a whole. The study suggests that environmental and energy policies should recognize the differences in the nexus between EC and EG in order to maintain sustainable EG in the GCC region. Our findings will be useful for GCC countries to better evaluate its situation in the future climate negotiations. The overall findings will help GCC countries assess its position better in future climate change negotiations.

  2. The Influence of Major Life Events on Economic Attitudes in a World of Gene-Environment Interplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatemi, Peter K.

    2014-01-01

    The role of “genes” on political attitudes has gained attention across disciplines. However, person-specific experiences have yet to be incorporated into models that consider genetic influences. Relying on a gene-environment interplay approach, this study explicates how life-events, such as losing one’s job or suffering a financial loss, influence economic policy attitudes. The results indicate genetic and environmental variance on support for unions, immigration, capitalism, socialism and property tax is moderated by financial risks. Changes in the magnitude of genetic influences, however, are temporary. After two years, the phenotypic effects of the life events remain on most attitudes, but changes in the sources of individual differences do not. Univariate twin models that estimate the independent contributions of genes and environment on the variation of attitudes appear to provide robust baseline indicators of sources of individual differences. These estimates, however, are not event or day specific. In this way, genetic influences add stability, while environment cues change, and this process is continually updated. PMID:24860199

  3. Environment and economic risk: An analysis of carbon emission market and portfolio management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Cuicui; Wu, Desheng

    2016-08-01

    Climate change has been one of the biggest and most controversial environmental issues of our times. It affects the global economy, environment and human health. Many researchers find that carbon dioxide (CO2) has contributed the most to climate change between 1750 and 2005. In this study, the orthogonal GARCH (OGARCH) model is applied to examine the time-varying correlations in European CO2 allowance, crude oil and stock markets in US, Europe and China during the Protocol's first commitment period. The results show that the correlations between EUA carbon spot price and the equity markets are higher and more volatile in US and Europe than in China. Then the optimal portfolios consisting these five time series are selected by Mean-Variance and Mean-CVAR models. It shows that the optimal portfolio selected by MV-OGARCH model has the best performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The association between neighborhood economic hardship, the retail food environment, fast food intake, and obesity: findings from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxy, Michael; Malecki, Kristen C; Givens, Marjory L; Walsh, Matthew C; Nieto, F Javier

    2015-03-13

    Neighborhood-level characteristics such as economic hardship and the retail food environment are assumed to be correlated and to influence consumers' dietary behavior and health status, but few studies have investigated these different relationships comprehensively in a single study. This work aims to investigate the association between neighborhood-level economic hardship, the retail food environment, fast food consumption, and obesity prevalence. Linking data from the population-based Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW, n = 1,570, 2008-10) and a commercially available business database, the Wisconsin Retail Food Environment Index (WRFEI) was defined as the mean distance from each participating household to the three closest supermarkets divided by the mean distance to the three closest convenience stores or fast food restaurants. Based on US census data, neighborhood-level economic hardship was defined by the Economic Hardship Index (EHI). Relationships were analyzed using multivariate linear and logistic regression models. SHOW residents living in neighborhoods with the highest economic hardship faced a less favorable retail food environment (WRFEI = 2.53) than residents from neighborhoods with the lowest economic hardship (WRFEI = 1.77; p-trend obesity and only a weak borderline-significant association between access to fast food restaurants and self-reported fast food consumption (≥ 2 times/week, OR = 0.59-0.62, p = 0.05-0.09) in urban residents. Participants reporting higher frequency of fast food consumption (≥ 2 times vs. obese (OR = 1.35, p = 0.06). This study indicates that neighborhood-level economic hardship is associated with an unfavorable retail food environment. However inconsistent or non-significant relationships between the retail food environment, fast food consumption, and obesity were observed. More research is needed to enhance methodological approaches to assess the retail food environment and to understand the complex

  5. Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus: Adherence challenges in environments of low socio-economic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Steyl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The efficacy of treatment for clients with diabetes is highly dependent on the individual’s ability to manage the disease. Several constraints, such as poverty, illiteracy and insufficient resources (finances and specialised healthcare professionals, especially communities of low socio-economic status, could influence clients’ ability to manage their disease.Aim: The main aim of this study was to outline the obstacles encountered by individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus from an urban community with regard to management of their disease.Setting: The study was conducted at a primary health care facility in the Western Cape, South Africa.Methods: Ethical clearance was obtained from all relevant authorities. Eight (8 conveniently selected clients with type 2 diabetes mellitus per participating community healthcare centre (six approved centres in total were invited to take part in focus group discussions. Twenty six clients, 15 females and 11 males, with a mean age of 58.92 years (SD = 7.33, agreed to participate. Audiotaped data were transcribed verbatim followed by content analysis and identification of themes.Results: Themes that emerged were challenges with: a healthy eating plan, physical activity, financial constraints, other people’s understanding of the disease, and service received at the community healthcare centre. Verbatim quotes were used to exemplify the themes.Conclusion: Clients with type 2 diabetes mellitus experienced several challenges in the management of their disease. These challenges should be addressed to assist with better glycaemic control and to curb the emergence of diabetic complications and their attendant cost implications.

  6. On-line monitoring of base current and forward emitter current gain of the voltage regulator's serial pnp transistor in a radiation environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukić Vladimir Đ.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of on-line monitoring of the low-dropout voltage regulator's operation in a radiation environment is developed in this paper. The method had to enable detection of the circuit's degradation during exploitation, without terminating its operation in an ionizing radiation field. Moreover, it had to enable automatic measurement and data collection, as well as the detection of any considerable degradation, well before the monitored voltage regulator's malfunction. The principal parameters of the voltage regulator's operation that were monitored were the serial pnp transistor's base current and the forward emitter current gain. These parameters were procured indirectly, from the data on the voltage regulator's load and quiescent currents. Since the internal consumption current in moderately and heavily loaded devices was used, the quiescent current of a negligibly loaded voltage regulator of the same type served as a reference. Results acquired by on-line monitoring demonstrated marked agreement with the results acquired from examinations of the voltage regulator's maximum output current and minimum dropout voltage in a radiation environment. The results were particularly consistent in tests with heavily loaded devices. Results obtained for moderately loaded voltage regulators and the risks accompanying the application of the presented method, were also analyzed.

  7. The economic dimensions of integrating flood management and agri-environment through washland creation: a case from Somerset, England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J; Bailey, A P; Lawson, C S; Leeds-Harrison, P B; Alsop, D; Vivash, R

    2008-07-01

    In many river floodplains in the UK, there has been a long history of flood defence, land reclamation and water regime management for farming. In recent years, however, changing European and national policies with respect to farming, environment and flood management are encouraging a re-appraisal of land use in rural areas. In particular, there is scope to develop, through the use of appropriate promotional mechanisms, washland areas, which will simultaneously accommodate winter inundation, support extensive farming methods, deliver environmental benefits, and do this in a way which can underpin the rural economy. This paper explores the likely economic impacts of the development of flood storage and washland creation. In doing so, consideration is given to feasibility of this type of development, the environmental implications for a variety of habitats and species, and the financial and institutional mechanisms required to achieve implementation.

  8. Aplicacions actuals de la teoria de fallades de mercat (en Economia Current Uses of the "Efficient Market Theory" in Economics Aplicaciones actuales de la teoría de fallos de mercado (en Economía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Flores-Fillol

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Current Uses of the "Efficient Market Theory" in EconomicsEn este artículo, se proponen algunas aplicaciones actuales de la teoría de fallos de mercado en el marco de un grado de Economía. Son nuevos contextos en los que adaptar conocimientos existentes. Aunque sea una pequeña contribución, a partir de mi experiencia en las aulas, puedo afirmar que es extraordinariamente motivadora para el alumnado.

  9. ANALYSIS OF POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF GENDER EQUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatuna BERISHVILI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Term “gender” means socially constructed roles of man and woman, which are ascribed to them according to gender marker. Thus, gender roles depend on concrete socio-economic, political and culturological context and experience influence of various factors according to race, ethnic origin, class, sexual orientation and age. Gender roles widely differ within each culture and cultures. Unlike the individual’s biological gender, the gender role can be changed. This concept implies the views, conditioned by culture, about the intellectual potentials of man and woman, their personal features and behavior. Gender, as a construct, is formed by the society, as a social model of man and woman, which determines their role and position in all the spheres of the public life. To measure gender, like other hard-to-measure events, is of importance, in order to compare the countries, to identify the problems and to try their correction. It may be said that it enables us to disclose focus of the problems and in case of existence of proper will to positively act on it. Gender is multi-component and hard to measure. Research of the gender equality problems is important for the global business. Gender is a cultural construct, within which our different cultures attach different values, roles and responsibilities to men and women. It should be mentioned that the problems of women’s rights along with other barriers impeding achievement of the gender equality, have long been significant for the leading countries of Europe and America. However, one problem still remains – barriers of the so-called “Glass Ceiling”, which impede carrier advance of the female representatives. At the same time, in the countries, being on the lower level, a woman is still considered to be a being of secondary importance, which has no right to work and, compared with a man, no equal conditions to be educated. To this are added the religious laws of Islamic countries, which

  10. THE GREEN AREAS MANAGEMENT AND THEIR ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL INTEGRATION IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADINA CLAUDIA NEAMTU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The situation that exists at the level of the urban areas from Romania testifies a natural environment with a high risk for the health of the inhabitants as a consequence of the low level of the ecological development resulted from the lack of an integrated management of the green areas and spaces in comparison with the other components of the sustainable development. In the strategic management of the green areas and spaces having as purpose the improvement of the quality of air the priority role is held by the obtainment of necessary information in the view of adopting decision. In this context, monitoring the existent green areas represents a fundamental element that has to provide the necessary information. In correlation with this monitoring it is necessary the realization of the operative informational system for supervising the air quality constituted automatically from fix monitoring points and in a real time of the main air pollutants. The domains of sustainable development at the level of urban areas are considered to be: urban planning, the management of green areas and air quality, the management and the reduction of the sweepings, water quality, energy efficiency, clean and efficient transportation, etc.

  11. Key Economic Parameters for an Optimal Pharmacy Network in a Regulated Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franjo MLINARIC

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacies are an integral part of the modern healthcare system which strives for a holistic and effi cient care. General practitioners and pharmacists are held in high esteem among local communities as they are the fi rst point of contact when people have health issues. However, a strong demand for health services in developed countries and its present fi nancing schemes undermined the sustainability of the whole health system (8.9% of GDP in 2013 and growing. According to WHO and EU recommendations, the whole healthcare system shall accept a holistic approach and focus on education, prevention and proper medicine consume. Part of this strategy is a seamless care concept, where medical doctors and pharmacists build a team around the well-being of a patient. Financing scheme incentives and KPI’s (key performance indicators will be focused on keeping people healthy, instead of paying for procedures. The future healthcare ecosystem obliges pharmacists to optimize network coverage and to extend health services. Nevertheless, their growth strategy needs to be gradual, considering the present level of network coverage, the low pace of private and public expenditures for medicine and services, and the fact that a new fi nancing model for pharmacies is still unknown. Thus, we expect the development of pharmacy network in regulated environment to be fi nanced predominantly from retained earnings in publicly owned pharmacies and by awarding pharmacy concessions.

  12. Are current atomistic force fields accurate enough to study proteins in crowded environments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drazen Petrov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The high concentration of macromolecules in the crowded cellular interior influences different thermodynamic and kinetic properties of proteins, including their structural stabilities, intermolecular binding affinities and enzymatic rates. Moreover, various structural biology methods, such as NMR or different spectroscopies, typically involve samples with relatively high protein concentration. Due to large sampling requirements, however, the accuracy of classical molecular dynamics (MD simulations in capturing protein behavior at high concentration still remains largely untested. Here, we use explicit-solvent MD simulations and a total of 6.4 µs of simulated time to study wild-type (folded and oxidatively damaged (unfolded forms of villin headpiece at 6 mM and 9.2 mM protein concentration. We first perform an exhaustive set of simulations with multiple protein molecules in the simulation box using GROMOS 45a3 and 54a7 force fields together with different types of electrostatics treatment and solution ionic strengths. Surprisingly, the two villin headpiece variants exhibit similar aggregation behavior, despite the fact that their estimated aggregation propensities markedly differ. Importantly, regardless of the simulation protocol applied, wild-type villin headpiece consistently aggregates even under conditions at which it is experimentally known to be soluble. We demonstrate that aggregation is accompanied by a large decrease in the total potential energy, with not only hydrophobic, but also polar residues and backbone contributing substantially. The same effect is directly observed for two other major atomistic force fields (AMBER99SB-ILDN and CHARMM22-CMAP as well as indirectly shown for additional two (AMBER94, OPLS-AAL, and is possibly due to a general overestimation of the potential energy of protein-protein interactions at the expense of water-water and water-protein interactions. Overall, our results suggest that current MD force fields

  13. Reconciling Post-Recession Strategies for Economic Growth with Higher Education's Current Fiscal Challenges: Part 1, New Realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This week, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is publishing the findings of new research undertaken to explore the relationship between educational spending and economic growth. The report, "The High Cost of Low Educational Performance--The Long-Run Economic Impact of Improving PISA Outcomes", employs recent…

  14. Impact of personal economic environment and personality factors on individual financial decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Susanne; Gründer, Gerhard; Hilgers, Ralf D.; Holtemöller, Oliver; Vernaleken, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    This study on healthy young male students aimed to enlighten the associations between an individual’s financial decision making and surrogate makers for environmental factors covering long-term financial socialization, the current financial security/responsibility, and the personal affinity to financial affairs as represented by parental income, funding situation, and field of study. A group of 150 male young healthy students underwent two versions of the Holt and Laury (2002) lottery paradigm (matrix and random sequential version). Their financial decision was mainly driven by the factor “source of funding”: students with strict performance control (grants, scholarships) had much higher rates of relative risk aversion (RRA) than subjects with support from family (ΔRRA = 0.22; p = 0.018). Personality scores only modestly affected the outcome. In an ANOVA, however, also the intelligence quotient significantly and relevantly contributed to the explanation of variance; the effects of parental income and the personality factors “agreeableness” and “openness” showed moderate to modest – but significant – effects. These findings suggest that environmental factors more than personality factors affect risk aversion. PMID:24624100

  15. Impact of personal economic environment and personality factors on individual financial decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne ePrinz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study on healthy young male students aimed to enlighten the associations between an individual’s financial decision making and surrogate makers for environmental factors covering long-term financial socialization, the current financial security/responsibility, and the personal affinity to financial affairs as represented by parental income, funding situation and field of study. A group of 150 male young healthy students underwent two versions of the Holt and Laury (2002 lottery paradigm (matrix and random sequential version. Their financial decision was mainly driven by the factor ‘source of funding’: students with strict performance control (grants, scholarships had much higher rates of risk aversion (RRA than subjects with support from family (RRAdiff=0.22; p=0.018. Personality scores only modestly affected the outcome. In an ANOVA, however, also the IQ significantly and relevantly contributed to the explanation of variance; the effects of parental income and the personality factors ‘agreeableness’ and ‘openness’ showed moderate to modest – but significant - effects. These findings suggest that environmental factors more than personality factors affect risk aversion.

  16. Impact of personal economic environment and personality factors on individual financial decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Susanne; Gründer, Gerhard; Hilgers, Ralf D; Holtemöller, Oliver; Vernaleken, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    This study on healthy young male students aimed to enlighten the associations between an individual's financial decision making and surrogate makers for environmental factors covering long-term financial socialization, the current financial security/responsibility, and the personal affinity to financial affairs as represented by parental income, funding situation, and field of study. A group of 150 male young healthy students underwent two versions of the Holt and Laury (2002) lottery paradigm (matrix and random sequential version). Their financial decision was mainly driven by the factor "source of funding": students with strict performance control (grants, scholarships) had much higher rates of relative risk aversion (RRA) than subjects with support from family (ΔRRA = 0.22; p = 0.018). Personality scores only modestly affected the outcome. In an ANOVA, however, also the intelligence quotient significantly and relevantly contributed to the explanation of variance; the effects of parental income and the personality factors "agreeableness" and "openness" showed moderate to modest - but significant - effects. These findings suggest that environmental factors more than personality factors affect risk aversion.

  17. 关于当前的越南经济形势%On Current Economic Situation in Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林明华

    2005-01-01

    From the years 2001 to 2003, the three consecutive years' economic growth in Vietnam failed to achieve the expected index, which has brought heavy pressure to the economic operation between 2004 and 2005. The gap between reality and the eagerness of getting rid of the backwardness has given birth to a sense of anxiety to some people in the economic circles. In 2004, the economy in Vietnam rose to a new level in spite of pressure and anxiety; however, to improve the quality of its economic growth as well as its competitiveness has become urgent, and to accomplish the economic development plan of 2005 is a heavy task.

  18. Can individual conditions during childhood mediate or moderate the long-term cognitive effects of poor economic environments at birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritze, Thomas; Doblhammer, Gabriele; van den Berg, Gerard J

    2014-10-01

    Recent analyses revealed that the business cycle at the time of birth influences cognitive functioning at older ages, and that those individuals born during economic boom periods on average display better cognitive functioning later in life. The current study examines the impact of childhood conditions on late-life cognitive functioning and investigates whether they mediate or moderate the effects of the business cycle at the time of birth. The underlying purpose is to find potential starting points for societal interventions that may counterbalance the negative long-term outcomes of adverse living conditions early in life. We use data from 7935 respondents at ages 60+ in eleven European countries from the first three waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). The survey data was collected in 2004, 2006/07, and 2008/09. Country fixed-effects models are used to examine the impact of macro-economic deviations in the year of birth and the indicators of childhood circumstances on late-life cognitive functioning. This study shows that the effects of boom and recession periods at birth are not simply mediated or moderated by living conditions during childhood. Conditions at birth have biological long-run effects on late-life cognitive functioning. Individuals born during boom periods display signs of having better cognitive functioning later in life, whereas recessions negatively influence cognition. Furthermore, a series of childhood conditions in and of themselves influence late-life cognition. Good childhood cognition, high education as well as a high social status, favourable living arrangements, and good health have a positive impact. Policy interventions should aim at a better access to school or measures to improve the economic and social situations of disadvantaged households.

  19. Emerging Entrepreneurial Universities in University Reforms: The moderating role of personalities and the social/economic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Berács

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available University education, research and other services are increasingly becoming private goods as opposed to the traditional public goods concept. This trend is a highly debated process, and its consequences for universities are unquestionable. One of the consequences may be the diffusion of entrepreneurship in the higher education sector. The aim of the present paper is to highlight some of the characteristics of this process. Starting with the classics of entrepreneurship literature, Schumpeter defined the entrepreneur as somebody who goes against the stream. A new combination of production factors is the soul of entrepreneurship, and of any changes such as university reforms. Earlier research by Clark shed light on the environment of emerging entrepreneurial universities, which happened to be mainly new, relatively small universities. He found five indicators that are components of entrepreneurial universities. Taking this concept as a point of departure, we extended it in two directions. First, we go back to the economics literature and collect several other indicators/statements about entrepreneurship that are also worth considering in higher education. Second, we present a number of successful entrepreneurial cases of large top universities, looking for other indicators. Summarising these indicators in a table, two reforms of the Corvinus University of Budapest and its predecessors are discussed. Both of the reform processes lasted about five years, and there was a gap of approximately 20 years between the two processes. We would expect this to be successful, as a university needs to be reformed every 20 years, but this was not the case. We come to the surprising conclusion that, at least in case of the Corvinus University of Budapest, the two reforms in the socialist period were more entrepreneurial than the reforms we are experiencing now in a market economy environment. The explanation for this situation is twofold: the general socioeconomic

  20. Current understanding of microplastics in the environment: Occurrence, fate, risks, and what we should do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jinping; Wang, Jundong; Cai, Liqi

    2017-05-01

    Microplastics pollution has been documented in the global environment, including at sea, in freshwater and in atmospheric fallout. Ingestion of microplastics by multiple kinds of organisms has been reported and has received increasing attention, because microplastics not only act as a source of toxic chemicals but also a sink for toxic chemicals. To better understand the great concerns about microplastics and associated toxic chemicals potential exposed to the organisms ingesting the debris, we should know more about the occurrence, fate, and risks of microplastics in the environment. What we should do depends on this better understanding. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:476-482. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  1. External costs of emissions to air from current maritime transport - economic consequences; Miljoekostnader foer sjoefartens avgasutslaepp - ekonomiska konsekvenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Joakim; Farelius, Johanna; Hoeoek, Charlotta (WSP Analys and Strategi, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-06-15

    An important feature of Swedish national transport policy is to base the usage of fees, charges and subsidies on the principle of economic efficiency. The implication is that marginal cost pricing should be applied, internalizing the external costs of transport. Examples of external costs of transport are the damage costs caused by emissions of pollutants to air. These costs could be internalized by imposing fees that equal the marginal external costs. A polluter-pay principle should be applied, implying that the costs to society should be borne (paid) by the ones causing them. Earlier studies indicate that heavy ships (maritime transport) typically bear the marginal costs to society caused by transports carried out in Swedish territorial water - by paying differentiated fairway dues. However, these ships typically carry out the majority of their transports outside of Swedish territorial water, implying that the ship owners normally do not pay the full marginal external costs if a wider geographic area is considered. The purpose of this study is to show to what extent the costs of transports would be affected if fees and charges were used to internalize the external costs of emissions of pollutants to air in wider geographic contexts. The study has been carried out by calculating/estimating the following: 1. Damage costs caused by emissions of pollutants to air by current maritime transports to/from Swedish ports. 2. Effects on costs of transports by internalizing the external damage costs 3. Effects on costs of transports by undertaking cost efficient emission reducing measures

  2. Considerations on Preventing and Combating the Illegal Trafficking of Minors under the Current Economic and Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tache BOCĂNIALĂ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This work highlights the economic crisis problem that affects most states of the world, the crime problem that the society is facing, namely the human trafficking and in particular the child trafficking. This theme is particularly important in the context of amplifying the organized crime, it increasingly concerns the modern society and implicitly the specialists engaged in research of the phenomenon and for preventing and combating it. This paper is an analysis of the current financial crisis impact on human trafficking and the level of response that the society is ready to give through the regulatory framework, specialized institutions and their staff. The analysis concluded that Romania, as a result of its alignment with the acquis communautaire, is now a modern legislative and institutional system in preventing and combating trafficking in human beings. However, there is a need for legislative amendments in order to have a greater effectiveness in prevention and control measures, which represents a milestone in addressing other related issues. This study is also a warning for specialists to deepen their research for improving the prevention and combating trafficking in human beings which tends to grow.

  3. Out-patient management and non-attendance in the current economic climate. How best to manage our resources?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hennessy, D

    2010-03-01

    Outpatient non-attendance is a considerable source of inefficiency in the health service, wasting time, resources and potentially lengthening waiting lists, Given the current economic climate, methods need to be employed to reduce non-attendance. The aim was to analyse outpatient non-attendance and determine what factors influence attendance. A prospective audit over a two-month period to a tertiary-referral Urological service was performed to determine the clinical and demographic profile of non-attendees. Of 737 appointments, 148 (20%) patients did not attend (DNA). A benign urological condition was evident in 116 cases (78%). This group of patients also accounted for the majority of new patients not attending 40\\/47, returning patients not attending 101\\/148 and the majority of patients who missed multiple appointments 43\\/49. Patients with benign conditions make up the majority of clinic non-attendance. Consideration may be given to discharging such patients back to their general practitioner after one unexplained non-attendance until other alternatives of follow up are available.

  4. Survival in extreme environments – on the current knowledge of adaptations in tardigrades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Halberg, Kenneth Agerlin; Jørgensen, Aslak

    2011-01-01

    of the tardigrades and highlight species that are currently used as models for physiological and molecular investigations. Tardigrades are uniquely adapted to a range of environmental extremes. Cryptobiosis, currently referred to as a reversible ametabolic state induced by e.g. desiccation, is common especially...... to below )20 C, presumably relying on efficient DNA repair mechanisms and osmoregulation. This review summarizes the current knowledge on adaptations found among tardigrades, and presents new data on tardigrade cell numbers and osmoregulation....

  5. Examining the relationship between the food environment and adult diabetes prevalence by county economic and racial composition: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Leone, Lucia A

    2017-08-09

    Inequitable access to healthy food may contribute to health disparities. This study examines the relationship between the prevalence of adult diabetes and food access in the U.S. by county economic/racial composition. An ecological study from 2012 was used to estimate the relationship between diabetes and retail food outlet access. County diabetes prevalence was measured based on individual responses to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey question, "Have you ever been told by a doctor that you have diabetes?" If the answer was "yes" individuals were classified as having diabetes. Retail food outlets included grocery stores, supercenters, farmer's markets, full-service restaurants, fast food restaurants and convenience stores. Counties were categorized as "high-poverty" or "low-poverty". Counties were categorized as low ( 31.0%) percent minority residents. Multiple linear regression models estimated the association between retail food outlets and diabetes, controlling for confounders, and testing for interactions between retail food outlets and county racial composition. Regression models were conditioned on county economic composition. Data were analyzed in 2016. Density of retail foods outlets varied greatly by county economic and racial composition; counties with medium-minority populations had the least access to grocery stores and the highest access to fast food restaurants and convenience stores. Low poverty/low-minority population counties had the greatest access to farmer's markets and grocery stores. For low poverty/low-minority counties, grocery stores were associated with decreased of diabetes prevalence. Supercenters were associated with an increase in diabetes prevalence for high-poverty/low-minority counties. Only low poverty/medium-minority counties had a statistically significant relationship between farmer's markets and diabetes prevalence. Fast food restaurants were found to be positively associated with diabetes prevalence in all

  6. An Assessment of the Current LEO Debris Environment and the Need for Active Debris Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi

    2010-01-01

    The anti-satellite test on the Fengun-1 C weather satellite in early 2007 and the collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 in 2009 dramatically altered the landscape of the human-made orbital debris environment in the low Earth orbit (LEO). The two events generated approximately 5500 fragments large enough to be tracked by the U.S. Space Surveillance Network. Those fragments account for more than 60% increase to the debris population in LEO. However, even before the ASAT test, model analyses already indicated that the debris population (for those larger than 10 cm) in LEO had reached a point where the population would continue to increase, due to collisions among existing objects, even without any future launches. The conclusion implies that as satellites continue to be launched and unexpected breakup events continue to occur, commonly-adopted mitigation measures will not be able to stop the collision-driven population growth. To remediate the debris environment in LEO, active debris removal must be considered. This presentation will provide an updated assessment of the debris environment after the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 collision, an analysis of several future environment projections based on different scenarios, and a projection of collision activities in LEO in the near future. The need to use active debris removal to stabilize future debris environment will be demonstrated and the effectiveness of various active debris removal strategies will be quantified.

