WorldWideScience

Sample records for current dogma evaluation

  1. Dogmas in the assessment of usability evaluation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbæk, Kasper

    2010-01-01

    Usability evaluation methods (UEMs) are widely recognised as an essential part of systems development. Assessments of the performance of UEMs, however, have been criticised for low validity and limited reliability. The present study extends this critique by describing seven dogmas in recent work...... on UEMs. The dogmas include using inadequate procedures and measures for assessment, focusing on win-lose outcomes, holding simplistic models of how usability evaluators work, concentrating on evaluation rather than on design and working from the assumption that usability problems are real. We discuss...... research approaches that may help move beyond the dogmas. In particular, we emphasise detailed studies of evaluation processes, assessments of the impact of UEMs on design carried out in real-world systems development and analyses of how UEMs may be combined...

  2. Decontamination of mass casualties--re-evaluating existing dogma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitin, Howard W; Siegelson, Henry J; Dickinson, Stanley; Halpern, Pinchas; Haraguchi, Yoshikura; Nocera, Anthony; Turineck, David

    2003-01-01

    The events of 11 September 2001 became the catalyst for many to shift their disaster preparedness efforts towards mass-casualty incidents. Emergency responders, healthcare workers, emergency managers, and public health officials worldwide are being tasked to improve their readiness by acquiring equipment, providing training and implementing policy, especially in the area of mass-casualty decontamination. Accomplishing each of these tasks requires good information, which is lacking. Management of the incident scene and the approach to victim care varies throughout the world and is based more on dogma than scientific data. In order to plan effectively for and to manage a chemical, mass-casualty event, we must critically assess the criteria upon which we base our response. This paper reviews current standards surrounding the response to a release of hazardous materials that results in massive numbers of exposed human survivors. In addition, a significant effort is made to prepare an international perspective on this response. Preparations for the 24-hour threat of exposure of a community to hazardous material are a community responsibility for first-responders and the hospital. Preparations for a mass-casualty event related to a terrorist attack are a governmental responsibility. Reshaping response protocols and decontamination needs on the differences between vapor and liquid chemical threats can enable local responders to effectively manage a chemical attack resulting in mass casualties. Ensuring that hospitals have adequate resources and training to mount an effective decontamination response in a rapid manner is essential.

  3. Mary, dogma, and psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, E H

    1985-06-01

    Why does Mary hold her prominent place in Catholic theology to the extent that five specific dogmas have developed around her? Psychoanalytic theory suggests dogma arises out of the psychic needs of people and psychic needs of people are expressed in dogma. The early views of Erich Fromm, a disciple of Freud, are presented to demonstrate that Marian dogma arose from the psychic needs of the people. The views of both Catholic and Protestant thinkers are presented, as well as theological and psychiatric views.

  4. Remover los dogmas

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Cárdenas Gracia

    2002-01-01

    El autor plantea una serie de reflexiones en torno a cinco temas a los que califica como dogmas de la teoría de la Constitución: el principio de legalidad, la división de poderes, el control de la constitucionalidad, el prevalecimiento del derecho interno sobre el externo y los métodos de interpretación. En su concepción, estos dogmas son barreras que desde la experiencia académica van incorporándose a los conceptos jurídicos, empobreciendo y reduciendo la realidad jurídica, al no tomar en cu...

  5. Central Dogma Goes Digital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yihan; Elowitz, Michael B

    2016-03-17

    In this issue of Molecular Cell, Tay and colleagues (Albayrak et al., 2016) describe a new technique to digitally quantify the numbers of protein and mRNA in the same mammalian cell, providing a new way to look at the central dogma of molecular biology.

  6. Channeling the Central Dogma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Ronald L

    2014-05-21

    How do neurons and networks achieve their characteristic electrical activity, regulate this activity homeostatically, and yet show population variability in expression? In this issue of Neuron, O'Leary et al. (2014) address some of these thorny questions in this theoretical analysis that starts with the Central Dogma.

  7. Wild dogma Ⅱ: The role and implications of wild dogma for wild dog management in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjamin L. ALLEN; Richard M. ENGEMAN; Lee R. ALLEN

    2011-01-01

    The studies of Allen (2011) and Allen et al.(2011) revently examined the methodology underpinning claims that dingoes provide net benefits to biodiversity by suppressing foxes and cats.They found most studies to have design flaws and/or observational methods that preclude valid interpretations from the data,describing most of the current literature as 'wild dogma'.In this short supplement,we briefly highlight the roles and implications of wild dogma for wild dog management in Australia.We discuss nomenclature,and the influence that unreliable science can have on policy and practice changes related to apex predator management [Current Zoology 57 (6):737-740,2011].

  8. Development of the Central Dogma Concept Inventory (CDCI) Assessment Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Dina L; Snyder, Christopher W; Fisk, J Nick; Wright, L Kate

    2016-01-01

    Scientific teaching requires scientifically constructed, field-tested instruments to accurately evaluate student thinking and gauge teacher effectiveness. We have developed a 23-question, multiple select-format assessment of student understanding of the essential concepts of the central dogma of molecular biology that is appropriate for all levels of undergraduate biology. Questions for the Central Dogma Concept Inventory (CDCI) tool were developed and iteratively revised based on student language and review by experts. The ability of the CDCI to discriminate between levels of understanding of the central dogma is supported by field testing (N= 54), and large-scale beta testing (N= 1733). Performance on the assessment increased with experience in biology; scores covered a broad range and showed no ceiling effect, even with senior biology majors, and pre/posttesting of a single class focused on the central dogma showed significant improvement. The multiple-select format reduces the chances of correct answers by random guessing, allows students at different levels to exhibit the extent of their knowledge, and provides deeper insight into the complexity of student thinking on each theme. To date, the CDCI is the first tool dedicated to measuring student thinking about the central dogma of molecular biology, and version 5 is ready to use.

  9. Religious Dogma without Religious Fundamentalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik D. Baldwin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: New Atheists and Anti-Theists (such as Richard Dawkins, Daniel Dennett, Sam Harris, Christopher Hutchins affirm that there is a strong connection between being a traditional theist and being a religious fundamentalist who advocates violence, terrorism, and war. They are especially critical of Islam. On the contrary, I argue that, when correctly understood, religious dogmatic belief, present in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, is progressive and open to internal and external criticism and revision. Moreover, acknowledging that human knowledge is finite and that humans are fallible and have much to learn, dogmatic religious believers accept that they ought to value and seek to acquire moral and intellectual virtues, including the virtues of temperance and reasonability. Conclusion/Recommendations: While some Muslims advocate violence, terrorism, and war, others accept the concept of dogma articulated here and even speak out against the very things that Dawkins et al abhor. The contentious claims of the New Atheists and Anti-Theists to the contrary, therefore, while popular and rhetorically forceful, are false and do not withstand careful scrutiny.

  10. Automatic annotation of organellar genomes with DOGMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyman, Stacia; Jansen, Robert K.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-06-01

    Dual Organellar GenoMe Annotator (DOGMA) automates the annotation of extra-nuclear organellar (chloroplast and animal mitochondrial) genomes. It is a web-based package that allows the use of comparative BLAST searches to identify and annotate genes in a genome. DOGMA presents a list of putative genes to the user in a graphical format for viewing and editing. Annotations are stored on our password-protected server. Complete annotations can be extracted for direct submission to GenBank. Furthermore, intergenic regions of specified length can be extracted, as well the nucleotide sequences and amino acid sequences of the genes.

  11. Descartes' dogma and damage to Western psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventriglio, A; Bhugra, D

    2015-10-01

    René Descartes described the concept of mind-body dualism in the 16th century. This concept has been called his error but we prefer to call it his dogma because the error was recognised much later. We studied the original writings translated by various scholars. We believe that his dogma has caused tremendous amount of damage to Western psychiatry. This dualism has created boundaries between mind and body but as we know they are inextricably interlinked and influence each other. This has affected clinical practice and has increased the dichotomy between psychiatric services and the physical health care services in the West at least. This dualism has also contributed to stigma against mental illness, the mentally ill and the psychiatric services. We propose that it is time to abandon this mind-body dualism and to look at the whole patient and their illness experiences as is done in some other health care systems such as Ayurveda.

  12. Nucleotide Manipulatives to Illustrate the Central Dogma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja B. Yung

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The central dogma is a core concept that is critical for introductory biology and microbiology students to master. However, students often struggle to conceptualize the processes involved, and fail to move beyond simply memorizing the basic facts. To encourage critical thinking, we have designed a set of magnetic nucleotide manipulatives that allow students to model DNA structure, along with the processes of replication, transcription, and translation.

  13. De Schrift, het dogma en de dogmatiek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Muis

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Scripture, dogma and dogmaticsIn this article it is argued that in actual systematic reflection on the Christian faith we cannot a priori assume that the dogma has the same content as Scripture, because it is strongly determined by its cultural-philosophical, its theological and its ecclesiastical-political contexts. Secondly, it is argued that the dogma is not a rule of faith or a hermeneutical rule for the interpretation of Scripture, but a grammatical rule for the use of the vocabulary of faith. Thirdly, Lindbeck’s concept of truth is discussed. Lindbeck rightly maintains a notion of ontological truth as correspondence, but wrongly reduces this correspondence to correspondence between the life of the believer and God and unnecessarily restricts ontological truth to the first order propositions of faith. Doctrinal propositions can claim ontological truth too (though they don’t need to do so. This criticism, however, does not affect Lindbeck’s clarifying analysis of the rule-character of doctrinal propositions.

  14. Dogma95: tudo é angústia

    OpenAIRE

    Savio Leite e Silva

    2006-01-01

    Tendo como parâmetro alguns conceitos relativos à narrativa cinematográfica e à inserção da tecnologia digital na produção de filmes, o texto analisa os quatro primeiros filmes dinamarqueses realizados sobre os preceitos do movimento Dogma95: Festa de Família, de Thomas Vinterberg (1998); Os idiotas, de Lars von Trier (1998); Mifune, de Soren Kragh-Jacobsen (1999); e O Rei está vivo, de Kristian Levring (2000). Procura-se enquadrar esse movimento como representante do cinema contemporâneo dia...

  15. Hume e o "dogma do reducionismo"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Seno Chibeni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho examina-se uma das principais acusações que Quine faz a Hume, quanto às características de seu empirismo: a de que Hume teria adotado o dogma do "reducionismo radical" e, ainda mais, em uma versão "naïve" e "intoleravelmente restritiva", na qual ele assume a forma de um "impossível empirismo termo-a-termo". Argumenta-se que a teoria humeana do conhecimento não parece justificar tal imputação. Indica-se também que não apenas Hume não adotou as teses empiristas problemáticas que Quine aponta, mas, ao contrário, parece mesmo ter antecipado algumas das posições hoje atribuídas a Quine, entre as quais o holismo e o naturalismo epistemológicos, em versões apropriadas ao contexto de sua filosofia.This work examines the charge made by Quine on Hume, that he adopted the "dogma" of "radical reductionism", in its "naïve" and "intolerably restrictive version", involving "an impossible term-by-term empiricism". It is argued that Hume's theory of knowledge does not seem to justify this serious imputation. Furthermore, it is indicated that Hume not only did not adopt these problematic epistemological theses, but also, on the contrary, effectively anticipated some of the philosophical positions usually attributed to Quine, such as epistemological holism and naturalism.

  16. Putting the Bite Back into "Two Dogmas"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Gregory

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent Carnap scholarship suggests that the received view of the Carnap-Quine analyticity debate is importantly mistaken. It has been suggested that Carnap’s analyticity distinction is immune from Quine’s criticisms. This is either because Quine did not understand Carnap’s use of analytic-ity, or because Quine did not appreciate that, rather than dispelling dog-mas, he was merely offering an alternate framework for philosophy. It has also been suggested that ultimately nothing of substance turns on this dis-pute. I am sympathetic to these reassessments and their rejection of the re-ceived view, but argue that they fail to pay proper attention to Carnap’s metaphysical deflationism. For it is there that Quine’s arguments ultimately make contact with Carnap, undermining his metaphysical deflationism. Moreover, the viability of deflationism is directly related to the viability of Carnap’s view of philosophy as methodologically distinct from science. Hence, Quine’s criticisms make contact with the deepest aspects of Car-nap’s views.

  17. The current evaluation of Vud

    CERN Document Server

    Hardy, J C

    2015-01-01

    The Vud element of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix can be determined from several different experimental approaches: either 0+-to-0+ superallowed nuclear beta decays, neutron decay, nuclear mirror decays, or pion beta decay. Currently all give consistent results but, because the nuclear superallowed value has an uncertainty at least a factor of seven less than all other results, it dominates the result. A new survey of world superallowed-decay data establishes the Ft values of 14 separate superallowed transitions to a precision of order 0.1% or better; and all 14 are statistically consistent with one another. This very robust data set yields the result Vud = 0.97417(21), the value we recommend.

  18. Automated DC Substation Short-Current Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Dohnal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Technical praxis has no easy-to-use standardized method for a DC short-current evaluation. For a correct rating of rectifying blocks (diodes and input and output current-carrying cables is need to know short-current parameters. The current flow in the substation is derived by commutation of rectifying blocks, which define current of transformers and DC part. For evaluating exists a semi empiric formula, that has a delimited relevance to small power range up to 50 kWatts of output power. New way of evaluation of short current is based on simulation of simplified substation model using the capabilities of DYNAST simulation program, or other dynamic equation solver based on numerical method, like Matlab.

  19. Is epigenetic inheritance a counterexample to the central dogma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Alex

    2006-01-01

    This paper argues that nothing that has been discovered in the increasingly complex delails of gene regulation has provided any grounds to retract or qualify Crick's version of the central dogma. In particular it defends the role of the genes as the sole bearers of information, and argues that the mechanism of epigenetic modification of the DNA is but another vindication of Crick's version of the central dogma. The paper shows that arguments of C.K. Waters for the distinctive causual role of the genes are equivalent in important respects to the present ones and concludes with a defense of the informational role of the genes against an argument from trans-acting genetic regulation due to Stotz.

  20. Dogma/Dogme 95 : manifesto for contemporary cinema and realism

    OpenAIRE

    Yalgın, Emre

    2003-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. This study investigates Dogma/Dogme’95, which is the latest collectivism seen in the history of cinema. Thesis explores this newest movement’s references to past and today’s filmmaking in relation to the concept of realism, in order to find out the possible structure of a movement in contemporary cinema. Yalgın, Emre M.S.

  1. Avoiding measurement dogma: a response to Rossiter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rigdon, E.E.; Preacher, K.J.; Lee, N.; Howell, R.D.; Franke, G.R.; Borsboom, D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to respond to John Rossiter's call for a "Marketing measurement revolution" in the current issue of EJM, as well as providing broader comment on Rossiter's C-OAR-SE framework, and measurement practice in marketing in general. Design/methodology/approach - The paper is purel

  2. The Central Dogma as a thesis of causal specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    I present a reconstruction of F.H.C. Crick's two 1957 hypotheses 'Sequence Hypothesis' and 'Central Dogma' in terms of a contemporary philosophical theory of causation. Analyzing in particular the experimental evidence that Crick cited, I argue that these hypotheses can be understood as claims about the actual difference-making cause in protein synthesis. As these hypotheses are only true if restricted to certain nucleic acids in certain organisms, I then examine the concept of causal specificity and its potential to counter claims about causal parity of DNA and other cellular components. I first show that causal specificity is a special kind of invariance under interventions, namely invariance of generalizations that range over finite sets of discrete variables. Then, I show that this notion allows the articulation of a middle ground in the debate over causal parity.

  3. Tracking the Resolution of Student Misconceptions about the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology†

    OpenAIRE

    Amy G. Briggs; Stephanie K. Morgan; Sanderson, Seth K.; Schulting, Molly C.; Wieseman, Laramie J.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of our study was to track changes in student understanding of the central dogma of molecular biology before and after taking a genetics course. Concept maps require the ability to synthesize new information into existing knowledge frameworks, and so the hypothesis guiding this study was that student performance on concept maps reveals specific central dogma misconceptions gained, lost, and retained by students. Students in a genetics course completed pre- and posttest concept mapping...

  4. Tracking the Resolution of Student Misconceptions about the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Amy G. Briggs; Stephanie K. Morgan; Sanderson, Seth K.; Schulting, Molly C.; Wieseman, Laramie J.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of our study was to track changes in student understanding of the central dogma of molecular biology before and after taking a genetics course. Concept maps require the ability to synthesize new information into existing knowledge frameworks, and so the hypothesis guiding this study was that student performance on concept maps reveals specific central dogma misconceptions gained, lost, and retained by students. Students in a genetics course completed pre- and posttest concept mapping...

  5. Dogmas and misconceptions in heterogeneous photocatalysis. Some enlightened reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emeline, A V; Ryabchuk, V K; Serpone, N

    2005-10-01

    In a recent article, Ollis analyzed heretofore reported photocatalyst kinetics of surface photochemical reactions that take place in heterogeneous systems and that rely heavily on the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) kinetic model to interpret the experimental observations. This model assumes a fast adsorption/desorption equilibrium step and a subsequent slow surface step. His interesting analysis of the experimental results reported in 2000 by Emeline and co-workers, Xu and Langford, and Martyanov and Savinov prompted our reexamination of the LH kinetic model along with several other dogmas that continue to propagate in the heterogeneous photocatalytic landscape. This short article discusses some of these issues and reexamines certain misinterpretations. Specifically, we reexamine (1) the a priori assumed validity of the LH kinetic model in heterogeneous photocatalysis, (2) the recombination of photogenerated free charge carriers on the solid (metal oxide) photocatalyst by the band-to-band recombination pathway, and (3) the mistaken assertion that the kinetics of a heterogeneous photoreaction are either only first-order dependent or half-order dependent on photon flow (i.e., light irradiance).

  6. How many neurons do you have? Some dogmas of quantitative neuroscience under revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Roberto; Azevedo, Frederico A C; Andrade-Moraes, Carlos H; Pinto, Ana V O

    2012-01-01

    Owing to methodological shortcomings and a certain conservatism that consolidates wrong assumptions in the literature, some dogmas have become established and reproduced in papers and textbooks, derived from quantitative features of the brain. The first dogma states that the cerebral cortex is the pinnacle of brain evolution - based on the observations that its volume is greater in more 'intelligent' species, and that cortical surface area grows more than any other brain region, to reach the largest proportion in higher primates and humans. The second dogma claims that the human brain contains 100 billion neurons, plus 10-fold more glial cells. These round numbers have become widely adopted, although data provided by different authors have led to a broad range of 75-125 billion neurons in the whole brain. The third dogma derives from the second, and states that our brain is structurally special, an outlier as compared with other primates. Being so large and convoluted, it is a special construct of nature, unrelated to evolutionary scaling. Finally, the fourth dogma appeared as a tentative explanation for the considerable growth of the brain throughout development and evolution - being modular in structure, the brain (and particularly the cerebral cortex) grows by tangential addition of modules that are uniform in neuronal composition. In this review, we sought to examine and challenge these four dogmas, and propose other interpretations or simply their replacement with alternative views. © 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2011 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Root phototropism: from dogma to the mechanism of blue light perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Briggs, Winslow R

    2012-03-01

    In roots, the "hidden half" of all land plants, gravity is an important signal that determines the direction of growth in the soil. Hence, positive gravitropism has been studied in detail. However, since the 19th century, the response of roots toward unilateral light has also been analyzed. Based on studies on white mustard (Sinapis alba) seedlings, botanists have concluded that all roots are negatively phototropic. This "Sinapis-dogma" was refuted in a seminal study on root phototropism published a century ago, where it was shown that less then half of the 166 plant species investigated behave like S. alba, whereas 53% displayed no phototropic response at all. Here we summarize the history of research on root phototropism, discuss this phenomenon with reference to unpublished data on garden cress (Lepidium sativum) seedlings, and describe the effects of blue light on the negative bending response in Thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana). The ecological significance of root phototropism is discussed and the relationships between gravi- and phototropism are outlined, with respect to the starch-statolith-theory of gravity perception. Finally, we present an integrative model of gravi- and blue light perception in the root tip of Arabidopsis seedlings. This hypothesis is based on our current view of the starch-statolith-concept and light sensing via the cytoplasmic red/blue light photoreceptor phytochrome A and the plasma membrane-associated blue light receptor phototropin-1. Open questions and possible research agendas for the future are summarized.

  8. Challenging the dogma of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species overproduction in diabetic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Melinda T; Sharma, Kumar

    2016-08-01

    The paradigm that high glucose drives overproduction of superoxide from mitochondria as a unifying theory to explain end organ damage in diabetes complications has been tightly held for more than a decade. With the recent development of techniques and probes to measure the production of distinct reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vivo, this widely held dogma is now being challenged with the emerging view that specific ROS moieties are essential for the function of specific intracellular signaling pathways and represent normal mitochondrial function. This review will provide a balanced overview of the dual nature of ROS, detailing current evidence for ROS overproduction in diabetic kidney disease, with a focus on cell types and sources of ROS. The technical aspects of measurement of mitochondrial ROS, both in isolated mitochondria and emerging in vivo methods will be discussed. The counterargument, that mitochondrial ROS production is reduced in diabetic complications, is consistent with a growing recognition that stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation activity reduces inflammation and fibrosis. It is clear that there is an urgent need to fully characterize ROS production paying particular attention to spatiotemporal aspects and to factor in the relevance of ROS in the regulation of cellular signaling in the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease. With improved tools and real-time imaging capacity, a greater understanding of the complex role of ROS will be able to guide novel therapeutic regimens.

  9. Tracking the Resolution of Student Misconceptions about the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Amy G; Morgan, Stephanie K; Sanderson, Seth K; Schulting, Molly C; Wieseman, Laramie J

    2016-12-01

    The goal of our study was to track changes in student understanding of the central dogma of molecular biology before and after taking a genetics course. Concept maps require the ability to synthesize new information into existing knowledge frameworks, and so the hypothesis guiding this study was that student performance on concept maps reveals specific central dogma misconceptions gained, lost, and retained by students. Students in a genetics course completed pre- and posttest concept mapping tasks using terms related to the central dogma. Student maps increased in complexity and validity, indicating learning gains in both content and complexity of understanding. Changes in each of the 351 possible connections in the mapping task were tracked for each student. Our students did not retain much about the central dogma from their introductory biology courses, but they did move to more advanced levels of understanding by the end of the genetics course. The information they retained from their introductory courses focused on structural components (e.g., protein is made of amino acids) and not on overall mechanistic components (e.g., DNA comes before RNA, the ribosome makes protein). Students made the greatest gains in connections related to transcription, and they resolved the most prior misconceptions about translation. These concept-mapping tasks revealed that students are able to correct prior misconceptions about the central dogma during an intermediate-level genetics course. From these results, educators can design new classroom interventions to target those aspects of this foundational principle with which students have the most trouble.

  10. Overcoming of a "surgical dogma" in acute cholecystitis treated in postponed emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Pierpaolo; Rossi, Giorgio; Faccini, Massimo; Carzaniga, Pierluigi

    2009-01-01

    To demonstrate the overcoming of a surgical dogma related to acute cholecystitis treatment, in particular to the timing of the operation. One hundred cases of observed acute cholecystitis, submitted to an emergency postponed laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgery and histological control of specimens to evaluate rate of surgical complications and rate of reconver-tion to open surgery The complications rate observed and the surgical conversion to open technique was only 1% where in 96% of the cases the histological examination of the specimen confirmed the state of acute inflammation. Therefore there was a substantial success rate of laparoscopic therapy even in emergency situations, in spite of an overcoming of the conventional timing within 72 hours of surgery for acute cases, which has few restrictions from some authors. The reasons allowing in safety that time extension were ascribed to the laparoscopic procedure, apt to overcome the anatomo-pathological barriers through an accurate vision of the operative field, and the use of specialized devices allowing the coagulative dissection of inflamed tissues. Postponed colecistectomy in acute cholecystitis, in extention of the canonical coded timing of 72 hours, confirmed to be a safe and successful procedure, even in emergency, with only rare exceptions.

  11. Evaluating current processors performance and machines stability

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, R; Tortone, G; Taurino, F M

    2003-01-01

    Accurately estimate performance of currently available processors is becoming a key activity, particularly in HENP environment, where high computing power is crucial. This document describes the methods and programs, opensource or freeware, used to benchmark processors, memory and disk subsystems and network connection architectures. These tools are also useful to stress test new machines, before their acquisition or before their introduction in a production environment, where high uptimes are requested.

  12. Definition and current evaluation of subfertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai Shefi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Male infertility affects 10% of reproductive aged couples worldwide and is treatable in many cases. In addition to other well-described etiologies, genetic causes of male infertility are now more commonly diagnosed. Using principles of evidence-based medicine, this review outlines diagnostic and treatments options to inform clinical management. In order of importance, randomized controlled clinical trials, basic scientific studies, meta-analyses, case-controlled cohort studies, best-practice policy recommendations and reviews from peer-reviewed literature were incorporated that provide organized and timely guidelines to the current management of male infertility. The strength of evidence for treatment recommendations is also classified when appropriate.

  13. Evaluation of body composition. Current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyward, V H

    1996-09-01

    In the selection of body composition field methods and prediction equations, exercise and health practitioners must consider their clients' demographics. Factors, such as age, gender, level of adiposity, physical activity and ethnicity influence the choice of method and equation. Also, it is important to evaluate the relative worth of prediction equations in terms of the criterion method used to derive reference measures of body composition for equation development. Given that hydrodensitometry, hydrometry and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry are subject to measurement error and violation of basic assumptions underlying their use, none of these should be considered as a 'gold standard' method for in vivo body composition assessment. Reference methods, based on whole-body, 2-component body composition models, are limited, particularly for individuals whose fat-free body (FFB) density and hydration differ from values assumed for 2-component models. Use of field method prediction equations developed from 2-component model (Siri equation) reference measures of body composition will systematically underestimate relative body fatness of American Indian women, Black men and women, and Hispanic women because the average FFB density of these ethnic groups exceeds the assumed value (1.1 g/ml). Thus, some researchers have developed prediction equations based on multicomponent model estimates of body composition that take into account interindividual variability in the water, mineral, and protein content of the FFB. One multicomponent model approach adjusts body density (measured via hydrodensitometry) for total body water (measured by hydrometry) and/or total body mineral estimated from bone mineral (measured via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry). Skinfold (SKF), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and near-infrared interactance (NIR) are 3 body composition methods used in clinical settings. Unfortunately, the overwhelming majority of field method prediction equations

  14. Prevalence of Misconceptions, Dogmas, and Popular Views about Giftedness and Intelligence: A Case from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Ugur

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of misconceptions, dogmas and popular views about giftedness and intelligence among Turkish lay people. A survey questionnaire consisting of 12 forced-choice items about global misconceptions, dogmatic beliefs and popular views related to giftedness and intelligence was used to collect…

  15. Using analogy role-play activity in an undergraduate biology classroom to show central dogma revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Masaharu; Kurabayashi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    For the study of biology in an undergraduate classroom, a classroom exercise was developed: an analogy role-play to learn mechanisms of gene transcription and protein translation (central dogma). To develop the central dogma role-play exercise, we made DNA and mRNA using paper sheets, tRNA using a wire dress hanger, and amino acids using Lego® blocks (Lego System A/S, Denmark). Students were studying in the course of mathematics, physics, or chemistry, so biology was not among their usual studies. In this exercise, students perform the central dogma role-play and respectively act out nuclear matrix proteins, a transcription factor, an RNA polymerase II, an mRNA transport protein, nuclear pore proteins, a large ribosomal subunit, a small ribosomal subunit, and several amino-acyl tRNA synthetases. Questionnaire results obtained after the activity show that this central dogma role-play analogy holds student interest in the practical molecular biological processes of transcription and translation.

  16. Hands on Group Work Paper Model for Teaching DNA Structure, Central Dogma and Recombinant DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altiparmak, Melek; Nakiboglu Tezer, Mahmure

    2009-01-01

    Understanding life on a molecular level is greatly enhanced when students are given the opportunity to visualize the molecules. Especially understanding DNA structure and function is essential for understanding key concepts of molecular biology such as DNA, central dogma and the manipulation of DNA. Researches have shown that undergraduate…

  17. Tracking the Resolution of Student Misconceptions about the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Amy G.; Morgan, Stephanie K.; Sanderson, Seth K.; Schulting, Molly C.; Wieseman, Laramie J.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of our study was to track changes in student understanding of the central dogma of molecular biology before and after taking a genetics course. Concept maps require the ability to synthesize new information into existing knowledge frameworks, and so the hypothesis guiding this study was that student performance on concept maps reveals specific central dogma misconceptions gained, lost, and retained by students. Students in a genetics course completed pre- and posttest concept mapping tasks using terms related to the central dogma. Student maps increased in complexity and validity, indicating learning gains in both content and complexity of understanding. Changes in each of the 351 possible connections in the mapping task were tracked for each student. Our students did not retain much about the central dogma from their introductory biology courses, but they did move to more advanced levels of understanding by the end of the genetics course. The information they retained from their introductory courses focused on structural components (e.g., protein is made of amino acids) and not on overall mechanistic components (e.g., DNA comes before RNA, the ribosome makes protein). Students made the greatest gains in connections related to transcription, and they resolved the most prior misconceptions about translation. These concept-mapping tasks revealed that students are able to correct prior misconceptions about the central dogma during an intermediate-level genetics course. From these results, educators can design new classroom interventions to target those aspects of this foundational principle with which students have the most trouble. PMID:28101260

  18. Tracking the Resolution of Student Misconceptions about the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy G. Briggs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of our study was to track changes in student understanding of the central dogma of molecular biology before and after taking a genetics course. Concept maps require the ability to synthesize new information into existing knowledge frameworks, and so the hypothesis guiding this study was that student performance on concept maps reveals specific central dogma misconceptions gained, lost, and retained by students. Students in a genetics course completed pre- and posttest concept mapping tasks using terms related to the central dogma. Student maps increased in complexity and validity, indicating learning gains in both content and complexity of understanding. Changes in each of the 351 possible connections in the mapping task were tracked for each student. Our students did not retain much about the central dogma from their introductory biology courses, but they did move to more advanced levels of understanding by the end of the genetics course. The information they retained from their introductory courses focused on structural components (e.g., protein is made of amino acids and not on overall mechanistic components (e.g., DNA comes before RNA, the ribosome makes protein. Students made the greatest gains in connections related to transcription, and they resolved the most prior misconceptions about translation. These concept-mapping tasks revealed that students are able to correct prior misconceptions about the central dogma during an intermediate-level genetics course. From these results, educators can design new classroom interventions to target those aspects of this foundational principle with which students have the most trouble.

  19. Challenging dogmas in pancreatic surgery: biliary drainage, outcome and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gaag, N.A.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we have presented the results of 5 years of basic and clinical research on pancreatic surgery. Traditions have been evaluated, controversies have been settled, physician-centered and patient-centered outcomes were evaluated, and many suggestions for clinical practice and future resear

  20. Macro-trends in research on the central dogma of molecular biology

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsani, Sepehr

    2013-01-01

    The central dogma of molecular biology, formulated more than five decades ago, compartmentalized information exchange in the cell into the DNA, RNA and protein domains. This formalization has served as an implicit thematic distinguisher for cell biological research ever since. However, a clear account of the distribution of research across this formalization over time does not exist. Abstracts of >3.5 million publications focusing on the cell from 1975 to 2011 were analyzed for the frequency ...

  1. Eddy current pulsed thermography for fatigue evaluation of gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Gui Yun; Yin, Aijun; Gao, Bin; Zhang, Jishan; Shaw, Brian

    2014-02-01

    The pulsed eddy current (PEC) technique generates responses over a wide range of frequencies, containing more spectral coverage than traditional eddy current inspection. Eddy current pulsed thermography (ECPT), a newly developed non-destructive testing (NDT) technique, has advantages such as rapid inspection of a large area within a short time, high spatial resolution, high sensitivity and stand-off measurement distance. This paper investigates ECPT for the evaluation of gear fatigue tests. The paper proposes a statistical method based on single channel blind source separation to extract details of gear fatigue. The discussion of transient thermal distribution and patterns of fatigue contact surfaces as well as the non-contact surfaces have been reported. In addition, the measurement for gears with different cycles of fatigue tests by ECPTand the comparison results between ECPT with magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN) have been evaluated. The comparison shows the competitive capability of ECPT in fatigue evaluation.

  2. The Meat Dogma Project: Exploring Nitrogen Mitigation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sandy; Graversgaard, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Reduction of meat consumption in the modern West is often stymied by a meat-dominated tradition. While many people today are aware of the importance of reducing our carbon footprint, far fewer understand the harmful effects of nitrogen (N) pollution, or how large an impact the production...... and consumption of meat has in this issue. Publication of relevant studies, strategies and discussions is needed. Our research analyzes both methodologies and social themes which are pertinent for developing custom-based strategies aimed at reducing the current level of meat usage in Denmark, a country...... with a high production meat industry and heavy meat consumption per capita. Along with our qualitative research, we are utilizing quantitative calculations of N-Footprint size in terms of food consumption. We conclude by discussing certain strategies which with broader implementation could result in a more...

  3. The epidemology of schizophrenia: replacing dogma with knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilo, Simona A.; Murray, Robin M.

    2010-01-01

    Major advances have been made in our understanding of the epidemiology of schizophrenia. We now know that the disorder is more common and severe in young men, and that the incidence varies geographically and temporally. Risk factors have been elucidated; biological risks include a family history of the disorder, advanced paternal age, obstetric complications, and abuse of drugs such as stimulants and cannabis. In addition, recent research has also identified social risk factors such as being born and brought up in a city, migration, and certain types of childhood adversity such as physical abuse and bullying, as well as social isolation and adverse events in adult life. Current research is focussing on the significance of minor psychotic symptoms in the general population, gene-environmental interaction, and how risk factors impact on pathogenesis; perhaps all risk factors ultimately impact on striatal dopamine as the final common pathway. PMID:20954427

  4. The epidemiology of schizophrenia: replacing dogma with knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilo, Simona A; Murray, Robin M

    2010-01-01

    Major advances have been made in our understanding of the epidemiology of schizophrenia. We now know that the disorder is more common and severe in young men, and that the incidence varies geographically and temporally. Risk factors have been elucidated; biological risks include a family history of the disorder, advanced paternal age, obstetric complications, and abuse of drugs such as stimulants and cannabis. In addition, recent research has also identified social risk factors such as being born and brought up in a city, migration, and certain types of childhood adversity such as physical abuse and bullying, as well as social isolation and adverse events in adult life. Current research is focussing on the significance of minor psychotic symptoms in the general population, gene-environmental interaction, and how risk factors impact on pathogenesis; perhaps all risk factors ultimately impact on striatal dopamine as the final common pathway.

  5. Evaluation of Current Assessment Methods in Engineering Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purzer, Senay; Fila, Nicholas; Nataraja, Kavin

    2016-01-01

    Quality assessment is an essential component of education that allows educators to support student learning and improve educational programs. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current state of assessment in engineering entrepreneurship education. We identified 52 assessment instruments covered in 29 journal articles and conference…

  6. Demonising the dingo: How much wild dogma is enough?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mike LETNIC; Mathew S. CROWTHER; Christopher R. DICKMAN; Euan G RITCHIE

    2011-01-01

    The roles that top predators play in regulating the structure and function of ecosystems have long been controversial.This is particularly the case when predators pose adverse risks for human life and/or economic interests.The critique of literature on dingoes and their ecological roles in Australia provided by Allen et al.(2011) shows that top predators remain a potentially polarising issue.In opposition to Allen et al.we argue that these widespread patterns of species' abundances,attributed to the effects of dingoes and evident at scales ranging from the foraging behaviour of individuals through to continental scale patterns of species abundances,constitute strong support for the mesopredator release hypothesis and provide evidence that dingoes benefit biodiversity conservation by inducing community wide trophic cascades.Harnessing the positive ecological effects of dingoes while at the same time minimising their impacts on agriculture is a major socio-political challenge in Australia [Current Zoology 57 (5):668-670].

  7. Evaluation of Current Controllers for Distributed Power Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timbus, Adrian; Liserre, Marco; Teodorescu, Remus

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the evaluation of different current controllers employed for grid-connected distributed power generation systems having variable input power, such as wind turbines and photovoltaic systems. The focus is mainly set on linear controllers such as proportional....... First, in steady-state conditions, the contribution of controllers to the total harmonic distortion of the grid current is pursued. Further on, the behavior of controllers in the case of transient conditions like input power variations and grid voltage faults is also examined. Experimental results...

  8. EDITORIAL: UN NOBEL A LA TENACIDAD EN CONTRA DE LOS DOGMAS

    OpenAIRE

    Armando Cortés

    2005-01-01

    La Asamblea de los premios Nobel en el Instituto Karolinska de Medicina decidió en esta ocasión otorgar el Nobel de Medicina y Fisiología 2005 a los científicos australianos Barry J. Marshall y J. Robin Warren resaltando «la tenacidad» a la hora de cuestionar los dogmas establecidos en torno a la gastritis y la úlcera de estómago o de duodeno. Los dos patólogos demostraron que Helicobacter pylori es la causa de ambos trastornos. En 1982, cuando presentaron sus investigaciones, se consideraba ...

  9. Of arrows and flows. Causality, determination, and specificity in the Central Dogma of molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantini, Bernardino

    2006-01-01

    From its first proposal, the Central Dogma had a graphical form, complete with arrows of different types, and this form quickly became its standard presentation. In different scientific contexts, arrows have different meanings and in this particular case the arrows indicated the flow of information among different macromolecules. A deeper analysis illustrates that the arrows also imply a causal statement, directly connected to the causal role of genetic information. The author suggests a distinction between two different kinds of causal links, defined as 'physical causality' and 'biological determination', both implied in the production of biological specificity.

  10. The evaluation of rock permeability with streaming current measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Hu, Hengshan; Guan, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Rock permeability is an important parameter for the formation evaluation. In this paper, a new method with streaming current is proposed to determine the sample permeability based on the electrokinetic effects, and is proved by the experimental measurements. Corresponding to this method, we have designed an experimental setup and a test system, then performed the streaming current (potential) and electro-osmosis pressure experiments with 23 sandstone samples at 0.05 mol l-1 NaCl solution. The streaming current (potential) coefficient and electro-osmosis pressure coefficient are obtained, respectively, with the experimental data at low frequencies with AC lock-in technique. The electrokinetic permeabilities are further calculated with these coefficients. The results are consistent well with the gas permeability measured with Darcy's law, which verifies the current method for estimating rock permeability. Our measurements are also analysed and compared with previous measurements. The results indicate that our method can reflect the essence of electrokinetic effects better and simplify the electrokinetic measurements as well. In addition, we discuss the influences of experimental artefacts (core holder and confining pressure installation) on the electrokinetic data. The results show that the trough phenomenon, appeared in frequency curves of streaming current (potential) coefficients, is induced by the resonance of the core-holder/vibrator system. This is important for the design of electrokinetic setup and the analysis of low-frequency response of the electrokinetic coupling coefficients.

  11. Evaluation of constant current alternating current iontophoresis for transdermal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guang; Li, S Kevin; Higuchi, William I

    2005-12-10

    Previous studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that alternating current (AC) iontophoresis can significantly decrease skin electric resistance and enhance the transport of charged permeants across skin. Flux variability of neutral permeants during AC iontophoresis was also found to be less than that of conventional direct current (DC) iontophoresis. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate flux enhancement of constant current AC transdermal iontophoresis and compare the AC flux with that of constant current DC iontophoresis. Iontophoresis studies of AC amplitude of 1, 2, and 5 mA were conducted in side-by-side diffusion cells with donor solution of 0.015, 0.15, and 1.0 M tetraethylammonium (TEA) chloride and receiver solution of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) using human epidermal membrane (HEM). Conventional constant current DC iontophoresis of 0.2 mA was also performed under similar conditions. TEA and mannitol were the model permeants. The following are the major findings in the present study. The flux of TEA increased proportionally with the AC current for all three TEA chloride concentrations and at the AC frequency used in the present study. When the permeant and its counter ion were the only ionic species in the donor chamber, the fluxes during DC iontophoresis were weakly dependent of its donor concentration. The fluxes of TEA during constant current AC iontophoresis were moderately related to the donor concentration with the highest TEA flux observed under the 1.0 M TEA chloride condition although the relationship between flux and donor concentration was not linear. A trend of decreasing electroosmotic transport with increasing donor TEA chloride concentration was observed with significant sample-to-sample variability during DC iontophoresis. Mannitol permeability was also observed to decrease with increasing TEA chloride concentration in the donor under the AC conditions, but data variability under AC was significantly smaller than that

  12. Rheological evaluation of simulated neutralized current acid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fow, C.L.; McCarthy, D.; Thornton, G.T.

    1986-06-01

    A byproduct of the Purex process is an aqueous waste stream that contains fission products. This waste stream, called current acid waste, is chemically neutralized and stored in double shell tanks on the Hanford Site. This neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) will be transported by pipe to B-Plant, a processing plant on the Hanford Site. Rheological and transport properties of NCAW slurry were evaluated. First, researchers conducted lab rheological evaluations of simulated NCAW. The results of these evaluations were then correlated with classical rheological models and scaled up to predict the performance that is likely to occur in the full-scale system. The NCAW in the tank will either be retrieved as is, i.e., no change in the concentration presently in the tank, or will be slightly concentrated before retrieval. Sluicing may be required to retrieve the solids. Three concentrations of simulated NCAW were evaluated that would simulate the different retrieval options: NCAW in the concentration that is presently in the tank; a slightly concentrated NCAW, called NCAW5.5; and equal parts of NCAW settled solids and water (simulating the sluicing stage), called NCAW1:1. The physical and rheological properties of three samples of each concentration at 25 and 100/sup 0/C were evaluated in the laboratory. The properties displayed by NCAW and NCAW5.5 at 25 and 100/sup 0/C allowed it to be classified as a pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid. NCAW1:1 at 25 and 100/sup 0/C displayed properties of a yield-pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid. The classical non-Newtonian models for pseudoplastic and yield-pseudoplastic fluids were used with the laboratory data to predict the full-scale pump-pipe network parameters.

  13. Evaluation of Leakage Current Measurement for Site Pollution Severity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Shercat MASOUM

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Flashover of insulators in transmission and distribution systems may cause costly outages for power companies and their customers. Industrial and/or coastal pollution of external insulation is a major cause for such events at the normal power frequency voltage of the systems. The power companies are now facing increasing competition resulting in pressure to lower the cost and to increase the system reliability. Different methods have been applied in the past to overcome or reduce the problems with flashover on insulators. Methods which should provide reliable data under real physical conditions. In this paper several measuring methods to evaluate the pollution levels on outdoor insulators are described. According to this comparison, Leakage Current Measurement ‘LCM’ method is a reliable method for measurement leakage current in outdoor insulators and surge arresters.

  14. �Nie waar nie?� Opmerkinge oor geloofservaring, dogma en die (eskatologiese aard van teologiese besinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D P Veldsman

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available �Not true?� Remarks on the experience of faith, dogma and the (eschatological nature of theological reflection�Not true?� is a characteristic saying of Conrad Wethmar. In this article of appreciation for his academic contribution, this saying as a �polite questioning and affirmation� (as I understand it, is explored within the context of viewpoints on the experience of faith and in reference to his understanding of dogma in order to highlight the way in which this saying actually gives expression to his understanding of the nature of theological reflection.

  15. Evaluation of gastrointestinal bleeding: Update of current radiologic strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parth; J; Parekh; Ross; C; Buerlein; Rouzbeh; Shams; Harlan; Vingan; David; A; Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding(GIB) is a common presenta-tion with significant associated morbidity and mortality, the prevalence of which continues to rise with the ever-increasing aging population. Initial evaluation includes an esophagoduodeonscopy and/or colonoscopy, which may fail to reveal a source. Such cases prove to be a dilemma and require collaboration between gastroen-terology and radiology in deciding the most appropriate approach. Recently, there have been a number of ra-diologic advances in the approach to GIB. The purpose of this review is to provide an evidence-based update on the most current radiologic modalities available and an algorithmic approach to GIB.

  16. Rheological evaluation of simulated neutralized current acid waste - transuranics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fow, C.L.; McCarthy, D.; Thornton, G.T.; Scott, P.A.; Bray, L.A.

    1986-09-01

    At the Hanford Plutonium and Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX), in Richland, Washington, plutonium and uranium products are recovered from irradiated fuel by a solvent extraction process. A byproduct of this process is an aqueous waste stream that contains fission products. This waste stream, called current acid waste (CAW), is chemically neutralized and stored in double shell tanks (DSTs) on the Hanford Site. This neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) will be transported by pipe to B-Plant, a processing plant located nearby. In B-Plant, the transuranic (TRU) elements in NCAW are separated from the non-TRU elements. The majority of the TRU elements in NCAW are in the solids. Therefore, the primary processing operation is to separate the NCAW solids (NCAW-TRU) from the NCAW liquid. These two waste streams will be pumped to suitable holding tanks before being further processed for permanent disposal. To ensure that the retrieval and transportation of NCAW and NCAW-TRU are successful, researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated the rheological and transport properties of the slurries. This evaluation had two phases. First, researchers conducted laboratory rheological evaluations of simulated NCAW and NCAW-TRU. The results of these evaluations were then correlated with classical rheological models and scaled up to predict the performance that is likely to occur in the full-scale system. This scale-up procedure has already been successfully used to predict the critical transport properties of a slurry (Neutralized Cladding Removal Waste) with rheological properties similar to those displayed by NCAW and NCAW-TRU.

  17. Downfall of the current antibody correlates of influenza vaccine response in yearly vaccinated subjects: Toward qualitative rather than quantitative assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagigi, Alberto; Cotugno, Nicola; Rinaldi, Stefano; Santilli, Veronica; Rossi, Paolo; Palma, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    Response to seasonal influenza vaccination is currently evaluated by antibody correlates that estimate vaccine seroconversion as well as immune protection. These correlates rely on the general dogmas surrounding seasonal influenza vaccination; that is, that vaccine-induced antibodies would exclusively generate immunity to influenza vaccine strains and that protective immunity would wane before the next season. Here, we summarize recently reported data on immunity to seasonal influenza in healthy individuals and rediscuss results on yearly vaccinated pediatric immunocompromised patients that together highlight the need for revision of the current correlates of vaccine response to shift from quantitative to qualitative measurements.

  18. Evaluation of microelectrode materials for direct-current electrocorticography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyan; Narayan, Raj K; Wu, Pei-Ming; Rajan, Neena; Wu, Zhizhen; Mehan, Neal; Golanov, Eugene V; Ahn, Chong H; Hartings, Jed A

    2016-02-01

    Direct-current electrocorticography (DC-ECoG) allows a more complete characterization of brain states and pathologies than traditional alternating-current recordings (AC-ECoG). However, reliable recording of DC signals is challenging because of electrode polarization-induced potential drift, particularly at low frequencies and for more conducting materials. Further challenges arise as electrode size decreases, since impedance is increased and the potential drift is augmented. While microelectrodes have been investigated for AC-ECoG recordings, little work has addressed microelectrode properties for DC-signal recording. In this paper, we investigated several common microelectrode materials used in biomedical application for DC-ECoG. Five of the most common materials including gold (Au), silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl), platinum (Pt), Iridium oxide (IrOx), and platinum-iridium oxide (Pt/IrOx) were investigated for electrode diameters of 300 μm. The critical characteristics such as polarization impedance, AC current-induced polarization, long-term stability and low-frequency noise were studied in vitro (0.9% saline). The two most promising materials, Pt and Pt/lrOx were further investigated in vivo by recording waves of spreading depolarization, one of the most important applications for DC-ECoG in clinical and basic science research. Our experimental results indicate that IrOx-based microelectrodes, particularly with composite layers of nanostructures, are excellent in all of the common evaluation characteristics both in vitro and in vivo and are most suitable for multimodal monitoring applications. Pt electrodes suffer high current-induced polarization, but have acceptable long-term stability suitable for DC-ECoG. Major significance. The results of this study provide quantitative data on the electrical properties of microelectrodes with commonly-used materials and will be valuable for development of neural recordings inclusive of low frequencies.

  19. Evaluation of microelectrode materials for direct-current electrocorticography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyan; Narayan, Raj K.; Wu, Pei-Ming; Rajan, Neena; Wu, Zhizhen; Mehan, Neal; Golanov, Eugene V.; Ahn, Chong H.; Hartings, Jed A.

    2016-02-01

    Objective. Direct-current electrocorticography (DC-ECoG) allows a more complete characterization of brain states and pathologies than traditional alternating-current recordings (AC-ECoG). However, reliable recording of DC signals is challenging because of electrode polarization-induced potential drift, particularly at low frequencies and for more conducting materials. Further challenges arise as electrode size decreases, since impedance is increased and the potential drift is augmented. While microelectrodes have been investigated for AC-ECoG recordings, little work has addressed microelectrode properties for DC-signal recording. In this paper, we investigated several common microelectrode materials used in biomedical application for DC-ECoG. Approach. Five of the most common materials including gold (Au), silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl), platinum (Pt), Iridium oxide (IrOx), and platinum-iridium oxide (Pt/IrOx) were investigated for electrode diameters of 300 μm. The critical characteristics such as polarization impedance, AC current-induced polarization, long-term stability and low-frequency noise were studied in vitro (0.9% saline). The two most promising materials, Pt and Pt/lrOx were further investigated in vivo by recording waves of spreading depolarization, one of the most important applications for DC-ECoG in clinical and basic science research. Main results. Our experimental results indicate that IrOx-based microelectrodes, particularly with composite layers of nanostructures, are excellent in all of the common evaluation characteristics both in vitro and in vivo and are most suitable for multimodal monitoring applications. Pt electrodes suffer high current-induced polarization, but have acceptable long-term stability suitable for DC-ECoG. Major significance. The results of this study provide quantitative data on the electrical properties of microelectrodes with commonly-used materials and will be valuable for development of neural recordings inclusive of

  20. Current imaging strategies for the evaluation of uterine cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgioti, Charis; Chatoupis, Konstantinos; Moulopoulos, Lia Angela

    2016-04-28

    Uterine cervical cancer still remains an important socioeconomic issue because it largely affects women of reproductive age. Prognosis is highly depended on extent of the disease at diagnosis and, therefore, accurate staging is crucial for optimal management. Cervical cancer is clinically staged, according to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics guidelines, but, currently, there is increased use of cross sectional imaging modalities [computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography-CT (PET-CT)] for the study of important prognostic factors like tumor size, parametrial invasion, endocervical extension, pelvic side wall or adjacent/distal organs involvement and lymph node status. Imaging indications also include cervical cancer follow-up, evaluation of tumor response to treatment and selection of suitable candidates for less radical surgeries like radical trachelectomy for fertility preservation. The preferred imaging method for local cervical cancer evaluation is MRI; CT is equally effective for evaluation of extrauterine spread of the disease. PET-CT shows high diagnostic performance for the detection of tumor relapse and metastatic lymph nodes. The aim of this review is to familiarize radiologists with the MRI appearance of cervical carcinoma and to discuss the indications of cross sectional imaging during the course of the disease in patients with cervical carcinoma.

  1. Music effect on pain threshold evaluated with current perception threshold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AIM: Music relieves anxiety and psychotic tension. This effect of music is applied to surgical operation in the hospital and dental office. It is still unclear whether this music effect is only limited to the psychological aspect but not to the physical aspect or whether its music effect is influenced by the mood or emotion of audience. To elucidate these issues, we evaluated the music effect on pain threshold by current perception threshold (CPT) and profile of mood states (POMC) test. METHODS: Healthy 30 subjects (12 men, 18 women, 25-49 years old, mean age 34.9) were tested. (1)After POMC test, all subjects were evaluated pain threshold with CPT by Neurometer (Radionics, USA) under 6 conditions, silence, listening to the slow tempo classic music, nursery music, hard rock music, classic paino music and relaxation music with 30 seconds interval. (2)After Stroop color word test as the stresser, pain threshold was evaluated with CPT under 2 conditions, silence and listening to the slow tempo classic music. RESULTS: Under litening to the music, CPT sores increased, especially 2 000 Hz level related with compression, warm and pain sensation. Type of music, preference of music and stress also affected CPT score. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that the concentration on the music raise the pain threshold and that stress and mood influence the music effect on pain threshold.

  2. Current imaging strategies for the evaluation of uterine cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charis Bourgioti; Konstantinos Chatoupis; Lia Angela Moulopoulos

    2016-01-01

    Uterine cervical cancer still remains an important socioeconomic issue because it largely affects women of reproductive age.Prognosis is highly depended on extent of the disease at diagnosis and,therefore,accurate staging is crucial for optimal management.Cervical cancer is clinically staged,according to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics guidelines,but,currently,there is increased use of cross sectional imaging modalities [computed tomography(CT),magnetic resonance imaging(MRI),positron emission tomography-CT(PET-CT)] for the study of important prognostic factors like tumor size,parametrial invasion,endocervical extension,pelvic side wall or adjacent/distal organs involvement and lymph node status.Imaging indications also include cervical cancer follow-up,evaluation of tumor response to treatment and selection of suitable candidates for less radical surgeries like radical trachelectomy for fertility preservation.The preferred imaging method for local cervical cancer evaluation is MRI;CT is equally effective for evaluation of extrauterine spread of the disease.PETCT shows high diagnostic performance for the detection of tumor relapse and metastatic lymph nodes.The aim of this review is to familiarize radiologists with the MRI appearance of cervical carcinoma and to discuss the indications of cross sectional imaging during the course of the disease in patients with cervical carcinoma.

  3. Dispelling dogma and misconceptions regarding the most pharmacologically targetable source of reactive species in inflammatory disease, xanthine oxidoreductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Eric E

    2015-08-01

    Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), the molybdoflavin enzyme responsible for the terminal steps of purine degradation in humans, is also recognized as a significant source of reactive species contributory to inflammatory disease. In animal models and clinical studies, inhibition of XOR has resulted in diminution of symptoms and enhancement of function in a number of pathologies including heart failure, diabetes, sickle cell anemia, hypertension and ischemia-reperfusion injury. For decades, XOR involvement in pathologic processes has been established by salutary outcomes attained from treatment with the XOR inhibitor allopurinol. This has served to frame a working dogma that elevation of XOR-specific activity is associated with enhanced rates of reactive species generation that mediate negative outcomes. While adherence to this narrowly focused practice of designating elevated XOR activity to be "bad" has produced some benefit, it has also led to significant underdevelopment of the processes mediating XOR regulation, identification of alternative reactants and products as well as micro-environmental factors that alter enzymatic activity. This is exemplified by recent reports: (1) identifying XOR as a nitrite reductase and thus a source of beneficial nitric oxide ((•)NO) under in vivo conditions similar to those where XOR inhibition has been assumed an optimal treatment choice, (2) describing XOR-derived uric acid (UA) as a critical pro-inflammatory mediator in vascular and metabolic disease and (3) ascribing an antioxidant/protective role for XOR-derived UA. When taken together, these proposed and countervailing functions of XOR affirm the need for a more comprehensive evaluation of product formation as well as the factors that govern product identity. As such, this review will critically evaluate XOR-catalyzed oxidant, (•)NO and UA formation as well as identify factors that mediate their production, inhibition and the resultant impact on inflammatory disease.

  4. Survey and evaluation of current and potential coal beneficiation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S. P.N.; Peterson, G. R.

    1979-03-01

    Coal beneficiation is a generic term used for processes that prepare run-of-mine coal for specific end uses. It is also referred to as coal preparation or coal cleaning and is a means of reducing the sulfur and the ash contents of coal. Information is presented regarding current and potential coal beneficiation processes. Several of the processes reviewed, though not yet commercial, are at various stages of experimental development. Process descriptions are provided for these processes commensurate with the extent of information and time available to perform the evaluation of these processes. Conceptual process designs, preliminary cost estimates, and economic evaluations are provided for the more advanced (from a process development hierarchy viewpoint) processes based on production levels of 1500 and 15,000 tons/day (maf) of cleaned product coal. Economic evaluations of the coal preparation plants are conducted for several project financing schemes and at 12 and 15% annual after-tax rates of return on equity capital. A 9% annual interest rate is used on the debt fraction of the plant capital. Cleaned product coal prices are determined using the discounted cash flow procedure. The study is intended to provide information on publicly known coal beneficiation processes and to indicate the relative costs of various coal beneficiation processes. Because of severe timeconstraints, several potential coal beneficiation processes are not evaluated in great detail. It is recommended that an additional study be conducted to complement this study and to more fully appreciate the potentially significant role of coal beneficiation in the clean burning of coal.

  5. Economic evaluations of personalized medicine: existing challenges and current developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabaruddin FH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatiha H Shabaruddin,1 Nigel D Fleeman,2 Katherine Payne3 1Department of Pharmacy, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Liverpool Reviews and Implementation Group (LRiG, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK; 3Institute of Population Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK Abstract: Personalized medicine, with the aim of safely, effectively, and cost-effectively targeting treatment to a prespecified patient population, has always been a long-time goal within health care. It is often argued that personalizing treatment will inevitably improve clinical outcomes for patients and help achieve more effective use of health care resources. Demand is increasing for demonstrable evidence of clinical and cost-effectiveness to support the use of personalized medicine in health care. This paper begins with an overview of the existing challenges in conducting economic evaluations of genetics- and genomics-targeted technologies, as an example of personalized medicine. Our paper illustrates the complexity of the challenges faced by these technologies by highlighting the variations in the issues faced by diagnostic tests for somatic variations, generally referring to genetic variation in a tumor, and germline variations, generally referring to inherited genetic variation in enzymes involved in drug metabolic pathways. These tests are typically aimed at stratifying patient populations into subgroups on the basis of clinical effectiveness (response or safety (avoidance of adverse events. The paper summarizes the data requirements for economic evaluations of genetics and genomics-based technologies while outlining that the main challenges relating to data requirements revolve around the availability and quality of existing data. We conclude by discussing current developments aimed to address the challenges of assessing the cost-effectiveness of genetics and genomics-based technologies, which revolve around two central issues that are

  6. Exploration of the central dogma at the interface of chemistry and biology: 2010 Yale Chemical Biology Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Alice Qinhua

    2010-09-01

    Ever since the term "central dogma" was coined in 1958, researchers have sought to control information flow from nucleic acids to proteins. Talks delivered by Drs. Anna Pyle and Hiroaki Suga at this year's Chemical Biology Symposium at Yale in May 2010 applauded recent advances in this area, at the interface between chemistry and biology.

  7. Evaluation of dual flow counter-current chromatography and intermittent counter-current extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatova, Svetlana; Hewitson, Peter; Mathews, Ben; Sutherland, Ian

    2011-09-09

    The aim of this research is to compare two continuous extraction technologies, intermittent counter-current extraction (ICcE) and dual flow counter-current chromatography (DFCCC), in terms of loading and throughput using the GUESSmix, and show the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods. A model sample containing caffeine, vanillin, naringenin and carvone, with a total load of 11.2 g, was employed with a hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (2:3:2:3) phase system to evaluate an ICcE method on a preparative (912 ml coil volume) DE-Midi instrument. While DFCCC was carried out on a specially designed preparative (561 ml coil volume) bobbin installed in a similar Midi instrument case. While similar throughputs of 7.8 g/h and 6.9 g/h were achieved for the ICcE and DFCCC methods respectively, ICcE was demonstrated to have a number of advantages over DFCCC.

  8. Gas turbine coatings eddy current quantitative and qualitative evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribichini, Remo; Giolli, Carlo; Scrinzi, Erica

    2017-02-01

    Gas turbine blades (buckets) are among the most critical and expensive components of the engine. Buckets rely on protective coatings in order to withstand the harsh environment in which they operate. The thickness and the microstructure of coatings during the lifespan of a unit are fundamental to evaluate their fitness for service. A frequency scanning Eddy Current instrument can allow the measurement of the thickness and of physical properties of coatings in a Non-Destructive manner. The method employed relies on the acquisition of impedance spectra and on the inversion of the experimental data to derive the coating properties and structure using some assumptions. This article describes the experimental validation performed on several samples and real components in order to assess the performance of the instrument as a coating thickness gage. The application of the technique to support residual life assessment of serviced buckets is also presented.

  9. The future of bioethics: three dogmas and a cup of hemlock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Angus

    2010-06-01

    In this paper I argue that bioethics is in crisis and that it will not have a future unless it begins to embrace a more Socratic approach to its leading assumptions. The absence of a critical and sceptical spirit has resulted in little more than a dominant ideology. I focus on three key issues. First, that too often bioethics collapses into medical ethics. Second, that medical ethics itself is beset by a lack of self-reflection that I characterize here as a commitment to three dogmas. Third, I offer a more positive perspective by suggesting how bioethics may benefit from looking towards public health ethics as a new source of inspiration and direction.

