WorldWideScience

Sample records for current doe policy

  1. Management for Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak Suppression: Does Relevant Science Support Current Policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana L. Six

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While the use of timber harvests is generally accepted as an effective approach to controlling bark beetles during outbreaks, in reality there has been a dearth of monitoring to assess outcomes, and failures are often not reported. Additionally, few studies have focused on how these treatments affect forest structure and function over the long term, or our forests’ ability to adapt to climate change. Despite this, there is a widespread belief in the policy arena that timber harvesting is an effective and necessary tool to address beetle infestations. That belief has led to numerous proposals for, and enactment of, significant changes in federal environmental laws to encourage more timber harvests for beetle control. In this review, we use mountain pine beetle as an exemplar to critically evaluate the state of science behind the use of timber harvest treatments for bark beetle suppression during outbreaks. It is our hope that this review will stimulate research to fill important gaps and to help guide the development of policy and management firmly based in science, and thus, more likely to aid in forest conservation, reduce financial waste, and bolster public trust in public agency decision-making and practice.

  2. A Comment on “Management for Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak Suppression: Does Relevant Science Support Current Policy?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Fettig

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There are two general approaches for reducing the negative impacts of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, on forests. Direct control involves short-term tactics designed to address current infestations by manipulating mountain pine beetle populations, and includes the use of fire, insecticides, semiochemicals, sanitation harvests, or a combination of these treatments. Indirect control is preventive, and designed to reduce the probability and severity of future infestations within treated areas by manipulating stand, forest and/or landscape conditions by reducing the number of susceptible host trees through thinning, prescribed burning, and/or alterations of age classes and species composition. We emphasize that “outbreak suppression” is not the intent or objective of management strategies implemented for mountain pine beetle in the western United States, and that the use of clear, descriptive language is important when assessing the merits of various treatment strategies.

  3. US DOE International energy policy on Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, B.G.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes the importance of the United States Department of Energy`s (US DOE) International Energy Policy to Russia. Key objectives identified include the support of the transition to democracy and a market based economy. The U.S.interests at stake, importance of energy to Russia, key institutional mechanism, energy-policy committee, joint energy activities, and the key to the success of other U.S. policy are discussed.

  4. Current adaptation measures and policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoff Roberts; John A. Parrotta; Anita. Wreford

    2009-01-01

    As stated in earlier chapters, the possible impacts of climate change on forests and the forest sector are considerable, and many impacts have already been observed. As forest conditions change, there is an inherent need to change management and policy measures to minimise negative impacts and to exploit the benefits derived from climate change. This chapter highlights...

  5. Demand for Energy and Energy Generation: Does Regional Energy Policy Play a Role?

    OpenAIRE

    Ojeaga, Paul; Odejimi DEBORAH

    2014-01-01

    Does regional energy policy play a role in regional energy generation? What does the implication of the current industrialization trend mean for the generation and the supply process across regions? And to what extent does regional energy policy affect energy security (energy supply risks) in regions? This study investigates the effect of regional energy policy on regional generation characteristics in seven regions of the World using regional panel data from 1980 to 2010 a period of 31 years...

  6. The Current Cluster Policy: Essence and Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onipko Tetiana A.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at defining essence of the current cluster policy and its characteristics. It was specified that, in the process of developing and implementing regional, innovation and entrepreneurial policies, many governments drew attention to the clustering of economy as a means of achieving a high level of regional and national competitiveness. The current cluster policy needs to be integrated, that is, to unify different policies, programs, and means. One of the characteristics of the current cluster policy is its orientation towards public-private partnership. The efficient form of such a partnership is cluster organizations. The author’s vision of the current cluster policy is that both the State and the private sector should be parties to it. Emphasis has been placed on the need to support in Ukraine, at the State level, the innovation clusters that facilitate modernization of the existing economic sectors by combining the traditions and the challenges of modernity. It has been concluded that social organizations could be involved in the process of development and implementation of cluster policy in Ukraine. A prospect for further research can be development of the «intellectual specialization» strategy for regions as an important constituent of the current cluster policy.

  7. Chapitre 13. Overview of Current Public Policies

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Current Public Policies, Rules and Legislation – especially European ones – With Regard to Highly Skilled Immigration, Nationality Regimes, Stay Rights, etc.Binod Khadria Introduction: Three Levels of Public Policies Policies and programs adopted by the developed receiving countries – mainly the United States, Canada, Australia, and the European Union (EU) countries – for the admission of foreign workers with a view to facilitating and/or regulating high-skill immigration fall into three broa...

  8. Do current European policies support soil multifunctionality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helming, Katharina; Glaesner, Nadia; de Vries, Wim

    2017-04-01

    Soils are multifunctional. Maximising one function, e.g. production of biomass, is often at the costs of the other functions, e.g. water purification, carbon sequestration, nutrient recycling, habitat provision. Sustainable soil management actually means the minimization of trade-offs between multiple soil functions. While Europe does not have a policy that explicitly focuses on soil functions, a number of policies exist in the agricultural, environmental and climate domains that may affect soil functions, in particular food production, water purification, climate change mitigation, biodiversity conservation. The objective of this study was to identify gaps and overlaps in existing EU legislation that is related to soil functions. We conducted a cross-policy analysis of 19 legislative policies at European level. Results revealed two key findings: (i) soil functions are addressed in existing legislation but with the approach to their conservation rather than their improvement. (ii) Different legislations addressed isolated soil functions but there is no policy in place that actually addressed the soil multifunctionality, which is the integrated balancing of the multitude of functions. Because soil degradation is ongoing in Europe, it raises the question whether existing legislation is sufficient for maintaining soil resources and achieving sustainable soil management. Addressing soil functions individually in various directives fails to account for the multifunctionality of soil. Here, research has a role to play to better reveal the interacting processes between soil functions and their sensitivity to soil management decisions and to translate such understanding into policy recommendation. We conclude the presentation with some insights into a research approach that integrates the soil systems into the socio-economic systems to improve the understanding of soil management pressures, soil functional reactions and their impacts on societal value systems, including

  9. Does relevance matter in academic policy research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research. A debate among tourism scholars.......A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research. A debate among tourism scholars....

  10. Does the Credible Fiscal Policy Support the Prices Stabilization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuncoro Haryo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing the co-movement between fiscal policy and monetary policy rules in the context of price stabilization. More specifically, we observe the potential impact of fiscal policy credibility on the price stabilization in the inflation targeting framework. Motivated by the fact that empirical studies concerning this aspect are still limited, we take the case of Indonesia over the period 2001-2013. Based on the quarterly data analysis, we found that the impact of credibility typically depends on characteristics of fiscal rules commitment. On one hand, the credibility of debt rule reduces the inflation rate. In contrast, the incredible deficit rule policy does not have any impact on the inflation rate and therefore does not support to inflation targeting. Given those results, we conclude that credibility matters in stabilizing price levels. Accordingly, those findings suggest tightening coordination between monetary and fiscal policy to maintain fiscal sustainability in accordance with price stabilization policy

  11. INTEGRATION POLICY TOWARDS IMMIGRANTS: CURRENT EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiia Bureiko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary world the intensity of the immigration movements is constantly increasing. Countries which experience great immigrant flows are facing numerous problems which should be solved. The article studies the current immigration flows in EU countries, the United States of America and Canada and presents three main models of integration policy towards immigrants – political assimilation, functional integration and multicultural model. Separate models are distinguished for the Muslims’ integration. The author examines the peculiarities of every model and examines the conclusions provided by the Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX concerning the situation of the immigrants’ integration in 31 countries in 2011. Among all the policy indicators the first that are defined are as follows: political participation, education, labour market mobility and anti-discrimination. The situation with immigrants’ integration in Ukraine is also studied as it is gaining a great attention of the authorities and the public. The measures and practical steps done regarding this situation in Ukraine in recent years are analyzed using the information offered by the State Migration Service of Ukraine.

  12. Does Institutional Aid Compensate for or Comply with State Policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, William R.; Delaney, Jennifer A.; Naughton, Blake Alan

    2009-01-01

    To what extent does state policy for student financial aid affect the distribution of institutional aid awarded to students at public institutions? Using data from the National Postsecondary Student Aid Survey we employ a Tobit model to investigate the relationship between student characteristics, including family income and academic…

  13. Sharing the Caring: Rethinking Current Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Don

    1992-01-01

    This article presents an argument for reforming Australian public policy in favor of social care, rather than family, residential, or community care, for the elderly, sick, and disabled. After noting policy assumptions that families are the focus of caring and women are the natural caregivers, the paper describes changes in Australian family…

  14. Does bipolar pacemaker current activate blood platelets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesdal, Grunde; Hansen, Annebirthe Bo; Brandes, Axel

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether bipolar pacemaker current lead can activate blood platelets. The null hypothesis was that 1 minute of electrical stimulation of platelets would not influence their subsequent reactivity to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). BACKGROUND: Both...... platelets and muscle cells contain actin and myosin filaments, and both cells are activated following calcium influx. Muscle cells open their calcium channels and contract when exposed to an electric current. Current through a bipolar pacemaker lead will expose a small volume of blood, including platelets...

  15. How does relativity affect magnetically induced currents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, R J F; Repisky, M; Komorovsky, S

    2015-09-21

    Magnetically induced probability currents in molecules are studied in relativistic theory. Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) enhances the curvature and gives rise to a previously unobserved current cusp in AuH or small bulge-like distortions in HgH2 at the proton positions. The origin of this curvature is magnetically induced spin-density arising from SOC in the relativistic description.

  16. DOE program guide for universities and other research groups. Part I. DOE Research and Development Programs; Part II. DOE Procurement and Assistance Policies/Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    This guide addresses the DOE responsibility for fostering advanced research and development of all energy resources, both current and potential. It is intended to provide, in a single publication, all the fundamental information needed by an institution to develop a potential working relationship with DOE. Part I describes DOE research and development programs and facilities, and identifies areas of additional research needs and potential areas for new research opportunities. It also summarizes budget data and identifies the DOE program information contacts for each program. Part II provides researchers and research administrators with an introduction to the DOE administrative policies and procedures for submission and evaluation of proposals and the administration of resulting grants, cooperative agreements, and research contracts. (RWR)

  17. Working Children: Current Trends and Policy Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bequele, Assefa; Boyden, Jo

    1988-01-01

    Examines the types of employment children are most frequently engaged in, the risks involved, earnings, relationship between work and school, and the constraints on the exercise of their rights. Discusses initiatives underway to protect child workers, meet their needs, and formulate government policy. (JOW)

  18. DOE`s radioactively - contaminated metal recycling: The policy and its implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, S.; Rizkalla, E.

    1997-02-01

    In 1994, the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Restoration initiated development of a recycling policy to minimize the amount of radioactively-contaminated metal being disposed of as waste. During the following two years, stakeholders (including DOE and contractor personnel, regulators, members of the public, and representatives of labor and industry) were invited to identify key issues of concern, and to provide input on the final policy. As a result of this process, a demonstration policy for recycling radioactively-contaminated carbon steel resulting from decommissioning activities within the Environmental Management program was signed on September 20, 1996. It specifically recognizes that the Office of Environmental Management has a tremendous opportunity to minimize the disposal of metals as waste by the use of disposal containers fabricated from contaminated steel. The policy further recognizes the program`s demand for disposal containers, and it`s role as the major generator of radioactively-contaminated steel.

  19. Demand for Energy and Energy Generation: Does Regional Energy Policy Play a Role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul OJEAGA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Does regional energy policy play a role in regional energy generation? What does the implication of the current industrialization trend mean for the generation and the supply process across regions? And to what extent does regional energy policy affect energy security (energy supply risks in regions? This study investigates the effect of regional energy policy on regional generation characteristics in seven regions of the World using regional panel data from 1980 to 2010 a period of 31 years although some years of data are missing. It was found that regional energy policy were been shaped by pollution concerns and that cost reduction needs had strong effects on energy security (energy generation resources supply. The method of estimation used is the quantile regression estimation method which provides robust estimates after controlling for heterscedastic errors and is robust in the presence of outliers in the response measurement. Energy policy has strong implication for access to sustainable supply of energy generation resources however it had little or no effect on energy generation itself. Industrial demand for energy particularly in the developed countries were probably also making developed countries depend on more nuclear and hydro energy generation sources.