  7. Microplastics in freshwater and terrestrial environments: Evaluating the current understanding to identify the knowledge gaps and future research priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Alice A; Walton, Alexander; Spurgeon, David J; Lahive, Elma; Svendsen, Claus

    2017-05-15

    Plastic debris is an environmentally persistent and complex contaminant of increasing concern. Understanding the sources, abundance and composition of microplastics present in the environment is a huge challenge due to the fact that hundreds of millions of tonnes of plastic material is manufactured for societal use annually, some of which is released to the environment. The majority of microplastics research to date has focussed on the marine environment. Although freshwater and terrestrial environments are recognised as origins and transport pathways of plastics to the oceans, there is still a comparative lack of knowledge about these environmental compartments. It is highly likely that microplastics will accumulate within continental environments, especially in areas of high anthropogenic influence such as agricultural or urban areas. This review critically evaluates the current literature on the presence, behaviour and fate of microplastics in freshwater and terrestrial environments and, where appropriate, also draws on relevant studies from other fields including nanotechnology, agriculture and waste management. Furthermore, we evaluate the relevant biological and chemical information from the substantial body of marine microplastic literature, determining the applicability and comparability of this data to freshwater and terrestrial systems. With the evidence presented, the authors have set out the current state of the knowledge, and identified the key gaps. These include the volume and composition of microplastics entering the environment, behaviour and fate of microplastics under a variety of environmental conditions and how characteristics of microplastics influence their toxicity. Given the technical challenges surrounding microplastics research, it is especially important that future studies develop standardised techniques to allow for comparability of data. The identification of these research needs will help inform the design of future studies, to

  8. The SCEC Community Modeling Environment (SCEC/CME) - An Overview of its Architecture and Current Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Minster, B.; Moore, R.; Kesselman, C.; SCEC ITR Collaboration

    2004-12-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), in collaboration with the San Diego Supercomputer Center, the USC Information Sciences Institute, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology, and the U.S. Geological Survey, is developing the Southern California Earthquake Center Community Modeling Environment (CME) under a five-year grant from the National Science Foundation's Information Technology Research (ITR) Program jointly funded by the Geosciences and Computer and Information Science & Engineering Directorates. The CME system is an integrated geophysical simulation modeling framework that automates the process of selecting, configuring, and executing models of earthquake systems. During the Project's first three years, we have performed fundamental geophysical and information technology research and have also developed substantial system capabilities, software tools, and data collections that can help scientist perform systems-level earthquake science. The CME system provides collaborative tools to facilitate distributed research and development. These collaborative tools are primarily communication tools, providing researchers with access to information in ways that are convenient and useful. The CME system provides collaborators with access to significant computing and storage resources. The computing resources of the Project include in-house servers, Project allocations on USC High Performance Computing Linux Cluster, as well as allocations on NPACI Supercomputers and the TeraGrid. The CME system provides access to SCEC community geophysical models such as the Community Velocity Model, Community Fault Model, Community Crustal Motion Model, and the Community Block Model. The organizations that develop these models often provide access to them so it is not necessary to use the CME system to access these models. However, in some cases, the CME system supplements the SCEC community models with utility codes that make it easier to use or access

  9. Methodological Tools for the Assessment of Ecological and Socio-Economic Environment in the Region within the Limits of the Sustainability of Biosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Yuryevich Davankov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of ecological and socio-economic environment as well as the development of effective methodological tool for the assessment of its stability. This tool allows to ascertain the level of economic activity of the regions within the limits of the sustainability of biosphere. In the article, the regional system is considered as the total of industrial enterprises, social infrastructure and natural environment creating a specific territorial ecological and socio-economic environment, whose stability depends on the level of economic activity measured by the capacity of territorial ecosystem. The use of a technique for the comparative assessment of the energy indicators of economic activity creating a specific ecological and socio-economic environment of the region as well as of the indicator of the ecological capacity of the territory is proved. The ecological capacity of the territory enables to better estimate the level of the sustainability of the region within the limits of sustainability of biosphere. This method allows to forecast the development of the studied territory by the measurement of general energy flow on the basis of closed material and energy flows. The research revealed an indicator of the sustainability of ecological and socio-economic environment of Ural Federal District. Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District is the most stable, the Chelyabinsk region is the least stable, which is associated with both natural conditions and the specificities of economic structure. The labour productivity indicator, expressed in energy units, has revealed regions with rich natural resources. It was found that in these regions, there are significant material flows in the electricity industry that leads to a large proportion of greenhouse gas emissions. The assessment of the demographic capacity fully correlates with the calculations of the stability indicator of the regional system and the analysis of labour

  10. Vulnerability of the Barents Sea environment to climate changes: a review of the current assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelfan, A.; Danilov-Danilyan, V.

    2009-07-15

    Authors' conclusion: Climate change is not considered to be just 'one more stress' on the ecosystem, but rather it will create complex and dynamic changes in the environment that may alter the level of its vulnerability. Cumulative effects can be defined as changes to the environment that are caused by an action in combination with other past, present and future human actions (Environment Canada 2003). The magnitude and effects of multiple stresses can be equal to the sum of the individual effects (additive effects) or they may strengthen or weaken each other (positive or negative feedbacks). To understand complex interactions within the system atmosphere-land surface-ocean at regional scales and to assess influence of the environmental changes on the ecological conditions, sophisticated models should be developed allowing to account for regional peculiarities of these systems. Development of such models is considered as one of the main challenge of the Earth system science. (author)

  11. Current views of health care design and construction: practical implications for safer, cleaner environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Judene M; Olmsted, Russell N; Haas, Janet

    2010-06-01

    Infection preventionists (IP) play an increasingly important role in preventing health care-associated infection in the physical environment associated with new construction or renovation of health care facilities. The Guidelines for Design and Construction of Hospital and Healthcare Facilities, 2010, formerly known as "AIA Guidelines" was the origin of the "infection control risk assessment" now required by multiple agencies. These Guidelines represent minimum US health care standards and provide guidance on best practices. They recognize that the built environment has a profound affect on health and the natural environment and require that health care facilities be designed to "first, do no harm." This review uses the Guidelines as a blueprint for IPs' role in design and construction, updating familiar concepts to the 2010 edition with special emphasis on IP input into design given its longer range impact on health care-associated infection prevention while linking to safety and sustainability. Section I provides an overview of disease transmission risks from the built environment and related costs, section II presents a broad view of design and master planning, and section III addresses the detailed design strategies for infection prevention specifically addressed in the 2010 Facility Guidelines Institute edition.

  12. Implications of Current Reference Structures for Authority Work in Online Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Mark R.; Taylor, Arlene G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a study which examined (1) the percentage of personal and corporate name authority records in the Library of Congress authority file that do not contain any references, and (2) the percentage of references present on existing authority records that are not needed in an automatic right hand truncation, keyword searching environment. (CLB)

  13. Gene-Environment Interactions in Genome-Wide Association Studies: Current Approaches and New Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winham, Stacey J.; Biernacka, Joanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Complex psychiatric traits have long been thought to be the result of a combination of genetic and environmental factors, and gene-environment interactions are thought to play a crucial role in behavioral phenotypes and the susceptibility and progression of psychiatric disorders. Candidate gene studies to investigate hypothesized…

  14. Nature in economic theories: Hans Immler traces recognition of the environment - and its neglect - in various classics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karsten, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    Labor and capital are usually considered as the primary factors of production, the costs of which are of utmost importance. In contrast, nature (including all natural resources), as the essential third factor, is disregarded. She is generally assumed to be always available, self-regenerating, and to be exploited without long-term costs. In other words, she is more or less viewed as a constant. Hans Immler's new treatise represents an important contribution in that he emphasized the role and function of the natural environment, and its neglect, in the formulation of theories of value and their long-term consequences on contemporary economic theories and on the person and society. This essay traces Immler's evaluation with extensive quotations - especially with regard to Physiocracy and the classical economists - of nature's role and function, or their neglect, in the formulation of theories of value through the writings of Aristotle, St. Thomas Aquinas, William Petty, John Locke, Adam Smith, David Ricardo, Karl Marx, and others, - all dealt with in Part 1 of his book - and Francois Quesnay and the Physiocrats - the topic of Part 2.

  15. Plasma environment during hot cathode direct current discharge plasma chemical vapor deposition of diamond films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓东; 詹如娟; 周海洋; 胡敏; 温晓辉; 周贵恩; 李凡庆

    1999-01-01

    The plasma characteristics have been investigated in situ by using optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and the Langmuir probe during hot cathode direct current discharge plasma chemical vapor deposition of diamond films. The changes of atomic H and CH radical in the ground state have been calculated quantitatively according to the results of OES and the Langmuir probe measurement as discharge current density varied. It is shown that atomic H and CH radicals both in the ground state and in the excited state increase with the enhancement of the discharge current density in the plasma. The electron density and CH emission intensity increase linearly with the enhancement of discharge current densities. The generation of different carbon-containing radicals is related to the elevation of electron temperature. Combining the growth process of diamond films and the diagnostic results, it is shown that atomic H in the excited state may improve the diamond growth efficiently, and the increase of electron temperat

  16. Singapore in Its Worst Recession for Years. The Effects of the Current Economic Crisis on the City-State’s Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Jordan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the current economic downturn, Singapore has experienced one of its most severe recessions since independence. The financial crisis, which caused a fall in prices at most of the world’s leading stock exchanges and a sharp decline in industrial production, has also had a negative impact on the city-state’s export-dependent economy. The analysis outlines the economic downturn and the decline of Singapore’s export economy since the beginning of the crisis in late 2008. Central to the analysis are questions regarding the social consequences of the current economic crisis and the amount of losses Singapore’s state-owned holding companies, Temasek and GIC, experienced when some of the world’s biggest investment banks, such as Merrill Lynch, went into bankruptcy.

  17. Analysis of the PPBE Process in the Current Dynamic Political Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Complicated/ expensive systems - Business practices Legal - USA Patriot Act - Military prison scandals - CIA leak probe (Plume Affair) - Enron , Tyco...54 such as Enron , Tyco and WorldCom were prosecuted and received prison sentences for the roles they played in these scandals .114 These...of the author aided in shaping the environment. DoD Political -Vietnam War -Kennedy Assassination -Great Society Initiatives -Watergate Scandal

  18. Design Rework Prediction in Concurrent Design Environment: Current Trends and Future Research Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Arundachawat, Panumas; Roy, Rajkumar; Al-Ashaab, Ahmed; Shehab, Essam

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to present state-of-the-art and formulate future research areas on design rework in concurrent design environment. Related literatures are analysed to extract the key factors which impact design rework. Design rework occurs due to changes from upstream design activities and/or by feedbacks from downstream design activities. Design rework is considered as negative iteration; therefore, value in design activities will be increased if design rework is reduced. Set-bas...

  19. Do biological medicinal products pose a risk to the environment?: a current view on ecopharmacovigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühler, Thomas C; Andersson, Mikael; Carlin, Gunnar; Johnsson, Ann; Akerblom, Lennart

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence of active pharmaceutical substances in the environment is of growing concern. The vast majority of the compounds in question are of low molecular weight, intended for oral use and designed to tolerate, for example, the digestive enzymes in the upper alimentary tract, the harsh milieus found in the acidic stomach, or the microbe rich intestine. Accordingly, these xenobiotic compounds may, due to their inherent biological activity, constitute a risk to the environment. Biological medicinal products, for example recombinant human insulin or monoclonal antibodies, however, are different. They are primarily made up of oligomers or polymers of amino acids, sugars or nucleotides and are thus readily metabolized. They are therefore generally not considered to pose any risk to the environment. Certain classes of biological medicinal products, however, are associated with specific safety issues. Genetically modified organisms as vectors in vaccines or in gene therapy products have attracted much attention in this regard. Issues include the degree of attenuation of the live recombinant vaccine, replication restrictions of the vaccine vector, alteration of the host and tissue tropism of the vector, the possibility of reversion to virulence, and risk to the ecosystem. In this review we discuss the fate and the potential environmental impact of biological medicinal products following clinical use from an ecopharmacovigilance point of view, and review relevant policy documents and regulatory statements.

  20. Responding to biological incidents--what are the current issues in remediation of the contaminated environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottage, T; Goode, E; Wyke, S; Bennett, A M

    2014-11-01

    Since 2000 there have been a number of biological incidents resulting in environmental contamination with Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. These incidents include the US anthrax attacks in 2001, the US and UK drumming incidents in 2006-2008 and more recently, anthrax contamination of heroin in 2009/2010 and 2012/2013. Remediation techniques used to return environments to normal have varied between incidents, with different decontamination technologies being employed. Many factors need to be considered before a remediation strategy or recovery option can be implemented, including; cost, time (length of application), public perception of risk, and sampling strategies (and results) to name a few. These incidents have demonstrated that consolidated guidance for remediating biologically contaminated environments in the aftermath of a biological incident was required. The UK Recovery Handbook for Biological Incidents (UKRHBI) is a project led by Public Health England (PHE), formerly the Health Protection Agency (HPA) to provide guidance and advice on how to remediate the environment following a biological incident or outbreak of infection, and is expected to be published in 2015. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of current global economic crisis on Danish companies and what we can learn from it

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull; Turcan, Romeo V.

    economic crisis. Two theoretical lenses are identified to guide the understanding of entrepreneurs’ behaviours under crisis decision-making settings: turnaround strategy, and escalating commitment. To explore entrepreneurs’ behaviours under crisis decision-making settings, entrepreneurs of SMEs were...

  2. Leakage Current Phenomenon on Ceramics and Epoxy Resin as 20 kV Outdoor Insulator at Tropical Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdi Rizki Yandri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the research results of  leakage current, hydrophobicity and flashover voltage comparison on ceramics and epoxy  resin 20 kV outdoor insulator in a  chamber at tropical climate conditions. The waveform of leakage current (LC was measured using a digital oscilloscope. The digital data was transferred to a personal computer using a RS-232 cable. The digital data was analyzed using Fast Fourier Transform. The result showed that LC was affected by various environment conditions like temperature, humidity and pollution. LC of ceramics insulator was higher than epoxy resin insulator in low temperature, high humidity and high pollution condition.

  3. The Coordinated Development of Economic and Marine Environment in Liaoning Coastal Economic Belt%辽宁沿海经济带经济与海洋环境协调发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖美; 赵丽玲

    2012-01-01

    Liaoning Province is the only coastal north-east province of China, while the marine environment is an important influencing factor and bearing of economic growth, so the study of economic coordination with economic development and the marine environment is the key to achieve Liaoning sustainable economic development. and the marine environment of economic analysis, In this paper, Liaoning coastal economic belt based on economic, select both the marine environment evaluation, built in Liaoning coastal economic belt and the marine environment, sustainable development, economic evaluation index system, evaluation of class division, and using AHP method to determine the index weight, while the use of variable fuzzy recognition model analysis of Liaoning coastal economic belt and the marine environment of economic coordination degree.The results show that: the regions of Liaoning coastal economic belt' s economic growth and development and the marine environment are still in a condition that a little better than the dynamic equilibrium but far less than in the apparent coordination stage. From the time series analysis, Liaoning coastal economic zone strategy is not beneficial but drawbacks of various apparent to the regions. For example, to contrast 2008 and 2005, although the coordination degree of Panjin, Dandong, Jinzhou are rising, Huludao ,Yingkou and Dalian are in a downward trend. And by industry decomposition and GK.E model analysis the gap of the regions of Liaoning coastal economic belt and the marine environment pollution disparity, industrial production shows that primary , secondary and tertiary industry were played on slow down economic disparities, increase and maintain the effect; and GK.E model analysis, under the effect of economic structure and concentration, the marine environment in Panjin, Dandong area was significantly better in Dalian and Yingkou.%辽宁省是东北唯一的沿海省份,而海洋环境是经济增长的重要影响因素

  4. Monitoring DC stray current interference of steel sheet pile structures in railway environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peelen, W.H.A.; Neeft, E.A.C.; Leegwater, G.; Kanten-Roos, W. van; Courage, W.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Steel structures near DC powered railways are expected to be affected by stray current interference. This causes accelerated corrosion rates. Therefore steel is often not used as a building material in these cases, although certain advantages over the alternative material concrete exist. These

  5. Evaluation of current state of agricultural land using problem-oriented fuzzy indicators in GIS environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current state of agricultural lands is defined under influence of processes in soil, plants and atmosphere and is described by observation data, complicated models and subjective opinion of experts. Problem-oriented indicators summarize this information in useful form for decision of the same specif...

  6. Monitoring DC stray current interference of steel sheet pile structures in railway environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peelen, W.H.A.; Neeft, E.A.C.; Leegwater, G.; Kanten-Roos, W. van; Courage, W.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Steel structures near DC powered railways are expected to be affected by stray current interference. This causes accelerated corrosion rates. Therefore steel is often not used as a building material in these cases, although certain advantages over the alternative material concrete exist. These advan

  7. Shifting Currents: Science Technology Society and Environment in Northern Ontario Schools

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The focus is on the practices of secondary science teachers in rural, resource-extraction-based communities in the boreal region of northern Ontario, Canada. In 2008 the Ontario Ministry of Education mandated that science teaching and learning should bring to the forefront consideration of the impacts of science on society and environment, and include environmental education; topics that are particularly pertinent given the location(s) of the study in logging and mining towns. Three years aft...

  8. Integration Process Of Slovakia Into The European Monetary Union In Perspective Of Selected Macro-Economic Theories During The Current Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Kotuliè

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Each national economy anticipates mostly positive effects after joining the Euro. Positive expectations are logical, since every new country admitted to the EU pledges to join the Monetary Union  and till the admission  has the status of a member state with a temporal exemption for the joining of the Euro. According to the macro­economic results, there is usually  an illusion  present that the membership  in  the Eurozone itself absorbs the progress of the global recession. On  the other hand, in  favor  of  the membership  in  the Eurozone speaks the fact that all countries admitted had to rigidly fulfill the Maastricht Convergence Criteria leading to the medium­term guarantee of  a healthy and long­term sustainable economy.

  9. Economic benefits of high value medicinal plants to Pakistani communities: an analysis of current practice and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Hassan; Aldosari, Ali; Ali, Ahmad; de Boer, Hugo J

    2014-10-10

    Poverty is pervasive in the Swat Valley, Pakistan. Most of the people survive by farming small landholdings. Many earn additional income by collecting and selling plant material for use in herbal medicine. This material is collected from wild populations but the people involved have little appreciation of the potential value of the plant material they collect and the long term impact their collecting has on local plant populations. In 2012, existing practices in collecting and trading high value minor crops from Swat District, Pakistan, were analyzed. The focus of the study was on the collection pattern of medicinal plants as an economic activity within Swat District and the likely destinations of these products in national or international markets. Local collectors/farmers and dealers were surveyed about their collection efforts, quantities collected, prices received, and resulting incomes. Herbal markets in major cities of Pakistan were surveyed for current market trends, domestic sources of supply, imports and exports of herbal material, price patterns, and market product-quality requirements. It was observed that wild collection is almost the only source of medicinal plant raw material in the country, with virtually no cultivation. Gathering is mostly done by women and children of nomadic Middle Hill tribes who earn supplementary income through this activity, with the plants then brought into the market by collectors who are usually local farmers. The individuals involved in gathering and collecting are largely untrained regarding the pre-harvest and post-harvest treatment of collected material. Most of the collected material is sold to local middlemen. After that, the trade pattern is complex and heterogeneous, involving many players. Pakistan exports of high value plants generate over US$10.5 million annually in 2012, with a substantial percentage of the supply coming from Swat District, but its market share has been declining. Reasons for the decline were

  10. Biotemplated materials for sustainable energy and environment: current status and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Han; Fan, Tongxiang; Zhang, Di

    2011-10-17

    Materials science will play a key role in the further development of emerging solutions for the increasing problems of energy and environment. Materials found in nature have many inspiring structures, such as hierarchical organizations, periodic architectures, or nanostructures, that endow them with amazing functions, such as energy harvesting and conversion, antireflection, structural coloration, superhydrophobicity, and biological self-assembly. Biotemplating is an effective strategy to obtain morphology-controllable materials with structural specificity, complexity, and related unique functions. Herein, we highlight the synthesis and application of biotemplated materials for six key areas of energy and environment technologies, namely, photocatalytic hydrogen evolution, CO(2) reduction, solar cells, lithium-ion batteries, photocatalytic degradation, and gas/vapor sensing. Although the applications differ from each other, a common fundamental challenge is to realize optimum structures for improved performances. We highlight the role of four typical structures derived from biological systems exploited to optimize properties: hierarchical (porous) structures, periodic (porous) structures, hollow structures, and nanostructures. We also provide examples of using biogenic elements (e.g., C, Si, N, I, P, S) for the creation of active materials. Finally, we disscuss the challenges of achieving the desired performance for large-scale commercial applications and provide some useful prototypes from nature for the biomimetic design of new materials or systems. The emphasis is mainly focused on the structural effects and compositional utilization of biotemplated materials. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Observations on the biology, epidemiology and economic relevance of rumen flukes (Paramphistomidae) in cattle kept in a temperate environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargison, Neil; Francis, Emily; Davison, Chloe; Bronsvoort, Barend M deC; Handel, Ian; Mazeri, Stella

    2016-03-30

    There is concern about the probable recent introduction, increased prevalence and potential economic impact of rumen fluke infection of United Kingdom cattle. A study of 339 cattle slaughtered in a Scottish red meat abattoir was undertaken with the aims of describing the prevalence and geographical distribution of rumen fluke infection, estimating its effect on production, and evaluating faecal egg counts (FECs) as a tool to diagnose infection in live animals and study the epidemiology of the disease. The overall proportion of cattle consigned to the abattoir from northern United Kingdom with rumen fluke infection in the forestomachs was 0.29. Rumen flukes were distributed predominantly in the cranial sac of the rumen and adjacent to the reticular groove. Overall, a mean of 213 and median of 44 rumen flukes was identified in the forestomachs of rumen fluke-positive cattle. The mean and median FECs of animals were 26.01 and 5.20 eggs per gram (epg), respectively. There was a significant difference between the mean FECs per rumen fluke of 0.08 and 0.13 epg during summer/autumn and winter sampling periods, respectively. The overall correlation between rumen fluke FECs and the number of flukes in the forestomach was high, albeit lower in the summer/autumn than in the winter period. The sensitivities of rumen fluke FECs for the identification of flukes in the forestomach during the summer/autumn and winter sampling periods were 0.65 and 0.85, respectively. These results will aid in the interpretation of rumen fluke FECs when monitoring cattle health and production and studying the parasite's epidemiology in a temperate environment, thereby informing rational, precise and sustainable disease control.

  12. Current and foreseeable applications of supercritical water for energy and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loppinet-Serani, Anne; Aymonier, Cyril; Cansell, François

    2008-01-01

    It is crucial to develop economical and energy-efficient processes for the sustainable transformation of biomass into fuels and chemicals. In this context, supercritical water biomass valorization (SCBV) processes are an alternative way to produce biogas, biofuels, and valuable chemicals. Supercritical water technology has seen much progress over the last fifteen years and an industrial application has merged: the supercritical water oxidation of wastes. The evolution from lab-scale to pilot-scale facilities has provided data on reaction mechanisms, kinetics, modeling, and reactor technology as well as an important know-how, which can now be exploited to use the reactivity in supercritical water to transform biomass into gases (CO, H(2), CO(2), CH(4), and N(2)) or into liquids (liquid fuel and valuable chemicals) with the supercritical water biomass gasification and liquefaction processes, respectively. This Review highlights the potential of SCBV processes to transform biomass into gas and liquid energy sources and highlights the developments that are still necessary to push this technology onto the market.

  13. Geared induction motor fault diagnosis by current, noise and vibration considering measurement environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Seok Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lots of motors have been being used in industry. Therefore many studies have been carried out about the failure diagnosis of motors. In this paper, a diagnosis of gear fault connected to a motor shaft is studied. The fault diagnosis is executed through the comparison of normal gear and abnormal gear. In the abnormal gearbox, a tooth of the intermediate gear is damaged. The measured FFT data are compared with the normal data and analyzed for q-axis current, noise and vibration. Fault gear was found by comparing the FFT with normal FFT. From these, the difference between the normal and abnormal states can be seen by the frequency characteristic analysis for the current as well as noise and vibration.

  14. Survival in extreme environments - on the current knowledge of adaptations in tardigrades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møbjerg, N; Halberg, K A; Jørgensen, A; Persson, D; Bjørn, M; Ramløv, H; Kristensen, R M

    2011-07-01

    Tardigrades are microscopic animals found worldwide in aquatic as well as terrestrial ecosystems. They belong to the invertebrate superclade Ecdysozoa, as do the two major invertebrate model organisms: Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. We present a brief description of the tardigrades and highlight species that are currently used as models for physiological and molecular investigations. Tardigrades are uniquely adapted to a range of environmental extremes. Cryptobiosis, currently referred to as a reversible ametabolic state induced by e.g. desiccation, is common especially among limno-terrestrial species. It has been shown that the entry and exit of cryptobiosis may involve synthesis of bioprotectants in the form of selective carbohydrates and proteins as well as high levels of antioxidant enzymes and other free radical scavengers. However, at present a general scheme of mechanisms explaining this phenomenon is lacking. Importantly, recent research has shown that tardigrades even in their active states may be extremely tolerant to environmental stress, handling extreme levels of ionizing radiation, large fluctuation in external salinity and avoiding freezing by supercooling to below -20 °C, presumably relying on efficient DNA repair mechanisms and osmoregulation. This review summarizes the current knowledge on adaptations found among tardigrades, and presents new data on tardigrade cell numbers and osmoregulation.

  15. Gravity Currents: In the Environment and the Laboratory, Ellis Horwood Series in Environmental Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csanady, G. T.