  10. Cholesterol Autoxidation Revisited: Debunking the Dogma Associated with the Most Vilified of Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Zosia A M; Pratt, Derek A

    2016-06-08

    The longstanding dogma that cholesterol (chol) autoxidation gives chol 7-hydroperoxide (7-OOH) as the sole primary product is shown to be invalid. In fact, the epimers of each of chol 4-OOH, 6-OOH, and 7-OOH are readily formed. Although the C4-H bond that must be cleaved to produce the chol 4-OOH and 6-OOH products is significantly stronger than the C7-H bond, H-atom abstraction from C4 is facilitated by H-bond formation between the attacking peroxyl radical and the 3β-OH. Chol 5α-OOH is also formed, but only in the presence of a good H-atom donor. Chol 5α-OOH and 6-OOH undergo Hock fragmentation to yield the secosterols implicated in cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, suggesting that they are likely to arise simply from autoxidation and not from reactions with O3 or (1)O2.

  11. Systems theoretic analysis of the central dogma of molecular biology: some recent results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Rui; Yu, Juanyi; Zhang, Mingjun; Tarn, Tzyh-Jong; Li, Jr-Shin

    2010-03-01

    This paper extends our early study on a mathematical formulation of the central dogma of molecular biology, and focuses discussions on recent insights obtained by employing advanced systems theoretic analysis. The goal of this paper is to mathematically represent and interpret the genetic information flow at the molecular level, and explore the fundamental principle of molecular biology at the system level. Specifically, group theory was employed to interpret concepts and properties of gene mutation, and predict backbone torsion angle along the peptide chain. Finite state machine theory was extensively applied to interpret key concepts and analyze the processes related to DNA hybridization. Using the proposed model, we have transferred the character-based model in molecular biology to a sophisticated mathematical model for calculation and interpretation.

  12. Current Trends, Evaluation, and Management of Pediatric Nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Joel D; Ellison, Jonathan S; Lendvay, Thomas S

    2015-10-01

    The incidence of pediatric nephrolithiasis has been steadily increasing for the past several decades, with a concomitant concerning increase in health care costs and burden to children with this disease. Recent population-based studies have also demonstrated a change in the current trends of pediatric nephrolithiasis that is characterized by a significant increase in the number of girls now being affected. While changes in diet and lifestyle, obesity prevalence, and even imaging practices have been proposed to contribute to the recent increase in pediatric nephrolithiasis, a definite underlying cause remains elusive. This situation is complicated by the fact that, unlike in adults, the trends occurring in pediatric nephrolithiasis have not been studied rigorously, which contributes to the paucity of data in children. The level of concern with the increasing incidence is raised by factors unique to pediatric nephrolithiasis that could expose an affected child to more complications. Factors such as variable clinical presentation, high recurrence of kidney stones associated with abnormalities of metabolism and the urinary tract, and the possible presence of rare genetic kidney stone diseases would require physicians to comprehensively evaluate patients presenting with kidney stones. The goal of evaluation is to identify modifiable risk factors and abnormalities for which targeted therapy can be prescribed. The goals of medical and surgical treatments are to eliminate the burden of kidney stones and prevent recurrence while simultaneously minimizing complications from interventions. Patients at high risk may benefit from a specialized kidney stone clinic staffed by a pediatric nephrologist, urologist, dietitian, and clinical nurse. Such a multidisciplinary clinic can help provide the medical and surgical support needed for patients at high risk and offer key opportunities to learn more about pediatric nephrolithiasis, thereby fueling the much-needed research in this

  13. Current Approach to the Evaluation and Management of Microscopic Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Thomas G; Pardi, Darrell S

    2017-02-01

    Microscopic colitis is a common cause of chronic watery diarrhea, particularly in the elderly. The accompanying symptoms, which include abdominal pain and fatigue, can markedly impair patients' quality of life. Diagnosis is based upon characteristic histologic findings of the colonic mucosa. This review focuses on the current approach to evaluation and management of patients with microscopic colitis. Although the incidence of microscopic colitis has been increasing over time, recent epidemiological studies show stabilization at 21.0-24.7 cases per 100,000 person-years. Recent research has further expanded our knowledge of the underlying pathophysiology and emphasized the entity of drug-induced microscopic colitis and the association with celiac disease. Two recent randomized studies have confirmed the effectiveness of oral budesonide for both induction and maintenance treatment of microscopic colitis and is now endorsed by the American Gastroenterological Association as first-line treatment. The incidence of microscopic colitis has stabilized at just over 20 cases per 100,000 person-years. Celiac disease and drug-induced microscopic colitis should be considered in all patients diagnosed with microscopic colitis. There are a number of treatments available for patients with microscopic colitis; however, budesonide is the only option well studied in controlled trials and is effective for both induction and maintenance treatment.

  14. Current Procedures Used To Evaluate Teaching in Schools of Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Candace W.; Matthews, Hewitt W.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 72 pharmacy schools investigated methods of evaluating teaching, including use of student evaluations for both undergraduate and clinical teaching, peer evaluation, evaluation instruments, and use of the information for tenure/promotion decisions, faculty development activities, and determination of merit salary increases. Results are…

  15. Teacher Evaluation: An Annotated Bibliography. Current Bibliography No. 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, Gail, Comp.

    Three interrelated frames of reference -- the purposes of evaluation, the criteria for evaluation, and the evaluators -- form the basis of the major subject divisions of this bibliography. Part one consists of general material on teacher evaluation, teacher effectiveness, and supervisory practices. Attempts to determine the qualities of a good…

  16. [Current evaluation of teratogenic and fetotoxic effects of psychotropic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Omi

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are equally common among pregnant and non-pregnant women, and many of these conditions are treated with psychotropic medications. The use of psychotropic medicines during pregnancy, especially antidepressants, became increasingly prevalent in the early 2000's, although many physicians prefer not to prescribe drugs for pregnant women due to concerns about teratogenicity. Current data on the risks of in utero exposure to psychotropic medications are limited, leaving women and physicians to make difficult decisions regarding the initiation or maintenance of treatment during pregnancy without a complete knowledge of the risks. Of all the psychotropics, antidepressant use in pregnancy has been relatively well studied. However, available studies have not yet adequately controlled for other factors that may influence birth outcomes, including maternal illness or problematic health-related behaviors such as smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy. This review focuses on the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy, the antidepressants most commonly used to treat depression. In the evaluation of medication during pregnancy, teratogenicity and fetotoxicity must be considered. Most studies on the use of SSRIs during the first trimester of pregnancy have not shown an increase in the overall risk of major malformations, although several studies have suggested that SSRIs may be associated with a small increased risk of cardiovascular malformations, mainly involving ventricular and atrial septal defects. In addition to structural malformations, drugs were also observed to induce other adverse effects. Since SSRIs readily cross the placenta, concern has been raised about the short- or long-term effects of prenatal exposure to SSRIs on the developing offspring. Epidemiological studies have documented that 10-30% of neonates exposed to SSRIs near term had poor neonatal adaptation syndrome (PNAS). Some studies reported that

  17. Unstable genes unstable mind: beyond the central dogma of molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Mahabaleshwar V; Saraph, Arundhati A

    2011-08-01

    Schizophrenia has a polygenic mode of inheritance and an estimated heritability of over 80%, but success in understanding its genetic underpinnings to date has been modest. Unlike in trinucleotide neurodegenerative disorders, the phenomenon of genetic anticipation observed in schizophrenia or bipolar disorder has not been explained. For the first time, we provide a plausible molecular explanation of genetic anticipation and pathophysiology of schizophrenia, at least in part, with supporting evidence. We postulate that abnormally increased numbers of CAG repeats in many genes being expressed in the brain, coding for glutamine, cumulatively press for higher demand of glutamine in the respective brain cells, resulting in a metabolic crisis and dysregulation of the glutamate-glutamine cycle. This can adversely affect the functioning of both glutamate and GABA receptors, which are known to be involved in psychosis, and may also affect glutathione levels, increasing oxidative stress. The resulting psychosis (gain in function), originating from unstable genes, is described as an effect "beyond the central dogma of molecular biology". The hypothesis explains genetic anticipation, as further expansions in subsequent generations may result in increased severity and earlier occurrence. Many other well described findings provide proof of concept. This is a testable hypothesis, does not deny any known facts and opens up new avenues of research.

  18. Sharia Adherence Mosque Survey: Correlations between Sharia Adherence and Violent Dogma in U.S. Mosques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mordechai Kedar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A random survey of 100 representative mosques in the U.S. was conducted to measure the correlation between Sharia adherence and dogma calling for violence against non-believers.  Of the 100 mosques surveyed, 51% had texts on site rated as severely advocating violence; 30% had texts rated as moderately advocating violence; and 19% had no violent texts at all.  Mosques that presented as Sharia adherent were more likely to feature violence-positive texts on site than were their non-Sharia-adherent counterparts.  In 84.5% of the mosques, the imam recommended studying violence-positive texts.  The leadership at Sharia-adherent mosques was more likely to recommend that a worshipper study violence-positive texts than leadership at non-Sharia-adherent mosques.  Fifty-eight percent of the mosques invited guest imams known to promote violent jihad.  The leadership of mosques that featured violence-positive literature was more likely to invite guest imams who were known to promote violent jihad than was the leadership of mosques that did not feature violence-positive literature on mosque premises.  

  19. Integrative Evaluation of the Current Postal Services by Employing the Evaluation Method of GE Corporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hong-bin; SUN Hao; WANG Wei-min

    2003-01-01

    The paper makes an integrative evaluation of the current main ten categories of postal services by using the Evaluation Method of GE Corporation on the basis of the integrative evaluation by some managers of postal enterprises concerned and some experts in the fields of postal services on the defined eight indexes, which cover the main 4 indexes that model the postal enterprise's strength and the other main 4 indexes that reflect the future development prospect of postal services. And further, according to the marks given by the managers and experts to all categories of postal services, the paper defines the quadrants of all categories of services to make certain the orientation and measures for the development of all these categories of postal services.

  20. The Evaluation of Music Faculty in Higher Education: Current Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Kelly A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to ascertain the methods used to evaluate music faculty and whether achievement measures, or student progress, impact the evaluations made about teacher effectiveness for music faculty in the higher education context. The author surveyed Chairs of Departments or Directors of Schools of Music (n = 412) listed as…

  1. [Current state and challenges of pharmacoeconomic evaluation in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang-Eun

    2008-03-01

    Since the positive listing system for prescription drug reimbursement has been introduced in Korea, the number of pharmacoeconomic evaluation studies has increased. However it is not clear if the quality of pharmacoeconomic evaluation study has improved. Due to the lack of randomized clinical studies in Korean health care setting, Korean economic evaluation studies have typically integrated the local cost data and foreign clinical data. Therefore methodological issues can be raised in regard to data coherence and consistency. But the quality of data was not questiened and the potential bias has not been investigated yet. Even though changes in policy have encouraged the undertaking of pharmacoeconomic evaluations, there is few public-side funding for validation study of cost-effectiveness models and data. Several companies perform economic evaluation studies to be submitted on behalf of their own products, but do not want the study results to be disclosed to the academic community or public. To improve the present conduct of pharmacoeconomic evaluations in Korea, various funding sources need to be developed, and, like other multidisciplinary areas, the experts in different fields of study should collaborate to ensure the validity and credibility of pharmacoeconomic evaluations.

  2. EVALUATION OF CURRENT SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT OF BIOBASED TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable technology is driven by economic competitiveness, government policies and public pressure. The claim of inherent cleanliness for biotechnology is too simplistic. Each application of biotechnology must be evaluated for suitable characteristics of sustainability. The ...

  3. Discounting health effects in pharmacoeconomic evaluations : Current controversies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, JM; Postma, MJ; Annemans, L

    2005-01-01

    Currently, much debate still surrounds the discounting of health effects: Most general consensus statements have argued for the same discount rate for health and money; however, this practice has been questioned by several authors. The choice of discount rate can have varying effects on intervention

  4. Proteomic evaluation of genetically modified crops: current status and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Yan Gong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hectares of genetically modified (GM crops have increased exponentially since 1996, when such crops began to be commercialized. GM biotechnology, together with conventional breeding, has become the main approach to improving agronomic traits of crops. However, people are concerned about the safety of GM crops, especially GM-derived food and feed. Many efforts have been made to evaluate the unintended effects caused by the introduction of exogenous genes. Omics techniques have advantages over targeted analysis in evaluating such crops because of their use of high-throughput screening. Proteins are key players in gene function and are directly involved in metabolism and cellular development or have roles as toxins, antinutrients or allergens, which are essential for human health. Thus, proteomics can be expected to become one of the most useful tools in safety assessment. This review assesses the potential of proteomics in evaluating various GM crops. We further describe the challenges in ensuring homogeneity and sensitivity in detection techniques.

  5. Ultrasound elastography in the evaluation of thyroid pathology. Current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantisani, Vito, E-mail: vito.cantisani@uniroma1.it [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Lodise, Pietro, E-mail: pietro.lodise@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Grazhdani, Hektor, E-mail: he1graz@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Mancuso, Ester, E-mail: ester.mancuso@libero.it [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Maggini, Elena, E-mail: elenamaggini@yahoo.it [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Di Rocco, Giorgio, E-mail: giorgiodirocco@virgilio.it [Department of Surgical Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); D’Ambrosio, Ferdinando, E-mail: ferdinando.dambrosio@uniroma1.it [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Calliada, Fabrizio, E-mail: fabrizio.calliada@gmail.com [Policlinico San Matteo, University of Pavia (Italy); Redler, Adriano, E-mail: adriano.redler@uniroma1.it [Department of Surgical Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Ricci, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.ricci@uniroma1.it [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Catalano, Carlo [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy)

    2014-03-15

    Thyroid pathology including thyroid nodules and diffuse thyroid diseases represents often a diagnosing challenge for clinicians. US, although highly accurate in identifying thyroid nodules and diffuse thyroid diseases, is still not sufficiently accurate to evaluate them. US-elastography has been introduced in order to further increase US accuracy in many fields and eventually for thyroid disease. The aim of the present paper it to provide an update of the literature on different available techniques and the results reported both for thyroid nodules differentiation and for diffuse thyroid disease evaluation. Advantages and limitations of elastography are also discussed.

  6. Iglesias coptas, testimonio silencioso de un dogma trinitario (S. IV-VII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Viviani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se inscribe dentro de una línea de trabajo que intenta profundizar en las relaciones entre la estética y el dogma en las antiguas comunidades cristianas del Medio Oriente. Ya se ha propuesto y publicado, un marco dogmático que permite identificar las iglesias de las comunidades Arrianas y Capadocias. En esta nueva investigación se propone también una comprensión de la arquitectura y de los programas pictográficos de las iglesias coptas de Egipto, a partir de una aproximación dogmática. Se consideran dos grupos de iglesias: las iglesias del Norte o Bajo Egipto y las del Sur o Alto Egipto. Como referente dogmático, se trabaja preferentemente con el pensamiento de Cirilo de Alejandría (378-444. Se ha seleccionado este autor, considerando que vivió las experiencias de los monjes del desierto, que estudió en una escuela teológica monástica y participó activamente en las controversias contra arríanos y nestorianos. Presidió el Patriarcado de Alejandría por más de 30 años. Desde la perspectiva dogmática, se pone énfasis en el tema de la Trinidad y de las 3 hipóstasis, de la unidad de naturaleza entre el Padre y el Hijo, y de la Virgen como Madre de Dios, TheotokosThis investigation can be regarded as within a line of work attempting to deepen understanding of the relationship between aesthetics and dogma in the ancient Christian communities of the Middle East. A dogmatic framework has already been proposed and published that allows the churches of the Arian and Cappadocian communities to be identified. In this new investigation, an understanding of the architecture and of the pictographic programs of the Coptic churches in Egypt is also proposed, beginning with a dogmatic approximation. Two groups of churches are considered: the churches of North, or Lower Egypt, and those of South, or Higher Egypt. As a dogmatic reference point, the thought of Cyril of Alexandria (378-444 is preferentially dealt with. This

  7. Evaluation of current methods to estimate pulp yield of hemp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, de E.P.M.; Werf, van der H.M.G.

    1995-01-01

    Large-scale evaluation of hemp stems from field trials requires a rapid method for the characterization of stem quality. The large differences between bark and woody core in anatomical and chemical properties, make a quantification of these two fractions of primary importance for quality assessment.

  8. Implementation of Central Dogma Based Cryptographic Algorithm in Data Warehouse Architecture for Performance Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajdeep Chowdhury

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Data warehouse is a set of integrated databases deliberated to expand decision-making and problem solving, espousing exceedingly condensed data. Data warehouse happens to be progressively more accepted theme for contemporary researchers with respect to contemporary inclination towards industry and executive purview. The crucial tip of the proposed work is integrated on delivering an enhanced and an exclusive innovative model based on the intention of enhancing security measures, which at times have been found wanting and also ensuring improved accessibility using Hashing modus operandi. An unsullied algorithm was engendered using the concept of protein synthesis, prevalently studied in Genetics, that is, in the field of Biotechnology, wherein three steps are observed, namely; DNA Replication, Translation and Transcription. In the proposed algorithm, the two latter steps, that is, Translation and Transcription have been taken into account and the concept have been used for competent encryption and proficient decryption of data. Central Dogma Model is the name of the explicit model that accounts for and elucidates the course of action for Protein Synthesis using the Codons which compose the RNA and the DNA and are implicated in numerous bio–chemical processes in living organisms. It could be observed that subsequently a dual stratum of encryption and decryption mechanism has been employed for optimal security. The formulation of the immaculate Hashing modus operandi ensure that there would be considerable diminution of access time, keeping in mind the apt retrieval of all indispensable data from the data vaults. The pertinent appliance of the proposed model with enhanced security might be in its significant service in a variety of organizations where accrual of protected data is of extreme magnitude. The variety of organizations might include educational organizations, corporate houses, medical establishments, private establishments and so on

  9. Liberalism - neoliberalism - market fundamentalism: from the concept of freedom to the totalitarian dogma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Chelischev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article further describes the ideological, historical, socio-political and economic circumstances, responsible for the specific direction of a new form of the ideology of liberalism - contemporary liberalism (neo-liberalism. The special attention, along with the analysis of the ideas of the founder of original theory of the state intervention in the economic life of the society of John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946, is given to “neoliberal” economic constructions of an ideological orientation of Friedrich August von Hayek (1899-1992 and Milton Friedman (1912-2006, defenders of a liberal principle of self-regulation of economy, free from any regalements. The author, on the basis of the analysis of primary sources and examples from a political and social life of some States, shows that in theory the resurgence of liberalism in the form of neo-liberalism personified the idea of the priority of the individual to society and the State, the market - before planning and regulation, the human rights - before the power authority and the team. However in practice this revival was accompanied by displacement of accents and growth of ideological tendencies. Thus, theorists and practitioners of neo-liberalism lined up quite utopian model not only of economic, but also of social relations. Article details the mechanisms by which the theoretical constructions of economists-neoliberals were emasculated by politicians who gradually reduced them to the primitive and convenient theses, justifying any actions of the authorities. Over time, these points have become “undeniable truths”, through which neo-liberalism became dogmatic, and its economic credo has got obvious fundamentalist character, having turned to market dogma of totalitarian type.

  10. Eddy current pulsed phase thermography for subsurface defect quantitatively evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunze; Pan, Mengchun; Tian, GuiYun; Chen, Dixiang; Tang, Ying; Zhang, Hong

    2013-09-01

    This Letter verified eddy current pulse phase thermography through numerical and experimental studies. During the numerical studies, two characteristic features, blind frequency and min phase, were extracted from differential phase spectra, and their monotonic relationships with defects' depth under different heating time were compared. According to the numerical studies, 100 ms was employed as heating time during the improved experimental studies. The experimental results agreed with the numerical results. Based on their linear relationship with defects' depths, both features can be used to measure the defect's depth.

  11. Thickness Evaluation of Aluminium Plate Using Pulsed Eddy Current Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpartap; Bapat, Harsh Madhukar; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Bandyopadhyay, Manojit; Puri, Rakesh Kumar; Badodkar, Deepak Narayanrao

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes a pulsed eddy current (PEC) based non-destructive testing system used for detection of thickness variation in aluminium plate. A giant magneto-resistive sensor has been used instead of pick up coil for detecting resultant magnetic field. The PEC response signals obtained from 1 to 5 mm thickness change in aluminium plate were investigated. Two time domain features, namely peak value and time to peak, of PEC response were used for extracting information about thickness variation in aluminium plate. The variation of peak value and time to peak with thickness was compared. A program was developed to display the thickness variation of the tested sample.

  12. Proteomic evaluation of genetically modified crops: current status and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chun Yan; Wang, Tai

    2013-01-01

    Hectares of genetically modified (GM) crops have increased exponentially since 1996, when such crops began to be commercialized. GM biotechnology, together with conventional breeding, has become the main approach to improving agronomic traits of crops. However, people are concerned about the safety of GM crops, especially GM-derived food and feed. Many efforts have been made to evaluate the unintended effects caused by the introduction of exogenous genes. “Omics” techniques have advantages over targeted analysis in evaluating such crops because of their use of high-throughput screening. Proteins are key players in gene function and are directly involved in metabolism and cellular development or have roles as toxins, antinutrients, or allergens, which are essential for human health. Thus, proteomics can be expected to become one of the most useful tools in safety assessment. This review assesses the potential of proteomics in evaluating various GM crops. We further describe the challenges in ensuring homogeneity and sensitivity in detection techniques. PMID:23471542

  13. Three dimensional boundary element solutions for eddy current nondestructive evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Song, Jiming; Nakagawa, Norio

    2014-02-01

    The boundary integral equations (BIE) method is a numerical computational method of solving linear partial differential equations which have been formulated as integral equations. It can be applied in many areas of engineering and science including fluid mechanics, acoustics, electromagnetics, and fracture mechanics. The eddy current problem is formulated by the BIE and discretized into matrix equations by the method of moments (MoM) or the boundary element method (BEM). The three dimensional arbitrarily shaped objects are described by a number of triangular patches. The Stratton-Chu formulation is specialized for the conductive medium. The equivalent electric and magnetic surface currents are expanded in terms of Rao-Wilton-Glisson (RWG) vector basis function while the normal component of magnetic field is expanded in terms of the pulse basis function. Also, a low frequency approximation is applied in the external medium. Additionally, we introduce Auld's impedance formulas to calculate impedance variation. There are very good agreements between numerical results and those from theory and/or experiments for a finite cross-section above a wedge.

  14. Rural Administration in Romania: Evaluation of Current State

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    A large part of Romania’s population lives in the rural environment, in communes and in their composing villages. However, there is an important gap in what concerns the administrative action, access to public services and the general development level, between the urban and the rural environment. The paper at hand aims at performing an assessment of the rural space state, from an administrative perspective, starting from the general characteristics of communes in Romania. This evaluation rep...

  15. Economic evaluation guidelines in Latin America: a current snapshot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustovski, Federico; Garay, Osvaldo Ulises; Pichon-Riviere, Andres; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Caporale, Joaquín E

    2010-10-01

    Economic evaluation guidelines are widespread in developed countries with fourth hurdle systems but as of yet not in Latin America. In the present article, a systematic search was conducted in order to retrieve regional guidelines in PubMed, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) and the gray literature. Four national guidelines were found: Brazil, Colombia, Cuba and Mexico. We report a thorough review of these documents, as well as a comparison among them. We conclude that, despite some differences found, they are broadly similar, and are broadly in accordance with international documents. The existence of these documents, together with other experiences in the region that explicitly use economic evaluation information for health decision making clearly shows that this global tendency is gaining momentum in Latin America, although there is still a long way to go. In the near future we will be able to see if these documents were successfully used and applied for transparent and evidence-based decision making.

  16. [Medicinal plants in cancer patients: current practices and evaluation data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, Matthieu

    2013-05-01

    Many complementary and alternatives medicines are offered to patients with cancer. Among them, herbal medicines have a substantial place. These plants are mainly used to reduce adverse effects of anticancer treatments and for specific anticancer properties. Our review shows that only few clinical data support medicinal plants effectiveness in cancer patients. Arguments rely mainly on usual indications and pharmacological data for minimization of treatments toxicity while for the anticancer properties, on epidemiological and preclinical data. To inform and counsel patients and people around, healthcare professionals need to evaluate benefit-risk balance on evidence-based information. Because the medical decision should be shared with the patient, his beliefs and preferences have to be considered. When no adverse effect or drug interaction is associated with herbal medicine, we state that their use is acceptable. This paper discuss of potential risk and benefit of the most used medicinal plants by cancer patients.

  17. Towards the evaluation of current wind farm assessment methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorval, J.; Masson, C. [Ecole de Technologie Superieure, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Gagnon, Y. [Moncton Univ., NB (Canada). Dept. of Wind Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Canada's wind energy industry is experiencing significant growth. Government initiatives such as the wind power production incentive program (WPPI) may result in a cumulative installed wind energy capacity of up to 10,000 MW by 2015. However, the methods used to assess wind farm performance have never been thoroughly investigated in a specifically Canadian context. This project was conducted to provide a more accurate understanding of the limitations of various wind farm performance measuring methods and recommend effective methodologies based on the effect of terrain, the position of the wind turbines, and wind characteristics. The study was conducted at 5 wind farms in various Canadian locations, including Prince Edward Island (PEI). A full year of data for each wind farm was used to determine wind speed, wind direction, temperature, pressure, relative humidity, power, and Nacelle orientation. Various wind resource assessment software programs were analyzed in order to evaluate topography and roughness effects, wake analyses, and to compare results from the models with actual wind speed data. tabs., figs.

  18. Current and future standards in evaluation of erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond W Pak

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunction and more specifically erectile dysfunction (ED can be a harbinger of serious occult medical conditions. ED can be considered a clinical manifestation of generalized vascular disease and therefore shares similar risk factors: aging, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia and smoking. The initial evaluation of men with ED should be thorough. Studies of normal and abnormal penile tumescence have led to the discovery of many important pathways. The greatest medical advance in the management of male sexual dysfunction since the identification of androgens have been the discoveries that nitric oxide (NO is the primary neuro-modulator of penile smooth muscle relaxation and that oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors enhance erection quality through the NO mechanism. As a consequence of oral pharmacotherapies, the role of invasive diagnostics has diminished. Most guidelines recommend only history, physical exam and limited laboratory testing prior to instituting oral therapies for ED. In 2006 we still have unanswered questions about ED and these will frame the role of future diagnosis and therapy: can lifestyle changes alone improve erectile function; is ED a marker for the development of atherosclerotic heart disease, do lower urinary tract symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy and ED share a common pathway?

  19. Universe of superluminal velocities: tests of astrophysics, from dogma-to reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechelnitsky, A.

    The Barrier of speed of light is the most chained and, perhaps, the most unreasonable Interdiction of the standard (astro) physics and cosmology. Its theoretical bases are speculative and unconvincing, and it actually has not been proved by observations from the very beginning of its promulgations. Moreover, it is gradually increase a stream of the observational data frankly contradicting to the Barrier. This monumental Dogma substantially holds down the initiative of researchers and development of sciences about the Universe. Resolving proofs of absence of the Barrier and real existence of superluminal velocities can come, most likely, from the side of observational astrophysics, when appear fair predictions, based on the alternative theory. Predictions and observational Tests, in particular, are those. The advanced astrophysical researches will lead to accumulation of the precision data and construction of histograms of the velocities observable in the Universe (in the centers of galaxies, AGN, blazàrs, BL Lac, etc), which will show: i) Distribution of the transversal (in a picture plane) superluminal velocities has distinct peaks near to the values specified by the alternative theory: (in G[ -6] Shell) β =v/c: 1.77; 1.48; 1.25; 1.05; 0.88; 0.74; 0.62; 0.52; 0.44; (G[ -7] Shell) β =v/c:: 6.48 ; 5.45; 4.58; 3.85; 3.24; 2.72; 2.29; 1.92; 1.62; (G[ -8] Shell) β =v/c: 23.79; 20.00; 16.82; 14.14; 11.89; 10.00; 8.41; 7.07; 5.95 ii) The same peaks are available (already now, - and it can be shown on the basis of the spectroscopic data) in distribution (histograms) of beam (radial) superluminal velocities (with the same multiplicator M = 2 = 1.1892). iii) The predicted property of discreteness, quantization of superluminal velocities (as well as subluminal) velocities is the exclusive pattern, essentially distinguishing alternative representations (Wave Universe Concept [Chechelnitsky 1980-2004]; see, in particular, the bibliography in Advances in Space Research, v

  20. Evaluation of Ferrite Chip Beads as Surge Current Limiters in Circuits with Tantalum Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Limiting resistors are currently required to be connected in series with tantalum capacitors to reduce the risk of surge current failures. However, application of limiting resistors decreases substantially the efficiency of the power supply systems. An ideal surge current limiting device should have a negligible resistance for DC currents and high resistance at frequencies corresponding to transients in tantalum capacitors. This work evaluates the possibility of using chip ferrite beads (FB) as such devices. Twelve types of small size FBs from three manufacturers were used to evaluate their robustness under soldering stresses and at high surge current spikes associated with transients in tantalum capacitors. Results show that FBs are capable to withstand current pulses that are substantially greater than the specified current limits. However, due to a sharp decrease of impedance with current, FBs do not reduce surge currents to the required level that can be achieved with regular resistors.

  1. 75 FR 49930 - Stakeholder Meeting Regarding Re-Evaluation of Currently Approved Total Coliform Analytical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... AGENCY Stakeholder Meeting Regarding Re-Evaluation of Currently Approved Total Coliform Analytical... technical dialogue with stakeholders regarding re-evaluation of currently approved Total Coliform Rule (TCR) analytical methods. At these meetings, stakeholders will be given an opportunity to discuss...

  2. Computational electromagnetics and model-based inversion a modern paradigm for eddy-current nondestructive evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Sabbagh, Harold A; Sabbagh, Elias H; Aldrin, John C; Knopp, Jeremy S

    2013-01-01

    Computational Electromagnetics and Model-Based Inversion: A Modern Paradigm for Eddy Current Nondestructive Evaluation describes the natural marriage of the computer to eddy-current NDE. Three distinct topics are emphasized in the book: (a) fundamental mathematical principles of volume-integral equations as a subset of computational electromagnetics, (b) mathematical algorithms applied to signal-processing and inverse scattering problems, and (c) applications of these two topics to problems in which real and model data are used. By showing how mathematics and the computer can solve problems more effectively than current analog practices, this book defines the modern technology of eddy-current NDE. This book will be useful to advanced students and practitioners in the fields of computational electromagnetics, electromagnetic inverse-scattering theory, nondestructive evaluation, materials evaluation and biomedical imaging. Users of eddy-current NDE technology in industries as varied as nuclear power, aerospace,...

  3. EDITORIAL: UN NOBEL A LA TENACIDAD EN CONTRA DE LOS DOGMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Cortés

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La Asamblea de los premios Nobel en el Instituto Karolinska de Medicina decidió en esta ocasión otorgar el Nobel de Medicina y Fisiología 2005 a los científicos australianos Barry J. Marshall y J. Robin Warren resaltando «la tenacidad» a la hora de cuestionar los dogmas establecidos en torno a la gastritis y la úlcera de estómago o de duodeno. Los dos patólogos demostraron que Helicobacter pylori es la causa de ambos trastornos. En 1982, cuando presentaron sus investigaciones, se consideraba que el estrés y el estilo de vida eran las causas de la úlcera péptica. El hallazgo provocó uno de los mayores cismas médicos. La comunidad médica criticó fuertemente el hallazgo y Barry J. Marshall llegó a inocularse la bacteria para demostrar su teoría. Sólo hasta 1991, estos hallazgos fueron realmente reconocidos por los gastroenterólogos. Actualmente se considera que la bacteria descubierta por los investigadores australianos es la responsable de más de 90% de las úlceras duodenales y hasta de 80% de las gástricas. Los trabajos de los científicos demostraron que la dolencia, considerada hasta entonces un trastorno crónico, se puede tratar con éxito si se elimina H. pylori del organismo. El compromiso de este germen en la gastritis crónica activa, su asociación con la úlcera gastroduodenal y su inclusión por parte de la IARC en 1994 (grupo de estudio del cáncer, perteneciente a la Organización Mundial de la Salud entre los agentes carcinógenos tipo 1, lo ha convertido en uno de los microorganismos de mayor interés en patología humana. Cerca de la mitad de la población mundial está infectada por esta bacteria. Warren (nacido en 1937 en Adelaida, ejerció la patología hasta 1999 en el Royal Hospital, de Perth, observó la presencia de bacterias en el «antro» asociada con inflamación de la mucosa gástrica en 50% de los pacientes a los cuales se había hecho una biopsia. Barry Marshall (nacido en 1951 en Kargoorlie

  4. Status of Current Plutonium Evaluations And an Update Plan for ENDL99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D A

    2005-04-29

    We review the current state of ENDL99, ENDF/B-VI.r8, JENDL-3.3, JEFF-3.0 and ENDF/B-VII.{beta}0 plutonium evaluations and lay out a tentative plan for updating all of the ENDL99 plutonium evaluations. In some specific cases, an evaluation for a particular isotope is of sufficient quality for us to adopt in ENDL99. More often, the quality of all evaluations for an isotope are low enough that we will need to perform a new evaluation.

  5. Evaluation of reference current extraction methods for DSP implementation in active power filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vardar, K.; Akpinar, E.; Suergevil, T. [Dokuz Eylul University, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Kaynaklar Kampusu, 35160 Buca, Izmir (Turkey)

    2009-10-15

    Generation of current references constitutes an important part in the control of active power filters (APFs) used in power system, since any inaccuracy in reference currents yields to incorrect compensation. In this paper, harmonic detection methods for generating reference currents have been evaluated on the basis of three-phase balanced and unbalanced load currents processed in the digital signal processor (DSP). The advantages and disadvantages of several methods found in the literature have been discussed on the basis of simulation results. Three of these methods have been programmed in the TMS320F2812 digital signal processor (DSP) unit and their performances are evaluated from the viewpoint of practical considerations. Finally, instantaneous reactive power method to estimate the APF reference currents is implemented and its practical results obtained under balanced and unbalanced loads are given. (author)

  6. Evaluation of Starting Current of Induction Motors Using Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Sadeghkhani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Induction motors (IMs are widely used in industry including it be an electrical or not. However during starting period, their starting currents are so large that can damage equipment. Therefore, this current should be estimated accurately to prevent hazards caused by it. In this paper, the artificial neural network (ANN as an intelligent tool is used to evaluate starting current peak of IMs. Both Multilayer Perceptron (MLP and Radial Basis Function (RBF structures have been analyzed. Six learning algorithms, backpropagation (BP, delta-bar-delta (DBD, extended delta-bar-delta (EDBD, directed random search (DRS, quick propagation (QP, and levenberg marquardt (LM were used to train the MLP. The simulation results using MATLAB show that most developed ANNs can estimate the starting current peak of IMs with good accuracy. However, it is proven that LM and EDBD algorithms present better performance for starting current evaluation based on average of relative and absolute errors.

  7. Statistical evaluation of telephone noise interference caused by AC power line harmonic currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuussaari, M. (Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland))

    1993-04-01

    A statistical approach is applied for the evaluation of the limits for harmonic currents in AC power lines, the goal being to prevent excessive telephone noise interference voltages in subscriber cables in rural areas. The analysis is based on Monte-Carlo simulation which takes into account the effect of the experiental probability distributions of the relevant parameters. In the Finnish conditions, the properties of communication cables permit equivalent disturbing phase currents of 8 to 10 A. The digital exchanges permit approximately the same currents. Some new telephone types that have a low balance may make it necessary to limit the currents to a level that is somewhat lower.

  8. Evaluation of OSCAR ocean surface current product in the tropical Indian Ocean using in situ data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajesh Sikhakolli; Rashmi Sharma; Sujit Basu; B S Gohil; Abhijit Sarkar; K V S R Prasad

    2013-02-01

    The OSCAR (ocean surface current analysis real-time),which is a product derived from various satellite observations,has been evaluated in the tropical Indian Ocean (TIO)in two di fferent ways.First,the OSCAR-derived monthly climatology has been compared with available drifter-derived climatology in the TIO.From the comparison of the two climatologies,one can infer that OSCAR product is able to capture the variabilities of the well-known surface current systems in the TIO reasonably well.Fourier analysis of the major current systems,as reproduced by OSCAR,shows that the dominant annual and semiannual periodicities,known to exist in these systems,have been faithfully picked up by OSCAR. Next,the evaluation has been carried out by comparing the OSCAR currents with currents measured by moored buoys.The zonal component of OSCAR-current is in good agreement with corresponding component of buoy-observed current with a correlation exceeding 0.7,while the match between the meridional components is poorer.The locations of the peaks of the mean and eddy kinetic energies are matching in both the climatologies,although the peak in the drifter climatology is stronger than the same in the OSCAR product.Finally,an important feature of Indian Ocean circulation,namely the reverse Wyrtki jet,occurring during anomalous dipole years,has been well-reproduced by OSCAR currents.

  9. Performance evaluation of high-temperature superconducting current leads for micro-SMES systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, R. C.; Cha, Y. S.; Hull, J. R.; Buckles, W. E.; Weber, B. R.; Yang, S. T.

    As part of the US Department of Energy's Superconductivity Technology Program, Argonne National Laboratory and Superconductivity, Inc., are developing high-temperature superconductor (HTS) current leads for application to micro-superconducting magnetic energy storage systems. Two 1500-A HTS leads have been designed and constructed. The performance of the current lead assemblies is being evaluated in a zero-magnetic-field test program that includes assembly procedures, tooling, and quality assurance; thermal and electrical performance; and flow and mechanical characteristics. Results of evaluations performed to data are presented.

  10. A Software Tool for the Evaluation of the Behaviour of Bioelectrical Currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Fabbri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A software tool has been developed in order to evaluate bioelectrical currents. The tool is able to provide a graphical representation of the behaviour of small currents emitted by characteristic points of the human body and captured through a non invasive probe previously developed. The software implementation combines a variety of graphical techniques to create a powerful system that will enable users to perform an accurate and reliable analysis of the emitted currents and to easily go on to further applications and research. This paper introduces the design and the main characteristics of the tool and shows significant measurement results.

  11. Evaluation of wet tantalum capacitors after exposure to extended periods of ripple current, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, C. M.

    1975-01-01

    The application of tantalum capacitors in the Viking Lander includes dc voltage and ripple current electrical stress, high temperature during nonoperating times (sterilization), and high vibration and shock loads. The capacitors must survive these severe environments without any degradation if reliable performance is to be achieved. A test program was established to evaluate both wet-slug tantalum and wet-foil capacitors under conditions accurately duplicating actual Viking applications. Test results of the electrical performance characteristics during extended periods of ripple current, the characteristics of the internal silver migration as a function of extended periods of ripple current, and the existence of any memory characteristics are presented.

  12. Evaluation of wet tantalum capacitors after exposure to extended periods of ripple current, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, G. W.; Lasharr, J. C.; Shumaker, M. J.

    1974-01-01

    The application of tantalum capacitors in the Viking Lander includes both dc voltage and ripple current electrical stress, high temperature during nonoperating times (sterilization), and high vibration and shock loads. The capacitors must survive these severe environments without any degradation if reliable performance is to be achieved. A test program was established to evaluate both wet-slug tantalum and wet-foil capacitors under conditions accurately duplicating actual Viking applications. Test results of the electrical performance characteristics during extended periods of ripple current, the characteristics of the internal silver migration as a function for extended periods of ripple current, and the existence of any memory characteristics are presented.

  13. Current Status of the Matson Evaluation of Drug Side Effects (MEDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Cervantes, Paige E.

    2013-01-01

    The Matson Evaluation of Drug Side Effects (MEDS) is currently the best established and most researched measure of drug side effects in the intellectual disability (ID) literature. Initial research was conducted on its psychometric properties such as reliability and validity. More recent research studies have used the measure to determine the…

  14. Current Evaluation of Upper Oesophageal Sphincter Opening in Dysphagia Practice: An International SLT Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Julie; Walshe, Margaret; McMahon, Barry P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The assessment of adequate upper oesophageal sphincter (UOS) opening during swallowing is an integral component of dysphagia evaluation. Aims: To ascertain speech and language therapists' (SLTs) satisfaction with current methods for assessing UOS function in people with dysphagia and to identify challenges encountered by SLTs with UOS…

  15. The Focus of Current HCI Research in Usability Evaluation and Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høegh, Rune Thaarup

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a systematic literature study of the research on usability evaluation and feedback. The literature study covers the papers published from five key human-computer interaction journals for a period of four years, and depicts the most current research within...

  16. Evaluating validity of current criteria for judgment passing ER rotation among internee medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Hoseinnejad

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: According to association between successfully completions of training in emergency medicine and self-assessment questionnaire, it seems current criteria for judgment passing emergency medicine rotation is valid as well as we recommended using self-assessment for evaluating validity of such testes.

  17. Nondestructive Evaluation of Thermal Spray Coating Interface Quality by Eddy Current Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Bao; Zhao, Xiaoliang (George); Bayles, Robert

    2007-03-01

    Thermal spray coating is usually applied through directing molten or softened particles at very high velocities onto a substrate. An eddy current non-destructive inspection technique is presented here for thermal spray coating interface quality characterization. Several high-velocity-oxy-fuel (HVOF) coated steel plates were produced with various surface preparation conditions or spray process parameters. A quad-frequency eddy current probe was used to manually scan over the coating surface to evaluate the bonding quality. Experimental results show that different surface preparation conditions and varied process parameters can be successfully differentiated by the impedance value observed from the eddy current probe. The measurement is fairly robust and consistent. This non-contact, nondestructive, easy-to-use technique has the potential for evaluating the coating quality immediately after its application so that any defects can be corrected immediately.

  18. Evaluation of conductor stresses in a pulsed high-current toroidal transformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, Peter J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rousculp, Chritopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reass, William A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oro, David M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Merrill, Frank E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Greigo, Jeffery R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reinovsky, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The Precision, High-Energy Density, Liner Implosion Experiment (PHELIX) pulsed power driver is currently under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory. When operational PHELIX will provide 5-10 MAmps of peak current with pulse rise-time of {approx} 5-10 ms. Crucial to the performance of PHELIX is a multi-turn primary, single-turn secondary, current step-up toroidal transformer, R{sub major} {approx} 30 cm, R{sub minor} {approx} 10 cm. The transformer lifetime should exceed 100 shots. Therefore it is essential that the design be robust enough to survive the magnetic stresses produced by high currents. In order to evaluate their design, two methods have been utilized. First, an analytical evaluation has been performed. By identifying the magnetic forces as J{sub 1}{sup 2}/2 {del}L{sub 1} + J{sub 1}J{sub 2}{del}M{sub 12}, where J{sub 1} and J{sub 2} are currents in two circuits, coupled by mutual inductance M{sub 12} and L{sub 1} is the self-inductance of the circuit carrying current J{sub 1}, analytical estimates of stress can be obtained. These results are then compared to a computational MHD model of the same system and to a full finite-element, electromagnetic simulation.

  19. Evaluation of the invasion heat for the HTS current lead using YBCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endoh, R.; Kato, H.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    2003-10-01

    Current leads using high- TC superconductors (HTS current leads) are one of cryogenic key devices to assemble compact superconducting magnets such as applied for maglev trains etc. It is essential to evaluate effective thermal conductance through a HTS current lead package together with evaluating Joule heat and critical current for efficient design that has high current capacity and low heat invasion. We have designed the 500 A class HTS current lead package using a YBCO rod whose size is ∅ 3 × 30 mm, and developed an apparatus to measure its heat invasion. Temperature drop as a function of heat flow between the two ends of the package was measured by a conventional steady heat flow method. The quantity of heat invasion of the package under typical practical conditions, from 80 K hot end to 20 K cold end, was 163 mW. This value was simulated to the total value of 158 mW by counting contributions of all the component materials.

  20. Evaluation of lung tumor response to therapy: Current and emerging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coche, E

    2016-10-01

    Lung tumor response to therapy may be evaluated in most instances by morphological criteria such as RECIST 1.1 on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, those criteria are limited because they are based on tumoral dimensional changes and do not take into account other morphologic criteria such as density evaluation, functional or metabolic changes that may occur following conventional or targeted chemotherapy. New techniques such as dual-energy CT, PET-CT, MRI including diffusion-weighted MRI has to be considered into the new technical armamentarium for tumor response evaluation. Integration of all informations provided by the different imaging modalities has to be integrated and represents probably the future goal of tumor response evaluation. The aim of the present paper is to review the current and emerging imaging criteria used to evaluate the response of therapy in the field of lung cancer.

  1. Performance evaluation of high-temperature superconducting current leads for electric utility SMES systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, R. C.; Cha, Y. S.; Hull, J. R.; Rey, C. M.; Dixon, K. D.

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Superconductivity Technology Program, Argonne National Laboratory and Babcock & Wilcox are developing high-temperature super-conductor (HTS) current leads for application to electric utility superconducting magnetic energy storage systems. A 16,000-A HTS lead has been designed and is being constructed. An evaluation program for component performance was conducted to confirm performance predictions and/or to qualify the design features for construction. Performance of the current lead assemblies will be evaluated in a test program that includes assembly procedures, tooling, and quality assurance; thermal and electrical performance; and flow and mechanical characteristics. Results of the evaluations to date are presented.

  2. 企业文化中心法则构建机制研究%The Central Dogma of Corporate Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓苗; 石冠峰

    2012-01-01

    Based on the central dogma of molecular biology theory, the paper puts forward the central dogma of corporate culture modle. Core value, system/ technology culture and activity/ vanity culture are corresponding to biological macro-molecules of DNA, RAN and protein respectively. And there are process of reproduce, transcription, and translation between the three phases of corporate culture. The central dogma of corporate culture provides a fresh view to investigate the information transformation principle between the three phases and the function and evolution mechanism of corporate culture, and a theoretical frame to modify and reconstruct corporate culture.%结合生物中心法则,提出了企业文化中心法则.企业文化的三个层次——核心价值观、制度/技术文化以及行为/形象文化分别对应于生物大分子DNA、RNA和蛋白质.企业文化三层次问也存在着信息复制、转录和转译的过程.企业文化中心法则的构建,为我们探讨企业文化层次要素间的信息传递、企业文化的运行演化规律以及构建良好的企业文化提供了新的视角和思路.

  3. Cell surface-associated compounds of probiotic lactobacilli sustain the strain-specificity dogma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, P.A.; Tomita, S.; Mercenier, A.M.E.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2013-01-01

    Probiotic lactobacilli can positively impact on the health status of targeted (diseased) populations but efficacy depends strongly on the strain employed and the molecular basis for this phenomenon is poorly understood. This review discusses the current state-of-the-art in the field of molecular

  4. Cell surface-associated compounds of probiotic lactobacilli sustain the strain-specificity dogma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, P.A.; Tomita, S.; Mercenier, A.M.E.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2013-01-01

    Probiotic lactobacilli can positively impact on the health status of targeted (diseased) populations but efficacy depends strongly on the strain employed and the molecular basis for this phenomenon is poorly understood. This review discusses the current state-of-the-art in the field of molecular pro

  5. Evaluation of stray current corrosion resistance of concrete in metro construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shucai YANG; Xu YANG

    2008-01-01

    By simulation tests of concrete specimens in saturated Ca(OH)2 solution and seawater, and based on micro mechanism analysis, this paper evaluates the stray current corrosion resistance of concrete specimens of dif-ferent mixture ratios, and reaches a conclusion that the capability to resist stray current corrosion of optimally designed concrete mixed with good-quality fly ash and powdered slag is increased by over 5 times more than the reference concrete with the same water to binder ratio, and the service life of such kind of concrete meets the basic requirement of a metro project.

  6. The dogma of bacteriology and other events as spearheads of virology Dogma de la bacteriología y otros eventos como puntas de lanza de la virología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Volcy

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available

    This review analyzes some of the main events during the twentieth century that led to the birth of virology. In the literature of the time, a relationship of causality was established between virus and disease, and within this pathological context, the notions of fixed virus, volatile virus, contagium vivum fluidum and contagium fixum were formed. The transformation of the virus concept as a technoscientific object took place based on the criterion of filterability and on the methodology devised for the bacteriology dogma. Studies on tobacco mosaic virus are highlighted, as well as those on viral diseases of human beings and animals, which led to the discovery of these submicroscopic agents through the appropriation of technologies and the impulse triggered by political and economic factors.

    Esta investigación analiza algunos de los eventos principales del siglo XIX que condujeron hacia la cristalización de la virología. En los documentos de esta investigación analiza algunos de los eventos principales del siglo XIX que condujeron hacia la cristalización de la virología. En los documentos de aquella época, se plasmó una relación de causalidad entre virus y enfermedad o contagio, y en este contexto patológico, se elaboraron las nociones de virus fijo, virus volátil, contagium vivum fluidum y contagium fixum. De otro lado, la transformación conceptual hacia el virus como objeto tecnocientífico tuvo lugar con base en el criterio de filtrabilidad y en la metodología trazada por la bacteriología convertida en dogma. Asimismo, se

  7. Eddy Current Transducer Dedicated for Sigma Phase Evaluation in Duplex Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Psuj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a new transducer dedicated for evaluation of a duplex stainless steel (DSS. Different phases which exist in DSS have influence on mechanical as well as on electrical properties. Therefore, an eddy current transducer was utilized. In order to achieve high sensitivity, a differential type of the transducer was selected. The performance of the transducer was verified by utilizing the samples which had a different amount of sigma phase.

  8. Evaluation of eddy-current probe signals due to cracks in ferromagnetic parts of fast reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Bowler, John R.

    2017-02-01

    Eddy current testing to evaluate the condition of metallic parts in a sodium cooled fast reactor under standby conditions is challenging due to the presence of liquid sodium at 250 °C. The eddy current test system should be sensitive enough to capture small signal changes and hence an advanced inspection systems is needed. We have developed new hardware and improved numerical models to predict the eddy current probe signal due to cracks in metallic fast reactor parts by using volume integral equation method. The analytical expressions are derived for the quasi-static time-harmonic electromagnetic fields of a circular eddy current coil which interacts with conductive plate. Naturally, the method of moment is used to approximate the integral equation and obtain the discrete approximation of the field in the crack domain. A simple and accurate analytical method for dealing with the hyper-singularity element evaluation is also provided. An accurate controlled experiment is carried out on the ferromagnetic stainless steel plate with precision made notch to obtain reference impedance changes for comparison with the theoretical model predictions. Good agreement between predictions and experiment is obtained.

  9. Development and evaluation of an automated system for testing current meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Saretta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Current meters are equipment widely used for estimating flow velocity in rivers and streams. Periodic calibrations of current meters are important to ensure the quality of measurements, but the required testing facilities are complex and only available in a few institutions. However, advances in electronics and automation may contribute to developing simple and reliable calibration systems. Thus, this study aimed to develop an automated system for testing current meters, which consisted of a trapezoidal channel, a step motor, a tow car and a management system, composed of a supervisory application and microprocessed modules to control the motor and the data acquisition. Evaluations of the displacement velocity showed that it matched the reference value up to 1.85 m s-1 for a vertical-axis current meter and 2.3 m s-1 for a horizontal-axis one. The developed system showed reliability during tests, for both current meter movement and data acquisition. The management of the system based on the developed modules and the supervisory application improved its user interface, turning all the procedure into a simple task.

  10. Designing a highly sensitive Eddy current sensor for evaluating damage on thermal barrier coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Hak Joon; Song, Sung Jin; Seok, Chang Seong; Lee, Yeong Ze [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seul Gi [LG Electronics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    A thermal barrier coating (TBC) has been widely applied to machine components working under high temperature as a thermal insulator owing to its critical financial and safety benefits to the industry. However, the nondestructive evaluation of TBC damage is not easy since sensing of the microscopic change that occurs on the TBC is required during an evaluation. We designed an eddy current probe for evaluating damage on a TBC based on the finite element method (FEM) and validated its performance through an experiment. An FEM analysis predicted the sensitivity of the probe, showing that impedance change increases as the TBC thermally degrades. In addition, the effect of the magnetic shield concentrating magnetic flux density was also observed. Finally, experimental validation showed good agreement with the simulation result.

  11. Dogmas y actualidades del uso de los beta-bloqueadores en prevención secundaria. Primera parte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Morales Salinas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Existe consenso con respecto a las directrices clínicas de que los betabloqueadores (BB aportan incuestionables beneficios en varios entornos de la prevención secundaria, como son la insuficiencia cardiaca y el infarto agudo de miocardio. Sin embargo, en la práctica son subutilizados en aquellos contextos donde no están contraindicados; tal es el caso de la insuficiencia cardiaca con fracción de eyección deprimida. En el presente artículo se analizan las evidencias disponibles acerca de la efectividad de los betabloqueadores en la insuficiencia cardiaca con fracción de eyección deprimida. Se concluye que son abrumadoras las evidencias a favor del uso de los beta-bloqueadores en la insuficiencia cardiaca crónica con fracción de eyección deprimida; mientras que en los episodios de descompensación aguda de la insuficiencia cardiaca debe evitarse la suspensión de los mismos siempre que sea posible.DOGMAS AND UPDATES ON THE USE OF BETA-BLOCKERS IN SECONDARY PREVENTION. FIRST PART. There is consensus on clinical guidelines that beta-blockers (BB provide unquestionable benefits in several environments of secondary prevention, such as heart failure and myocardial infarction. However, in everyday practice they are underused in contexts where they are not contraindicated. Such is the case of heart failure with ejection fraction. This article presents an analysis on the available evidence of beta blockers’ effectiveness in heart failure with ejection fraction. It is concluded that overwhelming evidence favours the use of beta-blockers in chronic heart failure with ejection fraction, whereas in episodes of acute decompensated heart failure, their suspension should be avoided whenever it is possible.

  12. Solar cell evaluation using electron beam induced current with the large chamber scanning electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Tara; Kintzel, Edward; Marienhoff, Peter; Klein, Martin

    2012-02-01

    An initial study using electron beam induced current (EBIC) to evaluate solar cells has been carried out with the large chamber scanning electron microscope (LC-SEM) at the Western Kentucky University Nondestructive Analysis Center. EBIC is a scanning electron microscope technique used for the characterization of semiconductors. To facilitate our studies, we developed a Solar Amplification System (SASY) for analyzing current distribution and defects within a solar cell module. Preliminary qualitative results will be shown for a solar cell module that demonstrates the viability of the technique using the LC-SEM. Quantitative EBIC experiments will be carried out to analyze defects and minority carrier properties. Additionally, a well-focused spot of light from an LED mounted at the side of the SEM column will scan the same area of the solar cell using the LC-SEM positioning system. SASY will then output the solar efficiency to be compared with the minority carrier properties found using EBIC.

  13. Evaluation of Switch Currents in Nine-Switch Energy Conversion Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, Poh Chiang; Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Qin, Zian;

    2013-01-01

    Converters with reduced switch counts usually face some performance tradeoffs, which make them suitable for some applications but not others. The same applies to the nine-switch converter, which is a reduced-switch version of the back-to-back twelve-switch converter. The nine-switch converter has...... since been shown to experience a higher voltage stress, which can be lowered in some cases. A corresponding evaluation of its current stress is however lacking, and is hence addressed now by computing its switch currents when used for ac-ac, ac-dc, dc-ac and dc-dc energy conversions. Relevant...... expressions, application requirements and simulation results are presented for identifying cases, where the nine-switch converter can have an improvement in performance despite its reduced switch count....

  14. Researches on evaluation of smooth entrance in cutting using electrical current. A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diţu Valentin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At metal drilling, at the beginning of the process, the cutting tool in the chisel edge zone, frictions and plastically deforms the material, and then enters in cutting. If the drill is entered smoothly in cutting with a special device, its life is increased. The paper presents how the electrical current at cutting is used for the evaluation of smooth entrance in cutting in comparison with classical cutting. These are demonstrated for 41MoC11 steel drilled with a set of 30 tools having 8 mm diameter.

  15. A Smart Eddy Current Sensor Dedicated to the Nondestructive Evaluation of Carbon Fibers Reinforced Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidjate, Mohammed; Helifa, Bachir; Feliachi, Mouloud; Lefkaier, Iben-Khaldoun; Heuer, Henning; Schulze, Martin

    2017-08-31

    This paper propose a new concept of an eddy current (EC) multi-element sensor for the characterization of carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP) to evaluate the orientations of plies in CFRP and the order of their stacking. The main advantage of the new sensors is the flexible parametrization by electronical switching that reduces the effort for mechanical manipulation. The sensor response was calculated and proved by 3D finite element (FE) modeling. This sensor is dedicated to nondestructive testing (NDT) and can be an alternative for conventional mechanical rotating and rectangular sensors.

  16. Researches on evaluation of smooth entrance in cutting using electrical current. A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Diţu Valentin; Oancea Gheorghe; Daicu Raluca

    2017-01-01

    At metal drilling, at the beginning of the process, the cutting tool in the chisel edge zone, frictions and plastically deforms the material, and then enters in cutting. If the drill is entered smoothly in cutting with a special device, its life is increased. The paper presents how the electrical current at cutting is used for the evaluation of smooth entrance in cutting in comparison with classical cutting. These are demonstrated for 41MoC11 steel drilled with a set of 30 tools having 8 mm d...

  17. Evaluating the osseointegration of nanostructured titanium implants in animal models: Current experimental methods and perspectives (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babuska, Vaclav; Moztarzadeh, Omid; Kubikova, Tereza; Moztarzadeh, Amin; Hrusak, Daniel; Tonar, Zbynek

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this paper is to review the experimental methods currently being used to evaluate the osseointegration of nanostructured titanium implants using animal models. The material modifications are linked to the biocompatibility of various types of oral implants, such as laser-treated, acid-etched, plasma-coated, and sand-blasted surface modifications. The types of implants are reviewed according to their implantation site (endoosseous, subperiosteal, and transosseous implants). The animal species and target bones used in experimental implantology are carefully compared in terms of the ratio of compact to spongy bone. The surgical technique in animal experiments is briefly described, and all phases of the histological evaluation of osseointegration are described in detail, including harvesting tissue samples, processing undemineralized ground sections, and qualitative and quantitative histological assessment of the bone-implant interface. The results of histological staining methods used in implantology are illustrated and compared. A standardized and reproducible technique for stereological quantification of bone-implant contact is proposed and demonstrated. In conclusion, histological evaluation of the experimental osseointegration of dental implants requires careful selection of the experimental animals, bones, and implantation sites. It is also advisable to use larger animal models and older animals with a slower growth rate rather than small or growing experimental animals. Bones with a similar ratio of compact to spongy bone, such as the human maxilla and mandible, are preferred. A number of practical recommendations for the experimental procedures, harvesting of samples, tissue processing, and quantitative histological evaluations are provided.

  18. Preclinical safety evaluations supporting pediatric drug development with biopharmaceuticals: strategy, challenges, current practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, LaRonda L; Bowman, Christopher J; Blanset, Diann L; Bøgh, Ingrid B; Chellman, Gary J; Halpern, Wendy G; Weinbauer, Gerhard F; Coogan, Timothy P

    2011-08-01

    Evaluation of pharmaceutical agents in children is now conducted earlier in the drug development process. An important consideration for this pediatric use is how to assess and support its safety. This article is a collaborative effort of industry toxicologists to review strategies, challenges, and current practice regarding preclinical safety evaluations supporting pediatric drug development with biopharmaceuticals. Biopharmaceuticals include a diverse group of molecular, cell-based or gene therapeutics derived from biological sources or complex biotechnological processes. The principles of preclinical support of pediatric drug development for biopharmaceuticals are similar to those for small molecule pharmaceuticals and in general follow the same regulatory guidances outlined by the Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency. However, many biopharmaceuticals are also inherently different, with limited species specificity or immunogenic potential which may impact the approach taken. This article discusses several key areas to aid in the support of pediatric clinical use, study design considerations for juvenile toxicity studies when they are needed, and current practices to support pediatric drug development based on surveys specifically targeting biopharmaceutical development. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. A new look at an old dogma: wound complications in two methods of skin closure in uncomplicated appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Ghaderi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Appendicitis is more common during the second and third decade of life and appendectomy scar is important in terms of cosmetic issues. The scar is an important factor in the patient's satisfaction. Conventional teaching has an emphasis on the closure of skin incision with "separate" sutures. The aim of this study was to reconsider this dogma."n"nMethods: Among 321 patients with acute appendicitis who came to the emergency unit of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran since april 2007 till april 2008, 278 (86.6% patients had uncomplicated appendicitis and were enrolled in our clinical trial. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups of interrupted suture closure (n=139 and subcuticular suture closure (n=139. Anesthesia method and surgical technique were similar between the two groups. All patients were followed up post-operatively (four weeks for the presence of infectious drainage, pain, erythema, swelling and warmness at the surgical site."n"nResults: The patients' sex and their mean age were not statistically different between the groups. There was no significant difference in the frequency of surgical site complications between the two groups (five cases in the "interrupted" group and

  20. Evaluating Cloud and Precipitation Processes in Numerical Models using Current and Potential Future Satellite Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heever, S. C.; Tao, W. K.; Skofronick Jackson, G.; Tanelli, S.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Petersen, W. A.; Kummerow, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Cloud, aerosol and precipitation processes play a fundamental role in the water and energy cycle. It is critical to accurately represent these microphysical processes in numerical models if we are to better predict cloud and precipitation properties on weather through climate timescales. Much has been learned about cloud properties and precipitation characteristics from NASA satellite missions such as TRMM, CloudSat, and more recently GPM. Furthermore, data from these missions have been successfully utilized in evaluating the microphysical schemes in cloud-resolving models (CRMs) and global models. However, there are still many uncertainties associated with these microphysics schemes. These uncertainties can be attributed, at least in part, to the fact that microphysical processes cannot be directly observed or measured, but instead have to be inferred from those cloud properties that can be measured. Evaluation of microphysical parameterizations are becoming increasingly important as enhanced computational capabilities are facilitating the use of more sophisticated schemes in CRMs, and as future global models are being run on what has traditionally been regarded as cloud-resolving scales using CRM microphysical schemes. In this talk we will demonstrate how TRMM, CloudSat and GPM data have been used to evaluate different aspects of current CRM microphysical schemes, providing examples of where these approaches have been successful. We will also highlight CRM microphysical processes that have not been well evaluated and suggest approaches for addressing such issues. Finally, we will introduce a potential NASA satellite mission, the Cloud and Precipitation Processes Mission (CAPPM), which would facilitate the development and evaluation of different microphysical-dynamical feedbacks in numerical models.