  20. A view of the evolving DOE software copyright policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, M.K.

    1989-01-01

    In May of 1988, the US Department of Energy (DOE) announced a change in its policy with respect to the copyrighting of computer software by its Management and Operating (M and O) contractors. The intent of this revision is to allow the contractors to secure copyrights for all scientific and technical software funded by the Department except in those cases where such action (1) would be detrimental to national security, (2) would not enhance the appropriate transfer or commercialization of the software, (3) would have a negative impact on US industrial competitiveness, or (4) would prevent DOE from meeting its obligations under international treaties and agreements. Classified computer software and that developed with Naval Reactors funding are specifically excluded from the new policy. This paper will discuss foreseeable changes to, and the potential impacts on, the National Energy Software Center (NESC) program and the role the Center will play in implementation of the policy. The NESC was established almost thirty years ago as the Argonne Code Center, a cooperative undertaking to encourage the sharing of reactor design and engineering codes among Atomic Energy Commission contractors and the transfer of AEC computing technology to industry. A brief history of the Center and a description of its present operation will be provided as background for the author's perspective. 4 refs.

  1. Policy and Current Account Determination under Floating Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Genberg; Alexander K. Swoboda

    1989-01-01

    The determinants of current account imbalances under floating exchange rates are analyzed. The analysis provides a framework within which the sources of, and the remedies for, the current account imbalances between the United States, Japan, and the Federal Republic of Germany can be discussed. The effects of various government policies are emphasized, in particular the differences between expenditure-changing and expenditure-switching policies. Short-run and long-run considerations are invest...

  2. DETERMINANTS OF CURRENT ACCOUNT DEFICIT AND ECONOMY POLICIES PRACTICES FOR CURRENT ACCOUNT DEFICIT IN TURKISH ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysel Karagol

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In last years with the impact of rapid globalization and financiallisation current account deficit became a major problem for Turkish economy. Hence, many studies have been conducted foreseeing for policy recommendations and precautions against the current deficit. In this study, by considering determinants of current account deficit and implemented policies, it is intended to provide policy recommendations for closing the deficit. As part of this goal, the determinants of current account deficit and impacts of the determinantsa re discussed. Also, by mentioning monetary and fiscal policies during the period 2003-2015 overall assessment of the policies and a set of policiy recommendations for the next periods were presented. The most important result achieved by the study is applying discussed structural reforms in able to have quick progress in dealing with the current account deficit would have a great effect.

  3. What kind of innovation policy does the bioeconomy need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Georg

    2017-04-27

    In recent years, the bioeconomy has established itself worldwide as a mainstay for achieving a sustainable economy. The targeted use of biological resources for industrial purposes can help to successfully reconcile ecology and economy in the long term. Like digitalization, biologization as the guiding principle of the bioeconomy has the potential to effect a fundamental change in industry. This change must be driven and supported by a committed research and innovation policy. The German Federal Government was one of the first governments worldwide to put the bioeconomy on its research policy agenda when it adopted the "National Research Strategy BioEconomy 2030" in 2010. The respective national policy strategy was published two years later. Since then we have been successfully implementing measures to establish the bioeconomy. Our research programme is currently being developed further. Our aim is to strengthen the biobased transformation process towards a sustainable economy and to attach special importance to innovative technologies. Furthermore, bioeconomy research policy will have to be aimed more strongly towards achieving international goals such as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and to showing what contribution the bioeconomy can make in this context. The success of the bioeconomy requires a societal discourse on how our society can reconcile economic growth and sustainability in future. This requires the adaptation and continued development of national agendas and initiatives as well as efficient international cooperation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Resource Efficiency. What does it mean and why is it relevant? Policy Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, J.C. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    The European Commission has launched a Resource-Efficient Europe as one of its seven flagship initiatives under the Europe 2020 Strategy and has published the document 'Roadmap to a Resource-Efficient Europe'. The Roadmap specifies a proposed pathway to action for a resource efficient Europe. This document sets out to describe the essence of the resource efficiency concept and to sketch the relevance of EU resource efficiency policy for application at EU member state level with special reference to the Netherlands. The following questions will be addressed: What is resource efficiency?; How does it relate to sustainability and environmental footprint?; What is the relevance of EU resource efficiency policy for the member states?; Which aspects of resource efficiency are relevant for the Netherlands?; and To what extent is resource efficiency reflected in current Dutch policies?.

  5. [Integration, exclusion and solidarity in the current social policy debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, R

    2001-01-01

    The current global trend involving transformation of work and the crisis in large government economic development and intervention projects in the market are raising new challenges for social policies to combat poverty. This study reconstitutes and analyzes the tensions, paradoxes, and main consequences of this process, focusing on problems concerned with combining solidarity strategies and public welfare systems.

  6. European Regional Populations: Current Trends, Future Pathways, and Policy Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Philip; van der Gaag, Nicole; de Beer, Joop; Heins, Frank

    2012-11-01

    Europe is currently experiencing an ageing population and slowing population growth of both the total and working-age populations. These trends are likely to continue. Even though population ageing will affect all European regions, different regions will be affected in different ways. Even under favorable conditions, 35-40 % of all NUTS2 regions will face a labor force decline. If economic conditions are poor, some regions may continue to grow, but 55-70 % of the regions will see a labor force decline by 10 % or more. In most regions of Eastern Europe, the labor force may decrease by more than 30 %. To keep regions prosperous (maintaining competitiveness) and to avoid worse inequality (maintaining cohesion), policy-makers must find ways to cope with these challenges through new fiscal and social policies, though policies directly affecting demographic and migratory trends may also be needed.

  7. How do new innovation paradigms challenge current innovation policy perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mette Præst; Tanev, Stoyan; Bisgaard, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    multiple actors by managing knowledge sharing processes across entire value networks. The chapter provides a brief description and comparison of these new innovation paradigms and discusses the challenges that these paradigms imply for existing innovation policies. The innovation policy recommendations......Successful firms today are forced to deal with new competitive realities by being globally present, innovatively resourceful and internationally competitive on multiple markets across the world. The new competitive realities challenge firms to open their innovation processes by adopting new...... innovation paradigms such as user-driven innovation, open innovation and value co-creation. The user-driven and open innovation paradigms have already become the subject of extensive research and are currently discussed in terms of their potential implications for policy development. The value co...

  8. The Baltic policy of Germany and current international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salikov Aleksey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the Baltic policy of united Germany from the 1990s until today. The authors set out to identify the significance of German-Baltic relations and the role of the Eastern policy in Russian-German relations. The method of dynamic comparison between the political and economic narrative in intergovernmental relations makes it possible to identify distinctive features of Germany’s Baltic policy in the context of current international relations. In particular, it is noted that Germany was most active in the Baltic region in the 1990s, when the country was establishing political, economic, and cultural ties with the new independent states. In the second half of the 1990s, Germany’s foreign policy became less intense. After the accession of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia to the EU and NATO in 2004, certain disagreements started to arise between Germany and the Baltics. It explains the lukewarm relations between them. The Ukraine events brought about a change in Germany’s regional policy. Despite Russia remaining one of the key economic and political counteractors, Germany, being a partner of the Baltics in the EU and NATO, cannot adopt a neutral position in the conflict of interests between the Baltics and Russia.

  9. Does Monetary Policy Have Expansionary Bias with External Wealth?

    OpenAIRE

    Takamatsu, Satoko

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates how the accumulation of external wealth affects a monetary policy. We demonstrate that though an expansionary bias emerges in a monetary policy, a fiscal method can eliminate such a bias.

  10. DOE role in nuclear policies and programs: official transcript of public briefing, December 13, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    The record for the first of the public briefings in the Consumer Information Series scheduled by the Department of Energy is presented. The series presents, for public information and discussion, those DOE policies and programs of specific interest to consumers and public interest groups. In the first meeting DOE officials responded to questions from the public on the DOE role in nuclear policies and programs.

  11. Sensible energy policy does not include a variable import fee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lave, L.B. (Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Schenley Park, Pittsburgh, PA (US))

    1988-01-01

    Energy analysis has become unfashionable. The millions of dollars and professional hours devoted to fashioning solutions to the US energy problems in the late 1970s have disappeared with little trce. With world oil selling below $20 per barrel, there is little or no interest in alternatives to petroleum, or even in R and D on alternatives. Current apathy suggests that the USA is capable of only two modes of operation: Throw money at perceived crises, knowing it is being spent foolishly, or ignore any problem that ceases to be a perceived crises. Energy policy seems to be thought of these days as bailing out the oil billionaires and the Texas banks and savings and loan situations. When mature, consenting adults spend years trying to bring something about, one should allow them to enjoy the fruits of their labor - as long as it is within the law. Thus, the author assumes that Singer's proposal is not to be justified on the grounds of pulling these chestnuts out of the fire. Rather, Singer puts it forth on the grounds that it will contribute to sensible energy policy. Unfortunately, the variable import fee (VIF) is seriously flawed and the supporting arguments are contradictory or unsupported. In order to evaluate a proposal such as Singer's VIF, one has to be clear on the objectives and time frame. Others and the author agree that at any date, there is a supply curve for domestic petroleum that rises with price. There are stripping well secondary and tertiary recovery all waiting, and drillers willing to bring in new wells; the higher the price, the more oil will flow from these sources.

  12. 41 CFR 109-1.103-50 - DOE-PMR temporary policies and bulletins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DOE-PMR temporary... GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 109-1.103-50 DOE-PMR temporary policies and bulletins (a... Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). (b) DOE-PMR Bulletins are used to disseminate information...

  13. Does Technology Policy Create or Eliminate Good Jobs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Colleen

    1995-01-01

    Although university technological research may help industry save money, some are concerned it may also help eliminate needed jobs. Observers disagree over the ultimate impact of technology transfer and the role of public policy in promoting it. Some recommend social policies designed to mitigate disruption by technological change. (MSE)

  14. Policy-Relevant Research: When Does It Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Gary M.; Wickizer, Thomas M.; Fulton-Kehoe, Deborah; Turner, Judith A.

    2004-01-01

    Summary: Evidence-based medicine is most meaningful to policy makers when research questions are clearly informed by strategic health policy questions. In Washington State workers’ compensation, key structural characteristics allow for the conduct of effective policy-relevant research. These include clear authority and a stable funding stream, a formal relationship between a policy agency and a University, development of appropriate research capacity, development of research questions related to strategic goals, and a robust data source. The research conducted relies on computerized medical bills and work disability records, medical records, structured telephone surveys to collect data on pain, functional status, quality of life, and computerized data on employment status. The types of policy-relevant research include identification of factors leading to preventable disability, outcomes research of specific procedures, technology assessment, and “real-time” research that addresses rapidly emerging questions. Health policy changes implemented from research have been substantial in Washington State workers’ compensation, including: 1) noncoverage or partial coverage decisions for emerging technologies not proven to be of value to injured workers, 2) formal treatment guidelines and utilization review criteria for invasive, expensive, or marginally effective procedures, 3) disability prevention efforts, and 4) relatively rapid changes in policy as emerging patterns suggest harmful outcomes from existing treatments (e.g., schedule II opioids). Key structural characteristics must be in place to conduct policy-relevant research effectively. The workers’ compensation system in Washington State is a single-payer system with other unique properties that have allowed the emergence of these structural characteristics and the conduct of research linked to the strategic goals of policy makers. PMID:15717038

  15. Does development finance pose an additional risk to monetary policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruna Issahaku

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether remittances entail extra risk for macroeconomic policy management and examines the role (if any that the financial system can play in the interaction between remittances and monetary policy. Employing panel data for 106 developing countries from 1970 to 2013, the results from our panel vector autoregressive (PVAR model reveal that remittance volatility reduces macroeconomic risk in developing countries while simultaneously stimulating a reduction in domestic interest rates. This finding remains robust to alternative specifications of remittance volatility and monetary policy risk and to variations in the degree of financial development. The key lesson from this study is that developing countries can leverage the positive impact of remittances in reducing macroeconomic instability by implementing policies that induce remittances.

  16. CURRENT STATUS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR FOSTERING SOCIAL ENTREPRENEUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Doo Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, problems in current status of social entrepreneurs in Korea were examined and further policy issues for them were suggested as well. For the methodology, the study analyzed the drawbacks and policy implication of fostering social entrepreneurs through Focus Group Interview (FGI on analysis of present condition of incubating social entrepreneur and programs for it. First, it should escape from personnel expense-centered one and convert to ecosystem-centered or division-centered project in the direction of the government for fostering social entrepreneurs, putting emphasis on follow-up management and evaluation. Second, it must suggest a standard model for social entrepreneur promotion project. In other words, the projects with low performance should be reduced and education models appropriate for new circumstances and changes must be adopted through not only programs standardized in divisions, categories and local provinces, but also appointing expert instructors and project evaluation. Third, it’s necessary to propose specific guideline for detailed education operation according to education trainee and objectives of social entrepreneur. Fourth, it is needed to have more various contents development and distribution by strengthening support for specialized foundation, management and case studies related to fostering social entrepreneurs. Finally, it is even more required to spread awareness on social economics relating to programs for fostering social entrepreneur. With the long-term perspective, it is needed to render policy and specialization for fostering Korean-model social entrepreneurs, which is able to raise competent social entrepreneurs suitable for each stage of growth such as sourcing, incubation and launching social entrepreneurs.