    There are books and courses on experimental physics, thorough and rigorous, which contain only simple formulae and use only elementary algebra. The subject is explained in lucid and precise language, with the help of many sketches, photos, and diagrams. The book under review belongs to this genre and is in fact one of its most successful members.About half of the book is devoted to the description of a variety of natural phenomena in which gravity currents play an important role. The class of gravity currents is taken to be quite broad, to include almost any kind of quasi-horizontal motion caused by density differences. The range of natural phenomena surveyed is correspondingly great, from tidal bores through thunderstorms to the eruption of Mount St. Helens. The atmospheric examples are especially thorough and interesting. The broad panorama certainly brings home to the reader the many ways in which fluids (including fluidized rock) can move under the influence of gravity. However, not all of the examples show typical gravity behavior, nor are they all treated with equal thoroughness. The Gulf Stream is mentioned, and the variability of its position is shown in an illustration, but this is not connected with anything typical of gravity currents, nor is the important interplay between Earth rotation and such large-scale “gravity currents” (if one insists on calling them that) at all adequately explained.

  16. Female streetwalkers' perspectives on migration and HIV/STI risks in a changing economic and social environment: a qualitative study in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z Jennifer; Hu, Dier; Chang, Ruth; Zaccaro, Heather; Iguchi, Martin; Zheng, Huang; He, Na

    2015-01-01

    China's 30-year economic boom has created a unique social and economic market for commercial sex, as well as for a workforce of migrant women from rural China. This qualitative study explores the impact of the rapidly changing social and economic environment on migration patterns, knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), STI risk behaviours and health beliefs among female streetwalkers in Shanghai. Qualitative data were collected in 2010 through semi-structured in-depth interviews with 16 streetwalkers to characterise their migration passages, sexual health and behaviours, and peer networks. Many streetwalkers reported histories of childhood impoverishment, of family or partner violence or trauma, of migration consistent with the timeline and routes of economic development and of a scarcity in health, social or economic support. Their knowledge of the prevention and treatment of HIV and STIs was limited. They had little bargaining power on condom use and the majority resorted to vaginal douching and self-management with antibiotics as preventative measures. The study identifies streetwalkers' perspectives on the changing environment, their options and actions and, finally, HIV/STI risks that were unique to this hidden population.

  17. Paths for the Coordinated Development of Rural Economy and Environment in Economically Underdeveloped Areas——A Case of Huaian,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Taking Huaian as an example,the rural economic and environmental problems in economically underdeveloped areas are expounded.The results show that rural areas in economically underdeveloped areas confront with lagged economic development,serious environmental pollutionand scarce shortage of equipments for treating environmental pollution.The causes of problems are analyzed,including inadequate fiscal supportfrom the local government;unscientific system for assessing government officers’ performances;backward ideas in environmental protection and im-perfect laws and regulations on environmental protection.Based on these causes,the strategy of employing the circular economy to promote the co-ordinated development of rural environment and economy in economically underdeveloped areas is put forward.The strategy covers transformingthe way of agricultural production;adjusting agricultural production structure;positively collecting funds and increasing the input on handling rural en-vironmental problems;strengthening the efforts on promotion and education,and forming the healthy habits of consumption;enforcing supervisionand establishing a professional administration team for protecting rural environment;laying stress on rural technological innovation and strengtheningthe force of expansion;accelerating the path of industrialization and promoting the industrialization of villages and towns vigorously.

  18. Dynamics of Economic Well-Being: Movements in the U.S. Income Distribution, 1996-1999. Household Economics Studies. Current Population Reports. P70-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisnanick, John J.; Walker, Katherine G.

    2004-01-01

    As measured by the most recent income data available from the Current Population Survey (CPS), between 1996 and 2002 median household income increased 4.7 percent more than inflation. That statistic compares a "snapshot" of households in 1996 with another "snapshot" in 2002. This report uses the most recent longitudinal data available from the…

  19. Analysis of the Economic Environment of Our Country Small and Medium -sized Enterprise in Post Crisis%后危机时代我国中小实体企业经济环境分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何静

    2014-01-01

    The post crisis era , China is in the economic growthspeed shift , structural adjustment pains period , the stimulus policy digestion period three period superimposed section ,complexity ,the macroeconomic operation dif-ficulty and uncertainty beyond expectations .At the same time,USA,EU and other major economies have put for-ward the slogan enterprises return to the real economy ,the implementation of the “re-industrialization” “strategy . Have a great influence ,the international domestic economic and social situation of small and medium -sized enter-prise economic environment .This paper analyzes the current economic environment , small and medium-sized en-terprise entities and the deep -seated reasons of small and medium -sized enterprise entities economic environment from two aspects of social and economic situation and national economic policy , and put forwards countermeasures and suggestions .%后危机时代,我国正处于经济增长速度换挡期、结构调整阵痛期、前期刺激政策消化期三期叠加的区段,宏观经济运行的复杂性、艰巨性和不确定性超乎各方预期。同时,美国、欧盟等主要经济体都纷纷提出将企业回归实体经济的口号,实施“再工业化”战略。这些国际、国内经济社会形势均对中小实体企业的经济环境产生巨大影响。从社会经济状况和国家经济政策两方面分析了当前中小实体企业的经济环境状况,以及影响中小实体企业经济环境的原因,并提出了对策建议。

  20. Staying Relevant and Current with Online Learning in an Increasingly Global and Competitive Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Lynch

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the success of online learning in the workplace with corporate partners through Open Universities Australia (OUA. OUA is recognized as the national leader in online higher education in Australia with over 200,000 students studying with OUA since 1993. The corporate program helps employees formalize or extend their current skills, reach the next level in their organization or pursue relevant interests through tertiary studies. The business sector sees OUA as a highly attractive solution to fostering a culture of professional development, engagement and inclusiveness.

  1. Method for transferring data between at least one lagrangian buoy for measuring currents for ocean and costal environments and a base station, and lagrangian buoy for measuring currents for ocean and costal environments

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Ledesma, Miquel; Álvarez, Alberto; Vizoso, Guillermo; Tintoré, Joaquín

    2011-01-01

    [EN] Method for transferring data between at least one lagrangian buoy for measuring currents for ocean and coastal environments and a base station, which comprises capturing data by the buoy by means of the parameter-measuring sensors and the GPS receiver and storing said data in a first file which is segmented into packets of a maximum length defined by the SBD Iridium protocol for the subsequent sending thereof to the base station. The invention also relates to the lagrangian buoy for meas...

  2. The Impact of Neighborhood Social and Built Environment Factors across the Cancer Continuum: Current Research, Methodologic Considerations, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Shariff-Marco, Salma; De Rouen, Mindy; Keegan, Theresa H. M.; Yen, Irene H.; Mujahid, Mahasin; Satariano, William A.; Glaser, Sally L.

    2015-01-01

    Neighborhood social and built environments have been recognized as important contexts in which health is shaped. We review the extent to which these neighborhood factors have been addressed in population-level cancer research, with a scan of the literature for research that focuses on specific social and/or built environment characteristics and association with outcomes across the cancer continuum, including incidence, diagnosis, treatment, survivorship, and survival. We discuss commonalities and differences in methodologies across studies, current challenges in research methodology, and future directions in this research area. The assessment of social and built environment factors in relation to cancer is a relatively new field, with 82% of 34 reviewed papers published since 2010. Across the wide range of social and built environment exposures and cancer outcomes considered by the studies, numerous associations were reported. However, the directions and magnitudes of association varied, due in large part to the variation in cancer sites and outcomes being studied, but also likely due to differences in study populations, geographical region, and, importantly, choice of neighborhood measure and geographic scale. We recommend that future studies consider the life course implications of cancer incidence and survival, integrate secondary and self-report data, consider work neighborhood environments, and further develop analytical and statistical approaches appropriate to the geospatial and multilevel nature of the data. Incorporating social and built environment factors into research on cancer etiology and outcomes can provide insights into disease processes, identify vulnerable populations, and generate results with translational impact of relevance for interventionists and policy makers. PMID:25847484

  3. The current state of workers' pneumoconiosis in relationship to dusty working environments in Okayama Prefecture, Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takigawa T

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This study involved the examination of 1,006 chest x-ray films of workers from the industries devoted to shipyard welding, stone grinding, and refractory crushing in southern Okayama prefecture. Of the reviewed films, analysis was focused on subjects with a profusion rate of 0/1 as well as pneumoconiotic subjects (exhibiting profusion rates of 1/0 or greater in order to discover cases in the beginning stages. One-hundred-and-seventy-four films illustrated a profusion rate of 0/1 or greater, and the proportion of this profusion rate was revealed to be highest in shipyard welders. Even some workers under 40 years of age were found to have already developed pneumoconiosis. Of these 1,006 subjects, 30 volunteers permitted us to measure their personal dust exposure concentrations. The measured concentration of the shipyard welders' dust exposure (respirable dust; 3.3 86.3 mg/m3, total dust; 7.5-117.0 mg/m3 was higher than those of the other 2 industries. Statistical differences among the industries were observed in the respirable dust concentrations. A statistically significant positive correlation was demonstrated between the working duration in dusty environments and the rate of profusion. The present findings suggest the need for taking adequate measures in Okayama in order to prevent workers from developing, or to help retard the progression of, pneumoconiosis.

  4. Economic Opening of the Hermit Kingdom: Current Status and Future Tasks of the New SEZs in North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Woon Lee

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Establishing new SEZs, along with improving foreign relationships, is treated as the most important policy measure for opening the North Korean economy. Recently, North Korea has shown its interest in promoting two new SEZs, the Gaeseong industrial park and the Shinuiju special administrative region. Thanks to their locational merits, Gaeseong and Shinuiju have the potential to develop into thriving SEZs through subregional economic cooperation with bordering areas. Although the path toward success for North Korea's new SEZs is full of hurdles, it would result in a major boost to the country's economic rehabilitation and create a spillover effect for the rest of North Korea. In this context, this article examines the issues regarding North Korea's new special economic zones. It presents the recent progress and institutional arrangements of the Shinuiju SEZ and Gaeseong industrial park, while also exploring their potential to facilitate North Korea's economic rehabilitation and inter-Korean cooperation. This article also endeavors to address major problems that North Korea needs to resolve in order to activate its new SEZs.

  5. Economics and resources analysis of the potential use of reprocessing options by the current Spanish nuclear reactor park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Merino Rodriguez, I.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.

    2014-07-01

    Reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel serves multiple purposes, from Pu separation and recovery for MOX fuel fabrication to reduction of high level waste volume, and is nowadays being implemented in several countries like France, Japan, Russia or United Kingdom. This work is aimed at exploring the possibility (in resources and economic terms) of implementing reprocessing for MOX fabrication in Spain. (Author)

  6. High Temperature Corrosion studies on Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welded Alloy C-276 in Molten Salt Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, M.; Arivarasu, M.; Arivazhagan, N.; Puneeth, T.; Sivakumar, N.; Murugan, B. Arul; Sathishkumar, M.; Sivalingam, S.

    2016-09-01

    Alloy C-276 is widely used in the power plant environment due to high strength and corrosion in highly aggressive environment. The investigation on high- temperature corrosion resistance of the alloy C-276 PCGTA weldment is necessary for prolonged service lifetime of the components used in corrosive environments. Investigation has been carried out on Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welding by autogenous and different filler wires (ERNiCrMo-3 and ERNiCrMo-4) under molten state of K2SO4-60% NaCl environment at 675oC under cyclic condition. Thermogravimetric technique was used to establish the kinetics of corrosion. Weight gained in the molten salt reveals a steady-state parabolic rate law while the kinetics with salt deposits displays multi-stage growth rates. PCGTA ERNiCrMo-3 shows the higher parabolic constant compared to others. The scale formed on the weldment samples upon hot corrosion was characterized by using X-ray diffraction, SEM and EDAX analysis to understand the degradation mechanisms. From the results of the experiment the major phases are identified as Cr2O3, Fe2O3, and NiCr2O4. The result showed that weld fabricated by ERNiCrMo-3 found to be more prone to degradation than base metal and ERNiCrMo-4 filler wire due to higher segregation of alloying element of Mo and W in the weldment

  7. Is dabigatran considered a cost-effective alternative to warfarin treatment: a review of current economic evaluations worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselbjerg, Louise Justesen; Pedersen, Heidi Sjoelund; Asmussen, Mikael Bergholdt; Petersen, Karin Dam

    2013-07-01

    Dabigatran was the first of a new generation of anticoagulation drugs for the indication of non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) to be approved. Evidence show that dabigatran 150 mg twice daily significantly reduces the risk of stroke and systemic embolism (RR = 0.65; p economic evaluations of these alternatives for healthcare professionals to include these findings in their decision-making. A systematic literature search identified 43 economic evaluations, of which 10 were included and evaluated according to the Consensus Health Economic Criteria list (CHEC-list) and the Oxford model. Six economic evaluations concluded that dabigatran was a cost-effective alternative to warfarin. One evaluation concluded the same except when quality in warfarin treatment was excellent, with a mean time in therapeutic range (TTR) > 73%. Three evaluations concluded that dabigatran was a cost-effective alternative to warfarin in patient sub-groups; TTR ≤ 64%, congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥ 75, diabetes mellitus, prior stroke or transient ischemic attack (CHADS2 score) ≥3, or a CHADS2 score = 2 unless international normalized ratio (INR) control was excellent, and with high risk of stroke or in a low-quality warfarin treatment. Dabigatran 110 mg twice daily was in general dominated by dabigatran 150 mg twice daily. The evaluations were not fully homogeneous, as some did not include loss of productivity, costs of dyspepsia, and annual costs of dabigatran patient management. In the majority of the economic evaluations, dabigatran is a cost-effective alternative to warfarin treatment. In some evaluations dabigatran is only cost-effective in sub-groups, such as patients with a low TTR-value in warfarin treatment and a CHADS2 score ≥2.

  8. Induced current density in the foetus of pregnant workers in high magnetic field environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, C; Wood, A W; Dovan, T

    2004-12-01

    There are moves to limit by legislation the amount of electric and magnetic fields that workers and the general public are exposed to. In work locations near wiring, cables & equipment carrying high electric currents, there are situations in which the proposed magnetic field limits could be exceeded. Since the limits for the general public are more conservative than those for workers and since the foetus or a pregnant worker should be afforded the status of a member of the general public, it is important to assess a worst-case scenario for the purposes of a general code of practice. Three different magnetic field exposures are modelled, which include the worst case - the body of a pregnant woman at a smallest distance of 30 cm to the conductor. All computations were done by using Multiple Multipole Program (MMP), which is based on the Generalized Multipole Technique (GMT) from ETH (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology), Zurich, Switzerland. In a worst-case scenario the proposed basic restrictions would be exceeded slightly in both maternal and foetal tissue. With appropriate pre-placement assessment, these over-exposures can be avoided.

  9. Report: the current situation of sanitary landfills in Brazil and the importance of the application of economic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Raul Oliveira; Petter, Carlos Otávio; Cortina, José Luis

    2009-12-01

    We present the development stage of the sanitary landfills in Brazil in the context of urban solid residue management, demonstrating the necessity and importance of the employment of economic models. In the article, a cost estimate model is proposed as the basis for studies to be applied by sector management, including the city council, companies, consultants and engineers, contributing to the choice of new areas, public bids, municipal consortia and private public partnerships.

  10. Report: the current situation of sanitary landfills in Brazil and the importance of the application of economic models

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Neto, Raúl; Otávio Petter, Carlos; Cortina Pallás, José Luís

    2009-01-01

    We present the development stage of the sanitary landfills in Brazil in the context of urban solid residue management, demonstrating the necessity and importance of the employment of economic models. In the article, a cost estimate model is proposed as the basis for studies to be applied by sector management, including the city council, companies, consultants and engineers, contributing to the choice of new areas, public bids, municipal consortia and private public partnerships. Peer Re...

  11. STARLITE figures of merit for tokamak current drive -- Economic analysis of pulsed and steady state power plants with various engineering and physics performance parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehst, D.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Jardin, S.; Kessel, C. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.

    1995-10-01

    The physics efficiency of current drive ({gamma}{sub B} {proportional_to} n{sub e} I{sub 0} R{sub 0}/P{sub CD}), including the bootstrap effect, needs to exceed certain goals in order to provide economical steady state operation compared to pulsed power plants. The goal for {gamma}{sub B} depends not only on engineering performance of the current drive system, but also on normalized beta and the effective safety factor of the achievable MHD equilibrium.

  12. Starlite figures of merit for tokamak current drive - economic analysis of pulsed and steady state power plants with various engineering and physics performance parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehst, D.A.

    1995-09-01

    The physics efficiency of current drive ({gamma}{sub B} {proportional_to} n{sub e} I{sub o} R{sub o}/P{sub CD}), including the bootstrap effect, needs to exceed certain goals in order to provide economical steady state operation compared to pulsed power plants. The goal for {gamma}{sub B} depends not only on engineering performance of the current drive system, but also on normalized beta and the effective safety factor of the achievable MHD equilibrium.

  13. Legacy and currently used pesticides in the atmospheric environment of Lake Victoria, East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinaitwe, Kenneth; Kiremire, Bernard T; Muir, Derek C G; Fellin, Phil; Li, Henrik; Teixeira, Camilla; Mubiru, Drake N

    2016-02-01

    The Lake Victoria watershed has extensive agricultural activity with a long history of pesticide use but there is limited information on historical use or on environmental levels. To address this data gap, high volume air samples were collected from two sites close to the northern shore of Lake Victoria; Kakira (KAK) and Entebbe (EBB). The samples, to be analyzed for pesticides, were collected over various periods between 1999 and 2004 inclusive (KAK 1999-2000, KAK 2003-2004, EBB 2003 and EBB 2004 sample sets) and from 2008 to 2010 inclusive (EBB 2008, EBB 2009 and EBB 2010 sample sets). The latter sample sets (which also included precipitation samples) were also analyzed for currently used pesticides (CUPs) including chlorpyrifos, chlorthalonil, metribuzin, trifluralin, malathion and dacthal. Chlorpyrifos was the predominant CUP in air samples with average concentrations of 93.5, 26.1 and 3.54 ng m(-3) for the EBB 2008, 2009, 2010 sample sets, respectively. Average concentrations of total endosulfan (ΣEndo), total DDT related compounds (ΣDDTs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (ΣHCHs) ranged from 12.3-282, 22.8-130 and 3.72-81.8 pg m(-3), respectively, for all the sample sets. Atmospheric prevalence of residues of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) increased with fresh emissions of endosulfan, DDT and lindane. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and dieldrin were also detected in air samples. Transformation products, pentachloroanisole, 3,4,5-trichloroveratrole and 3,4,5,6-tetrachloroveratrole, were also detected. The five most prevalent compounds in the precipitation samples were in the order chlorpyrifos>chlorothalonil>ΣEndo>ΣDDTs>ΣHCHs with average fluxes of 1123, 396, 130, 41.7 and 41.3 ng m(-2)sample(-1), respectively. PeCB exceeded HCB in precipitation samples. The reverse was true for air samples. Backward air trajectories suggested transboundary and local emission sources of the analytes. The results underscore the need for a concerted

  14. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We define an evolutionary process of “economic Darwinism” for playing-the-field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is “economic selection”: if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-) activity than does Nash equilibrium...

  15. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, B.; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    We define an evolutionary process of "economic Darwinism" for playing the field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is "economic selection": if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-)activity than does Nash equilibrium....

  16. 区域文化对市场经济环境形成的影响研究%The Impact of Regional Culture on Market Economic Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佑林; 台晓东

    2015-01-01

    Regional culture plays an important role in the formation of the environment of market economy.This paper first profoundly analyzes the functional mechanism of regional culture on the environment of market economy.On the basis of this,by combining the re-ality of China's regional economic development,it discusses comprehensively the function routes of regional culture on the environment of market economy.The discussion is on the influence of political culture on political institutional reform,of economic culture on eco-nomic organizational innovation,of ethnic culture on the founding of the environment of competition,and of religious culture on the cul-tivation of scientific awareness.All these show that regional culture exerts an endogenic impact on the formation of market environment.%区域文化对市场经济环境的形成具有重要的作用。在深入分析区域文化对市场经济环境形成作用机理的基础上,结合我国区域经济发展实际,从政治文化对政治体制变革的影响,经济文化对经济组织创新的影响,伦理文化对竞争环境建立的影响,以及宗教文化对科学意识培养的影响等四个方面,论述了区域文化对市场经济环境形成的作用路径,说明区域文化对市场环境的形成具有内源性的影响。

  17. Global'naja jenergeticheskaja i jekologicheskaja bezopasnost' v uslovijah sovremennogo mirovogo jekonomicheskogo krizisa [Global energy and environmental security in the current global economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosov Yuri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problems of the environmental impact of energy. Further reduction of this impact on the global environment can be achieved two ways. The short-term one implies the increase in energy efficiency. In the next 15—20 years, the increase in efficiency should become a priority of the energy policy of all states. The long-term one is based on the gradual expansion of renewable energy. This method is aimed to avoid further economic and energy crises. At the same time, it has an important environmental aspect. Experts claim that the new area of global energy should be less costly than the traditional ones.

  18. Global'naja jenergeticheskaja i jekologicheskaja bezopasnost' v uslovijah sovremennogo mirovogo jekonomicheskogo krizisa [Global energy and environmental security in the current global economic crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Kosov Yuri; Mallon V.

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the problems of the environmental impact of energy. Further reduction of this impact on the global environment can be achieved two ways. The short-term one implies the increase in energy efficiency. In the next 15—20 years, the increase in efficiency should become a priority of the energy policy of all states. The long-term one is based on the gradual expansion of renewable energy. This method is aimed to avoid further economic and energy crises. At the same time, it ha...

  19. CURRENT TRENDS OF THE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION. THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMPETITIVE ECONOMIC AGGLOMERATIONS OF CLUSTER TYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA CISMAŞ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of economic agents’ behaviour, whose nowadays tendency is togroup themselves in space as clusters, has an important place in the field of localizing industrialactivities. This is due to domestic scale economies, known as agglomerations economies.According to Edgar M. Hoover (Hoover, 1948, domestic scale economies are specific tocompanies; the economies of localizing - to a certain branch, whose companies form clusters incertain geographical arias, and the urbanization economies are specific to cities, where thereare clusters of companies from different branches. The specialty literature regarding localeconomic development, based on the idea of cluster starts from well-known economic theories,such as: agglomeration theory (Alfred Marshall, the theory of spatial localizing of industrialunits (Alfred Weber, the theory of interdependence of locations (Harold Hotelling, the diamondtheory (Michael Porter, the theory of entrepreneurship (Joseph Schumpeter, the theory ofgeographical concentration. Basically, the common point which links them are the conceptswhich occur in these theories, such as: industrial district, industrial agglomeration, spatialinterdependence, concepts which lie at the basis of the cluster idea. Clusters represent animportant instrument for promoting industrial development, innovation, competitiveness andeconomic growth. If, at the beginning, the effort to develop clusters belonged to private personsand companies, nowadays, the actors involved in their development are the governments andpublic institutions of national or regional level.The objective established within the Lisbon Strategy (2000, to make the EuropeanUnion “the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy”, is tightly linked to thenew approaches of the European economic policy, to competitiveness. One of the policies isfocused on developing at the European Union level clusters in the high competitiveness fields. with an innovative character

  20. The current economic problems of co-ordination Analysis%目前经济问题统筹试析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田富强

    2013-01-01

    Reasonable disposal of hot economic problems requires strategic planning, in inflationary pressures, the timely start of the income doubling plan, and popularity of social security, in order to stabilize prices and reduce the pressure of RMB appreciation.%  目前热点经济问题的合理处置需要战略筹划,在通胀压力下,适时启动收入倍增计划,并普及社保,以平抑房价,减轻人民币升值压力。

  1. A review on emerging contaminants in wastewaters and the environment: current knowledge, understudied areas and recommendations for future monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Bruce; Barden, Ruth; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    of using an integrated analytical approach which compliments targeted and non-targeted screening with biological assays to measure ecological impact. With respect to current toxicity testing protocols, failure to consider the enantiomeric distribution of chiral compounds found in the environment, and the possible toxicological differences between enantiomers is concerning. Such information is essential for the development of more accurate environmental risk assessment.

  2. REDISCOVERING MISES-HAYEK MONETARY AND BUSINESS CYCLE THEORY IN LIGHT OF THE CURRENT CRISIS: CREDIT EXPANSION AS A SOURCE OF ECONOMIC BOOM AND BUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Mrowiec

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article starts with a brief description of Mises’ monetary theory, with emphasis on the Misesian differentiation of two kinds of credit: commodity and circulation credit, and with the description of the impact of circulation credit expansion on the business cycle. Further on it is described how Mises’ insights constituted the kernel of Austrian Business Cycle Theory, and how the same observations on the nature of credit constituted the kernel of the Chicago Plan (though Mises’ views on the nature of credit led him to different conculsions than it led the authors of the Chicago Plan, and how this plan is being “rediscovered” now. The following sections deal with observations of one of the preeminent current macroeconomic researches, Mr. Claudio Borio, on the elasticity of credit as the source of the current crisis, and on the importance of the financial cycle in analysing the current economic crisis. The author of this text demonstrates that Austrian Business Cycle Theory gave the same answer regarding the sources of economic crises that now modern macroeconomic theory seems to be approaching, and that the postulates for successful financial cycle modeling are already included in the ABCT. Finally, some observations on the current crisis, as well as proposals of avenues of further research are proposed.

  3. The current state of the economics relations of South Korean and Latin America: new paradigm and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Ho Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic relationship between South Korea and Latin America has accelerated since the 1990s, and deepened in the 21st century. While this relationship is characterized by ‘inter-industrial trade’ because of their complementary industrial structures, South Korea has the largest share of its exports to the region out its total exports, among the countries of the Asia-Pacific. Furthermore, the rapid expansion of Korean-Latin American trade in the 21st century is owed to the sustained growth of Latin American economies with consumer demand, infrastructure, and inputs and spare parts, to the free trade agreements between South Korea and its Latin American trade partners, Korean direct investments and development cooperation programs. These new dimensions of relationships are part of a new paradigm. However, since in the Latin American region three different development strategies exist, it is required on the part of the Korean side a more sophisticated policy toward the region. The future of Korean- Latin American economic relations depends on better mutual understanding of the respective interests, which are based on recognition of different development experiences.