  1. Evaluation of the impact of current antismoking advice in the UK on women with planned pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, G; Jauniaux, E; Sathia, Leena; Griffin, M; Morgan, H

    2002-09-01

    Smoking during pregnancy (active or passive) is associated with increased health risks to the unborn child. Current policy on antismoking advice for pregnant women in the United Kingdom is based essentially on written information by means of leaflets given to them at the first antenatal visit. We evaluated the impact of this policy on the smoking habits of pregnant women. A sample of 180 women with planned pregnancies attending antenatal clinics at two teaching hospitals in North London was recruited over a 6-month period. All women were provided with the current antismoking counselling at their first visit at the end of the first trimester and asked to fill in a questionnaire around mid-gestation. The study population included 117 (65%) women who did not currently smoke (non-smokers) and 63 (35%) who were active smokers at the beginning of their pregnancy. Thirty-nine non-smokers were found to be passive smokers. Three women took up smoking during pregnancy. Among the smokers, 53 (84.1%) women made no change in their smoking behaviour during pregnancy, seven (11.1%) reduced their cigarette consumption and only three (4.8%) gave up smoking during the first half of pregnancy. None of the partners changed their smoking habits. All women were aware that smoking in pregnancy could be deleterious to their health and that of their fetus. Despite awareness of dangers of smoking, the prevalence of smoking among pregnant women remains very high after the first antenatal visit and the current antismoking policy based essentially on leaflets is not effective. Health-care professionals should spend more time to inform women adequately about the dangers of smoking and help them to quit before pregnancy.

  2. Raman spectroscopic evaluation of efficacy of current paraffin wax section dewaxing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faoláin, Eoghan O; Hunter, Mary B; Byrne, Joe M; Kelehan, Peter; Lambkin, Helen A; Byrne, Hugh J; Lyng, Fiona M

    2005-01-01

    During a spectroscopic study to identify biochemical changes in cervical tissue with the onset of carcinogenesis, residual paraffin wax contributions were observed on almost all dewaxed formalin-fixed paraffin-processed (FFPP) tissue sections examined. Subsequently, the present study was formulated to evaluate the efficacy of current dewaxing agents using Raman spectroscopy. Three cervical FFPP sections were subjected to each of the protocols. Sections were dewaxed using four common dewaxing protocols, namely, xylene, Histoclear, heat-mediated antigen retrieval (HMAR) using xylene and citrate buffer, and Trilogy (combined deparaffinization and unmasking of antigens). The potential for hexane as a dewaxing agent was also evaluated. Sections were dewaxed in multiple dewaxing cycles using xylene, Histoclear, and hexane. Residual paraffin wax contributions remained at 1062 cm(-1), 1296 cm(-1), and 1441 cm(-1). HMAR using xylene and citrate buffer, and HMAR using Trilogy, showed a similar efficacy, resulting in incomplete removal of wax. Hexane was shown to be the most effective dewaxing agent, resulting in almost complete removal of wax. Immunohistochemistry was carried out on dewaxed slides, and those dewaxed with hexane displayed a stronger positivity (approximately 28%). Implications for histopathology and immunohistochemistry are considered, as well as problems that residual wax poses for spectroscopic evaluation of dewaxed FFPP sections with a view to disease diagnosis.

  3. Nondestructive evaluation of loose assemblies using multi-frequency eddy currents and artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourc'h, Eric; Joubert, Pierre-Yves; Le Gac, Guillaume; larzabal, Pascal

    2013-12-01

    This paper considers the problem of the evaluation of metallic assemblies in an aeronautical context, by means of a non-invasive method. The problems lies in the estimation of the distance separating two aluminum plates representative of a loose assembly (up to 300 µm), the top plate being possibly of unknown thickness ranging from 1 to 8 mm. To do so, the eddy current (EC) method is chosen, because it allows non-contact evaluation of conducting media to be carried out, which is sensitive to electrical conductivity changes in the part under evaluation, and hence to the presence of an air gap between parts. The problem falls into the category of evaluation of a multilayered conductive structure starting from EC data, which is an ill-posed problem. In order to bypass these difficulties, as well as to deal with the uncertainties that may be introduced by the experimental set-up, a ‘non-model’ approach is implemented by means of an artificial neural network (ANN). The latter is elaborated in a statistical learning approach starting from the experimental EC data provided by a ferrite cored coil EC probe used to investigate an assembly mockup of adjustable configuration. Moreover, in order to build a learning database allowing a robust and accurate ANN to be elaborated, as well as to deal with assemblies of unknown thicknesses, we consider EC data obtained at different frequencies chosen in an adjusted frequency bandwidth, experimentally determined so as to optimize the sensitivity toward the presence of an air gap between parts. The implementation of the proposed approach for distances between parts ranging from 60 to 300 µm provided estimated root mean square errors ranging from 7 μm up to 50 µm for the estimation of the distance between parts, and ranging from 20 µm up to 1.4 mm for the estimation of the top plates, ranging from 1 to 8 mm, respectively.

  4. Eddy current measurement system evaluation for corrosion depth determination on cast aluminum aircraft structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surendra; Greving, Dan; Kinney, Andy; Vensel, Fred; Ohm, Jim; Peeler, Mike

    2013-01-01

    An eddy current (EC) technique was developed to determine the corrosion depth on a bare flange face of a cast aluminum A356-T6 aircraft engine structure. The EC response and the corrosion depths determined through metallurgical cross sections were used to develop an empirical relation between EC response and depth. The EC technique and depth determination are used to inspect the engine structures during overhaul to determine if they are fit for continued service. An accurate and reliable Non-Destructive Inspection is required to ensure that structures returned to service are safe for continued operation. NDE system reliability demonstrations of the eddy current technique are traditionally reported in terms of Probability of Detection (POD) data using MIL-HDBK-1823A. However, the calculation of POD data is based on a simple linear predictive model that is valid only if certain criteria are met. These are: 1) NDE system response is measurable (i.e. continuous data), 2) Flaw size is known and measurable (i.e. continuous data), 3) relationship between the NDE system response and flaw size is linear (or linear on a log scale), 4) variation in measured responseresponse around a predicted response for a given flaw size is normally distributed, 5) the variation around the predicted response is constant (i.e. variation does not change with flaw size), and 6) inherent variability in the NDE system is known and fully understood. In this work, a Measurement System Evaluation (MSE) of the Eddy Current System was used to address some of these concerns. This work was completed on two aircraft structures having varying corrosion depths. The data were acquired in a random manner at fifty regions of interests (ROIs). Three operators participated in this study, and each operator measured Eddy Current response three times in each ROI. In total, there were four hundred and fifty data points collected. Following this, the two structures were sectioned for measuring corrosion depth. The

  5. Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater Current Conceptual Model and Corrective Measures Evaluation Report - December 2016.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copland, John R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater Current Conceptual Model and Corrective Measures Evaluation Report (CCM/CME Report) has been prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia Corporation (Sandia) to meet requirements under the Sandia National Laboratories-New Mexico (SNL/NM) Compliance Order on Consent (the Consent Order). The Consent Order, entered into by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), DOE, and Sandia, became effective on April 29, 2004. The Consent Order identified the Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater (TAG) Area of Concern (AOC) as an area of groundwater contamination requiring further characterization and corrective action. This report presents an updated Conceptual Site Model (CSM) of the TAG AOC that describes the contaminant release sites, the geological and hydrogeological setting, and the distribution and migration of contaminants in the subsurface. The dataset used for this report includes the analytical results from groundwater samples collected through December 2015.

  6. Modelling the transport system in China and evaluating the current strategies towards the sustainable transport development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, W.; Lund, H.; Mathiesen, B.V.

    2013-01-01

    in China. With this purpose in mind, a Chinese transport model has been created and three current transport strategies which are high speed railway (HSR), urban rail transit (URT) and electric vehicle (EV) were evaluated together with a reference transport system in 2020. As conservative results, 13......Transport is one of the most challenge sectors when addressing energy security and climate change due to its high reliance on oil products and lack of the alternative fuels. This paper explores the ability of three transport strategies to contribute to the development of a sustainable transport......% of the energy saving and 12% of the CO2 emission reduction can be attained by accomplishing three strategies compared with the reference transport system. However, the energy demand of transport in 2020 with the implementation of three strategies will be about 1.7 times as much as today. The three strategies...

  7. Biomarker approaches in major depressive disorder evaluated in the context of current hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentsch, Mike C; Van Buel, Erin M; Bosker, Fokko J; Gladkevich, Anatoliy V; Klein, Hans C; Oude Voshaar, Richard C; Ruhé, Eric G; Eisel, Uli L M; Schoevers, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is a heterogeneous disorder, mostly diagnosed on the basis of symptomatic criteria alone. It would be of great help when specific biomarkers for various subtypes and symptom clusters of depression become available to assist in diagnosis and subtyping of depression, and to enable monitoring and prognosis of treatment response. However, currently known biomarkers do not reach sufficient sensitivity and specificity, and often the relation to underlying pathophysiology is unclear. In this review, we evaluate various biomarker approaches in terms of scientific merit and clinical applicability. Finally, we discuss how combined biomarker approaches in both preclinical and clinical studies can help to make the connection between the clinical manifestations of depression and the underlying pathophysiology.

  8. High-Tc planar SQUID gradiometer for eddy current non-destructive evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ming-Jian; Lang Pei-Lin; Peng Zhi-Hui; Chen Ying-Fei; Chen Ke; Zheng Dong-Ning

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the fabrication and test of a high-Tc SQUID planar gradiometer which is patterned from YBCO thin film deposited on a SrTiOs bicrystal substrate. The measurement of noise spectrum at 77K shows that the white noise at 200 Hz is about 1×10-4Φ0/Hz. The minimal magnetic gradient is measured and the results suggest that the minimal magnetic gradient is 94 pT/m. The planar gradiometer is used in non-destructive evaluation (NDE) experiments to detect the artifacts in conducting aluminium plates by performing eddy current testing in an unshielded environment. The effect of the exciting coil dimension on the NDE results is investigated. By mapping out the induced field distribution, flaws about 10mm below the plate surface can be clearly identified.

  9. An overview of the current methodologies used for evaluation of anti-fertility agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Shah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Discoveries in the past two decades have continued to improve our understanding of the mechanism of fertilization and animal models have played a significant role to define the basic mechanism of anti-fertility agents. In vivo models have been developed in the past years to study the anti-fertility agents. Methods that are used in anti-fertility study can be categorized into method including estimation of sex hormones, assessment of sperm motility and count, assessment of sperm viability and morphology, mating trial test body, sex organ weights, abortifacient activity, post-coital anti-fertility activity, effect on estrous cycle, anti-estrogenic activity, anti-gonadotrophic effect and quantification of fructose in seminal vesicle, histopathology, and biochemical methods. This review aims to highlight some of the new and currently, used experimental models that are used for the evaluation of anti-fertility agents.

  10. Repeated sessions of transcranial direct current stimulation evaluation on fatigue and daytime sleepiness in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forogh, Bijan; Rafiei, Maryam; Arbabi, Amin; Motamed, Mohammad Reza; Madani, Seyed Pezhman; Sajadi, Simin

    2017-02-01

    Parkinson is a common and disabling disease that affects patient's and career's quality of life. Unfortunately, medications, such as dopaminergic and sedative-hypnotic drugs, as an effective treatment have unwilling side effects. Recently, Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in conjunction with medication becomes popular as a complementary safe treatment and several studies have proved its effectiveness on controlling motor and specially non-motor aspects of Parkinson's disease. In this randomized double-blind parallel study, 23 patients with Parkinson's disease divided into two groups of real tDCS plus occupational therapy and sham tDCS plus occupational therapy and the effects of therapeutic sessions (eight sessions tDCS with 0.06 mA/cm(2) current, 20 min on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) were evaluated on fatigue and daytime sleepiness just after therapeutic course and in 3-month follow-up. tDCS had a significant effect on fatigue and no effect on daytime sleepiness reduction in patients with Parkinson's disease. tDCS is an effective and safe complementary treatment on fatigue reduction in Parkinson's disease.

  11. Is current medical education adequately preparing future physicians to manage concussion: an initial evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaworth, Michael A; Grandhi, Ravi K; Logan, Kelsey; Gubanich, Paul J; Myer, Gregory D

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, there were 2.5 million hospitalizations, emergency room visits, or deaths associated with concussions in the United States.[1] Knowledge deficits exist among physicians regarding concussion management, which can lead to severe repercussions, including poor patient outcomes, poor patient satisfaction, and potential medical-legal issues. While concussion is a prevalent condition evaluated in the medical field, medical students continue to have a knowledge deficit regarding concussion diagnosis, prognosis, medical management, and return to play guidelines. Medical students from a mid-western medical school completed a survey on concussion diagnosis, prognosis, medical management, and return to play guidelines. The response rate was 40%. The data suggests that the vast majority of medical students are able to define concussion; however, most reported never having a lecture dedicated to concussion during medical school and also lacked clinical experience with acute concussion and post-concussive syndrome. There are clear areas of deficiency as noted by the inability of students to correctly identify symptoms and appropriate management of concussion. The current study indicates that at an individual, mid-western, top 50 medical school, current medical trainees may not be adequately educated to identify and manage concussion. Future research is warranted to determine the optimal guidelines to educate future physicians as it pertains to concussion diagnosis, management, prognosis, and return to play guidelines.

  12. Management of tinnitus in English NHS audiology departments: an evaluation of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Derek J; Gander, Phillip E; Collins, Luke; Smith, Sandra; Hall, Deborah A

    2012-04-01

    In 2009, the UK Department of Health formalized recommended National Health Service practices for the management of tinnitus from primary care onwards. It is timely therefore to evaluate the perceived practicality, utility and impact of those guidelines in the context of current practice. We surveyed current practice by posting a 36-item questionnaire to all audiology and hearing therapy staff that we were able to identify as being involved in tinnitus patient care in England. In total, 138 out of 351 clinicians responded (39% response rate). The findings indicate a consensus opinion that management should be tailored to individual symptom profiles but that there is little standardization of assessment procedures or tools in use. While the lack of standardized practice might provide flexibility to meet local demand, it has drawbacks. It makes it difficult to ascertain key standards of best practice, it complicates the process of clinical audit, it implies unequal patient access to care, and it limits the implementation of translational research outcomes. We recommend that core elements of practice should be standardized, including use of a validated tinnitus questionnaires and an agreed pathway for decision making to better understand the rationale for management strategies offered. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. An evaluation of current methods of diagnosing colorectal cancer in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Janet [Band 6 Radiographer, X-ray West, Derriford Hospital, Derriford Road, Plymouth PL6 8DH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: janbon25@hotmail.com; Tuckey, Mandy [Radiotherapy, Room 2K06, Glenside Campus, University of the West of England, Faculty of Health and Social Care, Blackberry Hill, Stapleton, Bristol BS16 1DD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: mandy.tuckey@uwe.ac.uk

    2009-05-15

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a highly conversed topic, particularly since implementation of screening for CRC is imminent within the U.K. Aims: The aim of this research project was to examine the diagnostic tools currently used within the UK to detect CRC and their impact on the aetiology and epidemiology of CRC. Methodology: The complexity of the research topic lent itself towards a literature review. A systematic approach of researching was therefore adopted to analyse and critically evaluate the reliability and validity of articles. Electronic databases including AMED, Cancerlit, CINHAL, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE and EBM-Reviews were utilised to provide a wide spectrum of recent and relevant articles. Other research strategies involved looking for books relating to the topics, which were kept to within 6 years of publication to maintain accuracy of information. Selected websites, such as NICE, the Department of Health, NHS websites and Cancer Research U.K. were useful at explaining current and future screening plans and trials within Britain and allowed the study of reliable U.K. statistics. The research articles were then outlined and placed into sections of similar topic areas, which enabled the author to compare, contrast and evaluate the hypotheses. By organising the research in this way, a thorough review of the existing research for CRC was resultant. Results: A range of diagnostic tools is currently in use for detecting CRC within the UK. Screening for asymptomatic individuals aged 55-60 years+, (the age range where CRC incidence is higher), would provide the most effective reduction in CRC incidence and mortality rates. Conclusions: The use of a multi-phasic screening programme consisting of faecal occult blood tests (FOBt) and a whole bowel examination is considered to be the most effective diagnostic tools. However, preventative schemes, such as better education of the risks and symptoms of CRC, supported by the NHS Cancer Plan (2000), have

  14. Evaluation of current trends and recent development in insulin therapy for management of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Muhammad Sarfraz; Shah, Kifayat Ullah; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Rehman, Asim Ur; Rashid, Haroon Ur; Mahmood, Sajid; Khan, Shahzeb; Farrukh, Muhammad Junaid

    2017-07-08

    Diabetes mellitus is a major health problem in developing countries. There are various insulin therapies to manage diabetes mellitus. This systematic review evaluates various insulin therapies for management of diabetes mellitus worldwide. This review also focuses on recent developments being explored for better management of diabetes mellitus. We reviewed a number of published articles from 2002 to 2016 to find out the appropriate management of diabetes mellitus. The paramount parameters of the selected studies include the insulin type & its dose, type of diabetes, duration and comparison of different insulin protocols. In addition, various newly developed approaches for insulin delivery with potential output have also been evaluated. A great variability was observed in managing diabetes mellitus through insulin therapy and the important controlling factors found for this therapy include; dose titration, duration of insulin use, type of insulin used and combination therapy of different insulin. A range of research articles on current trends and recent advances in insulin has been summarized, which led us to the conclusion that multiple daily insulin injections or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (insulin pump) is the best method to manage diabetes mellitus. In future perspectives, development of the oral and inhalant insulin would be a tremendous breakthrough in Insulin therapy. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Management of obstetric postpartum hemorrhage: a national service evaluation of current practice in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Wattar BH

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bassel H Al Wattar,1,* Jennifer A Tamblyn,2,* William Parry-Smith,2,* Mathew Prior,3,* Helen Van Der Nelson4,* On behalf of UK Audit and Research trainee Collaborative in Obstetrics and Gynaecology (UKARCOG 1Women’s Health Research Unit, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University London, London, UK; 2Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research (IMSR, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK; 3Division of Child Health, Obstetrics & Gynaecology, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK; 4Academic Centre for Women’s Health, North Bristol NHS Trust, Bristol, UK *UKARCOG Background: Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH continues to be one of the major causes of maternal mortality and morbidity in obstetrics. Variations in practice often lead to adverse maternity outcomes following PPH. Our objective was to assess the current practice in managing PPH in the UK.Methods: We performed a national multicenter prospective service evaluation study over one calendar month and compared the current performance to national standards for managing PPH. We used a standardized data collection tool and collected data on patients’ demographics, incidence of PPH, estimated blood loss (EBL, prophylactic and treatment measures, onset of labor, and mode of delivery.Results: We collected data from 98 obstetric units, including 3663 cases of primary PPH. Fifty percent of cases were minor PPH (EBL 500–1000 mL, n=1900/3613, 52.6% and the remaining were moderate PPH (EBL >1000 to <2000 mL, n=1424/3613, 39.4% and severe PPH (EBL >2000 mL, n=289/3613, 8%. The majority of women received active management of the third stage of labor (3504/3613, 97% most commonly with Syntometrine intramuscular (1479/3613, 40.9%. More than half required one additional uterotonic agent (2364/3613, 65.4% most commonly with Syntocinon intravenous infusion (1155/2364, 48.8%. There was a poor involvement of consultant obstetricians and anesthetists in

  16. An evaluation of current Arapaho National Wildlife Refuge monitoring programs in regards to sample sizes and other monitoring issues

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is an evaluation of data produced by current monitoring programs at Arapahoe National Wildlife Refuge. For all of these programs there is an interest...

  17. EVALUATION OF THE RUSSIAN CURRENT TECHNIQUE ON THE TRICEPS SURAE MUSCLE IN THE PERFORMANCE OF THE VERTICAL JUMP

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Aline Fernandes; Unioeste; Peretti, Ana Luiza; Unioeste; Lara, Ellis Regina Medeiros de; Unioeste; Amaro, Fernanda Lucasynski; Unioeste; Carvalho, Alberito Rodrigo de; Unioeste; Bertolini, Gladson Ricardo Flor; Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná

    2014-01-01

    Neuromuscle electric stimulation is a technique for muscle strengthening based on electric stimulation of the intramuscle branches of motor-neurons that induce muscular contraction. Authors do not agree on functional gains by employing the Russian current technique. Current analysis evaluates the effect of electro-stimulation with the Russian current technique on the triceps surae muscle on the power and resistance of the vertical jump. Assay comprised 16 volunteers who were divided into a co...

  18. High-resolution simulations for Vietnam - methodology and evaluation of current climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzfey, Jack; Nguyen, Kim; McGregor, John; Hoffmann, Peter; Ramasamy, Suppiah; Nguyen, Hiep Van; Khiem, Mai Van; Nguyen, Thang Van; Truong, Kien Ba; Vu, Thang Van; Nguyen, Hien Thuan; Thuc, Tran; Phong, Doan Ha; Nguyen, Bang Thanh; Phan-Van, Tan; Nguyen-Quang, Trung; Ngo-Duc, Thanh; Trinh-Tuan, Long

    2016-05-01

    To assist the government of Vietnam in its efforts to better understand the impacts of climate change and prioritise its adaptation measures, dynamically downscaled climate change projections were produced across Vietnam. Two Regional Climate Models (RCMs) were used: CSIRO's variable-resolution Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM) and the limited-area model Regional Climate Model system version 4.2 (RegCM4.2). First, global CCAM simulations were completed using bias- and variance-corrected sea surface temperatures as well as sea ice concentrations from six Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate models. This approach is different from other downscaling approaches as it does not use any atmospheric fields from the GCMs. The global CCAM simulations were then further downscaled to 10 km using CCAM and to 20 km using RegCM4.2. Evaluations of temperature and precipitation for the current climate (1980-2000) were completed using station data as well as various gridded observational datasets. The RCMs were able to reproduce reasonably well most of the important characteristics of observed spatial patterns and annual cycles of temperature. Average and minimum temperatures were well simulated (biases generally less than 1oC), while maximum temperatures had biases of around 1oC. For precipitation, although the RCMs captured the annual cycle, RegCM4.2 was too dry in Oct.-Nov. (-60% bias), while CCAM was too wet in Dec.- Mar. (130% bias). Both models were too dry in summer and too wet in winter (especially in northern Vietnam). The ability of the ensemble simulations to capture current climate increases confidence in the simulations of future climate.

  19. Toxicological evaluation of microcystins in aquatic fish species: current knowledge and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavagadhi, Shruti; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2013-10-15

    Microcystins (MCs) are algal toxins produced intracellularly within the algal cells, and are subsequently released into the aquatic systems. An increase in the frequency and intensity of occurrence of harmful algal blooms has directed the global attention towards the presence of MCs in aquatic systems. The effects of MCs on fish have been verified in a number of studies including histological, biochemical and behavioral effects. The toxicological effects of MCs on different organs of fish are related to the exposure route (intraperitoneal injection, feeding or immersion), the mode of uptake (passive or active transport) as well as biotransformation and bioaccumulation capabilities by different organs. This paper reviews the rapidly expanding literature on the toxicological evaluation of MCs in fish from both field studies and controlled laboratory experimental investigations, integrates the current knowledge available about the mechanisms involved in MC-induced effects on fish, and points out future research directions from a cross-disciplinary perspective. In addition, the need to carry out systematic fish toxicity studies to account for possible interactions between MCs and other environmental pollutants in aquatic systems is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. International evaluation of current and future requirements for environmental engineering education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenroth, E; Daigger, G T; Ledin, A; Keller, J

    2004-01-01

    The field of environmental engineering is developing as a result of changing environmental requirements. In response, environmental engineering education (E3) needs to ensure that it provides students with the necessary tools to address these challenges. In this paper the current status and future development of E3 is evaluated based on a questionnaire sent to universities and potential employers of E3 graduates. With increasing demands on environmental quality, the complexity of environmental engineering problems to be solved can be expected to increase. To find solutions environmental engineers will need to work in interdisciplinary teams. Based on the questionnaire there was a broad agreement that the best way to prepare students for these future challenges is to provide them with a fundamental education in basic sciences and related engineering fields. Many exciting developments in the environmental engineering profession will be located at the interface between engineering, science, and society. Aspects of all three areas need to be included in E3 and the student needs to be exposed to the tensions associated with linking the three.

  1. Evaluation of Satellite Retrievals of Ocean Chlorophyll-a in the California Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mati Kahru

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Retrievals of ocean surface chlorophyll-a concentration (Chla by multiple ocean color satellite sensors (SeaWiFS, MODIS-Terra, MODIS-Aqua, MERIS, VIIRS using standard algorithms were evaluated in the California Current using a large archive of in situ measurements. Over the full range of in situ Chla, all sensors produced a coefficient of determination (R2 between 0.79 and 0.88 and a median absolute percent error (MdAPE between 21% and 27%. However, at in situ Chla > 1 mg m−3, only products from MERIS (both the ESA produced algal_1 and NASA produced chlor_a maintained reasonable accuracy (R2 from 0.74 to 0.52 and MdAPE from 23% to 31%, respectively, while the other sensors had R2 below 0.5 and MdAPE higher than 36%. We show that the low accuracy at medium and high Chla is caused by the poor retrieval of remote sensing reflectance.

  2. Re-Evaluation of Morphological Characters Questions Current Views of Pinniped Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koretsky I. A.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The origin of pinnipeds has been a contentious issue, with opposite sides debating monophyly or diphyly. This review uses evidence from the fossil record, combined with comparative morphology, molecular and cytogenetic investigations to evaluate the evolutionary history and phylogenetic relationships of living and fossil otarioid and phocoid pinnipeds. Molecular investigations support a monophyletic origin of pinnipeds, but disregard vital morphological data. Likewise, morphological studies support diphyly, but overlook molecular analyses. This review will demonstrate that a monophyletic origin of pinnipeds should not be completely accepted, as is the current ideology, and a diphyletic origin remains viable due to morphological and paleobiological analyses. Critical examination of certain characters, used by supporters of pinniped monophyly, reveals different polarities, variability, or simply convergence. The paleontological record and our morphological analysis of important characters supports a diphyletic origin of pinnipeds, with otarioids likely arising in the North Pacific from large, bear-like animals and phocids arising in the North Atlantic from smaller, otter-like ancestors. Although members of both groups are known by Late Oligocene time, each developed and invaded the aquatic environment separately from their much earlier, common arctoid ancestor. Therefore, we treat the superfamily Otarioidea as being monophyletic, including the families Enaliarctidae, Otariidae (fur seals/sea lions, Desmatophocidae, and Odobenidae (walruses and extinct relatives, and the superfamily Phocoidea as monophyletic, including only the family Phocidae, with four subfamilies (Devinophocinae, Phocinae, Monachinae, and Cystophorinae.

  3. An overview of the current methodologies used for evaluation of aphrodisiac agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramandeep Singh; Ashraf Ali; G Jeyabalan; Alok Semwal; Jaikishan

    2013-01-01

    Discoveries in the past two decades have continued to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction disease and animal models have played a significant role to define the basic mechanisms of erectile dysfunction treatment.Bothin vitroandin vivomodels have been developed in the past years to study the aphrodisiac agents.Methods that are used in aphrodisiac study can be categorized into physical methods including male sexual behavior (mount frequency, mount latency, intromission frequency, intromission latency, ejaculation frequency, post-ejaculatory interval, couplatory rate, index of libido, computed male sexual behavior parameter), pendiculation study, orientation behavior, determination of hesitation time & attraction towards female, test of potency, test for libido, penile microcirculation study, Intracavernous pressure study and biochemical methods, histopathology, sperm count,Fructose content in seminal vesicles, sperm preservation, organ weight, hormonal determination, assay of nitric oxide synthase, In vitro nitric oxide release & androgen receptor protein.This review aims to highlight some of the new and currently used experimental models that are used for the evaluation of aphrodisiac agents.

  4. Evaluation of current and projected Antarctic precipitation in CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palerme, Cyril; Genthon, Christophe; Claud, Chantal; Kay, Jennifer E.; Wood, Norman B.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan

    2017-01-01

    On average, the models in the Fifth Climate Model Intercomparison Project archive predict an increase in Antarctic precipitation from 5.5 to 24.5 % between 1986-2005 and 2080-2099, depending on greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. This translates into a moderation of future sea level rise ranging from -19 to -71 mm between 2006 and 2099. However, comparison with CloudSat and ERA-Interim data show that almost all the models overestimate current Antarctic precipitation, some by more than 100 %. If only the models that agree with CloudSat data within 20 % of error are considered, larger precipitation changes (from 7.4 to 29.3 %) and impact on sea level (from -25 to -85 mm) are predicted. A common practice of averaging all models to evaluate climate projections thus leads to a significant underestimation of the contribution of Antarctic precipitation to future sea level. Models simulate, on average, a 7.4 %/°C precipitation change with surface temperature warming. The models in better agreement with CloudSat observations for Antarctic snowfall predict, on average, larger temperature and Antarctic sea ice cover changes, which could explain the larger changes in Antarctic precipitation simulated by these models. The agreement between the models, CloudSat data and ERA-Interim is generally less in the interior of Antarctica than at the peripheries, but the interior is also where climate change will induce the smallest absolute change in precipitation. About three-quarters of the impact on sea level will result from precipitation change over the half most peripheral and lowest elevation part of the surface of Antarctica.

  5. Evaluating Current and Future Rangeland Health in the Great Basin Ecoregion Using NASA Earth Observing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essoudry, E.; Wilson, K.; Ely, J.; Patadia, N.; Zajic, B.; Torres-Perez, J. L.; Schmidt, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Great Basin ecoregion in the western United States represents one of the last large expanses of wild lands in the nation and is currently facing significant challenges due to human impacts, drought, invasive species encroachment such as cheatgrass, and climate change. Rangelands in the Great Basin are of important ecological and economic significance for the United States; however, 40% of public rangelands fail to meet required health standards set by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). This project provided a set of assessment tools for researchers and land managers that integrate remotely-sensed and in situ datasets to quantify and mitigate threats to public lands in the Great Basin ecoregion. The study area, which accounts for 20% of the total Great Basin ecoregion, was analyzed using 30 m resolution data from Landsat 8. Present conditions were evaluated from vegetation indices, landscape features, hydrological processes, and atmospheric conditions derived from the remotely-sensed data and validated with available in situ ground survey data, provided by the BLM. Rangeland health metrics were developed and landscape change drivers were identified. Subsequently, projected climate conditions derived from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) were used to forecast the impact of changing climatic conditions within the study area according to the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 projections. These forecasted conditions were used in the Maximum Entropy Model (MaxEnt) to predict areas at risk for rangeland degradation on 30 year intervals for 2040, 2070, and 2100. Finally, vegetation health risk maps were provided to the project partners to aid in future land management decisions in the Great Basin ecoregion. These tools provide a low cost solution to assess landscape conditions, provide partners with a metric to identify potential problematic areas, and mitigate serious threats to the ecosystems.

  6. On the current state of the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Klaus U

    2015-04-01

    The Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model is the most widely applied model to calculate the water balance of cover and bottom liner systems for landfills. The paper summarizes the 30 year history of the model from HELP version 1 to HELP 3.95 D and includes references to the three current and simultaneously available versions (HELP 3.07, Visual HELP 2.2, and HELP 3.95 D). A sufficient validation is an essential precondition for the use of any model in planning. The paper summarizes validation approaches for HELP 3 focused on cover systems in the literature. Furthermore, measurement results are compared to simulation results of HELP 3.95 D for (1) a test field with a compacted clay liner in the final cover of the landfill Hamburg-Georgswerder from 1988 to 1995 and (2) a test field with a 2.3m thick so-called water balance layer on the landfill Deetz near Berlin from 2004 to 2011. On the Georgswerder site actual evapotranspiration was well reproduced by HELP on the yearly average as well as in the seasonal course if precipitation data with 10% systematic measurement errors were used. However, the increase of liner leakage due to the deterioration of the clayey soil liner was not considered by the model. On the landfill Deetz HELP overestimated largely the percolation through the water balance layer resulting from an extremely wet summer due to an underestimation of the water storage in the layer and presumably also due to an underestimation of the actual evapotranspiration. Finally based on validation results and requests from the practice, plans for improving the model to a future version HELP 4 D are described.

  7. Evaluation of current and projected Antarctic precipitation in CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palerme, Cyril; Genthon, Christophe; Claud, Chantal; Kay, Jennifer E.; Wood, Norman B.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan

    2016-03-01

    On average, the models in the Fifth Climate Model Intercomparison Project archive predict an increase in Antarctic precipitation from 5.5 to 24.5 % between 1986-2005 and 2080-2099, depending on greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. This translates into a moderation of future sea level rise ranging from -19 to -71 mm between 2006 and 2099. However, comparison with CloudSat and ERA-Interim data show that almost all the models overestimate current Antarctic precipitation, some by more than 100 %. If only the models that agree with CloudSat data within 20 % of error are considered, larger precipitation changes (from 7.4 to 29.3 %) and impact on sea level (from -25 to -85 mm) are predicted. A common practice of averaging all models to evaluate climate projections thus leads to a significant underestimation of the contribution of Antarctic precipitation to future sea level. Models simulate, on average, a 7.4 %/°C precipitation change with surface temperature warming. The models in better agreement with CloudSat observations for Antarctic snowfall predict, on average, larger temperature and Antarctic sea ice cover changes, which could explain the larger changes in Antarctic precipitation simulated by these models. The agreement between the models, CloudSat data and ERA-Interim is generally less in the interior of Antarctica than at the peripheries, but the interior is also where climate change will induce the smallest absolute change in precipitation. About three-quarters of the impact on sea level will result from precipitation change over the half most peripheral and lowest elevation part of the surface of Antarctica.

  8. Navigation Hydraulics Research Program: Evaluation of Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute Physical Model Current Meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    readout circuit CURRENT VELOCITY / DIRECTION SENSOR A mini-servomotor and a piece of fibre optic rod are installed at the base. The rod is turned by...34Description. of The Fibre - Optic Type Miniature Propetler Velocity Meter" for detal Is) THE OPERATION OF THE COMBINED CURRENT VELOCITY ’ DIRECTION METER 1. Plug...of The Fibre - Optic Type Miniature propeller Velocity Meter" for details. Front Panel: Ma /jj (tPj ) Current Direction Readout (Degree) Sensitivity

  9. Evolutionary loss of light-harvesting proteins Lhcb6 and Lhcb3 in major land plant groups--break-up of current dogma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouřil, Roman; Nosek, Lukáš; Bartoš, Jan; Boekema, Egbert J; Ilík, Petr

    2016-05-01

    Photosynthesis in plants and algae relies on the coordinated function of photosystems (PS) I and II. Their efficiency is augmented by finely-tuned light-harvesting proteins (Lhcs) connected to them. The most recent Lhcs (in evolutionary terms), Lhcb6 and Lhcb3, evolved during the transition of plants from water to land and have so far been considered to be an essential characteristic of land plants. We used single particle electron microscopy and sequence analysis to study architecture and composition of PSII supercomplex from Norway spruce and related species. We have found that there are major land plant families that lack functional lhcb6 and lhcb3 genes, which notably changes the organization of PSII supercomplexes. The Lhcb6 and Lhcb3 proteins have been lost in the gymnosperm genera Picea and Pinus (family Pinaceae) and Gnetum (Gnetales). We also revealed that the absence of these proteins in Norway spruce modifies the PSII supercomplex in such a way that it resembles its counterpart in the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, an evolutionarily older organism. Our results break a deep-rooted concept of Lhcb6 and Lhcb3 proteins being the essential characteristic of land plants, and beg the question of what the evolutionary benefit of their loss could be.

  10. Evaluation of the Effect of Non-Current Fixed Assets on Profitability and Asset Management Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubyanaya, Alexandra V.; Izmailov, Airat M.; Nikulina, Ekaterina Y.; Shaposhnikov, Vladislav A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the problem, which stems from non-current fixed assets affecting profitability and asset management efficiency. Tangible assets, intangible assets and financial assets are all included in non-current fixed assets. The aim of the research is to identify the impact of estimates and valuation in…

  11. Eddy current pulsed phase thermography considering volumetric induction heating for delamination evaluation in carbon fiber reinforced polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruizhen; He, Yunze

    2015-06-01

    Anisotropy and inhomogeneity of carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) result in that many traditional non-destructive inspection techniques are inapplicable on the delamination evaluation. This letter introduces eddy current pulsed phase thermography (ECPPT) for CFRPs evaluation considering volumetric induction heating due to small electrical conductivity, abnormal thermal wave propagation, and Fourier analysis. The proposed methods were verified through experimental studies under transmission and reflection modes. Using ECPPT, the influence of the non-uniform heating effect and carbon fiber structures can be suppressed, and then delamination detectability can be improved dramatically over eddy current pulsed thermography.

  12. Development of eddy current testing probe for thick-walled metal plate and quantitative evaluation of cracks

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, K; Uchimoto, T; Takagi, T

    2003-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the crack detection of thick-walled non-magnetic metal plates by eddy current testing, which is difficult because of Kelvin skin effect generally. The purpose of this research is the development of an new eddy current testing probe for cracks in thick-walled plates and crack shapes quantitative evaluation. The probe was designed, based on the numerical computation using 3D fast eddy current code. The advantages of this new probe are strong eddy current on the back of specimens and gentle decrement of eddy current in the thickness direction. Through experiments, we confirmed that this probe can detect the back artificial defect with 0.5 mm thickness on IN-CONEL 718 specimen with 7.0 mm thickness. Reconstruction of crack shapes was performed based on the experimental results with the inverse problem code developed by authors. The length and depth of reconstructed defects approximately agree with those of real crack. (author)

  13. Analytical evaluation of DC capacitor RMS current and voltage ripple in neutral-point clamped inverters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K S GOPALAKRISHNAN; SANTOSH JANAKIRAMAN; SOUMITRA DAS; G NARAYANAN

    2017-06-01

    The sizing of the DC-link capacitor in a three-level inverter is based on the RMS current flowing through it. This paper analyses the DC-link capacitor RMS current in a neutral-point clamped (NPC) inverter and expresses the same as a function of modulation index, line-side current amplitude and power factor. Analytical closed-form expressions are derived for the capacitor RMS current for single-phase half-bridge,single-phase full-bridge and three-phase three-leg topologies of a three-level inverter. The worst-case capacitor current stress is determined for each topology based on the analytical expressions. Further, analytical expressions are derived for the RMS values of low-frequency and high-frequency capacitor currents. These expressions are then used to estimate voltage ripple across the DC capacitor for sinusoidally modulated three-phase NPC inverter. The analytical expressions for the RMS current and voltage ripple are validated experimentally over a wide range of operating points.

  14. New method evaluating currents keeping the voltage constant for fast and highly resolved measurement of Arrhenius relation and capacity fade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewerenz, Meinert; Käbitz, Stefan; Knips, Marcus; Münnix, Jens; Schmalstieg, Johannes; Warnecke, Alexander; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2017-06-01

    The evaluation of floating currents is a powerful method to characterize capacity fade induced by calendaric aging and enables a highly resolved representation of the Arrhenius relation. The test arrangement is simple and could constitute a cheap alternative to state-of-the-art calendaric aging tests including check-up tests. Therefore the currents to maintain a constant voltage are evaluated. This method is validated by analyzing nine cylindrical 8 Ah LiFePO4|Graphite battery cells during calendaric aging at 25 °C, 40 °C and 60 °C at 3.6 V (100% SOC). The 3.6 V are kept by applying constant voltage while the floating currents are logged. The floating currents correlate with the rate of capacity loss measured during capacity tests. The floating currents reveal to be rather constant at 25 °C, linearly increasing at 40 °C and decreasing from a higher level at 60 °C. Additional tests with three test cells, with the temperature rising from 40 to 60 °C in steps of 5 K, exhibit non-constant currents starting from 50 °C on with high variations amongst the tested cells. Once stored above 50 °C, the cells exhibit increased floating currents compared to the measurement at the same temperature before exceeding 50 °C.

  15. Clinical evaluations for transfer of juveniles to criminal court: current practices and future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruh, I P; Brodsky, S L

    1997-01-01

    Completing clinical evaluations of juveniles considered for transfer to criminal court requires specialized expertise. However, there is little empirical foundation upon which they can be based. Within each of the three major evaluation domains (amenability to treatment, risk for future violence, and sophistication/maturity), we ask the following questions: a) Can forensic examiners properly assess this area, and if so using what tools?; b) How can social science research clarify the transfer evaluation, particularly as it is impacted by systems issues?; and c) How should the evaluation be structured? In doing so, we review clinical suggestions for completing these evaluations and identify pertinent research directions. A number of general issues specific to these evaluations are also discussed.

  16. Experimental evaluation of IGBT junction temperature measurement via peak gate current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Nick; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Iannuzzo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Temperature sensitive electrical parameters allow junction temperature measurements on power semiconductors without modification to module packaging. The peak gate current has recently been proposed for IGBT junction temperature measurement and relies on the temperature dependent resistance of th...

  17. Evaluating two numerical advection schemes in HYCOM for eddy-resolving modelling of the Agulhas Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Backeberg

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A 4th order advection scheme is applied in a nested eddy-resolving Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM of the greater Agulhas Current system for the purpose of testing advanced numerics as a means for improving the model simulation for eventual operational implementation. Model validation techniques comparing sea surface height variations, sea level skewness and variogram analyses to satellite altimetry measurements quantify that generally the 4th order advection scheme improves the realism of the model simulation. The most striking improvement over the standard 2nd order momentum advection scheme, is that the Southern Agulhas Current is simulated as a well-defined meandering current, rather than a train of successive eddies. A better vertical structure and stronger poleward transports in the Agulhas Current core contribute toward a better southwestward penetration of the current, and its temperature field, implying a stronger Indo-Atlantic inter-ocean exchange. It is found that the transport, and hence this exchange, is sensitive to the occurrences of mesoscale features originating upstream in the Mozambique Channel and Southern East Madagascar Current, and that the improved HYCOM simulation is well suited for further studies of these inter-actions.

  18. How Colleges Evaluate Professors. Current Policies and Practices in Evaluating Classroom Teaching Performance in Liberal Arts Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldin, Peter

    Much has occurred in higher education to lead to expectation for change in the process of evaluation. The academic deans of all accredited private liberal arts colleges were asked to report on the procedures used in rating both overall and teaching performance, with 83.5 percent replying. Purposes of the questionnaire were to: (1) determine the…

  19. Evaluation of the current practices of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) awareness training in the South African mining industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edwards, AL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the current practices in relation to best practice criteria and make recommendations for improvements to noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) awareness training in the South African mining industry. A survey tool based...

  20. Computer Algorithms and Architectures for Three-Dimensional Eddy-Current Nondestructive Evaluation. Volume 1. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-20

    LLAA6 .l iI -SA/TR-2/89 A003: FINAL REPORT * COMPUTER ALGORITHMS AND ARCHITECTURES N FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL EDDY-CURRENT NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION...Ciasuication) COMPUTER ALGORITHMS AND ARCHITECTURES FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL EDD~j~~JRRN iv ummary Q PERSONAL AUTriOR(S) SBAHASCAE 1 3a. TYPE Of REPORT

  1. Evaluation of Measurement Uncertainty of Radiated EMC Tests in Arbitrary Field Generators using Surface Currents on DUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schrader

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a method for the evaluation of measurement uncertainty in radiated EMC tests. It is based on the measurement of surface current densities on a sphere, the results are compared to the surface current distribution on a sphere in a free-space environment obtained by numerical calculations. The free-space is considered to be a reference field generator. By this method we avoid burdening any systematic deviations of one particular (historic method to any of the others. We evaluate the ratio J/E of the measured surface current density J and the measured empty electrical field strength E for both the reverberation chamber and the semi-anechoic chamber.

  2. Post-Occupancy Evaluation of UK Library Building Projects: Some Examples of Current Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Suzanne Enright

    2002-01-01

    Post-occupancy evaluations of buildings ask questions and provide answers on how buildings actually work in technical, social and management terms for the end-users1. They can have a significant impact on creating change in terms of improving use of any building. Post-occupancy evaluations can show what works, and what does not – yet they are not common and apparently have been seldom done in a systematic way. Fortunately that picture is changing as post-occupancy evaluation becomes more acti...

  3. Association between previous enterobiasis and current wheezing: evaluation of 1018 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahceciler, Nerin N; Ozdemir, Cevdet; Kucukosmanoglu, Ercan; Arikan, Cigdem; Over, Ufuk; Karavelioglu, Salim; Akkoc, Tunc; Yazi, Didem; Yesil, Ozlem; Soysal, Ahmet; Bakir, Mustafa; Barlan, Isil B

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between parasitosis and allergy. We surveyed all children aged 4-12 years living in poor hygienic conditions in a shantytown of Istanbul. After obtaining data from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) and an additional questionnaire, performing a skin-prick test (SPT), and determining total IgE, stool and perianal tape specimens were obtained from 1018 participating children. The prevalence of past episodes of wheezing, current wheezing, asthma, and rhinitis was 31, 14.6, 10.7, and 26.2%, respectively. Parasitosis was present in 49.1%, Enterobius vermicularis (23.3%), being the most common. A history of treatment for enterobiasis was present in 37%. Comparison of children with and without current enterobiasis revealed no significant difference in allergic manifestations and SPT results, except for serum total IgE level (p = 0.018), whereas children with previous enterobiasis were more likely to have current wheezing (p = 0.012). Current wheezers were more likely to have previous enterobiasis (p = 0.01) and a higher maternal employment level (p = 0.036) when compared with those without. According to logistic regression analysis, covariables significantly positively related with current wheezing were previous enterobiasis (p = 0.003) and being < or =5 years of age (p = 0.043), whereas being the first child of the family (p = 0.043) was negatively related. A previous infection with E. vermicularis was found to potentiate current wheezing in a population living in a shantytown in Istanbul.

  4. Current Practices in Constructing and Evaluating Assurance Cases With Applications to Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, David J.; Knight, John C.; Rowanhill, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This report introduces and provides an overview of assurance cases including theory, practice, and evaluation. This report includes a section that introduces the principles, terminology, and history of assurance cases. The core of the report presents twelve example uses of assurance cases from a range of domains, using a novel classification scheme. The report also reviews the state of the art in assurance case evaluation methods.

  5. Evaluation of the Current Status of the Combinatorial Approach for the Study of Phase Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Ng, W

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an evaluation of the effectiveness of using the high throughput combinatorial approach for preparing phase diagrams of thin film and bulk materials. Our evaluation is based primarily on examples of combinatorial phase diagrams that have been reported in the literature as well as based on our own laboratory experiments. Various factors that affect the construction of these phase diagrams are examined. Instrumentation and analytical approaches needed to improve data acquisition and data analysis are summarized.

  6. Method for the formation of cylindrical current and its application to evaluate electrical resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T.-C.; Chang, C.-S.; Liang, W.-L.; Tsai, W.-F.; Ai, C.-F.; Lin, J.-F.

    2012-07-01

    A cylindrical current method is developed to obtain a stable and precise electrical resistivity of a specimen with or without a coating film. The electrical resistivity of a standard silicon wafer doped with boron at a concentration can be measured using the proposed method if the experimental results of electrical voltage varying with the distance from the center line of the cylindrical current are available. A comparison of the electrical resistivity obtained using the present method and the theoretical reference value indicates that the proposed method produces reliable and precise measurements. Using four test samples, the experimental results of electrical resistivity measured by the present method are shown to be reproducible and more precise than those measured by the four-terminal sensing method and the van der Pauw method. The electrical voltage and current obtained at various distances from the center line of the cylindrical current are almost independent of the distance and the direction of measurements. The effect of specimen's crystallinity appears to be the governing factor of electrical resistivity. Electrical resistivity decreases with increasing crystallinity generally.

  7. Performance Evaluation of Electronic Inductor-Based Adjustable Speed Drives with Respect to Line Current Interharmonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltani, Hamid; Davari, Pooya; Zare, Firuz;

    2017-01-01

    attractive due to its improved harmonic performance compared to a conventional ASD. In this digest, the input currents of the EI-based ASD are investigated and compared with the conventional ASDs with respect to interharmonics, which is an emerging power quality topic. First, the main causes...

  8. Evaluation of current state of agricultural land using problem-oriented fuzzy indicators in GIS environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current state of agricultural lands is defined under influence of processes in soil, plants and atmosphere and is described by observation data, complicated models and subjective opinion of experts. Problem-oriented indicators summarize this information in useful form for decision of the same specif...

  9. The evaluation of uveitis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients : are current ophthalmologic screening guidelines adequate?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reininga, J K; Los, L I; Wulffraat, N M; Armbrust, W

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study are to examine in our juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) population: 1) the prevalence and characteristics of uveitis, 2) the complications and outcome of uveitis, 3) prognostic factors, and 4) the adequacy of the current ophthalmologic screening guidelines. METHOD

  10. The evaluation of uveitis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients : are current ophthalmologic screening guidelines adequate?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reininga, J K; Los, L I; Wulffraat, N M; Armbrust, W

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study are to examine in our juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) population: 1) the prevalence and characteristics of uveitis, 2) the complications and outcome of uveitis, 3) prognostic factors, and 4) the adequacy of the current ophthalmologic screening guidelines. METHOD

  11. Comparative evaluation of different strengths of electrical current in the management of dentinal hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhu Sharn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Dentinal hypersensitivity is a commonly occurring but less understood and poorly managed problem of the teeth. Iontophoresis is a technique wherein desensitizing agents can be transferred under electrical pressure into the tooth structure to manage hypersensitivity. Aim : The purpose of present study is to compare the effect of different strengths of electrical current used for varying lengths of time, keeping the electrical dosage constant with the iontophoretic unit in the management of dentinal hypersensitivity. Materials and Methods : This study was conducted among the patients attending the Periodontal Department of the Government Dental College and Hospital, Patiala, Punjab, specifically complaining of tooth hypersensitivity. The Verbal Rating Scale (VRS was used to record scores pre-, during, and post-treatment. Ten percent SrCl2 solution was applied with an iontophoretic unit. Three applications were performed at weekly intervals, up to the second week, using the same electric current dosage. The data compiled was statistically analyzed. Results : A remarkable reduction in dentinal hypersensitivity to both air blast and cold water stimuli was noted at the end of two months after iontophoresis with each current group / method, namely, I (0.25 mA for 4 minutes, II (0.5 mA for 2 minutes, and III (1 mA for 1 minute. However, the differences in effectiveness / improvement within the three current groups during the entire duration of the study were found to be statistically insignificant. Conclusion : Within the limits of this study, it could be implied that for relieving hypersensitivity, iontophoresis for all three current groups was almost equally effective, and it was found that repeated applications (up to three gave good relief. Iontophoresis was found to be effective and safe.

  12. Evaluation and comparison of 50 Hz current threshold of electrocutaneous sensations using different methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINDENBLATT G.; SILNY J.

    2006-01-01

    Leakage currents, tiny currents flowing from an everyday-life appliance through the body to the ground, can cause a non-adequate perception (called electrocutaneous sensation, ECS) or even pain and should be avoided.Safety standards for low-frequency range are based on experimental results of current thresholds of electrocutaneous sensations, which however show a wide range between about 50 μA (rms) and 1000 μA (rms). In order to be able to explain these differences, the perception threshold was measured repeatedly in experiments with test persons under identical experimental setup,but by means of different methods (measuring strategies), namely: direct adjustment, classical threshold as amperage of 50%perception probability, and confidence rating procedure of signal detection theory. The current is injected using a 1 cm2 electrode at the highly touch sensitive part of the index fingertip.These investigations show for the first time that the threshold of electrocutaneous sensations is influenced both by adaptation to the non-adequate stimulus and individual, emotional factors. Therefore, classical methods, on which the majority of the safety investigations are based, cannot be used to determine a leakage current threshold.The confidence rating procedure of the modern signal detection theory yields a value of 179.5 μA (rms) at 50 Hz power supply net frequency as the lower end of the 95% confidence range considering the variance in the investigated group. This value is expected to be free of adaptation influences, and is distinctly lower than the European limits and supports the stricter regulations of Canada and USA.

  13. Design and evaluation of precise current integrator for scanning probe microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczkowski, Kamil; Piasecki, Tomasz; Rudek, Maciej; Gotszalk, Teodor

    2017-03-01

    Several of the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques, such as the scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) or conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM), rely on precise measurements of current flowing between the investigated sample and the conductive nanoprobe. The parameters of current-to-voltage converter (CVC), which should detect current in the picompere range, are of utmost importance to those systems as they determine the microscopes’ measuring capabilities. That was the motivation for research on the precise current integrator (PCI), described in this paper, which could be used as the CVC in the C-AFM systems. The main design goal of the PCI was to provide a small and versatile device with the sub-picoampere level resolution with high dynamic range in the order of nanoamperes. The PCI was based on the integrating amplifier (Texas Instruments DDC112) paired with a STM32F4 microcontroller unit (MCU).The gain and bandwidth of the PCI might be easily changed by varying the integration time and the feedback capacitance. Depending on these parameters it was possible to obtain for example the 2.15 pA resolution at 688 nA range with 1 kHz bandwidth or 7.4 fA resolution at 0.98 nA range with 10 Hz bandwidth. The measurement of sinusoidal current with 28 fA amplitude was also presented. The PCI was integrated with the C-AFM system and used in the highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and graphene samples imaging.

  14. Performance Evaluation of Electronic Inductor-Based Adjustable Speed Drives with Respect to Line Current Interharmonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltani, Hamid; Davari, Pooya; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Electronic Inductor (EI)-based front-end rectifiers have a large potential to become the prominent next generation of Active Front End (AFE) topology used in many applications including Adjustable Speed Drives (ASDs) for systems having unidirectional power flow. The EI-based ASD is mostly...... attractive due to its improved harmonic performance compared to a conventional ASD. In this digest, the input currents of the EI-based ASD are investigated and compared with the conventional ASDs with respect to interharmonics, which is an emerging power quality topic. First, the main causes...... of the interharmonic distortions in the ASD applications are analyzed under balanced and unbalanced load conditions. Thereafter, the key role of the EI at the DC stage is investigated in terms of high impedance and current harmonics transfer. Obtained experiments and simulations for both EI-based and conventional ASD...

  15. An Approximate Analytical Method for the Evaluation of the Concentrations and Current for Hybrid Enzyme Biosensor

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of amperometric biosensor with cyclic reaction is discussed. Analytical expressions pertaining to the concentration of substrate, cosubstrate, reducing agent and medial product and current for hybrid enzyme biosensor are obtained in terms of Thiele module and saturation parameters. In this paper, a powerful analytical method, called homotopy analysis method (HAM) is used to solve the system of nonlinear differential equations. Furthermore, in this work the numerical simu...

  16. EVALUATION OF THE CURRENT STATE OF HORTICULTURE AND THE PRIORITIES TO IMPROVING ITS EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khromova I. N.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Current horticulture is a complex system of fruit crops cultivation based on the integrated using of material, labor, natural and financial resources. Horticulture is an important part of agriculture because of the high nutritional value of its products. The fruits are used fresh and as raw material for canning, wine and other industries. Modern methods of processing and freezing of products are making possible to save its nutritional value and extend the period of consumption. The main problem of the horticultural industry is providing the population with fresh, high quality fruits and products of their processing. Horticulture is in a state of dynamic changes associated with the economic situation in the region. The authors assessed the current status of horticulture in the Republic of Tajikistan, revealed the problems in the functioning of the industry in the current economic conditions. As a result of scientific investigation the authors have proved the impact of the financial-credit, tax, price factors, level of competition, investment policy. The authors identified promising directions of improving the efficiency of horticulture and found the advantages of intensive technology of fruit crops cultivation. The implementation of these arrangements will help to ensure the country's food security and agricultural development

  17. Post-Occupancy Evaluation of UK Library Building Projects: Some Examples of Current Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Enright

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Post-occupancy evaluations of buildings ask questions and provide answers on how buildings actually work in technical, social and management terms for the end-users1. They can have a significant impact on creating change in terms of improving use of any building. Post-occupancy evaluations can show what works, and what does not – yet they are not common and apparently have been seldom done in a systematic way. Fortunately that picture is changing as post-occupancy evaluation becomes more action-orientated and more clearly based on addressing clients’ and architects’ needs. In the UK there are two formal schemes underway which have been applied to the Higher Education (HE sector and to academic libraries – an external one led by the construction industry (PROBE or Postoccupancy Review of Buildings and their Engineering – which has undertaken over 100 studies to date and the other, internal to the HE sector itself (led by the Higher Education Design Quality Forum. These are complimented by two 'softer’, qualitative forms of evaluation demonstrated by the efforts of (a the library profession itself, led by SCONUL for academic libraries and by the Library Association for public libraries, and (b the architecture and building related professions.

  18. Teacher Education Program Evaluation and Follow-Up Studies: A Collection of Current Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hord, Shirley M., Ed.; Hall, Gene E., Ed.

    Presented is a collection of papers which describe follow-up studies designed to evaluate the effectiveness of some teacher education programs at six colleges and universities. Institutions represented are Western Kentucky University, Weber State College, University of Oregon, The Ohio State University, Tennessee Technological University, and the…

  19. An Evaluation of Four Current Models to Predict the Creep-Fatigue Interaction in Rene 95

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    life of AISI 304 stainless steel, whose life was degraded by waveshapes in which more time was spent under a tensile strain hold than under a...Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH, 1970), pp. 301 -311. 13. H. L. Bernstein, "An Evaluation of Four Models for the Creep

  20. Evaluating the Motivational Impact of CALL Systems: Current Practices and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Stephen; Cucchiarini, Catia; Strik, Helmer; van Hout, Roeland

    2016-01-01

    A major aim of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is to create computer environments that facilitate students' second language (L2) acquisition. To achieve this aim, CALL employs technological innovations to create novel types of language practice. Evaluations of the new practice types serve the important role of distinguishing effective…

  1. Evaluating the Motivational Impact of CALL Systems: Current Practices and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Stephen; Cucchiarini, Catia; Strik, Helmer; van Hout, Roeland

    2016-01-01

    A major aim of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is to create computer environments that facilitate students' second language (L2) acquisition. To achieve this aim, CALL employs technological innovations to create novel types of language practice. Evaluations of the new practice types serve the important role of distinguishing effective…

  2. Evaluation of Mobile Learning: Current Research and Implications for Instructional Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levene, Jessica; Seabury, Holli

    2014-01-01

    As mobile devices infiltrate our personal lives, they also are becoming increasingly embedded in formal educational environments. The emergence of laptops, tablets, and smartphones has diversified access to hardware and software for anytime/anywhere access. This influences learning theories and evaluation methodologies specifically aligned to…

  3. Evaluation of Mobile Learning: Current Research and Implications for Instructional Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levene, Jessica; Seabury, Holli

    2014-01-01

    As mobile devices infiltrate our personal lives, they also are becoming increasingly embedded in formal educational environments. The emergence of laptops, tablets, and smartphones has diversified access to hardware and software for anytime/anywhere access. This influences learning theories and evaluation methodologies specifically aligned to…

  4. Trzeci dogmat empiryzmu wyjaśniony, czyli co Donald davidson miał na myśli, ale jasno tego nie powiedział (THE THIRD DOGMA OF EMPIRICISM REVEALED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman P. Godlewski

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the idea rejected by Davidson in his 'On the very Idea of the Conceptual Scheme'. The idea is described as dualism of conceptual scheme and content or as the third dogma of empiricism. In the article it is explained as thesis that every language stays in a relation to the world. The author claims that this interpretation is the closest to Davidson's suggestions that refutation of the dualism lets to avoid relativism and save the objective concept of truth and to his understanding of truth as logically simple - not a relation camouflaged. The presented interpretation best deals with difficulties that other do not. Davidson did not refute the third dogma, so the article gives two arguments. The first is based on the thesis that the world is not an object of any kind; the second - on the thesis that the world is not any object at all, because the word 'world' is an onomatoid.