  17. Does Dividend Policy Follow the Capital Structure Theory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Franc-Dabrowska

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Decisions concerning the most optimal choice of financing sources and dividend policy are some of the most difficult financial decisions. This article presents the results of research concerning relationships between two capital structure theories (hierarchy theory and substitution theory and dividend payment policies in Polish stock companies of the agricultural and foodstuff sector (2001–2006. The research hypothesis was verified positively; company management limits dividend payment according to the hierarchy theory and prefers internal sources of financing economic activities. In order to verify the hypothesis, the methods of descriptive analysis, financial analysis and descriptive statistics were applied, together with a fixed effects model.

  18. NCBI Reference Sequences: current status, policy and new initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Kim D; Tatusova, Tatiana; Klimke, William; Maglott, Donna R

    2009-01-01

    NCBI's Reference Sequence (RefSeq) database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/RefSeq/) is a curated non-redundant collection of sequences representing genomes, transcripts and proteins. RefSeq records integrate information from multiple sources and represent a current description of the sequence, the gene and sequence features. The database includes over 5300 organisms spanning prokaryotes, eukaryotes and viruses, with records for more than 5.5 x 10(6) proteins (RefSeq release 30). Feature annotation is applied by a combination of curation, collaboration, propagation from other sources and computation. We report here on the recent growth of the database, recent changes to feature annotations and record types for eukaryotic (primarily vertebrate) species and policies regarding species inclusion and genome annotation. In addition, we introduce RefSeqGene, a new initiative to support reporting variation data on a stable genomic coordinate system.

  19. Why Does Centralisation Fail to Internalise Policy Externalities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dur, R; Roelfsema, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    We provide an explanation for why centralisation of political decision making results in overspending in some policy domains, whereas toolow spending persists in others. We study a model in which delegates from jurisdictions bargain over local public goods provision. If all of thecosts of public goo

  20. 41 CFR 102-74.345 - Does the smoking policy in this part apply to the judicial branch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does the smoking policy... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.345 Does the smoking policy in this part apply to the judicial branch? This smoking policy applies to the judicial branch...

  1. Does Monetary Policy Respond to Commodity Price Shocks?

    OpenAIRE

    Ano Sujithan, Kuhanathan; Koliai, Lyes; Avouyi-Dovi, Sanvi

    2013-01-01

    Commodity prices, especially oil prices, peaked in the aftermath of the financial crisis of 2007 and they have remained highly volatile. All things being equal, the increase in commodity prices may induce a similar tendency of inflation and hence become a monetary policy issue. However, the impact of the changes of commodity prices on inflation is not clear. In this paper, by using Markov-switching models we show that there is an implicit impact of commodity markets on short-term interest rat...

  2. 76 FR 38399 - Assessing the Current Research, Policy, and Practice Environment in Public Health Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Assessing the Current Research, Policy, and..., and other information helpful to assess the current research, policy, and practice environment in... Control and Prevention (CDC) has worked to integrate genomics into public health research, policy,...

  3. Energy security, public policy, and the role of the DOE Office of Energy Emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Curlee, T.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Bohi, D.R. (Resources for the Future, Inc., Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-11-01

    This paper addresses the concept of energy security, the costs and benefits of energy security, and policies which could potentially alter these costs and benefits. These issues are considered from the perspective of the DOE's Office of Energy Emergencies, with the goal of determining if alternative or additional roles should be open to this Office. The approach taken is limited to the economic costs and benefits of energy security, reflecting our view that the bulk of important energy security issues can at least be approached from this perspective. An energy emergency results from a sudden change in the quantity, market price, and/or social value of energy, in combination with a domestic and/or world wide energy system that cannot rapidly adjust to that change. We do not believe that mitigating the impacts of such events is always necessary, nor that it is uniquely a governmental responsibility. In fact, the first recourse in emergency preparedness should always be to the private sector. Government should deal with three different aspects of emergency energy activities. First, it should condition the decision making environment by seeing that adequate information about energy conditions is available and that its own policy position is clear. Next, it should evaluate the preparedness measures undertaken by the private sector. Finally, if it finds private sector preparation to be inadequate, government has a variety of direct and indirect means with which to intervene. One direct measure currently used is the buildup and drawdown of the strategic petroleum reserve (SPR). Others include contingency plans to override market allocations during wartime, as might be developed under the graduated mobilization response (GMR). Indirect means include a variety of tax and transfer schemes that alter existing private sector incentives to prepare. Well conceived monetary and fiscal policies complete the tools. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Proceedings of the DOE workshop on the role of a high-current accelerator in the future of nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, D.C.; Peterson, E.J. (comps.)

    1989-05-01

    The meeting was prompted by recent problems with isotope availability from DOE accelerator facilities; these difficulties have resulted from conflicting priorities between physics experiments and isotope production activities. The workshop was a forum in which the nuclear medicine community, isotope producers, industry, and other interested groups could discuss issues associated with isotope availability (including continuous supply options), the role of DOE and industry in isotope production, and the importance of research isotopes to the future of nuclear medicine. The workshop participants endorsed DOE's presence in supplying radioisotopes for research purposes and recommended that DOE should immediately provide additional support for radionuclide production in the form of personnel and supplies, DOE should establish a policy that would allow income from sales of future ''routine'' radionuclide production to be used to support technicians, DOE should obtain a 70-MeV, 500-/mu/A variable-energy proton accelerator as soon as possible, and DOE should also immediately solicit proposals to evaluate the usefulness of a new or upgraded high-energy, high-current machine for production of research radionuclides. This proceedings volume is a summary of workshop sessions that explored the future radionuclide needs of the nuclear medicine community and discussed the DOE production capabilities that would be required to meet these needs.

  5. Policies for second generation biofuels: current status and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egger, Haakan; Greaker, Mads; Potter, Emily

    2011-07-01

    Current state-of-the-art knowledge concludes that green house gas (GHG) emissions must be controlled and reduced within the next 30-40 years. The transport sector contributes almost a fifth of the current global emissions, and its share is likely to increase in the future. The US and a number of European countries have therefore introduced various support schemes for research and development (RandD) of low emission fuels that can potentially replace the current fossil fuels. One such alternative is biofuels. The advantage of biofuels are that it is easy to introduce into the transport sector. On the other hand, recent research papers question whether the supply of feedstock is sufficient, and to what extent biofuels lead to GHG emission reductions. This report reviews the current status of second generation biofuels. Second generation biofuels are made from cellulose, which according to our survey of the literature, is in more abundant supply than the first generation biofuels feedstocks. Furthermore, it seems to have the potential to reduce GHG emissions from the transport sector without leading to devastating land use changes, which recent critique has held against first generation biofuels. Given that governments have decided to support RandD of low emission fuels, we ask the following questions: Should second generation biofuels receive RandD support to the same extent as other low emission fuels like hydrogen? How should support schemes for second generation biofuels be designed? Second generation biofuels can be divided according to the production process into thermo-chemical and bio-chemical. With respect to the thermo-chemical process the potential for cost reductions seems to be low. On the other hand, ethanol made from cellulose using the biochemical conversion process is far from a ripe technology. Expert reports point to several potential technological breakthroughs which may reduce costs substantially. Hence, cellulosic ethanol, should receive direct

  6. Does financial inclusion affect monetary policy in SAARC countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjaya Kumar Lenka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Alike the role of heart for human body, finance is the focal point of an economy, whereas savings and investment are its tubes and vessels. Hence, a solid financial system is a fundamental character of an enduring economy. The frozen financial system endures longer if its foundation is concrete and subsists in the people of grass-root level. They are those, who live in villages and small towns, earn meager income, work in primary sector, spend more on food, and have lesser social securities. In this setting, the process of bringing these people into the main stream of financial activities is called financial inclusion. This study describes the impact of financial inclusion on monetary policy of South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC countries from 2004–2013. The study uses principal component analysis (PCA to construct a Financial Inclusion Index that serves as a proxy variable for the accessibility of financial inclusion in the SAARC countries. Adding to it, three different models like FEM, REM, and Panel-corrected standard errors are used for the analysis. In this study, an empirical result of generalized least square(GLS estimation shows that financial inclusion, exchange rate, and interest rate are negatively associated with inflation in SAARC countries.

  7. Shifting currents: Progress, setbacks, and shifts in policy and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Dunning, Charles; Robertson, Dale

    2016-01-01

    clean water future. More than a decade has passed since our first statewide WOW conversation and the report that captured recommendations from its participants: Waters of Wisconsin: The Future of Our Aquatic Ecosystems and Resources. Drawing from a diverse and growing set of stakeholders from across the state, the Wisconsin Academy initiated a new conversation in 2012 (known as WOW II) to assess progress in regard to our 2003 recommendations. We also sought to review the status of waters in Wisconsin today. The result of this renewed conversation is Shifting Currents: Progress, Setbacks, and Shifts in Policy and Practice. The new report assesses progress in brief, and explores in greater depth the continuing and emerging challenges to water quality, supply, and aquatic ecosystems in Wisconsin.In this report, we first review the context and frameworks for public decision-making about water and then examine some of the root causes—or “drivers”—and ecological stressors that underlie many of the symptoms we see in the form of pollution or ecosystem degradation in Wisconsin. This is followed by a summary of current water issues, many of which had been identified in the 2003 report and remain relevant today. We examine progress since 2003 but also setbacks, and discuss issues that we are likely to continue to face in the coming decades, including controlling agricultural runoff, mitigating climate change and grappling with its effects on the state’s waters, protecting groundwater from bacterial contamination and other pollutants, and preventing groundwater depletion. We also attempt to anticipate issues on the horizon. We offer a deeper look at some particular challenges, such as phosphorus pollution and groundwater contamination. We then consider the current decision-making framework and how it is shaping our capacity to respond to water challenges in Wisconsin. Finally, we offer recommendations and identify opportunities to safeguard Wisconsin’s waters in the

  8. Who Cares about APA Policy and Does it Have an Impact? 2006 Annual Report of the APA Policy and Planning Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    What constitutes American Psychological Association (APA) policy? How does it affect the everyday and professional lives of APA members? How personally aware are psychologists of APA policies? In this report, the APA explores these questions and provide some intriguing findings on the fate of policies developed through the APA's complicated and…

  9. Who Cares about APA Policy and Does it Have an Impact? 2006 Annual Report of the APA Policy and Planning Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    What constitutes American Psychological Association (APA) policy? How does it affect the everyday and professional lives of APA members? How personally aware are psychologists of APA policies? In this report, the APA explores these questions and provide some intriguing findings on the fate of policies developed through the APA's complicated and…

  10. What's Yours Is Mine: An Investigation of Current Copyright Policies of Education Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Katrina A.

    2009-01-01

    This research investigated the current copyright policies of 21 education journals published by academic societies, universities and university presses, and commercial publishers. For the sample I chose only journals with a copyright policy on the journal or publisher web site, and I then analyzed the content of the policies in order to answer…

  11. Does ICT policy improve interorganisational ICT for SMEs? A Dutch policy evaluation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, M.G.A.; Batenburg, R.S.; Hertog, P. den

    2011-01-01

    Interorganisational ICT has become critical for the performance of both small and large organisations. SMEs however, traditionally lag behind in the uptake of these systems. In many countries, various policy programmes are initiated to improve ICT uptake by SMEs and support them in digital linking t

  12. Dynamics in National Agri-environmental Policy implementation under Changing EU Policy Priorities: does one size fit all?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Jens Peter; Frederiksen, Pia; Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, Agri-Environmental Policies (AEP) in the EU have developed with relative nationalautonomy and according to the subsidiarity principle. The environmental directives represent an increasein EU-level environmental ambitions and challenge the current implementation of EU AEP b...

  13. ON THE CURRENT RMB EXCHANGE RATE REGIME AFFECTING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MONETARY POLICY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄燕君

    2001-01-01

    The current exchange rate regime of China is just like the US dollar-pegged exchange rate regime, which weakens the effectiveness of monetary policy but increases the effectiveness of fiscal policy. Since the scope of implementing the fiscal policy is quite narrow, it is necessary to promote the effectiveness of monetary policy by enlarging the elasticity of the RMB exchange rate regime so as to stimulate the rapid development of the Chinese economy effectively.