  4. An assessment of the EU-Chinese bilateral relationship under the current economic and geostrategic context. Romania's position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Monica Oehler-Şincai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available China stands out as a rising economic power. Its leap in international hierarchies is remarkable both in terms of GDP, international trade and investment flows and qualitative indicators. Based on these developments, China is increasingly assertive, both regionally and internationally. At the global level, China's assertiveness is revealed by the largest project ever launched by a single country: One Belt, One Road (OBOR. It represents "a strategic priority" of the Chinese leaders, motivated by economic and geopolitical factors, internal and external determinants. This initiative includes cooperation with over 70 countries and international organizations from Asia to Europe and Africa. At the same time, it involves growing coordination among the countries in terms of policies, increasing financial integration, promoting trade and investment, fostering connectivity through infrastructure projects, and encouraging the movement of people and cultural exchanges. This initiative, as well as the platform for cooperation with 16 countries in Central and Eastern Europe (16+1 have opened on the one hand new ways of enhancing the bilateral EU-China, but on the other hand an unjustified competition between EU countries for financial resources Chinese, although the EU-China strategic partnership, OBOR and 16+1 can benefit all countries involved, given their competitive advantages. Romania, as a member country of the EU and participant at the platform 16+1 should take into account both such new opportunities and the need for an active cooperation with all countries.

  5. Geroscience: Addressing the mismatch between its exciting research opportunities, its economic imperative and its current funding crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, George M

    2016-11-19

    There is at present a huge disconnect between levels of funding for basic research on fundamental mechanisms of biological aging and, given demographic projections, the anticipated enormous social and economic impacts of a litany of chronic diseases for which aging is by far the major risk factor: One valuable approach, recently instigated by Felipe Sierra & colleagues at the US National Institute on Aging, is the development of a Geroscience Interest Group among virtually all of the NIH institutes. A complementary approach would be to seek major escalations of private funding. The American Federation for Aging Research, the Paul Glenn Foundation and the Ellison Medical Foundation pioneered efforts by the private sector to provide substantial supplements to public sources of funding. It is time for our community to organize efforts towards the enhancements of such crucial contributions, especially in support of the emerging generation of young investigators, many of whom are leaving our ranks to seek alternative employment. To do so, we must provide potential donors with strong economic, humanitarian and scientific rationales. An initial approach to such efforts is briefly outlined in this manuscript as a basis for wider discussions within our community.

  6. Economic Theory, Economic Reality And Economic Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Evgenievich Sorokin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the opposition between the «liberals» and «statists» in the Russian political and economic thought. It demonstrates that the economic liberalization is an absolute prerequisite for the transition to sustainable socio-economic development. Such development must rely on investment activities of the state, which in the current circumstances is a necessary but not sufficient measure for reversing the negative trends. The negative developments can be prevented only through implementation, along with the institutional changes in the economic area that form a strata of economically independent entrepreneurs-innovators, of no less profound transformation in political institutions aimed at democratization of public life

  7. A CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OIL PRICES CURRENT ACCOUNT DEFICIT, AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS FROM FRAGILE FIVE COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuksel BAYRAKTAR

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to determine the impact of oil prices in the Fragile-Five countries (Brazil, Indonesia, South Africa, India, and Turkey on current account deficit and growth. In this study, the method of panel data analysis was used and the period of 1980-2014 was examined. The Levin, Lin, & Chu panel; Im, Pesaran, and Shin W-stat; ADF-Fisher Chi-square; and PP-Fisher Chi-square unit root tests were used to determine the stability of data before panel data analysis. The results of the study can be expressed as follows. i There was a statistically meaningful relationship in oil prices with both GDP and the current account deficit. While there was a positive correlation between oil prices and GDP, there was a negative relationship between oil prices and current account deficit. ii No long-term relationship was found between GDP and oil prices; there was a long-term relationship between current account deficit and oil prices as determined by the cointegration tests. iii Causality test also showed the presence of a bidirectional relationship between GDP and oil prices.  Causality between oil prices and the current account deficit was one-way from the variable of oil price to the variable of current account deficit.

  8. An Appraisal on the Earlier Euro Adoption by the New Member States in the Frame of the Current Global Economic and Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floarea Iordache

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The pathway of the new member states towards the euro area was stopped, but not modified by the current world economic crisis. Their inflation declined but the fiscal status suffered. On the verge of thefinancial crisis, the European Central Bank overruled the Central and Eastern European member states’ intentions for an earlier adoption of the euro, requiring compliance with the Maastricht criteria. The objective of this paper is to analyze the main proposed solutions and to draw attention on the most suitable ones in keeping with the particular features of these countries. Our conclusion is that fast results on the euro adoption will definitely depend on the fiscal consolidation, the soundness of global economic rehabilitation, the capital availability, and the domestic policies. The nature of the approached problems and the authors’ experience recommend this study, both for researchers and practitioners.

  9. The power of science economic research and European decision-making : the case of energy and environment policies

    CERN Document Server

    Rossetti di Valdalbero, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    This book highlights the interaction between science and politics and between research in economics and European Union policy-making. It focuses on the use of Quantitative tools, Top-down and Bottom-up models in up-stream European decision-making process through five EU policy case studies: energy taxation, climate change, energy efficiency, renewable energy, and internalisation of external costs.

  10. Impacts of terrain attributes on economics and the environment: Costs of reducing potential nitrogen pollution in wheat production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The economic cost of achieving desired environmental outcomes from uniform and variable rate fertilizer application technologies depends both on market forces and agronomic properties. Using spatial econometric methods, we analyze the impact of nitrogen fertilizer supply by terrain attribute on the...

  11. Assessing the Impact of Changing Economic Environment on Productivity Growth: The Case of the Spanish Dairy Processing Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapelko, Magdalena; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Stefanou, S.E.

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the productivity growth of the Spanish dairy processing industry from 1996 till 2011, which concerns the period of increased EU regulation regarding food safety as well as economic crisis. Data envelopment analysis is used to compute the Malmquist index and its components. The

  12. The Influence of Changes in the Market Environment on Economic Production Characteristics of Pangasius Farming in the Mekong Delta (Vietnam)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binh, Van T.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Speelman, S.; Haese, D' L.

    2010-01-01

    The Mekong Delta in Vietnam has become an important production area for pangasius. The importance of the sector in providing an income to many households means that it is relevant to study its economic production characteristics. In this article we use a stochastic cost frontier model to assess the

  13. Do neighborhood economic characteristics, racial composition, and residential stability predict perceptions of stress associated with the physical and social environment? Findings from a multilevel analysis in Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Amy J; Zenk, Shannon N; Israel, Barbara A; Mentz, Graciela; Stokes, Carmen; Galea, Sandro

    2008-09-01

    As the body of evidence linking disparities in the health of urban residents to disparate social, economic and environmental contexts grows, efforts to delineate the pathways through which broader social and economic inequalities influence health have burgeoned. One hypothesized pathway connects economic and racial and ethnic inequalities to differentials in stress associated with social and physical environments, with subsequent implications for health. Drawing on data from Detroit, Michigan, we examined contributions of neighborhood-level characteristics (e.g., poverty rate, racial and ethnic composition, residential stability) and individual-level characteristics (e.g., age, gender) to perceived social and physical environmental stress. We found that neighborhood percent African American was positively associated with perceptions of both social and physical environmental stress; neighborhood percent poverty and percent Latino were positively associated with perceived physical environmental stress; and neighborhood residential stability was negatively associated with perceived social environmental stress. At the individual level, whites perceived higher levels of both social and physical environmental stress compared to African American residents of the same block groups, after accounting for other variables included in the models. Our findings suggest the importance of understanding and addressing contributions of neighborhood structural characteristics to perceptions of neighborhood stress. The consistency of the finding that neighborhood racial composition and individual-level race influence perceptions of both social and physical environments suggests the continuing importance of understanding the role played by structural conditions and by personal and collective histories that vary systematically by race and ethnicity within the United States.

  14. Integration Processes in the Global Economy: Current State and Prospects. The Cases of the European Union, ASEAN Economic Community, and NAFTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witkowska Janina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to determine the current state of the integration processes in the global economy and prognosticate on the foreseeable changes in this phenomenon in the upcoming. Will they be divergence from or continuity with the past trends in the global economy in this field? The article examines three regional integration groupings, i.e. the European Union, ASEAN Economic Community, and NAFTA. The analysis makes it possible to conclude that all of these groupings/organizations are encountering some problems. In the case of the EU, these are mainly: the two – speed integration process as far as a monetary union is concerned; serious negative consequences of the global financial crisis for the socio-economic cohesion of the EU-28; as well as a worsening position in the world trade in goods and services and in the total global gross capital inflows. The problems of the ASEAN Economic Community seem to be connected with some discrepancies between the political will in favour of deepening integration among member states and the real economic difficulties involved in attaining higher stages of integration among a group of countries extremely differentiated in their economic development. NAFTA’s problems also lie in the asymmetrical development between member states, as well as in the lessening importance of the integration within the organization for the member states, which results from the putting into effect numerous other FTAs. The growing openness of all the analyzed integration groupings, being in line with the globalization process, seems to be a future characteristic of integration processes in the global economy.

  15. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We define an evolutionary process of “economic Darwinism” for playing-the-field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is “economic selection”: if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced by a...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-) activity than does Nash equilibrium......We define an evolutionary process of “economic Darwinism” for playing-the-field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is “economic selection”: if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...

  16. Assessing the effects of urbanization on the environment with soil legacy and current-use insecticides: a case study in the Pearl River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yan-Li; Bao, Lian-Jun; Wu, Chen-Chou; He, Zai-Cheng; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the impacts of anthropogenic events on the rapid urbanized environment, the levels of legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and current-use insecticides (CUPs), i.e., dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), pyrethroids and organophosphates in soil of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and surrounding areas were examined. Spatial concentration distributions of legacy OCPs and CUPs shared similar patterns, with higher concentrations occurred in the central PRD with more urbanization level than that in the PRD's surrounding areas. Furthermore, relatively higher concentrations of OCPs and CUPs were found in the residency land than in other land-use types, which may be attributed to land-use change under rapid urbanization. Moderate correlations between gross domestic production or population density and insecticide levels in fifteen administrative districts indicated that insecticide spatial distributions may be driven by economic prosperity. The soil-air diffusive exchanges of DDTs and HCHs demonstrated that soil was a sink of atmospheric o,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDD and o,p'-DDT, and was a secondary source of HCHs and p,p'-DDT to atmosphere. The soil inventories of DDTs and HCHs (100 ± 134 and 83 ± 70 tons) were expected to decrease to half of their current values after 18 and 13 years, respectively, whereas the amounts of pyrethroids and organophosphates (39 and 6.2 tons) in soil were estimated to decrease after 4 and 2 years and then increase to 87 and 1.0 tons after 100 years. In this scenario, local residents in the PRD and surrounding areas will expose to the high health risk for pyrethroids by 2109. Strict ban on the use of technical DDTs and HCHs and proper training of famers to use insecticides may be the most effective ways to alleviate the health effect of soil contamination.

  17. Corrosion Behavior of X80 Steel with Coupled Coating Defects under Alternating Current Interference in Alkaline Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Li, Caiyu; Qian, Hongchang; Li, Jun; Huang, Liang; Du, Cuiwei

    2017-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of X80 steel in the presence of coupled coating defects was simulated and studied under the interference of alternating current (AC) in an alkaline environment. The results from electrochemical measurements showed that the electrode potential of the coating defect with the smaller exposed area was lower than that with the larger area, which indicated that the steel with the smaller coating defect was more prone to corrosion. The result of weight loss tests also showed that the smaller coating defect had induced a higher corrosion rate. However, the corrosion rate of X80 steel at the larger coating defect decreased gradually with the increase of the larger defect area at a constant smaller defect area. The corrosion morphology images showed that the coating defects with smaller areas suffered from more severe pitting corrosion. PMID:28773078

  18. Current asthma, respiratory symptoms and airway infections among students in relation to the school and home environment in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Motoko; Suzuki, Kyoko; Norbäck, Dan

    2017-08-01

    To study associations between the school and home environment and current asthma, respiratory symptoms and airway infections among Japanese students. Japanese students (12-15 y) (N = 1048) in four schools responded to a questionnaire on respiratory health, allergy and the home environment. Temperature, relative air humidity (RH) and student density (students/m(2) floor area) was measured in the classrooms: dust was collected from floors and in classroom air and analysed for cat (Fel d 1) and dog (Can f 1) allergens. Health associations were analysed by multi-level logistic regression. Doctor's diagnosed asthma was common (13.4%), 8.8% reported cat allergy and 6.1% dog allergy. The median level in floor dust was 41 ng/g (IQR 23-92) for Fel d 1 and 101 ng/g (IQR 54-101) for Can f 1. The median level in air was 18.6 ng/ m(2)/ day (IQR5.9-25.1) for Fel d 1 and 18.6 ng/ m(2)/ day (IQR 6.0-13.3) for Can f 1. High RH, high student density and airborne cat allergen was associated with airway infections. In the home environment, recent indoor painting, new floor materials, odour, having cats as pets, window pane condensation in winter, and dampness in floor construction were associated with respiratory illness. High relative air humidity, high student density and airborne cat allergens at school may increase the risk of airway infections. Having cats as pets, chemical emissions from paint and new floor materials, odour and dampness can constitute domestic risk factors for respiratory symptoms while having dogs as pets could be protective.

  19. How could differences in 'control over destiny' lead to socio-economic inequalities in health? A synthesis of theories and pathways in the living environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Margaret; Pennington, Andy; Orton, Lois; Nayak, Shilpa; Petticrew, Mark; Sowden, Amanda; White, Martin

    2016-05-01

    We conducted the first synthesis of theories on causal associations and pathways connecting degree of control in the living environment to socio-economic inequalities in health-related outcomes. We identified the main theories about how differences in 'control over destiny' could lead to socio-economic inequalities in health, and conceptualised these at three distinct explanatory levels: micro/personal; meso/community; and macro/societal. These levels are interrelated but have rarely been considered together in the disparate literatures in which they are located. This synthesis of theories provides new conceptual frameworks to contribute to the design and conduct of theory-led evaluations of actions to tackle inequalities in health.

  20. A reappraisal of transport aircraft needs 1985 - 2000: Perceptions of airline management in a changing economic, regulatory, and technological environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, F. A.

    1982-01-01

    Views of the executives of 24 major, national, regional, and commuter airlines concerning the effect of recent regulatory, economic, and technological changes on the roles they see for their airlines, and consequent changes in their plans for acquiring aircraft for the 1985 to 2000 period were surveyed. Differing perceptions on the economic justification for new-technology jets in the context of the carriers' present and projected financial conditions are outlined. After examining the cases for new or intermediate size jets, the study discusses turboprop powered transports, including the carriers' potential interest in an advanced technology, high-speed turboprop or prop-fan. Finally, the implications of foreign competition are examined in terms of each carrier's evaluation of the quality and financial offerings, as well as possible 'Buy American' policy predisposition.

  1. The Conduciveness of the South African Economic Environment and Small, Medium and Micro Enterprise Sustainability: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Pierré BRUWER

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1980s Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs have been regarded as the driving forces of both developing and developed economies around the world. In a South African dispensation, SMMEs are responsible for adding imperative socio-economic value to the country, particularly in terms of eradicating poverty and diminishing unemployment levels. By doing so, these business entities are believed to contribute at least 50% to the national Gross Domestic Product. Albeit the aforementioned, previous research studies report that up to 75% of South African SMMEs fail after being in existence for only 42 months. Though the latter dispensation has been blamed on many economic factors, over the years the sustainability of South African SMMEs has not improved to a great extent. In order to provide insight on the latter dispensation, this literature review paper was conducted to ultimately formulate two hypotheses for further empirical testing.

  2. Dilemmas of economic interest versus protection of human health and the environment influenced by the need to manage innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Hoppenbrouwers, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    The actual economic situation and the growing awareness of environmental and health concerns are at the basis of an increasing number of innovative projects. Inherent to the innovative character of these initiatives is the uncertainty on possible risks and their influence on the actual societal organization. It is important that before bringing innovations to the market, or trying to remediate existing problems, regulation should happen in order to avoid irreparable damage or negative impact ...

  3. Utilization of e-Logistics in multinational companies to overcome difficulties of today’s economic environment

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei ANGHELUŢĂ; COSTEA Carmen

    2010-01-01

    As the incredible growth of the Internet is changing the way corporations conduct their business. Logistics service providers must consider changing their traditional logistics system into an e-Logistics system in order to accommodate to the dynamic changes in the commercial world. The purpose of this study is to provide a better understanding of how organizations utilize e-Logistics within their supply chain and how to create a competitive advantage during the economic crisis so that losses ...

  4. Wind turbines in your environment? Wind turbines and economic aspects; Des eoliennes dans votre environnement? Eoliennes et aspects economiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    The wind energy industry has demonstrated its maturity and technical reliability. Because it will play an increasing role on the power generation market, the question of the cost and profitability of the wind energy has become of prime importance. Two main traps must be avoided: the first should be to deny the present and future economical interest of wind energy because of its supplementary cost with respect to conventional power generation techniques. The second trap should be to underestimate the economical progresses that wind energy must carry on to ensure its large scale development. Therefore, some advantageous pricing and regulatory conditions are necessary to allow the development of this emerging energy source. This document presents: the cost of a wind power project (initial investment, financial incentives); the profitability of a project (cost of a kWh of wind power origin, retail price, warranty of power supply capacity, indirect environmental costs, value of decentralized production); economical interest of wind power (energy efficiency, employment, financial advantages for the local economy); and who are the investors. (J.S.)

  5. [Current status of operations in community general support centers and the correlation of personal traits, work environment and occupational stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yoshie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the current status of operations at community general support centers which provide coordination for elderly care and the correlation of personal traits, work environment and the occupational stress of the staff. Subjects of the study were 251 staff members of community general support centers. The current status of operations at the community general support centers and the personal traits, work environment, effort-remuneration imbalance model (ERI) and general health questionnaire (GHQ) were surveyed. The initial analysis involved a comparison by a chi-square test on: The effort-remuneration ratio (E/R ratio) of personal traits and work environment, risk of over-commitment (OC), and GHQ score. To explore the correlation between the E/R ratio of the three GHQ groups (low, middle and high score groups) and the OC value, one-way analysis of variance was performed. Out of the four basic functions of the community general support centers, 22.0% of the respondents noted that "establishment of a regional, comprehensive/multi-tiered service network" was functioning, and 50.4% of respondents noted that "comprehensive and continuous care management" was functioning. The average effort score was 15.5 +/- 5.3, approximately double the average value of preceding studies. Significant differences found in GHQ scores were related to working hours (pworking hours of 50 h or more" (OR: 10.38, 95% CI: 2.52-42.70), "Unstable employment" (OR: 2.75, 95% CI: 1.22-6.21) and "Anxiety related to task content" (OR: 17.04, 95% CI: 3.57-81.24). Items observed to have significant correlation with OC value risk factors were: "Weekly working hours of 50 h or more" (OR: 8.04, 95% CI: 1.99-32.41) and "Anxiety related to task content" (OR: 4.60, 95% CI: 2.04-10.37). We conclude that the basic functions of the community general support centers are not presently very functional. The stress levels of the community general support center staff are high and

  6. North Korea's Trade Expansion with Western Countries in the Early 1970's and Its Implications on North Korea's Current Attempts at Economic Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Woon Lee

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide the analytical background of North Korea's trade expansion with Western countries in the early 1970's and examine in depth the resulting impacts on the North Korean economy. Indeed, this study explores the implications of the mechanism and consequences of North Korea's increased trade with Western countries in the 1970's for the current situation of the country's trade expansion based on the rapid increase in imports and large trade deficit. As a result of researching North Korea's economic trajectory during the 1970's within this focus, this study asserts that, despite some positive aspects, North Korea's rapid increase of foreign trade in recent years possesses the immanent possibility of generating serious obstacles to the process of economic recovery. In this vein, this paper intends to explore some policy options North Korea should choose in order to create conditions conducive to economic rehabilitation and prevent the recurrence of similar situation as experienced in the 1970's.

  7. Environmental and economic estimation of negative impact of waterproofing works and materials on environment and ability to live of the person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velichko Evgeniy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In article negative influence of waterproofing materials and works on health of people and environmental pollution is analyzed. Complex measures on maintenance of an ecological security, sanitary-and-hygienic requirements, size standards and rules both during works on a waterproof finish are resulted, and at the subsequent upkeep of buildings and premises, and also action for decrease in negative impact at carrying out of waterproofing works on a natural habitat condition, health of the workers occupied in repair-building manufacture and living. The estimation of components of the environmental and economic damage put to environment by manufacture of waterproofing works is given.

  8. OPINIONS OF ECONOMIC ENTITIES FROM BRAȘOV AND SUCEAVA COUNTIES REGARDING THE IMPORTANCE OF LEASE SERVICES FOR DEVELOPING THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana\tBĂRBULESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We herein aim at identifying some development opportunities for Romanian SMEs within a changing business environment by using the lease as a means of business financing. In this regard, we undertook a piece of quantitative marketing research using, especially, a series of descriptive and inferential statistics elements so as to meet our research objectives: highlighting the financing forms used by the economic entities in the two counties, identifying the proportion in which lease is used and describing the main constraints existing when financing companies by leasing. The research results underline the fact that the main business entities use this financing system, it being considered more advantageous than the bank loan. Moreover, we notice some differences between the two counties analysed suggesting the existence of an important influence of the local business environment.

  9. 纯交换经济环境中的双人贝叶斯机制研究%2-Person Bayesian Implementation in Pure Enchange Economic Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路璐; 张国胜

    2009-01-01

    将Dutta和Sen(1994)关于不完全信息环境中二人贝叶斯执行问题扩展到纯交换经济环境中,建立了纯交换经济的双人贝叶斯机制模型,给出当偏好关系和初始禀赋都是不完全信息环境下,一个社会选择规则贝叶斯可执行的充分条件和必要条件.%This paper will extend the results of Dutta and Sen (1994) to 2-persoin Bayesiam implementation in pure exchange economic environments. It will establish a model of 2-person Bayesion mechanism under above environments and give a sufficient and necessary condition of social choice rule that can be Bayesian implemented when the individual preferences and initial endowments are both incomplete information.

  10. Technical review and evaluation of the economics of water desalination: Current and future challenges for better water supply sustainability

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2013-01-01

    Desalination capacity has rapidly increased in the last decade because of the increase in water demand and a significant reduction in desalination cost as a result of significant technological advances, especially in the reverse osmosis process. The cost of desalinated seawater has fallen below US$0.50/m3 for a large scale seawater reverse osmosis plant at a specific location and conditions while in other locations the cost is 50% higher (US$1.00/m3) for a similar facility. In addition to capital and operating costs, other parameters such as local incentives or subsidies may also contribute to the large difference in desalted water cost between regions and facilities. Plant suppliers and consultants have their own cost calculation methodologies, but they are confidential and provide water costs with different accuracies. The few existing costing methodologies and software packages such as WTCost© and DEEP provide an estimated cost with different accuracies and their applications are limited to specific conditions. Most of the available cost estimation tools are of the black box type, which provide few details concerning the parameters and methodologies applied for local conditions. Many desalination plants built recently have greater desalinated water delivery costs caused by special circumstances, such as plant remediation or upgrades, local variation in energy costs, and site-specific issues in raw materials costs (e.g., tariffs and transportation). Therefore, the availability of a more transparent and unique methodology for estimating the cost will help in selecting an appropriate desalination technology suitable for specific locations with consideration of all the parameters influencing the cost. A techno-economic evaluation and review of the costing aspects and the main parameters influencing the total water cost produced by different desalination technologies are herein presented in detail. Some recent developments, such as the increase of unit capacity

  11. The I.A.G. / A.I.G. SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme: Current and future activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylich, Achim A.; Lamoureux, Scott; Decaulne, Armelle

    2013-04-01

    Projected climate change in cold regions is expected to alter melt season duration and intensity, along with the number of extreme rainfall events, total annual precipitation and the balance between snowfall and rainfall. Similarly, changes to the thermal balance are expected to reduce the extent of permafrost and seasonal ground frost and increase active layer depths. These effects will undoubtedly change surface environments in cold regions and alter the fluxes of sediments, nutrients and solutes, but the absence of quantitative data and coordinated geomorphic process monitoring and analysis to understand the sensitivity of the Earth surface environment is acute in cold climate environments. The International Association of Geomorphologists (I.A.G. / A.I.G. ) SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme was formed in 2005 to address this existing key knowledge gap. SEDIBUD currently has about 400 members worldwide and the Steering Committee of this international programme is composed of ten scientists from eight different countries: Achim A. Beylich (Chair) (Norway), Armelle Decaulne (Secretary) (France), John C. Dixon (USA), Scott F. Lamoureux (Vice-Chair) (Canada), John F. Orwin (Canada), Jan-Christoph Otto (Austria), Irina Overeem (USA), Thorsteinn Sæmundsson (Iceland), Jeff Warburton (UK) and Zbigniew Zwolinski (Poland). The central research question of this global group of scientists is to: Assess and model the contemporary sedimentary fluxes in cold climates, with emphasis on both particulate and dissolved components. Initially formed as European Science Foundation (ESF) Network SEDIFLUX (Sedimentary Source-to-Sink Fluxes in Cold Environments) (2004 - ), SEDIBUD has further expanded to a global group of researchers with field research sites located in polar and alpine regions in the northern and southern hemisphere. Research carried out at each of the close to 50 defined SEDIBUD key test sites varies by programme, logistics and available

  12. Parental Involvement and Home Environment in Music: Current and Former Students from Selected Community Music Programs in Brazil and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Gail V.; DeFreitas, Aureo; Grego, John

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether individuals' perceptions of parental involvement and home environment in music vary with nationality (Brazil/United States) and time frame (past/current). Past and current students from selected community music programs in the United States and Brazil completed the PI-HEM (Parental Involvement and…

  13. Prevalence of self-reported eczema in relation to living environment, socio-economic status and respiratory symptoms assessed in a questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyberg Per

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Potential links between eczema and obstructive pulmonary diseases have been postulated. Previously we have reported the prevalence of upper and lower respiratory diseases and the relation to environmental and socio-economic factors in a randomly selected adult population in southern Sweden using a postal questionnaire. In the present study we wanted to analyse the prevalence of eczema and its relation to socio-economic status, heredity factors and environmental factors in an adult population. Methods Self-reported eczema, upper and lower respiratory symptoms, asthma and Chronic Bronchitis Emphysema (CBE were examined in 12,071 adults, aged 20–59 years, living in southern Sweden by using a postal questionnaire. There were comparable numbers of males and females in all age groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis (forward conditional was applied to estimate the association between the proposed risk factors (heredity, self-reported asthma and CBE, nasal symptoms, socio-economic group, environmental factors, age, gender and smoking habits and self-reported eczema. Results The response rate was 70.1%. In all, 1240 subjects (14.6% stated that they had eczema. In all age cohorts self-reported eczema was more frequently reported by women than by men (p Conclusions In this epidemiological study we see that self-reported eczema is a common disease in an adult population especially among women. Eczema seems to be linked to environment factors, obstructive pulmonary diseases and rhinitis.