  5. Aspartame: a safety evaluation based on current use levels, regulations, and toxicological and epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, B A; Burdock, G A; Doull, J; Kroes, R M; Marsh, G M; Pariza, M W; Spencer, P S; Waddell, W J; Walker, R; Williams, G M

    2007-01-01

    Aspartame is a methyl ester of a dipeptide used as a synthetic nonnutritive sweetener in over 90 countries worldwide in over 6000 products. The purpose of this investigation was to review the scientific literature on the absorption and metabolism, the current consumption levels worldwide, the toxicology, and recent epidemiological studies on aspartame. Current use levels of aspartame, even by high users in special subgroups, remains well below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Food Safety Authority established acceptable daily intake levels of 50 and 40 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. Consumption of large doses of aspartame in a single bolus dose will have an effect on some biochemical parameters, including plasma amino acid levels and brain neurotransmitter levels. The rise in plasma levels of phenylalanine and aspartic acid following administration of aspartame at doses less than or equal to 50 mg/kg bw do not exceed those observed postprandially. Acute, subacute and chronic toxicity studies with aspartame, and its decomposition products, conducted in mice, rats, hamsters and dogs have consistently found no adverse effect of aspartame with doses up to at least 4000 mg/kg bw/day. Critical review of all carcinogenicity studies conducted on aspartame found no credible evidence that aspartame is carcinogenic. The data from the extensive investigations into the possibility of neurotoxic effects of aspartame, in general, do not support the hypothesis that aspartame in the human diet will affect nervous system function, learning or behavior. Epidemiological studies on aspartame include several case-control studies and one well-conducted prospective epidemiological study with a large cohort, in which the consumption of aspartame was measured. The studies provide no evidence to support an association between aspartame and cancer in any tissue. The weight of existing evidence is that aspartame is safe at current levels of consumption as a nonnutritive

  6. Evaluation and Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy: Current Status and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraweera, Duminda; Sundaram, Vinay; Saab, Sammy

    2016-07-15

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a spectrum of neurocognitive manifestations often seen in patients with liver injury or rarely in patients with portosystemic shunting without liver injury. It can be divided into minimal (covert) hepatic encephalopathy and overt hepatic encephalopathy, depending on the severity. Patients with hepatic encephalopathy have compromised clinical outcomes, decreased quality of life, and increased healthcare utilization, often resulting in a heavy financial and personal burden on caregivers. The diagnosis remains largely clinical, with the exclusion of possible other causes for the altered mental status. Current treatment strategies include nonabsorbable disaccharides and antibiotics. This review will focus on the diagnosis, management and clinical impact of hepatic encephalopathy.

  7. Efficacy Evaluation of Current and Future Naval Mine Warfare Neutralization Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Depth 0 400 800 Bottom Type and Composition Sandy Mix Sand and Rock Rock Current 0kts 2kts 4kts Sea State Flat 3ft @ 10 sec 6ft @ 8 sec Water...or shore . At sea, the large size of the aircraft makes it ideal to park it aboard the larger Naval vessels such as aircraft carriers (CVNs...being shore -based for the purposes of executing the mission or will be forced to be deployed aboard one of the larger vessels. However, those larger

  8. Evaluating the enablers in solar power developments in the current scenario using fuzzy DEMATEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luthra, Sunil; Govindan, Kannan; Kharb, Ravinder K.

    2016-01-01

    Determining solar power initiatives and developments for a country as large as India is difficult due to the involvement of different enablers. The decisions of these enablers will influence the formulation of strategies to encourage solar power development in India. The present research work....... This work identifies sixteen solar power enablers based on relevant literature and experts inputs. To evaluate and to categorize the recognized solar power development key enablers, a fuzzy Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) based methodology is utilized. The fuzzy DEMATEL approach....... In this research, the enablers causal relationships and their interactions are examined, and the findings are useful to encourage solar power development initiatives and decisions. This work will help policymakers formulate decisions to initiate and encourage solar power developments in India....

  9. Evaluation of Horizontal Electric Field Under Different Lightning Current Models by Perfect Ground Assumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Jianfeng; LI Yanming

    2012-01-01

    Lightning electromagnetics can affect the reliability of the power system or communication system.Therefore,evaluation of electromagnetic fields generated by lightning return stroke is indispensable.Arnold sommerfeld proposed a model to calculate the electromagnetic field,but it involved the time-consuming sommerfeld integral.However,perfect conductor ground assumption can account for fast calculation,thus this paper reviews the perfect ground equation for evaluation of lightning electromagnetic fields,presents three engineering lightning return stroke models,and calculates the horizontal electric field caused by three lightning return stroke models.According to the results,the amplitude of lightning return stroke has a strong impact on horizontal electric fields,and the steepness of lightning return stroke influences the horizontal electric fields.Moreover,the perfect ground method is faster than the sommerfeld integral method.

  10. A study of experimental evaluations of neural network learning algorithms: current research practice

    OpenAIRE

    Prechelt, Lutz

    2007-01-01

    113 articles about neural network learning algorithms published in 1993 and 1994 are examined for the amount of experimental evaluation they contain. Every third of them does employ not even a single realistic or real learning problem. Only 6% of all articles present results for more than one problem using real world data.Furthermore, one third of all articles does not present any quantitative comparison with a previously known algorithm. These results indicate that the q...

  11. Evaluating current automatic de-identification methods with Veteran’s health administration clinical documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrández Oscar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increased use and adoption of Electronic Health Records (EHR causes a tremendous growth in digital information useful for clinicians, researchers and many other operational purposes. However, this information is rich in Protected Health Information (PHI, which severely restricts its access and possible uses. A number of investigators have developed methods for automatically de-identifying EHR documents by removing PHI, as specified in the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act “Safe Harbor” method. This study focuses on the evaluation of existing automated text de-identification methods and tools, as applied to Veterans Health Administration (VHA clinical documents, to assess which methods perform better with each category of PHI found in our clinical notes; and when new methods are needed to improve performance. Methods We installed and evaluated five text de-identification systems “out-of-the-box” using a corpus of VHA clinical documents. The systems based on machine learning methods were trained with the 2006 i2b2 de-identification corpora and evaluated with our VHA corpus, and also evaluated with a ten-fold cross-validation experiment using our VHA corpus. We counted exact, partial, and fully contained matches with reference annotations, considering each PHI type separately, or only one unique ‘PHI’ category. Performance of the systems was assessed using recall (equivalent to sensitivity and precision (equivalent to positive predictive value metrics, as well as the F2-measure. Results Overall, systems based on rules and pattern matching achieved better recall, and precision was always better with systems based on machine learning approaches. The highest “out-of-the-box” F2-measure was 67% for partial matches; the best precision and recall were 95% and 78%, respectively. Finally, the ten-fold cross validation experiment allowed for an increase of the F2-measure to 79% with partial matches

  12. Computer Algorithms and Architectures for Three-Dimensional Eddy-Current Nondestructive Evaluation. Volume 3. Chapters 6-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-20

    mflC FILE. OOR SA/TR-2/89 A003: FINAL REPORT COMPUTER ALGORITHMS AND ARCHITECTURES FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL EDDY-CURRENT NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION CD...J., Ullman, J., The Design and Analysis of Computer Algorithms , Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1974. [A2] Anderson, B., Moore, J., Optimal...actual data. DC- 17 I I I I [All Aho, A., Hopcroft, J., Ullman, J., The Design and Analysis of Computer Algorithms , Addison-Wesley Publishing Company

  13. Evaluation of ion current density distribution on an extraction electrode of a radio frequency ion thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masherov, P.; Riaby, V.; Abgaryan, V.

    2017-01-01

    The radial distributions of ion current density on an ion extracting electrode of a radio frequency (RF) ion thruster (RIT) with an inductive plasma source were obtained using probe diagnostics of the RF xenon plasma. Measurements were carried out using a plane wall probe simulator and the VGPS-12 Probe System of Plasma Sensors Co. At xenon flow rate q  =  2 sccm plasma pressure was 2 · 10-3 Torr, incident RF generator power varied in the range P g  =  50-250 W with RF power absorbed by plasma up to P p  =  220 W. Ion current densities were determined using semi- and double-logarithmic probe characteristics by linear extrapolations of their ion branches to probe floating potentials. The same parameters were also measured in undisturbed plasma by a classic cylindrical probe. They exceeded plane probe data by more than two times, showing the effectiveness of plasma sheath reproduction of the RIT ion extracting electrode by the plane wall probe simulator. Slight non-uniformity of the resulting plasma distributions and simplified RIT model design showed that the studied device with flat antenna coil and ferrite core could be considered as a promising prospect for RITs of new generation.

  14. Critical evaluation of current developmental toxicity testing strategies: a case of babies and their bathwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Edward W; Ellis, Amy L; Tyl, Rochelle W; Foster, Paul M D; Scialli, Anthony R; Thompson, Kary; Kim, James

    2011-10-01

    This review is the second in a series of four papers emanating from a workshop entitled "Developmental Toxicology-New Directions," which was sponsored by the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute's (HESI) Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Technical Committee. The present review analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of current developmental safety testing approaches in an effort to identify those strengths that should be retained in the future versus the weaknesses that should be eliminated. Workshop participants considered the following to be key strengths of current testing approaches: the integrated biology of pregnant animal models including pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes, the ability to detect low incidence malformations as well as maternally mediated toxicity, and the long history of use coupled with extensive historical data. A number of weaknesses were related to the resource-intensive nature of developmental toxicity testing (e.g., large number of animals, high costs, low throughput, the inability to keep pace with the demand for more toxicity data). Other weaknesses included the use of very high dose levels that often far exceed human exposure levels, the confounding influence of maternal toxicity, sparse understanding of basic developmental mechanisms and genetics of standard animal models relative to mouse or lower organisms, difficulties interpreting low incidence findings, and issues surrounding the interpretation of minor skeletal variations. An appreciation of these strengths and weaknesses is critical for the design of new approaches to developmental toxicity testing in the 21st century. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Evaluation of the electric field in the brain during transcranial direct current stimulation: A sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Laura; Martinho, Miguel; Salvador, Ricardo; Wenger, Cornelia; Fernandes, Sofia R; Ripolles, Oscar; Ruffini, Giulio; Miranda, Pedro C

    2016-08-01

    The use of computational modeling studies accounts currently for the best approach to predict the electric field (E-field) distribution in transcranial direct current stimulation. As with any model, the values attributed to the physical properties, namely the electrical conductivity of the tissues, affect the predicted E-field distribution. A wide range of values for the conductivity of most tissues is reported in the literature. In this work, we used the finite element method to compute the E-field induced in a realistic human head model for two electrode montages targeting the left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). A systematic analysis of the effect of different isotropic conductivity profiles on the E-field distribution was performed for the standard bipolar 7×5 cm2 electrodes configuration and also for an optimized multielectrode montage. Average values of the E-field's magnitude, normal and tangential components were calculated in the target region in the left DLPFC. Results show that the field decreases with increasing scalp, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and grey matter (GM) conductivities, while the opposite is observed for the skull and white matter conductivities. The tissues whose conductivity most affects the E-field in the cortex are the scalp and the CSF, followed by the GM and the skull. Uncertainties in the conductivity of individual tissues may affect electric field values by up to about 80%.

  16. A Bayesian Network Method for Quantitative Evaluation of Defects in Multilayered Structures from Eddy Current NDT Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Ye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate evaluation and characterization of defects in multilayered structures from eddy current nondestructive testing (NDT signals are a difficult inverse problem. There is scope for improving the current methods used for solving the inverse problem by incorporating information of uncertainty in the inspection process. Here, we propose to evaluate defects quantitatively from eddy current NDT signals using Bayesian networks (BNs. BNs are a useful method in handling uncertainty in the inspection process, eventually leading to the more accurate results. The domain knowledge and the experimental data are used to generate the BN models. The models are applied to predict the signals corresponding to different defect characteristic parameters or to estimate defect characteristic parameters from eddy current signals in real time. Finally, the estimation results are analyzed. Compared to the least squares regression method, BNs are more robust with higher accuracy and have the advantage of being a bidirectional inferential mechanism. This approach allows results to be obtained in the form of full marginal conditional probability distributions, providing more information on the defect. The feasibility of BNs presented and discussed in this paper has been validated.

  17. Comparative evaluation of anaerobic biodegradability of hydrocarbons and fatty derivatives currently used as drilling fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steber, J; Herold, C P; limia, J M

    1995-08-01

    The examination of a number of potential and currently used carrier fluids for invert emulsion drilling fluids in the ECETOC screening test revealed clear differences with respect to their easy anaerobic biodegradability. Fatty acid- and alcohol-based ester oils exhibited excellent anaerobic degradation to the gaseous final end products of the methanogenic degradation pathway, methane and carbon dioxide. Mineral oils, dialkyl ethers, alpha-olefins, polyalphaolefins, linear alkylbenzenes and an acetal-derivative were not or only slowly degraded. Although the poor degradation results obtained in the stringent ECETOC screening test may not be regarded as final proof of anaerobic recalcitrance, nevertheless, these results were found to be in line with the present understanding of the structural requirements for anaerobic biodegradability of chemicals. The validity of the conclusions drawn is corroborated by published results on the anaerobic biodegradation behaviour of ester oils, mineral oils and alkylbenzenes in marine sediments.

  18. An eddy-current model for three-dimensional nondestructive evaluation of advanced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, Harold A.; Murphy, R. Kim; Sabbagh, Elias H.

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a rigorous electromagnetic model and an inversion algorithm for the three-dimensional NDE of advanced composite materials. This approach extends Victor Technologies' work in eddy-current NDE of conventional metals, and allows one to determine in localized regions the fiber-resin ratio in graphite-epoxy, and to determine those anomalies, e.g., delaminations, broken fibers, moisture content, etc., that can be reconstructed by our inversion method. In developing the model, we apply rigorous electromagnetic theory to determine a Green's function for a slab of anisotropic composite material, and then determine the integral relations for the forward and inverse problems using the Green's function. We will give examples of the solution of forward problems using this model.

  19. Evaluation of Motor Neuron Excitability by CMAP Scanning with Electric Modulated Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Tiago; Candeias, Rui; Nunes, Neuza; Gamboa, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Compound Muscle Action Potential (CMAP) scan is a noninvasive promissory technique for neurodegenerative pathologies diagnosis. In this work new CMAP scan protocols were implemented to study the influence of electrical pulse waveform on peripheral nerve excitability. Methods. A total of 13 healthy subjects were tested. Stimulation was performed with an increasing intensities range from 4 to 30 mA. The procedure was repeated 4 times per subject, using a different single pulse stimulation waveform: monophasic square and triangular and quadratic and biphasic square. Results. Different waveforms elicit different intensity-response amplitude curves. The square pulse needs less current to generate the same response amplitude regarding the other waves and this effect is gradually decreasing for the triangular, quadratic, and biphasic pulse, respectively. Conclusion. The stimulation waveform has a direct influence on the stimulus-response slope and consequently on the motoneurons excitability. This can be a new prognostic parameter for neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26413499

  20. Evaluation of Motor Neuron Excitability by CMAP Scanning with Electric Modulated Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Araújo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Compound Muscle Action Potential (CMAP scan is a noninvasive promissory technique for neurodegenerative pathologies diagnosis. In this work new CMAP scan protocols were implemented to study the influence of electrical pulse waveform on peripheral nerve excitability. Methods. A total of 13 healthy subjects were tested. Stimulation was performed with an increasing intensities range from 4 to 30 mA. The procedure was repeated 4 times per subject, using a different single pulse stimulation waveform: monophasic square and triangular and quadratic and biphasic square. Results. Different waveforms elicit different intensity-response amplitude curves. The square pulse needs less current to generate the same response amplitude regarding the other waves and this effect is gradually decreasing for the triangular, quadratic, and biphasic pulse, respectively. Conclusion. The stimulation waveform has a direct influence on the stimulus-response slope and consequently on the motoneurons excitability. This can be a new prognostic parameter for neurodegenerative disorders.

  1. Evaluation of current tropospheric mapping functions by Deep Space Network very long baseline interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovers, O. J.; Lanyi, G. E.

    1994-01-01

    To compare the validity of current algorithms that map zenith tropospheric delay to arbitrary elevation angles, 10 different tropospheric mapping functions are used to analyze the current data base of Deep Space Network Mark 3 intercontinental very long baseline interferometric (VLBI) data. This analysis serves as a stringent test because of the high proportion of low-elevation observations necessitated by the extremely long baselines. Postfit delay and delay-rate residuals are examined, as well as the scatter of baseline lengths about the time-linear model that characterizes tectonic motion. Among the functions that utilize surface meteorological data as input parameters, the Lanyi 1984 mapping shows the best performance both for residuals and baselines, through the 1985 Davis function is statistically nearly identical. The next best performance is shown by the recent function of Niell, which is based on an examination of global atmospheric characteristics as a function of season and uses no weather data at the time of the measurements. The Niell function shows a slight improvement in residuals relative to Lanyi, but also an increase in baseline scatter that is significant for the California-Spain baseline. Two variants of the Chao mapping function, as well as the Chao tables used with the interpolation algorithm employed in the Orbit Determination Program software, show substandard behavior for both VLBI residuals and baseline scatter. The length of the California-Australia baseline (10,600 km) in the VLBI solution can vary by as much as 5 to 10 cm for the 10 mapping functions.

  2. How absolute is zero? An evaluation of historical and current definitions of malaria elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snow Robert W

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Decisions to eliminate malaria from all or part of a country involve a complex set of factors, and this complexity is compounded by ambiguity surrounding some of the key terminology, most notably "control" and "elimination." It is impossible to forecast resource and operational requirements accurately if endpoints have not been defined clearly, yet even during the Global Malaria Eradication Program, debate raged over the precise definition of "eradication." Analogous deliberations regarding the meaning of "elimination" and "control" are basically nonexistent today despite these terms' core importance to programme planning. To advance the contemporary debate about these issues, this paper presents a historical review of commonly used terms, including control, elimination, and eradication, to help contextualize current understanding of these concepts. The review has been supported by analysis of the underlying mathematical concepts on which these definitions are based through simple branching process models that describe the proliferation of malaria cases following importation. Through this analysis, the importance of pragmatic definitions that are useful for providing malaria control and elimination programmes with a practical set of strategic milestones is emphasized, and it is argued that current conceptions of elimination in particular fail to achieve these requirements. To provide all countries with precise targets, new conceptual definitions are suggested to more precisely describe the old goals of "control" - here more exactly named "controlled low-endemic malaria" - and "elimination." Additionally, it is argued that a third state, called "controlled non-endemic malaria," is required to describe the epidemiological condition in which endemic transmission has been interrupted, but malaria resulting from onwards transmission from imported infections continues to occur at a sufficiently high level that elimination has not been

  3. Evaluation of machine learning tools for inspection of steam generator tube structures using pulsed eddy current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, J. A.; Underhill, P. R.; Morelli, J.; Krause, T. W.

    2017-02-01

    Degradation of nuclear steam generator (SG) tubes and support structures can result in a loss of reactor efficiency. Regular in-service inspection, by conventional eddy current testing (ECT), permits detection of cracks, measurement of wall loss, and identification of other SG tube degradation modes. However, ECT is challenged by overlapping degradation modes such as might occur for SG tube fretting accompanied by tube off-set within a corroding ferromagnetic support structure. Pulsed eddy current (PEC) is an emerging technology examined here for inspection of Alloy-800 SG tubes and associated carbon steel drilled support structures. Support structure hole size was varied to simulate uniform corrosion, while SG tube was off-set relative to hole axis. PEC measurements were performed using a single driver with an 8 pick-up coil configuration in the presence of flat-bottom rectangular frets as an overlapping degradation mode. A modified principal component analysis (MPCA) was performed on the time-voltage data in order to reduce data dimensionality. The MPCA scores were then used to train a support vector machine (SVM) that simultaneously targeted four independent parameters associated with; support structure hole size, tube off-centering in two dimensions and fret depth. The support vector machine was trained, tested, and validated on experimental data. Results were compared with a previously developed artificial neural network (ANN) trained on the same data. Estimates of tube position showed comparable results between the two machine learning tools. However, the ANN produced better estimates of hole inner diameter and fret depth. The better results from ANN analysis was attributed to challenges associated with the SVM when non-constant variance is present in the data.

  4. How absolute is zero? An evaluation of historical and current definitions of malaria elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Justin M; Moonen, Bruno; Snow, Robert W; Smith, David L

    2010-07-22

    Decisions to eliminate malaria from all or part of a country involve a complex set of factors, and this complexity is compounded by ambiguity surrounding some of the key terminology, most notably "control" and "elimination." It is impossible to forecast resource and operational requirements accurately if endpoints have not been defined clearly, yet even during the Global Malaria Eradication Program, debate raged over the precise definition of "eradication." Analogous deliberations regarding the meaning of "elimination" and "control" are basically nonexistent today despite these terms' core importance to programme planning. To advance the contemporary debate about these issues, this paper presents a historical review of commonly used terms, including control, elimination, and eradication, to help contextualize current understanding of these concepts. The review has been supported by analysis of the underlying mathematical concepts on which these definitions are based through simple branching process models that describe the proliferation of malaria cases following importation. Through this analysis, the importance of pragmatic definitions that are useful for providing malaria control and elimination programmes with a practical set of strategic milestones is emphasized, and it is argued that current conceptions of elimination in particular fail to achieve these requirements. To provide all countries with precise targets, new conceptual definitions are suggested to more precisely describe the old goals of "control" - here more exactly named "controlled low-endemic malaria" - and "elimination." Additionally, it is argued that a third state, called "controlled non-endemic malaria," is required to describe the epidemiological condition in which endemic transmission has been interrupted, but malaria resulting from onwards transmission from imported infections continues to occur at a sufficiently high level that elimination has not been achieved. Finally, guidelines are

  5. Genetic Evaluation of Children with Global Developmental Delay—Current Status of Network Systems in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Lin Foo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This review article aims to introduce the screening and referral network of genetic evaluation for children with developmental delay in Taiwan. For these children, integrated systems provide services from the medical, educational, and social welfare sectors. All cities and counties in Taiwan have established a network for screening, detection, referral, evaluation, and intervention services. Increased awareness improves early detection and intervention. There remains a gap between supply and demand, especially with regard to financial resources and professional manpower. Genetic etiology has a major role in prenatal causes of developmental delay. A summary of reports on some related genetic disorders in the Taiwanese population is included in this review. Genetic diagnosis allows counseling with regard to recurrence risk and prevention. Networking with neonatal screening, laboratory diagnosis, genetic counseling, and orphan drugs logistics systems can provide effective treatment for patients. In Taiwan, several laboratories provide genetic tests for clinical diagnosis. Accessibility to advanced expensive tests such as gene chips or whole exome sequencing is limited because of funding problems; however, the service system in Taiwan can still operate in a relatively cost-effective manner. This experience in Taiwan may serve as a reference for other countries.

  6. Genetic Evaluation of Children with Global Developmental Delay--Current Status of Network Systems in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Yong-Lin; Chow, Julie Chi; Lai, Ming-Chi; Tsai, Wen-Hui; Tung, Li-Chen; Kuo, Mei-Chin; Lin, Shio-Jean

    2015-08-01

    This review article aims to introduce the screening and referral network of genetic evaluation for children with developmental delay in Taiwan. For these children, integrated systems provide services from the medical, educational, and social welfare sectors. All cities and counties in Taiwan have established a network for screening, detection, referral, evaluation, and intervention services. Increased awareness improves early detection and intervention. There remains a gap between supply and demand, especially with regard to financial resources and professional manpower. Genetic etiology has a major role in prenatal causes of developmental delay. A summary of reports on some related genetic disorders in the Taiwanese population is included in this review. Genetic diagnosis allows counseling with regard to recurrence risk and prevention. Networking with neonatal screening, laboratory diagnosis, genetic counseling, and orphan drugs logistics systems can provide effective treatment for patients. In Taiwan, several laboratories provide genetic tests for clinical diagnosis. Accessibility to advanced expensive tests such as gene chips or whole exome sequencing is limited because of funding problems; however, the service system in Taiwan can still operate in a relatively cost-effective manner. This experience in Taiwan may serve as a reference for other countries.

  7. Current Practice of Heart Donor Evaluation in Germany: Multivariable Risk Factor Analysis Confirms Practicability of Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylke Ruth Zeissig

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Organ shortage has liberalised the acceptance criteria of grafts for heart transplantation, but which donor characteristics ultimately influence the decision to perform transplantation? For the first time this was evaluated using real-time donor data from the German organ procurement organization (DSO. Observed associations are discussed with regard to international recommendations and guidelines. Methods. 5291 German donors (2006–2010 were formally eligible for heart donation. In logistic regression models 160 donor parameters were evaluated to assess their influence on using grafts for transplantation (random split of cases: 2/3 study sample, 1/3 validation sample. Results. Successful procurement was determined by low donor age (OR 0.87 per year; 95% CI [0.85–0.89], P<0.0001, large donor height (OR 1.04 per cm; 95% CI [1.02–1.06], P<0.0001, exclusion of impaired left ventricular function or wall motion (OR 0.01; 95% CI [0.002–0.036], P<0.0001, arrhythmia (OR 0.05; 95% CI [0.009–0.260], P=0.0004, and of severe coronary artery disease (OR 0.003; 95% CI [<0.001–0.01], P<0.0001. Donor characteristics differed between cases where the procedure was aborted without and with allocation initiated via Eurotransplant.

  8. A Critical Evaluation of the Influence of the Dark Exchange Current on the Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo García-Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the thickness of the nanostructured, mesoporous TiO2 film on several parameters determining the performance of a dye-sensitized solar cell is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. We pay special attention to the effect of the exchange current density in the dark, and we compare the values obtained by steady state measurements with values extracted from small perturbation techniques. We also evaluate the influence of exchange current density, the solar cell ideality factor, and the effective absorption coefficient of the cell on the optimal film thickness. The results show that the exchange current density in the dark is proportional to the TiO2 film thickness, however, the effective absorption coefficient is the parameter that ultimately defines the ideal thickness. We illustrate the importance of the exchange current density in the dark on the determination of the current–voltage characteristics and we show how an important improvement of the cell performance can be achieved by decreasing values of the total series resistance and the exchange current density in the dark.

  9. An “Off-the-Shelf” System for Intraprocedural Electrical Current Evaluation and Monitoring of Irreversible Electroporation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, Robert E., E-mail: Robert.Neal@alfred.org.au; Kavnoudias, Helen; Thomson, Kenneth R. [The Alfred Hospital, Radiology Research Unit, Department of Radiology (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    IntroductionIrreversible electroporation (IRE) ablation uses a series of brief electric pulses to create nanoscale defects in cell membranes, killing the cells. It has shown promise in numerous soft-tissue tumor applications. Larger voltages between electrodes will increase ablation volume, but exceeding electrical limits may risk damage to the patient, cause ineffective therapy delivery, or require generator restart. Monitoring electrical current for these conditions in real-time enables managing these risks. This capacity is not presently available in clinical IRE generators.MethodsWe describe a system using a Tektronix TCP305 AC/DC Current Probe connected to a TCPA300 AC/DC Current Probe Amplifier, which is read on a computer using a Protek DSO-2090 USB computer-interfacing oscilloscope. Accuracy of the system was tested with a resistor circuit and by comparing measured currents with final outputs from the NanoKnife clinical electroporation pulse generator.ResultsAccuracy of measured currents was 1.64 ± 2.4 % relative to calculations for the resistor circuit and averaged 0.371 ± 0.977 % deviation from the NanoKnife. During clinical pulse delivery, the system offers real-time evaluation of IRE procedure progress and enables a number of methods for identifying approaching issues from electrical behavior of therapy delivery, facilitating protocol changes before encountering therapy delivery issues.ConclusionsThis system can monitor electrical currents in real-time without altering the electric pulses or modifying the pulse generator. This facilitates delivering electric pulse protocols that remain within the optimal range of electrical currents—sufficient strength for clinically relevant ablation volumes, without the risk of exceeding safe electric currents or causing inadequate ablation.

  10. Current evaluation of the clinical utility of Fluoromethylcholine-(18F PET/CT in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Nöel Talbot

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This short review is dedicated to the current status of the assessment of a new PET radiopharmaceutical, fluoromethylcholine-(18F or FCH, which is taken-up by prostate cancer tissue, in contrary to fluorodeoxyglucose-(18F or FDG. It seems that FCH could become "the FDG of prostate cancer", with the same type of achievements (detection of distant metastases and of occult recurrences, restaging prior to invasive treatments, and the same drawbacks (false negative results in case of small lesions, in particular lymph nodes metastases, and false positive results in case of infection/inflammation, in particular prostatitis. Current evidence is summarised and discussed for each of the potential settings of FCH PET/CT imaging in prostate cancer. The perspectives for granting a marketing authorisation to a FCH preparation are briefly analysed.Esta breve revisão é dedicada ao estado atual da avaliação de um novo radiofármaco PET, a fluormetilcolina-(18F ou FCH, que é captada pelo tecido do câncer de próstata, ao contrário da fluordesoxiglicose-(18F ou FDG. Parece que a FCH poderia se tornar "a FDG do câncer de próstata", com o mesmo tipo de funções (detecção de metástases distantes e de recorrências ocultas, antes de tratamentos invasivos, e os mesmos inconvenientes (falso resultado negativo no caso de pequenas lesões, em especial das metástase de nodos linfáticos, e de falsos resultados positivos em caso de infecção/inflamação, em particular prostatite. Evidência atual é resumida e discutida para cada uma das definições potenciais da imagem FCH PET/CT em câncer de próstata. As perspectivas para a concessão de uma autorização de comercialização para uma preparação de FCH são analisadas brevemente.

  11. Evaluation of Information Leakage from Cryptographic Hardware via Common-Mode Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yu-Ichi; Homma, Naofumi; Mizuki, Takaaki; Sugawara, Takeshi; Kayano, Yoshiki; Aoki, Takafumi; Minegishi, Shigeki; Satoh, Akashi; Sone, Hideaki; Inoue, Hiroshi

    This paper presents a possibility of Electromagnetic (EM) analysis against cryptographic modules outside their security boundaries. The mechanism behind the information leakage is explained from the view point of Electromagnetic Compatibility: electric fluctuation released from cryptographic modules can conduct to peripheral circuits based on ground bounce, resulting in radiation. We demonstrate the consequence of the mechanism through experiments where the ISO/IEC standard block cipher AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) is implemented on an FPGA board and EM radiations from power and communication cables are measured. Correlation Electromagnetic Analysis (CEMA) is conducted in order to evaluate the information leakage. The experimental results show that secret keys are revealed even though there are various disturbing factors such as voltage regulators and AC/DC converters between the target module and the measurement points. We also discuss information-suppression techniques as electrical-level countermeasures against such CEMAs.

  12. Thermoregulatory strategies in an aquatic ectotherm from thermally-constrained habitats: An evaluation of current approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasečná, Karin; Pončová, Alena; Tejedo, Miguel; Gvoždík, Lumír

    2015-08-01

    Many ectotherms employ diverse behavioral adjustments to effectively buffer the spatio-temporal variation in environmental temperatures, whereas others remain passive to thermal heterogeneity. Thermoregulatory studies are frequently performed on species living in thermally benign habitats, which complicate understanding of the thermoregulation-thermoconformity continuum. The need for new empirical data from ectotherms exposed to thermally challenging conditions requires the evaluation of available methods for quantifying thermoregulatory strategies. We evaluated the applicability of various thermoregulatory indices using fire salamander larvae, Salamandra salamandra, in two aquatic habitats, a forest pool and well, as examples of disparate thermally-constrained environments. Water temperatures in the well were lower and less variable than in the pool. Thermal conditions prevented larvae from reaching their preferred body temperature range in both water bodies. In contrast to their thermoregulatory abilities examined in a laboratory thermal gradient, field body temperatures only matched the mean and range of operative temperatures, showing thermal passivity of larvae in both habitats. Despite apparent thermoconformity, thermoregulatory indices indicated various strategies from active thermoregulation, to thermoconformity, and even thermal evasion, which revealed their limited applicability under thermally-constrained conditions. Salamander larvae abandoned behavioral thermoregulation despite varying opportunities to increase their body temperature above average water temperatures. Thermoconformity represents a favored strategy in these ectotherms living in more thermally-constrained environments than those examined in previous thermoregulatory studies. To understand thermal ecology and its impact on population dynamics, the quantification of thermoregulatory strategies of ectotherms in thermally-constrained habitats requires the careful choice of an appropriate

  13. Current Control and Performance Evaluation of Converter Interfaced Distribution Resources in Grid Connected Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SINGH Alka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Use of distributed resources is growing in developing countries like India and in developed nations too. The increased acceptance of suchresources is mainly due to their modularity, increased reliability, good power quality and environment friendly operation. These are currently being interfaced to the existing systems using voltage source inverters (VSC’s. The control of such distributed resources is significantly different than the conventional power systems mainly because the VSC’s have no inertia unlike the synchronous generators.This paper deals with the Matlab modeling and design of control aspects of one such distributed source feeding a common load. A grid connected supply is also available. The control algorithm is developed for real and reactive power sharing of the load between thedistributed source and the grid. The developed control scheme is tested for linear (R-L load as well as nonlinear loads. With suitable modifications, the control algorithm can be extended for several distributed resources connected in parallel.

  14. Evaluation of nitrofurantoin activity against the urinary isolates in the current scenario of antimicrobial resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Manojkumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urinary tract infections (UTIs caused by antibiotic-resistant isolates have become a major health hazard in recent years as they are very difficult to treat, causing an increase in morbidity and mortality. Nitrofurantoin has been used successfully for decades for the prophylaxis and treatment of uncomplicated cystitis but the increased emergence of antibiotic resistance has made nitrofurantoin a suitable candidate for the treatment of UTI caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens. This study was taken up with the aim to determine the activity of nitrofurantoin against the wide range of resistant urinary gram-negative and gram-positive isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 440 nonduplicate, gram-negative, and gram-positive uropathogens obtained between July 2013 and December 2014 from 3,780 fresh midstream urine samples were subjected to the VITEK-2 compact system for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Phenotypic methods for the detection of different beta-lactamases [extended spectrum beta-lactamases, AmpC beta-lactamases, metallo-beta-lactamases, and inhibitor-resistant beta-lactamases (IRT] and methicillin-resistance staphylococci [methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS] were employed. Results: High activity of nitrofurantoin was observed against MRCNS (96% followed by MRSA (95%, extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs (70%, IRT (66%, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE (66%. However, the sensitivity rate was lowered to 38% and 32% for metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs and AmpC beta-lactamases, respectively. Conclusion: In view of the current incidence of antibiotic resistance among community uropathogens and based on efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and low impact on promoting resistance, nitrofurantoin should be considered as a reasonable alternative to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX and fluoroquinolones for the first

  15. Evaluating the ability of current energy use assessment methods to study contrasting livestock production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigne, Mathieu; Vayssières, Jonathan; Lecomte, Philippe; Peyraud, Jean-Louis

    2012-12-15

    Environmental impact assessment of agriculture has received increased attention over recent decades, leading to development of numerous methods. Among them, three deal with energy use: Energy Analysis (EA), Ecological Footprint (EF) and Emergy synthesis (Em). Based on a review of 197 references applying them to a variety of agricultural systems, this paper evaluates their ability to assess energy use. While EF assesses energy use as land use via a global accounting approach in which energy is only one component of the assessment, EA and Em are energy-focused and appear more appropriate to highlight ways to increase energy-use efficiency. EA presents a clear methodology via fossil energy use and its associated impacts but does not consider all energy sources. With inclusion of natural and renewable resources, Em focuses on other energy resources, such as solar radiation and energy from labour, but does not present impact indicators nor establish a clear link between activities and their environmental impacts. Improvements of the EA and Em methods could increase their ability to perform realistic and unbiased energy analysis or the diversity of livestock systems encountered in the world. First, to consider all energy sources, as Em does, EA could include solar radiation received by farm surfaces and energy expenditure by humans and animals to accomplish farm operations. Second, boundaries of the studied system in EA and Em must include draft animals, humans and communal grazing lands. Third, special attention should be given to update and locally adapt energy coefficients and transformities.

  16. Evaluation of global and local critical current densities in 122-type iron-based superconducting tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyon, Sunseng, E-mail: pyon@ap.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Mine, Akinori; Suwa, Takahiro; Tamegai, Tsuyoshi

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • (Ba,K)Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} superconducting pressed tapes are fabricated. • We found an intriguing anisotropy in J{sub c} determined by magnetic measurements, which is related to microcrack structures affecting the local J{sub c}. • Microcrack structures are directly observed by magneto-optical imaging technique. - Abstract: We demonstrate the fabrication of (Ba,K)Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} superconducting pressed tapes through a powder-in-tube method using uniaxial cold pressing technique, and evaluate global and local J{sub c} by several physical measurements. We found an intriguing anisotropy in J{sub c} determined by magnetic measurements, which is related to microcrack structures affecting the local J{sub c}. The maximum J{sub c} estimated from magnetization measurements has reached ∼1.9 × 10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2} under self-field at 4.2 K. Furthermore, microcrack structures are directly observed by magneto-optical imaging technique.

  17. Beyond dogma: from diagnostic controversies to data about pediatric bipolar disorder and children with chronic irritability and mood dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickstein, Daniel P; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    From the mid-1990s through the present, studies have demonstrated a significant rise in the numbers of children and adolescents diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BD). Why is this? The present manuscript reviews several possibilities, most notably ambiguity in the diagnostic criteria for mania and how they may apply to children with functionally-impairing irritability. Furthermore, we discuss ongoing phenomenological and affective neuroscience research approaches to address those children most on the fringes of our current psychiatric nosology. In summary, these studies suggest that BD youths may be distinguished on some measures from those with chronic irritability and severe mood dysregulation, although the two groups also have some shared deficits.

  18. Marine biodiversity in South Africa: an evaluation of current states of knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L Griffiths

    Full Text Available Continental South Africa has a coastline of some 3,650 km and an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ of just over 1 million km(2. Waters in the EEZ extend to a depth of 5,700 m, with more than 65% deeper than 2,000 m. Despite its status as a developing nation, South Africa has a relatively strong history of marine taxonomic research and maintains comprehensive and well-curated museum collections totaling over 291,000 records. Over 3 million locality records from more than 23,000 species have been lodged in the regional AfrOBIS (African Ocean Biogeographic Information System data center (which stores data from a wider African region. A large number of regional guides to the marine fauna and flora are also available and are listed. The currently recorded marine biota of South Africa numbers at least 12,914 species, although many taxa, particularly those of small body size, remain poorly documented. The coastal zone is relatively well sampled with some 2,500 samples of benthic invertebrate communities have been taken by grab, dredge, or trawl. Almost none of these samples, however, were collected after 1980, and over 99% of existing samples are from depths shallower than 1,000 m--indeed 83% are from less than 100 m. The abyssal zone thus remains almost completely unexplored. South Africa has a fairly large industrial fishing industry, of which the largest fisheries are the pelagic (pilchard and anchovy and demersal (hake sectors, both focused on the west and south coasts. The east coast has fewer, smaller commercial fisheries, but a high coastal population density, resulting in intense exploitation of inshore resources by recreational and subsistence fishers, and this has resulted in the overexploitation of many coastal fish and invertebrate stocks. South Africa has a small aquaculture industry rearing mussels, oysters, prawns, and abalone-the latter two in land-based facilities. Compared with many other developing countries, South Africa has a well

  19. Evaluation capacity development in Africa: Current landscape of international partners’ initiatives, lessons learned and the way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Tarsilla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the copious resources allocated by international development partners to enhance African countries’ capacity to evaluate the performance and impact of development programmes and policies, most evaluation capacity building (ECB efforts have not yielded the expected results. Time and energy have been focused on the measurement of short-term effects whilst long-term results have largely remained elusive. As a result, a variety of actors across the continent are calling for more innovative strategies. In particular, more efforts are currently being made to revitalise the evaluation function in international development at the global level and to enhance a shift from short-term training to more contextually relevant, systemic learning, equity and sustainability efforts. This article aims to provide a critical overview of ECB initiatives undertaken by international development partners in Africa over five years (2009–2014 that worked well and investigate how they could be improved. The common issues stress the need for harmonisation and collaboration between international partners and African institutions and more effective collaboration with in country institutions and organisations committed to evaluation capacity development (ECD. The analysis in this article is timely and relevant for both the strengthening of socalled made-in Africa evaluation methods and approaches and the roll-out of systemic and organic ECD strategies. The debate spurred by this article is likely to contribute to the current global debate on what strategies ought to be taken as part of the post-2015 agenda. This inturn will spur the debate on ECD to increase in importance and undoubtedly in intensity.

  20. Barefoot running: an evaluation of current hypothesis, future research and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Nicholas; Astephen Wilson, Janie L; Noakes, Timothy D; Tucker, Ross

    2014-03-01

    Barefoot running has become a popular research topic, driven by the increasing prescription of barefoot running as a means of reducing injury risk. Proponents of barefoot running cite evolutionary theories that long-distance running ability was crucial for human survival, and proof of the benefits of natural running. Subsequently, runners have been advised to run barefoot as a treatment mode for injuries, strength and conditioning. The body of literature examining the mechanical, structural, clinical and performance implications of barefoot running is still in its infancy. Recent research has found significant differences associated with barefoot running relative to shod running, and these differences have been associated with factors that are thought to contribute to injury and performance. Crucially, long-term prospective studies have yet to be conducted and the link between barefoot running and injury or performance remains tenuous and speculative. The injury prevention potential of barefoot running is further complicated by the complexity of injury aetiology, with no single factor having been identified as causative for the most common running injuries. The aim of the present review was to critically evaluate the theory and evidence for barefoot running, drawing on both collected evidence as well as literature that have been used to argue in favour of barefoot running. We describe the factors driving the prescription of barefoot running, examine which of these factors may have merit, what the collected evidence suggests about the suitability of barefoot running for its purported uses and describe the necessary future research to confirm or refute the barefoot running hypotheses.

  1. Improving Control System Security through the Evaluation of Current Trends in Computer Security Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolston

    2005-03-01

    At present, control system security efforts are primarily technical and reactive in nature. What has been overlooked is the need for proactive efforts, focused on the IT security research community from which new threats might emerge. Evaluating cutting edge IT security research and how it is evolving can provide defenders with valuable information regarding what new threats and tools they can anticipate in the future. Only known attack methodologies can be blocked, and there is a gap between what is known to the general security community and what is being done by cutting edge researchers --both those trying to protect systems and those trying to compromise them. The best security researchers communicate with others in their field; they know what cutting edge research is being done; what software can be penetrated via this research; and what new attack techniques and methodologies are being circulated in the black hat community. Standardization of control system applications, operating systems, and networking protocols is occurring at a rapid rate, following a path similar to the standardization of modern IT networks. Many attack methodologies used on IT systems can be ported over to the control system environment with little difficulty. It is extremely important to take advantage of the lag time between new research, its use on traditional IT networks, and the time it takes to port the research over for use on a control system network. Analyzing nascent trends in IT security and determining their applicability to control system networks provides significant information regarding defense mechanisms needed to secure critical infrastructure more effectively. This work provides the critical infrastructure community with a better understanding of how new attacks might be launched, what layers of defense will be needed to deter them, how the attacks could be detected, and how their impact could be limited.

  2. Current radiological techniques used to evaluate unilateral partial ureteral obstruction: an experimental rabbit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazıcı, Mehmet; Celebi, Suleyman; Kuzdan, Özgür; Koçan, Hüseyin; Ayyıldız, Halil Suat; Bayrak, İlkay Koray; Bilgici, Meltem Ceyhan; Yapıcı, Oktay; Kefeli, Mehmet; Arıtürk, Ender

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate functional and prognostic benefits of Doppler ultrasonography (DU), diuretic renal scintigraphy (DRS), and magnetic resonance urography (MRU) during diagnosis and follow-up of ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) and to examine apoptosis rates caused by UPJO in an experimental rabbit model. Twenty-four rabbits were divided randomly into two groups. The left kidneys of 15 rabbits from the first group underwent Ulm-Miller surgery to create UPJO, whereas the left kidneys of nine rabbits from the second group underwent sham surgery. A pressure flow study (Whitaker's test) was done during postoperative week 6. Based on the Whitaker test, the DU, DRS, and MRU findings were compared. The number of apoptotic renal cells was counted after death. The Whitaker test run during postoperative week 6 revealed obstructions in 15 rabbits from group 1; the nine rabbits of the sham group had no obstructions. Sensitivity and specificity of DRS were 93.3 and 88.8 %, respectively, and those of MRU were 93.3 and 88.8 %, respectively. The postoperative mean RI values were significantly higher than the preoperative values, associated with sensitivity of 86.6 % and specificity of 77.5 % for detecting UPJO. DRS, MRU, and RI could not predict UPJO in one (8 %), one (8 %), and two (16 %) kidneys, respectively. Likelihood ratio (LR) was 8.4 for MRU and scintigraphy, while for RI, LR was 3.9. Pathology specimens revealed that all kidneys with UPJO underwent apoptosis, and the number of apoptotic cells was significantly higher on the UPJO-created side than on the contralateral and in the sham group (p < 0.05). No test predicted all apoptosis related to UPJO. The RI, DRS, and DMRU results correlated with the pressure flow results for detecting UPJO. No single radiological technique predicted all initial UPJO-created kidneys that concluded with apoptosis. Further studies are required to seek with better methods for diagnosing an obstruction or to define a

  3. Miscibility Evaluation Of The Next Generation Solvent With Polymers Currently Used At DWPF, MCU, And Saltstone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F.

    2013-04-17

    will not impact decontamination or immobilization operations at Savannah River Site (SRS). Some applications have zero tolerance for dimensional changes such as the operation of valves while other applications a finite dimensional change improves the function of the application such as seals and gaskets. Additional considerations are required before using the conclusions from this work to judge outcomes in field applications. Decane, a component of Isopar L that is most likely to interact with the polymers, mildly interacted with the elastomers and the propylene based polymers but their degree of swelling is at most 10% and the confined geometry that they are typically placed in indicate this is not significant. In addition, it was found that Vellumoid may leach protein into the NGS solvent. Since Vellumoid is used at the mixer in Saltstone where it sees minimum quantities of solvent, this leaching has no effect on the extraction process at MCU or the immobilization process at saltstone. No significant interaction is expected between MaxCalix and the polymers and elastomers used at MCU, DWPF, and Saltstone. Overall, minimal and insignificant interactions are expected on extraction and immobilization operations when MCU switches from CSSX to NGS solvent. It is expected that contacting NGS will not accelerate the aging rate of polymers and elastomers under radiation and heat. This is due to the minimal interaction between NGS and the polymers and the confined geometries for these polymers. SRNL recommends the use of the HSP method (for screening) and some testing to evaluate the impact of other organic such as alcohols, glycolate, and their byproducts on the polymers used throughout the site.

  4. Current Situation and Evaluation of Clinical Studies on Acupuncture and Moxibustion Treatment of Peripheral Facial Paralysis at Selected Stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying; WU Xi; HU Ka-ming; CHEN Xiao-qin

    2010-01-01

    @@ Peripheral facial paralysis is a frequently encountered disease with a high incidence, and it is one of the most common diseases in acupuncture and moxibustion treatment. Because there are rich literatures in clinical studies on acupuncture and moxibustion treatment for this disease, and clinically, it is divided into different stages, in the present paper the current situation of clinical studies about acupuncture and moxibustion treatment for peripheral facial paralysis according to different stages in resent years are analyzed and evaluated including the stage division,the optimal time for treatment, location of injured nerves and assessment of the therapeutic effect, etc.

  5. Evaluating mediation and moderation effects in school psychology: A presentation of methods and review of current practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Amanda J.; McQuillin, Samuel D.

    2017-01-01

    Third variable effects elucidate the relation between two other variables, and can describe why they are related or under what conditions they are related. This article demonstrates methods to analyze two third-variable effects: moderation and mediation. The utility of examining moderation and mediation effects in school psychology is described and current use of the analyses in applied school psychology research is reviewed and evaluated. Proper statistical methods to test the effects are presented, and different effect size measures for the models are provided. Extensions of the basic moderator and mediator models are also described. PMID:20006988

  6. Evaluating mediation and moderation effects in school psychology: a presentation of methods and review of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Amanda J; McQuillin, Samuel D

    2010-02-01

    Third variable effects elucidate the relation between two other variables, and can describe why they are related or under what conditions they are related. This article demonstrates methods to analyze two third-variable effects: moderation and mediation. The utility of examining moderation and mediation effects in school psychology is described and current use of the analyses in applied school psychology research is reviewed and evaluated. Proper statistical methods to test the effects are presented, and different effect size measures for the models are provided. Extensions of the basic moderator and mediator models are also described.

  7. Evaluation of Current Computer Models Applied in the DOE Complex for SAR Analysis of Radiological Dispersion & Consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Kula, K. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); East, J. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Weber, A. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Savino, A. V. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Mazzola, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The evaluation of atmospheric dispersion/ radiological dose analysis codes included fifteen models identified in authorization basis safety analysis at DOE facilities, or from regulatory and research agencies where past or current work warranted inclusion of a computer model. All computer codes examined were reviewed using general and specific evaluation criteria developed by the Working Group. The criteria were based on DOE Orders and other regulatory standards and guidance for performing bounding and conservative dose calculations. Included were three categories of criteria: (1) Software Quality/User Interface; (2) Technical Model Adequacy; and (3) Application/Source Term Environment. A consensus-based limited quantitative ranking process was used to base an order of model preference as both an overall conclusion, and under specific conditions.

  8. Evaluation of Functional Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in Children: Are the Physicians Complying with the Current Guidelines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesrur Selcuk Silay

    2013-01-01

    were used for statistical analyses. Results. Of the 117 departments a total of 93 have completed the survey (n: 58 urology; n: 35 paediatric nephrology. Routine use of a questionnaire with validated symptom scoring system was found to be 13.9%. Of the participants, only 38.7% were asking all of the patients to fill the bladder diary. During treatment, only 24.7% were applying standard urotherapy for every patient. Almost half of the clinicians (45.1% believed that they were personally insufficient during the evaluation of those children. Finally, 86% reported that children with LUTD were not adequately approached. Conclusions. Evaluation of LUTD in children is not complying with the current guidelines. General approach for those children needs to be revisited by the clinicians.

  9. Wild dogma: An examination of recent “evidence” for dingo regulation of invasive mesopredator release in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L. ALLEN, Richard M. ENGEMAN, Lee R. ALLEN

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in the role that apex predators play in shaping terrestrial ecosystems and maintaining trophic cascades. In line with the mesopredator release hypothesis, Australian dingoes (Canis lupus dingo and hybrids are assumed by many to regulate the abundance of invasive mesopredators, such as red foxes Vulpes vulpes and feral cats Felis catus, thereby providing indirect benefits to various threatened vertebrates. Several recent papers have claimed to provide evidence for the biodiversity benefits of dingoes in this way. Nevertheless, in this paper we highlight several critical weaknesses in the methodological approaches used in many of these reports, including lack of consideration for seasonal and habitat differences in activity, the complication of simple track-based indices by incorporating difficult-to-meet assumptions, and a reduction in sensitivity for assessing populations by using binary measures rather than potentially continuous measures. Of the 20 studies reviewed, 15 of them (75% contained serious methodological flaws, which may partly explain the inconclusive nature of the literature investigating interactions between invasive Australian predators. We therefore assert that most of the “growing body of evidence” for mesopredator release is merely an inconclusive growing body of literature only. We encourage those interested in studying the ecological roles of dingoes relative to invasive mesopredators and native prey species to account for the factors we identify, and caution the value of studies that have not done so [Current Zoology 57 (5: 568–583, 2011].

  10. Wild dogma: An examination of recent “evidence” for dingo regulation of invasive mesopredator release in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjamin L. ALLEN; Richard M. ENGEMAN; Lee R. ALLEN

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in the role that apex predators play in shaping terrestrial ecosystems and maintaining trophic cascades.In line with the mesopredator release hypothesis,Australian dingoes (Canis lupus dingo and hybrids) are assumed by many to regulate the abundance of invasive mesopredators,such as red foxes Vulpes vulpes and feral cats Felis catus,thereby providing indirect benefits to various threatened vertebrates.Several recent papers have claimed to provide evidence for the biodiversity benefits of dingoes in this way.Nevertheless,in this paper we highlight several critical weaknesses in the methodological approaches used in many of these reports,including lack of consideration for seasonal and habitat differences in activity,the complication of simple track-based indices by incorporating difficult-to-meet assumptions,and a reduction in sensitivity for assessing populations by using binary measures rather than potentially continuous measures.Of the 20 studies reviewed,15 of them (75%) contained serious methodological flaws,which may partly explain the inconclusive nature of the literature investigating interactions between invasive Australian predators.We therefore assert that most of the “growing body of evidence” for mesopredator release is merely an inconclusive growing body of literature only.We encourage those interested in studying the ecological roles of dingoes relative to invasive mesopredators and native prey species to account for the factors we identify,and caution the value of studies that have not done so [Current Zoology 57 (5):568-583,2011].

  11. Evaluation of uncertainty in the inductive measurement of critical current densities of superconducting films using third-harmonic voltages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, H.; Mawatari, Y.; Nakagawa, Y.; Yamada, H.

    2012-10-01

    Several techniques can be used for inductive measurement of the critical current density Jc of large-area superconducting thin films used in microwave devices and fault-current limiters. The most popular of these methods employs the third-harmonic voltages V3. We have proposed a standard method using V3 for determining Jc under a criterion of electric field E. Here, the uncertainty in the standard method is evaluated. Since the measured Jc is directly proportional to the magnetic field at the upper surface of the superconducting film, the most significant systematic effect is the deviation of the coil-to-film distance Z1 from the prescribed value. The principal origins of this deviation of Z1 are (1) inadequate pressing of the coil onto the film and (2) ice layers occasionally forming between the coil and the protective polyimide film. If these effects are eliminated, uncertainty of Jc originates mainly from (a) uncertainty of the experimental coil coefficient k', which is dominated by uncertainty of the transport Jc, and (b) underestimation of the induced electric field E when using a simple Bean model. For a typical DyBa2Cu3O7 film specimen, the relative combined standard uncertainty in the standard method was evaluated as ˜5%. The effect of the film edge on Jc measurements is also described.

  12. Economic evaluations of pharmacogenetic approaches in infectious diseases: a review of current approaches and evaluation of critical aspects affecting their quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Meoni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacogenetics holds great potential for improving the effectiveness of treatment modalities in infectious diseases by taking into account the genetic determinants of both the host and infectious agents’ individuality. Better utilization of resources and improved therapeutic efficiency are the expected outcomes of personalized medicine using pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomics information made available by technological advances. However, there has been growing concern in the clinical community regarding the evaluation of the true benefits of these approaches. This perception is partly due to the limited number and perceived poor quality of economic evaluations in this field, and initiatives aimed at harmonizing and communicating strategies improving the quality of these studies and their acceptance by the clinical community are greatly needed. This paper reviews current literature of economic evaluations of pharmacogenetics interventions guiding pharmacotherapy in infectious diseases. PubMed and the NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases were searched using a combination of five broad research terms related to pharmacogenetic approaches, and papers relative to economic evaluations of pharmacogenetic interventions in infectious diseases retained for further analysis. Using these criteria, a total of 14 papers were included in this review. The area of economic evaluation of pharmacogenetic interventions in infectious diseases remains understudied and would benefit from greater harmonization. The main weaknesses of evaluations reviewed in this paper seem to be represented by poor evidence of pharmacogenetic marker validation, inconsistencies in the selection of costs and utility included in the economic models and the choice of sensitivity analysis. All these factors limit the overall transparency of the studies, greater acceptance of their results and applicability to diverse and possibly resourcelimited environments where these

  13. Life satisfaction, health, self-evaluation and sexuality in current university students of sport sciences, education and natural sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sigmund

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lifestyle and health of an individual are influenced by many factors; a significant factor is life satisfaction. Life satisfaction is understood as a multidimensional construct closely related to the area of personal wellbeing and quality of life. Life satisfaction in university students represents one of the determinants of good health, high motivation for studying, work productivity, satisfactory interpersonal relationships and overall healthy lifestyle. Objective: The main objective of the present study is to identify and compare the level of overall life satisfaction and selected components of health, self-evaluation and sexuality in current university students with respect to their study specialization. Methods: The study included a total of 522 students from Palacký University. These were students from the Faculty of Physical Culture (n = 118, Faculty of Education (n = 218 and Faculty of Science (n = 186. In terms of age, the study focused on young adults aged 19 to 26. To assess the current level of life satisfaction, the research study used a standardized psychodiagnostic tool - Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LSQ. The used diagnostic methods are fully standardized and contain domestic normative values. Statistical result processing was conducted using the Statistica programme v10.0. Results: The highest level of overall life satisfaction was revealed in university students of sport sciences. In comparison with the students of education and students of natural sciences the difference is significant. Satisfaction with health among the students of sport sciences is significantly higher than in the students of education (p ≤ .001; d = 0.53 and the students of natural sciences (p ≤ .05; d = 0.38. Similar results were found in the area of satisfaction with own person and self-evaluation, where the values of the students of sport sciences were significantly higher compared with the students of education (p

  14. Endoscopic Scores for Evaluation of Crohn's Disease Activity at Small Bowel Capsule Endoscopy: General Principles and Current Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Bruno; Pinho, Rolando; de Ferro, Susana Mão; Almeida, Nuno; Cotter, José; Saraiva, Miguel Mascarenhas

    2016-01-01

    The small bowel is affected in the vast majority of patients with Crohn's Disease (CD). Small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) has a very high sensitivity for the detection of CD-related pathology, including early mucosal lesions and/or those located in the proximal segments of the small bowel, which is a major advantage when compared with other small bowel imaging modalities. The recent guidelines of European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) and European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation (ECCO) advocate the use of validated endoscopic scoring indices for the classification of inflammatory activity in patients with CD undergoing SBCE, such as the Lewis Score or the Capsule Endoscopy Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CECDAI). These scores aim to standardize the description of lesions and capsule endoscopy reports, contributing to increase inter-observer agreement and enabling a stratification of the severity of the disease. On behalf of the Grupo de Estudos Português do Intestino Delgado (GEPID) - Portuguese Small Bowel Study Group, we aimed to summarize the general principles and clinical applications of current endoscopic scoring systems for SBCE in the setting of CD, covering the topic of suspected CD as well as the evaluation of disease extent (with potential prognostic and therapeutic impact), evaluation of mucosal healing in response to treatment and evaluation of post-surgical recurrence in patients with previously established diagnosis of CD.