  14. Opportunities for scientists to influence policy: when does radiation metrology matter in development of national policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coursey, Bert M

    2014-05-01

    Accurate measurements of radiation and radioactivity rarely rise to the level of national policy. The things that matter most to ordinary citizens do not normally include questions of science and technology. Citizens are more often concerned with issues close to home relating to commerce, health, safety, security and the environment. When questions of confidence in measurements arise, they are first directed to the ministry that has responsibilities in that area. When the required uncertainty in field measurements challenges the capability of the regulatory authorities, the National Metrology Institute may be asked to develop transfer standards to enhance the capabilities of the ministry with the mission lead. In this paper, we will consider eight instances over the past nine decades in which questions in radiation and radionuclide metrology in the US did rise to the level that they influenced decisions on national policy. These eight examples share some common threads. Radioactivity and ionizing radiation are useful tools in many disciplines, but can often represent potential or perceived threats to health and public safety. When unforeseen applications of radiation arise, or when environmental radioactivity from natural and man-made sources presents a possible health hazard, the radiation metrologists may be called upon to provide the technical underpinning for policy development.

  15. Poliomyelitis in the United States: A Historical Perspective and Current Vaccination Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farizo, Karen M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines poliomyelitis in the United States by reviewing clinical manifestations and outcomes, history, recent epidemiologic characteristics, characteristics of currently available vaccines, controversies surrounding vaccination policy, current poliovirus vaccination recommendations, and prospects for worldwide eradication. Poliomyelitis remains…

  16. Artificial Neural Networks in Policy Research: A Current Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelfel, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    Suggests that artificial neural networks (ANNs) exhibit properties that promise usefulness for policy researchers. Notes that ANNs have found extensive use in areas once reserved for multivariate statistical programs such as regression and multiple classification analysis and are developing an extensive community of advocates for processing text…

  17. Artificial Neural Networks in Policy Research: A Current Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelfel, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    Suggests that artificial neural networks (ANNs) exhibit properties that promise usefulness for policy researchers. Notes that ANNs have found extensive use in areas once reserved for multivariate statistical programs such as regression and multiple classification analysis and are developing an extensive community of advocates for processing text…

  18. MONETARY POLICY UNDER THE IMPACT OF THE CURRENT GLOBAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zina Marcu (Cioran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the financial crisis draws more and more the specialists’ attention. The monetary policy has a decisive role in monitoring and reducing the inflationary phenomenon as much as possible, since it can become a real danger for an economy during a period of crisis. Inflation is a negative thing that affects the economy. It discourages the investments and the economic growth. The aim of this paper is to find the Central Bank’s economic instruments and levers that can contribute to price stability in the economy. It was found that the elaboration of a measure of monetary policy with a restrictive feature can contribute to price stability on long term, but we should take into account the macroeconomic context in which it is applied.

  19. Comparative policy analysis for alcohol and drugs: Current state of the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Alison; Livingston, Michael; Chalmers, Jenny; Berends, Lynda; Reuter, Peter

    2016-05-01

    A central policy research question concerns the extent to which specific policies produce certain effects - and cross-national (or between state/province) comparisons appear to be an ideal way to answer such a question. This paper explores the current state of comparative policy analysis (CPA) with respect to alcohol and drugs policies. We created a database of journal articles published between 2010 and 2014 as the body of CPA work for analysis. We used this database of 57 articles to clarify, extract and analyse the ways in which CPA has been defined. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the CPA methods employed, the policy areas that have been studied, and differences between alcohol CPA and drug CPA are explored. There is a lack of clear definition as to what counts as a CPA. The two criteria for a CPA (explicit study of a policy, and comparison across two or more geographic locations), exclude descriptive epidemiology and single state comparisons. With the strict definition, most CPAs were with reference to alcohol (42%), although the most common policy to be analysed was medical cannabis (23%). The vast majority of papers undertook quantitative data analysis, with a variety of advanced statistical methods. We identified five approaches to the policy specification: classification or categorical coding of policy as present or absent; the use of an index; implied policy differences; described policy difference and data-driven policy coding. Each of these has limitations, but perhaps the most common limitation was the inability for the method to account for the differences between policy-as-stated versus policy-as-implemented. There is significant diversity in CPA methods for analysis of alcohol and drugs policy, and some substantial challenges with the currently employed methods. The absence of clear boundaries to a definition of what counts as a 'comparative policy analysis' may account for the methodological plurality but also appears to stand in the way

  20. The effectiveness of workplace drug prevention policies: does 'zero tolerance' work?

    OpenAIRE

    Mehay, Stephan L.; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo

    1999-01-01

    Workplace drug testing programs are becoming increasingly more common although there is little research demonstrating that they have any effect on drug use by employees. This paper analyzes the deterrence effect of a particularly aggressive workplace drug-testing policy implemented by the military in 1981. The military's policy incorporates random drug testing of current employees and zero tolerance. Using data from various years of the Department of Defense's Worldwide Survey of Health Re...

  1. The association between education and work stress: does the policy context matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Lunau

    Full Text Available Several studies report socioeconomic differences in work stress, where people in lower socioeconomic positions (SEP are more likely to experience this burden. In the current study, we analyse associations between education and work stress in a large sample of workers from 16 European countries. In addition we explore whether distinct national labour market policies are related to smaller inequalities in work stress according to educational attainment.We use data collected in 2010/11 in two comparative studies ('Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe' and the 'English Longitudinal Study of Ageing'; N = 13695, with samples of men and women aged 50 to 64 from 16 European countries. We measure highest educational degree according to the international standard classification of education (ISCED and assess work stress in terms of the demand-control and the effort-reward imbalance model. National labour market policies are measured on the basis of policy indicators which are divided into (1 'protective' policies offering financial compensation to those excluded from the labour market (e.g. replacement rate, and (2 'integrative' policies supporting disadvantaged individuals on the labour market (e.g. investments into active labour market policies or possibilities for further qualification in later life. In addition to country-specific analyses, we estimate multilevel models and test for interactions between the indicators of national policies and individual education.Main findings demonstrate consistent associations between lower education and higher levels of work stress in all countries. The strength of this association, however, varies across countries and is comparatively small in countries offering pronounced 'integrative' policies, in terms of high investments into measures of an active labor market policy and high participation rates in lifelong learning activities.Our results point to different types of policies that may help to

  2. The association between education and work stress: does the policy context matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunau, Thorsten; Siegrist, Johannes; Dragano, Nico; Wahrendorf, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Several studies report socioeconomic differences in work stress, where people in lower socioeconomic positions (SEP) are more likely to experience this burden. In the current study, we analyse associations between education and work stress in a large sample of workers from 16 European countries. In addition we explore whether distinct national labour market policies are related to smaller inequalities in work stress according to educational attainment. We use data collected in 2010/11 in two comparative studies ('Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe' and the 'English Longitudinal Study of Ageing'; N = 13695), with samples of men and women aged 50 to 64 from 16 European countries. We measure highest educational degree according to the international standard classification of education (ISCED) and assess work stress in terms of the demand-control and the effort-reward imbalance model. National labour market policies are measured on the basis of policy indicators which are divided into (1) 'protective' policies offering financial compensation to those excluded from the labour market (e.g. replacement rate), and (2) 'integrative' policies supporting disadvantaged individuals on the labour market (e.g. investments into active labour market policies or possibilities for further qualification in later life). In addition to country-specific analyses, we estimate multilevel models and test for interactions between the indicators of national policies and individual education. Main findings demonstrate consistent associations between lower education and higher levels of work stress in all countries. The strength of this association, however, varies across countries and is comparatively small in countries offering pronounced 'integrative' policies, in terms of high investments into measures of an active labor market policy and high participation rates in lifelong learning activities. Our results point to different types of policies that may help to reduce

  3. 228 Empirical Analysis of Fiscal Policy Shocks and Current Account ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2013-01-28

    Jan 28, 2013 ... extension by Obstfeld and Rogoff, (1995) in open economy macroeconomics .... worsens the U.S. current account deficit by 47 cents by using Romer and ..... crowding-out hypothesis in Pakistan's manufacturing industry. The.

  4. Does directly observed therapy improve tuberculosis treatment? More evidence is needed to guide tuberculosis policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Zoë M; Milliken, Amanda A; Meyer, Amanda J; Sharp, Alana R

    2016-10-04

    Tuberculosis (TB) now ranks alongside HIV as the leading infectious disease cause of death worldwide and incurs a global economic burden of over $12 billion annually. Directly observed therapy (DOT) recommends that TB patients complete the course of treatment under direct observation of a treatment supporter who is trained and overseen by health services to ensure that patients take their drugs as scheduled. Though the current WHO End TB Strategy does not mention DOT, only "supportive treatment supervision by treatment partners", many TB programs still use it despite the fact that the has not been demonstrated to be statistically significantly superior to self-administered treatment in ensuring treatment success or cure. DOT is designed to promote proper adherence to the full course of drug therapy in order to improve patient outcomes and prevent the development of drug resistance. Yet over 8 billion dollars is spent on TB treatment each year and thousands undergo DOT for all or part of their course of treatment, despite the absence of rigorous evidence supporting the superior effectiveness of DOT over self-administration for achieving drug susceptible TB (DS-TB) cure. Moreover, the DOT component burdens patients with financial and opportunity costs, and the potential for intensified stigma. To rigorously evaluate the effectiveness of DOT and identify the essential contributors to both successful treatment and minimized patient burden, we call for a pragmatic experimental trial conducted in real-world program settings, the gold standard for evidence-based health policy decisions. It is time to invest in the rigorous evaluation of DOT and reevaluate the DOT requirement for TB treatment worldwide. Rigorously evaluating the choice of treatment supporter, the frequency of health care worker contact and the development of new educational materials in a real-world setting would build the evidence base to inform the optimal design of TB treatment protocol. Implementing a

  5. European regional populations: current trends, future pathways and policy options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rees, P.H.; van der Gaag, N.L.; de Beer, J.A.A.; Heins, F.

    2012-01-01

    Europe is currently experiencing an ageing population and slowing population growth of both the total and working-age populations. These trends are likely to continue. Even though population ageing will affect all European regions, different regions will be affected in different ways. Even under

  6. Current Sino-Latin American Relations and the Corresponding Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ. History of the Relationship and Its Current Situation. The Sino-Latin American relationship has a long-standing history that starts from the trade exchanges in the middle of the 16th century.From the 18th century to the early 19th century,hundreds and thousands of Chinese laborers were seized and sold by the western colonists to Latin America as "coolies" who made contribution to the local economic development there.

  7. Viewpoint – Swimming against the Current: Questioning Development Policy and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Mørck Jensen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The water world is dominated by normative policies prescribing what 'good development' is all about. It is a universe of its own where policies live their own lives and feed in and out of each other. As new buzzwords continue to be invented or reinvented, policies continue to maintain their shiny images of how water resources or water supply should be managed. There are many water professionals acting as missionaries in the service of policies but probably fewer professionals acting up against blindfolded policy promotion. It is when water policies are being implemented in the real world that the trouble starts. In spite of their well-intended mission, water policies often suffer shipwreck on the socio-economic and political realities in developing countries. Through cases from India and the Mekong, the author demonstrates what happens when normative water polices are forced out of their comfort zone and into social and political realities. Although policies are made of stubborn material they need to be questioned through continuous analytical insight into developing country realities. But undertaking critical analysis and questioning the wisdom of water policies are easier said than done. It takes a lot of effort to swim against the policy current.