  14. Effect of Environment and Genetic Recombination on Subspecies and Economic Trait Differentiation in the F2 and F3 Generations from indica-japonica Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG He-tong; XU Zheng-jin; JIN Feng; JIANG Yi-jun; LIN Qing-shan; XU Hai; CHENG Ling; XIA Ying-jun; LIU Chun-xiang; CHEN Wen-fu

    2014-01-01

    indica and japonica are the two most important subspecies of Asian cultivated rice. Identifying mechanisms responsible for population differentiation in these subspecies is important for indica-japonica hybridization breeding. In this study, subspecies and economic trait differentiation patterns were analyzed using morphological and molecular (InDel and Intron Length Polymorphism) data in F2 and F3 populations derived from indica-japonica hybridization. Populations were grown in Liaoning and Guangdong provinces, China, with F3 populations generated from F2 populations using bulk harvesting (BM) and single-seed descent methods (SSD). Segregation distortion was detected in F3-BM populations, but not in F3-SSD or in F2 populations. Superior performance was observed with respect to economic traits in Liaoning compared with that in Guangdong and 1 000-grain weight (KW), seed setting rate (SSR) and grain yield per plant (GYP) were signiifcantly correlated with indica and japonica subspecies types. Analysis of molecular and morphological data demonstrated that the environment is the main factor giving rise to population differentiation in indica-japonica hybridization. In addition, we also found that KW, SSR and GYP are related to subspecies characteristics and kinship, which is possibly a signiifcant factor resulting in economic trait differentiation and determining environmental adaptability. Our study has provided new insights into the process of population differentiation in these subspecies to inform indica-japonica hybridization breeding.

  15. An Analysis on the Economical Impacts from the Establishment of Environment-friendly Taxation System I concentrating on a Subsidy for Water Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, D.K.; Cho, S.H.; Kang, M.O.; Lim, H.J. [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    Recently, rapid economic growth and water shortage have become of growing concern. The relationship between the economy and water resources is not seemingly apparent, but in the environmental context, there exists a close interaction. By and large, government policies emphasizing economic issues can very well be subject to neglecting environmental issues. In addition, it is a well-known fact that supply side management policies have a negative impact on the environmental sector. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of securing economic growth and improving environmental quality simultaneously by taking a static general equilibrium approach. Implementation of such policy is initiated by means of cutting environmentally unfriendly subsidies to water sector (water supply and sewage). The revenue from the reduction of subsidies is associated with indirect taxes in production sectors, which consequently reduces indirect tax rates. The study has revealed a type of double dividend effect: reduction of water supply and increase of gross domestic products (GDP). The GDP changes 0.299% - 0.561% according to variations of elasticities and the way revenue is linked with indirect taxes applied to scenarios. Meanwhile, the impacts of cutting subsidies in the water sector result in the significant increase of water prices and the reduction of water output respectively. The output reduction is proportional to values of elasticity utilized; starting a 10% for zero up to 60%. Several policy implications can be inferred from the results of this study. Taking in account the long-term effects of the subsidy-cut policy, the study predicts more output reduction in the water sector since, economically-speaking, long-term elasticities are larger than the short-term ones, like that in the present study. Hence, a current water policy that is under-priced, so as to allow over-consumption, should be changed in order for the society to achieve economic growth and

  16. The Traditional Peoples and the Myth of Economic Growth in Harmony with Sustainable Development : A Critique of Light Doctrine protectionist Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Vladiane Alves Leite

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the impact of economic development on the natural environment intensified geometric way in a world of problematic context of resource depletion and devastation of the environment to acquire raw material, endangering the ecosystems that sustain all the dynamics of humanity, especially the indigenous peoples that inhabit these places. This reality is not new, having been the subject of discussion since the beginning of the last century. As a result, the complexity and urgency of environmental issues have led the global community to work together to establish a new perspective and new ways for the environmental sustainable development, which could do live in harmony the need to develop economically and socially But with the right to a healthy and environmentally protected life, since it is a fundamental right to human dignity, recognized worldwide. For this, new public policies are being implemented and many of the old are being re- vised. Given the importance of the issue that raises debate, this paper intends to make a study of the doctrinal considerations involved theme in the light of diffuse rights and the protection of traditional peoples. Therefore, it will be observed the evolution of the concept, his balls and doctrinal and legal perspectives front of an international protective legislation Environmental Law and traditional peoples.

  17. A study of the health and economic effects of influenza-like illness on the working population under different working environments of a large corporation in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kenneth K C; Li, Shu Chuen; Kwong, Kai Sun; Chan, Thomas Y K; Lee, Vivian W Y; Lau, Joseph T F

    2008-01-01

    The incidence, health and economic impacts of influenza-like illness (ILI) among the working population in Hong Kong had never been studied. Due to the nature of the disease, ILIs can have a significant impact on the operation of a corporation in terms of loss of productivity and reduced work performance. The present study was undertaken to determine the health and economic impacts of ILIs under different environmental conditions on the working population of a large corporation. Over 2,000 employees of a large corporation in the travelling and tourism industry were studied with three different types of working environment (confined, typical office and well ventilated) by two structured questionnaires. The most affected group in terms of productivity and health was the group working in a confined area, whilst those working in a well-ventilated area were least affected. However, symptoms of the confined area group seemed to disappear faster. The infection rate appeared to vary according to work environment for the studied population. Policies on preventive measures and early treatment are important for a corporation to reduce loss in productivity due to ILIs.

  18. Intriguing Connections Between Economic Geology, the Environment, Human Health, and Disasters: Observations from my Career(s) in Transdisciplinary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    I have been fortunate to be able to follow a varied career path from economic geology, to environmental geochemistry, to geochemistry and human health, to environmental disasters. I have been privileged to collaborate with many exceptional scientists from across and well beyond the earth sciences (e.g., public heath, engineering, economics, emergency response, microbiology). Much of this transdisciplinary work has intriguing links back to economic geology/geochemistry. Geological characteristics of different ore deposit types predictably influence the environmental and health impacts of mining, and so can help anticipate and prevent adverse impacts before they occur. Geologic maps showing potential for natural occurrences of asbestos or erionite are analogous to permissive tract maps used for mineral-resource assessments, and can be correlated with epidemiological data to help understand whether living on or near such rocks poses a risk for developing asbestos-related diseases. Mineral particles that are taken up by the human body along inhalation or incidental ingestion exposure routes are "weathered" by reactions with diverse body fluids that differ greatly in composition between and along the different exposure routes. These in vivo chemical reactions (e.g., dissolution, alteration, metal complexation, oxidation/reduction, reprecipitation) are in ways analogous to processes of ore deposit formation and weathering, and some can be shown (in collaboration with toxicologists) to play a role in toxicity. Concepts of ore petrography and paragenesis can be applied to interpret (in collaboration with pathologists) the origin, physiological implications, and toxicity effects of mineral matter in human tissue samples obtained by biopsy, transplant or autopsy. Some disaster materials can originate from mining- or mineral-processing sources, and methods originally developed to study ore deposits or mining-environmental issues can also be applied to understand many disaster

  19. "New Economics"?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    1999-01-01

    The United States, the United Kingdom and Denmark have all enjoyed a long period of high stable growth and low inflation in the 1990s. Attempts to determine the implications of this have led to the so-called "New Economics", whose advocates claim that the relationship between economic growth and ...... and inflation has fundamentally changes. The following article tests this thesis against current data for the USA....

  20. Child-care and feeding practices of urban middle class working and non-working Indonesian mothers: a qualitative study of the socio-economic and cultural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshita, Airin; Schubert, Elizabeth; Whittaker, Maxine

    2012-07-01

    The double-burden problem of malnutrition in many developing countries is occurring against a backdrop of complex changes in the socio-economic and cultural environment. One such change is the increasing rate of female employment, a change that has attracted researchers to explore the possible relationships between maternal employment and child nutritional status. The present study employs a qualitative approach to explore the socio-economic and cultural environments that may influence child-care practices in families of working and non-working mothers with children of different nutritional status and types of domestic caregiver. It was conducted in Depok, a satellite city of Jakarta, Indonesia, and was designed as a case study involving 26 middle class families. The children were categorized as underweight, normal weight and obese, and caregivers were grouped as family and domestic paid caregivers. Twenty-six mothers and 18 caregivers were interviewed. Data were analysed by the constant comparative approach. The study identified five emerging themes, consisting of reason for working and not working, support for mother and caregivers, decision maker on child food, maternal self-confidence and access to resources. It confirmed that mothers and caregivers need support and adequate resources to perform child-care practices regardless of the child nutritional and maternal working status. Further research is required into how Indonesian mothers across a range of socio-economic strata can have increased options for quality child-care arrangements and support with child feeding. Additionally, this paper discussed the importance of enhanced dissemination of health information addressing both child underweight and obesity problems.

  1. Internal structure and current evolution of very small debris-covered glacier systems located in alpine permafrost environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste eBosson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution explores the internal structure of very small debris-covered glacier systems located in permafrost environments and their current dynamical responses to short-term climatic variations. Three systems were investigated with electrical resistivity tomography and dGPS monitoring over a 3-year period. Five distinct sectors are highlighted in each system: firn and bare-ice glacier, debris-covered glacier, heavily debris-covered glacier of low activity, rock glacier and ice-free debris. Decimetric to metric movements, related to ice ablation, internal deformation and basal sliding affect the glacial zones, which are mainly active in summer. Conversely, surface lowering is close to zero (-0.04 m yr-1 in the rock glaciers. Here, a constant and slow internal deformation was observed (c. 0.2 m yr-1. Thus, these systems are affected by both direct and high magnitude responses and delayed and attenuated responses to climatic variations. This differential evolution appears mainly controlled by (1 the proportion of ice, debris and the presence of water in the ground, and (2 the thickness of the superficial debris layer.

  2. The state of the research for health environment in the ministries of health of the Economic Community of the West African States (ECOWAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sombié, Issiaka; Aidam, Jude; Konaté, Blahima; Somé, Télesphore D; Kambou, Stanislas Sansan

    2013-09-11

    An assessment of the state of the Research for Health (R4H) environment can provide relevant information about what aspects of national health research systems needs strengthening, so that research output can be relevant to meet national priorities for decision-making. There is limited information on the state of the R4H environment in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). This article describes the state of the R4H environment within the Ministries of Health of the ECOWAS member states and outlines of some possibilities to strengthen health research activities within the ECOWAS region. Information on the national-level R4H environment (governance and management; existence of a national policy; strategic and research priorities documents; ethics committees; research funds; coordination structures; monitoring and evaluation systems; networking and capacity building opportunities) was collected from the Ministries of Health research units in 14 ECOWAS countries using self-administered questionnaires. A workshop was held where country report presentations and group discussions were used to review and validate responses. Data from the discussions was transcribed using Nvivo, and strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis of the functioning of the units was done using Robert Preziosi's organisational diagnosis tool. The findings indicate that as of January 2011, 50% of ECOWAS countries had established directorates for health research with defined terms of reference. The existing funding mechanisms were inadequate to support the research structures within and outside the MoHs, and for building the capacity of researchers. Networking and monitoring activities were weak and only 7% of the directors of research units were trained in research management. The majority (85.7%) of countries had broader national health policies, and 57% of the countries had some form of policy or strategic document for research development. Half of the

  3. Walter Isard's Contributions to Environmental Economics and Ecological Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, Adam; Folmer, Henk; Nijkamp, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes Walter Isard's important contributions to environmental economics and ecological economics. The former is the traditional field that incorporates some limited aspects of the environment into neoclassical economic theory, while the latter is a more comprehensive integration of

  4. A crisis in waste management, economic vitality, and a coastal marine environment: Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheim, F. T.; Butman, B.

    1994-01-01

    Discharge of sewage sludge and effluent from 43 communities in the greater Boston metropolitan area has helped make the harbor one of the most polluted in the nation. As part of a court-mandated plan to end pollution of the harbor, effluent will no longer be discharged into the harbor, but instead, by 1995 it will be discharged into Massachusetts Bay through a record-long 15.34 km tunnel. By the year 2000 all of the sewage is scheduled to recive full secondary treatment. The public is concerned about long-term effects of the new ocean outfall on the environment, including Cape Cod Bay and Stellwagen Bank, which is an important habitat for whales and a newly designated national marine sanctuary. The bay has been additionally stressed by dumping of low-level radioactive and other hazardous wastes during the 1950s and 1960s. -from Authors

  5. Parental Socio-Economic Status, Family Structure and Living Environment as Predictors of Violence against Children in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Oni

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study sets out to find out whether parental socioeconomic status, family structure and living environment are predictors of violence against children. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the investigation. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and the population of the study consisted of all the children in public primary schools and in junior secondary schools within Lagos state of Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was adopted for the study. Random samples of twenty five children were picked from each of the sixteen schools selected. This gives a total 400 participants that were used for the study. Experts in Sociology, measurement and evaluation certified the content validity of the questionnaire, while the co-efficient of the reliability of the four sections of the questionnaire were ascertained to be 0.63; 0.68; 0.66 and 0.73, respectively for sections A,B,C and D. Chi-square statistical tools was used to test the hypotheses formulated. Major findings of the study include the fact that parental socioeconomic status significantly influence violence against children, family structure significantly influence violence against children and that living environment also significantly influence violence against children. This study conclude by recommending among others that the Lagos State government should put machinery in motion to improve the poverty level of individuals living in Lagos State of Nigeria and should also make available social services and amenities that are supportive of family well being in order to avoid any form of violence against children.

  6. Socio-economic status, neighbourhood food environments and consumption of fruits and vegetables in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Darby; Neckerman, Kathryn; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Lovasi, Gina S; Quinn, James; Richards, Catherine; Bader, Michael; Weiss, Christopher; Konty, Kevin; Arno, Peter; Viola, Deborah; Kerker, Bonnie; Rundle, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    Recommendations for fruit and vegetable consumption are largely unmet. Lower socio-economic status (SES), neighbourhood poverty and poor access to retail outlets selling healthy foods are thought to predict lower consumption. The objective of the present study was to assess the interrelationships between these risk factors as predictors of fruit and vegetable consumption. Cross-sectional multilevel analyses of data on fruit and vegetable consumption, socio-demographic characteristics, neighbourhood poverty and access to healthy retail food outlets. Survey data from the 2002 and 2004 New York City Community Health Survey, linked by residential zip code to neighbourhood data. Adult survey respondents (n 15 634). Overall 9?9% of respondents reported eating $5 servings of fruits or vegetables in the day prior to the survey. The odds of eating $5 servings increased with higher income among women and with higher educational attainment among men and women. Compared with women having less than a high-school education, the OR was 1?12 (95% CI 0?82, 1?55) for high-school graduates, 1?95 (95% CI 1?43, 2?66) for those with some college education and 2?13 (95% CI 1?56, 2?91) for college graduates. The association between education and fruit and vegetable consumption was significantly stronger for women living in lower- v. higher-poverty zip codes (P for interaction,0?05). The density of healthy food outlets did not predict consumption of fruits or vegetables. Higher SES is associated with higher consumption of produce, an association that, in women, is stronger for those residing in lower-poverty neighbourhoods.

  7. Economics, ethics and technology. Decision-taking bases for projects with long-term effects on the environment. Technikfolgen, Oekonomie und Ethik. Entscheidungsgrundlagen fuer Projekte mit langfristigen Umweltauswirkungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogai, D.

    1989-01-01

    The author's intention is to provide normative decision-taking bases for the assessment of projects with long-term effects on the environment by combining economic, ethical and social-philosophical approaches. The assessment principles of the cost/benefit analysis are discussed for their suitability for the assessment of such projects; alternative criteria of the decision-taking theory are also discussed. The study focusses on the identification of just principles to be applied in the handling of our vital natural resources. The author combines Rawl's contract theory approach with Kant's rationale for norms to determine minimum standards for the use of resources between the generations. However, a democratic process will have to make the choice between the different assessment methods eventually. (HSCH).

  8. Commission of economical affairs, environment and territory. Report no. 51; Commission des affaires economiques, de l'environnement et du territoire. Compte rendu no. 51

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this report is to present to the French deputies the comments made by the commission of economic affairs, environment and territory about the project of energy trend law. This law aims at defining in its first article the goals and trends of the French energy policy, and then at completing the existing energy dispositions in order to more efficiently implement these trends. The first title of the law is devoted to the mastery of energy demand and foresee the implementation of a system of energy saving certificates, the reinforcement of the thermal building codes law and a better information of consumers. The second title aims at promoting the development of renewable energy sources. The first part of this report summarizes the general comments made by the commission while the second part makes a detailed examination of each article of the law project. (J.S.)

  9. Sistem Supply Chain Crude-Palm-Oil Indonesia dengan Mempertimbangkan Aspek Economical Revenue, Social Welfare dan Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuncoro Harto Widodo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude-Palm-Oil (CPO is an agro-industrial commodity which has a strategic value to be developed for Indonesian economy and social welfare. Production and export of Indonesian CPO increase progressively in the view years so that CPO is one of the pre-eminent products of Indonesia. On the other hand, however, they could give two negative impacts. First, a less CPO supply for domestic market as a result of export growing. Second, a worse environment as an effect of the opening new palm plantations. We, therefore, construct and simulate the system model for analyzing the relationships between the components and for describing their behaviour within the supply chain of CPO by using a dynamic model. The result shows that in the next 30 years, the revenue of Indonesian CPO industries tends to increase. The biggest revenue will be achieved in the year 23rd. The maximum addition of plantation employees is in the year 7th as well as in the year 17th. Deforestation would be the highest in the year 7th and 17th in which 2008 as a basic year.

  10. Application of Generalized Hukuhara derivative approach in an economic production quantity model with partial trade credit policy under fuzzy environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinki Majumder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this present study, a production inventory model with partial trade credit is formulated and solved in fuzzy environment via Generalized Hukuhara derivative approach. To capture the market, a supplier offers a trade credit period to its retailers. Due to this facility, retailer also offers a partial trade credit period to his/her customer to boost the demand of the item. In practical life situation, demands are generally dependent upon time. Constant demand of an item varies time to time. In this vague situation, demands are taken as time dependent, where its constant part is taken as Left Right - type fuzzy number. In this paper, Generalized Hukuhara derivative approach is used to solve the fuzzy inventory model. Four different cases are considered by using Generalized Hukuhara-(i differentiability and Generalized Hukuhara-(ii differentiability. The objective of this paper is to find out the optimal time so as the total inventory cost is minimum. Finally the model is solved by generalized reduced gradient method. The proposed model and technique are illustrated by numerical examples. Some sensitivity analyses both in tabular and graphical forms are presented and the effects of minimum cost with respect to various inventory parameters are discussed.

  11. Management of waste heat at nuclear power plants: Its potential impact on the environment and its possible economic use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Y.H.

    1987-01-01

    The efficacy of the disposal of waste heat from nuclear power plants by means of once-through and closed-cycle cooling systems is examined in the context of the physical aspects of water quality standards and guidelines for thermal discharges. Typical thermal standards for each of the four classes of water bodies (rivers, lakes, estuaries, and coastal waters) are identified. Examples of thermal standards established for once-through cooling on open coastal waters are presented. The design and general layout of various types of cooling systems are reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of each of the cooling systems are presented, with particular emphasis on the discussion of potential environmental impacts. Modeling techniques available for impact assessment are presented. Proper selection and application of the models depend on the availability of site characteristics and understanding of the modeling techniques. Guidelines for choosing an appropriate model are presented. Various methods have been developed for the beneficial use of waste heat largely dissipated to the environment. Examples and associated problems of waste-heat utilization are discussed for agricultural, industrial, aquacultural, and residential uses.

  12. ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS VS ECONOMIC(AL ECOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kharlamova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently world faces the dilemma – ecological economy or economic(al ecology. The researchers produce hundreds of surveys on the topic. However the analyses of recent most cited simulations had shown the diversity of results. Thus, for some states the Kuznets environmental curve has place, for others – no. Same could be said about different years for the same state. It provokes the necessity of drawing new group analyses to reveal the tendencies and relationships between economic and environmental factors. Most flexible and mirror factor of environmental sustainability is the volume of CO2 emissions. The econometric analysis was used for detecting the economic impact on this indicator at the global level and in the spectra of group of states depending on their income. The hypothesis of the existence of environmental Kuznets curve for the analysed data is rejected. Real GDP per capita impact on carbon dioxide emissions is considered only at the global level. The impact of openness of the economy is weak. Rejection happened also to the hypothesis that for the developed countries there is a reverse dependence between the environmental pollution and economic openness. Indicator “energy consumption per capita” impacts on greenhouse gas emissions only in countries with high income. Whereby it should be noted that the more developed a country is, the more elastic is this influence. These results have a potential usage for environmental policy regulation and climate strategy.

  13. A systematic review of the impact of parental socio-economic status and home environment characteristics on children's oral health related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santhosh; Kroon, Jeroen; Lalloo, Ratilal

    2014-03-21

    Childhood circumstances such as socio-economic status and family structure have been found to influence psychological, psychosocial attributes and Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in children. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the published literature to assess the influence of parental Socio-Economic Status (SES) and home environment on children's OHRQoL. A systematic search was conducted in August 2013 using PubMed, Medline via OVID, CINAHL Plus via EBSCO, and Cochrane databases. Studies that have analysed the effect of parental characteristics (SES, family environment, family structure, number of siblings, household crowding, parents' age, and parents' oral health literacy) on children's OHRQoL were included. Quality assessment of the articles was done by the Effective Public Health Practice Project's Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative studies. Database search retrieved a total of 2,849 titles after removing the duplicates, 36 articles were found to be relevant. Most of the studies were conducted on Brazilian children and were published in recent two years. Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale and Children's Perception Questionnaire were the instruments of choice in preschool and school aged children respectively. Findings from majority of the studies suggest that the children from families with high income, parental education and family economy had better OHRQoL. Mothers' age, family structure, household crowding and presence of siblings were significant predictors of children's OHRQoL. However, definitive conclusions from the studies reviewed are not possible due to the differences in the study population, parental characteristics considered, methods used and statistical tests performed.

  14. 能源互联网环境下的信息经济学初探%A Preliminary Investigation on Information Economics in Energy Internet Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪琳娜; 文福拴; 尚金成; 何洋

    2016-01-01

    信息系统是能源互联网的重要组成部分,能源互联网环境下的信息经济学是相关的一个有待研究的重要问题。在此背景下,展望了信息经济学在能源互联网信息经济研究中的应用前景,并试图建立相关的研究框架。首先总结了国内外现有的对能源互联网比较典型的定义,在此基础上展望了能源互联网环境下信息系统的基本架构、功能和运行机制。之后,概述了信息经济学的一些主流理论与方法。最后,从信息价值增值、信息价值评估、信息增值服务模式、基于信息的博弈分析和机制设计等几个方面,探讨了能源互联网环境下信息经济学需要研究的问题。%Information system represents important part of energy internet, and related information economics in energy internet environment is an important topic to systematically investigate. Given this background, a preliminary investigation on information economics in energy internet environment is carried out with attempt of establishing a research framework. First, existing energy internet definitions are summarized, and on this basis a prospect on infrastructure, function and operation condition of information system in energy internet is presented. Subsequently, some well-established theories and methods of information economics are briefly clarified. Finally, some issues to be investigated are addressed, including information value-addition and evaluation, information value-addition service mode, information based game analysis and mechanism design.

  15. Risk Factors of Young Graduates in the Competitive E.U. Labour Market at the End of the Current Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacerova Eliska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern development trends in the labour market have been an increasingly important political and economic issue not only domestically but also on the European level. It proves the fact that in The Europe 2020 strategy, one of the main five points is the aim to increase the employment rate of the population (age: 20–64 from the current 69% to at least 75%. Various risk groups of job candidates emerge among the unemployed. The economic crisis in 2007 made the situation in the labour markets worse. The demand for labour decreased while the number of candidates increased. In recent years, fresh graduates under the age of 25 have been regarded as a high risk group sometimes nicknamed “the lost generation” or Generation Y. This generation is well accustomed to modern technologies which they use for their own benefit and they are willing and able to work from anywhere. On the contrary, those over the age of 35, who are sometimes referred to as Generation X, have different attitudes and requirements for the labour market. Despite the increasing level of education among young people, their unemployment has been worsening since the economic crisis began. The aim of this article was to ascertain how future university graduates (491 final-year students from 5 faculties at Tomas Bata University in Zlín, Czech Republic perceive individual risk factors influencing the success of today’s graduate of Generation Y in the competitive labour market. The target group, future university graduates, evaluated 13 risk areas on a five-point scale. These 13 risk areas were identified based on primary research among 1.059 employers in the Czech Republic, which is a part of a complete two-year research project IGA/FaME/2013/030. This article focuses on only two areas which closely analysed the perception of graduates as drifters, and their demands for high starting salaries. These two risk areas were mentioned by employers as the areas with the highest risk and

  16. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the Smart Grid Environment: An Economic Model of Load Management by Demand Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poudineh R.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental concern regarding the consumption of fossil fuels is among the most serious challenges facing the world. As a result, utilisation of more renewable resources and promotion of a clean transport system such as the use of Plug in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs became the forefront of the new energy policies. However, the breakthrough of PHEVs in the automotive fleet increases concerns around the stability of power system and in particular, the power network. This research simulates the aggregate load profile of the UK with presence of PHEVs based upon different price scenarios. The results show that under the fixed rate and time of use programmes in the current grid, the extra load of the electric vehicles intensifies the consumption profile and also creates new critical points. Thus, there should always be excess standby capacity to satisfy peak demand even for a short period of time. On the other hand, when the consumers do not pay the price based on the actual cost of supply, those who consume less in peak hours subsidise the ones who consume more and this cross subsidy raises a regulatory issue. On the contrary, a smart grid can accommodate PHEVs without creating technical and regulatory problems. This positive consequence is the result of demand response to the real time pricing. From a technical point of view, the biggest chunk of PHEVs' load will be shifted to the late evening and the hours of minimum demand. Besides, from a welfare analysis standpoint, real time pricing creates no deadweight losses and corresponding demand response will limit the ability of suppliers to increase the spot market clearing price above its equilibrium level.