  15. A Computer-Aided Diagnosis for Evaluating Lung Nodules on Chest CT: the Current Status and Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Jin Mo [Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    As the detection and characterization of lung nodules are of paramount importance in thoracic radiology, various tools for making a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) have been developed to improve the diagnostic performance of radiologists in clinical practice. Numerous studies over the years have shown that the CAD system can effectively help readers identify more nodules. Moreover, nodule malignancy and the response of malignant lung tumors to treatment can also be assessed using nodule volumetry. CAD also has the potential to objectively analyze the morphology of nodules and enhance the work flow during the assessment of follow-up studies. Therefore, understanding the current status and limitations of CAD for evaluating lung nodules is essential to effectively apply CAD in clinical practice

  16. Microplastics in freshwater and terrestrial environments: Evaluating the current understanding to identify the knowledge gaps and future research priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Alice A; Walton, Alexander; Spurgeon, David J; Lahive, Elma; Svendsen, Claus

    2017-05-15

    Plastic debris is an environmentally persistent and complex contaminant of increasing concern. Understanding the sources, abundance and composition of microplastics present in the environment is a huge challenge due to the fact that hundreds of millions of tonnes of plastic material is manufactured for societal use annually, some of which is released to the environment. The majority of microplastics research to date has focussed on the marine environment. Although freshwater and terrestrial environments are recognised as origins and transport pathways of plastics to the oceans, there is still a comparative lack of knowledge about these environmental compartments. It is highly likely that microplastics will accumulate within continental environments, especially in areas of high anthropogenic influence such as agricultural or urban areas. This review critically evaluates the current literature on the presence, behaviour and fate of microplastics in freshwater and terrestrial environments and, where appropriate, also draws on relevant studies from other fields including nanotechnology, agriculture and waste management. Furthermore, we evaluate the relevant biological and chemical information from the substantial body of marine microplastic literature, determining the applicability and comparability of this data to freshwater and terrestrial systems. With the evidence presented, the authors have set out the current state of the knowledge, and identified the key gaps. These include the volume and composition of microplastics entering the environment, behaviour and fate of microplastics under a variety of environmental conditions and how characteristics of microplastics influence their toxicity. Given the technical challenges surrounding microplastics research, it is especially important that future studies develop standardised techniques to allow for comparability of data. The identification of these research needs will help inform the design of future studies, to

  17. Evaluation of current operating standards for chlorine dioxide in disinfection of dump tank and flume for fresh tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás-Callejas, Alejandro; López-Velasco, Gabriela; Valadez, Angela M; Sbodio, Adrian; Artés-Hernández, Francisco; Danyluk, Michelle D; Suslow, Trevor V

    2012-02-01

    Standard postharvest unit operations that rely on copious water contact, such as fruit unloading and washing, approach the criteria for a true critical control point in fresh tomato production. Performance data for approved sanitizers that reflect commercial systems are needed to set standards for audit compliance. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) for water disinfection as an objective assessment of recent industry-adopted standards for dump tank and flume management in fresh tomato packing operations. On-site assessments were conducted during eight temporally distinct shifts in two Florida packinghouses and one California packinghouse. Microbiological analyses of incoming and washed fruit and dump and flume system water were evaluated. Water temperature, pH, turbidity, conductivity, and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) were monitored. Reduction in populations of mesophilic and coliform bacteria on fruit was not significant, and populations were significantly higher (P dump tanks but consistently below the detection limit in flumes. Turbidity and conductivity increased with loads of incoming tomatoes. Water temperature varied during daily operations, but pH and ORP mostly remained constant. The industry standard positive temperature differential of 5.5°C between water and fruit pulp was not maintained in tanks during the full daily operation. ORP values were significantly higher in the flume than in the dump tank. A positive correlation was found between ORP and temperature, and negative correlations were found between ORP and turbidity, total mesophilic bacteria, and coliforms. This study provides in-plant data indicating that ClO(2) can be an effective sanitizer in flume and spray-wash systems, but current operational limitations restrict its performance in dump tanks. Under current conditions, ClO(2) alone is unlikely to allow the fresh tomato industry to meet its microbiological quality goals under typical

  18. Evaluation of the Current Perspectives on Letters of Recommendation for Residency Applicants among Plastic Surgery Program Directors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shultz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The goals of this project were to evaluate the current perspective on letters of recommendation and to assess the need for, and acceptance of, a more standardized letter of recommendation (LOR. Methods. An eight-question survey was distributed to plastic surgery program directors. A five-point Likert scale was selected as a means of quantifying the participants’ responses to the survey. Results. Twenty-eight of 71 program directors (39.4% completed the survey. The majority of participants felt that current LOR did not offer a realistic way to compare applicants (mean±SD, 2.9±0.8. While most agreed that increasing the objectivity of LOR would be valuable in comparing applicants (mean±SD, 4.1±0.9, the overall average response to whether a more standardized letter format would improve the resident selection process remained only slightly better than neutral (mean±SD, 3.5±1.2. Most of the chairmen supported the notion that familiarity with the author of the LOR strengthened the recommendation (mean±SD, 4.5±0.6. Conclusion. The majority of plastic surgery program directors would like more objectivity in comparing applicants but are ambivalent about a standardized letter of recommendation.

  19. Occupational toxicology in Mexico: current status and the potential use of molecular studies to evaluate chemical exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Balam; Albores, Arnulfo

    2011-11-01

    Occupational toxicology is of considerable concern for several world organizations including the International Labour Organization, the World Health Organization and the International Commission for Occupational Health and, in Latin America, the Pan American Health Organization. The countries of this Region, including Mexico, own manufacturing, chemical, and petrochemical industries that employ thousands workers who are continually exposed to hazardous chemicals such as solvents, particles and exhaust fumes, many of which are very complex mixtures. Traditionally, physicians have used biochemical analyses to assess the damage caused by chronic chemical exposure. Presently, recent advances in molecular biology may offer tools to perform more thorough and precise evaluations on worker health damage, risk and current health status. In this review, we present a perspective of occupational toxicology in Mexico, as an example for Latin America and developing countries. Moreover, we summarize current reports about occupational disease associated with chemical exposure, and we present an array of molecular studies proposed for the analysis and diagnosis of workers related with industry and the relevance of including molecular biology testing to complement traditional occupational medical assays in order to improve occupational health. We conclude that developing countries, e.g., Mexico, should improve work environment standards by using new technical approaches that will result in more reliable and precise data to design better health policy strategies.

  20. Evaluation of low level laser and interferential current in the therapy of complex regional pain syndrome by infrared thermographic camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I is characterized by continuous regional pain, disproportional according to duration and intensity and to the sort of trauma or other lesion it was caused by. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare, by using thermovison, the effects of low level laser therapy and therapy with interferential current in treatment of CRPS I. Methods. The prospective randomized controlled clinical study included 45 patients with unilateral CRPS I, after a fracture of the distal end of the radius, of the tibia and/or the fibula, treated in the Clinical Centre in Nis from 2004 to 2007. The group A consisted of 20 patients treated by low level laser therapy and kinesy-therapy, while the patients in the group B (n = 25 were treated by interferential current and kinesy-therapy. The regions of interest were filmed by a thermovision camera on both sides, before and after the 20 therapeutic procedures had been applied. Afterwards, the quantitative analysis and the comparing of thermograms taken before and after the applied therapy were performed. Results. There was statistically significant decrease of the mean maximum temperature difference between the injured and the contralateral extremity after the therapy in comparison to the status before the therapy, with the patients of the group A (p < 0.001 as well as those of the group B (p < 0.001. The decrease was statistically significantly higher in the group A than in the group B (p < 0.05. Conclusions. By the use of the infrared thermovision we showed that in the treatment of CRPS I both physical medicine methods were effective, but the effectiveness of laser therapy was statistically significantly higher compared to that of the interferential current therapy.

  1. Evaluation of Mid-Depth Currents of NCEP Reanalysis Data in the Tropical Pacific Using ARGO Float Position Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The global project of the Array for Real-time Geostrophic Oceanography (ARGO) provides a unique opportunity to observe the absolute velocity in mid-depths of the world oceans. A total of 1597 velocity vectors at 1000 (2000) db in the tropical Pacific derived from the ARGO float position information during the period November 2001 to October 2004 are used to evaluate the intermediate currents of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction reanalysis. To derive reliable velocity information from ARGO float trajectory points, a rigorous quality control scheme is applied, and by virtue of a correction method for reducing the drift error on the surface in obtaining the velocity vectors, their relative errors are less than 25%. Based on the comparisons from the quantitative velocity vectors and from the space-time average currents, some substantial discrepancies are revealed. The first is that the velocities of the reanalysis at mid-depths except near the equator are underestimated relative to the observed velocities by the floats.The average speed difference between NCEP and ARGO values ranges from about -2.3 cms-1 to -1.8cms-1. The second is that the velocity difference between the ocean model and the observations at 2000dB seems smaller than that at 1000 dB. The third is that the zonal flow in the reanalysis is too dominant so that some eddies could not be simulated, such as the cyclonic eddy to the east of 160°E between 20°N and 30°N at 2000 dB. In addition, it is noticeable that many floats parking at 1000 dB cannot acquire credible mid-depth velocities due to the time information of their end of ascent (start of descent) on the surface in the trajectory files. Thus, relying on default times of parking, descent and ascent in the metadata files gravely confines their application to measuring mid-depth currents.

  2. Lightning return stroke current radiation in presence of a conducting ground: 1. Theory and numerical evaluation of the electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, Federico; Procopio, Renato; Rossi, Mansueto

    2008-03-01

    The general theory describing the electromagnetic field radiated by a lightning stroke over a conducting ground is presented in this paper. The derivation of the Green functions necessary to solve the problem is discussed in detail, and the determination of the expressions for the electromagnetic field components is carried out in a form that minimizes the final computational costs. A method for the numerical evaluation of the electromagnetic field is then proposed, and it is shown that it can be used starting from any "engineering model" representation for the lightning current distribution along the channel. Such method is based on a new efficient evaluation of the so-called Sommerfeld's integrals appearing in the electromagnetic field expressions, without resorting to any kind of approximated formulas for them. The numerical treatment of the Sommerfeld's integrals is characterized by a proper subdivision of the integration domain, the use of the Romberg technique and the determination of a suitable upper bound for the error due to the integral truncation. In the second part of this work it will be shown how the results provided by the developed theory can be used in order to assess the validity of the most common simplified approach for the calculation of the lightning radiation over a lossy ground plane.

  3. Multimodality imaging for patient evaluation and guidance of catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation - current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagirath, P; van der Graaf, A W M; Karim, R; van Driel, V J H M; Ramanna, H; Rhode, K S; de Groot, N M S; Götte, M J W

    2014-08-20

    Left atrial catheter ablation is an established non-pharmacological therapy for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. The importance of a noninvasive multimodality imaging approach is emphasized by the current guidelines for the various phases of the ablation work-up e.g. patient identification, therapy guidance and procedural evaluation. Advances in the capabilities of imaging modalities and the increasing cost of healthcare warrant a review of the multimodality approach. This review discusses the application of cardiac imaging for pulmonary vein and left atrial ablation divided into stages: pre-procedural stage (assessment of left atrial dimensions, left atrial appendage thrombus and pulmonary vein anatomy), peri-procedural stage (integration of anatomical and electrical information) and post-procedural stage (evaluation of efficacy by assessment of tissue properties). Each section is dedicated to one of the subtopics of a stage, allowing a thorough comparison to be made between the strengths and weaknesses of the different imaging modalities and the identification of one that exhibits the potential for a single technique approach.

  4. Neurogenic bladder evaluation and management after spinal cord injury: Current practice among urologists working in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Al Taweel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the current trends in the management and surveillance of the NB population secondary to spinal cord injury (SCI or myelomeningocele by certified urologist working in Saudi Arabia and to compare it to the current guidelines. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a 12-points questionnaire distributed to urologists working in Saudi Arabia and registered at the Saudi medical association. The assessment and follow-up of upper and lower urinary tract function in neurogenic bladder patients, their optimal frequency and management of related infections were the topics of inquiry. Results: Of the 272 urologists surveyed, 105 responded, yielding a response rate of 38%. Eighty-nine percent of respondents said that ultrasound was their diagnostic tool of choice for upper tract evaluation. Sixty-one percent of respondents said that they would follow their patients with a multichannel urodynamic study. Forty percent of urologists stated that they would treat asymptomatic bacteriuria. Clean intermittent catheterization (CIC was the most common modality chosen for the management of neurogenic bladder in patients with emptying difficulties. Conclusion: This study confirms that most urologists in Saudi Arabia involved with neurogenic bladder management. However, more than one third of the urologists do not have urodynamic machine and only two of the reporting practitioners has a videourodynamic machine. The results emphasize the need for clear guidelines in this field of urology in Saudi Arabia. Highly specialized rehabilitation centers for neurogenic bladder secondary to SCI are required for optimal care and urologist teaching.

  5. Monte-Carlo model development for evaluation of current clinical target volume definition for heterogeneous and hypoxic glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddasi, L; Bezak, E; Harriss-Phillips, W

    2016-05-07

    Clinical target volume (CTV) determination may be complex and subjective. In this work a microscopic-scale tumour model was developed to evaluate current CTV practices in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) external radiotherapy. Previously, a Geant4 cell-based dosimetry model was developed to calculate the dose deposited in individual GBM cells. Microscopic extension probability (MEP) models were then developed using Matlab-2012a. The results of the cell-based dosimetry model and MEP models were combined to calculate survival fractions (SF) for CTV margins of 2.0 and 2.5 cm. In the current work, oxygenation and heterogeneous radiosensitivity profiles were incorporated into the GBM model. The genetic heterogeneity was modelled using a range of α/β values (linear-quadratic model parameters) associated with different GBM cell lines. These values were distributed among the cells randomly, taken from a Gaussian-weighted sample of α/β values. Cellular oxygen pressure was distributed randomly taken from a sample weighted to profiles obtained from literature. Three types of GBM models were analysed: homogeneous-normoxic, heterogeneous-normoxic, and heterogeneous-hypoxic. The SF in different regions of the tumour model and the effect of the CTV margin extension from 2.0-2.5 cm on SFs were investigated for three MEP models. The SF within the beam was increased by up to three and two orders of magnitude following incorporation of heterogeneous radiosensitivities and hypoxia, respectively, in the GBM model. However, the total SF was shown to be overdominated by the presence of tumour cells in the penumbra region and to a lesser extent by genetic heterogeneity and hypoxia. CTV extension by 0.5 cm reduced the SF by a maximum of 78.6  ±  3.3%, 78.5  ±  3.3%, and 77.7  ±  3.1% for homogeneous and heterogeneous-normoxic, and heterogeneous hypoxic GBMs, respectively. Monte-Carlo model was developed to quantitatively evaluate SF for genetically

  6. Monte-Carlo model development for evaluation of current clinical target volume definition for heterogeneous and hypoxic glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddasi, L.; Bezak, E.; Harriss-Phillips, W.

    2016-05-01

    Clinical target volume (CTV) determination may be complex and subjective. In this work a microscopic-scale tumour model was developed to evaluate current CTV practices in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) external radiotherapy. Previously, a Geant4 cell-based dosimetry model was developed to calculate the dose deposited in individual GBM cells. Microscopic extension probability (MEP) models were then developed using Matlab-2012a. The results of the cell-based dosimetry model and MEP models were combined to calculate survival fractions (SF) for CTV margins of 2.0 and 2.5 cm. In the current work, oxygenation and heterogeneous radiosensitivity profiles were incorporated into the GBM model. The genetic heterogeneity was modelled using a range of α/β values (linear-quadratic model parameters) associated with different GBM cell lines. These values were distributed among the cells randomly, taken from a Gaussian-weighted sample of α/β values. Cellular oxygen pressure was distributed randomly taken from a sample weighted to profiles obtained from literature. Three types of GBM models were analysed: homogeneous-normoxic, heterogeneous-normoxic, and heterogeneous-hypoxic. The SF in different regions of the tumour model and the effect of the CTV margin extension from 2.0-2.5 cm on SFs were investigated for three MEP models. The SF within the beam was increased by up to three and two orders of magnitude following incorporation of heterogeneous radiosensitivities and hypoxia, respectively, in the GBM model. However, the total SF was shown to be overdominated by the presence of tumour cells in the penumbra region and to a lesser extent by genetic heterogeneity and hypoxia. CTV extension by 0.5 cm reduced the SF by a maximum of 78.6  ±  3.3%, 78.5  ±  3.3%, and 77.7  ±  3.1% for homogeneous and heterogeneous-normoxic, and heterogeneous hypoxic GBMs, respectively. Monte-Carlo model was developed to quantitatively evaluate SF for genetically

  7. Covering localization, mapping and evaluation of ducts, using Pipeline Current Mapper Methods (PCM); Localizacao, mapeamento e avaliacao de revestimento de dutos, utilizando o metodo Pipeline Current Mapper (PCM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furquim, Antonio Jorge [ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A., Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Esteio Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A., together with the PETROBRAS - Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., comes accomplishing the Location, Geo positioning, Mapping and Inspection of the Coating in more than 5.000 km of pipes in several areas of the country. The works come being executed seeking the obtaining of the real position of Ducts (They-Built) and the conditions in that meets the coating of the same ones. The risings base on the method Pipeline Current Mapper (PCM), using the equipment of production of Radio detection to locate and to inspect the conditions of the coating. This work presents the results, analyses, precision, benefits and difficulties found during the execution of the surveying. (author)

  8. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Impact of New Information since 2008 PA on Current Low-Level Solid Waste Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G.; Smith, F.; Hamm, L.; Butcher, T.

    2014-10-06

    Solid low-level waste disposal operations are controlled in part by an E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) Performance Assessment (PA) that was completed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in 2008 (WSRC 2008). Since this baseline analysis, new information pertinent to disposal operations has been identified as a natural outcome of ongoing PA maintenance activities and continuous improvement in model simulation techniques (Flach 2013). An Unreviewed Disposal Question (UDQ) Screening (Attachment 1) has been initiated regarding the continued ability of the ELLWF to meet Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 performance objectives in light of new PA items and data identified since completion of the original UDQ Evaluation (UDQE). The present UDQE assesses the ability of Solid Waste (SW) to meet performance objectives by estimating the influence of new information items on a recent sum-of-fractions (SOF) snapshot for each currently active E-Area low-level waste disposal unit. A final SOF, as impacted by this new information, is projected based on the assumptions that the current disposal limits, Waste Information Tracking System (WITS) administrative controls, and waste stream composition remain unchanged through disposal unit operational closure (Year 2025). Revision 1 of this UDQE addresses the following new PA items and data identified since completion of the original UDQE report in 2013: New Kd values for iodine, radium and uranium; Elimination of cellulose degradation product (CDP) factors; Updated radionuclide data; Changes in transport behavior of mobile radionuclides; Potential delay in interim closure beyond 2025; and Component-in-grout (CIG) plume interaction correction. Consideration of new information relative to the 2008 PA baseline generally indicates greater confidence that PA performance objectives will be met than indicated by current SOF metrics. For SLIT9, the previous prohibition of non-crushable containers in revision 0

  9. Acetylcholine receptor: channel-opening kinetics evaluated by rapid chemical kinetic and single-channel current measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udgaonkar, J. B.; Hess, G. P.

    1987-01-01

    A combination of rapid chemical kinetic (quench-flow) and single-channel current measurements was used to evaluate kinetic parameters governing the opening of acetylcholine-receptor channels in the electric organ (electroplax) of Electrophorus electricus. Chemical kinetic measurements made on membrane vesicles, prepared from the E. electricus electroplax, using carbamoylcholine (200 microM-20 mM) at 12 degrees C, pH 7.0, and in the absence of a transmembrane voltage, yielded values for K1 (dissociation constant for receptor activation), phi (channel closing equilibrium constant), J (specific reaction rate for ion flux), and alpha max (maximum inactivation rate constant) of 1 mM, 3.4, 4 x 10(7) M-1 s-1, and 12 s-1, respectively. The single-channel current recordings were made with cells also from the E. electricus electroplax, at the same temperature and pH as the chemical kinetic measurements, using carbamoylcholine (50 microM-2 mM), acetylcholine (500 nM), or suberyldicholine (20 nM). Single-channel current measurements indicated the presence of a single, unique open-channel state of the E. electricus receptor, in concurrence with previous, less extensive measurements. The rate constant for channel closing (kc) obtained from the mean open time of the receptor channel is 1,100 s-1 for carbamoylcholine, 1,200 s-1 for acetylcholine, and 360 s-1 for suberyldicholine at zero membrane potential; and it decreases e-fold for an 80 mV decrease in transmembrane voltage in each case. The decrease in mean open times of the receptor channel that is associated with increasing the carbamoylcholine concentration is interpreted to be due to carbamoylcholine binding to the regulatory (inhibitory) site on the receptor. An analysis of data obtained with carbamoylcholine showed that the closed times within a burst of channel activity fit a two-exponential distribution, with a concentration-independent time constant considered to be the time constant for carbamoylcholine to dissociate

  10. Non-invasive diagnosis of H pylori infection: Evaluation of serological tests with and without current infection marker CIM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the performance of commercially available immunochromatographic (ICT) and immunoblot tests covering the current infection marker CIM and conventional ELISA for the diagnosis of Hpylori infection in adult dyspeptic patients. METHODS: Consecutive non-treated dyspeptic patients undergoing diagnostic endoscopy were tested for H pylori infection by culture, rapid urease test, and histology of gastric biopsy specimens. Serum from 61 H pylori infected and 21 non-infected patients were tested for anti-H pylori IgG antibodies by commercial ELISA (Accu Bind TM ELISA, Monobind, USA), ICT(Assure(R) H pylori Rapid Test, Genelabs Diagnostics, Singapore),and immunoblot (Helico Blot 2.1,Genelabs Diagnostics, Singapore) assays. ICT and immunoblot kits cover CIN among other parameters and their performance with and without CIM was evaluated separately. RESULTS: Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV),negative predictive value (NPV),and accuracy of ELISA were 96.7%,42.8%,83.1%,81.8%,and 82.9%,of ICT were 90.1%,80.9%,93.2%,73.9%,and 87.8%,of ICE with CIM were 88.5%,90.4%,96.4%,73.0%,and 89.0%,of immunoblot were 98.3%,80.9%,93.7%,94.4%,and 93.9%,and of immunoblot with CIM were 98.3%,90.4%,96.7%,95.0%,and 96.3%,respectively.CONCLUSION:Immunoblot with CIM had the best performance. ICE with CIM was found to be more specific and accurate than the conventional ELISA and may be useful for non-invasive diagnosis of H pylori infection.

  11. Toward production from gas hydrates: Current status, assessment of resources, and simulation-based evaluation of technology and potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Boswell, R.; Kurihara, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Koh, C.; Sloan, E.D.

    2009-01-01

    Gas hydrates (GHs) are a vast energy resource with global distribution in the permafrost and in the oceans. Even if conservative estimates are considered and only a small fraction is recoverable, the sheer size of the resource is so large that it demands evaluation as a potential energy source. In this review paper, we discuss the distribution of natural GH accumulations, the status of the primary international research and development (R&D) programs, and the remaining science and technological challenges facing the commercialization of production. After a brief examination of GH accumulations that are well characterized and appear to be models for future development and gas production, we analyze the role of numerical simulation in the assessment of the hydrate-production potential, identify the data needs for reliable predictions, evaluate the status of knowledge with regard to these needs, discuss knowledge gaps and their impact, and reach the conclusion that the numerical-simulation capabilities are quite advanced and that the related gaps either are not significant or are being addressed. We review the current body of literature relevant to potential productivity from different types of GH deposits and determine that there are consistent indications of a large production potential at high rates across long periods from a wide variety of hydrate deposits. Finally, we identify (a) features, conditions, geology and techniques that are desirable in potential production targets; (b) methods to maximize production; and (c) some of the conditions and characteristics that render certain GH deposits undesirable for production. Copyright ?? 2009 Society of Petroleum Engineers.

  12. Parents as partners in adolescent HIV prevention in Eastern and Southern Africa: an evaluation of the current United Nations' approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathuta, Jane

    2016-11-10

    The United Nations's (UN) sustainable development goals (SDGs) include the target (3.3) of ending the HIV/AIDS epidemic by 2030. A major challenge in this regard is to curb the incidence of HIV among adolescents, the number two cause of their death in Africa. In Eastern and Southern Africa, they are mainly infected through heterosexual transmission. Research findings about parental influence on the sexual behavior of their adolescent children are reviewed and findings indicate that parental communication, monitoring and connectedness contribute to the avoidance of risky sexual behavior in adolescents. This article evaluates the extent to which these three dimensions of parenting have been factored in to current HIV prevention recommendations relating to adolescent boys and girls. Four pertinent UN reports are analyzed and the results used to demonstrate that the positive role of parents or primary caregivers vis-à-vis risky sexual behavior has tendentially been back-grounded or even potentially undermined. A more explicit inclusion of parents in adolescent HIV prevention policy and practice is essential - obstacles notwithstanding - enabling their indispensable partnership towards ending an epidemic mostly driven by sexual risk behavior. Evidence from successful or promising projects is included to illustrate the practical feasibility and fruitfulness of this approach.

  13. Characterization of the Vertical Structure of Tidal Currents in the Mouth of the Columbia River and Evaluation of the Selfe Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    time for reviewing instruction, searching existing data sources , gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection...VERTICAL STRUCTURE OF TIDAL CURRENTS IN THE MOUTH OF THE COLUMBIA RIVER AND EVALUATION OF THE SELFE MODEL 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Joseph R...declination to the Earth (27.3 days) ( Disney and Overshiner 1925). Changes in the moon’s phase and distance from Earth cause changes in tidal current

  14. Evaluation of ink-jet printed current collecting grids and bushbars for ITO-free organic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galagan, Y.O.; Coenen, E,W.C.; Sabik, S.; Gorter, H.H.; Barink, M.; Veenstra, S.C.; Kroon, J.M.; Andriessen, H.A.J.M.; Blom, P.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    ITO-free organic solar cells with ink-jet printed current collecting grids and high conducting PEDOT:PSS as composite anode are demonstrated. Inkjet printed current collecting grids with different cross-sectional are as have been investigated. The effect of the width and height of the gridlines and

  15. Evaluation of ink-jet printed current collecting grids and bushbars for ITO-free organic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galagan, Y.O.; Coenen, E,W.C.; Sabik, S.; Gorter, H.H.; Barink, M.; Veenstra, S.C.; Kroon, J.M.; Andriessen, H.A.J.M.; Blom, P.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    ITO-free organic solar cells with ink-jet printed current collecting grids and high conducting PEDOT:PSS as composite anode are demonstrated. Inkjet printed current collecting grids with different cross-sectional are as have been investigated. The effect of the width and height of the gridlines and

  16. Clinical review: Thinking outside the box--an iconoclastic view of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Mervyn; Matthay, Michael A

    2011-07-26

    Many advances in medicine have been achieved through challenging established dogma with revolutionary thought and novel practices. Each and every specialty is reinvigorated by regular re-evaluation of processes and practices in the light of new evidence and fresh conceptualization. Challenge can galvanize fresh thinking and new approaches, yet may also reinforce and strengthen traditional paradigms if the prevailing orthodoxy is subsequently revalidated. This article is a synopsis of a roundtable meeting held in Brussels in March 2010 designed specifically to confront doctrine with reasoned scientific argument, and to propose new ideas for advancing critical care practices and outcomes.

  17. A numerical study on the feasibility evaluation of a hybrid type superconducting fault current limiter applying thyristors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Seok Ho; Lee, Woo Seung; Lee, Ji Ho; Hwang, Young Jin; Ko, Tae Kuk [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Smart fault current controller (SFCC) proposed in our previous work consists of a power converter, a high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC reactor, thyristors, and a control unit [1]. SFCC can limit and control the current by adjusting firing angles of thyristors when a fault occurs. SFCC has complex structure because the HTS DC reactor generates the loss under AC. To use the DC reactor under AC, rectifier that consists of four thyristors is needed and it increases internal resistance of SFCC. For this reason, authors propose a hybrid type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL). The hybrid type SFCL proposed in this paper consists of a non-inductive superconducting coil and two thyristors. To verify the feasibility of the proposed hybrid type SFCL, simulations about the interaction of the superconducting coil and thyristors are conducted when fault current flows in the superconducting coil. Authors expect that the hybrid type SFCL can control the magnitude of the fault current by adjusting the firing angles of thyristors after the superconducting coil limits the fault current at first peak.

  18. Critical Development? Using a Critical Theory Lens to Examine the Current Role of Evaluation in the Youth-Development Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller-Berkman, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    A critical theory lens is used to explore the role of evaluation in youth development, a field aimed at recognizing youth as assets. A theory of change in the field is questioned for its emphasis on individual youth outcomes as programmatic outcome measures. A review of 209 evaluations of 131 programs in the Harvard Family Research Project's…

  19. A randomised controlled trial evaluating IGF1 titration in contrast to current GH dosing strategies in children born small for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Beck; Thankamony, Ajay; O'Connell, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Short children born small for gestational age (SGA) are treated with a GH dose based on body size, but treatment may lead to high levels of IGF1. The objective was to evaluate IGF1 titration of GH dose in contrast to current dosing strategies. METHODS: In the North European Small-for-...

  20. Current Methods of Evaluating Speech-Language Outcomes for Preschoolers with Communication Disorders: A Scoping Review Using the ICF-CY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Barbara Jane; Washington, Karla N.; Binns, Amanda; Rolfe, Katelyn; Robertson, Bernadette; Rosenbaum, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this scoping review was to identify current measures used to evaluate speech-language outcomes for preschoolers with communication disorders within the framework of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth Version (ICF-CY; World Health Organization, 2007). Method: The review…

  1. Evaluation of Thermoelectric Properties of Bite Alloys for the Optimization of Gas-Cooled Peltier Current Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, T.; Fukuda, S.; Kawahara, T.; Emoto, M.; Sugino, M.; Sun, J.; Hamabe, M.; Watanabe, H.; Yamaguchi, S.

    2010-04-01

    A direct current superconducting power transmission (DC-SCPT) test facility with 20-meter power cable has been developed in Chubu University. Heat leakage through current leads dominates in case of short-distance DC-SCPT. To solve this problem, we have developed special Peltier current lead (PCL) with bismuth telluride (BiTe) alloy is used as a Peltier material, and have studied a gas-cooled PCL as a novel type current lead for higher reduction of the heat leakage. In order to achieve high efficiency, highest thermoelectric figure of merit material is important to be used especially at low temperature conditions. In our work we measured the thermoelectric properties of BiTe samples, and optimized geometry of PCL by the numerical calculations. It was fount that the heat leakages through PCL and gas-cooled PCL are reduced to 55% and to 36% of the conventional copper current lead (CCL) at the self-cooling condition, correspondingly. PCL can reduce the total electric power consumption of the whole system. We also discuss the heat exchange ratio for the gas-cooled PCL, and extend this approach for further reduction of the heat leakage.

  2. Is dabigatran considered a cost-effective alternative to warfarin treatment: a review of current economic evaluations worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselbjerg, Louise Justesen; Pedersen, Heidi Sjoelund; Asmussen, Mikael Bergholdt; Petersen, Karin Dam

    2013-07-01

    Dabigatran was the first of a new generation of anticoagulation drugs for the indication of non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) to be approved. Evidence show that dabigatran 150 mg twice daily significantly reduces the risk of stroke and systemic embolism (RR = 0.65; p economic evaluations of these alternatives for healthcare professionals to include these findings in their decision-making. A systematic literature search identified 43 economic evaluations, of which 10 were included and evaluated according to the Consensus Health Economic Criteria list (CHEC-list) and the Oxford model. Six economic evaluations concluded that dabigatran was a cost-effective alternative to warfarin. One evaluation concluded the same except when quality in warfarin treatment was excellent, with a mean time in therapeutic range (TTR) > 73%. Three evaluations concluded that dabigatran was a cost-effective alternative to warfarin in patient sub-groups; TTR ≤ 64%, congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥ 75, diabetes mellitus, prior stroke or transient ischemic attack (CHADS2 score) ≥3, or a CHADS2 score = 2 unless international normalized ratio (INR) control was excellent, and with high risk of stroke or in a low-quality warfarin treatment. Dabigatran 110 mg twice daily was in general dominated by dabigatran 150 mg twice daily. The evaluations were not fully homogeneous, as some did not include loss of productivity, costs of dyspepsia, and annual costs of dabigatran patient management. In the majority of the economic evaluations, dabigatran is a cost-effective alternative to warfarin treatment. In some evaluations dabigatran is only cost-effective in sub-groups, such as patients with a low TTR-value in warfarin treatment and a CHADS2 score ≥2.

  3. MRI methods for the evaluation of high intensity focused ultrasound tumor treatment: Current status and future needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hectors, Stefanie J C G; Jacobs, Igor; Moonen, Chrit T W; Strijkers, Gustav J; Nicolay, Klaas

    2016-01-01

    Thermal ablation with high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is an emerging noninvasive technique for the treatment of solid tumors. HIFU treatment of malignant tumors requires accurate treatment planning, monitoring and evaluation, which can be facilitated by performing the procedure in an MR-guided HIFU system. The MR-based evaluation of HIFU treatment is most often restricted to contrast-enhanced T1 -weighted imaging, while it has been shown that the non-perfused volume may not reflect the extent of nonviable tumor tissue after HIFU treatment. There are multiple studies in which more advanced MRI methods were assessed for their suitability for the evaluation of HIFU treatment. While several of these methods seem promising regarding their sensitivity to HIFU-induced tissue changes, there is still ample room for improvement of MRI protocols for HIFU treatment evaluation. In this review article, we describe the major acute and delayed effects of HIFU treatment. For each effect, the MRI methods that have been-or could be-used to detect the associated tissue changes are described. In addition, the potential value of multiparametric MRI for the evaluation of HIFU treatment is discussed. The review ends with a discussion on future directions for the MRI-based evaluation of HIFU treatment.

  4. Current and future perspectives on the development, evaluation and application of in silico approaches for predicting toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safety-related problems continue to be one of the major reasons of attrition in drug development. Non-testing approaches to predict toxicity could form part of the solution. This review provides a perspective of current status of non-testing approaches available for the predictio...

  5. Numerical evaluation of currents induced in a worker by ELF non-uniform electric fields in high voltage substations and comparison with experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarao, Hiroo; Korpinen, Leena H; Kuisti, Harri A; Hayashi, Noriyuki; Elovaara, Jarmo A; Isaka, Katsuo

    2013-01-01

    An ungrounded human, such as a substation worker, receives contact currents when touching a grounded object in electric fields. In this article, contact currents and internal electric fields induced in the human when exposed to non-uniform electric fields at 50 Hz are numerically calculated. This is done using a realistic human model standing at a distance of 0.1-0.5 m from the grounded conductive object. We found that the relationship between the external electric field strength and the contact current obtained by calculation is in good agreement with previous measurements. Calculated results show that the contact currents largely depend on the distance, and that the induced electric fields in the tissues are proportional to the contact current regardless of the non-uniformity of the external electric field. Therefore, it is concluded that the contact current, rather than the spatial average of the external electric field, is more suitable for evaluating electric field dosimetry of tissues. The maximum induced electric field appears in the spinal cord in the central nervous system tissues, with the induced electric field in the spinal cord approaching the basic restriction (100 mV/m) of the new 2010 International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines for occupational exposure, if the contact current is 0.5 mA. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Chondrule size and related physical properties: a compilation and evaluation of current data across all meteorite groups

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, Jon M; Ebel, Denton S; Biltz, Alison E; Corbett, Bernadette M; Iotzov, Ivan V; Khan, Wajiha S; Wolman, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    The examination of the physical properties of chondrules has generally received less emphasis than other properties of meteorites such as their mineralogy, petrology, and chemical and isotopic compositions. Among the various physical properties of chondrules, chondrule size is especially important for the classification of chondrites into chemical groups, since each chemical group possesses a distinct size-frequency distribution of chondrules. Knowledge of the physical properties of chondrules is also vital for the development of astrophysical models for chondrule formation, and for understanding how to utilize asteroidal resources in space exploration. To examine our current knowledge of chondrule sizes, we have compiled and provide commentary on available chondrule dimension literature data. We include all chondrite chemical groups as well as the acapulcoite primitive achondrites, some of which contain relict chondrules. We also compile and review current literature data for other astrophysically-relevant p...

  7. Current evaluation of the clinical utility of fluoromethyl choline-(18F) PET/CT in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbot, Jean-Noel [Hopital Tenon AP-HP, Paris (France); Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); E-mail: jean-noel.talbot@tnn.ap-hop-paris.fr; Chevalme, Yanna-Marina [Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Produits de Sante (AFSSAPS), St Denis (France)

    2008-12-15

    This short review is dedicated to the current status of the assessment of a new PET radiopharmaceutical, fluoromethylcholine-(18F) or FCH, which is taken-up by prostate cancer tissue, in contrary to fluorodeoxyglucose- (18F) or FDG. It seems that FCH could become 'the FDG of prostate cancer', with the same type of achievements (detection of distant metastases and of occult recurrences, restaging prior to invasive treatments), and the same drawbacks (false negative results in case of small lesions, in particular lymph nodes metastases, and false positive results in case of infection/inflammation, in particular prostatitis). Current evidence is summarised and discussed for each of the potential settings of FCH PET/CT imaging in prostate cancer. The perspectives for granting a marketing authorisation to a FCH preparation are briefly analysed. (author)

  8. Environmental flows in Nepal - an evaluation of current practices and analysis of the Upper Trishuli -I Hydroelectric Project

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACTEnvironmental assessments and environmental flows are important components of modern hydropower development. In the developed countries, comprehensive and detailed assessments including research works are being carried out for defining and setting environmental flows. However, current practices in Nepal are variable; from a little focus on minimum flows to the application of simple hydrological methods. This trend is changing in the recent developments where detailed studies and compr...

  9. MRI methods for the evaluation of high intensity focused ultrasound tumor treatment : Current status and future needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hectors, Stefanie J C G; Jacobs, Igor; Moonen, Chrit T W; Strijkers, Gustav J; Nicolay, Klaas

    2016-01-01

    Thermal ablation with high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is an emerging noninvasive technique for the treatment of solid tumors. HIFU treatment of malignant tumors requires accurate treatment planning, monitoring and evaluation, which can be facilitated by performing the procedure in an MR-gui

  10. Current and Future Education Leaders' Perceptions of Race to the Top's Teacher Evaluation and Compensation Components, before and after Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Orin; Windish, Daniel; Taylor, Rosemarye

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the professional perceptions of educational leaders as to the fairness and impact of teacher evaluation and compensation reforms under Race to the Top. The study surveyed graduate students in education and educational leadership programs to assess changes in their perceptions from prior to RTTT implementation…

  11. Current pathology work-up of extremity soft tissue sarcomas, evaluation of the validity of different techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijen, P.; Witjes, H.; van Gorp, J.; Hennipman, A.; van Dalen, T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In patients with extremity soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) a correct histopathological diagnosis is considered important before surgical treatment. We evaluated the preoperative use and sensitivity of the various pathology techniques. Methods: In a population-based study in patients operated

  12. Evaluation of JSAF EM Propagation Prediction Methods for Navy Continuous Training Environment/Fleet Synthetic Training Results and Recommendations: Part 1 - Evaluation of Current JSAF EM Propagation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    FFACTR” which is a part of the Engineers Refractive Index Prediction System (EREPS) Tactical Decision Aid ( TDA ) developed by what is now SPAWARS SSC San...currently used in JSAF is “FFACTR” which is a part of the Engineers Refractive Index Prediction System (EREPS) Tactical Decision Aid ( TDA ) developed by what...Decision Aid ( TDA ) developed by what is now SPAWARS SSC San Diego in 1988. This model is no longer supported by SPAWARS or any other group and has been

  13. [Evaluation of scientific production in different subareas of Public Health: limits of the current model and contributions to the debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriart, Jorge Alberto Bernstein; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira; Martin, Denise; Camargo Jr, Kenneth Rochel de; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Coeli, Cláudia Medina

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to discuss the limits of the quantitative evaluation model for scientific production in Public Health. An analysis of the scientific production of professors from the various subareas of Public Health was performed for 2010-2012. Distributions of the mean annual score for professors were compared according to subareas. The study estimated the likelihood that 60% of the professors in the graduate studies programs scored P50 (Very Good) or higher in their area. Professors of Epidemiology showed a significantly higher median annual score. Graduate studies programs whose faculty included at least 60% of Epidemiology professors and fewer than 10% from the subarea Social and Human Sciences in Health were significantly more likely to achieve a "Very Good" classification. The observed inequalities in scientific production between different subareas of Public Health point to the need to rethink their evaluation in order to avoid reproducing iniquities that have harmful consequences for the field's diversity.

  14. High-Entropy Alloys: A Current Evaluation of Founding Ideas and Core Effects and Exploring "Nonlinear Alloys"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miracle, Daniel B.

    2017-08-01

    The burgeoning field of high-entropy alloys (HEAs) is underpinned by two foundational concepts, and early research has been motivated by several hypotheses known as "core effects." The field is now entering its teenage years, and sufficient data have been collected to evaluate these hypotheses and to take a fresh look at the foundational concepts. Although recent assessments have concluded that two of the four HEA hypotheses are not supported by available data, new studies are already coming online to extend these analyses, and new interpretations are inspiring new directions for research within the field. This article gives an up-to-date evaluation of the HEA "core effects" and proposes "nonlinear alloys" as a new strategy to embrace the founding concept of compositional and microstructural vastness.

  15. A spatial evaluation of historic iron mining impacts on current impaired waters in Lake Superior's Mesabi Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeten, John; Langston, Nancy; Lafreniere, Don

    2017-10-05

    This paper examines the water quality legacies of historic and current iron mining in the Mesabi Range, the most productive iron range in the history of North America, producing more than 42% of the world's iron ore in the 1950s. Between 1893 and 2016, 3.5 × 10(9) t of iron ore were shipped from the Mesabi Range to steel plants throughout the world. We map historic sites and quantities of iron mining, ore processing, water use, and tailings deposition within subwatershed boundaries. We then map the locations of impaired lakes within HUC-12 subwatershed boundaries within the Mesabi Range, using government datasets created for US federal Clean Water Act reporting. Comparing watersheds with and without historic mining activity, watersheds with historic mining activity currently contain a greater percentage of impaired lakes than control watersheds within the same range. These results suggest that historic iron ore mining and processing in the Mesabi Range affected water quality on a landscape scale, and these legacies persist long after the mines have closed. This paper outlines a novel spatial approach that land managers and policy makers can apply to other landscapes to assess the effects of past mining activity on watershed health.

  16. Evaluating the association between menthol cigarette use and the likelihood of being a former versus current smoker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulsky, Sandra I; Fuller, William G; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Ogden, Michael W; Swauger, James E; Curtin, Geoffrey M

    2014-10-01

    Menthol in cigarettes has been examined for its potential to affect smoking dependence, measured primarily as number of cigarettes smoked per day and time to first cigarette after waking; the ability to quit smoking constitutes an additional measure of dependence. Successful quitting among menthol compared to non-menthol cigarette smokers is difficult to determine from the literature, due in part to the various definitions of quitting used by researchers. Nevertheless, intervention and follow-up studies of smoking cessation treatments generally indicate no differences in quitting success among menthol compared to non-menthol smokers, while cross-sectional studies suggest some differences within race/ethnicity groups. The association between menthol cigarette use and likelihood of being a former versus current smoker was examined based on data from the National Health Interview Survey and Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. Analyses stratified by race/ethnicity and limited to smokers who had quit at least one year prior to survey participation provided inconsistent results with regard to menthol cigarette use and quitting, both within surveys (i.e., comparing race/ethnicity groups) and between surveys (i.e., same race/ethnicity group across surveys). Evidence suggesting the existence or direction of an association between menthol in cigarettes and quitting depended on the data source.

  17. Evaluation of Semi-Automatic Metadata Generation Tools: A Survey of the Current State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-ran Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the current landscape of semi-automatic metadata generation tools is particularly important considering the rapid development of digital repositories and the recent explosion of big data. Utilization of (semiautomatic metadata generation is critical in addressing these environmental changes and may be unavoidable in the future considering the costly and complex operation of manual metadata creation. To address such needs, this study examines the range of semi-automatic metadata generation tools (n=39 while providing an analysis of their techniques, features, and functions. The study focuses on open-source tools that can be readily utilized in libraries and other memory institutions.  The challenges and current barriers to implementation of these tools were identified. The greatest area of difficulty lies in the fact that  the piecemeal development of most semi-automatic generation tools only addresses part of the issue of semi-automatic metadata generation, providing solutions to one or a few metadata elements but not the full range elements.  This indicates that significant local efforts will be required to integrate the various tools into a coherent set of a working whole.  Suggestions toward such efforts are presented for future developments that may assist information professionals with incorporation of semi-automatic tools within their daily workflows.

  18. Stator Current Harmonics Evaluation by Flexible Neural Network Method With Reconstruction Structure During Learning Step Based On CFE/SS Algorithm for ACEC Generator of Rey Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Yousefi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available One method for on-line fault detection in synchronous generator is stator current harmonics analysis. In this paper, the flexible neural network with reconstruction structure during learning has been used to evaluate the stator current harmonics in different loads. Generator modeling, finite element method and state space model make training set of flexible neural network. Many points from generator capability curve are used to complete this set. Flexible neural network that is used in this paper is a perception network with single hidden layer, flexible hidden layer neuron and back propagation algorithms. Results are show that the trained flexible neural network can identify stator current harmonics for desired load from the capability curve. The error is less than 10% in compared to the values obtained directly from the CFE-SS algorithms. The parameters of modeled generator are 43950(KVA, 11(kV, 3000(rpm, 50(HZ, (PF=0.5.

  19. Elevance of PCDD/PCDF formation for the evaluation of POPs destruction technologies - Necessity and current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, R. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) states in Article 6 that POPs waste should be destroyed or disposed of in a way that the POPs content is destroyed or irreversibly transformed. In this context it is critical that the destruction methods used do not create by-products that are themselves POPs. Therefore one important criterion for assessment of a POPs destruction technology is the potential formation of POPs and other toxic by-products, in particular if higher toxic PCDDs/PCDFs are formed and under which operation conditions their formation is relevant (for the respective POPs destruction technology). A detailed evaluation of non-combustion technologies with respect to PCDD/PCDF formation is lacking to date. Most information with respect to PCDD/PCDF formation in non-combustion technologies in the present stage of evaluation is provided by the companies developing or selling the facility. In a laboratory study it was discovered that super critical water oxidation (SCWO), a technology listed from United Nations Environmental Programme UNEP as ''Commercialised Technology with Considerable Experience'' and from United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) as ''Emerging and Innovative Technologies'', has the potential to form high concentrations of PCDFs (in the % range) during PCB destruction. Such elevated PCDF formations might occur even at temperatures of potential application. This highlights the necessity of a more rigorous assessment of non-combustion technologies with respect to their PCDD/PCDF formation potential and their actual applicability for PCB/POPs destruction. The present paper provides a critical impulse in this respect, discusses the relevant formation pathways with respect to POPs destruction technologies and proposes a basic framework on how evaluations may be performed.

  20. Evaluation of Current Decision Rules and Healthcare Professional Practices for Detecting Osteoporosis Risk in the Young Adult Population

    OpenAIRE

    Willig, Amanda Lynn

    2004-01-01

    Osteoporosis is caused by a multitude of factors. An individual¡¯s risk for experiencing a bone fracture as a senior citizen increases without early intervention. Healthcare professionals do not have access to validated survey tools to identify young adults in need of osteoporosis prevention education, although survey tools to identify postmenopausal women at high risk for low bone mass are available. The purposes of this study were to evaluate three of these survey tools for use in a yo...

  1. Preliminary volcanic hazards evaluation for Los Alamos National Laboratory Facilities and Operations : current state of knowledge and proposed path forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, Gordon N.; Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S.; Miller, Elizabeth D.

    2010-09-01

    The integration of available information on the volcanic history of the region surrounding Los Alamos National Laboratory indicates that the Laboratory is at risk from volcanic hazards. Volcanism in the vicinity of the Laboratory is unlikely within the lifetime of the facility (ca. 50–100 years) but cannot be ruled out. This evaluation provides a preliminary estimate of recurrence rates for volcanic activity. If further assessment of the hazard is deemed beneficial to reduce risk uncertainty, the next step would be to convene a formal probabilistic volcanic hazards assessment.

  2. [The representation of scientific publications of RAMS in WEB of science: evaluation of current indicators and prospects of their increasing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starodubtsev, V I; Kuznetsov, S L; Kurakova, N G; Tsvetkova, L A

    2012-01-01

    The contribution scientific publications of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences (RAMS) in the national publication stream, indexed by Web of Science over the past thirty years, was estimated. The indicators of publication activity that are necessary for the institutions of RAMS to achieve in short-term period the conformity with bibliometric indicators, established by Presidential Decree of May 7, 2012 (to increase the share of Russian publications in Web of Science to 2.44% in 2015) were calculated. It is shown that the current structure of global science, where publications in medicine make up for approximately one third of scientific publications in the world, set for RAMS scientists particularly difficult task: to double in three years the number of publications in Web of Sci. In the article are proposed the priorities and the necessary steps to fulfill this task.

  3. Laser-beam-induced current mapping evaluation of porous silicon-based passivation in polycrystalline silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabha, M. Ben; Bessais, B. [Laboratoire de Nanomateriaux et des Systemes pour l' Energie, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie - Technopole de Borj-Cedria BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Dimassi, W.; Bouaicha, M.; Ezzaouia, H. [Laboratoire de photovoltaique, des semiconducteurs et des nanostructures, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie - Technopole de Borj-Cedria BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia)

    2009-05-15

    In the present work, we report on the effect of introducing a superficial porous silicon (PS) layer on the performance of polycrystalline silicon (pc-Si) solar cells. Laser-beam-induced current (LBIC) mapping shows that the PS treatment on the emitter of pc-Si solar cells improves their quantum response and reduce the grain boundaries (GBs) activity. After the porous silicon treatment, mapping investigation shows an enhancement of the LBIC and the internal quantum efficiency (IQE), due to an improvement of the minority carrier diffusion length and the passivation of recombination centers at the GBs as compared to the reference substrate. It was quantitatively shown that porous silicon treatment can passivate both the grains and GBs. (author)

  4. Application of 2D numerical model to unsteady performance evaluation of vertical-axis tidal current turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Qu, Hengliang; Shi, Hongda; Hu, Gexing; Hyun, Beom-Soo

    2016-12-01

    Tidal current energy is renewable and sustainable, which is a promising alternative energy resource for the future electricity supply. The straight-bladed vertical-axis turbine is regarded as a useful tool to capture the tidal current energy especially under low-speed conditions. A 2D unsteady numerical model based on Ansys-Fluent 12.0 is established to conduct the numerical simulation, which is validated by the corresponding experimental data. For the unsteady calculations, the SST model, 2×105 and 0.01 s are selected as the proper turbulence model, mesh number, and time step, respectively. Detailed contours of the velocity distributions around the rotor blade foils have been provided for a flow field analysis. The tip speed ratio (TSR) determines the azimuth angle of the appearance of the torque peak, which occurs once for a blade in a single revolution. It is also found that simply increasing the incident flow velocity could not improve the turbine performance accordingly. The peaks of the averaged power and torque coefficients appear at TSRs of 2.1 and 1.8, respectively. Furthermore, several shapes of the duct augmentation are proposed to improve the turbine performance by contracting the flow path gradually from the open mouth of the duct to the rotor. The duct augmentation can significantly enhance the power and torque output. Furthermore, the elliptic shape enables the best performance of the turbine. The numerical results prove the capability of the present 2D model for the unsteady hydrodynamics and an operating performance analysis of the vertical tidal stream turbine.

  5. Application of 2D Numerical Model to Unsteady Performance Evaluation of Vertical-Axis Tidal Current Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhen; QU Hengliang; SHI Hongda; HU Gexing; HYUN Beom-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Tidal current energy is renewable and sustainable, which is a promising alternative energy resource for the future elec-tricity supply. The straight-bladed vertical-axis turbine is regarded as a useful tool to capture the tidal current energy especially under low-speed conditions. A 2D unsteady numerical model based on Ansys-Fluent 12.0 is established to conduct the numerical simulation, which is validated by the corresponding experimental data. For the unsteady calculations, the SST model, 2×105and 0.01s are se-lected as the proper turbulence model, mesh number, and time step, respectively. Detailed contours of the velocity distributions around the rotor blade foils have been provided for a flow field analysis. The tip speed ratio (TSR) determines the azimuth angle of the appearance of the torque peak, which occurs once for a blade in a single revolution. It is also found that simply increasing the incident flow velocity could not improve the turbine performance accordingly. The peaks of the averaged power and torque coeffi-cients appear at TSRs of 2.1 and 1.8, respectively. Furthermore, several shapes of the duct augmentation are proposed to improve the turbine performance by contracting the flow path gradually from the open mouth of the duct to the rotor. The duct augmentation can significantly enhance the power and torque output. Furthermore, the elliptic shape enables the best performance of the turbine. The numerical results prove the capability of the present 2D model for the unsteady hydrodynamics and an operating performance analy-sis of the vertical tidal stream turbine.

  6. Evaluation of potential surface rupture and review of current seismic hazards program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-09

    This report summarizes the authors review and evaluation of the existing seismic hazards program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The report recommends that the original program be augmented with a probabilistic analysis of seismic hazards involving assignment of weighted probabilities of occurrence to all potential sources. This approach yields a more realistic evaluation of the likelihood of large earthquake occurrence particularly in regions where seismic sources may have recurrent intervals of several thousand years or more. The report reviews the locations and geomorphic expressions of identified fault lines along with the known displacements of these faults and last know occurrence of seismic activity. Faults are mapped and categorized into by their potential for actual movement. Based on geologic site characterization, recommendations are made for increased seismic monitoring; age-dating studies of faults and geomorphic features; increased use of remote sensing and aerial photography for surface mapping of faults; the development of a landslide susceptibility map; and to develop seismic design standards for all existing and proposed facilities at LANL.

  7. Advancing current approaches to disease management evaluation: capitalizing on heterogeneity to understand what works and for whom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elissen, Arianne M J; Adams, John L; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke; Duimel-Peeters, Inge G P; Spreeuwenberg, Cor; Linden, Ariel; Vrijhoef, Hubertus J M

    2013-03-14

    Evaluating large-scale disease management interventions implemented in actual health care settings is a complex undertaking for which universally accepted methods do not exist. Fundamental issues, such as a lack of control patients and limited generalizability, hamper the use of the 'gold-standard' randomized controlled trial, while methodological shortcomings restrict the value of observational designs. Advancing methods for disease management evaluation in practice is pivotal to learn more about the impact of population-wide approaches. Methods must account for the presence of heterogeneity in effects, which necessitates a more granular assessment of outcomes. This paper introduces multilevel regression methods as valuable techniques to evaluate 'real-world' disease management approaches in a manner that produces meaningful findings for everyday practice. In a worked example, these methods are applied to retrospectively gathered routine health care data covering a cohort of 105,056 diabetes patients who receive disease management for type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Netherlands. Multivariable, multilevel regression models are fitted to identify trends in clinical outcomes and correct for differences in characteristics of patients (age, disease duration, health status, diabetes complications, smoking status) and the intervention (measurement frequency and range, length of follow-up). After a median one year follow-up, the Dutch disease management approach was associated with small average improvements in systolic blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein, while a slight deterioration occurred in glycated hemoglobin. Differential findings suggest that patients with poorly controlled diabetes tend to benefit most from disease management in terms of improved clinical measures. Additionally, a greater measurement frequency was associated with better outcomes, while longer length of follow-up was accompanied by less positive results. Despite concerted efforts to adjust

  8. Evaluation of the current disease severity scores in paediatric FMF: is it necessary to develop a new one?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Gokhan; Demirkaya, Erkan; Acikel, Cengiz Han; Polat, Adem; Peru, Harun; Karaoglu, Abdulbaki; Sari, Erkan; Dursun, Ismail; Gok, Faysal; Ozen, Seza

    2012-04-01

    Modified adult disease severity scoring systems are being used for childhood FMF. We aim to test the clinical consistency of two common severity scoring systems and to evaluate the correlation of scores with the type of FMF mutations in paediatric FMF patients since certain mutations are prone to severe disease. Two hundred and fifty-eight children with FMF were cross-sectionally studied. Assessment of the disease severity was performed by using the modified scoring systems of Mor et al. and Pras et al. Genetic analysis was performed using PCR and restriction endonuclease digestion methods for the presence of 15 FMF gene mutations. FMF mutations were grouped into three based on well-known genotypic-phenotypic associations. Correlation between the mutation groups and the severity scoring systems was assessed. The consistency of the severity scoring systems was evaluated. The results of two scoring systems were not statistically consistent with each other (κ = 0.171). This inconsistency persisted even in a more homogeneous subgroup of patients with only homozygote mutations of M694V, M680I and M694I (κ = 0.125). There was no correlation between the mutation groups and either of the scoring systems (P = 0.002, r = 0,196 for scoring systems of Mor et al.; P = 0.009, r = 0.162 for Pras et al.). The inconsistency of the two scoring systems and lack of correlation between the scoring systems and mutation groups raises concerns about the reliability of these scoring systems in children. There is a need to develop a scoring system in children based on a prospective registry.

  9. Evaluation of critical current density and residual resistance ratio limits in powder in tube Nb3Sn conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Segal, Christopher; Sung, Zu Hawn; Lee, Peter J; Sailer, Bernd; Thoener, Manfred; Schlenga, Klaud; Ballarino, Amalia; Bottura, Luca; Bordini, Bernardo; Scheuerlein, Christian; Larnalestier, David C

    2016-01-01

    High critical current density ( Jc) Nb3Sn A15 multifilamentary wires require a large volume fraction of small grain (SG), superconducting A15 phase, as well as Cu stabilizer with high Residual Resistance Ratio (RRR) to provide electromagnetic stabilization and protection. In powder-in-tube (PIT) wires the unreacted Nb7.5 wt%Ta outer layer of the tubular filaments acts as a diffusion barrier and protects the interfilamentary Cu stabilizer from Sn contamination. A high RRR requirement generally imposes a restricted A15 reaction heat treatment to prevent localized full reaction of the filament that could allow Sn to reach the Cu. In this study we investigate recent high quality PIT wires that achieve a Jc (12 T, 4.2 K) up to ∼2500 A mm−2 and find that the minimum diffusion barrier thickness decreases as the filament aspect ratio increases from ∼1 in the inner rings of filaments to 1.3 in the outer filament rings. We found that just 2–3 diffusion barrier breaches can degrade RRR from 300 to 150 or less. U...

  10. Evaluation of critical current density and residual resistance ratio limits in powder in tube Nb3Sn conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Segal, Christopher; Sung, Zu Hawn; Lee, Peter J; Sailer, Bernd; Thoener, Manfred; Schlenga, Klaud; Ballarino, Amalia; Bottura, Luca; Bordini, Bernardo; Scheuerlein, Christian; Larnalestier, David C

    2016-01-01

    High critical current density ( Jc) Nb3Sn A15 multifilamentary wires require a large volume fraction of small grain (SG), superconducting A15 phase, as well as Cu stabilizer with high Residual Resistance Ratio (RRR) to provide electromagnetic stabilization and protection. In powder-in-tube (PIT) wires the unreacted Nb7.5 wt%Ta outer layer of the tubular filaments acts as a diffusion barrier and protects the interfilamentary Cu stabilizer from Sn contamination. A high RRR requirement generally imposes a restricted A15 reaction heat treatment to prevent localized full reaction of the filament that could allow Sn to reach the Cu. In this study we investigate recent high quality PIT wires that achieve a Jc (12 T, 4.2 K) up to ∼2500 A mm−2 and find that the minimum diffusion barrier thickness decreases as the filament aspect ratio increases from ∼1 in the inner rings of filaments to 1.3 in the outer filament rings. We found that just 2–3 diffusion barrier breaches can degrade RRR from 300 to 150 or less. U...

  11. Current evaluation of the information about Radiological Protection in Internet; Evaluacion actual de la informacion sobre proteccion radiologica en Internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Cruces, R.; Marco, M.; Villanueva, I.

    2003-07-01

    To analyze the current situation about the pedagogic information on radiological protection training which could be found in Internet. More than 756 web-pages have been visited in Internet about Radiological Protection in the nuclear and medical fields, providing information mainly focusing on information to the members of the public. In this search were used internet Searching Appliance (as Copernicus, Google and Scirus), using key words related with this subject (as Radiological Protection and Health Safety), getting the internet address of organizations, societies and investigation groups. Only a low percentage (less than 5 per cent) of these addresses content information on Radiological Protection for the members of the public, including information about the regulator Organizations, and which are the objectives for protection of the members of the public against ionization radiation (from the point of view of the use of the ionization radiation in the medical and nuclear field). This work attempts to propose the use of internet as a tool for informing the members of the public in matter of radiological protection, as first link in the chain of the training and education. (Author)

  12. Can anti-Mullerian hormone replace ultrasonographic evaluation in polycystic ovary syndrome? A review of current progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awadhesh Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies over the past decade have now consistently indicated that the serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH levels are at least 2–3-fold higher in the patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, which also corresponds to the increased number of AMH producing preantral and small antral follicles. Moreover, AMH levels have been found to be associated in direct proportion to the follicle numbers per ovary or antral follicular count, assessed by the transvaginal ultrasound (TVS. Furthermore, AMH correlates directly with the rising serum testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels in PCOS. Hence, serum AMH in women with oligo-anovulation and/or hyperandrogenemia could indicate the presence of underlying PCOS, when reliable TVS is not feasible, or not acceptable, either due to the virginal status or psycho-social issue. In addition, the imaging quality of abdominal ultrasound is often impaired by obesity, which typically occurs in PCOS women. Indeed, PCOS occurs most commonly in young females who cannot be subjected to invasive TVS for various reasons; therefore, a desirable alternative to TVS is urgently required to diagnose the most prevalent endocrine abnormality of young women. This review will analyze the currently available evidence regarding the role of AMH in the diagnosis of PCOS.

  13. Evaluation of calcium alginate gel as electrode material for alternating current iontophoresis of lidocaine using excised rat skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisawa, Tomoko; Nakajima, Atsushi; Haida, Haruka; Wakita, Ryo; Ando, Shizuka; Yoshioka, Tomohiko; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Junzo; Fukayama, Haruhisa

    2014-06-27

    Iontophoresis (IOP) is a noninvasive method of delivering medication transcutaneously through the skin. The electrodes used in this method should tightly fit to rough and irregular surfaces and be biologically safe, easy to handle and prepare, and cost-effective. To satisfy these requirements, calcium alginate gel can be a candidate electrode for IOP. Using calcium alginate gel electrodes, we examined whether lidocaine can be effectively transported across an excised rat skin by squarewave alternating current (AC) application. A squarewave AC with either a 70% or 80% duty cycle was continuously applied to 0.5% calcium alginate gel electrodes containing 10% lidocaine at 10 V and 1 kHz for 60 min. Lidocaine concentration was measured using a spectrophotometer and the temperature of the gel was determined. The lidocaine concentrations for AC-IOP at the 70% and 80% duty cycles were significantly higher than that without AC-IOP. Furthermore, the group with the 80% duty cycle showed higher lidocaine concentrations than the group with the 70% duty cycle. The temperatures of all the groups were lower than 28 °C throughout the procedure. In conclusion, the calcium alginate gel can be used as a possible matrix for IOP electrodes.