  8. Current anti-doping policy: a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauron Alexandre

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current anti-doping in competitive sports is advocated for reasons of fair-play and concern for the athlete's health. With the inception of the World Anti Doping Agency (WADA, anti-doping effort has been considerably intensified. Resources invested in anti-doping are rising steeply and increasingly involve public funding. Most of the effort concerns elite athletes with much less impact on amateur sports and the general public. Discussion We review this recent development of increasingly severe anti-doping control measures and find them based on questionable ethical grounds. The ethical foundation of the war on doping consists of largely unsubstantiated assumptions about fairness in sports and the concept of a "level playing field". Moreover, it relies on dubious claims about the protection of an athlete's health and the value of the essentialist view that sports achievements reflect natural capacities. In addition, costly antidoping efforts in elite competitive sports concern only a small fraction of the population. From a public health perspective this is problematic since the high prevalence of uncontrolled, medically unsupervised doping practiced in amateur sports and doping-like behaviour in the general population (substance use for performance enhancement outside sport exposes greater numbers of people to potential harm. In addition, anti-doping has pushed doping and doping-like behaviour underground, thus fostering dangerous practices such as sharing needles for injection. Finally, we argue that the involvement of the medical profession in doping and anti-doping challenges the principles of non-maleficience and of privacy protection. As such, current anti-doping measures potentially introduce problems of greater impact than are solved, and place physicians working with athletes or in anti-doping settings in an ethically difficult position. In response, we argue on behalf of enhancement practices in sports within a

  9. Current anti-doping policy: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Bengt; Mauron, Alexandre; Miah, Andy

    2007-03-29

    Current anti-doping in competitive sports is advocated for reasons of fair-play and concern for the athlete's health. With the inception of the World Anti Doping Agency (WADA), anti-doping effort has been considerably intensified. Resources invested in anti-doping are rising steeply and increasingly involve public funding. Most of the effort concerns elite athletes with much less impact on amateur sports and the general public. We review this recent development of increasingly severe anti-doping control measures and find them based on questionable ethical grounds. The ethical foundation of the war on doping consists of largely unsubstantiated assumptions about fairness in sports and the concept of a "level playing field". Moreover, it relies on dubious claims about the protection of an athlete's health and the value of the essentialist view that sports achievements reflect natural capacities. In addition, costly antidoping efforts in elite competitive sports concern only a small fraction of the population. From a public health perspective this is problematic since the high prevalence of uncontrolled, medically unsupervised doping practiced in amateur sports and doping-like behaviour in the general population (substance use for performance enhancement outside sport) exposes greater numbers of people to potential harm. In addition, anti-doping has pushed doping and doping-like behaviour underground, thus fostering dangerous practices such as sharing needles for injection. Finally, we argue that the involvement of the medical profession in doping and anti-doping challenges the principles of non-maleficience and of privacy protection. As such, current anti-doping measures potentially introduce problems of greater impact than are solved, and place physicians working with athletes or in anti-doping settings in an ethically difficult position. In response, we argue on behalf of enhancement practices in sports within a framework of medical supervision. Current anti

  10. An overview of current NAMA guidance. Policy Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, L.R. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    The International Climate Initiative formed a number of working groups within an Enhanced NAMA Cooperation Group. The Tools and Guides working group seeks to coordinate current efforts on NAMA related tools, guidebooks and templates, as well as reduce repetition of such work by different organisations. As a first step towards this goal, this brief analysis looks at the 8 main guides on NAMA development that have been published, or made available in draft form, as of May 2013. This note summarises the approach found in these guides and identifies a number of areas, or gaps, that would benefit from further effort to provide supporting resources and guidance. It also aims to provide the basis for further discussion within the working group.

  11. 21 CFR 1404.610 - What procedures does the Office of National Drug Control Policy use in suspension and debarment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What procedures does the Office of National Drug Control Policy use in suspension and debarment actions? 1404.610 Section 1404.610 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General...

  12. Epidemiology and Pathogenesis of C. difficile and MRSA in the Light of Current NHS Control Policies: A Policy review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Maliha

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare associated infections (HCAIs) cause significant morbidity and mortality, and are estimated to cost the United Kingdom National Health Service £1 billion annually. The current health care infection rates suggest that the level of performance to avoid HCAIs is not maintained consistently. Increasing screening, improving local accountability and performance management, careful use of antibiotics in the management of emergency patients, health economy wide approaches, and improved hand washing will be effective in lowering the rate of HCAIs. This paper reviews current NHS Control Policies in place for Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) and C. difficile.

  13. Perspective: Improving nutritional guidelines for sustainable health policies: Current status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magni, Paolo; Bier, Dennis M; Pecorelli, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    application of these concepts requires the translation of scientific information into practical approaches that have a tangible and measurable impact at both individual and population levels. The agenda for the future is expected to support available methodology in nutrition research to personalize guideline...... a constructive coalition among scientists, policy makers, and communication professionals for sustainable health and nutritional policies. Currently, a strong rationale and available data support a personalized dietary approach according to personal variables, including sex and age, circulating metabolic...

  14. What Does Evolutionary Economic Geography Bring To The Policy Table? Reconceptualising regional innovation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Asheim, Bjørn; M. Bugge, Markus; Coenen, Lars; Herstad, Sverre

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses the strategic roles of public policy and institutions and the way this effect to the efficiency of regional innovation systems in the landscape of evolutionary economic geography. It argues that the current emphasis on path dependency historically contingent preconditions has provided important insights into the interdependencies between industrial knowledge bases and routines, regional system dynamics and long-term development paths. Yet, it falls short of capturing the...

  15. Vietnam's energy sector: A review of current energy policies and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien Minh Do, E-mail: tmdo@eng.uts.edu.au [Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST), 1 Dai Co Viet Street, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Sharma, Deepak [University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), Broadway, Ultimo, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    Since the introduction of market-oriented economy in 1986, Vietnam has made noticeable socio-economic progress. In this progress, the energy sector has played a vital role. This role is likely to deepen in the years to come as Vietnam strives to achieve even higher levels in economic progress. Such deepening in the role of energy, this paper argues, will heighten concerns about the security of energy supply, and economic, environmental, social and political consequences. In order to address these issues, Vietnam has over the last decade, developed a suite of energy policies. A deeper review of these policies suggests that they are typified by economic-growth orientation, exclusive focus on a single-sector or single issue, and largely neglect the significance of cross-sectoral and cross-thematic issues arising from the interdependencies between energy, economy, and the polity at large. The existing energy policy settings are, therefore, unlikely to be able to provide a satisfactory redress to the challenges noted above. This paper provides an overview of the current energy policies with a view to identify areas where further policy effort is needed in order to facilitate a sustainable development of the Vietnamese energy sector. - Highlights: > Identifying challenges faced by the Vietnamese energy sector. > Analyzing limitations of the existing energy policy settings (policies, strategies and institutions) in addressing these challenges. > Developing recommendations on improving the existing energy policy settings to provide a satisfactory redress for the challenges noted above.

  16. Does Age Matter in HR Decision Making? Four Types of Age Policies in Finnish Work Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pärnänen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The extension of work careers is one of the key targets of social policy in the EU as well as in Finnish national policy-making. But how is this objective of lengthened work life received at the workplace level? This study examines the aim of extending working careers at an organizational level. The data comprise interviews with human resources managers, shop stewards, and employees reaching the end of their working life, conducted in ten Finnish work organizations. Four different age policy lines can be distinguished from the data. First, the age policy practices of manufacturing enterprises are very much alike in that a clear turn has occurred from favoring the unemployment pension path in the case of dismissals to extending working careers. Second, the age policy of public sector organizations encourages investment in extending the working careers of older employees, though young people are clearly preferred in recruitment. The third line can be found in private service sector enterprises that utilize age segmentation based on the age of their customers – young waiters for young customers, for example – while the fourth can be described by the words ‘situation-specific’ and ‘passive’. No input is made into extending working careers and the unemployment route is used as the means of dismissal where needed. The study reveals that the organizations’ age policies are strategic in nature: longer working careers are supported and older people are hired only if it is strategically sound. It can be said that workplaces currently determine the boundaries of who and at what age people are fit for work and of ‘working age’.

  17. Does The Price Puzzle Exist in Colombia? Empirical Evidence and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blen Solomon

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The price puzzle has been the focus of many studies, however, most of these studies have focused on developed economies and especially on the U.S. Owing to this tendency; we do not know if there is existence of a price puzzle in developing economies. This is an important topic of research as it facilitates the understanding on the different channels of monetary policy. It also helps our understanding regarding monetary policy effectiveness and in the context of the Colombian economy, this is a main issue as the basic long-term target of Colombia’s monetary policy is price stability. This study investigates the existence of the price puzzle for the period 1980:5-2003:12 in Colombia by using Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. Since the sample period of study is not characterized with a uniform monetary policy regime, following Balke and Emery (1994 we divide our sample period according to existent structural breaks. We test for the price puzzle by dividing our sample into pre-1991 period (before inflation targeting started and during inflation targeting period. We employ impulse response functions as our main tolos to investigate the price puzzle. The impulse response functions show that during both the pre-1991 and post 1991 periods, prices don’t rise in response to positive shocks in short term interest rates. Therefore we conclude that Colombia does not exhibit the price puzzle. In fact, during both periods as well as the whole sample period, prices are not responsive to short-term interest rate shocks. The unresponsiveness of prices to positive interest rate shocks is not expected since we would anticipate prices to decrease due to a positive interest rate shock

  18. Governance and the Gulf of Mexico Coast: How Are Current Policies Contributing to Sustainability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Jordan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The quality of life and economies of coastal communities depend, to a great degree, on the ecological integrity of coastal ecosystems. Paradoxically, as more people are drawn to the coasts, these ecosystems and the services they provide are increasingly stressed by development and human use. Employing the coastal Gulf of Mexico as an example, we explore through three case studies how government policies contribute to preventing, mitigating, or exacerbating the degradation of coastal ecosystems. We consider the effectiveness of the current systems, what alternate or additional policy solutions might be needed to ensure the sustainability of the region and its quality of life, and what this example can tell us about the sustainability of coastal systems globally. In our examples, among other aspects, policies that are proactive and networked governance structures are observed to favor sustainable outcomes, in contrast to reactive policies and hierarchical models of governance.

  19. Does public reporting measure up? Federalism, accountability and child-care policy in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lynell; Findlay, Tammy

    2010-01-01

    Governments in Canada have recently been exploring new accountability measures within intergovernmental relations. Public reporting has become the preferred mechanism in a range of policy areas, including early learning and child-care, and the authors assess its effectiveness as an accountability measure. The article is based on their experience with a community capacity-building project that considers the relationship between the public policy, funding and accountability mechanisms under the federal/provincial/territorial agreements related to child-care. The authors argue that in its current form, public reporting has not lived up to its promise of accountability to citizens. This evaluation is based on the standards that governments have set for themselves under the federal/provincial/territorial agreements, as well as guidelines set by the Public Sector Accounting Board, an independent body that develops accounting standards over time through consultation with governments.

  20. Mr. Bush, Mr. Powell, how many Middle East policies does the United States have?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Marín Gorbea

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Contradiction, changeability, and isolation have marked US policy on the Palestinian-Israeli conflict during the first two years of George W. Bush’s presidency. After an initial period when consensus reigned in Washington over the need to get out of the Middle East conflict, in the first half of 2002 three debates arose that have divided the US government. But to understand the turns the current UN administration’s policy toward the Palestinian- Israeli conflict has taken, it is not enough to consider its internal divisions. It is alsonecessary to keep in mind the role played by a novice president in his process of learning the ropes in Washington and the Middle East. These first two years hold the keys to what the attitude of the superpower toward the Middle East conflict will be in what remainsof Bush’s presidential term.

  1. Short-run analysis of fiscal policy and the current account in a finite horizon model

    OpenAIRE

    Heng-fu Zou

    1995-01-01

    This paper utilizes a technique developed by Judd to quantify the short-run effects of fiscal policies and income shocks on the current account in a small open economy. It is found that: (1) a future increase in government spending improves the short-run current account; (2) a future tax increase worsens the short-run current account; (3) a present increase in the government spending worsens the short-run current account dollar by dollar, while a present increase in the income improves the cu...

  2. Soft regulations in pharmaceutical policy making : an overview of current approaches and their consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wettermark, B.; Godman, B.; Jacobsson, B.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F.M.

    2009-01-01

    It is a challenge to improve public health within limited resources. Pharmaceutical policy making is a greater challenge due to conflicting interests between key stakeholder groups. This paper reviews current and future strategies to help improve the quality and efficiency of care, with special emph

  3. Current Trends in Malaysian Higher Education and the Effect on Education Policy and Practice: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapragasem, Selvaraj; Krishnan, Anbalagan; Mansor, Azlin Norhaini

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia has evolved from a production-based to knowledge-based economy in order to stay relevant and compete in the global marketplace. Thus, the purpose of this article is to discuss current trends in Malaysian higher education and how these affect education policies and practices. Four main trends are discussed in this study: Globalization,…

  4. Place of Diversity in the Current Ethiopian Education and Training Policy: Analysis of Cardinal Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sime, Tariku; Latchanna, Gara

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate to what extent the diversity dimensions are addressed in the current Education and Training Policy. To that end, document analysis was employed. The major diversity dimensions were analyzed based on their cardinal features. The study demonstrated that there is an ambitious need to address issues of…

  5. Can all cause readmission policy improve quality or lower expenditures? A historical perspective on current initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, James F; Hockenberry, Jason M

    2014-04-01

    All-cause readmission to inpatient care is of wide policy interest in the United States and a number of other countries (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, in the United Kingdom by the National Centre for Health Outcomes Development, and in Australia by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare). Contemporary policy efforts, including high powered incentives embedded in the current US Hospital Readmission Reduction Program, and the organizationally complex interventions derived in anticipation of this policy, have been touted based on potential cost savings. Strong incentives and resulting interventions may not enjoy the support of a strong theoretical model or the empirical research base that are typical of strong incentive schemes. We examine the historical broad literature on the issue, lay out a 'full' conceptual organizational model of patient transitions as they relate to the hospital, and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of previous and proposed policies. We use this to set out a research and policy agenda on this critical issue rather than attempt to conduct a comprehensive structured literature review. We assert that researchers and policy makers should consider more fundamental societal issues related to health, social support and health literacy if progress is going to be made in reducing readmissions.