  17. Marine organism concentrations, carbonate chemistry variables, and nutrient concentrations from Atlantis ecosystem model simulation output in the California Current from 2013-01-01 to 2053-12-31 to understand vulnerability of California current food webs and economics to ocean acidification (NCEI Accession 0131198)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains the model output of a study to evaluate likely economic and ecological outcomes of ocean acidification in the California Current....

  18. Evolution of the Synthetic Environment in the FFSE Section: Survey of Current Usage of Synthetic Environment within FFSE and Recommendations for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    d’outils de modélisation et de simulation pour créer des expériences et des exercices virtuels pour DND, dans le but d’aider au développement de...différents outils, exercices et expériences, onze instances de simulations ont été identifiées et caractérisées. Ces instances sont décrites brièvement...Mission Rehearsal in a Synthetic Environment: Summary and Preliminary Analyses . (DRDC Ottawa TM 2004-200). Defence R&D Canada - Ottawa 5. B. Kim

  19. Forest economics and policy in a changing environment: how market, policy, and climate transformations affect forests -- Proceedings of the 2016 Meeting of the International Society of Forest Resource Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory E. Frey; Prakash Nepal

    2016-01-01

    Economics can affect decisions about forest resource management and utilization, and in turn, the ecosystem benefits received. In a time of market, policy, and climate transformations, economic analyses are critical to help policy-makers and resource managers make appropriate decisions. At the 2016 Meeting of the International Society of Forest Resource Economics (...

  20. 区域经济环境、企业多元化与经济绩效的关系——基于中国制造业上市公司的实证研究%Regional Economic Environment, Corporate Diversification Strategies and its Economic Performance——An Empirical Study based on China's Listed Companies of the Manufacturing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章玉贵; 严超伟

    2011-01-01

    本文以制造业上市公司为样本,主要运用定量的方法研究了区域经济环境、企业多元化战略和经济绩效三者的关系.研究发现:企业产品多元化整体上会带来经济绩效的折价,虽然不同的区域经济环境之间有明显差异的折价程度差异,但却与区域经济环境本身无明显关系.而企业跨国多元化程度则与区域环境呈正相关的关系,即区域经济环境越好,跨国多元化程度越高.%The paper studies the connections among the regional economic environment, the strategies of enterprise diversification and its economic performance. Research findings show that product diversification generally leads to a reduction in economic performance, though to varying degrees from one economic region to another, yet it has no marked relationship with regional economic environment itself. The multinational diversification degrees of enterprises are directly related to regional economic conditions, that is, the better regional economic environment there is, a higher degree of diversification enterprises enjoy.

  1. Economic analysis of same-sex marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portelli, Christopher J

    2004-01-01

    This article applies the neoclassical microeconomic analysis of marriage as developed by Nobel laureate economist Gary Becker to same-sex marriage. The objective is to demonstrate that the economic analysis of marriage supports allowing same-sex marriage, and that same-sex marriages would strengthen the incentive to marry, increase the efficiency of marriage markets, provide for more children to be raised in two-parent optimum environments, and benefit states economically overall. The article concludes with an overview of the economic impact of same-sex marriages on states based on the analysis, data and fiscal information currently available from researchers and economists in the field.

  2. Investment-driven industrial localisation in Calabar, free trade zone and environs, south-eastern/southsouth, Nigeria: Evidence on recent sub-national regional economic diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingwe Richard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The type of foreign direct investment (FDI mostly received by Nigeria in the past decades has formed one of the central points of the discussion of the nature of investment in development in this country acknowledged as Africa’s second largest economy. The way FDI receipt varies by size and type by sub-national regions (especially the 36 states, Federal Capital Territory in Abuja and the 774 Local Government Areas forming Nigeria’s federation has so been poorly addressed. However, scholars recently reported on the receipt of FDI in Cross River State following the state government’s policy that is being praised by Nigeria’s federal government agencies and international governmental organizations -including United Nations Systems in Nigeria, among others. The praises recognize Cross River State Government’s practice of good governance and cost-effective resource management as it confronts challenges including declining funds hitherto allocated from the pooled federation account. The objective of this article is to is to contribute towards understanding recent foreign direct investment in Cross River State. This article follows on theoretical perspectives and background recently reported by presenting findings of an empirical case study of recent and ongoing increasing investments in the Calabar Free Trade Zone (CFTZ city of Cross River State (Nigeria. We apply methods of descriptive case study to inform on the increasing commitment of foreign investments towards manufacturing engagement in Calabar urban region/environs. We present Calabar region’s previous/recent development challenges and provide some details of the recent increasing foreign investments in the Calabar FTZ city, before analyzing and synthesizing the recent increasing foreign investments in the Calabar FTZ city. It is demonstrated that the recent economic dynamics would engender a set of socio-economic, spatial and ecological/environmental responses and explain their

  3. 鲁南经济带地质环境脆弱性评价%Geological Environment Vulnerability Evaluation of the Economic Zone in South Shandong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元仲; 赵书泉; 武雄

    2014-01-01

    The mineral and groundwater resources are very rich in the economic region of south Shandong.The geological environment problems caused by continuously pumping large quantity of groundwater include mine-dout area breakdown,karst collapse,land subsidence,cone of depression and saltwater intrusion.With 17 eva-luation factors,such as landform,rock-soil body characteristics,hydrogeological condition,environmental engi-neering geology problems,geological resource and ergonomic activity,etc.,this paper used Fuller triangle to define the factor weight and evaluate the geological environment vulnerability with experts clustering procedure. Four evaluation factors,i.e.soil environmental quality (T),engineering geology environment (G),geolog-ical hazard dangerous assessment (Z)and geological environment load capacity (C)were utilized to evaluate the suitability of the key cities in the study area with map overlapping method.The result shows that the whole region can be divided into four grade vulnerability sections,which are the serious vulnerability section,the high vulnerability section,the medium vulnerability section and the low vulnerability section;Heze city and Linyi city are located at the high vulnerability section;Jining city,Zaozhuang city and Rizhao city are located at the medium vulnerability section.The comprehensive assessment of the geological environment of the study area in-dicates that the five key cities all have basic suitable environment,and the west district of Zaozhuang city has suitable environment.%鲁南经济带内矿产资源及地下水资源非常丰富,长期大量开采引发的环境地质问题主要有采空塌陷、岩溶塌陷、地面沉降、地下水降落漏斗及海水入侵等。选取地形地貌、岩土体特征、水文地质条件、环境工程地质问题、地质资源和人类工程经济活动等17个评价因子,利用傅勒三角形法确定各评价因子的权重,采用专家聚类法评价地质环境脆弱性

  4. Study for the electric arc of alternative current at the single phase welding machine using the Matlab/Simulink environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baciu, I.; Ghiormez, L.; Vasar, C.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper is presented a mathematical model of the electric arc for an alternative current welding machine of low power. The electric arc model is based on dividing the voltage-current characteristic of the electric arc in many functioning zones. For the model of the entire welding machine are used real parameters as the ones of the proper welding machine. The voltage and current harmonics spectrum that is obtained during the welding process is presented. Also, the waveforms for the current and voltage of the electric arc plotted against time and the voltage-current characteristic of the electric arc are illustrated. The electric arc is considered as being supplied by alternative voltage from the electrical power network using a single phase transformer which has the output voltage of 80 volts. The model of the welding machine is developed in Simulink and the variations of some parameters of the electric arc are obtained by modifying of them in a Matlab function. Also, in this paper is presented the total harmonic distortion for the voltage and current of the electric arc obtained during simulation of the welding machine.

  5. A Practical approach for fault component network for Current and Voltage Phasor Diagram in Power Electronic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Ashish Choubey

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In many large-scale power plants, the structure of its auxiliary power system is complex, and the coordination of its relay protections is difficult. To enhance power supply reliability for the user terminals in the case of the distribution system to avoid interference by the fault again, rapidly complete the automatic identification, positioning, automatic fault isolation, network reconfiguration until the resumption of supply of non-fault section, a microprocessor-based relay protection device has developed. As the fault component theory is widely used in microcomputer protection, and fault component exists in the network of fault component, it is necessary to build up the fault component network when short circuit fault emerging and to draw the current and voltage component phasor diagram at fault point. We proposed a special phase sequence component based on the boundary condition. We analysis the velocity according to the relationship between analysis formula and phasor diagram and current in fault component boundary conditions and sequence voltage and current in boundary conditions. The negative and zero sequence component current and voltage at fault point are the same as fault component. The positive sequence component current and voltage at fault point are different from the fault component. So we consider the positive sequences according to that sequences we analyze the fault point

  6. A Practical approach for fault component network for Current and Voltage Phasor Diagram in Power Electronic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Choubey

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In many large-scale power plants, the structure of its auxiliary power system is complex, and the coordination of its relay protections is difficult. To enhance power supply reliability for the user terminals in the case of the distribution system to avoid interference by the fault again, rapidly complete the automatic identification, positioning, automatic fault isolation, network reconfiguration until the resumption of supply of non-fault section, a microprocessor-based relay protection device has developed. As the fault component theory is widely used in microcomputer protection, and fault component exists in the network of fault component, it is necessary to build up the fault component network when short circuit fault emerging and to draw the current and voltage component phasor diagram at fault point. We proposed a special phase sequence component based on the boundary condition. We analysis the velocity according to the relationship between analysis formula and phasor diagram and current in fault component boundary conditions and sequence voltage and current in boundary conditions. The negative and zero sequence component current and voltage at fault point are the same as fault component. The positive sequence component current and voltage at fault point are different from the fault component. So we consider the positive sequences according to that sequences we analyze the fault point.

  7. Energy use and production, demography and the world-market oil price-influencing twenty years of economic performance and environment degradation in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Lemus, Luis Gerardo [SUNY College of Environmental Science & Forestry (United States)

    1997-07-01

    I present a compilation of data describing Mexico's economic performance as it relates to demographic and natural resource characteristics. Statistical correlations suggest that long term economic output and energy efficiency are influenced mostly by human population numbers and fuel consumption rate, although its fluctuations have been clearly driven by those of the world-market oil price throughout 1970-90. Neither energy production, agricultural yield, OPEC's oil price or forest coverage appeared important in determining Mexican GDP response for this 20-year period. Significant relations of these fluctuations were found also in the rates of deforestation, air pollution and agricultural production, being all of these variables seemingly independent of the intrinsic human population growth rate. I discuss how Mexico could bridge the GDP gap with its current Nafta partners from this system-energy perspective. [Spanish] Presento una coleccion de datos que describen el comportamiento de la economia de Mexico relacionado con las caracteristicas demograficas y de sus recursos naturales. Las correlaciones estadisticas sugieren que la produccion economica a largo plazo y la eficiencia de la energia estan influenciadas principalmente por las cifras de poblacion humana y por el regimen de consumo de combustible, si bien sus fluctuaciones han sido claramente impulsadas por los precios del petroleo en mercado mundial a traves de 1970 a 1990. Ni la produccion de energia, el rendimiento agricola, el precio del petroleo de OPEC o la extension de los bosques resultaron importantes en la determinacion de la respuesta del PIB de Mexico para este periodo de 20 anos. Se encontraron relaciones significativas de estas fluctuaciones tambien en los regimenes de deforestacion, contaminacion del aire y produccion agricola, siendo todas esta variables de forma similar independientes de regimen intrinseco del crecimiento de la poblacion humana. Analizo como podria Mexico salvar la

  8. Multi-item economic production quantity model for imperfect items with multiple production setups and rework under the effect of preservation technology and learning environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Jawla

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the multi-item inventory model in a production/rework system with multiple production setups. Rework can be depicted as the transformation of production rejects, failed, or non-conforming items into re-usable products of the same or lower quality during or after inspection. Rework is very valuable and profitable, especially if materials are limited in availability and also pricey. Moreover, rework can be a good contribution to a ‘green image environment’. In this paper, we establish a multi-item inventory model to determine the optimal inventory replenishment policy for the economic production quantity (EPQ model for imperfect, deteriorating items with multiple productions and rework under inflation and learning environment. In inventory modelling, Inflation plays a very important role. In one cycle, production system produces items in n production setups and one rework setup, i.e. system follows (n, 1 policy. To reduce the deterioration of products preservation technology investment is also considered in this model. Holding cost is taken as time dependent. We develop expressions for the average profit per time unit, including procurement of input materials, costs for production, rework, deterioration cost and storage of serviceable and reworkable lots. Using those expressions, the proposed model is demonstrated numerically and the sensitivity analysis is also performed to study the behaviour of the model.

  9. Leadership towards a just economic society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Lombard

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available This actuality article on leadership argues for the need to move towards a just economic society. The implications of different terms are considered within a conceptual framework. This framework is essential for a better understanding of economic justice in an institutional environment, where economic relationships and economic justice has come to dominate public debate. The relations between public opinion and material wealth are analysed before justice in a mixed economy receives attention. Related conditions are discussed in succession, firstly, individual freedom and the Rule of Law, and secondly, distributive justice. The article then proceeds to discuss challenges for economic leadership in South Africa, indicating trends present in both the theoretical and political leadership current in the rest of the world. Perspective is thereby given on the situation in South African democracy, where the political focus has moved from the issue of justice as freedom, to justice in the distribution of wealth and income.

  10. Home Economics/Family Studies Curricula in Canada: Current Status and Challenges = Programmes d'etudes en economie familiale et sciences familiale au Canada: Situation actuelle et enjeux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterat, Linda; Khamasi, Jennifer

    1996-01-01

    Replicating a 1984 study, a survey of home economics/family studies coordinators in the 10 Canadian provinces found the following: home economics has expanded into grades lower than 8; required courses have increased; core curriculum has not changed radically; there is increased focus on family well-being; and there is a need to address curriculum…

  11. Development and Application of a Wireless Sensor for Space Charge Density Measurement in an Ultra-High-Voltage, Direct-Current Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Encheng; Ju, Yong; Yuan, Haiwen

    2016-10-20

    A space charge density wireless measurement system based on the idea of distributed measurement is proposed for collecting and monitoring the space charge density in an ultra-high-voltage direct-current (UHVDC) environment. The proposed system architecture is composed of a number of wireless nodes connected with space charge density sensors and a base station. The space charge density sensor based on atmospheric ion counter method is elaborated and developed, and the ARM microprocessor and Zigbee radio frequency module are applied. The wireless network communication quality and the relationship between energy consumption and transmission distance in the complicated electromagnetic environment is tested. Based on the experimental results, the proposed measurement system demonstrates that it can adapt to the complex electromagnetic environment under the UHVDC transmission lines and can accurately measure the space charge density.

  12. Risk assessment of chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, and erythromycin in aquatic environment: are the current environmental concentrations safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Kyunghee; Kim, Sunmi; Han, Sunyoung; Seo, Jihyun; Lee, Sangwoo; Park, Yoonsuk; Choi, Kyunghee; Kho, Young-Lim; Kim, Pan-Gyi; Park, Jeongim; Choi, Kyungho

    2012-10-01

    To understand potential risks of major pharmaceutical residues in waters, we evaluated ecotoxicities of five major veterinary pharmaceuticals, i.e., chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, and erythromycin, which have been frequently detected in freshwater environment worldwide. We conducted acute and chronic toxicity tests using two freshwater invertebrates (Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa) and a fish (Oryzias latipes). In general, D. magna exhibited greater sensitivity than M. macrocopa, and chronic reproduction was the most sensitive endpoints for both organisms. The population growth rate was adversely influenced by exposure to chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, or sulfathiazole in water fleas, but reduction in population size was not expected. In O. latipes, the tested pharmaceuticals affected several reproduction related endpoints including time to hatch and growth. Based on the toxicity values from the present study and literature, algae appeared to be the most sensitive organism, followed by Daphnia and fish. Hazard quotients derived from measured environmental concentrations (MECs) and predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) for erythromycin and oxytetracycline exceeded unity, suggesting that potential ecological effects at highly contaminated sites cannot be ruled out. Long-term consequences of veterinary pharmaceutical contamination in the environment deserve further investigation.

  13. Health economics in rheumatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, C J; Akehurst, R L

    1997-02-01

    Economic evaluations of health-care technologies are playing an increasingly central role in determining which therapies are available to clinicians in the treatment of a whole range of conditions. In rheumatology, a large body of work has already been done on the cost effectiveness of alternative non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and much of the current work on disease modifying therapies incorporates economic evaluations. This chapter describes the main techniques of economic evaluation and reviews the strengths and weaknesses of each. Two published economic evaluations are discussed in order to highlight what economic evaluations can offer to the care of people with rheumatoid arthritis, as well as the current limitations of economic evaluation. The objective of this chapter is to equip readers with a critical understanding of economic evaluation that can be used in considering the increasing volume of health economic data that they encounter in their clinical work.

  14. Current use of impact models for agri-environment schemes and potential for improvements of policy design and assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Jorgen; Vesterager, Jens Peter; Finn, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Agri-Environment Schemes (AES) to maintain or promote environmentally-friendly farming practices were implemented on about 25% of all agricultural land in the EU by 2002. This article analyses and discusses the actual and potential use of impact models in supporting the design, implementation...... and evaluation of AES. Impact models identify and establish the causal relationships between policy objectives and policy outcomes. We review and discuss the role of impact models at different stages in the AES policy process, and present results from a survey of impact models underlying 60 agri-environmental...... schemes in seven EU member states. We distinguished among three categories of impact models (quantitative, qualitative or common sense), depending on the degree of evidence in the formal scheme description, additional documents, or key person interviews. The categories of impact models used mainly...

  15. Economic Growth, Capitalism and Unknown Economic Paradoxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andzela Mialik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with failures of capitalism or free market and presents the results of economic analysis by applying a logistic capital growth model. The application of a logistic growth model for analysis of economic bubbles reveals the fundamental causes of bubble formation—economic paradoxes related with phenomena of saturated markets: the paradox of growing returnability and the paradoxes of debt and leverage trap. These paradoxes occur exclusively in the saturated markets and cause the majority of economic problems of recent days including overproduction, economic bubbles and cyclic economic development. Unfortunately, these paradoxes have not been taken into account when dealing with the current failures of capitalism. The aim of the paper is to apply logistic capital growth models for the analysis of economic paradoxes having direct impact on the capitalism failures such as economic bubbles, economic crisis and unstable economic growth. The analysis of economic paradoxes and their implication son failures of capitalism provided in the paper presents the new approach in developing policies aimed at increasing economic growth stability and overcoming failures of capitalism.

  16. Istoricheskie aspekty razvitija rossijsko-litovskih jekonomicheskih otnoshenij i sovremennost' [The historical aspects and current issues of the development of Russian-Lithuanian economic relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretinin Gannady

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on development of Russian-Lithuanian economic ties. The research and practical significance of this study lies in the identification of the sources of modern Russian-Lithuanian economic cooperation and the prospects of future mutually beneficial economic relations. The first attempt at establishing economic relations was made in 1919. However, young Lithuanian Republic gravitated towards the West, severing ties with the Russian market. However, the initiatives of Lithuanian authorities did not result in successful state building, and the economic situation remained unchanged. The USSR leadership made an effort to improve the living conditions in post-war Lithuania. There were some mistakes made in the relations with the local population that resulted in Lithuanians’ resistance to sovietisation. However, in the conditions of post-war restoration of national economy and acute deficit of material and human resources, the Soviet leadership managed not only to reform and develop a socialistic economy in Lithuania but also to turn it into an industrial republic with developed agriculture and modern manufacturing facilities, whose major industries manufactured products used in nuclear and space technologies, aviation and navigation. The research shows that the post-Soviet period led to a dramatic change in Russian-Lithuanian economic relations; however, these relations retained potential for future development.

  17. Pathways of Economic Development in an Uncertain Environment: A Finite Scenario Approach to the U.S. Region Under Carbon Emission Restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Prediction of future economic behavior is increasingly important for both public and private economic planning. This prediction is, however, increasingly fraught with difficulties because of the uncertainty surrounding the future state of so many key economic parameters. In this paper we consider how stochastic programming may be a valuable tool in the analysis of these kinds of problems. Using the U.S. region of Alan Manne and Richard Richels Global 2100 five region world trade model and a s...

  18. Ecological and cosmological coexistence thinking in a hypervariable environment: Causal models of economic success and failure among farmers, foragers, and fishermen of southwestern Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram eTucker

    2015-10-01

    -cultural analyses may find that this form of integrative thinking is common in unpredictable environments and is a cognitive strategy that accompanies economic diversification.

  19. The Simulation to Coupling Development Between Water Resource&Environment and Socio-economic System:Dongting Lake Ecological Economic Zone as an Example%水资源环境与社会经济系统耦合发展的仿真模拟——以洞庭湖生态经济区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜湘红; 张涛

    2015-01-01

    Water resource is the vital foundation of the national economy and social development, lake ecologi-cal economic system is an essential water resource&environment and socio-economic coupling system based on water-related activities. Reducing the disorders and ensuring the coordination and common development of system can be solved effectively by the analysis of the coupling relationship between water resource&environ-ment and socio-economy. The coupling degree and the evolutionary trend of water resource & environment and socio-economic system of the Dongting Lake Ecological Economic Zone are calculated and simulated by the gray correlation algorithm together with the GM(1,1) model. The results demonstrate that 1) water resource&environment was superior to socio-economic development of the ecological economic zone in 2004-2013;2) The role of water resource constraints on the rapid growth of socio-economic development is obvious, the coordinated development of the entire system is about to enter the threshold stage, water resource and ecologi-cal crisis are entering the latency period; 3) The further simulating results in 2014-2023 show that the so-cio-economic development in the ecological economic zone is beyond what the water resource can sustain. The sustainable development is in the presence of bottleneck of water resource;while the coupling degree is in the range of 0.578 to 0.641, the system is in the period of running-in, and the coordinated development of sys-tem can be achieved. The forecasting coupling degree in 2014-2023 is in the range of 0.500 to 0.800 that means it is a long running-in stage. The simulating coupling degree trend curve of the entire ecological eco-nomic zone, Changde District and Yueyang District appear to fall down after rapid rise in the period of 2004 to 2013, which shows that the rich water resource&environment can support the rapid economic development and social progress. The downward trend started from 2010 shows the stress

  20. Current use of impact models for agri-environment schemes and potential for improvements of policy design and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primdahl, Jørgen; Vesterager, Jens Peter; Finn, John A; Vlahos, George; Kristensen, Lone; Vejre, Henrik

    2010-06-01

    Agri-Environment Schemes (AES) to maintain or promote environmentally-friendly farming practices were implemented on about 25% of all agricultural land in the EU by 2002. This article analyses and discusses the actual and potential use of impact models in supporting the design, implementation and evaluation of AES. Impact models identify and establish the causal relationships between policy objectives and policy outcomes. We review and discuss the role of impact models at different stages in the AES policy process, and present results from a survey of impact models underlying 60 agri-environmental schemes in seven EU member states. We distinguished among three categories of impact models (quantitative, qualitative or common sense), depending on the degree of evidence in the formal scheme description, additional documents, or key person interviews. The categories of impact models used mainly depended on whether scheme objectives were related to natural resources, biodiversity or landscape. A higher proportion of schemes dealing with natural resources (primarily water) were based on quantitative impact models, compared to those concerned with biodiversity or landscape. Schemes explicitly targeted either on particular parts of individual farms or specific areas tended to be based more on quantitative impact models compared to whole-farm schemes and broad, horizontal schemes. We conclude that increased and better use of impact models has significant potential to improve efficiency and effectiveness of AES. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Current situation of Chinese forestry tactics and strategy of sustainable development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the current situation of Chinese forestry and aseries of ecological, environmental, economic, and social problems, this paper emphasized on the importance of forests in social and economic development in China The author pointed out that sustainable development, particularly the sustainable development of forestry, is the inevitable choice to solve the problems of ecological environment and social economics. The objectives, criteria, and strategies of sustaining forestry were also demonstrated and expounded, from the viewpoints of ecology, economics, and sociology.

  2. The Development of Accounting Education and Practice in an Environment of Socio-Economic Transformation in the Middle East: The Case of Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharari, Nizar Mohammad

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the development of accounting education and practice as influenced by the socio-economic transformation in Jordan. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents an explanatory study of how accounting education and practice has developed in relation to socio-economic change in Jordan, using the…

  3. Magnetic Reconnection in the Heliospheric Current Sheet: The Implications of the Different Environments Seen by the VoyagerSpacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisdak, M. M.; Drake, J. F.; Opher, M.

    2014-12-01

    The magnetic field abutting the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) is primarily in the azimuthal direction, either east-to-west or west-to-east. Mis-alignment of the solar rotational and magnetic axesleads to the characteristic ballerina-skirt shape of the HCS and during the solar cycle there can be large excursions in the sheet's latitudinal extent. Voyager 2's observations of energetic electrondropouts are related to its crossing of this boundary. Magnetic reconnection is also thought to occur as the HCS compresses and narrows between the termination shock and the heliopause. Near theequator the two HCS field alignments are present in roughly equal amounts, while near the edges the distribution can be considerably skewed. This will lead to substantial differences in the environmentsof the two Voyager spacecraft since Voyager 1 is north of the equator, but firmly in the sector region, while Voyager 2 is south of the equator and skirting the edges of the sector region. We presentparticle-in-cell simulations demonstrating the consequences of the reconnection of asymmetric amounts of flux. In particular, we will discuss Voyager 2's remaining time in the heliosphere -- including theimplications for the solar wind velocity, energetic particle transport, and the expected structure of Voyager 2's heliopause crossing -- and compare it with the data collected from Voyager 1.

  4. Global Security Rule Sets An Analysis of the Current Global Security Environment and Rule Sets Governing Nuclear Weapons Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mollahan, K; Nattrass, L

    2004-09-30

    America is in a unique position in its history. In maintaining its position as the world's only superpower, the US consistently finds itself taking on the role of a global cop, chief exporter of hard and soft power, and primary impetus for globalization. A view of the current global situation shows an America that can benefit greatly from the effects of globalization and soft power. Similarly, America's power can be reduced significantly if globalization and its soft power are not handled properly. At the same time, America has slowly come to realize that its next major adversary is not a near peer competitor but terrorism and disconnected nations that seek nuclear capabilities. In dealing with this new threat, America needs to come to terms with its own nuclear arsenal and build a security rule set that will establish for the world explicitly what actions will cause the US to consider nuclear weapons release. This rule set; however, needs to be established with sensitivity to the US's international interests in globalization and soft power. The US must find a way to establish its doctrine governing nuclear weapons release without threatening other peaceful nations in the process.