  14. The role of magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of thalassemic syndromes: current practice and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Mavrogeni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron can be deposited in all internal organs, leading to different types of functional abnormalities. However, myocardial iron overload that contributes to heart failure remains one of the main causes of death in thalassemia major. Using magnetic resonance imaging, tissue iron is detected indirectly by the effects on relaxation times of ferritin and hemosiderin iron interacting with hydrogen nuclei. The presence of iron in the human body results in marked alterations of tissue relaxation times. Currently, cardiovascular magnetic resonance using T2* is routinely used in many countries to identify patients with myocardial iron loading and guide chelation therapy, specifically tailored to the heart. Myocardial T2* is the only clinically validated non-invasive measure of myocardial iron loading and is superior to surrogates such as serum ferritin, liver iron, ventricular ejection fraction and tissue Doppler parameters. Finally, the substantial amelioration of patients’ survival, allows the detection of other organs’ abnormalities due to iron overload, apart from the heart, missed in the past. Recent studies revealed that iron deposition has a different pattern in various parenchymal organs, which is independent from serum ferritin and follows an individual way after chelation treatment application. This new upcoming reality orders a closer monitoring of all organs of the body in order to detect preclinical lesions and early apply adequate treatment.

  15. Evaluation of critical current density and residual resistance ratio limits in powder in tube Nb3Sn conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Christopher; Tarantini, Chiara; Hawn Sung, Zu; Lee, Peter J.; Sailer, Bernd; Thoener, Manfred; Schlenga, Klaus; Ballarino, Amalia; Bottura, Luca; Bordini, Bernardo; Scheuerlein, Christian; Larbalestier, David C.

    2016-08-01

    High critical current density (J c) Nb3Sn A15 multifilamentary wires require a large volume fraction of small grain (SG), superconducting A15 phase, as well as Cu stabilizer with high Residual Resistance Ratio (RRR) to provide electromagnetic stabilization and protection. In powder-in-tube (PIT) wires the unreacted Nb7.5 wt%Ta outer layer of the tubular filaments acts as a diffusion barrier and protects the interfilamentary Cu stabilizer from Sn contamination. A high RRR requirement generally imposes a restricted A15 reaction heat treatment to prevent localized full reaction of the filament that could allow Sn to reach the Cu. In this study we investigate recent high quality PIT wires that achieve a J c (12 T, 4.2 K) up to ˜2500 A mm-2 and find that the minimum diffusion barrier thickness decreases as the filament aspect ratio increases from ˜1 in the inner rings of filaments to 1.3 in the outer filament rings. We found that just 2-3 diffusion barrier breaches can degrade RRR from 300 to 150 or less. Using progressive etching of the Cu we also found that the RRR degradation is localized near the external filaments where deformation is highest. Consequently minimizing filament distortion during strand fabrication is important for reducing RRR degradation. The additional challenge of developing the highest possible J c must be addressed by forming the maximum fraction of high J c SG A15 and minimizing low J c large-grain (LG) A15 morphologies. In one wire we found that 15% of the filaments had a significantly enhanced SG/LG A15 ratio and no residual A15 in the core, a feature that opens a path to substantial J c improvement.

  16. Preoperative evaluation of penetrating esophageal trauma in the current era: An analysis of the National Trauma Data Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dante Yeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preoperative diagnostic evaluation (PDE of penetrating esophageal injury (PeEsIn can delay treatment and increase morbidity. We sought to study the relationship among PDE, delay in definitive treatment, and patient mortality in PeEsIn. Materials and Methods: The 2008-2010 National Trauma Data Banks were queried for PeEsIn. Exclusion criteria were death within 1 day of injury, and missing data about survival to discharge or operative intervention. Data extracted included demographics, vital signs, injury severity, diagnostic procedures (endoscopy, computed tomography, and fluoroscopy, time to procedures and/or operation, hospital-free days, and mortality. Results: Of 280 patients, 75 underwent PDE and 205 did not. There were no significant differences in baseline demographics, vital signs or injury severity between the two groups. The median time to the first operation was shorter in the nonPDE cohort compared to the PDE cohort (2 vs. 3 h; P = 0.018. Median hospital-free days at day 60 were significantly less in nonPDE (42 days, interquartile range ([IQR] = [28, 50] versus PDE patients (47 days, IQR = [38, 51] (P = 0.007. Mortality was not statistically different. Conclusions: PDE in PeEsIn slightly delays the time to operation without worsening mortality, and is a predictor of more hospital-free days

  17. Current evaluation of sonography of the meniscus. Results of a comparative study of sonographic and arthroscopic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casser, H R; Sohn, C; Kiekenbeck, A

    1990-01-01

    Sonography of the knee has gained in significance in the diagnosis of the meniscus; experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated that the normal and pathological anatomy of the meniscus can be visualized on a sonogram. The aim of this comparative investigation is to evaluate sonographic lesion diagnosis in comparison with arthroscopic findings, using a standardized examination method. Two hundred and six knee joints were first scanned sonographically using a 7.5 MHz sector transducer. The examining doctor had neither anamnestic nor clinical information in advance. On the following day, the joints were examined arthroscopically, without the findings of the day before being available to the examiner. When the findings were compared, the sensitivity of sonographic diagnosis of lesions was found to be 82.2% and its specificity 87.6%. The patients were of varying ages and had varying anamneses. The results show that sonography of the meniscus is a valuable diagnostic help when the knee-joint symptoms are not clear, given that the correct technical equipment and sufficient experience with this form of examination are at hand. The advantage of sonography is that, in contrast to arthroscopy, it is noninvasive and easily available.

  18. Evaluation of maize inbred lines currently used in Chinese breeding programs for resistance to six foliar diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoming; Wang; Yunhua; Zhang; Xiude; Xu; Hongjie; Li; Xiaofei; Wu; Shihuang; Zhang; Xinhai; Li

    2014-01-01

    Foliar diseases are common in most maize-producing regions and have caused serious yield reduction in China. To evaluate genetic resistance of parental lines actively used in maize breeding programs to major foliar diseases, 152 maize inbred lines were tested against northern corn leaf blight(NCLB), southern corn leaf blight(SCLB), Curvularia leaf spot(CLS),gray leaf spot(GLS), common rust, and southern rust from 2003 to 2005. A small number of lines exhibited highly resistant reactions to common rust and southern rust, but none were highly resistant to NCLB, SCLB, CLS, and GLS. Although 53.3%, 40.8%, and 80.7% of lines were resistant to NCLB, SCLB, and common rust, the resistance in most lines was moderate.Resistance to CLS, GLS, and southern rust was rare in this collection of maize lines. Five lines,313, Chang 7-2, Qi 319, Qi 318, and Shen 137, were resistant to five diseases tested. Lines belonging to heterotic subgroup PB exhibited better resistance to the foliar diseases than lines from other heterotic subgroups, such as BSSS, PA, Lancaster, LRC, and PA. The results will be of benefit to breeders for selecting lines in disease resistance breeding programs.

  19. Technical Evaluation of Superconducting Fault Current Limiters Used in a Micro-Grid by Considering the Fault Characteristics of Distributed Generation, Energy Storage and Power Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Concerning the development of a micro-grid integrated with multiple intermittent renewable energy resources, one of the main issues is related to the improvement of its robustness against short-circuit faults. In a sense, the superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL can be regarded as a feasible approach to enhance the transient performance of a micro-grid under fault conditions. In this paper, the fault transient analysis of a micro-grid, including distributed generation, energy storage and power loads, is conducted, and regarding the application of one or more flux-coupling-type SFCLs in the micro-grid, an integrated technical evaluation method considering current-limiting performance, bus voltage stability and device cost is proposed. In order to assess the performance of the SFCLs and verify the effectiveness of the evaluation method, different fault cases of a 10-kV micro-grid with photovoltaic (PV, wind generator and energy storage are simulated in the MATLAB software. The results show that, the efficient use of the SFCLs for the micro-grid can contribute to reducing the fault current, improving the voltage sags and suppressing the frequency fluctuations. Moreover, there will be a compromise design to fully take advantage of the SFCL parameters, and thus, the transient performance of the micro-grid can be guaranteed.

  20. Evaluation of EGFR and RTK signaling in the electrotaxis of lung adenocarcinoma cells under direct-current electric field stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh-Fu Tsai

    Full Text Available Physiological electric field (EF plays a pivotal role in tissue development and regeneration. In vitro, cells under direct-current electric field (dcEF stimulation may demonstrate directional migration (electrotaxis and long axis reorientation (electro-alignment. Although the biophysical models and biochemical signaling pathways behind cell electrotaxis have been investigated in numerous normal cells and cancer cells, the molecular signaling mechanisms in CL1 lung adenocarcinoma cells have not been identified. Two subclones of CL1 cells, the low invasive CL1-0 cells and the highly invasive CL 1-5 cells, were investigated in the present study. CL1-0 cells are non-electrotactic while the CL 1-5 cells are anodally electrotactic and have high expression level of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, in this study, we investigated the generally accepted hypothesis of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK activation in the two cell lines under dcEF stimulation. Erbitux, a therapeutic drug containing an anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, cetuximab, was used to investigate the EGFR signaling in the electrotaxis of CL 1-5 cells. To investigate RTK phosphorylation and intracellular signaling in the CL1 cells, large amount of cellular proteins were collected in an airtight dcEF stimulation device, which has advantages of large culture area, uniform EF distribution, easy operation, easy cell collection, no contamination, and no medium evaporation. Commercial antibody arrays and Western blotting were used to study the phosphorylation profiles of major proteins in CL1 cells under dcEF stimulation. We found that electrotaxis of CL 1-5 cells is serum independent and EGFR independent. Moreover, the phosphorylation of Akt and S6 ribosomal protein (rpS6 in dcEF-stimulated CL1 cells are different from that in EGF-stimulated cells. This result suggests that CL1 cells' response to dcEF stimulation is not through EGFR-triggered pathways. The new large-scale dcEF stimulation

  1. Evaluating the Consistency of Current Mainstream Wearable Devices in Health Monitoring: A Comparison Under Free-Living Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Dong; Zhang, Xingting; Liu, Xingyu

    2017-01-01

    brand, Apple or Samsung (r>.88). Conclusions Although wearable devices are developing rapidly, the current mainstream devices are only reliable in measuring the number of steps and distance, which can be used as health assessment indicators. However, the measurement consistencies of activity duration, EE, sleep quality, and so on, are still inadequate, which require further investigation and improved algorithms. PMID:28270382

  2. Evaluation of EGFR and RTK signaling in the electrotaxis of lung adenocarcinoma cells under direct-current electric field stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsieh-Fu; Huang, Ching-Wen; Chang, Hui-Fang; Chen, Jeremy J W; Lee, Chau-Hwang; Cheng, Ji-Yen

    2013-01-01

    Physiological electric field (EF) plays a pivotal role in tissue development and regeneration. In vitro, cells under direct-current electric field (dcEF) stimulation may demonstrate directional migration (electrotaxis) and long axis reorientation (electro-alignment). Although the biophysical models and biochemical signaling pathways behind cell electrotaxis have been investigated in numerous normal cells and cancer cells, the molecular signaling mechanisms in CL1 lung adenocarcinoma cells have not been identified. Two subclones of CL1 cells, the low invasive CL1-0 cells and the highly invasive CL 1-5 cells, were investigated in the present study. CL1-0 cells are non-electrotactic while the CL 1-5 cells are anodally electrotactic and have high expression level of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), in this study, we investigated the generally accepted hypothesis of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activation in the two cell lines under dcEF stimulation. Erbitux, a therapeutic drug containing an anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, cetuximab, was used to investigate the EGFR signaling in the electrotaxis of CL 1-5 cells. To investigate RTK phosphorylation and intracellular signaling in the CL1 cells, large amount of cellular proteins were collected in an airtight dcEF stimulation device, which has advantages of large culture area, uniform EF distribution, easy operation, easy cell collection, no contamination, and no medium evaporation. Commercial antibody arrays and Western blotting were used to study the phosphorylation profiles of major proteins in CL1 cells under dcEF stimulation. We found that electrotaxis of CL 1-5 cells is serum independent and EGFR independent. Moreover, the phosphorylation of Akt and S6 ribosomal protein (rpS6) in dcEF-stimulated CL1 cells are different from that in EGF-stimulated cells. This result suggests that CL1 cells' response to dcEF stimulation is not through EGFR-triggered pathways. The new large-scale dcEF stimulation device developed

  3. Integrating resource efficiency and EU State aid. An evaluation of resource efficiency considerations in the current EU State aid framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennink, D.; Faber, J.; Smit, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Goba, V. [SIA Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian Environment ELLE, Tallinn (Estonia); Miller, K.; Williams, E. [AEA Technology plc, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    This study, for the European Commission, analyses the issues that need to be addressed in the revision of the EU State aid framework to ensure that they do not hinder environmental, resource efficiency and sustainable development goals. In some cases, State aid can be considered an environmentally harmful subsidy (EHS). The study analyses (1) the extent to which the Environmental Aid Guidelines (EAG) need to be changed to take into account recent European environmental policy developments; (2) existing and potential resource efficiency considerations in a) the Regional Aid Guidelines; b) the Research, Development and Innovation (RDI) Guidelines and c) the Agriculture and Forestry Guidelines; assesses cases and schemes using these guidelines to identify whether resource efficiency considerations are taken into account. The study also considers the social, environmental and economic impacts of these cases and schemes. It develops recommendations for the review of the EAG and a number of horizontal guidelines. One of the conclusions of the analysis is that the way in which multiple objectives and impacts are balanced, when deciding to approve state aid, is unclear. Also, EU member states are not required to provide information on certain types of (estimated) impacts. To guarantee that multiple objectives and impacts are sufficiently balanced, it is recommended that the State aid framework prescribes that applicants identify social, economic and environmental objectives and impacts and describe how these are taken into account in the procedure of balancing multiple (conflicting) objectives. Objectives and impacts should be quantified as much as possible, for example by making use of the method of external cost calculation laid down in 'the Handbook on estimation of external costs in the transport Sector'. The results of the study are used by the European Commission as an input for evaluating and improving the EU State aid framework.

  4. Evaluation of the Most Current and Effective Methods in the Analysis of Chlorinated Dioxins in Ground Beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebere C. Anyanwu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorinated dioxins are the group of environmental pollutants consisting of 210 chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. They are highly toxic and persistent. They are lipophilic and can easily biomagnify in the food chain, hence posing a serious threat to human health. The daily consumption of low-level contaminated food, mainly of animal origin, leads to the accumulation of dioxins in the human body. The exposures of the general human population to dioxins and the specific issues of a risk assessment of dioxin pose serious concerns in public environmental and nutritional health. This paper reviews the analysis of chlorinated dioxins in ground beef. The sources of contamination of chlorinated dioxins in ground beef are first reviewed to form a basis for a clear understanding of the health implications of chlorinated dioxins in the human food chain and why it is necessary to monitor the level of dioxins in animal food products, especially ground beef. The methods of collection, sampling, and processing of ground beef, and the methods of sample clean up prior to the analysis, are reviewed. Emphasis is laid on the new techniques that are available and that might be effective in the analysis of chlorinated dioxins in ground beef. Among these new methods and techniques are: the synergistic combination of ELISA/GC/MS, direct sample introduction to /GC/MS-MS, automated clean-up method, and the supercritical fluid extraction methods. The possible treatments of results from each method and technique are discussed and their respective efficiencies are compared. Finally, quality control and quality assurance parameters are evaluated for levels of accuracy, reproducibility, and precision.

  5. Photogrammetric, Geometrical, and Numerical Strategies to Evaluate Initial and Current Conditions in Historical Constructions: A Test Case in the Church of San Lorenzo (Zamora, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Javier Sánchez-Aparicio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying and quantifying the potential causes of damages to a construction and evaluating its current stability have become an imperative task in today’s world. However, the existence of variables, unknown conditions and a complex geometry hinder such work, by hampering the numerical results that simulate its behavior. Of the mentioned variables, the following can be highlighted: (i the lack of historical information; (ii the mechanical properties of the material; (iii the initial geometry and (iv the interaction with other structures. Within the field of remote sensors, the laser scanner and photogrammetric systems have become especially valuable for construction analysis. Such sensors are capable of providing highly accurate and dense geometrical data with which to assess a building’s condition. It is also remarkable, that the latter provide valuable radiometric data with which to identify the properties of the materials, and also evaluate and monitor crack patterns. Motivated by this, the present article investigates the potential offered by the combined use of photogrammetric techniques (DIC and SfM, as well as geometrical (NURBs and Hausdorff distance and numerical strategies (FEM to assess the origin of the damage (through an estimation of the initial conditions and give an evaluation of the current stability (considering the deformation and the damage.

  6. Technical review and evaluation of the economics of water desalination: Current and future challenges for better water supply sustainability

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2013-01-01

    Desalination capacity has rapidly increased in the last decade because of the increase in water demand and a significant reduction in desalination cost as a result of significant technological advances, especially in the reverse osmosis process. The cost of desalinated seawater has fallen below US$0.50/m3 for a large scale seawater reverse osmosis plant at a specific location and conditions while in other locations the cost is 50% higher (US$1.00/m3) for a similar facility. In addition to capital and operating costs, other parameters such as local incentives or subsidies may also contribute to the large difference in desalted water cost between regions and facilities. Plant suppliers and consultants have their own cost calculation methodologies, but they are confidential and provide water costs with different accuracies. The few existing costing methodologies and software packages such as WTCost© and DEEP provide an estimated cost with different accuracies and their applications are limited to specific conditions. Most of the available cost estimation tools are of the black box type, which provide few details concerning the parameters and methodologies applied for local conditions. Many desalination plants built recently have greater desalinated water delivery costs caused by special circumstances, such as plant remediation or upgrades, local variation in energy costs, and site-specific issues in raw materials costs (e.g., tariffs and transportation). Therefore, the availability of a more transparent and unique methodology for estimating the cost will help in selecting an appropriate desalination technology suitable for specific locations with consideration of all the parameters influencing the cost. A techno-economic evaluation and review of the costing aspects and the main parameters influencing the total water cost produced by different desalination technologies are herein presented in detail. Some recent developments, such as the increase of unit capacity

  7. [Team approaches to critical bleeding (massive bleeding and transfusion) - chairmen's introductory remarks. Questionnaire survey on current status of hospital clinical laboratories evaluating critical hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kino, Shuichi; Suwabe, Akira

    2014-12-01

    In 2007, "the Guidelines for Actions against Intraoperative Critical Hemorrhage" were established by the Japanese Society of Anaesthesiologists and the Japanese Society of Blood transfusion and Cell Therapy. The documentation of in-hospital procedures for critical hemorrhage, especially about how to select RBC units, has widely standardized hospital practice. Patients with intraoperative critical hemorrhage sometimes suffer from massive blood loss. In this situation, some patients develop coagulopathy. To treat them, we need to evaluate their coagulation status based on laboratory test results. So, we performed a nationwide questionnaire survey on the current status of hospital clinical laboratories evaluating critical hemorrhage. From the results of this survey, it was recommended that central hospital laboratories should try to reduce the turn-around time required to test for coagulation parameters as much as possible for appropriate substitution therapy. (Review).

  8. The risk-benefit task of research ethics committees: An evaluation of current approaches and the need to incorporate decision studies methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernabe Rosemarie D L C

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research ethics committees (RECs are tasked to assess the risks and the benefits of a trial. Currently, two procedure-level approaches are predominant, the Net Risk Test and the Component Analysis. Discussion By looking at decision studies, we see that both procedure-level approaches conflate the various risk-benefit tasks, i.e., risk-benefit assessment, risk-benefit evaluation, risk treatment, and decision making. This conflation makes the RECs’ risk-benefit task confusing, if not impossible. We further realize that RECs are not meant to do all the risk-benefit tasks; instead, RECs are meant to evaluate risks and benefits, appraise risk treatment suggestions, and make the final decision. Conclusion As such, research ethics would benefit from looking beyond the procedure-level approaches and allowing disciplines like decision studies to be involved in the discourse on RECs’ risk-benefit task.

  9. Evaluation of agonist selectivity for the NMDA receptor ion channel in bilayer lipid membranes based on integrated single-channel currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, A; Sugawara, M; Umezawa, Y; Uchino, S; Nakajima-Iijima, S

    2000-06-01

    A new method for evaluating chemical selectivity of agonists to activate the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor was presented by using typical agonists NMDA, L-glutamate and (2S, 3R, 4S)-2-(carboxycyclopropyl)glycine (L-CCG-IV) and the mouse epsilon1/zeta1 NMDA receptor incorporated in bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) as an illustrative example. The method was based on the magnitude of an agonist-induced integrated single-channel current corresponding to the number of total ions passed through the open channel. The very magnitudes of the integrated single-channel currents were compared with the different BLMs as a new measure of agonist selectivity. The epsilon1/zeta1 NMDA receptor was partially purified from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the epsilon1/zeta1 NMDA receptor and incorporated in BLMs formed by the tip-dip method. The agonist-induced integrated single-channel currents were obtained at 50 microM agonist concentration, where the integrated current for NMDA was shown to reach its saturated value. The obtained integrated currents were found to be (4.5 +/- 0.55) x 10(-13) C/s for NMDA, (5.8 +/- 0.72) x 10(-13) C/s for L-glutamate and (6.6 +/- 0.61) x 10(-13) C/s for L-CCG-IV, respectively. These results suggest that the agonist selectivity in terms of the total ion flux through the single epsilon1/zeta1 NMDA receptor is in the order of L-CCG-IV approximately = L-glutamate > NMDA.

  10. Evaluation of local electric fields generated by transcranial direct current stimulation with an extracephalic reference electrode based on realistic 3D body modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Chang-Hwan; Park, Ji-Hye; Shim, Miseon; Chang, Won Hyuk; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2012-04-01

    In this study, local electric field distributions generated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with an extracephalic reference electrode were evaluated to address extracephalic tDCS safety issues. To this aim, we generated a numerical model of an adult male human upper body and applied the 3D finite element method to electric current conduction analysis. In our simulations, the active electrode was placed over the left primary motor cortex (M1) and the reference electrode was placed at six different locations: over the right temporal lobe, on the right supraorbital region, on the right deltoid, on the left deltoid, under the chin, and on the right buccinator muscle. The maximum current density and electric field intensity values in the brainstem generated by the extracephalic reference electrodes were comparable to, or even less than, those generated by the cephalic reference electrodes. These results suggest that extracephalic reference electrodes do not lead to unwanted modulation of the brainstem cardio-respiratory and autonomic centers, as indicated by recent experimental studies. The volume energy density was concentrated at the neck area by the use of deltoid reference electrodes, but was still smaller than that around the active electrode locations. In addition, the distributions of elicited cortical electric fields demonstrated that the use of extracephalic reference electrodes might allow for the robust prediction of cortical modulations with little dependence on the reference electrode locations.

  11. Evaluating simplistic methods to understand current distributions and forecast distribution changes under climate change scenarios: An example with coypu (Myocastor coypus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Young, Nicholas E; Sheffels, Trevor R.; Carter, Jacoby; Systma, Mark D.; Talbert, Colin

    2017-01-01

    Invasive species provide a unique opportunity to evaluate factors controlling biogeographic distributions; we can consider introduction success as an experiment testing suitability of environmental conditions. Predicting potential distributions of spreading species is not easy, and forecasting potential distributions with changing climate is even more difficult. Using the globally invasive coypu (Myocastor coypus [Molina, 1782]), we evaluate and compare the utility of a simplistic ecophysiological based model and a correlative model to predict current and future distribution. The ecophysiological model was based on winter temperature relationships with nutria survival. We developed correlative statistical models using the Software for Assisted Habitat Modeling and biologically relevant climate data with a global extent. We applied the ecophysiological based model to several global circulation model (GCM) predictions for mid-century. We used global coypu introduction data to evaluate these models and to explore a hypothesized physiological limitation, finding general agreement with known coypu distribution locally and globally and support for an upper thermal tolerance threshold. Global circulation model based model results showed variability in coypu predicted distribution among GCMs, but had general agreement of increasing suitable area in the USA. Our methods highlighted the dynamic nature of the edges of the coypu distribution due to climate non-equilibrium, and uncertainty associated with forecasting future distributions. Areas deemed suitable habitat, especially those on the edge of the current known range, could be used for early detection of the spread of coypu populations for management purposes. Combining approaches can be beneficial to predicting potential distributions of invasive species now and in the future and in exploring hypotheses of factors controlling distributions.

  12. Evaluating simplistic methods to understand current distributions and forecast distribution changes under climate change scenarios: an example with coypu (Myocastor coypus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine S. Jarnevich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive species provide a unique opportunity to evaluate factors controlling biogeographic distributions; we can consider introduction success as an experiment testing suitability of environmental conditions. Predicting potential distributions of spreading species is not easy, and forecasting potential distributions with changing climate is even more difficult. Using the globally invasive coypu (Myocastor coypus [Molina, 1782], we evaluate and compare the utility of a simplistic ecophysiological based model and a correlative model to predict current and future distribution. The ecophysiological model was based on winter temperature relationships with nutria survival. We developed correlative statistical models using the Software for Assisted Habitat Modeling and biologically relevant climate data with a global extent. We applied the ecophysiological based model to several global circulation model (GCM predictions for mid-century. We used global coypu introduction data to evaluate these models and to explore a hypothesized physiological limitation, finding general agreement with known coypu distribution locally and globally and support for an upper thermal tolerance threshold. Global circulation model based model results showed variability in coypu predicted distribution among GCMs, but had general agreement of increasing suitable area in the USA. Our methods highlighted the dynamic nature of the edges of the coypu distribution due to climate non-equilibrium, and uncertainty associated with forecasting future distributions. Areas deemed suitable habitat, especially those on the edge of the current known range, could be used for early detection of the spread of coypu populations for management purposes. Combining approaches can be beneficial to predicting potential distributions of invasive species now and in the future and in exploring hypotheses of factors controlling distributions.

  13. Early Fatigue Damage Evaluation of 321 Stainless Steel by Eddy Current Method%321不锈钢疲劳早期损伤的涡流评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昆鹏; 赵子华; 张峥

    2012-01-01

    The early fatigue damage of AISI 321 stainless steel was conducted evaluation by eddy current array. In the fatigue test, the change of eddy current amplitude could be divided into three stages: rapid growth, stability and accelerated growth. The relationship between the eddy current amplitude and the logarithmic fatigue life was nearly linear at the first stage. The area of fatigue damage was not changed in the fatigue crack initiation life. Microstructure with different fatigue cycles indicated that the dislocation proliferation and interaction were the main reasons for the increasing of eddy current amplitude at the beginning of fatigue.%采用涡流阵列系统对321不锈钢疲劳早期损伤进行了检测与评估.整个疲劳过程中涡流幅值的变化分为快速增长、稳定和加速增长三个阶段.第一阶段的涡流幅值与循环周次对数之间有近似线性关系.在裂纹萌生寿命内,疲劳损伤区的大小与循环周次无关.对不同循环周次下321不锈钢试样的微结构分析表明疲劳早期涡流幅值变化的主要来源是材料内部位错的增殖和运动,而不是马氏体相转变.

  14. Technical Note: Phantom study to evaluate the dose and image quality effects of a computed tomography organ-based tube current modulation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandhi, Diksha; Schmidt, Taly Gilat, E-mail: taly.gilat-schmidt@marquette.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 (United States); Crotty, Dominic J.; Stevens, Grant M. [GE Healthcare, Waukesha, Wisconsin 53188 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: This technical note quantifies the dose and image quality performance of a clinically available organ-dose-based tube current modulation (ODM) technique, using experimental and simulation phantom studies. The investigated ODM implementation reduces the tube current for the anterior source positions, without increasing current for posterior positions, although such an approach was also evaluated for comparison. Methods: Axial CT scans at 120 kV were performed on head and chest phantoms on an ODM-equipped scanner (Optima CT660, GE Healthcare, Chalfont St. Giles, England). Dosimeters quantified dose to breast, lung, heart, spine, eye lens, and brain regions for ODM and 3D-modulation (SmartmA) settings. Monte Carlo simulations, validated with experimental data, were performed on 28 voxelized head phantoms and 10 chest phantoms to quantify organ dose and noise standard deviation. The dose and noise effects of increasing the posterior tube current were also investigated. Results: ODM reduced the dose for all experimental dosimeters with respect to SmartmA, with average dose reductions across dosimeters of 31% (breast), 21% (lung), 24% (heart), 6% (spine), 19% (eye lens), and 11% (brain), with similar results for the simulation validation study. In the phantom library study, the average dose reduction across all phantoms was 34% (breast), 20% (lung), 8% (spine), 20% (eye lens), and 8% (brain). ODM increased the noise standard deviation in reconstructed images by 6%–20%, with generally greater noise increases in anterior regions. Increasing the posterior tube current provided similar dose reduction as ODM for breast and eye lens, increased dose to the spine, with noise effects ranging from 2% noise reduction to 16% noise increase. At noise equal to SmartmA, ODM increased the estimated effective dose by 4% and 8% for chest and head scans, respectively. Increasing the posterior tube current further increased the effective dose by 15% (chest) and 18% (head

  15. Use of functional near-infrared spectroscopy to evaluate the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation on brain connectivity in motor-related cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jiaqing; Wei, Yun; Wang, Yinghua; Xu, Gang; Li, Zheng; Li, Xiaoli

    2015-04-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive, safe and convenient neuro-modulatory technique in neurological rehabilitation, treatment, and other aspects of brain disorders. However, evaluating the effects of tDCS is still difficult. We aimed to evaluate the effects of tDCS using hemodynamic changes using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Five healthy participants were employed and anodal tDCS was applied to the left motor-related cortex, with cathodes positioned on the right dorsolateral supraorbital area. fNIRS data were collected from the right motor-related area at the same time. Functional connectivity (FC) between intracortical regions was calculated between fNIRS channels using a minimum variance distortion-less response magnitude squared coherence (MVDR-MSC) method. The levels of Oxy-HbO change and the FC between channels during the prestimulation, stimulation, and poststimulation stages were compared. Results showed no significant level difference, but the FC measured by MVDR-MSC significantly decreased during tDCS compared with pre-tDCS and post-tDCS, although the FC difference between pre-tDCS and post-tDCS was not significant. We conclude that coherence calculated from resting state fNIRS may be a useful tool for evaluating the effects of anodal tDCS and optimizing parameters for tDCS application.

  16. La puerta como dogma: a propósito de un nuevo descubrimiento de la iglesia de san Zoilo de Carrión de los Condes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senra Gabriel y Galán, José Luis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past fifteen years art historians have been surprised by the significant Romanesque findings at the site of the former monastery of San Zoilo in Carrión de los Condes (Palencia. From its western doorway and complex northwestern facade tower to an assortment of decontextualized pieces, all of these findings have contributed toward the evaluation of one of the most important monumental groups of the Cluniac Order in the Iberian Peninsula. Among the most recent discoveries is the doorway to the lost western tribune, the subject of this article

    En los últimos quince años el que fuera monasterio de San Zoilo de Carrión de los Condes (Palencia ha sorprendido a los especialistas en Historia del Arte con importantes hallazgos pertenecientes a su materialización románica. Desde su portada occidental a su compleja torre noroeste de fachada pasando por diferentes piezas descontextualizadas, todo ello ha contribuido a valorar uno de los conjuntos monumentales de más importancia gestionados por la abadía de Cluny en la Península Ibérica. En los últimos meses se ha descubierto una de las puertas de acceso a su desaparecida tribuna occidental sobre la que se trata en este artículo.

  17. Analysis of sub-1 keV implants in silicon using SIMS, SRP, MEISS and DLTS: The xRLEAP low energy, high current implanter evaluated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foad, M.A.; England, J.G.; Moffatt, S. [Applied Materials Implant Division, West Sussex (United Kingdom); Armour, D.G. [Univ. of Salford (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    Ultra shallow junctions can be formed, amongst other techniques, by very low energy ion implantation. The Implant Division of Applied Materials have recently developed a low energy, high current ion implanter, the xRLEAP (xR family, Low Energy Advance Process). This implanter is capable of delivering product worthy beam currents, in the milli-ampere regime down to energies of few hundred electron volts. A series of B and BF{sub 2} implants were carried out onto non-amorphised, 200mm Si wafers using beam energies in the range 0.2keV < E < 1keV. As-implanted and annealed samples were profiled using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). Surface damage due to implantation was evaluated using Medium Energy Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (MEISS). The carrier concentration profiles and junction depths of the annealed samples were investigated using Spreading Resistance Probe (SRP). Samples with ultra shallow junctions, < 0.07{mu}m, were examined using Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) for the first time.

  18. Evaluation of the performance of ultrasonic and eddy current testing of austenitic claddings of reactor pressure vessels; Bewertung der Aussagefaehigkeit von Ultraschall- und Wirbelstrompruefung austenitischer Plattierungen von Reaktordruckbehaeltern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waidele, H.; Maier, H.J.; Just, T.; Seidenkranz, T.; Seydel, O.; Weiss, R.

    2000-12-01

    In the scope of this project, non-destructive testing methods were carried out on specimens with defects intentionally manufactured in the region of the cladding. The aim of these trials is an evaluation of the performance of ultrasonic and eddy current examinations of austenitic claddings of reactor pressure vessels. A review of the non-destructive testing of claddings showed that the majority of the investigations have been carried out on specimens with artificial defects (notches, holes). Therefore, for the realisation of this project MPA Stuttgart produced specimens with natural defects in the cladding. In detail these are specimens with intergranular stress-corrosion cracking, hot cracks and welding defects in the cladding as well as specimens with underclad cracks. The thickness of the specimens is about 150 mm (BWR-RPV), so that in addition to the testing from the ID (PWR, ultrasonic, eddy current) also the testing from the OD (BWR, ultrasonic) could be examined. The measurements show that most of the cladding defects can be detected with the standard ultrasonic test methods, however, in some cases generate only low echo amplitudes. Favourable results were obtained from the ID testing by means of a phased array probe, in particular in connection with the eddy current technique. Investigations on specimens containing defects not known to the inspection teams (blind tests), which will allow a further evaluation of the performance of non-destructive testing methods under realistic conditions, will be carried out in Phase II of the project. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen dieses Vorhabens wurden an Testkoerpern mit im Plattierungsbereich gezielt eingebrachten Fehlerbildungen zerstoerungsfreie Pruefungen durchgefuehrt. Ziel der Untersuchungen ist eine Bewertung der Aussagefaehigkeit von Ultraschall- und Wirbelstrompruefungen an austenitischen Plattierungen von Reaktordruckbehaeltern. Bei einer Bestandsaufnahme zur zerstoerungsfreien Pruefung von Plattierungen zeigte

  19. Implementation workshop of WHO guidelines on evaluation of malaria vaccines: Current regulatory concepts and issues related to vaccine quality, Pretoria, South Africa 07 Nov 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Mei Mei; Baca-Estrada, Maria; Conrad, Christoph; Karikari-Boateng, Eric; Kang, Hye-Na

    2015-08-26

    The current World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on the quality, safety and efficacy of recombinant malaria vaccines targeting the pre-erythrocytic and blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum were adopted by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization in 2012 to provide guidance on the quality, nonclinical and clinical aspects of recombinant malaria vaccines. A WHO workshop was organised to facilitate implementation into African (national/regional) regulatory practices, of the regulatory evaluation principles outlined in the guidelines regarding quality aspects. The workshop was used also to share knowledge and experience on regulatory topics of chemistry, manufacturing and control with a focus on vaccines through presentations and an interactive discussion using a case study approach. The basic principles and concepts of vaccine quality including consistency of production, quality control and manufacturing process were presented and discussed in the meeting. By reviewing and practicing a case study, better understanding on the relationship between consistency of production and batch release tests of an adjuvanted pre-erythrocytic recombinant malaria vaccine was reached. The case study exercise was considered very useful to understand regulatory evaluation principles of vaccines and a suggestion was made to WHO to provide such practices also through its Global Learning Opportunities for Vaccine Quality programme.

  20. BLOCKING ALGORITHM FOR CURRENT PROTECTION DURING INRUSH MAGNETIZATION CURRENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Romaniuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents blocking algorithm for current protection during inrush process. The algorithm is based on the evaluation of the ratio of the positive sequence second harmonic current to the negative sequence first harmonic current.

  1. Characterization and implementation of OSL dosimeters for use in evaluating the efficacy of organ-based tube current modulation for CT scans of the face and orbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, R. M.; Silosky, M., E-mail: michael.silosky@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to characterize commercially available optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) dosimeters for general clinical applications and apply the results to the development of a method to evaluate the efficacy of a vendor-specific organ-based tube current modulation application for both phantom and clinical computed tomography (CT) scans of the face and orbits. Methods: This study consisted of three components: (1) thorough characterization of the dosimeters for CT scans in phantom, including evaluations of depletion, fading, angular dependence, and conversion from counts to absorbed dose; (2) evaluation of the efficacy of using plastic glasses to position the dosimeters over the eyes in both phantom and clinical studies; and (3) preliminary dosimetry measurements made using organ-based tube current modulation in computed tomography dose index (CTDI) and anthropomorphic phantom studies. Results: (1) Depletion effects were found to have a linear relationship with the output of the OSL dosimeters (R{sup 2} = 0.96). Fading was found to affect dosimeter readings during the first two hours following exposure but had no effect during the remaining 60-h period observed. No significant angular dependence was observed for the exposure conditions used in this study (with p-values ranging from 0.9 to 0.26 for all t-tests). Dosimeter counts varied linearly with absorbed dose when measured in the center and 12 o’clock positions of the CTDI phantoms. These linear models of counts versus absorbed dose had overlapping 95% confidence intervals for the intercepts but not for the slopes. (2) When dosimeters were positioned using safety glasses, there was no adverse effect on image quality, and there was no statistically significant difference between this placement and placement of the dosimeters directly on the eyes of the phantom (p = 0.24). (3) When using organ-based tube current modulation, the dose to the lens of the eye was reduced between 19% and

  2. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.

  3. The Dogma of Democracy Gone Sour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Maxton

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to political organisation the western world likes to claim the moral high ground. It touts the benefits of free and fair elections, as if the concept of democracy were a self-evident, eternal truth. For the US State Department, democracy has taken on near-religious significance. It has become a right, just as much as the right to life, liberty and happiness.If the US and many other western countries actually practised what they preached, they would at least be giving their sermons from solid turf. But because they continue to undermine the practice of democracy at home, their pulpits are not very high and the ground they stand on is increasingly squishy.In the nations with the loudest democracy trumpets, big businesses and rich individuals have corrupted the democratic process. They influence elections and laws to their advantage and suppress changes they don't like. At the same time, the poor have become increasingly disenfranchised, either because they are deliberately excluded from the voting process or because they no longer believe it has any value.This is not just a failure of democracy. It is also a failure of communication. Rather than achieving its goals, and promoting an idea with considerable merit, the West is undermining the cause. Democracy has become little more than an ideological weapon, and it is driving the doubters away.

  4. When American Style Meets European Dogma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Editor’s Note: In the early 1980s, some graduates of the prestigious Central Conservatory of Music began their musical careers. When one such graduate, Tan Dun, was awarded an Oscar in 1999 for his musical score to the film Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon, well-known Chinese composer Chen Qigang, now resident in France, wrote a letter of congratulations to his former classmate. He said, "Ours was a class of student nonentities until we rocked China and then the world. We ’lit beacons’ in different parts of the world. Whether friends or rivals, our influence on each other is symbiotic. Now, when people call me ’master,’ I can’t help remembering being one of eight classmates, all sharing an hotel room in Amsterdam." At the end of his letter Chen Qigang wrote, "Our horizons are broadening."This article gives an insight into artists who were young during the "cultural revolution, " and the impressions of European and American music circles they gained from their experience abroad.

  5. Evaluation of the Relationship between Current Internal 137Cs Exposure in Residents and Soil Contamination West of Chernobyl in Northern Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuko; Okubo, Yuka; Hayashida, Naomi; Takahashi, Jumpei; Gutevich, Alexander; Chorniy, Sergiy; Kudo, Takashi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    After the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, the residents living around the Chernobyl were revealed to have been internally exposed to 137Cs through the intake of contaminated local foods. To evaluate the current situation of internal 137Cs exposure and the relationship between the 137Cs soil contamination and internal exposure in residents, we investigated the 137Cs body burden in residents who were living in 10 selected cities from the northern part of the Zhitomir region, Ukraine, and collected soil samples from three family farms and wild forests of each city to measured 137Cs concentrations. The total number of study participants was 36,862, of which 68.9% of them were female. After 2010, the annual effective doses were less than 0.1 mSv in over 90% of the residents. The 137Cs body burden was significantly higher in autumn than other seasons (p Chernobyl accident, the internal exposure doses to residents living in contaminated areas of northern Ukraine is limited but still related to 137Cs soil contamination. Furthermore, the consumption of local foods is considered to be the cause of internal exposure. PMID:26402065

  6. Performance evaluation of reactive direct current unbalanced magnetron sputter deposited nanostructured TiN coated high-speed steel drill bits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Harish C Barshilia; K S Rajam

    2007-12-01

    The stainless steels, in general, are considered to be difficult-to-machine materials. In order to machine these materials the surface of the tool is generally coated with physical vapour deposition (PVD) hard coatings such as titanium nitride (TiN), titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN), etc. The adhesion is of vital importance for the performance of tools coated with PVD coatings. Proper surface treatments (in situ and ex situ) are required to achieve highly adherent PVD coatings on tools. We have deposited nanostructured TiN coatings on high-speed steel (HSS) drill bits and mild steel substrates using an indigenously built semi-industrial fourcathode reactive direct current (d.c.) unbalanced magnetron sputtering system. Various treatments have been given to the substrates for improved adhesion of the TiN coatings. The process parameters have been optimized to achieve highly adherent thick good quality TiN coatings. These coatings have been characterized using X-ray diffraction, nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy techniques. The performance of the coated HSS drill bits is evaluated by drilling a 13 mm thick 304 stainless steel plate under wet conditions. The results show significant improvement in the performance of the TiN coated HSS drill bits.

  7. The survey on current situation of system evaluation in China%中国系统评价研究的状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏茜; 王维利; 李惠萍

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨中国系统评价研究的相关情况.方法 对1996--2006年中国所有期刊杂志中的系统评价进行检索,并分析结果.结果 中国近十年来共刊登相关文献646篇,其中系统评价291篇,系统综述13篇,Meta分析264篇,荟萃分析78篇.刊载的系统评价文献数量逐年递增,由1999年的1篇激增到2006年的208篇,内容涉及到整个医学生物领域的理论、应用、调查等方面.其中应用类的质量评价为1级,即采用最佳证据(随机对照试验)的文献为343篇,占该类文献的60.39%.护理方面的文献共9篇,占所有文献的1.39%.结论 系统评价发展迅速,中国正处于将循证医学中的系统评价引入实践的阶段,并取得了一定成绩,然而发展中尚存在一些难点、盲点,系统评价(尤其是护理领域)的相关研究数量和质量均有待进一步提高.%Objective To explore the current situation of system evaluation in China. MethodsThe system evaluation in all Chinese periodical and magazines were indexed from 1996 to 2006, and theresults were analyzed. Results There are 646 published pieces about system evaluation in the latest tenyears in China. The published systematic review document increased year by year, sharply from 1 piece in1999 to 208 pieces in 2006, while the contents involve every aspect of medicine biology. 343 pieces of thesedocuments using the best evidence, the randomized controlled trial, account for 60.39% of all. There are 9pieces nursing documents, only occupying 1.39%. Conclusions The system evaluation is developingrapidly in China. We are now on the stage of putting the systematic review of the Evidence-based medicineinto practice. Though, we achieve some success, there are still some difficulties and blind spots in itsdevelopment, and the quantity and quality of correlated investigation in system evaluation, especially innursing field, are waiting for further boost.

  8. Eddy-current tests on operational evaluation of steam generator tubes in nuclear power plants; Ensaios de Eddy-current na avaliacao do estado operacional de tubos de geradores de vapor de centrais nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Luiz Antonio Negro Martin [Faculdade de Engenharia Industrial (FEI), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energetica]. E-mail: luizlope@cci.fei.br; Ting, Daniel Kao Sun [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. Engenharia de Reatores]. E-mail: dksting@net.ipen.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents a worldwide research on the technical and economical impacts due to failure in tube bundles of nuclear power plant steam generators. An Eddy current non destructive test using Foucault currents for the inspection and failure detection on the tubes, and also the main type of defects. The paper also presents the signals generated by a Zetec MIZ-40 test equipment. This paper also presents a brief description of an automatic system for data analysis which is under development by using a fuzzy logic and artificial intelligence.

  9. Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fred Genesee

    2005-01-01

    @@ Introduction Evaluation in TESOL settings is a process of collecting,analysing and interpreting information about teaching and learning in order to make informed decisions that enhance student achievement and the success of educational programmes (Rea-Dickins and Germaine 1993; Genesee and Upshur 1996;O'Malley and Valdez-Pierce 1996).Three simple examples help explicate the varied forms evaluation can take in TESOL settings:

  10. Earthquake Early Warning for the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake: Performance Evaluation of the Current System and Simulations of the Next-Generation Methods of the Japan Meteorological Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodera, Y.; Saitou, J.; Hayashimoto, N.; Adachi, S.; Morimoto, M.; Nishimae, Y.; Hoshiba, M.

    2016-12-01

    The sequence of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake (the Kumamoto earthquake) is extremely high seismic activity that occurred across Kumamoto and Oita prefectures in Japan since April 14, 2016 at 21:26 (JST). The Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) system of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) processed large amount of earthquake data and issued 19 warnings (higher grade alerts) and 175 forecasts (lower grade alerts) for the Kumamoto earthquake from April 14 to 30. Especially on April 14 and 16, the system operated under one of the highest workload conditions since JMA started its EEW service. We evaluated the system performance for cases where the warning was issued and/or the maximum seismic intensity of ≥5L (on the JMA scale) was actually observed, calculating prediction scores and lapse times from detection. The result shows that the system rapidly disseminated high accurate EEW announcements for most of the devastating earthquakes and did not miss or seriously under-predict strong motions. On the other hand, the system issued over-predicted warnings when multiple simultaneous earthquakes occurred within a short distance, comparable with the interval of the seismic observation network. We also simulated the Integrated Particle Filter (IPF) and Propagation of Local Undamped Motion (PLUM) methods, scheduled to be implemented in the JMA EEW system to minimize over-prediction with multiple simultaneous earthquakes and under-prediction with huge earthquakes (M> 8). The simulation results indicate that the IPF method is highly effective for the cases where the current system issued the over-predicted warnings, owing to its classification algorithm using amplitude data and its robust hypocenter determination against outliers among trigger data. The results also show that the PLUM method contributes to more rapid warning issuance for the devastating earthquakes, owing to its denser seismic observation network.

  11. Evaluation of daptomycin treatment of Staphylococcus aureus bacterial endocarditis: an in vitro and in vivo simulation using historical and current dosing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Warren E; Rybak, Michael J; Kaatz, Glenn W

    2007-08-01

    A failure to daptomycin therapy and subsequent emergence of a daptomycin non-susceptible isolate occurred during the 1990 clinical investigation of daptomycin for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia and endocarditis. We attempted to determine if this occurrence was reproducible in vitro and if it could be prevented by various daptomycin dosing strategies. The daptomycin susceptible parent strain (SA-675) and the subsequent non-susceptible derivative (SA-684) were evaluated. In the rabbit endocarditis model, daptomycin 3 mg/kg every 8 h for 4 days was administered to simulate the study patient's pharmacokinetic exposure. Daptomycin doses of 1.5 and 3 mg/kg every 12 h and 6 and 10 mg/kg every 24 and 48 h were simulated in the in vitro model with simulated endocardial vegetations (SEVs). Daptomycin significantly reduced bacterial counts of SA-675 in rabbits, but one in 10(5)-10(6) organisms from vegetations of one animal had an 8-fold increase in MIC. Daptomycin 1.5 mg/kg every 12 h in the in vitro model demonstrated no activity against either strain; reduced susceptibility emerged in SA-675 (4-fold increase in MIC). Bactericidal activity was noted with 6 and 10 mg/kg dosing against SA-675 with no resistance detected. The activity of the 6 mg/kg regimen was reduced against SA-684 but significantly improved activity was noted with 10 mg/kg daily. The emergence of resistance was successfully recreated at suboptimal dosing regimens while the current recommended regimen of 6 mg/kg/day prevented the emergence of non-susceptible mutants. Daptomycin 10 mg/kg/day demonstrated even more enhanced killing. Further investigation with daptomycin 10 mg/kg is warranted.

  12. Survey of attitudes of physicians toward the current evaluation and treatment of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souqiyyeh Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed in this study to determine the opinion of the medical directors of dialysis centers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA about the updates of strategies for evaluation and treatment of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone Disorder (CKD-MBD. A questionnaire was sent to medical directors of 174 dialysis centers in the KSA between July and November 2009. The questionnaire was opinion based and comprised the prevalence of the CKD-MBD, strategies of therapy and indications of cinacalcet, a new therapy in the CKD patients. A total of 154 medical directors of the 174 (88.5%, who are the therapeutic decision-makers for 10100 (89% dialysis patients, answered the questionnaire. There were 84 respondents (54% who believed that the parathormone (PTH blood levels initially increase at a glomerular filtration rate (GFR < 30%. There were 80 (53% respondents who believed that changes of phosphorus (PO4 and cal-cium (Ca blood levels are initially observed at GFR < 30 mL/min. The majority of respondents, 115 (77%, 116 (80%, 95 (66%, and 134 (90% currently have observed increased prevalence of vascular calcifications, adynamic bone disease, PTH > 500 pmol/L, and elevated Ca blood levels, respectively, only in the minority of advanced CKD. However, 88 (58% respondents observed increased prevalence of elevated PO4 blood levels in the majority of new dialysis and advanced CKD patients. There were 137 (89% respondents who believed from the current published evi-dence that CKD-MBD may result in increased morbidity (e.g. fractures and mortality (e.g. cardiovascular in advanced CKD and new dialysis patients. However, only 41 (27% respondents follow the PTH levels in their patients every 2-3 months, while 81(53% follow it every 6 months. There were 127 (83%, 129 (84%, 114 (75% respondents who would start vitamin D (vit D in dialysis and CKD patients for hypocalcemia, high PTH, and vit D 1,25 deficiency, respectively. However, only 51 (34% respondents would

  13. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  14. Evaluering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Andersen, Michael; Wandall, Jakob

    Idéen til denne bog opstod i forbindelse med undervisningen i evaluering af uddannelse på Århus Universitet. Vi oplevede, at der nok fandtes megen litteratur om evaluering, både på dansk og især engelsk, men ikke meget litteratur, der på en overskuelig og dækkende måde kunne bruges som indføring i...... det brede felt, som bogen dækker. En del dansksproget evalueringslitteratur drejer sig om programevaluering på et mere generelt niveau. Meget af denne litteratur har fokus på offentlig virksomhed, men kun i mindre grad på uddannelse. En del litteratur omhandler evaluering af undervisning, en del har...... fokus på elevers læring. Vi har villet skrive en bog, der dækker hele feltet: Evaluering af læring, undervisning og uddannelse. Vi har med bogen villet skabe overblik over dette omfattende felt, som udvikler sig i mange retninger. Dette ud fra den opfattelse, at evaluering får stadig større betydning...

  15. Exploring Education Culture by Employing Hofstede?s Cultural Dimensions to Evaluate the Effectiveness of the Current ERP Training Approach in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chayakonvikom, Monta; Fuangvut, Parin; Cannell, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    ERP training is a critical success factor in ERP implementation. The current ERP training was largely ineffective and caused user resistance and ERP implementation failure. The objective of this paper is to investigate whether the current ERP training approach can accommodate the cultural learning behaviors of end-users. Hofstede's cultural…

  16. [Clinical evaluation of new drugs against orphan diseases in oncology - the current situation in Europe and in our country].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stěrba, Jaroslav; Stěrbová, Sylva; Kodytková, Daniela; Valík, Dalibor; Demlová, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Cancer represents one of the main causes of death among diseases across the age spectrum. Tumors in children, however, represent less than 1% of the total number of cancers in the population and in terms of the definition of orphan diseases in Europe are all children's cancers considered as orphan diseases. This is the reason why the research and development of new agents against cancer in childhood stands outside of the main interest. Every year around 30,000 new cases of cancer in children and adolescents are diagnosed in the European Unioun (EU) and approximately 80% of them achieve long-term remission using mainly conventional methods of treatment. However, almost 6,000 children and adolescents die every year of malignant tumors therefore cancer remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Consequently, there is a demand for new and safe drugs for children suffering from cancer which would lead to improved survival and to risk reduction of late adverse effects of cancer treatment. In the past 10 years in the EU, more in the EU-15 than in our country, 20 performed oncology trials in phase I involving adults account for only one trial in pediatric patients. The issue of new drugs clinical testing in rare cancers is very complex, complicated and for current unsatisfactory situation might be responsible various aspects. These aspects contain the legislative field, the problem of determining the correct dose of testing drug as a single agent or in combination therapy, the use of testing drug in advanced disease or already in de novo diagnosed patients, as well as equity (equal) access to new drugs being tested, the goal set for each molecule/drug in clinical trials, the conflict of interest balanced with sufficient professionalism and last but not least, the need for new methodologies and statistical approaches. The aim of this article is to describe the issue complexity of incorporation of new, modern drug for cancer patients with orphan diseases, including

  17. Current Titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2006-06-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Jane Cavlina, Administrator, at 510/486-6036.

  18. 天然气管道杂散电流排流效果评定实例%Natural Gas Pipeline Stray Current Drainage Effects Evaluation Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡瑞颖

    2014-01-01

    杂散电流是指在管道周围土壤环境中漫流的一种大小、方向都不固定的电流,这种电流对金属管道的腐蚀称为杂散电流腐蚀,属于电解腐蚀范畴。杂散电流在管道中的流动会加速管道的腐蚀,对管道的安全性产生极大的影响。有杂散电流干扰的管道中,需要对管道实施排流保护,排除管道中的杂散电流。而杂散电流的排流工程是否合理充分,则需要应用相应的检测手段来测定。本文是在已经采取杂散电流排流保护的管道上,通过测量管道上的阴保电位、交流电压和交流电密度来判定管道的杂散电流排流情况。%Stray current refers to a size, direction of flow in the soil around the pipeline in the current environment is not fixed, the corrosion of the metal pipeline this current is known as the stray current corrosion, which belongs to the category of electrolytic corrosion. The flow of stray current in the pipe can accelerate the corrosion of pipeline, greatly influence the safety of pipeline. Pipeline stray current interference, the need to implement drainage protection of pipeline, excluding the stray current. The stray current drainage engineering is reasonable enough, you need to apply a corresponding detection method to determine. This paper is in the pipeline stray current has taken discharging protection, by measuring the pipeline cathodic protection potential, the AC voltage and current density to determine the stray current drainage conditions.

  19. An Evaluation of Pronunciation Teaching Content of "English for Palestine 10" and Related Teachers' Competency Level in Light of Current Instructional Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Najjar, Rana Abdel-Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate pronunciation teaching with regard to an EFL multi-skills textbook ("English for Palestine 10"). The evaluation was intended to identify the extent to which pronunciation teaching content incorporated in" English for Palestine 10," in addition to the related teachers' competency level match…

  20. Evaluation of the impact of the 2010 pyroclastic density currents at Merapi volcano from high-resolution satellite imagery, field investigations and numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnier, S. J.; Germa, A.; Connor, C. B.; Gertisser, R.; Preece, K.; Komorowski, J.-C.; Lavigne, F.; Dixon, T.; Connor, L.

    2013-07-01

    The 2010 pyroclastic density currents (PDC) at Merapi have presented a rare opportunity to collect a uniquely detailed dataset of the source, extent, lateral variations and impact of various PDC deposits on a densely populated area. Using traditional volcanological field-based methods and a multi-temporal dataset of high-resolution satellite imagery, a total of 23 PDC events have been recognized, including 5 main channeled flows, 15 overbank flows derived from overspill and re-channelization of the main PDCs into adjacent tributaries and two main surge events. The 2010 PDC deposits covered an area of ~ 22.3 km2, unequally distributed between valley-filling (6.9%), overbank (22.4%) and surge and associated fallout deposits (71.7%). Their total estimated non-DRE volume is ~ 36.3 × 106 m3, with 50.2% of this volume accounting for valley-filling deposits, 39.3% for overbank deposits and 10.5% for surge and associated fallout deposits. More than 70% of the total volume was deposited during the third eruptive phase (4-5 November), and only 16.6%, 11.5% and 0.9% during the first (26-29 October), second (30 October - 3 November) and fourth phase (6-23 November), respectively. The internal architecture and lithofacies variations of the 2010 PDC deposits were investigated using data collected from 30 stratigraphic sections measured after one rainy season of erosion. The results show that complex, local-scale variations in flow dynamics and deposit architectures are apparent and that the major factors controlling the propagation of the main flows and their potential hazards for overbanking were driven by: (1) the rapid emplacement of several voluminous PDCs, associated with the steady infilling of the receiving landscape after the two first phases of the eruption; (2) longitudinal changes in channel capacity following increased sinuosity in the valley and decreased containment space; and (3) the effects of varying source mechanisms (gravitational dome collapse, vertical or

  1. 中国HIV抗体检测策略的应用评价%Evaluation on HIV antibody testing strategy currently used in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓莉; 鲍作义; 刘永健; 耿海山; 郝钦芳; 王莉; 凌爱琴; 王海燕; 李敬云

    2010-01-01

    目的 评价中国HIV抗体检测策略在不同人群应用的效果和收益.方法 (1)收集103 133份一般人群(临床就诊病例、献血员、新兵)标本、1276份HIV感染高危人群(吸毒人群、HIV感染者的配偶)标本、2323份生化和免疫指标异常的标本,用现行HIV抗体检测策略进行检测.(2)对2002-2008年武警总医院90 289人次临床病例HIV抗体检测数据进行回顾性分析;对3个省级确认中心实验室过去3~5年确认检测的结果进行回顾性分析.结果 (1)筛查试验的收益在高危人群与一般人群显著不同,高危人群筛查阳性者中HIV抗体真阳性的比例约为50%,显著高于一般人群;主要针对一般人群的确认实验室筛查阳性标本中真阳性的比例为19.58%,显著低于主要针对高危人群的确认实验室.(2)2002-2008年临床HIV抗体检测,首次筛查阳性的真阳性率由3.7%上升到16.0%,同时,复检效率由92.6%下降为61.5%.(3)常见的生化和免疫异常未增加HIV抗体检测的非特异反应.结论 HIV抗体筛查阳性预示HIV感染的意义在不同人群有显著差别,高危人群显著高于一般人群.随着近年来HIV抗体检测试剂质量的改进和实验室质量控制水平的提高,HIV抗体首次筛查的准确性大幅度提高,而复检的效率显著下降.应考虑对不同人群采取不同的检测程序.%Objective To evaluate the yield of HIV antibody testing strategy currently used on different populations, in China. Methods (1) The following samples were collected and tested according to the currently used HIV antibody testing strategy in China. 103 133 samples from the general populations (outpatients, new recruits and blood donors), 1276 people under high risk (spouses of the HIV infected individuals, intravenous drug users) and 2323 biochemical or immunological abnormal samples. (2) Retrospective analysis was done on data from the HIV testing among outpatients in General Hospital of People's Armed

  2. Electrodialytic remediation of harbour sediment in suspension - Evaluation of effects induced by changes in stirring velocity and current density on heavy metal removal and pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2009-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation was used to remove heavy metals from a suspension of dredged harbour sediment. The studied metals Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd are normally strongly bound in anoxic sediment. Six electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments were made, lasting 14 days and under oxic conditions....... The influence on the metal removal was investigated by changing current densities and stirring velocity of the sediment suspension. Using a current density of 1.0 mA/cm2 gave the highest metal removal. The sediment suspension was partly oxidised when mixed into a suspension for the electrodialytic remediation...... experiments and was further oxidised during the experiments. Even at low stirring velocities, oxic conditions were obtained. The metal removal was dependent on the achieved pH in the sediment and the highest metal removal and corresponding low pH was obtained by using a current density of 1.0 mA/cm2...

  3. Strata control in tunnels and an evaluation of support units and systems currently used with a view to improving the effectiveness of support, stability and safety of tunnels.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Haile, AT

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This report details a methodology for rational design of tunnel support systems based on a mechanistic evaluation of the interaction between the components of a tunnel support system and a highly discontinuous rock mass structure. This analysis...

  4. Current titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Gretchen Hermes at (510) 486-5006 or address below for a User`s Guide. Copies of available papers can be ordered from: Theda Crawford National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, One Cyclotron Rd., MS72, Berkeley, California, USA 94720.