  6. Current status of alcohol marketing policy--an urgent challenge for global governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casswell, Sally

    2012-03-01

    To review research literature and available information on the extent and impacts of marketing, current policy response and the interests engaged in the policy debate in order to inform recommendations for policy change on alcohol marketing. Relevant literature, including systematic reviews and publicly available information (websites and participant observation) is reviewed and synthesized. Alcohol marketing has expanded markedly in the past 50 years and, while there remains uncertainty about the impact across the population, there is now clear evidence of its impact on the consumption of young people. Few countries have effective policy in place restricting alcohol marketing, and there is a lack of an international response to alcohol marketing which crosses national boundaries. The protection of alcohol marketing has been a major focus for vested interest groups and this has affected governmental response at national and international levels. There has been a lack of non-governmental organization engagement. The policy response to tobacco marketing provides a clear contrast to that of alcohol marketing policy and provides a model for alcohol marketing policy. The global exposure of young people to alcohol marketing requires an urgent policy response. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provides an appropriate model for global governance to control alcohol marketing. There are extant examples of national level legislation achieving comprehensive bans with France's Loi Evin providing a feasible model. Resources from philanthropic organizations to allow non-governmental organization engagement are urgently required, as is engagement by the governmental sector independent of commercial influence. © 2012 The Author, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Global forces and local currents in Argentina's science policy crossroads: restricted access or open knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Javier Etchichury

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the tensions between two competing approaches to scientific policy in Argentina. The traditional vision favors autonomous research. The neoliberal conception fosters the link between science and markets. In the past few years, a neodevelopmentalist current also tries to stress relevance of scientific research. Finally, the article describes how the Open Access movement has entered the debate. The World Bank intervention and the human rights dimension of the question are discussed in depth. The article introduces the notion of open knowledge as a guiding criterion to design a human-rights based scientific policy.

  8. Does Policy Matter in Shadow Education Spending? Revisiting the Effects of the High School Equalization Policy in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Soo-yong

    2010-01-01

    In 1972, the South Korean government proposed the high school equalization policy (HSEP) to eliminate high-stakes exams and introduce random school assignment to high school entrance. This policy was intended to reduce a financial burden imposed on families due to the costs of children's shadow education. Since its first implementation in major…

  9. Dynamics in National Agri-environmental Policy implementation under Changing EU Policy Priorities: does one size fit all?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Jens Peter; Frederiksen, Pia; Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard

    2016-01-01

    directiveobjectives nationally in the future. In this paper, we first investigate the dynamics in the implementationof national Agri-Environmental Schemes (AES) through changes in (i) AES policy objectives over time,(ii) administrative implementation structures, and (iii) administrative policy decision structures...... in theNetherlands, Denmark, Greece, Austria and Romania. Second, we examine the extent to which variousfactors have influenced the development of national policies over time. The study identifies developmentbased on the theory of ‘process of institutional change’, i.e. we qualitatively estimate the costs...... and trans-formation, which are characteristic of the national responses to changing AEP at the EU level. We discussAES dynamics; whether policy content or structures should be in focus for future policy design and theimplications of these findings for the future role of AEP in fulfilling environmental...

  10. Inclusive pedagogy in Australian universities: A review of current policies and professional development activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Hitch

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on activities undertaken by Australian universities to support academic staff to provide inclusive teaching. The findings of two lines of inquiry are reported - a desktop audit of the presence of inclusive teaching or universal design for learning (UDL in publically available policies and procedures documents, and a survey of the methods adopted to build staff capacity to provide inclusive teaching and learning. Just over a third (34.21% of Australian universities referred to inclusive teaching or UDL in their policies and procedures. A wide range of current practices in professional development for inclusive teaching was reported, with the most frequent being one-off workshops focussing on accommodating specific groups of students. Improved institutional support through policies, procedures and professional development would enable Australian higher education teachers to provide quality inclusive teaching to all students.

  11. Iran`s petroleum policy: Current trends and the future outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezeshki, S.; Fesharaki, F.

    1994-12-01

    The Iranian economy and political situation have undergone radical changes since the 1979 Islamic revolution. The excesses of the early years of the revolution have gradually given way to moderation and a more pragmatic economic policy--based on the principles of the free market. The petroleum policy, as a subset of the economic policies, has been somewhat affected by the political and economic developments in Iran. The petroleum policy has changed from a position of no foreign participation to a position that includes a desire for foreign participation, the text of a model contract, and an attempt to introduce new technologies in the upstream sector. This report provides an overview of the key issues facing the Iranian oil industry and the economic context in which the oil industry is operating in Iran. It describes the evolution of policies meant to move the oil industry toward the free market; it discusses Iran`s oil trading partners, the outlook for refining and project investments, and current and likely future developments in the natural gas and petrochemical sectors. In short, the report provides an up-to-date assessment of the Iranian petroleum sector and its likely evolution in the future.

  12. Impact of current policies on future air quality and health outcomes in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholakia, Hem H.; Purohit, Pallav; Rao, Shilpa; Garg, Amit

    2013-08-01

    A key policy challenge in Indian megacities is to curb high concentrations of PM2.5 and mitigate associated adverse health impacts. Using the Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model we carry out an integrated analysis of the air quality regulations across different sectors for the city of Delhi. Our findings show that PM2.5 concentrations for Delhi will not reach the recommended national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) even by 2030 under the current policies scenario. Adopting advanced control technologies reduces PM2.5 concentrations by about 60% and all-cause mortality by half in 2030. Climate change mitigation policies significantly reduce greenhouse gases, but have a modest impact on reducing PM2.5 concentrations. Stringent policies to control the net flow of air pollution from trans-boundary sources will play a crucial role in reducing pollution levels in Delhi city. Achieving NAAQS requires a stringent policy portfolio that combines advanced control technologies with a switch to cleaner fuels and the control of trans-boundary pollution.

  13. The DOE Office of Environmental Management International Cooperative Program: Current Status and Plans for Expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, Kurt D.; Han, Ana M.; Marra, James C.; Fox, Kevin M.; Peeler, David K.; Smith, Michael E.; Jannik, Gerald T.; Farfan, Eduardo B.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.; Roach, Jay; Aloy, A. S.; Stefanovsky, S. V.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Lopukh, D. P.; Kim, Chenwoo

    2009-01-15

    The DOE-EM Office of Engineering and Technology is responsible for implementing EM’s international cooperative program. The Office of Engineering and Technology’s international efforts are aimed at supporting EM’s mission of risk reduction and accelerated cleanup of the environmental legacy of the nation's nuclear weapons program and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. To do this, EM pursues collaborations with government organizations, educational institutions, and private industry to identify and develop technologies that can address the site cleanup needs of DOE. Currently, DOE-EM is performing collaborative work with researchers at the Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) and the SIA Radon Institute in Russia and the Ukraine’s International Radioecology Laboratory (IRL). Additionally, a task was recently completed with the Nuclear Engineering Technology Institute (NETEC) in South Korea. The objectives of these collaborations were to explore issues relating to high-level waste and to investigate technologies that could be leveraged to support EM site cleanup needs. In FY09, continued collaboration with the current partners is planned. Additionally, new research projects are being planned to expand the International Program. A collaborative project with Russian Electrotechnical University is underway to evaluate CCIM control and monitoring technologies. A Statement of Intent was recently signed between DOE-EM and the U.K. Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) to work cooperatively on areas of mutual interest. Under this umbrella, discussions were held with NDA representatives to identify potential areas for collaboration. Information and technical exchanges were identified as near-term actions to help meet the objectives of the Statement of Intent. Technical exchanges in identified areas are being pursued in FY09

  14. Prescription drug samples--does this marketing strategy counteract policies for quality use of medicines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, K E M; Sketris, I; Tett, S E

    2003-08-01

    Prescription drug samples, as used by the pharmaceutical industry to market their products, are of current interest because of their influence on prescribing, and their potential impact on consumer safety. Very little research has been conducted into the use and misuse of prescription drug samples, and the influence of samples on health policies designed to improve the rational use of medicines. This is a topical issue in the prescription drug debate, with increasing costs and increasing concerns about optimizing use of medicines. This manuscript critically evaluates the research that has been conducted to date about prescription drug samples, discusses the issues raised in the context of traditional marketing theory, and suggests possible alternatives for the future.

  15. Bare below elbows: does this policy affect handwashing efficacy and reduce bacterial colonisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, A; Wijewardena, C; Clayson, S; Greatorex, R A

    2011-01-01

    UK Department of Health guidelines recommend that clinical staff are 'bare below the elbows'. There is a paucity of evidence to support this policy. One may hypothesise that absence of clothing around wrists facilitates more effective handwashing: this study aims to establish whether dress code affects bacterial colonisation before and after handwashing. Sixty-six clinical staff volunteered to take part in the study, noting whether they were bare below the elbows (BBE) or not bare (NB). Using a standardised technique, imprints of left and right fingers, palms, wrists and forearms were taken onto mini agar plates. Imprints were repeated after handwashing. After incubation, colonies per plate were counted, and subcultures taken. Thirty-eight staff were BBE and 28 were not. A total of 1112 plates were cultured. Before handwashing there was no significant difference in number of colonies between BBE and NB groups (Mann-Whitney, P < 0.05). Handwashing reduced the colony count, with greatest effect on fingers, palms and dominant wrists (t-test, P < 0.05). Comparing the two groups again after handwashing revealed no significant difference (Mann-Whitney, P < 0.05). Subcultures revealed predominantly skin flora. There was a large variation in number of colonies cultured. Handwashing resulted in a statistically significant reduction in colony count on fingers, palms and dominant wrist regardless of clothing. We conclude that handwashing produces a significant reduction in number of bacterial colonies on staff hands, and that clothing that is not BBE does not impede this reduction.

  16. RUSSIAN POLICY IN POST-SOVIET SPACE: MILESTONES AND CURRENT STATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Valerievich Bespalov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the main trends in the development of bilateral relations in the post-Soviet Eurasia and is characterized the evolution of Russian foreign policy in the post-Soviet space using historiosophical and comparative research methods. Formulated periodization of Russian policy toward the region , taking into account the geopolitical , foreign , domestic economic and domestic factors. Current state of Russian policy towards neighboring countries and the prospects for improving its performance are analyzed in the article. The author identifies the main problem areas of the current state of international relations in the region and identifies opportunities available to Russia to strengthen the integration processes. Concludes that , without abandoning the appeal in a number of cases to the general traditions common historical experience accumulated over decades or even centuries of living together within a single state and remains an important resource in Russian politics , Russia needs to position itself as a state, able to provide its partners those preferences and assistance ( financial, informational , educational services , etc. , which they need , and who expect to get - usually without good reason - other centers of world politics . Offers practical guidance for experts, politicians , managers and representatives of public organizations.

  17. School Autonomy and Accountability in Thailand: Does the Gap between Policy Intent and Implementation Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Arcia, Gustavo; Macdonald, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This article contrasts policy intent and policy implementation in school autonomy and accountability. The analysis uses a conceptual framework based on the interaction between school autonomy, student assessment, and accountability as elements of a closed system. The article analyzes the implementation of school autonomy and accountability policy,…

  18. Does the type of CIA policy significantly affect bar and restaurant employment in Minnesota cities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, E G; Forster, J L; Erickson, D J; Lytle, L A; Schillo, B

    2009-06-01

    Clean indoor air (CIA) policies that include free-standing bars and restaurants have been adopted by communities to protect employees in all workplaces from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, most notably employees working in restaurants and free-standing bars. However, due to the perception of negative economic effects on alcohol-licensed hospitality businesses, partial CIA policies (those that provide an exemption for free-standing bars) have been proposed as a means to reduce the risk of economic effects of comprehensive CIA policies applied to all worksites. Bar and restaurant employment per capita were used to determine if partial CIA policies produced differential economic effects compared to comprehensive CIA policies. Ten cities in the state of Minnesota were studied from 2003-2006. Economic data were drawn from monthly employment in bars and restaurants, and a pooled time-series was completed to evaluate three types of local CIA policies: Comprehensive, partial, or none beyond the state law. Communities with a comprehensive CIA policy had a decrease of 9 employees per 10,000 residents compared with communities with partial CIA policies (p = 0.10). Communities with any type of CIA policy (partial or comprehensive) had an increase of 3 employees per 10,000 residents compared to communities without any CIA policies (p = 0.36). There were no significant differential economic effects by CIA policy type in Minnesota cities. These findings support the adoption of comprehensive CIA policies to provide all employees protection from environmental tobacco smoke exposure.