  5. Process Design Report for Stover Feedstock: Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis for Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ruth, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibsen, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jechura, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Neeves, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheehan, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wallace, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Montague, L. [Harris Group, Seattle, WA (United States); Slayton, A. [Harris Group, Seattle, WA (United States); Lukas, J. [Harris Group, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2002-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the development of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks as an alternative to conventional petroleum-based transportation fuels. DOE funds both fundamental and applied research in this area and needs a method for predicting cost benefits of many research proposals. To that end, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has modeled many potential process designs and estimated the economics of each process during the last 20 years. This report is an update of the ongoing process design and economic analyses at NREL.

  6. Advances in the study of current-use non-PBDE brominated flame retardants and dechlorane plus in the environment and humans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The fate of the high production volume,currently in use,and not regulated non-polybrominated diphenyl ether(PBDE) flame retardants,such as tetrabromobisphenol A(TBBPA) ,hexabromocyclododecane(HBCD) and dechlorane plus(DP),and the alternative flame retardants of PBDE,such as BTBPE and DBDPE,in the environment has attracted increasing attention and aroused concern due to the increasing regulation and phasing-out of PBDEs.This paper reviews the distribution,bioaccumulation,human exposure and environmental behavior of those non-PBDE flame retardants in various environmental compartments.The data gaps and needs for future research are discussed.

  7. Risk factors for stereotypic behavior and self-biting in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): animal's history, current environment, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Daniel H; Capitanio, John P; McCowan, Brenda

    2013-10-01

    Captive rhesus macaques sometimes exhibit undesirable abnormal behaviors, such as motor stereotypic behavior (MSB) and self-abuse. Many risk factors for these behaviors have been identified but the list is far from comprehensive, and large individual differences in rate of behavior expression remain. The goal of the current study was to determine which experiences predict expression of MSB and self-biting, and if individual differences in personality can account for additional variation in MSB expression. A risk factor analysis was performed utilizing data from over 4,000 rhesus monkeys at the California National Primate Research Center. Data were analyzed using model selection, with the best fitting models evaluated using Akaike Information Criterion. Results confirmed previous research that males exhibit more MSB and self-biting than females, MSB decreases with age, and indoor reared animals exhibit more MSB and self-biting than outdoor reared animals. Additionally, results indicated that animals exhibited less MSB and self-biting for each year spent outdoors; frequency of room moves and number of projects positively predicted MSB; pair separations positively predicted MSB and self-biting; pair housed animals expressed less MSB than single housed and grate paired animals; and that animals expressed more MSB and self-biting when in bottom rack cages, or cages near the room entrance. Based on these results we recommend limiting exposure to these risk factors when possible. Our results also demonstrated a relationship between personality and MSB expression, with animals low on gentle temperament, active in response to a human intruder, and high on novel object contact expressing more MSB. From these results we propose that an animal's MSB is related to its predisposition for an active personality, with active animals expressing higher rates of MSB.

  8. The current status of the debate on socio-economic regulatory assessments: positions and policies in Canada, the USA, the EU and developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falck-Zepeda, J.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Smyth, S.

    2013-01-01

    Article 26.1 of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety has the option of considering socio-economic issues in biosafety regulatory approval processes related to genetically engineered organisms. National laws and regulations in some countries have already defined positions and may have enacted policies

  9. ECONOMICAL-FINANCIAL ACTIVITY – MAIN VECTOR REGARDING PLANNING AND USE OF FINANCIAL RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan PREUTESI

    2013-01-01

    The current economic environment is of high complexity and it requires a different approach to the concept of economic-financial management, namely to have a preventive, proactive character, under the conditions of an unpredictable future, which should promptly respond to the challenges caused by planning and smart use of financial resources, more and more volatile.

  10. Paradigm change in automotive powertrain engineering. A techno-economic analysis taking into account environment-political instruments; Paradigmawandel automobiler Antriebstechnologien. Eine techno-oekonomische Analyse unter Beruecksichtigung umweltpolitischer Instrumente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stangner, Peter

    2011-07-01

    The automobile industry is faced with the challenge to introduce concepts for sustainable mobility in terms of low pollutant and CO2 emissions. The author discusses the preconditions and procedures of technological change in the powertrain markets. The effects of techno-economic trends and environment-political instruments are discussed in an international context and illustrated by the example of the market success of diesel engines in Europe. Using innovation-economic theories, he draws conclusions as to the future electrification of powertrains resp. the introduction of electromobility. Not least because of its highly topical content with regard to economic and environmental policy, this publication has high relevance for decision makers in science, industry and politics. By outlining options and chances of future developments, it will help to reduce present concerns about the future. (orig.)

  11. influences by personal perceptions about nascent entrepreneurs hip activity. A gender perspective across different economic environments; Influencias de las percepciones personales sobre la actividad emprendedora naciente una perspectiva de genero a traves de diferentes entornos economicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Mateo, J.; Mira Solves, I.; Gomez Gras, J. M.

    2012-11-01

    This paper explores the contribution of perceptions on entrepreneurial propensity from a gender perspective and depending on the environment, analyzing its contingent role on the determinants and gender differences. Results highlight the significance of the self-efficacy, the perception of opportunities and the fear of failure; also show that the knowledge of entrepreneurs is essential. Nuances regarding the economic contexts and gender provide information relevant to development actions that can be adapted to specific environments and to the group concerned. (Author) 61 refs.

  12. 西安市人居环境与经济系统发展的关系%Relationship between the Living Environment and Economic Development of Xi'an

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田凯

    2014-01-01

    鉴于我国经济迅速发展而人居环境问题越来越突出,特别是西部地区较少受到关注的状况,本文对近年来西安市的社会经济发展以及人居环境质量进行了分析,得出西安市人居环境可持续发展协调程度正在不断增强,人居环境在逐渐改善的结论,并针对西安市人居环境现状和问题提出了进一步发展的政策建议。%In view of the rapid economic development in China and more and more problems of the living environment, especially with less attention to the western region, this paper analyzes the social and economic development in recent years and the quality of living environment in Xi'an, finds that the coordination degree of living environment for the sustainable development of Xi'an city is growing and the living environment is gradually improving, and proposes policy recommendations for further development of the living environment of Xi'an based on the status and issues.

  13. Economic Development via Dam Building: The Role of the State Government in the Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy and the Impact on Environment and Local Communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aeria, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Since 1970, as a consequence of Malaysia’s New Economic Policy (NEP) and its integration into the global economy, the development achievements and per capita GDP growth of the resource-rich state of Sarawak have been impressive...

  14. A systematic review of the impact of parental socio-economic status and home environment characteristics on children's oral health related quality of life

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Santhosh; Kroon, Jeroen; Lalloo, Ratilal

    2014-01-01

    Childhood circumstances such as socio-economic status and family structure have been found to influence psychological, psychosocial attributes and Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in children...

  15. Ecological Environment Protection and Economic Sustainable Development in Burang County, Tibet%西藏普兰县生态环境保护与经济可持续发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周毅; 宗刚; 赵子壮

    2011-01-01

    Ecological environment protection is important for human economic society to achieve sustainable development. It is urgent for human society to know how to coordinate relationship between human economic social system and a natural ecological system so as to achieve sustainable development of economic and society. Burang County is characterized by its pressing economic development, particular geographical location, vulnerable and sensitive ecological environment and strong religious belief. So it is of great practical significance to achieve the coordination development of regional economy.%生态环境保护是人类经济社会实现可持续发展重要内容,如何更好地协调人类经济社会系统与自然生态系统之间的关系,实现经济社会可持续发展,是人类社会的迫切需要.西藏普兰县经济发展紧迫、地理位置特殊,生态环境极度脆弱和敏感,并带有很强的宗教色彩,实现该区域经济的协调发展,具有十分重要的现实意义.

  16. Current studies on nursing work environment and strategies for improvement of nursing work environment%护理工作环境的研究探讨与改革策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤黎明; 刘佳丽; 郑晶; 刘可

    2016-01-01

    The important role of nursing work environment has received much attention in the management of nursing workforce and the quality of health care services. This paper analyzed current studies on nursing work environment, and suggested that the government and hospital administrators pay more attention to the development of nursing workforce, adequate clinical nurse staffing levels and promoting healthy work environment for nurses.%护理工作环境在护士队伍建设和护理服务质量管理中的重要地位在近年来受到广泛关注。本文分析了国内外护理工作环境的研究结果及国外护理工作环境的改革策略,建议我国各级卫生行政部门和医疗卫生机构重视护理人才队伍建设,切实保障临床护理人力配置,共同努力构建健康的护理工作环境。

  17. Research on Development of the Sports Industry Of Economic and Political Environment%长三角体育产业发展的经济与政治环境研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高雪梅

    2011-01-01

    The literature review,interviews,field survey,the development of sports industry in the Yangtze River Delta economic and political environment in-depth investigation,analysis and research.Studies suggest that: in the economic environment,the Yangtze River Delta economic output of high growth,increase income levels and urban commercial advantages for the development of sports industry in the Yangtze River Delta created a favorable economic environment,while promoting the rapid growth of the tertiary industry the Sports Industry The development process;in the political environment,the national level,and Jiangsu,Zhejiang and local governments introduced a series of supportive policies to promote the sports industry sports industry in the Yangtze River Delta Regional Cooperation and Development.%采用文献资料法、访谈法、实地调查法,对长三角体育产业发展的经济与政治环境进行了深入的调查、分析与研究。研究认为:在经济环境方面,长三角经济总量的高增长、居民收入水平提高及城市商业优势为长三角体育产业发展创造了良好的经济环境,同时第三产业快速增长推进了长三角体育产业的发展进程;在政治环境方面,国家层面及江浙沪地方政府出台的一系列体育产业扶持政策促进了长三角体育产业的区域合作与发展。

  18. Economic Security of the Disabled Women:Current Situation and Countermeasures%残障妇女经济保障现状与对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭砾; 闵杰

    2013-01-01

      改革开放以来,尤其是近十年来,残障妇女经济保障状况得到较大改善。但总体而言,残障妇女与残障男性、残障妇女与妇女整体的就业水平,都存在较大差距,登记失业率远高于妇女平均水平,就业稳定性差,工资收入水平较低,残障妇女基本社会保险覆盖率不仅低于小康指标且低于残障男性,参加社会保险人数和保险种类明显低于城镇女职工参保的平均水平,社会上对残障妇女仍存在歧视和偏见,就业机会不平等及同工不同酬现象还时有发生。应当以政府为主导,切实采取有力措施,进一步加强残障妇女的经济保障。%  Since the reform and opening up, especially in recent ten years, the economic security and service system of the disabled women in China has a solid start and achieved initial success, and the status of survival and development of the disabled women has improved significantly, and the economic situation has also risen fatherly. But in general, during the period of 2001-2010, the disabled people have benefit less than other people from the social and economic development, and the disabled women less than the disabled men, and the rural disabled women less than the urban disabled women. With the data of the third wave survey on the social status of women in 2010 and the questionnaire survey on the status and development of disabled women in 2011 in Heilongjiang province, from many angles of view, this article analyzes the economic security situation of the disabled women and the disabled men comprehensively, and focuses on the differences of the disabled people’s economic security between urban and rural areas, between women and men, between disabled women and overall women, and puts forward the countermeasures and the suggestions on the economic security of the disabled women.

  19. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT VERSUS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Scutaru

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper put in antithesis, theoretically, two models of development and evolution of mankind, namely, economic development based on consumption of the exhaustible resources and pollution and on the other hand the development based on the concepts of sustainable development, involving a new mentality on human life and environment. Economic development includes economic growth, quantified in particular through the GDP, aspect that leads to a reduced analysis taking into account a limited number of variables such as household income, employment labour, consumption of goods and services, etc.. Perpetuation of this model has led, over time, to the company's inability to solve the problems facing mankind today and serious discrepancies regarding current levels of human development. This type of model does not take into account variables such as unemployment, poverty, education, health, environmental pollution, population migration, urban overcrowding, social inclusion etc. At the opposite side of this type of development, which proves to be beyond the crowd problems currently facing humanity, is a new alternative model, that of sustainable development, which provides an integrated view of all these variables and hence the chance of the human society to a new level of evolution. The sustainable development model of mankind put, among others, the zero growth issue or even sustained decrease for some countries. This model requires also reducing resource consumption and increase sustainability of assets created. It also offers practical solutions to many current problems of mankind, among which we can mention providing food for a growing world population and producing clean alternative energy.

  20. Economic and market assessment of the Ontario air pollution prevention and control industry: A sector study for the Ontario Ministry of the Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    This study is a comprehensive investigation into global air pollution prevention and control markets, with primary emphasis on domestic and U.S. markets, sponsored by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment. The objective of the study was to provide an assessment of Ontario's air pollution prevention and control market; identify opportunities for growth in niche markets; analyze the impact of global market forces; and to provide market intelligence to help companies improve their domestic and export market strategies. Findings of the report include: (1) the industry makes a significant contribution to the province's economy, with revenues of $ 823 million and providing 8,505 full-time equivalent jobs; (2) market growth is projected at the rate of 6 per cent domestically and more than 10 per cent globally on an annual basis over the next three years; (3) there is a marked difference in the perception of supply and demand side companies with respect to the influences on the air pollution prevention and control market, and the factors driving purchasing decisions; (4) domestic industrial buyers have been found to have no knowledge or appreciation for current and upcoming air pollution prevention and control technologies available in Ontario; (5) global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emission will add a new and significant dimension to air market demand; (6) the need to attract capital into technology research, development and commercialization is critically important given that technology will be the primary defining basis of competitive advantage in the sector; (7) over 92 per cent of the companies surveyed are selling products and services abroad, nevertheless, there are few successful companies which have taken a strategic, business-oriented approach to penetrating the export market; (8) the supply of experienced, value-adding personnel in technology innovation, business planning, marketing and export market development is insufficient for sector growth

  1. Radiation Environment at LEO in the frame of Space Monitoring Data Center at Moscow State University - recent, current and future missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myagkova, Irina; Kalegaev, Vladimir; Panasyuk, Mikhail; Svertilov, Sergey; Bogomolov, Vitaly; Bogomolov, Andrey; Barinova, Vera; Barinov, Oleg; Bobrovnikov, Sergey; Dolenko, Sergey; Mukhametdinova, Ludmila; Shiroky, Vladimir; Shugay, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Radiation Environment of Near-Earth space is one of the most important factors of space weather. Space Monitoring Data Center of Moscow State University provides operational control of radiation conditions at Low Earth's Orbits (LEO) of the near-Earth space using data of recent (Vernov, CORONAS series), current (Meteor-M, Electro-L series) and future (Lomonosov) space missions. Internet portal of Space Monitoring Data Center of Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lomonosov Moscow State University (SINP MSU) http://swx.sinp.msu.ru/ provides possibilities to control and analyze the space radiation conditions in the real time mode together with the geomagnetic and solar activity including hard X-ray and gamma- emission of solar flares. Operational data obtained from space missions at L1, GEO and LEO and from the Earth's magnetic stations are used to represent radiation and geomagnetic state of near-Earth environment. The models of space environment that use space measurements from different orbits were created. Interactive analysis and operational neural network forecast services are based on these models. These systems can automatically generate alerts on particle fluxes enhancements above the threshold values, both for SEP and relativistic electrons of outer Earth's radiation belt using data from GEO and LEO as input. As an example of LEO data we consider data from Vernov mission, which was launched into solar-synchronous orbit (altitude 640 - 83 0 km, inclination 98.4°, orbital period about 100 min) on July 8, 2014 and began to receive scientific information since July 20, 2014. Vernov mission have provided studies of the Earth's radiation belt relativistic electron precipitation and its possible connection with atmosphere transient luminous events, as well as the solar hard X-ray and gamma-emission measurements. Radiation and electromagnetic environment monitoring in the near-Earth Space, which is very important for space weather study, was also realised

  2. Mapping the Tidewater Submarine and Ice-Marginal Environment Using Interferometric Bathymetry, Ground-Based LiDAR and Current Velocities; Hubbard Glacier, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, D. C.; Lawson, D. E.; Butler, W.; Waller, T.; Pratt, T.

    2009-12-01

    The seasonal advance and retreat of tidewater glaciers is a relatively well-documented phenomenon. But our understanding of the processes and conditions within the ice-marginal submarine environment that drive or result from this activity is limited. Capturing holistic information within this environment such as bathymetric topography, hydrographic measurements and geospatial information about the terminus itself is often limited to discrete measurements far from the terminus grounding line or lack the detail and scale necessary to identify features that may be indicative of process. To understand these processes, it is essential to accurately obtain data at resolutions that are sufficient to understand the geologic and marine environment. This paper describes the results of a first-of-its-kind survey of the submarine and ice-marginal terrestrial environment of the Hubbard Glacier tidewater terminus. Hubbard Glacier is the largest non-polar tidewater glacier in the world. It encompasses an area of 3500 sq km and flows 120 km from the flanks of Mt Logan (5959 m) in the Wrangell St. Elias Mountains (Canada) to sea level where its terminus widens to ~13 km. In contrast to most glaciers in Southeast Alaska, Hubbard Glacier continues to advance and thicken and is predicted to continue for the foreseeable future. We utilize a multi-sensor fusion approach that integrates high-resolution interferometric (swath-based) multibeam bathymetry with high-resolution ground-based LiDAR topography and current velocity profiles to provide a detailed look at the section of the glacier where significant ice advance and potential ice-damming occurs. Through simultaneous collection of these data we are able to precisely map the topography of the sea floor adjacent to and at the grounding line of the ice terminus while simultaneously mapping the ice terminus and surrounding terrain to create a complete 3D topographic model of the aerial and submarine environment. These data allow for

  3. The Characteristics and Countermeasures of Current Economic Crime in Dalian%大连市当前经济犯罪特点及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王虹

    2014-01-01

    Economic crime refers to the behavior that violates legal provisions of the state, infringes the national economic management system, undermines the order of socialist market economy in order to seek illegal interests in the operation of commodity economy; the behavior should be subjected to punishment in accordance with the criminal law. At present, economic crime has a high incidence rate in Dalian and bears the following characteristics as rapid growth of the gross, involvement of a huge amount of money and people, various forms, elusive ways, new means, highly organized and intelligentized. Basing on the analysis of the characteristics of economic crime, this article puts forward the countermeasures of sternly fighting against economic crime, combining strike with prevention, strengthening the construction of early warning mechanism, building team forces, carrying out legal publicity, so on and so forth.%经济犯罪是指在商品经济的运行领域中,为谋取不法利益,违反国家法律规定,严重侵犯国家经济管理制度,破坏社会主义市场经济秩序,依照刑法应受刑罚处罚的行为[1]。当前我市经济犯罪出现高发态势,呈现出总量快速增长、涉案金额巨大、人数众多、类型多样、方式隐蔽、手段翻新、高度组织化智能化的特点。本文在分析经济犯罪特点的基础上,提出严厉打击犯罪、打防结合、加强预警机制建设、队伍建设、做好法制宣传等对策。

  4. BEYOND BRICS – AN EMERGING MARKETS ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian-Andrei LABES

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The rise of the BRICS – Jim O’Neill’s acronym that stands for Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa defining the flagship nations of emerging economies – it’s not the only economic success story of the emerging markets. In fact the five top emerging markets economies just started a trend, set a course for others to follow. The Next Eleven, as Goldman Sachs named the group of economies which have the highest potential of becoming world’s most important economies of the 21st century, are well aware of their advantages and downsides in the new global economic environment. The EU as a global player needs to cope with this rise of new poles of economic strength in order to maintain its economic powerhouse. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the rise of the Next Eleven from the EU perspective in terms of trade openness, macroeconomic stability and economic growth. The paper is divided into sections: Introduction, Literature review, Current trends in the world’s economy, Globalization Era: New poles of economic growth, Risks and opportunities for EU economic growth in the context of the new rising emerging markets, Current global economic-financial crisis implications on EU and The Next Eleven a final section with some Concluding remarks. The findings provided by this working paper are that European Union is facing major changes in the world’s economic environment and European economies are forced to adapt fast in both contexts of current global economic crisis and the rising importance of emerging markets. Moreover, the Next Eleven are a proof of the rapid changes in the global economy that affect not only the major Western economies but also the major economies of the newly developed nations, such as the BRICS. This phenomenon is part of the bigger picture – the globalization process of global economic stage.

  5. Politico-economic equivalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez Eiras, Martin; Niepelt, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Traditional "economic equivalence'' results, like the Ricardian equivalence proposition, define equivalence classes over exogenous policies. We derive "politico-economic equivalence" conditions that apply in environments where policy is endogenous and chosen sequentially. A policy regime...... and a state are equivalent to another such pair if both pairs give rise to the same allocation in politico-economic equilibrium. The equivalence conditions help to identify factors that render institutional change non-neutral and to construct politico-economic equilibria in new policy regimes. We exemplify...... their use in the context of several applications, relating to social security reform, tax-smoothing policies and measures to correct externalities....

  6. ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel MARIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to highlight the quality of life that depends on necessary, harmonious and simultaneous satisfying of all human needs, instead of „one at a time”, health and economic insecurity being at the very foundation of it. A society that is focused on quality of life will be a society centered on the individual, their needs and aspirations. It needs to offer alternatives and choices of the individual and not to impose models. Coercion of society over the individual is an objective and necessary phenomenon. Its deepening is not, however, as required. Social environment based on quality of life must be characterized by the maximum possible degree of permissiveness in which the individual is educated in its contribution to social awareness.

  7. Quantum Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Vukotić Veselin

    2011-01-01

    The globalization is breaking-down the idea of national state, which was the base for the development of economic theory which is dominant today. Global economic crisis puts emphasis on limited possibilities of national governments in solving economic problems and general problems of society. Does it also mean that globalization and global economic crisis points out the need to think about new economic theory and new understanding of economics? In this paper I will argue that globalizat...

  8. Environment and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paavola, Jouni; Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews socio-economic research on the environment and sustainability. The chapter first explores core aspects of socio-economics, examines how socio-economics has related to the agenda of research on the environment, and assesses how socio-economic research on the environment became...... to a research agenda for ‘socio-ecological economics’. Sustainable consumption and global environmental change are already important areas of research for it. But ecological macroeconomics is also needed to formulate coordinated responses to multiple crises such as economic downturn, climate change and loss...

  9. Honey bee genotypes and the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meixner, Marina D; Büchler, Ralph; Costa, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Although knowledge about honey bee geographic and genetic diversity has increased tremendously in recent decades, the adaptation of honey bees to their local environment has not been well studied. The current demand for high economic performance of bee colonies with desirable behavioural...

  10. COGNITIVE ECONOMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIMBALL, MILES

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive economics is the economics of what is in people’s minds. It is a vibrant area of research (much of it within behavioural economics, labour economics and the economics of education) that brings into play novel types of data, especially novel types of survey data. Such data highlight the importance of heterogeneity across individuals and highlight thorny issues for welfare economics. A key theme of cognitive economics is finite cognition (often misleadingly called “bounded rationality”), which poses theoretical challenges that call for versatile approaches. Cognitive economics brings a rich toolbox to the task of understanding a complex world. PMID:28149186

  11. Analysis of currently available data for characterising the risk of engineered nanomaterials to the environment and human health--lessons learned from four case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschberger, Karin; Micheletti, Christian; Sokull-Klüttgen, Birgit; Christensen, Frans M

    2011-08-01

    Production volumes and the use of engineered nanomaterials in many innovative products are continuously increasing, however little is known about their potential risk for the environment and human health. We have reviewed publicly available hazard and exposure data for both, the environment and human health and attempted to carry out a basic risk assessment appraisal for four types of nanomaterials: fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, metals, and metal oxides (ENRHES project 2009(1)). This paper presents a summary of the results of the basic environmental and human health risk assessments of these case studies, highlighting the cross cutting issues and conclusions about fate and behaviour, exposure, hazard and methodological considerations. The risk assessment methodology being the basis for our case studies was that of a regulatory risk assessment under REACH (ECHA, 2008(2)), with modifications to adapt to the limited available data. If possible, environmental no-effect concentrations and human no-effect levels were established from relevant studies by applying assessment factors in line with the REACH guidance and compared to available exposure data to discuss possible risks. When the data did not allow a quantitative assessment, the risk was assessed qualitatively, e.g. for the environment by evaluating the information in the literature to describe the potential to enter the environment and to reach the potential ecological targets. Results indicate that the main risk for the environment is expected from metals and metal oxides, especially for algae and Daphnia, due to exposure to both, particles and ions. The main risks for human health may arise from chronic occupational inhalation exposure, especially during the activities of high particle release and uncontrolled exposure. The information on consumer and environmental exposure of humans is too scarce to attempt a quantitative risk characterisation. It is recognised that the currently available database for both

  12. The Analysis of Current Situation about Rural Economic Structure and Adjustment Countermeasures%农村经济结构现状分析及调整对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋明芳

    2012-01-01

    With the transition of traditional to modern agriculture,there are many problems in existing rural economic structure.Through the analysis of the characteristics of existing rural economic structure,the paper proposes that the adjustment of rural economic restructuring must adhere to market demand-oriented,science and technology support,according to the geographical features and market supply select leading industry and actively promote the industrialization and large-scale operation of agriculture;improve the market mechanism,creating a competitive,open,orderly,and a variety of agricultural market system,improve the market competitiveness of agricultural products;to speed up the pace of urban and rural integration,to promote the secondary and tertiary industries development of small towns in rural areas,set up township enterprises.Enhance the cultural quality of education for farmers,boost farmers' scientific and cultural levels as the basis of rural economic restructuring%随着传统农业向现代农业的过渡,现有农村经济结构存在很多问题。农村经济结构的调整必须坚持以市场需求为导向,以科学技术为支撑,根据地域特点、市场供求关系挑选主导产业,积极推进农业产业化、规模化经营;完善市场机制,形成竞争、开放、有序、多样的农产品市场体系,提高农产品的市场竞争力;加快城乡一体化建设的步伐,推进农村小城镇第二、三产业的发展,大力兴办乡镇企业。把加强对农民的文化素质教育,提高农民的科技文化水平作为农村经济结构调整的基础。

  13. Quantum economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Veselin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalization is breaking-down the idea of national state, which was the base for the development of economic theory which is dominant today. Global economic crisis puts emphasis on limited possibilities of national governments in solving economic problems and general problems of society. Does it also mean that globalization and global economic crisis points out the need to think about new economic theory and new understanding of economics? In this paper I will argue that globalization reveals the need to change dominant economic paradigm - from traditional economic theory (mainstream with macroeconomic stability as the goal of economic policy, to the “quantum economics“, which is based on “economic quantum” and immanent to the increase of wealth (material and non-material of every individual in society and promoting set of values immanent to the wealth increase as the goal of economic policy. Practically the question is how we can use global market for our development!