  5. Current ornithology

    CERN Document Server

    1983-01-01

    The appearance of the first volume of a projected series is the occasion for comment on scope, aims, and genesis of the work. The scope of Current Ornithology is all of the biology of birds. Ornithology, as a whole-organism science, is concerned with birds at every level of bi­ ological organization, from the molecular to the community, at least from the Jurassic to the present time, and over every scholarly discipline in which bird biology is done; to say this is merely to expand a dic­ tionary definition of "ornithology. " The aim of the work, to be realized over several volumes, is to present reviews or position statements con­ cerning the active fields of ornithological research. The reviews will be relatively short, and often will be done from the viewpoint of a readily­ identified group or school. Such a work could have come into being at any time within the past fifty years, but that Current Ornithology appears now is a result of events that are only seven to eight years old. One important event wa...

  6. Computed tomography evaluation with the use of automatic current modulator: possibilities and limitations; Avaliacao de imagens de tomografia computadorizada com o uso do modulador automatico de corrente: potencialidades e limitacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Giordana Salvi de; Real, Jessica Villa; Froner, Ana Paula Pastre; Silva, Ana Maria Marques da, E-mail: giordana.souza@acad.pucrs.br [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2015-08-15

    The technology available in most modern equipment CT enables the automatic tube current modulation, according to the thickness variation of the anatomical region studied. This study aimed to evaluate the quantitative parameters related to the image quality produced by CT scanner, with and without the use of the manufacturer's dose modulation system. For this, Catphan 700 phantom was used, and images were acquired in a Philips scanner, with and without the use of current modulation, using a protocol adult skull. The results showed an increase of 20.8% of the CTDI{sub vol} and DLP with the use of the current modulator in relation to the images acquired with the same protocol without the modulator. It was observed that the image noise using the modulator had the lowest value, as well as higher spatial resolution due to the higher dose provided by the current modulation system. There were no significant differences in the uniformity and accuracy of CT number and even in linearity. Concluding, the dose optimization process using simulators should be carefully evaluated because it depends on the settings for each current modulation system assumed by the manufacturer. Although they supposedly seek the dose optimization, such systems can produce a considerable increase in dose, without significantly modifying the image quality for certain protocols. (author)

  7. Electrochemical evaluation of sulfur poisoning in a methane-fuelled solid oxide fuel cell: Effect of current density and sulfur concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Johnson, Gregory B.; Hjalmarsson, Per

    2014-01-01

    A Ni/ScYSZ based SOFC was tested at 1, 0.5, 0.25, and 0 (OCV) A cm−2 in methane fuel containing 0–100 ppm H2S. Analysis of cell voltage loss during short-term H2S poisoning showed that SOFC performance loss was generally larger at higher current loads. Separating the effect of H2S on catalytic re...

  8. Enantioseparation of (DL)-tryptophan by spiral tube assembly counter-current chromatography and evaluation of mass transfer rate for enantiomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Shengqiang; Ito, Yoichiro; Ma, Ying

    2014-12-29

    Spiral tube assembly counter-current chromatography was successfully applied in enantioseparation of dl-tryptophan using bovine serum albumin as chiral selector. An improved biphasic aqueous-aqueous solvent system 12.0% (w/w) polyethyleneglycol 8000-9.0% (w/w) dibasic potassium phosphate-0.1% ammonia-78.9% water was used as the solvent system for counter-current chromatography, in which bovine serum albumin was predominantly distributed in the lower phase of the two-phase aqueous system. The aqueous-aqueous solvent system gave a very high enantioselectivity for d- and l-tryptophan at α=2.605 along with distribution ratio DD=1.200 and DL=0.461. High peak resolution was obtained for enantioseparation of 2.0mg of dl-tryptophan by spiral tube assembly counter-current chromatography under room temperature. It was found that 0.1% ammonia added in the aqueous-aqueous solvent system greatly improved the enantioseparations. An unusual extremely broad peak for l-tryptophan was observed during enantioseparations. In order to give an explanation, mass transfer rates of d- and l-enantiomers through the interface between the two phases were measured. It was found that l-tryptophan showed lower mass transfer rate than d-tryptophan. Further discussions were proposed for possible reasons for mass transfer rate difference between the enantiomers.

  9. Distributed ecohydrological modelling to evaluate the performance of irrigation system in Sirsa district, India: I. Current water management and its productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, R.; Kroes, J.G.; Dam, van J.C.; Feddes, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Distributed ecohydrological modelling can provide a useful toot to evaluate the performance of irrigation systems at different spatial and temporal scales. Sirsa district, covering 4270 km(2) in the western part of Haryana State (India), has been selected for a case study with typical problems of

  10. 汽车平顺性评价方法综述%Review for the Current Evaluation Methods of Vehicle Ride Comfort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏均忠; 马宗坡; 方中雁; 白云川

    2012-01-01

    In view of the controversy of ride comfort evaluation methods of domestic and international, the characteristics, differences and scope for each evaluation methods were analyzed. The integration of level of analysis and fuzzy is the typical subjective evaluation method. Then four object methods were described which were absorbed power method, the overall ride value method, VDI2057 (2002) and ISO2631 (1997). Finally several new subjective and objective comprehensive evaluation methods, including automotive integrated vibration comfort, fuzzy evaluation method and irritability rate analysis were introduced. The study found that every method is work, but the standard varies. The comprehensive evaluation methods can be better integrated to achieve the vehicle ride comfort evaluation, which may be the focus of future research directions.%针对国内外汽车平顺性评价方法存在较大争议的现状,系统分析各类评价方法的特点、差异和适用范围.首先介绍主观评价方法,其中比较典型的是模糊层次分析法;然后分别介绍吸收功率法、总体乘坐值法、VDI 2057(2002)和ISO 2631(1997)四种客观评价方法;最后引入新近提出的几种主、客观综合评价法,包括汽车综合振动舒适度Cgv法、模糊评价法和烦躁率分析法.各类方法都能对汽车平顺性作出评价,但标准各有差异.研究发现,多学科交叉的主、客观综合评价法能较好的实现汽车平顺性评价,是今后研究的重点方向.

  11. Application of the nonlinear antenna theory model to a tall tower struck by lightning for the evaluation of return stroke channel current and radiated electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, S. H. S.; Moini, R.; Sadeghi, S. H. H.; Kordi, B.

    2011-06-01

    In this paper an improved antenna theory (AT) model with nonlinearly varying resistive loading and fixed inductive loading is used to electromagnetically simulate lightning strikes to tall structures. Measurement data captured from Toronto's CN tower are used to verify the validity of the new model. Both the return stroke channel (RSC) and the tower are modeled by straight thin conducting wires. The wire model of the channel is assumed to have distributed nonlinear resistive elements as a function of current and time, adopted from the numerical models of a spark channel and consequent shockwave from a lightning discharge, yielding a varying value of the channel radius from the base to the cloud along the RSC. Such distributed elements are used to take into account the current attenuation while propagating along the channel and varying propagation speeds lower than the speed of light. RSC current distribution and radiated electromagnetic fields in near, intermediate, and far range distances predicted by the proposed model are compared with those obtained from the measurement data and with those of the original AT model and the AT with fixed inductive loading (ATIL-F) model. Current wave propagation speed profile in RSC and tower is investigated as a function of height as well. The effects of applying different tower geometry models are also studied. It is shown that the new model is able to reproduce one of the characteristic features of the electromagnetic fields radiated by lightning, namely, the far-field inversion of polarity with a zero crossing occurring in the tens of microseconds range. We have also investigated the effect of nonlinearity of the channel assumed in the new model. It is shown that among the electromagnetic models, distributed nonlinear resistance along the channel leads to a zero crossing in the tens of microseconds range even for large values of resistance. It is also shown that decreasing the nonlinearity results in the predictions

  12. Re-evaluation of the action potential upstroke velocity as a measure of the Na+ current in cardiac myocytes at physiological conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géza Berecki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The SCN5A encoded sodium current (I(Na generates the action potential (AP upstroke and is a major determinant of AP characteristics and AP propagation in cardiac myocytes. Unfortunately, in cardiac myocytes, investigation of kinetic properties of I(Na with near-physiological ion concentrations and temperature is technically challenging due to the large amplitude and rapidly activating nature of I(Na, which may seriously hamper the quality of voltage control over the membrane. We hypothesized that the alternating voltage clamp-current clamp (VC/CC technique might provide an alternative to traditional voltage clamp (VC technique for the determination of I(Na properties under physiological conditions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied I(Na under close-to-physiological conditions by VC technique in SCN5A cDNA-transfected HEK cells or by alternating VC/CC technique in both SCN5A cDNA-transfected HEK cells and rabbit left ventricular myocytes. In these experiments, peak I(Na during a depolarizing VC step or maximal upstroke velocity, dV/dt(max, during VC/CC served as an indicator of available I(Na. In HEK cells, biophysical properties of I(Na, including current density, voltage dependent (inactivation, development of inactivation, and recovery from inactivation, were highly similar in VC and VC/CC experiments. As an application of the VC/CC technique we studied I(Na in left ventricular myocytes isolated from control or failing rabbit hearts. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that the alternating VC/CC technique is a valuable experimental tool for I(Na measurements under close-to-physiological conditions in cardiac myocytes.

  13. Evaluation of Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler to Measure Discharge at New York Power Authority's Niagara Power Project, Niagara Falls, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajd, Henry J.

    2007-01-01

    The need for accurate real-time discharge in the International Niagara River hydro power system requires reliable, accurate and reproducible data. The U.S. Geological Survey has been widely using Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) to accurately measure discharge in riverine channels since the mid-1990s. The use of the ADCP to measure discharge has remained largely untested at hydroelectric-generation facilities such as the New York Power Authority's (NYPA) Niagara Power Project in Niagara Falls, N.Y. This facility has a large, engineered diversion channel with the capacity of high volume discharges in excess of 100,000 cubic feet per second (ft3/s). Facilities such as this could benefit from the use of an ADCP, if the ADCP discharge measurements prove to be more time effective and accurate than those obtained from the flow-calculation techniques that are currently used. Measurements of diversion flow by an ADCP in the 'Pant Leg' diversion channel at the Niagara Power Project were made on November 6, 7, and 8, 2006, and compared favorably (within 1 percent) with those obtained concurrently by a conventional Price-AA current-meter measurement during one of the ADCP measurement sessions. The mean discharge recorded during each 2-hour individual ADCP measurement session compared favorably with (3.5 to 6.8 percent greater than) the discharge values computed by the flow-calculation method presently in use by NYPA. The use of ADCP technology to measure discharge could ultimately permit increased power-generation efficiency at the NYPA Niagara Falls Power Project by providing improved predictions of the amount of water (and thus the power output) available.

  14. Evaluation of plate type fuel elements by eddy current test method; Avaliacao de combustiveis nucleares tipo placa pelo metodo de correntes parasitas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frade, Rangel Teixeira

    2015-07-01

    Plate type fuel elements are used in MTR research nuclear reactors. The fuel plates are manufactured by assembling a briquette containing the fissile material inserted in a frame, with metal plates in both sides of the set, to act as a cladding. This set is rolled under controlled conditions in order to obtain the fuel plate. In Brazil, this type of fuel is manufactured by IPEN and used in the IEA-R1 reactor. After fabrication of three batches of fuel plates, 24 plates, one of them is taken, in order to verify the thickness of the cladding. For this purpose, the plate is sectioned and the thickness measurements are carried out by using optical microscopy. This procedure implies in damage of the plate, with the consequent cost. Besides, the process of sample preparation for optical microscopy analysis is time consuming, it is necessary an infrastructure for handling radioactive materials and there is a generation of radioactive residues during the process. The objective of this study was verify the applicability of eddy current test method for nondestructive measurement of cladding thickness in plate type nuclear fuels, enabling the inspection of all manufactured fuel plates. For this purpose, reference standards, representative of the cladding of the fuel plates, were manufactured using thermomechanical processing conditions similar to those used for plates manufacturing. Due to no availability of fuel plates for performing the experiments, the presence of the plate’s core was simulated using materials with different electrical conductivities, fixed to the thickness reference standards. Probes of eddy current testing were designed and manufactured. They showed high sensitivity to thickness variations, being able to separate small thickness changes. The sensitivity was higher in tests performed on the reference standards and samples without the presence of the materials simulating the core. For examination of the cladding with influence of materials simulating the

  15. Discrimination and evaluation of the effects of uncompensated resistance and slow electrode kinetics from the higher harmonic components of a fourier transformed large-amplitude alternating current voltammogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Guo, Si-Xuan; Bond, Alan M

    2007-03-15

    The influence of uncompensated resistance (also called the IRu effect, where I is current and Ru is uncompensated resistance) and slow electrode kinetics have been assessed for the dc and first five ac harmonics derived from Fourier transformed large-amplitude ac voltammetry. Resistance and rate constant conditions emphasized correspond to those where separation of effects attributable to either parameter is essentially impossible under conditions of dc cyclic voltammetry. Results derived from simulations and experiments demonstrate that it is relatively easy to discriminate and quantify contributions from these two effects over a wide range of values using the fourth and fifth harmonic ac components derived from single large-amplitude ac voltammetric measurement. Furthermore, these ac components also are essentially devoid of background charging current. Concepts developed initially from simulations are confirmed by experimental studies on the following: (a) the oxidation of ferrocene, in moderately resistive CH3CN and highly resistive CH2Cl2 (represents examples of IRu effect on a reversible electron-transfer process); (b) the reduction of a low 0.2 mM concentration of [Fe(CN)6]3- in the highly conductive 3 M KCl electrolyte media (case of slow kinetics with negligible IRu effect); (c) and reduction of a high 10 mM concentration of [Fe(CN)6]3- in less conductive aqueous 0.5 M KCl electrolyte media (example where the simultaneous effects of both IRu and slow kinetics need to be resolved).

  16. The role of computerized tomography in the evaluation of gastrointestinal bleeding following negative or failed endoscopy: a review of current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunell, H; Buckley, O; Lyburn, I D; McGann, G; Farrell, M; Torreggiani, W C

    2008-01-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding remains an important cause for emergency hospital admission with a significant related morbidity and mortality. Bleeding may relate to the upper or lower gastrointestinal tracts and clinical history and examination may guide investigations to the more likely source of bleeding. The now widespread availability of endoscopic equipment has made a huge impact on the rapid identification of the bleeding source. However, there remains a large group of patients with negative or failed endoscopy, in whom additional techniques are required to identify the source of bleeding. In the past, catheter angiography and radionuclide red cell labeling techniques were the preferred 'next step' modalities used to aid in identifying a bleeding source within the gastrointestinal tract. However, these techniques are time-consuming and of limited sensitivity and specificity. In addition, catheter angiography is a relatively invasive procedure. In recent years, computerized tomography (CT) has undergone major technological advances in its speed, resolution, multiplanar techniques and angiographic abilities. It has allowed excellent visualization of the both the small and large bowel allowing precise anatomical visualization of many causes of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) bleeding. In addition, recent advances in multiphasic imaging now allow direct visualization of bleeding into the bowel. In many centers CT has therefore become the 'next step' technique in identifying a bleeding source within the GIT following negative or failed endoscopy in the acute setting. In this review article, we review the current literature and discuss the current status of CT as a modality in investigating the patient with GIT bleeding.

  17. Analysis on Current Undergraduate Classroom Instruction Quality Evaluation%高校本科课堂教学质量评价现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白菲; 谭豫之

    2012-01-01

    课堂教学质量评价是高校本科教学质量监控的重要环节。基于对国内近四十所高等院校的课堂教学评价指标及实施办法等相关文件资料的搜集和整理,分析了我国高校本科课堂教学质量评价工作的不足,即以奖惩性评价为主、评价指标体系专业针对性不足、一线教师对教学评价参与少,在实际工作中应使教学评价向有利于教师发展的方向转变,避免"一表多课",重视开展教师的自我评价。%Classroom instruction quality evaluation is an important link of the teaching quality monitoring system in colleges and universities.On the basis of reviewing the undergraduate classroom instruction quality assessment index and implementation methods of about forty domestic institutions of higher learning,this paper analyzed the shortcomings in the evaluation system of China's colleges and universities: the predominance of reward and punishment appraisal,over-generalized assessment index,insufficient involvement of front-line teachers in the assessment,etc.The author suggests that the assessment should be reformed to be more favorable for the career development of faculty,to avoid the use of a single omnipotent form for all classes and to promote the self-evaluation of teachers.

  18. Methods of evaluation of accuracy with multiple essential parameters for eddy current measurement of pressure tube to calandria tube gap in CANDU reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokralla, S., E-mail: shaddy.shokralla@opg.com [Ontario Power Generation, IMS NDE Projects, Ajax, Ontario (Canada); Krause, T.W., E-mail: thomas.krause@rmc.ca [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    The purpose of inspection qualification of a particular inspection system is to show that it meets applicable inspection specification requirements. Often a requirement of the inspection system is that it meets a particular accuracy. In the case of a system with multiple inputs accompanied by additional influential parameters, calculation of the system's output accuracy can be formidable. Measurement of pressure-tube to calandria tube gap in CANDU reactors using an eddy current based technique is presented as a particular example of a system where multiple essential parameters combine to generate a final uncertainty for the inspection system. This paper outlines two possible methods of calculating such a system's accuracy, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each. (author)

  19. E-WIN Project 2016: Evaluating the Current Gender Situation in Neurosurgery Across Europe-An Interactive, Multiple-Level Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steklacova, Anna; Bradac, Ondrej; de Lacy, Patricia; Benes, Vladimir

    2017-08-01

    The proportion of women among neurosurgeons appears to be growing worldwide with time. Official data concerning the current situation across Europe have not yet been published. Thus, there are still concerns about gender inequality. The European Women in Neurosurgery Project 2016 was designed to recognize the current situation across Europe. The office holders of the national neurosurgical societies of 39 countries forming the European Association of Neurosurgical Societies were contacted to provide data stating the proportion of women in neurosurgery. Obtained data were supplied with the results of an online survey. The response rate of national office holders was 90%. The number of reported neurosurgeons was 12,985, and overall proportion of women represented was 12%. Two hundred thirty-seven responses to online questionnaire were taken into account. The overall proportion of female respondents was 30%. There was no intergender variability in responses regarding amount of working time per week, exposure to surgeries, or administrative work. Male respondents reported dedicating significantly more time to scientific work and feeling more confident dictating own career direction. Female respondents reported being less often married, having fewer children, a stronger perception of gender significance level, and a higher appreciation of personal qualities. Neurosurgery is a challenging field of medicine. The results of our survey did not imply an overall feeling of gender inequality among European respondents, although women believe that the gender issue to be more important than men do and that they have to sacrifice more of their personal lives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of computerized tomography in the evaluation of gastrointestinal bleeding following negative or failed endoscopy: A review of current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stunell H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal bleeding remains an important cause for emergency hospital admission with a significant related morbidity and mortality. Bleeding may relate to the upper or lower gastrointestinal tracts and clinical history and examination may guide investigations to the more likely source of bleeding. The now widespread availability of endoscopic equipment has made a huge impact on the rapid identification of the bleeding source. However, there remains a large group of patients with negative or failed endoscopy, in whom additional techniques are required to identify the source of bleeding. In the past, catheter angiography and radionuclide red cell labeling techniques were the preferred ′next step′ modalities used to aid in identifying a bleeding source within the gastrointestinal tract. However, these techniques are time-consuming and of limited sensitivity and specificity. In addition, catheter angiography is a relatively invasive procedure. In recent years, computerized tomography (CT has undergone major technological advances in its speed, resolution, multiplanar techniques and angiographic abilities. It has allowed excellent visualization of the both the small and large bowel allowing precise anatomical visualization of many causes of gastrointestinal tract (GIT bleeding. In addition, recent advances in multiphasic imaging now allow direct visualization of bleeding into the bowel. In many centers CT has therefore become the ′next step′ technique in identifying a bleeding source within the GIT following negative or failed endoscopy in the acute setting. In this review article, we review the current literature and discuss the current status of CT as a modality in investigating the patient with GIT bleeding.

  1. 高校体育教学评价体系现状及发展趋势%The Current Situation of Evaluation System of University Physical Education and Its Development Tendency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦翌雨; 卢忠瑾; 贺小泉

    2012-01-01

    This paper made a comprehensive investigation and analysis of the deficiency in current evaluation system of physical education of China's universities through the referencing foreign evaluation of the experience of college physical education, using literature and logic analysis, so as to improve and enrich the content of domestic evaluation system of physical education. The current situation of evaluation system of university physical education was analyzed, and its development tendency was discussed.%本文运用文献资料和逻辑分析法,通过对国外高校体育教学评价经验的借鉴,综合考察并探析我国高校现行体育教学评价体系存在的不足,以完善和充实我国现行高校体育教学评价体系的内容为目的,分析了当前高校体育教学评价的现状,并对高校体育教学评价发展趋势进行了初步探讨.

  2. Current trends of nonclinical safety evaluation for new drugs%当前新药非临床安全性评价的趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles C.ZHANG; 戴仁科

    2012-01-01

    非临床药物安全性评价为新药的研发发挥了重要作用.人用药品注册技术要求国际协调会( ICH)新药研发指南M3 (R2)是非临床药物安全性评价的方向性指导文献.正确的评价策略和相关毒理学研究应该一起综合考虑,以促进新药候选物高效、及时地向前发展,从而支持临床试验计划和市场登记进展.然而,随着发展成本增加和行业的竞争,毒性预测、动物模型和法规遵从性也是新药深入研发过程中非常重要的因素.此外,ICH其他指导文献,例如ICH S6和ICH S9,也是给新药深入研发带来冲击力很大的指导文献.因此,深入理解所有这些文献的本质意义对从事新药安全评价人员来说是很重要的,增强综合使用各方面总体知识的能力将促进新药深入研发更快、更好地实施.%Nonclinical safety evaluation plays a critical role in the process of new drug development.International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guideline M3 (R2) provides a key direction for the nonclinical safety evaluation process.Proper strategies and toxicological studies should be considered together to move the drug candidates forward efficiently and quickly to support clinical plans and market registration.Updates on ICH guidelines,such as ICH S6 and ICH S9,have great impact on the direction of development.With the increasing cost of development and competition in the industry,elements like predictivity,animal models,and regulatory compliance are also very important in the process.Therefore,an insight into all these factors is essential to toxicologists in the safety evaluation process.The ability to use the overall knowledge will result in a quicker and better new drug development program.

  3. An overview of the causes of current practices in Pratinidhi Dravyas (substitution of drugs) in Ayurveda including newer techniques for their evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Pravin R; Patel, Bhupesh R; Shukla, Vinay J

    2012-10-01

    Many Pratinidhi Dravyas in Ayurvedic classics are mentioned and certainly are based on a methodical approach, which involves many aspects. These principles on which Pratinidhis were decided are quoted nowhere; so both to understand the established Pratinidhis and to find new ones a rational approach is the need of the hour. This article is an effort in the direction to study this concept meticulously in light of modern techniques for its better understanding and application. As there are very few established parameters, which help for selection and evaluation of Pratinidhi Dravyas. A rational technique like Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy may be incorporated to set a new dimension. As most of the routine analytical techniques are separation based, overall component load cannot be predicted. Thus, it is prime necessity to compare the drugs with a whole aspect, which goes in hand by hand with a holistic approach of Ayurveda "Treat the man as Whole - Take the drug as whole."

  4. Evaluation of a Modified High-Definition Electrode Montage for Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS) of Pre-Central Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heise, Kirstin Friederike; Kortzorg, Nick; Saturnino, Guilherme Bicalho;

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a modified electrode montage with respect to its effect on tACS-dependent modulation of corticospinal excitability and discomfort caused by neurosensory side effects accompanying stimulation. Methods: In a double-blind cross-over design, the classical electrode montage...... random noise stimulation). Results: Corticospinal excitability increased significantly during and immediately after tACS with the centre-ring montage. This was not the case with the classical montage or tRNS stimulation. Level of discomfort was rated on average lower with the centre-ring montage....... Conclusions: In comparison to the classic montage, the M1 centre-ring montage enables a more focal stimulation of the target area and, at the same time, significantly reduces neurosensory side effects, essential for placebo-controlled study designs....

  5. 新疆野苹果自然保护区现状评价%Evaluation on the Current Situation of Wild Apple Nature Reserve in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田小平

    2016-01-01

    通过对额敏县野苹果自然保护区自然生态质量、管理水平、保护区经济价值、保护价值进行评价,分析了保护区存在的生态系统脆弱,建设资金短缺,放牧活动频繁等问题,提出了保护区发展建议。%Through the evaluation of the natural ecological quality, management level, the economic value of the protected area, the value of protection of Emin county wild apple nature reserve. It analyzes the problems of the ecosystem vulnerability of the protected area, the shortage of funds, the frequent grazing activities and so on, then puts forward the suggestion on the development of nature reserve.

  6. Current status of high on-treatment platelet reactivity in patients with coronary or peripheral arterial disease:Mechanisms,evaluation and clinical implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stavros Spiliopoulos; Georgios Pastromas

    2015-01-01

    Antiplatelet therapy with aspirin or clopidogrel or both is the standard care for patients with proven coronary or peripheral arterial disease,especially those undergoing endovascular revascularization procedures. However,despite the administration of the antiplatelet regiments,some patients still experience recurrent cardiovascular ischemic events. So far,it is well documented by several studies that in vitro response of platelets may be extremely variable. Poor antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel or high on-treatment platelet reactivity(HTPR) is under investigation by numerous recent studies. This review article focuses on methods used for the ex vivo evaluation of HTPR,as well as on the possible underlying mechanisms and the clinical consequences of this entity. Alternative therapeutic options and future directions are also addressed.

  7. Assessment and applicability of evaluation tools: Current practice in a sample of European countries and steps towards a state-of-the-art approach. Road Infrastructure Safety Management Evaluation Tools (RISMET), Deliverables No. 4 and 5.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elvik, R.

    2014-01-01

    This report surveys current practice in a sample of European countries with respect to the use of ten different tools for safety management of road systems. The report also proposes steps that can be taken to bring the use of these management tools closer to their state-of-the-art versions. These to

  8. EVALUATION OF THE CONFORMITY OF CARDIOVASCULAR THERAPY TO CURRENT CLINICAL GUIDELINES IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF OUTCOMES IN PATIENTS AFTER STROKE (ACCORDING TO THE LIS-2 REGISTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Suvorov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the conformity of preventative therapy prescribed to patients during a hospital stay and at a discharge to clinical guidelines using a special algorithm, and to assess the impact of the results on a long-term mortality based on the LIS-2 register (Lyubertsy study of mortality in patients after cerebral stroke.Material and methods. The scales to assess the quality of cardiovascular care for the prevention of recurrent stroke along with the prevention of recurrent ischemic attacks index (PRIA index for this assessment were developed according to current clinical guidelines. Analysis of the therapy was performed using PRIA index on survived hospital patients from LIS-2 register (N=753. The impact of PRIA index results on a long-term mortality (Me=2.3 years was studied.Results. Based upon the results of the assessment obtained with PRIA index, higher treatment conformity to clinical guidelines resulted in a significantly better long-term survival. Non-conformity to clinical guidelines was due to the lack of prescription of drugs with proven efficacy and irrational choice of preventive therapy. Median of treatment quality assessment was 44.4% (22.2; 44.4.Conclusion. Low conformity of preventive therapy to clinical guidelines is found in the LIS-2 register. The algorithm for the assessment of preventive cardiovascular therapy quality allows identifying limitations in the prevention of recurrent stroke, and can serve as an example of implementation of evidence-based medicine in clinical practice.

  9. Evaluation of current and new biomarkers in severe preeclampsia: a microarray approach reveals the VSIG4 gene as a potential blood biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Textoris, Julien; Ivorra, Delphine; Ben Amara, Amira; Sabatier, Florence; Ménard, Jean-Pierre; Heckenroth, Hélène; Bretelle, Florence; Mege, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a placental disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria in pregnant women, and it is associated with a high maternal and neonatal morbidity. However, circulating biomarkers that are able to predict the prognosis of preeclampsia are lacking. Thirty-eight women were included in the current study. They consisted of 19 patients with preeclampsia (13 with severe preeclampsia and 6 with non-severe preeclampsia) and 19 gestational age-matched women with normal pregnancies as controls. We measured circulating factors that are associated with the coagulation pathway (including fibrinogen, fibronectin, factor VIII, antithrombin, protein S and protein C), endothelial activation (such as soluble endoglin and CD146), and the release of total and platelet-derived microparticles. These markers enabled us to discriminate the preeclampsia condition from a normal pregnancy but were not sufficient to distinguish severe from non-severe preeclampsia. We then used a microarray to study the transcriptional signature of blood samples. Preeclampsia patients exhibited a specific transcriptional program distinct from that of the control group of women. Interestingly, we also identified a severity-related transcriptional signature. Functional annotation of the upmodulated signature in severe preeclampsia highlighted two main functions related to "ribosome" and "complement". Finally, we identified 8 genes that were specifically upmodulated in severe preeclampsia compared with non-severe preeclampsia and the normotensive controls. Among these genes, we identified VSIG4 as a potential diagnostic marker of severe preeclampsia. The determination of this gene may improve the prognostic assessment of severe preeclampsia.

  10. Evaluation of current and new biomarkers in severe preeclampsia: a microarray approach reveals the VSIG4 gene as a potential blood biomarker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Textoris

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a placental disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria in pregnant women, and it is associated with a high maternal and neonatal morbidity. However, circulating biomarkers that are able to predict the prognosis of preeclampsia are lacking. Thirty-eight women were included in the current study. They consisted of 19 patients with preeclampsia (13 with severe preeclampsia and 6 with non-severe preeclampsia and 19 gestational age-matched women with normal pregnancies as controls. We measured circulating factors that are associated with the coagulation pathway (including fibrinogen, fibronectin, factor VIII, antithrombin, protein S and protein C, endothelial activation (such as soluble endoglin and CD146, and the release of total and platelet-derived microparticles. These markers enabled us to discriminate the preeclampsia condition from a normal pregnancy but were not sufficient to distinguish severe from non-severe preeclampsia. We then used a microarray to study the transcriptional signature of blood samples. Preeclampsia patients exhibited a specific transcriptional program distinct from that of the control group of women. Interestingly, we also identified a severity-related transcriptional signature. Functional annotation of the upmodulated signature in severe preeclampsia highlighted two main functions related to "ribosome" and "complement". Finally, we identified 8 genes that were specifically upmodulated in severe preeclampsia compared with non-severe preeclampsia and the normotensive controls. Among these genes, we identified VSIG4 as a potential diagnostic marker of severe preeclampsia. The determination of this gene may improve the prognostic assessment of severe preeclampsia.

  11. [Biomechanical aspects of load-bearing capacity after total endoprosthesis replacement of the hip joint. An evaluation of current knowledge and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, D C; Heller, K D; Niethard, F U

    1998-01-01

    Purpose of the study was to summarize the current scientific knowledge of the interaction between rehabilitative procedures and the periprosthetic bone remodeling processes in the early postoperative phase of total hip arthroplasties. In a comprehensive review of the international literature we analysed the interdependence between osseointegration, primary implant stability, relative micromotion of implant versus bone, and joint loading forces during mobilisation or physiotherapy. Accordingly, guidelines for the rehabilitation of cemented as well as cementless hip arthroplasties were established in order to eliminate factors disturbing prosthetic integration and hence provide for the best long-term stability of the implanted prosthesis possible. Osseointegration of cementless implants is impossible if relative micromotions exceed > 150 microns. Furthermore, torsional stresses (i.e. alternate climbing of stairs, rising from seated position without arm support) will destabilize uncemented femoral shaft implants. Cemented prostheses may be loaded with full body weight. Uncemented implants should be loaded only partially for at least 6 weeks. Loadings of the hip joint with more than twice the body-weight (i.e. walking without crutches, physical exercise against high resistances or long levers) are to be avoided for 3 months. The transition from the three-points walking to the two-points walking technique depends particularly on the conditions of the muscles stabilizing the hip joint. The rehabilitation of patients after total hip arthroplasty has to be brought into line with the changed biomechanical situation, the particulars of the implants and the individual requirements of the patients.

  12. Current Status on Safety Evaluation of Fluoroquinolones%浅析氟喹诺酮类药物的安全性现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李星如; 毕凤兰

    2013-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones, as the forth generation of quinolones, are broadly used in clinical medicine because of various advantages, such as cheap price, well absorbed by oral, higher serum concentration, easy to use etc. In this paper, the author introduces the clinical development ,adverse drug reaction and current status on safety monitoring, discussing and analyzing the rational use, providing the reference for ensuring safety and efficacy of fluoroquinolones clinical application.%氟喹诺酮是喹诺酮类抗菌药的第四代衍生产品,口服吸收良好,血药浓度高,使用方便等诸多优点,从而在临床应用上日益广泛.通过介绍氟喹诺酮类抗菌药的临床进展、不良反应以及安全性监测现状,就合理安全用药进行了讨论和分析,以期为氟喹诺酮在临床上的安全有效应用提供借鉴.

  13. Estimating current and future streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites, central and eastern Montana, with application to evaluating effects of climate change on fish populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Roy; Chase, Katherine J.

    2017-03-23

    A common statistical procedure for estimating streamflow statistics at ungaged locations is to develop a relational model between streamflow and drainage basin characteristics at gaged locations using least squares regression analysis; however, least squares regression methods are parametric and make constraining assumptions about the data distribution. The random forest regression method provides an alternative nonparametric method for estimating streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites and requires that the data meet fewer statistical conditions than least squares regression methods.Random forest regression analysis was used to develop predictive models for 89 streamflow characteristics using Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System simulated streamflow data and drainage basin characteristics at 179 sites in central and eastern Montana. The predictive models were developed from streamflow data simulated for current (baseline, water years 1982–99) conditions and three future periods (water years 2021–38, 2046–63, and 2071–88) under three different climate-change scenarios. These predictive models were then used to predict streamflow characteristics for baseline conditions and three future periods at 1,707 fish sampling sites in central and eastern Montana. The average root mean square error for all predictive models was about 50 percent. When streamflow predictions at 23 fish sampling sites were compared to nearby locations with simulated data, the mean relative percent difference was about 43 percent. When predictions were compared to streamflow data recorded at 21 U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations outside of the calibration basins, the average mean absolute percent error was about 73 percent.

  14. [Evaluation of the adhesion to the EULAR and OARSI recommendations for the treatment of knee and hip osteoarthritis in current practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Linthoudt, D

    2009-12-02

    Recommendations for the treatment of hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) have been recently published by international scientific societies (EULAR, OARSI). The aim of this study was to evaluate, in real life, the acceptance of these recommendations in the two districts of the Neuchâtel mountains. In March 2008, a questionnaire was sent to all the general practitioners (GP = 23), internists (IM = 22), orthopedic surgeons (ORTHO = 8) and rheumatologists (RHEUMATO = 3) of the districts of Le Locle and La Chaux-de-Fonds (population of 55000 people). The anonymous questionnaire, presenting the 10 EULAR and 25 OARSI recommendations for the treatment of hip and knee OA, asked for some demographic data of the physicians and for the knowledge and acceptance of the presented recommendations. Results were expressed as a (SoA), based on a semi-quantitative evaluation (15 to 55) and expressed in percent for comparison to the (SoR) reported by EULAR and OARSI. Twenty-three questionnaires (41%) were returned. Seven of the ten GP, one of the six IM, one of the four ORTHO who responded and the three RHEUMATO knew and applied some of the EULAR recommendations. Only one GP, one ORTHO and one RHEUMATO knew the OARSI recommendations. The SoA was a little less for the primary care physicians (PCP = GP + IM) than for the specialists in the musculo-skeletal diseases (SMD = ORTHO + RHEUMATO) for the EULAR (85 versus 89%) and for the OARSI (73 versus 78%) recommendations. None of the EULAR or OARSI recommendations gained a full SoA by the PCP although two EULAR and one OARSI recommendations obtained a complete SoA by the SMD. In this sample of physicians, most IM and ORTHO ignored the EULAR and OARSI recommendations for the treatment of hip or knee OA. Nonetheless, a majority of PCP and SMD adhered to the most of them with occasionally a greater SoA than the proposed SoR. An effort for a better diffusion of these recommendations is justified among IM and ORTHO.

  15. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Aesthetic Surgery: A Mixed Methods Evaluation of the Current Clinical Trial, Intellectual Property, and Regulatory Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Zeeshaan; Halioua-Haubold, Celine-Lea; Roberts, Mackenna; Urso-Baiarda, Fulvio; Branford, Oliver A; Brindley, David A; Davies, Benjamin M; Pettitt, David

    2017-06-07

    Adipose tissue, which can be readily harvested via a number of liposuction techniques, offers an easily accessible and abundant source of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). Consequently, ASCs have become an increasingly popular reconstructive option and a novel means of aesthetic soft tissue augmentation. This paper examines recent advances in the aesthetic surgery field, extending beyond traditional review formats to incorporate a comprehensive analysis of current clinical trials, adoption status, and the commercialization pathway. Keyword searches were carried out on clinical trial databases to search for trials using ASCs for aesthetic indications. An intellectual property landscape was created using commercial software (Thomson Reuters Thomson Innovation, New York, NY). Analysis of who is claiming what in respect of ASC use in aesthetic surgery for commercial purposes was analyzed by reviewing the patent landscape in relation to these techniques. Key international regulatory guidelines were also summarized. Completed clinical trials lacked robust controls, employed small sample sizes, and lacked long-term follow-up data. Ongoing clinical trials still do not address such issues. In recent years, claims to intellectual property ownership have increased in the "aesthetic stem cell" domain, reflecting commercial interest in the area. However, significant translational barriers remain including regulatory challenges and ethical considerations. Further rigorous randomized controlled trials are required to delineate long-term clinical efficacy and safety. Providers should consider the introduction of patient reported outcome metrics to facilitate clinical adoption. Robust regulatory and ethical policies concerning stem cells and aesthetic surgery should be devised to discourage further growth of "stem cell tourism."

  16. Earthquake early warning for the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake: performance evaluation of the current system and the next-generation methods of the Japan Meteorological Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodera, Yuki; Saitou, Jun; Hayashimoto, Naoki; Adachi, Shimpei; Morimoto, Masahiko; Nishimae, Yuji; Hoshiba, Mitsuyuki

    2016-12-01

    The 2016 Kumamoto earthquake (Kumamoto earthquake sequence) is an extremely high-seismicity event that has been occurring across Kumamoto and Oita Prefectures in Japan since April 14, 2016 (JST). The earthquake early warning system of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) issued warnings for 19 events in the Kumamoto earthquake sequence from April 14 to 19, under some of the heaviest loading conditions since the system began operating in 2007. We analyzed the system performance for cases where a warning was issued and/or strong motion was actually observed. The results indicated that the system exhibited remarkable performance, especially for the most destructive earthquakes in the Kumamoto earthquake sequence. In addition, the system did not miss or seriously under-predict strong motion of any large earthquake from April 14 to 30. However, in four cases, the system issued over-predicted warnings due to the simultaneous occurrence of small earthquakes within a short distance, which implies a fundamental obstacle in trigger-data classifications based solely on arrival time. We also performed simulations using the integrated particle filter (IPF) and propagation of local undamped motion (PLUM) methods, which JMA plans to implement to address over-prediction for multiple simultaneous earthquakes and under-prediction for massive earthquakes with large rupture zones. The simulation results of the IPF method indicated that the IPF method is highly effective at minimizing over-prediction even for multiple simultaneous earthquakes within a short distance, since it adopts a trigger-data classification using velocity amplitude and hypocenter determinations using not-yet-arrived data. The simulation results of the PLUM method demonstrated that the PLUM method is capable of issuing warnings for destructive inland earthquakes more rapidly than the current system owing to the use of additional seismometers that can only be incorporated by this method.[Figure not available: see

  17. Current and future carbon budget at Takayama site, Japan, evaluated by a regional climate model and a process-based terrestrial ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuribayashi, Masatoshi; Noh, Nam-Jin; Saitoh, Taku M.; Ito, Akihiko; Wakazuki, Yasutaka; Muraoka, Hiroyuki

    2016-12-01

    Accurate projection of carbon budget in forest ecosystems under future climate and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is important to evaluate the function of terrestrial ecosystems, which serve as a major sink of atmospheric CO2. In this study, we examined the effects of spatial resolution of meteorological data on the accuracies of ecosystem model simulation for canopy phenology and carbon budget such as gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER), and net ecosystem production (NEP) of a deciduous forest in Japan. Then, we simulated the future (around 2085) changes in canopy phenology and carbon budget of the forest by incorporating high-resolution meteorological data downscaled by a regional climate model. The ecosystem model overestimated GPP and ER when we inputted low-resolution data, which have warming biases over mountainous landscape. But, it reproduced canopy phenology and carbon budget well, when we inputted high-resolution data. Under the future climate, earlier leaf expansion and delayed leaf fall by about 10 days compared with the present state was simulated, and also, GPP, ER and NEP were estimated to increase by 25.2%, 23.7% and 35.4%, respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed that the increase of NEP in June and October would be mainly caused by rising temperature, whereas that in July and August would be largely attributable to CO2 fertilization. This study suggests that the downscaling of future climate data enable us to project more reliable carbon budget of forest ecosystem in mountainous landscape than the low-resolution simulation due to the better predictions of leaf expansion and shedding.

  18. 利用波形非正弦度分形估计值识别励磁涌流%Identification of Transformer Inrush Current by Using of Fractal Evaluation of Waveform Non-Sinusoidal Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文超; 黄纯; 胡鹏; 李波

    2012-01-01

    Taking the correct identification of Transformer inrush current and fault current as objective, a novel scheme to identify inrush current and internal fault current by comparing the non~ sinusoidal level fractal evaluation of waveform is proposed in this paper. Based on the different waveform characteristics between inrush current and internal fault current, the non-sinusoidal level of differential current waveform is calculated and analyzed. To ensure the reliability of the grille fractal, the complex morphological filter is used to filtrate the noises and interference signals. On the basis of comparing the feature of inrush and fault current waveform of non-sinusoidal level value, a novel transformer protection scheme is proposed. The simulation tests show that the proposed method can identify inrush current rapidly and reliably, and still keeps good sensibility even in the case of slight internal fault.%以正确鉴别变压器励磁涌流和短路电流为目的,提出一种利用波形非正弦度分形估计的电力变压器励磁涌流与内部故障电流识别方案.利用变压器励磁涌流和内部故障电流波形特征的不同,对差动电流波形进行波形非正弦度计算并分析.通过复合形态滤波算法滤除信号中的各种噪声和扰动,保证了算法的可靠性.在比较励磁涌流与短路电流波形非正弦度各自特点的基础上,提出了一种新的变压器保护方案.仿真试验结果表明:该方法能可靠识别励磁涌流与短路电流,对轻微内部故障也有较高的灵敏度.

  19. Current model capabilities for simulating black carbon and sulfate concentrations in the Arctic atmosphere: a multi-model evaluation using a comprehensive measurement data set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eckhardt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of sulfate, black carbon (BC and other aerosols in the Arctic are characterized by high values in late winter and spring (so-called Arctic Haze and low values in summer. Models have long been struggling to capture this seasonality and especially the high concentrations associated with Arctic Haze. In this study, we evaluate sulfate and BC concentrations from eleven different models driven with the same emission inventory against a comprehensive pan-Arctic measurement data set over a time period of two years (2008–2009. The set of models consisted of one Lagrangian particle dispersion model, four chemistry-transport models (CTMs, one atmospheric chemistry-weather forecast model and five chemistry-climate models (CCMs, of which two were nudged to meteorological analyses and three were running freely. The measurement data set consisted of surface measurements of equivalent BC (eBC from five stations (Alert, Barrow, Pallas, Tiksi and Zeppelin, elemental carbon (EC from Station Nord and Alert and aircraft measurements of refractory BC (rBC from six different campaigns. We find that the models generally captured the measured eBC/rBC and sulfate concentrations quite well, compared to past comparisons. However, the aerosol seasonality at the surface is still too weak in most models. Concentrations of eBC and sulfate averaged over three surface sites are underestimated in winter/spring in all but one model (model means for January-March underestimated by 59 and 37% for BC and sulfate, respectively, whereas concentrations in summer are overestimated in the model mean (by 88 and 44% for July–September, but with over- as well as underestimates present in individual models. The most pronounced eBC underestimates, not included in the above multi-site average, are found for the station Tiksi in Siberia where the measured annual mean eBC concentration is three times higher than the average annual mean for all other stations. This suggests

  20. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL - Currents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have currents data. *These services are for testing and evaluation use...

  1. Discovery and Current Status of Evaluation System of Bioavailability and Related Pharmaceutical Technologies for Traditional Chinese Medicines—Flos Lonicerae Japonicae—Fructus Forsythiae Herb Couples as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs have attracted extensive interest throughout the world due to their long history of health protection and disease control, and the internalization of TCM preparations or patented drugs has been considered a wind vane in the process of TCM modernization. However, multi-target effects, caused by multiple components in TCMs, hinder not only the construction of the quality evaluation system (bioavailability, but also the application of pharmaceutical technologies, which results in the poor efficacy in clinical practice. This review describes the methods in the literature as well as in our thoughts about how to identify the marker components, establish the evaluation system of bioavailability, and improve the bioavailability in TCM preparations. We expect that the current study will be positive and informative.

  2. Honorary authorship epidemic in scholarly publications? How the current use of citation-based evaluative metrics make (pseudo)honorary authors from honest contributors of every multi-author article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Jozsef

    2013-08-01

    The current use of citation-based metrics to evaluate the research output of individual researchers is highly discriminatory because they are uniformly applied to authors of single-author articles as well as contributors of multi-author papers. In the latter case, these quantitative measures are counted, as if each contributor were the single author of the full article. In this way, each and every contributor is assigned the full impact-factor score and all the citations that the article has received. This has a multiplication effect on each contributor's citation-based evaluative metrics of multi-author articles, because the more contributors an article has, the more undeserved credit is assigned to each of them. In this paper, I argue that this unfair system could be made fairer by requesting the contributors of multi-author articles to describe the nature of their contribution, and to assign a numerical value to their degree of relative contribution. In this way, we could create a contribution-specific index of each contributor for each citation metric. This would be a strong disincentive against honorary authorship and publication cartels, because it would transform the current win-win strategy of accepting honorary authors in the byline into a zero-sum game for each contributor.

  3. Fishing and knockout of bioactive compounds using a combination of high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) and preparative HPLC for evaluating the holistic efficacy and interaction of the components of Herba Epimedii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Li, Yubo; Kipletting Tanui, Emmanuel; Han, Liwen; Jia, Yuan; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Yuming; Zhang, Xiuxiu; Zhang, Yanjun

    2013-05-20

    Due to the complex chemical compositions and pharmacological effects of traditional Chinese medicines, we developed a strategy based on fishing and knockout of bioactive compounds using a combination of high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) and preparative HPLC for evaluating the holistic activity and interaction of the components of Herba Epimedii. First, osteoblast target cell extraction was used for preliminary screening of the potential bioactive compounds of Herba Epimedii. Second, the bioactive compounds identified (epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C and icariin) were fished and knocked out using high-speed counter-current chromatography and preparative HPLC. Third, the bioactivity of resulting fractions was assessed by determining their influence on cell proliferation and differentiation, thereby allowing for an evaluation of their interaction.The pharmacodynamic contribution ratio of each bioactive compound to the efficacy of the herbal medicine could then be comprehensively and intuitively determined based on the spectra-activity correlations (VIP values) of the tested compositions using partial least-squares regression (PLS-R), through which the reliability of the screening and isolation of bioactive compounds by the target cell extraction technique were verified. The proposed strategy is a useful approach with potential application in other traditional Chinese medicines.

  4. Current measurement method for characterization of fast switching power semiconductors with Silicon Steel Current Transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel current measurement method with Silicon Steel Current Transformer (SSCT) for the characterization of fast switching power semiconductors. First, the existing current sensors for characterization of fast switching power semiconductors are experimentally evaluated...

  5. 论国内传媒主流的品牌价值评估体系的缺陷%On the defects of the current domestic media brand value evaluation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文丽

    2013-01-01

    Nowdays, the media began to use the brand value evaluation as a management tool, in the area of financial management and strategic management. But I found, at present academia and industry for direct or indirect assessment of the media brand, evaluation methods are directly applied to industrial enterprise brand, and no independent media brand value evaluation system. This shows that the essential difference between the media and the general enterprise is ignored -- this is the defect of current media brand value evaluation system. In this paper, through the method of literature review, comparative study, case study, the author analysises of the defect. In addi-tion the author invents spiritual dimension, tries to perfect the evaluation system.%如今,传媒开始运用品牌价值评估这管理工具,进行财务管理和战略管理。但是,当下学界和业界对传媒品牌进行直接或间接评估时,都直接套用工业企业品牌的评估方法,并没有建立独立的传媒品牌价值评估体系。这表明传媒与一般企业的本质差异被忽视---这正是当下传媒主流的品牌价值评估体系的缺陷。若通过“精神价值维度”,可以完善评估体系。

  6. Analysis and Evaluation of Current Library Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinritz, Fred J.

    1973-01-01

    There is no shortage of appropriate techniques for the analysis of library operations. Many of those described here require no particular mathematical background, and are essentially extensions of common sense. Strengths and weaknesses of various techniques were called to attention, and wider use by librarians of certain ones was encouraged. (37…

  7. The Current Banking Industry Civilized Norms Service Demonstration Unit With the Correct Evaluation Standard%现行银行业文明规范服务示范单位考核标准的评价与矫正

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翠翠

    2014-01-01

    The current bank of civilized service demonstration unit standards questionable places a lot of. In this paper, ifnd out the shortage of the current service standards through the national banking has to carry out a speciifc analysis and evaluation, put forward the bank civilized service demonstration unit standard correction view, deals with the formulation and evaluation standard of perfection of the principle is:to be practical and realistic attitude, pragmatic style of work, the idea of scientiifc development, characteristic and the demand of the customer for the the banking industry to design and make the evaluation standard, the only way is responsible for the development of China's banking sector.%现行的银行文明服务示范单位标准值得商榷的地方很多。本文通过找出目前全国银行业服务标准存在的不足来进行了具体分析和评价,提出了银行文明服务示范单位标准的矫正观点,阐述了制定和完善评价标准的原则是:要以实事求是的态度,务实的作风,科学发展的思想,针对银行业的特点和客户的实际需求来设计制定考核评价标准,只有这样才是对中国银行业发展负责。

  8. Expression of codon optimized genes in microbial systems: current industrial applications and perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eElena

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficient production of functional proteins in heterologous hosts is one of the major bases of modern biotechnology. Unfortunately, many genes are difficult to express outside their original context. Due to their apparent silent nature, synonymous codon substitutions have long been thought to be trivial. In recent years, this dogma has been refuted by evidence that codon replacement can have a significant impact on gene expression levels and protein folding.In the past decade, considerable advances in the speed and cost of gene synthesis have facilitated the complete redesign of entire gene sequences, dramatically improving the likelihood of high protein expression. This technology significantly impacts the economic feasibility of microbial-based biotechnological processes by, for example, increasing the volumetric productivities of recombinant proteins or facilitating the redesign of novel biosynthetic routes for the production of metabolites.This review discusses the current applications of this technology, particularly those regarding the production of small molecules and industrially-relevant recombinant enzymes. Suggestions for future research and potential uses are provided as well.

  9. Evaluation of levels of defect sites present in highly ordered pyrolytic graphite electrodes using capacitive and faradaic current components derived simultaneously from large-amplitude Fourier transformed ac voltammetric experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chong-Yong; Bond, Alan M

    2009-01-15

    The level of edge plane defect sites present in highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) electrodes has been evaluated via analysis of dc, ac fundamental, and higher-order ac harmonics available from a single large-amplitude Fourier transformed (FT) ac voltammetric experiment. Deliberate introduction of a low level of edge plane defect was achieved by polishing, with a higher level being introduced via electrochemical pretreatment. Kinetics regimes associated with fast electron transfer on the edge plane defect sites and slow electron transfer on the basal plane surface are resolved under ac conditions when using the surface-sensitive [Fe(CN)(6)](3-/4-) redox probe. However, because of their insensitivity to slow electron transfer, higher-order ac faradaic harmonics almost exclusively detect only the much faster processes that emanate from edge plane defect sites. Thus, detection of fourth- and higher-order ac Faradaic harmonic components that are devoid of background capacitive current is possible at freshly cleaved HOPG in the region near the reversible potential for the [Fe(CN)(6)](3-/4-) process. Under these circumstances, dc cyclic voltammograms exhibit only reduction and oxidation peaks separated by more than 1 V. The fundamental ac harmonic provides detailed information on the capacitive current, which increases with the level of edge plane defect sites. Apparent charge transfer rate constants also can be derived from peak-to-peak separations obtained from the dc aperiodic component. Estimates of the percentage of edge plane defect sites based on ac higher harmonics, capacitance, and dc aperiodic component that are available from a single experiment have been compared. The edge plane defect levels deduced from capacitance (fundamental harmonic ac component) and higher harmonic Faradaic currents are considered to be more reliable than estimations based on apparent rate constants derived from the dc aperiodic component or conventional dc cyclic voltammogram.

  10. Current Trends in Sinonasal Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Benjamin Y; Senior, Brent A; Castillo, Mauricio

    2015-11-01

    As endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) has evolved since its introduction to the United States, so has technology for imaging the sinonasal cavities. Although imaging is most frequently performed for evaluating chronic sinusitis refractory to medical therapy, its uses have expanded beyond inflammatory sinus disease. Multidetector Computed Tomography is the current workhorse for both diagnosis and preoperative planning in prospective ESS patients, while MR imaging remains a complementary tool for evaluating suspected tumors or intracranial and orbital complications of rhinosinusitis. In this article, the authors review current trends and potential future directions in the use of these modalities for sinus imaging.

  11. Investigation of Current Driven Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik; Agerkvist, Finn T.; Knott, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Current driven loudspeakers have previously been investigated but the literature is limited and the advantages and disadvantages are yet to be fully identified. This paper makes use of a non-linear loudspeaker model to analyse loudspeakers with distinct non-linear characteristics under voltage...... and current drive. A multi tone test signal is used in the evaluation of the driving schemes since it resembles audio signals to a higher degree than the signals used in total harmonic distortion and intermodulation distortion test methods. It is found that current drive is superior over voltage drive in a 5...

  12. A spin transfer torque magnetoresistance random access memory-based high-density and ultralow-power associative memory for fully data-adaptive nearest neighbor search with current-mode similarity evaluation and time-domain minimum searching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yitao; Miura, Sadahiko; Honjo, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Shoji; Hanyu, Takahiro; Ohno, Hideo; Endoh, Tetsuo

    2017-04-01

    A high-density nonvolatile associative memory (NV-AM) based on spin transfer torque magnetoresistive random access memory (STT-MRAM), which achieves highly concurrent and ultralow-power nearest neighbor search with full adaptivity of the template data format, has been proposed and fabricated using the 90 nm CMOS/70 nm perpendicular-magnetic-tunnel-junction hybrid process. A truly compact current-mode circuitry is developed to realize flexibly controllable and high-parallel similarity evaluation, which makes the NV-AM adaptable to any dimensionality and component-bit of template data. A compact dual-stage time-domain minimum searching circuit is also developed, which can freely extend the system for more template data by connecting multiple NM-AM cores without additional circuits for integrated processing. Both the embedded STT-MRAM module and the computing circuit modules in this NV-AM chip are synchronously power-gated to completely eliminate standby power and maximally reduce operation power by only activating the currently accessed circuit blocks. The operations of a prototype chip at 40 MHz are demonstrated by measurement. The average operation power is only 130 µW, and the circuit density is less than 11 µm2/bit. Compared with the latest conventional works in both volatile and nonvolatile approaches, more than 31.3% circuit area reductions and 99.2% power improvements are achieved, respectively. Further power performance analyses are discussed, which verify the special superiority of the proposed NV-AM in low-power and large-memory-based VLSIs.

  13. Evaluation of the current status of Rehabilitation, Physical Medicine and Naturopathy education 10 years after the reform of the Medical Licensure Act – a nationwide survey of German Medical Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock-Schröer, Beate; Huber, Roman; Joos, Stefanie; Klose, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: After the reform of the German Medical Licensure Act of 2003, Rehabilitation, Naturopathy and Physical Medicine were integrated into one discipline to be taught in Medical University. The aim of this survey is to determine the outcome of this change by evaluating the current status of education of these three disciplines based on the experience and satisfaction reported by lecturers responsible for teaching these subjects to medical students. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey. A paper version of the questionnaire for each discipline was posted to each Medical University in Germany. The first part asked about the current status of teaching; the second part asked about facilities and requirements; the third part asked respondents to give information on their career and teaching experience in this subject Results: The response rate was 51.5% for Rehabilitation, 48.5% for Physical Medicine and 60.6% for Naturopathy. A vast range of people and faculties were involved in the curricula. The percentage of each discipline taught was unevenly distributed: the major proportion being rehabilitation (38%), then naturopathy 34% lastly physical medicine with less than a third (28%). The main delivery of these disciplines was through lectures in plenary sessions. Modern teaching methods were not in evidence. Lecturers were generally pleased to be working with the combination of the three disciplines. Conclusion: Future medical education should improve upon teaching coordination and aim towards a common curriculum for these three disciplines. Expected future changes to medical curricula will provide opportunities to improve the implementation of Rehabilitation, Physical Medicine and Naturopathy in teaching and research. PMID:28293670

  14. Evaluation of the current status of Rehabilitation, Physical Medicine and Naturopathy education 10 years after the reform of the Medical Licensure Act - a nationwide survey of German Medical Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock-Schröer, Beate; Huber, Roman; Joos, Stefanie; Klose, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: After the reform of the German Medical Licensure Act of 2003, Rehabilitation, Naturopathy and Physical Medicine were integrated into one discipline to be taught in Medical University. The aim of this survey is to determine the outcome of this change by evaluating the current status of education of these three disciplines based on the experience and satisfaction reported by lecturers responsible for teaching these subjects to medical students. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey. A paper version of the questionnaire for each discipline was posted to each Medical University in Germany. The first part asked about the current status of teaching; the second part asked about facilities and requirements; the third part asked respondents to give information on their career and teaching experience in this subject Results: The response rate was 51.5% for Rehabilitation, 48.5% for Physical Medicine and 60.6% for Naturopathy. A vast range of people and faculties were involved in the curricula. The percentage of each discipline taught was unevenly distributed: the major proportion being rehabilitation (38%), then naturopathy 34% lastly physical medicine with less than a third (28%). The main delivery of these disciplines was through lectures in plenary sessions. Modern teaching methods were not in evidence. Lecturers were generally pleased to be working with the combination of the three disciplines. Conclusion: Future medical education should improve upon teaching coordination and aim towards a common curriculum for these three disciplines. Expected future changes to medical curricula will provide opportunities to improve the implementation of Rehabilitation, Physical Medicine and Naturopathy in teaching and research.

  15. Evaluation of the current status of Rehabilitation, Physical Medicine and Naturopathy education 10 years after the reform of the Medical Licensure Act – a nationwide survey of German Medical Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stock-Schröer, Beate

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: After the reform of the German Medical Licensure Act of 2003, Rehabilitation, Naturopathy and Physical Medicine were integrated into one discipline to be taught in Medical University. The aim of this survey is to determine the outcome of this change by evaluating the current status of education of these three disciplines based on the experience and satisfaction reported by lecturers responsible for teaching these subjects to medical students. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey. A paper version of the questionnaire for each discipline was posted to each Medical University in Germany. The first part asked about the current status of teaching; the second part asked about facilities and requirements; the third part asked respondents to give information on their career and teaching experience in this subjectResults: The response rate was 51.5% for Rehabilitation, 48.5% for Physical Medicine and 60.6% for Naturopathy. A vast range of people and faculties were involved in the curricula. The percentage of each discipline taught was unevenly distributed: the major proportion being rehabilitation (38%, then naturopathy 34% lastly physical medicine with less than a third (28%. The main delivery of these disciplines was through lectures in plenary sessions. Modern teaching methods were not in evidence. Lecturers were generally pleased to be working with the combination of the three disciplines. Conclusion: Future medical education should improve upon teaching coordination and aim towards a common curriculum for these three disciplines. Expected future changes to medical curricula will provide opportunities to improve the implementation of Rehabilitation, Physical Medicine and Naturopathy in teaching and research.