  19. Market Signals: How Do DC Parents Rank Schools, and What Does It Mean for Policy? Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazerman, Steven; Dotter, Dallas

    2016-01-01

    This brief describes (1) what parents look for when they choose a school and (2) how these preferences affect the sorting of students into schools under different school-choice policies. The findings are based on lists of preferred schools submitted by over 20,000 applicants to a citywide lottery for more than 100 traditional and charter public…

  20. Does Federal Financial Aid Policy Influence the Institutional Aid Policies of Four-Year Colleges and Universities? An Exploratory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossler, Don; Kwon, Jihye

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of empirical work that examines the relationships between federal financial aid policy and institutional financial aid priorities and expenditures. This study uses Resource Dependency Theory to explore whether changes the amount of financial aid awarded by colleges and universities during the last fifty years are best explained…

  1. Virtuous and Vicious Circles: Lessons for Current European Policies from Italian Post-War Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioacchino Garofoli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the Italian economic development, explaining the main features and the crucial variables in the long-term transformation process. The Italian economy has been analysed taking into account the different and changing international rules in medium and long-term to understand their role on the development strategies and on the changing competitive position of the country. The comparative international analysis on selected crucial variables shows some contradictions between expectations and effective outcomes of changing institutional rules and introduced economic policies. This underlines both the emergence of unexpected trajectories and economic performances and the lasting of structural differences among European countries. The selection of consistent economic policies in Europe, then, should take into account these phenomena. The paper underlines the crucial role of long-term economic analysis to fully understand not only the crucial structural variables but even opportunities and challenges for strategic decisions in the current economic crisis.

  2. The Social Lives of Global Policies against Malaria: Conceptual Considerations, Past Experiences, and Current Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckl, Julian

    2017-07-01

    While a casual observer might easily get the impression that global policies against malaria have unanimous support, there are strongly divergent perspectives on malaria control. Analyzing ethnographic and historical material through a political science lens, I foreground the social negotiation of malaria both as an illness experience of affected populations and as a disease problem defined by experts. Taking the interrelationship between problems, solutions, and solution providers as a point of departure, I reconstruct recurrent tensions and social mechanisms that can account for the tendency to downplay conflicts and to produce technical-biomedical solutions that seem to be irresistible. This helps to overcome the perception that current policies have no alternatives and that aiming directly for malaria eradication is the only form of sustainability in times of resistances when "saving the established technical-biomedical solutions" has become a key concern.

  3. Does Wyoming's Core Area Policy Protect Winter Habitats for Greater Sage-Grouse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kurt T.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Pratt, Aaron C.

    2016-10-01

    Conservation reserves established to protect important habitat for wildlife species are used world-wide as a wildlife conservation measure. Effective reserves must adequately protect year-round habitats to maintain wildlife populations. Wyoming's Sage-Grouse Core Area policy was established to protect breeding habitats for greater sage-grouse ( Centrocercus urophasianus). Protecting only one important seasonal habitat could result in loss or degradation of other important habitats and potential declines in local populations. The purpose of our study was to identify the timing of winter habitat use, the extent which individuals breeding in Core Areas used winter habitats, and develop resource selection functions to assess effectiveness of Core Areas in conserving sage-grouse winter habitats in portions of 5 Core Areas in central and north-central Wyoming during winters 2011-2015. We found that use of winter habitats occured over a longer period than current Core Area winter timing stipulations and a substantial amount of winter habitat outside of Core Areas was used by individuals that bred in Core Areas, particularly in smaller Core Areas. Resource selection functions for each study area indicated that sage-grouse were selecting habitats in response to landscapes dominated by big sagebrush and flatter topography similar to other research on sage-grouse winter habitat selection. The substantial portion of sage-grouse locations and predicted probability of selection during winter outside small Core Areas illustrate that winter requirements for sage-grouse are not adequately met by existing Core Areas. Consequently, further considerations for identifying and managing important winter sage-grouse habitats under Wyoming's Core Area Policy are warranted.

  4. Does Wyoming's Core Area Policy Protect Winter Habitats for Greater Sage-Grouse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kurt T; Beck, Jeffrey L; Pratt, Aaron C

    2016-10-01

    Conservation reserves established to protect important habitat for wildlife species are used world-wide as a wildlife conservation measure. Effective reserves must adequately protect year-round habitats to maintain wildlife populations. Wyoming's Sage-Grouse Core Area policy was established to protect breeding habitats for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). Protecting only one important seasonal habitat could result in loss or degradation of other important habitats and potential declines in local populations. The purpose of our study was to identify the timing of winter habitat use, the extent which individuals breeding in Core Areas used winter habitats, and develop resource selection functions to assess effectiveness of Core Areas in conserving sage-grouse winter habitats in portions of 5 Core Areas in central and north-central Wyoming during winters 2011-2015. We found that use of winter habitats occured over a longer period than current Core Area winter timing stipulations and a substantial amount of winter habitat outside of Core Areas was used by individuals that bred in Core Areas, particularly in smaller Core Areas. Resource selection functions for each study area indicated that sage-grouse were selecting habitats in response to landscapes dominated by big sagebrush and flatter topography similar to other research on sage-grouse winter habitat selection. The substantial portion of sage-grouse locations and predicted probability of selection during winter outside small Core Areas illustrate that winter requirements for sage-grouse are not adequately met by existing Core Areas. Consequently, further considerations for identifying and managing important winter sage-grouse habitats under Wyoming's Core Area Policy are warranted.

  5. Does environmental policy affect scaling laws between population and pollution? Evidence from American metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Nicholas Z; Jha, Akshaya

    2017-01-01

    Modern cities are engines of production, innovation, and growth. However, urbanization also increases both local and global pollution from household consumption and firms' production. Do emissions change proportionately to city size or does pollution tend to outpace or lag urbanization? Do emissions scale differently with population versus economic growth or are emissions, population, and economic growth inextricably linked? How are the scaling relationships between emissions, population, and economic growth affected by environmental regulation? This paper examines the link between urbanization, economic growth and pollution using data from Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in the United States between 1999 and 2011. We find that the emissions of local air pollution in these MSAs scale according to a ¾ power law with both population size and gross domestic product (GDP). However, the monetary damages from these local emissions scale linearly with both population and GDP. Counties that have previously been out of attainment with the local air quality standards set by the Clean Air Act show an entirely different relationship: local emissions scale according to the square root of population, while the monetary damages from local air pollution follow a 2/3rds power law with population. Counties out of attainment are subject to more stringent emission controls; we argue based on this that enforcement of the Clean Air Act induces sublinear scaling between emissions, damages, and city size. In contrast, we find that metropolitan GDP scales super-linearly with population in all MSAs regardless of attainment status. Summarizing, our findings suggest that environmental policy limits the adverse effects of urbanization without interfering with the productivity benefits that manifest in cities.

  6. Patients with left bundle branch block pattern and high cardiac risk myocardial SPECT: does the current management suffice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Cate, T J F; Kelder, J C; Plokker, H W M; Verzijlbergen, J F; van Hemel, N M

    2013-03-01

    Myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) is frequently used for cardiovascular risk stratification. The significance of MPS in patients with abnormal electrical ventricular activation is often questionable. This review assesses the value of MPS for risk stratification of patients with intrinsic left bundle branch block or that due to right ventricular apical pacing. We reviewed the literature by a search of the MEDLINE database (January 1980 to September 2010). The terms prognosis or prognostic value were combined with SPECT and LBBB or pacing or pacemakers. MPS was categorised as low and high risk according to the original definitions. We identified 11 studies suitable for review. A low-risk MPS is associated with a low risk of cardiac events whereas high-risk MPS carries a 4.8-fold increased risk, 95% CI [3.2 - 7.2] (p < 0.0001). Despite secondary prevention and an improved medical and interventional care, these figures have hardly changed over time. A low-risk MPS permits a policy of watchful waiting whereas a high-risk MPS requires further analysis and treatment. The persistent high cardiac death and acute myocardial infarction rate after a high-risk MPS suggest that the current management of these patients does not suffice and needs reconsideration.

  7. Current systematic carbon cycle observations and needs for implementing a policy-relevant carbon observing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ciais

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A globally integrated carbon observation and analysis system is needed to improve the fundamental understanding of the global carbon cycle, to improve our ability to project future changes, and to verify the effectiveness of policies aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Building an integrated carbon observation system requires transformational advances from the existing sparse, exploratory framework towards a dense, robust, and sustained system in all components: anthropogenic emissions, the atmosphere, the ocean, and the terrestrial biosphere. The goal of this study is to identify the current state of carbon observations and needs for a global integrated carbon observation system that can be built in the next decade. A key conclusion is the substantial expansion (by several orders of magnitude of the ground-based observation networks required to reach the high spatial resolution for CO2 and CH4 fluxes, and for carbon stocks for addressing policy relevant objectives, and attributing flux changes to underlying processes in each region. In order to establish flux and stock diagnostics over remote areas such as the southern oceans, tropical forests and the Arctic, in situ observations will have to be complemented with remote-sensing measurements. Remote sensing offers the advantage of dense spatial coverage and frequent revisit. A key challenge is to bring remote sensing measurements to a level of long-term consistency and accuracy so that they can be efficiently combined in models to reduce uncertainties, in synergy with ground-based data. Bringing tight observational constraints on fossil fuel and land use change emissions will be the biggest challenge for deployment of a policy-relevant integrated carbon observation system. This will require in-situ and remotely sensed data at much higher resolution and density than currently achieved for natural fluxes, although over a small land area (cities, industrial

  8. The Value of CCS under Current Policy Scenarios: NDCs and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Casie L.; Dahowski, Robert T.; McJeon, Haewon C.; Clarke, Leon E.; Iyer, Gokul C.; Muratori, Matteo

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes preliminary results of analysis using the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) to evaluate the potential role of CCS in addressing emissions reduction targets. Scenarios are modelled using the Paris-Increased Ambition (PIA) case developed by Fawcett et al. (2015), and a more aggressive Paris Two-Degree Ambition (P2A) case. Both cases are based upon nationally determined contributions (NDCs) agreed to at the UNFCCC Conference of Parties (COP-21) in December 2015, coupled with additional mitigation effort beyond the 2030 Paris timeframe, through the end of the century. Analysis of CCS deployment and abatement costs under both policy scenarios suggests that, as modelled, having CCS in the technological portfolio could reduce the global cost of addressing emissions reduction targets specified under the policy scenario by trillions of dollars, primarily by enabling a smoother and lower-cost transition to next-generation technologies. Through the end of the century, total global abatement costs associated with the PIA case – with five percent annual reduction in emission intensity and reaching 2.2 degrees by 2100 – are reduced by $15 trillion USD in the scenario where CCS is available to deploy by 2025 and remains available through 2100, reflecting a 47 percent savings in the cost of climate change abatement. Under the more ambitious P2A case, with 8 percent annual reduction in emission intensity and reaching 1.9 degrees by 2100, the availability of CCS reduces global abatement costs by $22 trillion USD through the end of the century, again nearly halving the costs of addressing the policy, relative to achieving the same target using an energy portfolio that does not include CCS. PIA and P2A scenarios with CCS result in 1,250 and 1,580 GtCO2 of global geologic storage by the end of the century, respectively.

  9. Technical basis, supporting information, and strategy for development and implementation of DOE policy for natural phenomena hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.C.

    1991-09-01

    Policy for addressing natural phenomenon comprises a hierarchy of interrelated documents. The top level of policy is contained in the code of Federal Regulations which establishes the framework and intent to ensure overall safety of DOE facilities when subjected to the effects of natural phenomena. The natural phenomena to be considered include earthquakes and tsunami, winds, hurricanes and tornadoes, floods, volcano effects and seiches. Natural phenomena criteria have been established for design of new facilities; evaluation of existing facilities; additions, modifications, and upgrades to existing facilities; and evaluation criteria for new or existing sites. Steps needed to implement these four general criteria are described. The intent of these criteria is to identify WHAT needs to be done to ensure adequate protection from natural phenomena. The commentary provides discussion of WHY this is needed for DOE facilities within the complex. Implementing procedures identifying HOW to carry out these criteria are next identified. Finally, short and long term tasks needed to identify the implementing procedure are tabulated. There is an overall need for consistency throughout the DOE complex related to natural phenomena including consistent terminology, policy, and implementation. 1 fig, 6 tabs.