  14. The Teaching of First Year Economics in Australian Universities*

    OpenAIRE

    Nilss Olekalns

    2002-01-01

    This paper surveys current pedagogical practice in the teaching of introductory macroeconomics and microeconomics in Australian universities. Survey results are presented detailing lecturers’ approaches to their teaching over 2001 and other aspects of their teaching environment. A comparison of the content and methodology of the main textbooks used in Australian introductory economic courses is also presented.

  15. Greater performance and less harmful substances: Perspectives for an economical coal-based current supply. Mehr Leistung und weniger Schadstoffe: Perspektiven einer wirtschaftlichen Kohleverstromung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotschenreuther, H.; Haeuser, U.; Weirich, P.H.

    1994-06-01

    Based on the idea of further developing proven technology, the HT steam power station is a particularly economic alternative (low risk-tried and tested technology) to a coal gasification plant concept with a pressurized chamber: - greated efficiency under full and partical load, - optical variable load, - greatest service-compatibility, i.e. large revision intervals compared to conventional power stations, - similar investment costs to conventional power stations, - similar or improved efficiency in comparison to coal-fueled power stations, future application of this H-T technology to brown coal plants will; - procedure less CO[sub 2] emissions than coal gasification plants, - best partial load performance, - within its band-width, it allows an efficiency rate of around 50% in combination with G.T. It is accepted that various market segments could be opened for the different technological areas. An example is the combined power station with DWSF, which uses the nearly HKW due to its compactness, and also the HT power station for an economic application in the coal-powered supply. (orig.)

  16. The Economics of Library Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Miriam A.; Olsen, Harold A.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a review of the economic literature dealing with innovation in academic libraries, and of the economic environment and structure of libraries and their relationship to innovation. Also discussed are sources of capital for libraries, the economic character of innovation, and innovation in libraries. (Author/MBR)

  17. 吉尔吉斯斯坦经济转型中投资环境及中国对其投资前景分析%Kyrgyzstan Economic Transition and Investment Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    依马木阿吉·艾比布拉; 孙世伟

    2014-01-01

    With collapsing of the Soviet Union in the end of 1991 ,the Central Asian countries are largely“passive”in achieving national independence .Since the failure of the Soviet economic system model and the esteem of the western economic system ,Kyrgyzstan renounced giving up the original planned economy , started to implement economic reform .This article explored the relationship of economic transformation , foreign capital ,investment environment of Kyrgyzstan .Good investment environment is an important con-dition for better attracting foreign investment ,w hich reflects the success of economic transformation .Cap-ital shortage and deteriorating economic condition were the root cause to constraint the economic reform of Kyrgyzstan .Chinese investment in Kyrgyzstan has made great progress ,w hich will provide more and more opportunities for China .%1991年底苏联解体,中亚国家在很大程度上“被动”地实现了国家独立。由于苏联经济体制模式的失败和对西方经济体制的推崇,吉尔吉斯斯坦宣布放弃原有的计划经济体制向市场经济转变,着手实行经济体制改革。文章从吉尔吉斯斯坦经济转型、引进外资等方面进行分析,探索欠发达国家吉尔吉斯斯坦经济转型、引进外资和投资环境之间的关系。良好的投资环境是吸引外资的重要条件,也是经济转型成功的体现,资本短缺和经济状况恶化成为制约吉国经济改革的根本原因。中国在吉尔吉斯斯坦投资取得了很大进展,存在着优势,有很大的拓展空间。

  18. The Approach of Ecological Economics

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Gowdy; Jon D Erickson

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the major tenets of ecological economics - including value pluralism, methodological pluralism, and multi-criteria policy assessment. Ecological economics offers viable alternatives to the theoretical foundations and policy recommendations of neoclassical welfare economics. A revolution in neoclassical economics is currently taking place and the core assumptions of welfare economics are being replaced with more realistic models of consumer and firm behavior. But we argue ...

  19. Behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerer, Colin F

    2014-09-22

    Behavioral economics uses evidence from psychology and other social sciences to create a precise and fruitful alternative to traditional economic theories, which are based on optimization. Behavioral economics may interest some biologists, as it shifts the basis for theories of economic choice away from logical calculation and maximization and toward biologically plausible mechanisms.

  20. LightForce photon-pressure collision avoidance: Efficiency analysis in the current debris environment and long-term simulation perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang Yang, Fan; Nelson, Bron; Aziz, Jonathan; Carlino, Roberto; Dono Perez, Andres; Faber, Nicolas; Foster, Cyrus; Frost, Chad; Henze, Chris; Karacalıoğlu, Arif Göktuğ; Levit, Creon; Marshall, William; Mason, James; O'Toole, Conor; Swenson, Jason; Worden, Simon P.; Stupl, Jan

    2016-09-01

    This work provides an efficiency analysis of the LightForce space debris collision avoidance scheme in the current debris environment and describes a simulation approach to assess its impact on the long-term evolution of the space debris environment. LightForce aims to provide just-in-time collision avoidance by utilizing photon pressure from ground-based industrial lasers. These ground stations impart minimal accelerations to increase the miss distance for a predicted conjunction between two objects. In the first part of this paper we will present research that investigates the short-term effect of a few systems consisting of 20 kW class lasers directed by 1.5 m diameter telescopes using adaptive optics. The results found such a network of ground stations to mitigate more than 85 percent of conjunctions and could lower the expected number of collisions in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by an order of magnitude. While these are impressive numbers that indicate LightForce's utility in the short-term, the remaining 15 % of possible collisions contain (among others) conjunctions between two massive objects that would add large amount of debris if they collide. Still, conjunctions between massive objects and smaller objects can be mitigated. Hence, we choose to expand the capabilities of the simulation software to investigate the overall effect of a network of LightForce stations on the long-term debris evolution. In the second part of this paper, we will present the planned simulation approach for that effort. For the efficiency analysis of collision avoidance in the current debris environment, we utilize a simulation approach that uses the entire Two Line Element (TLE) catalog in LEO for a given day as initial input. These objects are propagated for one year and an all-on-all conjunction analysis is performed. For conjunctions that fall below a range threshold, we calculate the probability of collision and record those values. To assess efficiency, we compare a baseline

  1. Maximization, learning, and economic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erev, Ido; Roth, Alvin E

    2014-07-22

    The rationality assumption that underlies mainstream economic theory has proved to be a useful approximation, despite the fact that systematic violations to its predictions can be found. That is, the assumption of rational behavior is useful in understanding the ways in which many successful economic institutions function, although it is also true that actual human behavior falls systematically short of perfect rationality. We consider a possible explanation of this apparent inconsistency, suggesting that mechanisms that rest on the rationality assumption are likely to be successful when they create an environment in which the behavior they try to facilitate leads to the best payoff for all agents on average, and most of the time. Review of basic learning research suggests that, under these conditions, people quickly learn to maximize expected return. This review also shows that there are many situations in which experience does not increase maximization. In many cases, experience leads people to underweight rare events. In addition, the current paper suggests that it is convenient to distinguish between two behavioral approaches to improve economic analyses. The first, and more conventional approach among behavioral economists and psychologists interested in judgment and decision making, highlights violations of the rational model and proposes descriptive models that capture these violations. The second approach studies human learning to clarify the conditions under which people quickly learn to maximize expected return. The current review highlights one set of conditions of this type and shows how the understanding of these conditions can facilitate market design.

  2. Economic Analysis and Feasibility of Rainwater Harvesting Systems in Urban and Peri-Urban Environments: A Review of the Global Situation with a Special Focus on Australia and Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb Christian Amos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rainwater harvesting (RWH plays an important role in increasing water security for individuals and governments. The demand for tools to enable technical and economic analysis of RWH systems has led to a substantial body of research in the recent past. This paper focuses on the economic aspects of domestic RWH in urban and peri-urban environments. In this regard, key issues are identified and discussed including quality and quantity of harvested water, the water demand profile, the scale of installation, interest rates, the period of analysis, real estate value, and the water-energy-food nexus. Kenya and Australia are used as reference points having different economies and opposing RWH policies. It has been found that the previous studies on financial aspects of RWH systems often had conflicting results. Most of the economic analyses have ignored the full benefits that a RWH system can offer. In view of the varying and conflicting results, there is a need to standardize the methods of economic analysis of RWH systems.

  3. Analysis and modelling of geological and economical parameters influencing mining of slovak magnesite deposits and its impact on the environment on the example of the Košice-Bankov deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blišan Peter

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnesite deposits in Slovakia are mined economically using underground methods. Their reserves and output represent an important part of the world onst. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to the analysis and modelling of geological-economical and environmental parameters influencing the mining of slovak magnesite deposits.Quality of raw material or deposit is among crucial factors influencing the industrial output of magnesites. This parameter significantly influences the mining and processing technologies. New methods of prospecting, exploration and reserve calculations need the re-evaluation of existing criteria for the determination of economical importance. Modern technologies are capable to utilise also previous noneconomical parts of the deposit what causes a need for the re-evaluation of existing methods of ore reserves determination and for the introduction and testing of modern methods of the ore reserves determination.Impact on the environment is also an important aspect of the mining activity. It is necessary to monitor and evaluate this problem consequently. Many new environmental studies confirm a negative impact of the magnesite mining on the nature and human society. Therefore, beside the problems of analysis and modelling of geological- economical parameters, the analysis of environmental aspects of mining is also unevitable to be included into the solution of the project. Modern monitoring systems based on the geographic information systems (GIS are intensively used for such analysis at the present time. Their assistance during collecting, elaborating and evaluating the research results is recently to hardly be replaceable.

  4. THE INTERNATIONALISATION OF ACCOUNTING EDUCATION UNDER ECONOMIC GLOBALISATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JialinXu

    2004-01-01

    This paper maintains that the trend toward economic globalisation, along with the resulting expectations and call for the internationalisation of accounting systems,are the basis for the concept of internationalizing Chinese accounting education. In fact, such dramatic changes in the economic and business environment have triggered suggestions for major changes in the accounting profession from the eight economic coordination organisations and international accounting bodies, which further reinforces the notion of internationalisation. Our current accounting pedagogy should reform in order to reflect the internationalisation of accounting education.

  5. 当前世界经济形势与中国战略选择%The Current Global Economic Situation and China's Strategic Choice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文玲

    2016-01-01

    当前,世界经济总体复苏依旧乏力缓慢,以"三低""三高""三个失衡"为特征的世界经济低速增长的"新常态"不会发生根本改变,但世界经济继续分化,货币政策加剧分化,国际贸易格局日益分化,大宗商品市场价格在跌宕起伏中分化,全球跨境电子商务蓬勃发展.随着我国综合国力的不断增强,随着我国与世界新型互动态势的日益明显,面对新的国际形势,为构建面向未来的全球开放型经济体系,必须进行新的战略选择,一要加快推进人民币国际化战略,重构国际货币体系;二要以人民币国际化推动国际货币体系改革;三要全面推进自由贸易区战略,构建自由贸易区网络体系;四要加快产业结构调整与升级,重构全球价值链体系;五要加快实施创新驱动战略,形成创新驱动型经济体系.%At present,the trend of economic recovery is still weak and slow;the"new normal"of slow world economic growth,which takes the"Three Low","Three High"and"Three Imbalance"as the characteristics,will not be fundamentally changed;differentiations in world economic growth,monetary policies,global trade patterns,and commodity prices will be highlighted;and the development of global cross-border e-commerce will be blooming. With the increasingly enhanced comprehensive national strength of China,the noticeable new interactions between China and other countries,and the new international situation,to establish the future open strategic system and make the new strategic choice,China should,first, accelerate the strategy of RMB internationalization and rebuild the international monetary system;second,China should promote the reform of international monetary system with the help of RMB internationalization;third,China should fully promote the strategy of Free Trade Zone (FTZ) and establish the network system of FTZ;fourth,China should accelerate the industrial restructuring and strategic upgrade and rebuild the global value

  6. Evaluation of Ecological and Economic Index in Poyang Lake Ecological Economic Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heping; HUANG; Xiaolin; PENG

    2015-01-01

    The society and related research fields were paying close attention to make great efforts to promote the construction level of ecological civilization in China. And measuring and evaluating the status of eco-economic development always was the focus and difficulty in current researches. Based on the methods of Analytic Hierarchy Process( AHP) and the concept of Eco-Factor of Economic Growth and Ecological Efficiency,combined with the fact of research area,the index system of Ecological Economy Index( EEI),which includes social development,economic growth,ecological building,resource use and environmental protection,was built up to measure and evaluate the eco-economic system’s development situation. The weights of all indicators in the EEI system were acquired from the method of expert consultation. All the methods were applied to assess the eco-economic development situation in Poyang Lake Ecological Economic Zone of Jiangxi Province. The results showed that:( i) The model of EEI could intuitively apply to reflect the eco-economic development situation and coordinate extent of the assessment units in the Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone,which could provide some scientific guides on finding breakthrough point of evaluating eco-economic level for concerned management departments and policies making organizations.( ii) There were distinct differences of Ecological Economy Index value between the counties,cities or districts. Wannian county was on the best situation with the highest EEI value( EEI = 55.74),and Ruichang city was found to be on the worst eco-economic development situation with the lowest EEI value( EEI = 28. 65).( iii) The developed counties( cities or districts) with high EEI value should improve resource use’s efficiency,protect environment and strengthen ecological construction. The other areas should effectively combine the speed with the quality of economic growth in the process of eco-economic development.( iv) The counties( cities or districts

  7. Global trends of economic diplomacy development under globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.L. Kanishchenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to global trends of economic diplomacy development in the context of globalization. Among the main factors that influence on the development of instruments of international economic diplomacy important role play political factors. They play key role in determining prospects for economic entities international cooperation and priorities of their business communication with representatives of other political systems. The most important in the political environment analysis is: (1 to study of political system characteristics to determine the main parameters and features of integrated political symptoms interaction and political forces subordination; (2 to determine the status of political stability in order to predict political priorities, create an atmosphere of political loyalty, and promote political conditions; (3 to assess political risks in order to predict certain expected and unexpected conflicts and to identify ways of their overcoming. Also on development of international economic diplomacy instruments influence such factors as economic environment, factors of socio-cultural environment, technological environment, physical environment, etc. Bright examples of negative tools of economic diplomacy implementation are: periodic “gas war” between Russia and Ukraine; prohibition by the Russian Federation on the import of Ukrainian dairy products, juices, soybean, soybean meal, sunflower and corn grits, potatoes, canned vegetables, canned fish, fruits, vegetables and herbs in 2014; economic sanctions by Western countries against Russia. The aim of the article. The aim of article is studying modern trends of development of economic diplomacy in context of globalization. The results of the analysis. Key point of argumentation of this article is that significant increase of national wealth in many countries in the second half of the 20th century is largely connected with intensification of economic diplomacy in all

  8. Investigating impacts of economic growth on the environment using remote sensing tools: A case study of gross domestic product and net primary production in China from 2001 to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Naizhuo

    Pursuing sustainable co-development of economy and environment has been established as a basic national policy by the present Chinese government. However, studies regarding actual outcomes of the co-development policy at the whole Chinese scale are still limited. Detecting China's economic growth and changes of environmental quality will not only contribute to evaluation of outcomes of the co-development policy but more importantly is an opportunity to examine the suitability of the IPAT model and improve our understanding of human-environment interactions. The core of the IPAT theory is an equation where I=PxAxT that models human impact on the environment as a function of changes to population (P), affluence ( A), and technology (T). The IPAT theory emphasizes that economic growth will inevitably produce negative impacts on the environment. Thus, if China's environmental quality declined while economic growth occurred, then the IPAT theory will be substantiated. Otherwise, the suitability of the IPAT theory will be called into question and its tenets must be reconsidered. In this dissertation research I selected gross domestic product (GDP) and net primary production (NPP) as indicators to evaluate production of social and ecological systems respectively. The main study objectives are (1) to develop a methodology to facilitate integration of the two indicators derived from demographic data sources and satellite imagery at different geographic scales, (2) to jointly explore changing patterns of China's economic and ecological production (i.e., spatially and temporally coincident patterns of change in GDP and NPP) across different spatial scales, (3) to analyze whether economic growth has produced negative impacts on ecosystem production and whether the impacts correlate to the economic growth, and finally (4) to discuss whether the IPAT theory is suitable for explaining the joint changes of GDP and NPP in China or if it is in need of modification. To fulfill the

  9. LightForce Photon-pressure Collision Avoidance: Efficiency Analysis in the Current Debris Environment and Long-Term Simulation Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan Y.; Nelson, Bron; Carlino, Roberto; Perez, Andres D.; Faber, Nicolas; Henze, Chris; Karacahoglu, Arif G.; O'Toole, Conor; Swenson, Jason; Stupl, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This work provides an efficiency analysis of the LightForce space debris collision avoidance scheme in the current debris environment and describes a simulation approach to assess its impact on the long-term evolution of the space debris environment. LightForce aims to provide just-in-time collision avoidance by utilizing photon pressure from ground-based industrial lasers. These ground stations impart minimal accelerations to increase the miss distance for a predicted conjunction between two objects. In the first part of this paper we will present research that investigates the short-term effect of a few systems consisting of 10kW class lasers directed by 1.5 m diameter telescopes using adaptive optics. The results found such a network of ground stations to mitigate more than 85 percent of conjunctions and could lower the expected number of collisions in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by an order of magnitude. While these are impressive numbers that indicate LightForce's utility in the short-term, the remaining 15 percent of possible collisions contain (among others) conjunctions between two massive objects that would add large amount of debris if they collide. Still, conjunctions between massive objects and smaller objects can be mitigated. Hence we choose to expand the capabilities of the simulation software to investigate the overall effect of a network of LightForce stations on the long-term debris evolution. In the second part of this paper, we will present the planed simulation approach for that effort.

  10. The Growing Global Threat of Cyber-crime given the Current Economic Crisis: A Study regarding Internet Malicious Activities in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Tuluc

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Computer crime, also referred as cyber-crime, is considered today one of the main leadingproblems in the ongoing global economic crisis and an impediment in the development of manycountries. Objectives of this work are: to determine the evolution of cyber-crime during the currenteconomic crisis, to emphasize the severity of this problem and the urgent need to limit its impactworldwide, to determine consumers perceptions regarding this phenomenon in Romania. Prior Workrelated to this issue was conducted by the Computer Security Institute in United States, InternationalComputer Protection Agency, Symantec and Ponemon Institute. In their studies, these institutionshave revealed many of cyber-crime features and proposed valuable solutions for decreasing itsimpact. The Approach used in this paper was a survey among Romanian consumers regarding cybercrime.A total number of 110 respondents participated in this survey. Results showed that almost80% of respondents were victims of cyber-crime at least once and more than 87% of respondentsnever reported these crimes to the police. As regards Implications, the study can offer support tospecialized institutions, while academics can use these findings for further research. The Value of thispaper consists of relevant findings regarding cyber-crime issue in Romania.

  11. Budget impact analysis of rivaroxaban vs warfarin anticoagulation strategy for direct current cardioversion in non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients: the MonaldiVert economic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Vincenzo; Rago, Anna; Papa, Andrea A; Bianchi, Valter; Tavoletta, Vincenzo; DE Vivo, Stefano; Cavallaro, Ciro; Nigro, Gerardo; D'Onofrio, Antonio

    2017-09-25

    Rivaroxaban is the first novel oral anticoagulant to receive regulatory approval for non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients who require cardioversion. The MonaldiVert real life experience showed positive benefit-risk profile of short term rivaroxaban administration for transesophageal echocardiogram guided cardioversion in patients who had not achieved adequate pre-procedural vitamin k antagonist (VKA) anticoagulation. Aim of our study was to perform a budget impact analysis of MonaldiVert anticoagulation strategy for direct current cardioversion in NVAF patients and to compare the following costs borne by the Regional Healthcare System (RHS) with those for a hypothetical cohort of identical patients underwent from the beginning to early rivaroxaban treatment before direct current cardioversion. The mean costs per each NVAF patient treated with VKA strategy and Rivaroxaban rescue strategy were 134.53€ and 189.83€, respectively. Considering a hypothetical scenario in which all population study would be treated from the beginning with rivaroxaban (Rivaroxaban early strategy), the mean cost per patient would have been 81.11€ (Table 3). The total cost borne by the RHS, including the cost of the cardioversion procedure, for the two therapeutic strategies carried out at Monaldi Hospital (VKA strategy and Rivaroxaban rescue strategy) was 88.458,53 €. The total cost would be borne by the RHS for Rivaroxaban early strategy, if applied to all population study, would have been 69.989,15 € with a saving of 18,469.38, respect to the actually applied strategy. Rivaroxaban rescue strategy for transoesophageal echocardiography guided direct current cardioversion in NVAF patients, who had not achieved adequate pre-procedural VKA anticoagulation, is an effective and safe strategy, which allows to not delay the procedure, reducing times and wastage of cardioversion slots, without substantial costs increase.

  12. Internet economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik; Øst, Alexander Gorm

    1997-01-01

    A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect.......A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect....

  13. Urban Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Quigley, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Urban economics emphasizes: the spatial arrangements of households, firms, and capital in metropolitan areas; the externalities which arise from the proximity of households and land uses; and the public policy issues which arise from the interplay of these economic forces.

  14. Internet economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik; Øst, Alexander Gorm

    1997-01-01

    A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect.......A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect....

  15. Structural Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Raa, T.

    2015-01-01

    This book aims to make the nature of input-output analysis in economics clearly accessible and, contrary to the opinion of many commentators, shows that this type of analysis can be compatible with the doctrines of neoclassical economics.

  16. Attaining Economic Equity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This round of Strategic Economic Dialogue went beyond short-term trade and economic issues China and the United States signed 31 agreements and memorandums of understanding(MOUs)on December 12-13 at the Third Strategic Economic Dialogue (SED)meeting held in Beijing,which Vice Premier Wu Yi pronounced a"complete success."The agreements focused on financial services,food safety and product quality, environment and energy,transparency, investment,China’s market economy sta- tus,balanced growth and innovation. According to the agreements,qualified for-

  17. 气象探测环境现状及保护措施的探讨%Discussion on current situation of meteorological observational environment and its protection measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国华; 关彦华; 郭艳岭

    2012-01-01

    environment were reviewed, and the current situation was analyzed by using a case study. According to the statistical data, the height of buildings around the meteorological observational sites exceeds the standard height from the law of "protection method of meteorological observational environment and equipment", which was the main reason destroying the meteorological observational environment. The sources of reasons could be attributed to two parts, i. e. inside one and outside one. The real estate construction was rapidly expanding because of the rapid development of economy and society and the interests of the local government,and these were the outside reason. On the other hand, the construction standard of office building and the new station selection model in the meteorological depart- ments made the selection of the new station location difficult and also made weather station moved frequently, and these were the inside reason. Some specific measurements protecting meteorological observational environment were proposed as follows: scientificity and preciseness of meteorological observational environment protection standard should be established in the meteorological department, and the protection mechanism based on classification of meteorological observational environment should be set up;protecting the meteorological observational environment by the corresponding law and adequate administrative intervention should be used;go with the trend of national socio-economic development and handle comprehensively problems of the meteorological observational environment protection ;For the station that must be moved, the meteorological observational environment protection should be the first as selecting new station locations. At the same time, the various patterns may be used to the construction layout of a new station.

  18. Public economics

    OpenAIRE

    James M. Poterba

    2005-01-01

    The International Handbook on Teaching and Learning Economics provides a comprehensive resource for instructors and researchers in economics, both new and experienced. This wide-ranging collection is designed to enhance student learning by helping economic educators learn more about course content, pedagogic techniques, and the scholarship of the teaching enterprise.

  19. The Economic Dependence of the Population and the Current Problems within the Sub-Carpathian Region between the Olt and the Jiu Rivers at the Ending of Almost Two Decades of Restructuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONA MĂLĂESCU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition period represents for the Sub-Carpathians between the Olt and the Jiu Rivers, relatively to areas with similar socio-economic problematic during the transition period (the south-western piedmont area and the Petroşani Depression, from a social point of view and by means of the impact of the changes in the support area, a period of “discreet or tacit convulsions” as regards the ’60s and the ’80s. The dynamic of the given region during the transition period reveals the facts that certain convulsions or restructurings do not necessarily have to possess explicit static or striking forms in the modification of the landscapes in order to allow the transparency of the problematic period these regions have crossed. The current paper presents certain aspects (the economic dependency, the demographic aging, the unemployment rate, the need of social protection, the illiteracy, etc. characterizing the present situation of the demographic component with impact on the development as result of the crossing of this transition period. The aspects presented in the current paper are the result of the analysis of the statistical data regarding the discussed indicators and of a more ample field research carried out in order to assert the transformations suffered in the studied area during the transition period, from the perspective of social geography.

  20. ECONOMIC HIGHER EDUCATION AND THE COMPETENCES TRAINING PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lucian BLAGA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the current socio-economic realities of training and professional development, the paper aims to present the concept of competence, in the knowledge-society, that has become a key concept and especially how the competences training, is regarded as a major solution to global socio-economic problems. Competence training is regarded, at the European level, as a major solution to global socio-economic problems. In this context, higher economic and business education, assigned the multiple tasks to them, which can solved using effective and flexible sources like material, human and capital, that could overcome the well-known inertia of higher education systems.The paper presents some current guidelines in education, training and related competences development, training models from the perspective of university economic education, examples of definition, development and assessment of specific economic field competences. Examples were made in the context of the marketing field at the potential meaning of this qualification, which is currently discussed and is still in its early recovery in the economic and business. This field it is still considered by the Romanian business environment like an expense rather than as an investment.