  16. 对我国评刊体系相关问题的分析--形成我国评刊体系的社会环境%Analyze the Problems Existing in the Current Periodical Evaluation System in Our Country---Formation periodical evaluation system of our country social environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海昕

    2015-01-01

    To examine the existing scientific and technological periodical evaluation system in China and call for a rational evaluation system.By re‐viewing the development and research environment of scientific and technological periodicals in our country ,to introduce several mature academic factions rising in the international intelligence community ,also to find media theory influence on periodical evaluation and analyze the problems ex‐isting in the current periodical evaluation system in our country.FindingsEvaluation of scientific and technological periodicals in our country are in‐fluenced by international evaluation system ,currently dominated by impact factor of all kinds of periodical evaluation system. With the external in‐dex as a measure of parameters of the periodicals ,it has become a monopoly method for the evaluation on periodical market in our country. The use value of academic journal is different from that of market‐oriented journals such as traveling or shopping guide etc.. Its value lies in its long‐term fundamental role and serves for the innovation of scientific technology inventions. Therefore it is not right to use nearsighted market perspective to view the value of the academic science and technology periodical.%审视我国现有科技期刊评价体系,呼吁理性评刊系统。通过梳理我国科技期刊发展、研究环境;介绍国际情报学界兴起的几个成熟的学术派别,挖掘传媒理论对期刊评价的影响,分析我国现行期刊评价体系存在的问题。发现我国科技期刊受国际评刊体系影响,当前以“影响因子”为主导的各种期刊评价体系,用期刊的外部指标作为衡量的参数,已经垄断了我国的评刊市场的垄断评刊方法。认为学术期刊的使用价值不同于旅游、导购等市场性期刊,其价值在于其长远的根本性作用,服务于创新技术科学的发明,因此不应用近视的市场眼光来看待

  17. Stochastic longshore current dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Juan M.; Venkataramani, Shankar

    2016-12-01

    We develop a stochastic parametrization, based on a 'simple' deterministic model for the dynamics of steady longshore currents, that produces ensembles that are statistically consistent with field observations of these currents. Unlike deterministic models, stochastic parameterization incorporates randomness and hence can only match the observations in a statistical sense. Unlike statistical emulators, in which the model is tuned to the statistical structure of the observation, stochastic parametrization are not directly tuned to match the statistics of the observations. Rather, stochastic parameterization combines deterministic, i.e physics based models with stochastic models for the "missing physics" to create hybrid models, that are stochastic, but yet can be used for making predictions, especially in the context of data assimilation. We introduce a novel measure of the utility of stochastic models of complex processes, that we call consistency of sensitivity. A model with poor consistency of sensitivity requires a great deal of tuning of parameters and has a very narrow range of realistic parameters leading to outcomes consistent with a reasonable spectrum of physical outcomes. We apply this metric to our stochastic parametrization and show that, the loss of certainty inherent in model due to its stochastic nature is offset by the model's resulting consistency of sensitivity. In particular, the stochastic model still retains the forward sensitivity of the deterministic model and hence respects important structural/physical constraints, yet has a broader range of parameters capable of producing outcomes consistent with the field data used in evaluating the model. This leads to an expanded range of model applicability. We show, in the context of data assimilation, the stochastic parametrization of longshore currents achieves good results in capturing the statistics of observation that were not used in tuning the model.

  18. Impact of future climate policy scenarios on air quality and aerosol-cloud interactions using an advanced version of CESM/CAM5: Part I. model evaluation for the current decadal simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotfelty, Timothy; He, Jian; Zhang, Yang

    2017-03-01

    A version of the Community Earth System Model modified at the North Carolina State University (CESM-NCSU) is used to simulate the current and future atmosphere following the representative concentration partway scenarios for stabilization of radiative forcing at 4.5 W m-2 (RCP4.5) and radiative forcing of 8.5 W m-2 (RCP8.5). Part I describes the results from a comprehensive evaluation of current decadal simulations. Radiation and most meteorological variables are well simulated in CESM-NCSU. Cloud parameters are not as well simulated due in part to the tuning of model radiation and general biases in cloud variables common to all global chemistry-climate models. The concentrations of most inorganic aerosol species (i.e., SO42-, NH4+, and NO3-) are well simulated with normalized mean biases (NMBs) typically less than 20%. However, some notable exceptions are European NH4+, which is overpredicted by 33.0-42.2% due to high NH3 emissions and irreversible coarse mode condensation, and Cl-, that is negatively impacted by errors in emissions driven by wind speed and overpredicted HNO3. Carbonaceous aerosols are largely underpredicted following the RCP scenarios due to low emissions of black carbon, organic carbon, and anthropogenic volatile compounds in the RCP inventory and efficient wet removal. This results in underpredictions of PM2.5 and PM10 by 6.4-55.7%. The column mass abundances are reasonably well simulated. Larger biases occur in surface mixing ratios of trace gases in CESM-NCSU, likely due to numerical diffusion from the coarse grid spacing of the CESM-NCSU simulations or errors in the magnitudes and vertical structure of emissions. This is especially true for SO2 and NO2. The mixing ratio of O3 is overpredicted by 38.9-76.0% due to the limitations in the O3 deposition scheme used in CESM and insufficient titration resulted from large underpredictions in NO2. Despite these limitations, CESM-NCSU reproduces reasonably well the current atmosphere in terms of

  19. A prospective evaluation of contrast and radiation dose and image quality in cardiac CT in children with complex congenital heart disease using low-concentration iodinated contrast agent and low tube voltage and current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qiao-Ru; Gao, Wei; Sun, Ai-Min; Wang, Qian; Qiu, Hai-Sheng; Wang, Fang; Hu, Li-Wei; Li, Jian-Ying; Zhong, Yu-Min

    2017-02-01

    To the assess image quality, contrast dose and radiation dose in cardiac CT in children with congenital heart disease (CHD) using low-concentration iodinated contrast agent and low tube voltage and current in comparison with standard dose protocol. 110 patients with CHD were randomized to 1 of the 2 scan protocols: Group A (n = 45) with 120 mA tube current and contrast agent of 270 mgI/ml in concentration (Visipaque(™); GE Healthcare Ireland, Co., Cork, UK); and Group B (n = 65) with the conventional 160 mA and 370 mgI/ml concentration contrast (Iopamiro(®); Shanghai Bracco Sine Pharmaceutical Corp Ltd, Shanghai, China). Both groups used 80 kVp tube voltage and were reconstructed with 70% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction algorithm. The CT value and noise in aortic arch were measured and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. A five-point scale was used to subjectively evaluate image quality. Contrast and radiation dose were recorded. There was no difference in age and weight between the two groups (all p > 0.05). The iodine load and radiation dose in Group A were statistically lower (3976 ± 747 mgI vs 5763 ± 1018 mgI in iodine load and 0.60 ± 0.08 mSv vs 0.77 ± 0.10 mSv in effective dose; p  0.05), and with good agreement between the two observers. Comparing the surgery results, the diagnostic accuracy for extracardiac and intracardiac defects for Group A was 96% and 92%, respectively, while the corresponding numbers for Group B were 95% and 93%. Compared with the standard dose protocol, the use of low tube voltage (80 kVp), low tube current (120 mA) and low-concentration iodinated contrast agent (270 mgI/ml) enables a reduction of 30% in iodine load and 22% in radiation dose while maintaining compatible image quality and diagnostic accuracy. Advances in knowledge: The new cardiac CT scanning protocol can largely reduce the adverse effects of

  20. Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of the substances currently on the list in the annex to Commission Directive 96/3/EC as acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils – Part III of III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Shipping of edible fats and oils into Europe is permitted in bulk tanks, in which substances, included in a positive list, had been previously transported. The European Commission requested EFSA to evaluate the list of substances in the Annex to Commission Directive 96/3/EC as acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils, taking into account its review of the Scientific Committee on Food criteria for acceptable previous cargoes and criteria proposed by the Codex Committee for Fats and Oils. This is the third and last scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel on this topic, in which sixteen of these substances or groups of substances have been evaluated. The CONTAM Panel concluded that sodium silicate (water glass solution, iso-octanol, iso-nonanol, iso-decanol, 1,3-propanediol, isobutyl acetate, sec-butyl acetate, tert-butyl acetate, n-butyl acetate, propylene tetramer, paraffin wax, candelilla wax, white mineral oils and glycerol would not be of health concern as previous cargoes. The CONTAM Panel concluded that carnauba wax was not acceptable as a previous cargo because of its insolubility in water and high melting point, which raise concerns regarding the efficiency of tank cleaning. There was insufficient information available on the composition of montan wax for the CONTAM Panel to conclude that it would be of no health concern when used as previous cargo and hence it does not meet the criteria for acceptability as previous cargo. The CONTAM Panel made several recommendations regarding the way in which the substances are described in the Annex to Commission Directive 96/3/EC, to correct inaccuracies and to better reflect current transport practices.

  1. 现行输电塔设计规范可靠度水准的评估与分析%Evaluation and Analysis on Reliability Level of Current Design Specification for Power Transmission Tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王松涛; 高斐略; 李正良; 范文亮; 徐彬

    2015-01-01

    In order to make systematic and correct evaluation on reliability level of design specification for power transmission tower structure,relevant research on reliability of design expressions of different stress components of the power transmis-sion tower was developed based on DL/T 5 1 54-2002 technical regulations for structure design on overhead power transmis-sion line tower. Statistic parameters of loads and resistance of tower components and influencing laws were analyzed as well. Considering wind speed,structure importance factors and affect of wind load reappearing period,refined evaluation on reli-ability level of design expressions were made. In addition,reliability level of current specification for the tower in our coun-try was investigated.%为了对输电线路杆塔结构设计规范进行较为系统且准确的可靠水准评估,基于 DL/T 5154—2002《架空送电线路杆塔结构设计技术规定》,对输电塔不同受力构件设计表达式的可靠度展开相关研究,分析了杆塔构件荷载、抗力的统计参数及其影响规律。考虑风速、结构重要性系数及风荷载重现期的影响,对设计表达式的可靠度水平进行了精细化评估,考察了我国杆塔现行规范的可靠度水平。

  2. Chronic prostatitis: Current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Vaidyanathan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Chronic prostatitis (CP is a common condition. It causes significant suffering to the patients and constitutes a sizeable workload for the urologists. The purpose of this review is to describe the currently accepted concepts regarding the aspects of CP. Materials and Methods: Relevant papers on the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, evaluation and management of CP were identified through a search of MEDLINE using text terms "prostatitis", "chronic prostatitis" and "chronic pelvic pain syndrome". The list of articles thus obtained was supplemented by manual search of bibliographies of the identified articles and also by exploring the MEDLINE option "Related Articles". Results: The salient points of the relevant articles on each aspect of CP have been summarized in the form of a non-systematic narrative review. Conclusion: Chronic prostatitis is caused by a variety of infective and non-infective factors and is characterized by a rather long remitting and relapsing clinical course. The diagnosis is based on symptoms comprising pain and nonspecific urinary and/or ejaculatory disturbances and microbiological tests to localize bacteria and/or leucocytes in segmented urinary tract specimens. The contemporary classification was proposed by the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Diabetes Digestive Kidney Diseases (NIH/NIDDK. National Institutes of Health - Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI is the patient evaluation tool used extensively in clinical practice and research. Management should be individualized, multimodal and of an appropriate duration.

  3. Neutrons-disturbance resisting capacity evaluation for inorganic scintillator by steady radiation source-current method%稳态辐射源电流法评估无机闪烁体抗中子干扰能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡孟春; 冯璟华; 周刚; 李忠宝; 唐登攀; 张建华; 司粉妮; 黄雁

    2012-01-01

    n、γ混合场中测量γ辐射时,通常要应用无机闪烁体构成探测器,探测器抗中子干扰能力是判断测量信号质量的重要依据之一.无机闪烁体的γ绝对灵敏度是可以比较精确标定的,而无机闪烁体的中子绝对灵敏度是很难精确标定的,本文介绍稳态辐射源电流标定法,在不用测量测点注量率的情况下,也能够初步评估出无机闪烁体的抗中子干扰能力.%When measuring γ radiation in the neutron-gamma mixed field with inorganic scintillator as detector, the capacity of resisting neutrons-disturbance of the detector is an important basis for judging the quality of the signal. The γ absolute sensitivity of the inorganic scintillator can be calibrated accurately, but the neutron absolute sensitivity is very hard to be calibrated accurately. On the basis of this fact, this paper introduced the steady radiation source-current method and with which, the capacity of resisting neutrons-disturbance for inorganic scintillator can be evaluated without the measurement of neutron fluence rate.

  4. Learning from epidemiological, clinical, and immunological studies on Mycobacterium africanum for improving current understanding of host–pathogen interactions, and for the development and evaluation of diagnostics, host-directed therapies, and vaccines for tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimuddin Zumla

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium africanum comprises two phylogenetic lineages within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC. M. africanum was first described and isolated in 1968 from the sputum of a Senegalese patient with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB and it has been identified increasingly as an important cause of human TB, particularly prevalent in West Africa. The restricted geographical distribution of M. africanum, in contrast to the widespread global distribution of other species of MTBC, requires explanation. Available data indicate that M. africanum may also have important differences in transmission, pathogenesis, and host–pathogen interactions, which could affect the evaluation of new TB intervention tools (diagnostics and vaccines–those currently in use and those under development. The unequal geographical distribution and spread of MTBC species means that individual research findings from one country or region cannot be generalized across the continent. Thus, generalizing data from previous and ongoing research studies on MTBC may be inaccurate and inappropriate. A major rethink is required regarding the design and structure of future clinical trials of new interventions. The West, Central, East, and Southern African EDCTP Networks of Excellence provide opportunities to take forward these pan-Africa studies. More investments into molecular, epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic, and immunological studies across the African continent are required to enable further understanding of host–M. africanum interactions, leading to the development of more specific diagnostics, biomarkers, host-directed therapies, and vaccines for TB.

  5. Learning from epidemiological, clinical, and immunological studies on Mycobacterium africanum for improving current understanding of host-pathogen interactions, and for the development and evaluation of diagnostics, host-directed therapies, and vaccines for tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Otchere, Isaac Darko; Mensah, Gloria Ivy; Asante-Poku, Adwoa; Gehre, Florian; Maeurer, Markus; Bates, Matthew; Mwaba, Peter; Ntoumi, Francine; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy

    2017-03-01

    Mycobacterium africanum comprises two phylogenetic lineages within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). M. africanum was first described and isolated in 1968 from the sputum of a Senegalese patient with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and it has been identified increasingly as an important cause of human TB, particularly prevalent in West Africa. The restricted geographical distribution of M. africanum, in contrast to the widespread global distribution of other species of MTBC, requires explanation. Available data indicate that M. africanum may also have important differences in transmission, pathogenesis, and host-pathogen interactions, which could affect the evaluation of new TB intervention tools (diagnostics and vaccines)-those currently in use and those under development. The unequal geographical distribution and spread of MTBC species means that individual research findings from one country or region cannot be generalized across the continent. Thus, generalizing data from previous and ongoing research studies on MTBC may be inaccurate and inappropriate. A major rethink is required regarding the design and structure of future clinical trials of new interventions. The West, Central, East, and Southern African EDCTP Networks of Excellence provide opportunities to take forward these pan-Africa studies. More investments into molecular, epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic, and immunological studies across the African continent are required to enable further understanding of host-M. africanum interactions, leading to the development of more specific diagnostics, biomarkers, host-directed therapies, and vaccines for TB. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Current measurement apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umans, Stephen D.

    2008-11-11

    Apparatus and methods are provided for a system for measurement of a current in a conductor such that the conductor current may be momentarily directed to a current measurement element in order to maintain proper current without significantly increasing an amount of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element or adding resistance to assist in current measurement. The apparatus and methods described herein are useful in superconducting circuits where it is necessary to monitor current carried by the superconducting elements while minimizing the effects of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element.

  7. Cryogenic current leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zizek, F.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical, technical and design questions are examined of cryogenic current leads for SP of magnetic systems. Simplified mathematical models are presented for the current leads. To illustrate modeling, the calculation is made of the real current leads for 500 A and three variants of current leads for 1500 A for the enterprise ''Shkoda.''

  8. Current interruption transients calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Peelo, David F

    2014-01-01

    Provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins, and the circuits involved, and how they can be calculated Current Interruption Transients Calculationis a comprehensive resource for the understanding, calculation and analysis of the transient recovery voltages (TRVs) and related re-ignition or re-striking transients associated with fault current interruption and the switching of inductive and capacitive load currents in circuits. This book provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins,

  9. No more this than that: skeptical impression or Pyrrhonian dogma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necip Fikri Alican

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a defense of Pyrrhonian skepticism against the charge that the suspension of judgment based on equipollence is vitiated by the assent given to the equipollence in question. The apparent conflict has a conceptual side as well as a practical side, examined here as separate challenges with a section devoted to each. The conceptual challenge is that the skeptical transition from an equipollence of arguments to a suspension of judgment is undermined either by a logical contradiction or by an epistemic inconsistency, perhaps by both, because the determination and affirmation of equipollence is itself a judgment of sorts, one that is not suspended. The practical challenge is that, independently of any conceptual confusion or contradiction, suspending judgment in reaction to equipollence evinces doxastic commitment to equipollence, if only because human beings are not capable of making assessments requiring rational determination without believing the corresponding premises and conclusions to be true. The two analytic sections addressing these challenges are preceded by two prefatory sections, one laying out the epistemic process, the other reviewing the evidentiary context. The response from the conceptual perspective is that the suspension of judgment based on equipollence is not a reasoned conclusion adopted as the truth of the matter but a natural reaction to an impression left by the apparently equal weight of opposing arguments. The response from the practical perspective is that the acknowledgment of equipollence is not just an affirmation of the equal weight of arguments but also an admission of inability to decide, suggesting that any assent, express or implied, is thrust upon the Pyrrhonist in a state of epistemic paralysis affecting the will and the intellect on the matter being investigated. This just leaves a deep disagreement, if any, regarding whether equipollence is an inference based on discursive activity or an impression coming from passive receptivity. But this, even if resolved in favor of the critic (which it need not and ought not be, is not the same as confusion or inconsistency on the part of the Pyrrhonist, the demonstration of which is the primary aim of this paper.

  10. Beyond the dogma of the fixed book price agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, F.

    2004-01-01

    After describing the essential features of the book market, a welfare analysisof the fixed book price agreement is given. Allowance is made for theopportunity cost of reading. Theoretically such an agreement pushes up bookprices and depresses book sales. However, more titles will be published,partic

  11. Sõnavabaduse dogma Hollandi moodi / Kaspar Näf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Näf, Kaspar

    2008-01-01

    Šveitsi ajaloolane ja ajakirjanik leiab Hollandi parlamendisaadiku Geert Wildersi islami-vastase filmi ja ENPA endise presidendi Rene van der Lindeni arvamusavaldustega seoses, et kui sõnavabadus ja arvamuse väljendamine on eesmärk iseenesest, siis on see eriti neil juhtudel absurdne, kui seab teisi inimesi ohtu

  12. Desiderata or Dogma: What the Evidence Reveals About Physician Attire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Physician–patient interactions are complex and depend on multiple factors including common cultural definitions and evolving social norms. The once purely philosophical debate over what constitutes appropriate physician attire can benefit from a growing evidence base in the literature. Discussion Although this literature is commonly regarded as supporting traditional attire, the data actually represent a more balanced distribution of opinions held by patients and by physicians. Perhaps interpretations favoring a conservative approach are expected given the history and tradition of the physician–patient relationship. Conclusion Nevertheless, in the age of evidence-based medicine, it is difficult to argue against scrutiny of the available literature. Evidence that challenges the importance of traditional physician attire is reviewed. PMID:18286342

  13. DOGMA AND ANTINOMY IN THE PHILOSOPHY OF SERGEY BULGAKOV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Vaganova

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the thought of Bulgakov as regards the dogmatic formulation of the council of Chalcedon as well as his thoughts on the Holy Eucharist. The author wishes to describe the difficult path which Bulgakov followed to arrive at his understanding of the most fundamental points of Christian doctrine and during the course of which he was initially fascinated and later disenchanted by Roman Catholicism. This rather short period, usually known by the name of the Crimean Philosophy of Bulgakov, is one of the key moments in the whole of his activity and provided the final impetus for his turn to Sophiology. The author of this article describes how the return of Bulgakov to Russian Orthodoxy was accompanied by the philosopher’s rediscovery of Sophiology. Sophiology was interpreted by Bulgakov as relieving the existing antinomy between two opposing principles in both the mystery of the Eucharist and the mystery of the Incarnation, between the divine and the mortal. The problem of the consecration of the holy gifts was met and resolved by Bulgakov in the domain of Christology and more precisely in the doctrine of the body of Christ: the earthly or material body and the glorifi ed body, the reality of Christ’s body up until the Resurrection and after the Resurrection. This teaching about the relationship between the two realities of the corporality of Christ was little studied in Orthodoxy Theology before Bulgakov. It was interpreted by Bulgakov in the light of his Sophiology: the Incarnation as the absolute realization in human form of the divine sophiological prototype. The author of this article concludes that Bulgakov’s use of Sophiology provided him with a way to oppose and overcome Kant’s transcendentalism. Thus, it became one of the major facets of Russian Philosophy

  14. Positivist Dogmas, Rhetoric, and the Education Science Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kenneth R.

    2009-01-01

    Explicit versions of positivism were cast off some time ago in philosophy, but a tacit form continues to thrive in education research, exemplified by the "new scientific orthodoxy" codified in the National Research Council's "Scientific Research in Education" (2002) and reinforced in the American Educational Research Association's "Standards for…

  15. Overcoming ACLS dogma: how quickly should we change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegazzi, James J; Callaway, Clifton W

    2003-01-01

    The ECC Guidelines 2000 considered interesting new evidence about a pre-defibrillation period of prescribed CPR to increase the probability that the postshock rhythm would be perfusing rather than asystole. If victims of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest have not received bystander CPR before the arrival of the defibrillator, a period of preshock CPR could enhance the value of the shocks. At the end of the year 2000 there was insufficient evidence to recommend any other approach than shock as soon as possible and perform CPR at all other times.

  16. Beyond the Central Dogma: Bringing Epigenetics into the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drits-Esser, Dina; Malone, Molly; Barber, Nicola C.; Stark, Louisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetics is the study of how external factors and internal cellular signals can lead to changes in the packaging and processing of DNA sequences, thereby altering the expression of genes and traits. Exploring the epigenome introduces students to environmental influences on our genes and the complexities of gene expression. A supplemental…

  17. Eesti tants ühines Dogma-manifestiga / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2001-01-01

    "1=3 õige või vale" (idee autor ja lavastaja Jarmo Karing), kunstnik Liina Tepand, esietendus 1. märtsil Tartu Teatrilaboris; "1973. Võrrand kolme muutuja ja ühe puudujaga" ( idee autor Tiina Mölder), esietendus 1. aprillil Mustpeade Majas

  18. Teaching the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology using Jewelry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. DeBruyn

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available ”Cracking the Code” is an activity developed to demonstrate the processes of transcription and translation. This hands-on activity helps students understand the relationship between form (base pairing and function (information storage and transfer of nucleic acids. In this activity, students go through the processes of transcription and translation of a DNA molecule to create jewelry; a beaded bracelet or necklace is used as a tactile representation of a chain of amino acids. To determine the correct order of “amino acid” beads, students must first decode a strand of DNA using complementary base pairing rules. The decoding is a two-step process that illustrates transcription (the copying of DNA to RNA and translation (using tRNAs to match the genetic code to the correct amino acid. This teaches the relationship between structure (base pairs and function (information storage and transfer in nucleic acids.

  19. Teaching the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology using Jewelry †

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer M. DeBruyn

    2012-01-01

    ”Cracking the Code” is an activity developed to demonstrate the processes of transcription and translation. This hands-on activity helps students understand the relationship between form (base pairing) and function (information storage and transfer) of nucleic acids. In this activity, students go through the processes of transcription and translation of a DNA molecule to create jewelry; a beaded bracelet or necklace is used as a tactile representation of a chain of amino acids. To dete...

  20. Protein folding activity and the central dogma of molecular biology

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavi, Ghosh; Dipankar, Chatterji

    2003-01-01

    Biological systems, in general, can function effectively when the products of the system are in proper configuration and harmful effects due to misaggregation are avoided. Folding of proteins and their functional consequences have been a subject of active research since several years now. However it is not clear whether during protein synthesis from genetic message, the same set of rules are employed or participation of new efforts take place. In this review we show that at least in the case ...

  1. Beyond the Central Dogma: Bringing Epigenetics into the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drits-Esser, Dina; Malone, Molly; Barber, Nicola C.; Stark, Louisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetics is the study of how external factors and internal cellular signals can lead to changes in the packaging and processing of DNA sequences, thereby altering the expression of genes and traits. Exploring the epigenome introduces students to environmental influences on our genes and the complexities of gene expression. A supplemental…

  2. Skill and Physical Activity: A Central Dogma for Kinesiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelaznik, Howard N.; Harper, William A.

    2007-01-01

    Kinesiology has a long and storied tradition and history. The growth of our discipline and what might be called our subdisciplines has been the shining achievement of the 1970-2006 era, spurred on by Henry's (1964) call for an academic discipline. In this short thought paper, we argue that we have lost sight of the discipline in a quest to become…

  3. Rethinking Dogma: Teaching Critical Thinking in Freshman Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Douglas

    Though the expressivist and process movements rightly banished literary interpretation from the writing class, they went much too far in similarly banishing the study of texts and reading in favor of the "productive" act of writing. This paper argues that undergraduates can play their "professors' game," the Burkean parlor game of Kristeva's…

  4. Bioartificial liver: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pless, G; Sauer, I M

    2005-11-01

    Liver failure remains a life-threatening syndrome. With the growing disparity between the number of suitable donor organs and the number of patients awaiting transplantation, efforts have been made to optimize the allocation of organs, to find alternatives to cadaveric liver transplantation, and to develop extracorporeal methods to support or replace the function of the failing organ. An extracorporeal liver support system has to provide the main functions of the liver: detoxification, synthesis, and regulation. The understanding that the critical issue of the clinical syndrome in liver failure is the accumulation of toxins not cleared by the failing liver led to the development of artificial filtration and adsorption devices (artificial liver support). Based on this hypothesis, the removal of lipophilic, albumin-bound substances, such as bilirubin, bile acids, metabolites of aromatic amino acids, medium-chain fatty acids, and cytokines, should be beneficial to the clinical course of a patient in liver failure. Artificial detoxification devices currently under clinical evaluation include the Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS), Single-Pass Albumin Dialysis (SPAD), and the Prometheus system. The complex tasks of regulation and synthesis remain to be addressed by the use of liver cells (bioartificial liver support). The Extracorporeal Liver Assist Device (ELAD), HepatAssist, Modular Extracorporeal Liver Support system (MELS), and the Amsterdam Medical Center Bioartificial Liver (AMC-BAL) are bioartificial systems. This article gives a brief overview on these artificial and bioartificial devices and discusses remaining obstacles.

  5. Umbilical metastases: current viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidi Federico

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Umbilical metastases from a malignant neoplasm, also termed Sister Mary Joseph's nodule, are not commonly reported in the English literature, and they have usually been considered as a sign of a poor prognosis for the patient. The present article reports on the current view point on umbilical metastasis besides discussing the epidemiology, clinical presentation, pathophysiology and treatment. Method A search of Pubmed was carried out using the term 'umblic*' and 'metastases' or metastasis' revealed no references. Another search was made using the term "Sister Joseph's nodule" or sister Joseph nodule" that revealed 99 references. Of these there were 14 review articles, however when the search was limited to English language it yielded only 20 articles. Articles selected from these form the basis of this report along with cross references. Results The primary lesions usually arise from gastrointestinal or genitourinary tract malignancies and may be the presenting symptom or sign of a primary tumour in an unknown site. Conclusion A careful evaluation of all umbilical lesions, including an early biopsy if appropriate, is recommended. Recent studies suggest an aggressive surgical approach combined with chemotherapy for such patients may improve survival.

  6. Currents for Arbitrary Helicity

    CERN Document Server

    Dragon, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Using Mackey's classification of unitary representations of the Poincar\\'e group on massles states of arbitrary helicity we disprove the claim that states with helicity |h|>=1 cannot couple to a conserved current by constructing such a current.

  7. Magnetic current sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jr., William C. (Inventor); Hermann, Theodore M. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A current determiner having an output at which representations of input currents are provided having an input conductor for the input current and a current sensor supported on a substrate electrically isolated from one another but with the sensor positioned in the magnetic fields arising about the input conductor due to any input currents. The sensor extends along the substrate in a direction primarily perpendicular to the extent of the input conductor and is formed of at least a pair of thin-film ferromagnetic layers separated by a non-magnetic conductive layer. The sensor can be electrically connected to a electronic circuitry formed in the substrate including a nonlinearity adaptation circuit to provide representations of the input currents of increased accuracy despite nonlinearities in the current sensor, and can include further current sensors in bridge circuits.

  8. Current and Current Fluctuations in Quantum Shuttles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Flindt, Christian; Novotny, Tomas

    2005-01-01

    theoretical tools needed for the analysis, e.g., generalized master equations and Wigner functions, and we outline the methods how the resulting large numerical problems can be handled. Illustrative results are given for current, noise, and full counting statistics for a number of model systems. Throughout...

  9. Controlled current inductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, S.

    1970-01-01

    Magnetic permeability and shape of special core inserts are varied to produce desired changes in saturation characteristics of current dependent inductor, thus improving its inductance-to-current properties. Materials and saturation levels of the core pieces are selected to permit a wide variety of relationships between inductance and current.

  10. Research on pulsed-modulation-based eddy current evaluation of subsurface corrosion in defect metallic structures%脉冲调制涡流检测金属构件亚表面腐蚀缺陷研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫贝; 李勇; 李达; 刘相彪; 李一力; 陈振茂; 王钧

    2015-01-01

    Subsurface corrosion defect severely influences the integrity of crucial components of in-service apparatus.In light of this,this paper proposes a new pulsed eddy current technique (PEC),namely pulsed-modulation-based eddy current technique (PMEC),and intensively inves-tigates its advantages regarding inspection and evaluation of subsurface corrosion defect in metal-lic structures.The correlations of PMEC signals and their features with subsurface corrosion in different depths are firstly analyzed via the finite element analysis based on the numerical PMEC model established using reduced magnetic vector potential method.The advantages of PMEC over PEC are identified via simulations.In parallel,an experimental system implementing PMEC as well as PEC is built up.Through experiments,PMEC and PEC are further compared regarding inspection of subsurface corrosion defect in conductors.The experimental results are found to be in agreement with those from simulations.The results from both simulations and experiments in-dicate that compared with PEC,PMEC has higher sensitivity to subsurface corrosion defect in metallic structures.%亚表面腐蚀缺陷严重影响在役装备关键金属构件的完整性。本文提出一种新型脉冲涡流检测技术,即脉冲调制涡流检测技术,探究该技术在金属构件亚表面腐蚀缺陷检测和评估中的技术优势。首先,基于退化磁矢位法,建立了脉冲调制涡流检测金属构件亚表面腐蚀缺陷的高效有限元仿真模型,仿真分析了脉冲调制涡流检测信号及其特征与金属构件亚表面腐蚀缺陷深度间的关联规律,探究了该技术的优势性。同时,搭建了脉冲调制涡流/脉冲涡流双检测试验系统,通过试验,进一步探究两种技术在金属构件亚表面腐蚀缺陷检测中的优劣,试验结果验证了仿真分析结论。研究表明,对于金属构件亚表面腐蚀缺陷检测,脉冲调制涡流检测技术较脉冲

  11. Current Epidemiology of Genitourinary Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeady, James B.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis This article reviews recent publications evaluating the current epidemiology of urologic trauma. It begins by providing a brief explanation of databases that have been recently used to study this patient population, then proceeds to discuss each genitourinary organ individually, discussing the most relevant and up to date information published for each one. The conclusion of the article briefly discusses possible future research and development areas pertaining to the topic. PMID:23905930

  12. Decomposition of residue currents

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Mats; Wulcan, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Given a submodule $J\\subset \\mathcal O_0^{\\oplus r}$ and a free resolution of $J$ one can define a certain vector valued residue current whose annihilator is $J$. We make a decomposition of the current with respect to Ass$(J)$ that correspond to a primary decomposition of $J$. As a tool we introduce a class of currents that includes usual residue and principal value currents; in particular these currents admit a certain type of restriction to analytic varieties and more generally to construct...

  13. Inrush Current Control Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Steven W. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An inrush current control circuit having an input terminal connected to a DC power supply and an output terminal connected to a load capacitor limits the inrush current that charges up the load capacitor during power up of a system. When the DC power supply applies a DC voltage to the input terminal, the inrush current control circuit produces a voltage ramp at the load capacitor instead of an abrupt DC voltage. The voltage ramp results in a constant low level current to charge up the load capacitor, greatly reducing the current drain on the DC power supply.

  14. Electric current locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Paul E [Corvallis, OR; Woodside, Charles Rigel [Corvallis, OR

    2012-02-07

    The disclosure herein provides an apparatus for location of a quantity of current vectors in an electrical device, where the current vector has a known direction and a known relative magnitude to an input current supplied to the electrical device. Mathematical constants used in Biot-Savart superposition equations are determined for the electrical device, the orientation of the apparatus, and relative magnitude of the current vector and the input current, and the apparatus utilizes magnetic field sensors oriented to a sensing plane to provide current vector location based on the solution of the Biot-Savart superposition equations. Description of required orientations between the apparatus and the electrical device are disclosed and various methods of determining the mathematical constants are presented.

  15. Current limiter circuit system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witcher, Joseph Brandon; Bredemann, Michael V.

    2017-09-05

    An apparatus comprising a steady state sensing circuit, a switching circuit, and a detection circuit. The steady state sensing circuit is connected to a first, a second and a third node. The first node is connected to a first device, the second node is connected to a second device, and the steady state sensing circuit causes a scaled current to flow at the third node. The scaled current is proportional to a voltage difference between the first and second node. The switching circuit limits an amount of current that flows between the first and second device. The detection circuit is connected to the third node and the switching circuit. The detection circuit monitors the scaled current at the third node and controls the switching circuit to limit the amount of the current that flows between the first and second device when the scaled current is greater than a desired level.

  16. Quantization of interface currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotani, Motoko [AIMR, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Schulz-Baldes, Hermann [Department Mathematik, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen (Germany); Villegas-Blas, Carlos [Instituto de Matematicas, Cuernavaca, UNAM, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    2014-12-15

    At the interface of two two-dimensional quantum systems, there may exist interface currents similar to edge currents in quantum Hall systems. It is proved that these interface currents are macroscopically quantized by an integer that is given by the difference of the Chern numbers of the two systems. It is also argued that at the interface between two time-reversal invariant systems with half-integer spin, one of which is trivial and the other non-trivial, there are dissipationless spin-polarized interface currents.

  17. Low current beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A.; Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T.; Sekiguchi, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).

    1993-12-31

    Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  18. 广东省医用高压氧治疗技术审核与问题探讨%Technical review and evaluation of hyperbaric oxygen treatment in Guangdong and a discussion on the current problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李虹; 欧阳明; 邱森玲; 邓国娜

    2014-01-01

    目的 对广东省95家医院申报的医用高压氧治疗技术进行临床应用能力审核及分级.方法 采用回顾性调查法和专家审核法.结果 95家医院中能力达到A级3家、B级37家、C级52家、D级3家.主要存在医疗文书记录不全、版本不统一、材料提交不完整;从业人员培训、设备及技术管理不完善;基层医院高压氧技术临床应用能力普遍较低等问题.结论 健全高压氧治疗技术和设备安全管理制度;制定我省医用高压氧临床诊疗指南、统一技术操作规程及医疗文书模板是保障医疗质量的关键;基层从业医务人员定期参加技术培训、行业学会及审核专家传帮扶带是规范、提高该技术临床应用的有效举措;完整填写和提交申请内容与材料是技术审、等级/能力评估的基础.%Objective To review and evaluate clinical ability and degrading of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment in 95 hospitals of Guangdong Province.Methods Retrospective survey and expert review methods were used in the study.Results With regard to clinical treatment capacity,the 95 hospitals could be divided into four grades:i.e.grade A (3 hospitals),grade B (37 hospitals),grade C (52 hospitals),grade D (3 hospitals).Current problems existed are:incomplete medical documentation,application of different editions,submission of incomplete materials,irregular training of professional workers,imperfect equipment and technology management,lower capability of basic hospitals in clinical application of HBO therapy.Conclusions The perfection of safety system for the management of HBO techniques and facilities is a fundamental guarantee for the conduction of HBO therapy.The development of guidelines for clinical application of HBO therapy and the unification of operating procedures and editions of medical documentation are key to the assurance of medical treatment quality.Regular technical training of medical professionals,passing on experience

  19. Merging of plasma currents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, J.; Schep, T. J.

    2001-01-01

    The merging process of current filaments in a strongly magnetized plasma is described. The evolution is calculated using a contour dynamics method, which accurately tracks piecewise constant distributions of the conserved quantities. In the interaction of two screened currents, both develop dipolar

  20. The Bransfield Gravity Current

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sangrà, P.; Stegner, A.; Hernández-Arencibia, Mónica; Márrero-Díaz, A.; Salinas, C.; Aguiar-González, B.; Henríquez-Pastene, C.H.; Mouriño-Carballido, B.

    2017-01-01

    Using in situ data and laboratory experiments, we show that the circulation of the Bransfield Current (BC) around the South Shetland Islands (SSI) may be characterized in terms of a propagating buoyant gravity current. First, we describe the SSI hydrography and some drifter trajectories, paying spec

  1. Discrete Noether Currents

    CERN Document Server

    Seidl, Gerhart

    2014-01-01

    We present a simple generalization of Noether's theorem for discrete symmetries in relativistic continuum field theories. We calculate explicitly the conserved current for several discrete spacetime and internal symmetries. In addition, we formulate an analogue of the Ward-Takahashi identity for the Noether current associated with a discrete symmetry.

  2. Direct current transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, S. M.; Urban, E. W. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A direct current transformer in which the primary consists of an elongated strip of superconductive material, across the ends of which is direct current potential is described. Parallel and closely spaced to the primary is positioned a transformer secondary consisting of a thin strip of magnetoresistive material.

  3. Electric Current Solves Mazes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrinhac, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question:…

  4. The Bransfield Gravity Current

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sangrà, P.; Stegner, A.; Hernández-Arencibia, Mónica; Márrero-Díaz, A.; Salinas, C.; Aguiar-González, B.; Henríquez-Pastene, C.H.; Mouriño-Carballido, B.

    2017-01-01

    Using in situ data and laboratory experiments, we show that the circulation of the Bransfield Current (BC) around the South Shetland Islands (SSI) may be characterized in terms of a propagating buoyant gravity current. First, we describe the SSI hydrography and some drifter trajectories, paying

  5. The Bransfield Gravity Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangrà, Pablo; Stegner, Alexander; Hernández-Arencibia, Mónica; Marrero-Díaz, Ángeles; Salinas, Carolina; Aguiar-González, Borja; Henríquez-Pastene, Cristian; Mouriño-Carballido, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Using in situ data and laboratory experiments, we show that the circulation of the Bransfield Current (BC) around the South Shetland Islands (SSI) may be characterized in terms of a propagating buoyant gravity current. First, we describe the SSI hydrography and some drifter trajectories, paying special attention to the recirculation of the BC at the northeastern tip and northern slopes of the SSI. We observed that when the northeastward-flowing BC reaches the northeastern tip of the SSI, it recirculates around an anticyclonic mesoscale eddy that has not previously been reported in this region. Part of this recirculating water then proceeds southwest along the northern SSI shelf break as a narrow baroclinic jet and another part join the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Consequently, the cross-slope gradients of properties strengthen, and the southern boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current becomes a nearly submesoscale ( 10 km) front. Second, we compare the observations with buoyant gravity current laboratory experiments in an open basin setup where the SSI topographic barrier is represented by a central wall. The resulting circulation of the buoyant gravity current around the wall mirrors our in situ observations. First, a narrow buoyant gravity current flows northeastward along the southern boundary of the wall. Once the head of the buoyant gravity current reaches the tip of the wall, a recirculating anticyclonic vortex is generated, and the buoyant gravity current then proceeds westward along the north side of the wall. This circulation of the BC around the SSI as a buoyant gravity current may contribute to the fertilization of the waters around the SSI, as suggested by previously reported distributions of nutrients and phytoplankton.

  6. A Reflection on the Current Problems in Evaluating Students -- From the Perspective of Taxonomy of Educational Objectives%对当前学生评价存在问题的思考--基于教育目标分类理论视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿媚; 杨斐

    2011-01-01

    分析了目前我国基础教育学生评价存在的主要问题:测量对象的局限性,教师训练方式的僵化,知识与技能关系分离等。认为现代学生评价应该在四个方面进行改革:评价观念、评价内容、评价方法以及评价功能。强调通过对学生掌握知识和认知过程的评价,凸显评价的发展性功能,以达到帮助学生获得全面发展的目的。%The main current problems in evaluating students in basic education in China are analyzed from these aspects, such as the limitation of evaluative objects, the rigidification of teaching method, the separation of knowledge and skills and so on. It is pointed out that modern evaluation of students should be reformed from four aspects: evaluating concept, evaluating content, evaluating method and evaluating functions. The developmental function of evaluation should be highlighted through evaluating students' grasp of knowledge and cognitive process in order to promote students' overall development.

  7. On current trace problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The pricing of electricity trasmission requires determining how much use each generator is making of a transmission line and what is each generator's contribution to the system losses. Such problems cannot be solved by only using Kirchoff's laws. This paper proposes two current decomposition axioms based on which the theories and models are established for the current trace problem. To create an efficient algorithm the graph theory is employed. It is proved that there is no directed circuit in a directed current distribution graph. According to this theorem a very simple and efficient algorithm based on recursive elimination process is suggested. A simple example is used to explain the algorithm.

  8. Turbulent current drive mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua

    2017-08-01

    Mechanisms through which plasma microturbulence can drive a mean electron plasma current are derived. The efficiency through which these turbulent contributions can drive deviations from neoclassical predictions of the electron current profile is computed by employing a linearized Coulomb collision operator. It is found that a non-diffusive contribution to the electron momentum flux as well as an anomalous electron-ion momentum exchange term provide the most efficient means through which turbulence can modify the mean electron current for the cases considered. Such turbulent contributions appear as an effective EMF within Ohm's law and hence provide an ideal means for driving deviations from neoclassical predictions.

  9. Pediatric thoracic trauma: Current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Erik G; Fitzgerald, Caitlin A; Santore, Matthew T

    2017-02-01

    Pediatric thoracic trauma is relatively uncommon but results in disproportionately high levels of morbidity and mortality when compared with other traumatic injuries. These injuries are often more devastating due to differences in children׳s anatomy and physiology relative to adult patients. A high index of suspicion is of utmost importance at the time of presentation because many significant thoracic injuries will have no external signs of injury. With proper recognition and management of these injuries, there is an associated improved long-term outcome. This article reviews the current literature and discusses the initial evaluation, current management practices, and future directions in pediatric thoracic trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Water Current Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tidal, river and ocean current observations collected by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. Period of record is late 1800s to mid-1980s.

  11. Prognosis - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    A catalog of posts from NCI’s Cancer Currents blog on research related to cancer prognosis. Includes posts on factors that influence prognosis, prognostic biomarkers, and doctor-patient communications about prognosis.

  12. NOAA NDBC SOS - currents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NDBC SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have currents data. Because of the nature of SOS requests, requests for...

  13. AUTO FIB Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, I.; Sharples, R. M.

    The current status of the automated fibre positioner, Autofib, is reviewed including the positioning performance and the set-up speed. Future plans to build another Autofib for the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope are also briefly discussed.

  14. Electrifying Current Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip

    1980-01-01

    The author describes how he has adapted the television quiz show format of "College Bowl" to current events study for junior high school students. An insert explains use of the same technique with fourth graders. (SJL)

  15. Geothermal Energy: Current abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringe, A.C. (ed.)

    1988-02-01

    This bulletin announces the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. (ACR)

  16. Current Icing Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Current Icing Product (CIP) is an automatically-generated index suitable for depicting areas of potentially hazardous airframe icing. The CIP algorithm combines...

  17. Current Resource Imagery Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — Map showing coverage of current Resource imagery projects. High resolution/large scale Resource imagery is typically acquired for the U.S. Forest Service and other...

  18. Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Characteristics and Perceptions of the Medicare Population Data from the 2010 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey is a series of source books based on the...

  19. Eddy current testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sung Jin; Lee, Hyang Beom; Kim, Young Hwan [Soongsil Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Young Kil [Kunsan Univ., Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    Eddy current testing has been widely used for non destructive testing of steam generator tubes. In order to retain reliability in ECT, the following subjects were carried out in this study: numerical modeling and analysis of defects by using BC and RPC probes in SG tube, preparation of absolute coil impedance plane diagram by FEM. Signal interpretation of the eddy current signals obtained from nuclear power plants.

  20. Current State of Digital Reference in Primary and Secondary Education; The Technological Challenges of digital Reference; Question Negotiation and the Technological Environment; Evaluation of Chat Reference Service Quality; Visual Resource Reference: Collaboration between Digital Museums and Digital Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankes, R. David; Penka, Jeffrey T.; Janes, Joseph; Silverstein, Joanne; White, Marilyn Domas; Abels, Eileen G.; Kaske, Neal; Goodrum, Abby A.

    2003-01-01

    Includes five articles that discuss digital reference in elementary and secondary education; the need to understand the technological environment of digital reference; question negotiation in digital reference; a pilot study that evaluated chat reference service quality; and collaborative digital museum and digital library reference services. (LRW)

  1. The Chukchi slope current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, W. Bryce; Pickart, Robert S.

    2017-04-01

    Using a collection of 46 shipboard hydrographic/velocity transects occupied across the shelfbreak and slope of the Chukchi Sea between 2002 and 2014, we have quantified the existence of a current transporting Pacific-origin water westward over the upper continental slope. It has been named the Chukchi slope current, which is believed to emanate from Barrow Canyon. The current is surface-intensified, order 50 km wide, and advects both summer and winter waters. It is not trapped to a particular isobath, but instead is reminiscent of a free jet. There is no significant variation in Pacific water transport with distance from Barrow Canyon. A potential vorticity analysis suggests that the flow is baroclinically unstable, consistent with the notion that it meanders. The current is present during all synoptic wind conditions, but increases in strength from summer to fall presumably due to the seasonal enhancement of the easterly winds in the region. Its transport increased over the 12-year period of data coverage, also likely in response to wind forcing. In the mean, the slope current transports 0.50 ± 0.07 Sv of Pacific water. This estimate allows us to construct a balanced mass budget of the Chukchi shelf inflows and outflows. Our study also confirms the existence of an eastward-flowing Chukchi shelfbreak jet transporting 0.10 ± 0.03 Sv of Pacific water towards Barrow Canyon.

  2. 学前教育专业实验性课程评价的现状及改进方案%On the Current Situation and Improvement Scheme of Experimental Course Evaluation for Preschool Education ;Major

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽君

    2015-01-01

    高等院校学前教育专业肩负着培养未来优秀幼师的重任,学生中的大部分未来要从事一线教学工作,教学评价的发展性功能在某些程度上能够对幼儿的学习起到促进作用,因此学前教育阶段的评价将会越来越充当学前教育研究的重点。本文在新的评价标准指导下,从实验性课程出发,探索学习评价在学前教育阶段的重要作用和教育阶段的学习评价研究,以及如何进行教学评价。全文以学前教育阶段实验性课程为基础,综合利用各类研究方法,通过查找文献、观察取材、访谈了解以及文本分析等方式,将影响学习评价研究的因素分为教师的个人因素、教学的环境因素和教学内容因素、社会和家庭因素等方面,综合对学习评价进行探索和研究。%The preschool education major of higher education e-valuation shoulders an important mission of cultivating excellent teachers for preschool education in the future. Most preschool e-ducation majors will be engaged in frontline teaching in the fu-ture. The developmental function of teaching evaluation can pro-mote children's learning in some ways, so the evaluation at the stage of preschool education has become a focus of preschool ed-ucation research. Guided by the new evaluation standard, starting from experimental courses, this paper explores the important role of learning evaluation at the stage of preschool education, focus-ing on the research of learning evaluation at the education stage and how to carry out teaching evaluation. Based on experimental courses at the stage of preschool education, this paper compre-hensively uses multiple research methods, such as literature, ob-servation, interview and text analysis, to classify the factors influ-encing learning evaluation research into teachers' individual fac-tors, factors of teaching environment, factors of teaching content, family and social factors, and makes a

  3. Current Mood vs. Recalled Impacts of Current Moods after Exposures to Sequences of Uncertain Monetary Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Lars E.; Gärling, Tommy; Ettema, Dick; Friman, Margareta; Ståhl, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Events in a sequence may each be evaluated as good or bad. We propose that such good-bad evaluations evoke emotional responses that change current mood. A model of recurrent updating of current mood is developed and compared to a model of how a sequence of events evoking emotional responses is evaluated retrospectively. In Experiment 1, 149 undergraduates are presented sequences of lottery outcomes with a fixed probability of losing or winning different amounts of money. Ratings of current mood are made after the sequence. Retrospective evaluations are either made after the ratings of current mood or, in a control condition, when no ratings of current mood are made. The results show an expected effect on current mood of the valence of the end of the sequence. The results are less clear in showing an expected beginning effect on the retrospective evaluations. An expected beginning effect on retrospective evaluations is found in Experiment 2 in which 41 undergraduates are first asked to remember the different amounts of money, then to evaluate the sequence as lottery outcomes.

  4. Current Mood vs. Recalled Impacts of Current Moods after Exposures to Sequences of Uncertain Monetary Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Lars E; Gärling, Tommy; Ettema, Dick; Friman, Margareta; Ståhl, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Events in a sequence may each be evaluated as good or bad. We propose that such good-bad evaluations evoke emotional responses that change current mood. A model of recurrent updating of current mood is developed and compared to a model of how a sequence of events evoking emotional responses is evaluated retrospectively. In Experiment 1, 149 undergraduates are presented sequences of lottery outcomes with a fixed probability of losing or winning different amounts of money. Ratings of current mood are made after the sequence. Retrospective evaluations are either made after the ratings of current mood or, in a control condition, when no ratings of current mood are made. The results show an expected effect on current mood of the valence of the end of the sequence. The results are less clear in showing an expected beginning effect on the retrospective evaluations. An expected beginning effect on retrospective evaluations is found in Experiment 2 in which 41 undergraduates are first asked to remember the different amounts of money, then to evaluate the sequence as lottery outcomes.

  5. On current trace problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锡凡; 王秀丽

    2000-01-01

    The pricing of electricity trasmission requires determining how much use each generator is making of a transmission line and what is each generator’s contribution to the system losses. Such problems cannot be solved by only using Kirchoff’s laws. This paper proposes two current decomposition axioms based on which the theories and models are established for the current trace problem. To create an efficient algorithm the graph theory is employed. It is proved that there is no directed circuit in a directed current distribution graph. According to this theorem a very simple and efficient algorithm based on recursive elimination process is suggested. A simple example is used to explain the algorithm .

  6. Decomposing the Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tim

    The field of molecular electronics have been shown to span a huge range of properties. In an effort to extract the parameters of the system that governs these properties, a number of methods that decomposes the current have been developed. These methods function not just as tools for data...... extraction, but also serves as the foundation upon which to gain insights into the physics that governs the molecular properties. As such, the understanding of the applicability and the development of new methods to decompose the current may be a goal in it self. In this thesis we will explore some...... of these methods, and use the insights from this study to develop new methods. First, we will compare two methods that decompose the current into the transmission from a single conducting level of the molecular device, by extracting level position and broadening. In general we see that the method that relies on I...

  7. Models of current sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angst, Sebastian; Engelke, Lukas; Winterer, Markus; Wolf, Dietrich E.

    2017-06-01

    Densification of (semi-)conducting particle agglomerates with the help of an electrical current is much faster and more energy efficient than traditional thermal sintering or powder compression. Therefore, this method becomes more and more common among experimentalists, engineers, and in industry. The mechanisms at work at the particle scale are highly complex because of the mutual feedback between current and pore structure. This paper extends previous modelling approaches in order to study mixtures of particles of two different materials. In addition to the delivery of Joule heat throughout the sample, especially in current bottlenecks, thermoelectric effects must be taken into account. They lead to segregation or spatial correlations in the particle arrangement. Various model extensions are possible and will be discussed.

  8. Decomposing the Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tim

    The field of molecular electronics have been shown to span a huge range of properties. In an effort to extract the parameters of the system that governs these properties, a number of methods that decomposes the current have been developed. These methods function not just as tools for data...... extraction, but also serves as the foundation upon which to gain insights into the physics that governs the molecular properties. As such, the understanding of the applicability and the development of new methods to decompose the current may be a goal in it self. In this thesis we will explore some...... of these methods, and use the insights from this study to develop new methods. First, we will compare two methods that decompose the current into the transmission from a single conducting level of the molecular device, by extracting level position and broadening. In general we see that the method that relies on I...

  9. Effect of a Small Current Quark Mass on Bag Constant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Hong-Shi; FENG Hong-Tao; SUN Wei-Min; DING Xiao-Ping; PING Jia-Lun

    2004-01-01

    A method for obtaining the small current quark mass effect on the dressed quark propagator within the Dyson-Schwinger approach is developed. From this the small current quark mass dependence of the bag constant is evaluated. It is found that the bag constant decreases with the increasing current quark mass and the contribution of the current quark mass cannot be dropped.

  10. Effect of a Small Current Quark Mass on Bag Constant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONGHong-Shi; FENGHong-Tao; SUNWei-Min; DINGXiao-Ping; PINGJia-Lun

    2004-01-01

    A method for obtaining the small current quark mass effect on the dressed quark propagator within the Dyson Schwinger approach is developed. From this the small current quark mass dependence of the bag constant is evaluated. It is found that the bag constant decreases with the increasing current quark mass and the contribution of the current quark mass cannot be dropped.

  11. Current concepts in osteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollivere, B; Wimhurst, J A; Clark, I M; Donell, S T

    2012-01-01

    The most frequent cause of failure after total hip replacement in all reported arthroplasty registries is peri-prosthetic osteolysis. Osteolysis is an active biological process initiated in response to wear debris. The eventual response to this process is the activation of macrophages and loss of bone. Activation of macrophages initiates a complex biological cascade resulting in the final common pathway of an increase in osteolytic activity. The biological initiators, mechanisms for and regulation of this process are beginning to be understood. This article explores current concepts in the causes of, and underlying biological mechanism resulting in peri-prosthetic osteolysis, reviewing the current basic science and clinical literature surrounding the topic.

  12. Current power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, J.H.

    1979-03-06

    A current power plant is described that includes a shaft mounted turbine wheel for employment in water current, a housing adjacent the impeller and to which the shaft extends, a ramp positioned on the upstream side of the impellar, and a frame on which the turbine wheel is mounted. The frame is mounted by rollers on a tract such that the impeller and frame may be rolled on the tracks inside the housing, whereafter doors are closed, and water around the turbine wheel may be pumped out to facilitate turbine repair.

  13. Induction motor starting current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arneaud, J.M.; Langman, R.A. [Tasmania Univ., Hobart, TAS (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    Large errors may occur if leakage path saturation is neglected when reduced-voltage test results are used to predict the direct-on-line starting current of induction motors. The results of applying three existing and two new methods for starting current prediction are compared with test data from 52 motors. A quantitative assessment is made of the probable reduction in error that would be achieved by increasing the number of available sets of reduced-voltage, locked rotor test results or by including slot design data. Guidelines are given for selecting an appropriate predictive method. (author). 4 tabs., 1 fig., 6 refs.

  14. Absolute geostrophic currents in global tropical oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lina; Yuan, Dongliang

    2016-11-01

    A set of absolute geostrophic current (AGC) data for the period January 2004 to December 2012 are calculated using the P-vector method based on monthly gridded Argo profiles in the world tropical oceans. The AGCs agree well with altimeter geostrophic currents, Ocean Surface Current Analysis-Real time currents, and moored current-meter measurements at 10-m depth, based on which the classical Sverdrup circulation theory is evaluated. Calculations have shown that errors of wind stress calculation, AGC transport, and depth ranges of vertical integration cannot explain non-Sverdrup transport, which is mainly in the subtropical western ocean basins and equatorial currents near the Equator in each ocean basin (except the North Indian Ocean, where the circulation is dominated by monsoons). The identified non-Sverdrup transport is thereby robust and attributed to the joint effect of baroclinicity and relief of the bottom (JEBAR) and mesoscale eddy nonlinearity.

  15. Post-evaluation of Heihe River Current Treatment Based on Ecological Footprint%基于生态足迹的黑河近期治理后评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁亿凡; 唐德善; 仲兵

    2011-01-01

    以张掖市为例,采用生态足迹法比较分析了黑河近期治理前后的生态足迹、生态承载力、生态足迹多样性和发展能力指数.结果表明,近期治理后遏制了生态承载力下降的趋势,发展均衡性和持续性增强,证明黑河近期治理效果良好.%Taking Zhangye City for an example, ecological footprint method is applied to analyze ecological footprint,ecological carrying capacity, ecological footprint diversity and development capacity index before and after the Heihe current treatment.The result shows that the ecological carrying capacity has curbed the downward trend with treatment; development balance and sustainable enhancement has been improved; the Heihe current treatment is proved to have favorable influence in Zhangye City.

  16. [Acromegaly: current view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kršek, Michal

    2015-10-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disorder caused by autonomous oversecretion of growth hormone mostly by pituitary adenoma. Untreated acromegaly leads to significantly increased morbidity and mortality and impaired quality of life. Early diagnosis and treatment is therefore essential for improvement of patients prognosis and management of acromegaly should be concentrated in specialized centres. Present article summarizes current view on diagnosis and treatment of acromegaly.

  17. Part I. Evaluation of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for electron transfer and following chemical reaction from a global analysis of current-potential-time data. Part II. Electro-catalytic detection in high-performance liquid chromatography of vitamin B[sub 12] and other molecules of biological and environmental interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, V.T.

    1992-01-01

    Simultaneous evaluation of electron transfer rate constant, k[sup 0], following chemical reaction rate constant, k[sub f], electron transfer coefficient, [alpha] and standard potential, E[sup 0][prime] for an electrochemical reaction following the EC mechanism is described. A mathematical model for the current response to a potential step is developed, starting with the Butler-Volmer equation for electrode kinetics and concentration expressions for the redox couple. The resulting integral equations are solved numerically via the Step Function method. Current-potential and current-time curves are simulated and tested under limiting conditions. The four parameters of the system are evaluated by fitting simulated current-voltage-time (i-E-t) surface to the theoretical equation. The method is applied to study an important biological molecule, viz., methyl cobalamin, in DMSO. Included in the discussion part is the use of kinetic zone diagrams to depict chronoamperometric current response as a function of dimensionless rate constants for the EC reaction scheme. This compact display of the influence of the two rate constants on current in all time windows can be used to select the best data for analysis. Theoretical limits of measurable rate constants can be estimated from the zone diagram. The development of a dropping mercury electrode detector for High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and its application to analysis of B[sub 12] and other vitamins is described. This EC detector is able to achieve high levels of sensitivity by exploiting the catalytic hydrogen evolution undergone by many nitrogenous organic molecules. Vitamin B[sub 12], thiamine, riboflavin and niacinamide were analyzed individually and in mixtures on reverse phase C18 column. Preliminary results from the analysis of commercial multivitamin preparations are also discussed.

  18. 创新当前大学生思想政治教育的评估方式%Innovative Evaluation Profile of the Current Ideological and Political Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石雷雷

    2012-01-01

    我国高校现有的思想政治教育评估方式较为单一,已经无法满足新时期下大学生的性格特征和心理需求。本次研究在总结当前传统评估方式的基础上,结合自身经验探索出创新大学生思想政治教育评估方式的具体措施和注重要点。%The universities ideological and political education assessment has been unable to meet the character and psychological needs of the students in the new period.Specific measures for the study on the basis of summing up the current traditional assessment methods,combined with their own experience to explore innovation ideological and political education assessment methods and focus on the main points.

  19. Electric and magnetic fields related to industrial current (50-60 Hz). Medical data and present day risk assessment; Champs electriques et magnetiques lies au courant industriel (50-60 Hz). Donnees sanitaires et evaluation actuelle du risque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambrozo, J. [EDF-Gaz de France Suez, Service des Etudes Medicales, 75 - Paris (France)

    2008-10-15

    The questions about the possible health impacts of electric and magnetic fields from industrial current with a 50-60 Hz frequency have led to a remarkable risk assessment approach carried out at the international scale. Pluri-disciplinary and regularly revised collective expertises (US, UK, Sweden, France, Canada, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), World Health Organization..) have integrated the results of epidemiological studies and experiments on animals and biological material. The synthesis of these works is a reassuring consensus which led to the publication in June 2007 of the monograph no 238 of the 'Environmental Health Criteria' collection of the World Health Organization in Geneva. (J.S.)

  20. 低分子肝素仿制药一致性研究法规现状%Current Regulatory Situation of Quality Consistency Evaluation for Generic Low Molecular Weight Heparin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳晓芳; 崔慧斐

    2013-01-01

    Quality consistency evaluation is required for generic low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) because it is a multi-component biochemical medicine. The patents for LMWH have expired or will expire shortly, thus guidelines for quality consistency evaluation of generics have been issued in many countries or regions. In this paper, these guidelines or statements were summarized to provide reference for development of such generics.%低分子肝素(LMWH)是一类多组分生化药,其复杂的结构特点决定了其仿制药与原研药一致性研究的必要性。随着LMWH,如依诺肝素钠等原研药专利的到期,各国均发布了针对此类产品仿制药与原研药一致性研究的指导原则。本文综述了各国或各组织发布的指导原则或声明,为LMWH仿制药的研究提供借鉴。