  10. Current Policies and New Directions for Speech-Language Pathology Assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul-Brown, Diane; Goldberg, Lynette R

    2001-01-01

    This article provides an overview of current American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) policies for the appropriate use and supervision of speech-language pathology assistants with an emphasis on the need to preserve the role of fully qualified speech-language pathologists in the service delivery system. Seven challenging issues surrounding the appropriate use of speech-language pathology assistants are considered. These include registering assistants and approving training programs; membership in ASHA; discrepancies between state requirements and ASHA policies; preparation for serving diverse multicultural, bilingual, and international populations; supervision considerations; funding and reimbursement for assistants; and perspectives on career-ladder/bachelor-level personnel. The formation of a National Leadership Council is proposed to develop a coordinated strategic plan for addressing these controversial and potentially divisive issues related to speech-language pathology assistants. This council would implement strategies for future development in the areas of professional education pertaining to assistant-level supervision, instruction of assistants, communication networks, policy development, research, and the dissemination/promotion of information regarding assistants.

  11. Saskatchewan water policy : what does the oil and gas industry need to know

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dybvig, W. [Saskatchewan Watershed Authority, Regina, SK (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Water use and supply in the province of Saskatchewan was discussed along with planning activities, regulatory processes and current water issues facing the province. The Saskatchewan Watershed Authority was created to address water use and concerns regarding water protection. Some historical information regarding water management strategies in the province of Saskatchewan was presented, including the creation of SaskWater in 1984; the provincial wetlands policy in 1995; a water management framework in 1999; the North Battleford water contamination in 2001; a long term drinking water strategy in 2002; and the creation of the Saskatchewan Watershed Authority in 2002. The Saskatchewan Watershed Authority took over responsibilities from SaskWater, the Saskatchewan Wetlands Conservation Corporation and Saskatchewan Environment with a mandate for watershed planning; water source protection; wetlands conservation; water allocation; infrastructure management; and public education about water. This presentation explained how the Saskatchewan Watershed Authority will achieve its goals for a safe and sustainable water supply, and healthy watersheds and aquifers. Industrial water use charges were described with reference to the oil and gas industry in Saskatchewan, the second largest crude oil producer in Canada and the third largest natural gas producer. In 2002 there 1700 gas well and 3400 oil wells drilled in the province. All non domestic water uses require approval from the Saskatchewan Watershed Authority. Regulations for groundwater use and purchasing water from other users were also outlined. tabs., figs.

  12. How Does Transport Policy Cope with Climate Challenges? Experiences from the UK and Other European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Lawler, Mary; Meza, Maria Josefina Figueroa

    2011-01-01

    Transport is one of the fastest growing sources of emissions of greenhouse gases. Some European countries have adopted comprehensive “sustainable transport” policies, in which climate change is addressed. This paper looks into how sustainable transport policy frameworks deal with climate change...... challenges in three countries: the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. In particular, the focus is on the role of follow-up and monitoring systems to keep the policies on track. For the United Kingdom, a critical analysis is made of strengths and weaknesses of the policy monitoring regime...

  13. Essential drugs policy in three rural counties in China: what does a complexity lens add?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yue; Zhao, Kun; Bishai, David M; Peters, David H

    2013-09-01

    In 2009 the government of China identified an essential drugs policy as one of five priority areas for health system reform. Since then, a national essential drugs policy has been defined, along with plans to implement it. As a large scale social intervention, the policy will have a significant impact on various local health actors. This paper uses the lens of complex adaptive systems to examine how the policy has been implemented in three rural Chinese counties. Using material gathered from interviews with key actors in county health bureaus and township health centers, we illustrate how a single policy can lead to multiple unanticipated outcomes. The complexity lens applied to the material gathered in interviews helps to identify relevant actors, their different relationships and policy responses and a new framework to better understand heterogeneous pathways and outcomes. Decision-makers and policy implementers are advised to embrace the complex and dynamic realities of policy implementation. This involves developing mechanisms to monitor different behaviors of key actors as well as the intended outcomes and unintended consequences of the policy.

  14. Current evidence does not support the use of Kinesio Taping in clinical practice: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia do Carmo Silva Parreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Questions: Is Kinesio Taping more effective than a sham taping/placebo, no treatment or other interventions in people with musculoskeletal conditions? Is the addition of Kinesio Taping to other interventions more effective than other interventions alone in people with musculoskeletal conditions? Design: Systematic review of randomised trials. Participants: People with musculoskeletal conditions. Intervention: Kinesio Taping was compared with sham taping/placebo, no treatment, exercises, manual therapy and conventional physiotherapy. Outcome measures: Pain intensity, disability, quality of life, return to work, and global impression of recovery. Results: Twelve randomised trials involving 495 participants were included in the review. The effectiveness of the Kinesio Taping was tested in participants with: shoulder pain in two trials; knee pain in three trials; chronic low back pain in two trials; neck pain in three trials; plantar fasciitis in one trial; and multiple musculoskeletal conditions in one trial. The methodological quality of eligible trials was moderate, with a mean of 6.1 points on the 10-point PEDro Scale score. Overall, Kinesio Taping was no better than sham taping/placebo and active comparison groups. In all comparisons where Kinesio Taping was better than an active or a sham control group, the effect sizes were small and probably not clinically significant or the trials were of low quality. Conclusion: This review provides the most updated evidence on the effectiveness of the Kinesio Taping for musculoskeletal conditions. The current evidence does not support the use of this intervention in these clinical populations. PROSPERO registration: CRD42012003436. [Parreira PdCS, Costa LdCM, Hespanhol Junior LC, Lopes AD, Costa LOP (2014 Current evidence does not support the use of Kinesio Taping in clinical practice: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 60: 31–39

  15. Does Educational Preparation Match Professional Practice: The Case of Higher Education Policy Analysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Eduardo C.; Martinez, Mario C.

    2009-01-01

    This study compares the extent to which higher education policy analysts and master's and doctoral faculty of higher education and public affairs programs match on a set of competencies thought to be important to higher education policy analysis. Analysts matched master's faculty in three competencies while analysts and doctoral faculty matched in…

  16. Mobile Phone Use in a Pennsylvania Public High School: Does Policy Inform Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackara, Susan Tomchak

    2014-01-01

    Though many American educators embrace technology in classrooms, administrators can create policies that inhibit technology such as mobile phone use in classrooms or on district property. These policies range from restrictive with no mobile phone use permitted, to liberal in which unrestricted use of mobile phones is allowed. The purpose of this…

  17. Does Social Work Education Have an Impact on Social Policy Preferences? A Three-Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Idit; Gal, John; Cnaan, Ram A.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the impact of social work education on the social policy preferences of social work students through a panel study of 3 cohorts of students at universities in 2 countries--the United States and Israel. The findings of the study indicate that though the initial policy preferences of the students at the beginning of their…

  18. Mobile Phone Use in a Pennsylvania Public High School: Does Policy Inform Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackara, Susan Tomchak

    2014-01-01

    Though many American educators embrace technology in classrooms, administrators can create policies that inhibit technology such as mobile phone use in classrooms or on district property. These policies range from restrictive with no mobile phone use permitted, to liberal in which unrestricted use of mobile phones is allowed. The purpose of this…

  19. A TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE CURRENT WATER POLICY BOUNDARY AT U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT, PADUCAH, KENTUCKY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-12-13

    In 1988, groundwater contaminated with trichloroethene (TCE) and technetium-99 (Tc-99) was identified in samples collected from residential water wells withdrawing groundwater from the Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA) north of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) facility. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provided temporary drinking water supplies to approximately 100 potentially affected residents by initially supplying bottled water, water tanks, and water-treatment systems, and then by extending municipal water lines, all at no cost, to those persons whose wells could be affected by contaminated groundwater. The Water Policy boundary was established in 1993. In the Policy, DOE agreed to pay the reasonable monthly cost of water for homes and businesses and, in exchange, many of the land owners signed license agreements committing to cease using the groundwater via rural water wells. In 2012, DOE requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), managing contractor of Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), provide an independent assessment of the quality and quantity of the existing groundwater monitoring data and determine if there is sufficient information to support a modification to the boundary of the current Water Policy. As a result of the assessment, ORAU concludes that sufficient groundwater monitoring data exists to determine that a shrinkage and/or shift of the plume(s) responsible for the initial development of this policy has occurred. Specifically, there is compelling evidence that the TCE plume is undergoing shrinkage due to natural attenuation and associated degradation. The plume shrinkage (and migration) has also been augmented in local areas where large volumes of groundwater were recovered by pump-and treat remedial systems along the eastern and western boundaries of the Northwest Plume, and in other areas where pump-and-treat systems have been deployed by DOE to remove source contaminants. The

  20. Online media coverage of air pollution risks and current policies in India: A content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukutla, Nandita; Negi, Nalin S; Puri, Pallavi; Mullin, Sandra; Onyon, Lesley

    2017-09-01

    institution or organization - such as the government or industry groups - as the primary responsible stakeholder, thus leaving ambiguous the organizations whose leadership was necessary to mitigate air pollution. Conclusion Gaps exist in the current media discourse on air pollution, suggesting the need for strengthening engagement with the media as a means of creating citizen engagement and enabling policy action. Through greater elaboration of the health burdens and evidence-based policy actions, the media can play a critical role in galvanizing India's action on air quality. These data may suggest opportunities for media advocacy and greater public and policy engagement to address issues around air quality in India.

  1. HOW DOES THE CANADIAN STOCK MARKET REACT TO THE FED'S POLICY?

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Shahrestani; Nahid Kalbasi Anaraki

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how the Canadian stock market reacts to the Fed’s policy. Although many research studies have measured the bilateral correlation among national stock markets, rarely have they investigated this correlation within a Free Trade Zone (FTZ). We use a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) accounting for monetary and exchange rate policies to measure the long-term elasticity of Toronto Stock Exchange (TSE) not only to the Fed’s policy, through the movements of Federal Fund Ra...

  2. External Shocks and Monetary Policy. Does it Pay to Respond to Exchange Rate Deviations?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caputo, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    .... We conclude that, in the face of most of the external shocks, a policy rule that responds to exchange rate misalignments smooths inflation and output variability, while marginally increasing interest rate fluctuations...

  3. How Does the Majority Public React to Multiculturalist Policies? A Comparative Analysis of European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooghe, Marc; de Vroome, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Migration and ethnic minority integration remain heavily contested issues in numerous European countries. Over the past decade, researchers and political commentators have observed an apparent retreat from multiculturalist policies related to a belief that multiculturalism has lost support among the

  4. Does problem complexity matter for environmental policy delivery? How public authorities address problems of water governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschke, Sabrina; Newig, Jens; Völker, Jeanette; Borchardt, Dietrich

    2017-03-08

    Problem complexity is often assumed to hamper effective environmental policy delivery. However, this claim is hardly substantiated, given the dominance of qualitative small-n designs in environmental governance research. We studied 37 types of contemporary problems defined by German water governance to assess the impact of problem complexity on policy delivery through public authorities. The analysis is based on a unique data set related to these problems, encompassing both in-depth interview-based data on complexities and independent official data on policy delivery. Our findings show that complexity in fact tends to delay implementation at the stage of planning. However, different dimensions of complexity (goals, variables, dynamics, interconnections, and uncertainty) impact on the different stages of policy delivery (goal formulation, stages and degrees of implementation) in various ways.

  5. What policy says and practice does : gender, household and community in rural water provision in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mandara, C.G.

    2014-01-01

    Summary   Since 1945 to date the governance of the rural water sector in Tanzania has passed through multiple phases, from the colonial era to the times characterized by liberalization, decentralisation and privatization. Generally, changes in the policies and governance strategies reflect a correspondence with national and international reforms in the political and economic spheres. In turn, these changes made the sector to experience pendulum swings over time in terms of policies and a...

  6. School Sun-Protection Policies--Does Being SunSmart Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Denise; Harrison, Simone L.; Buettner, Petra; Nowak, Madeleine

    2014-01-01

    Evaluate the comprehensiveness of primary school sun-protection policies in tropical North Queensland, Australia. Pre-determined criteria were used to assess publicly available sun-protection policies from primary schools in Townsville (latitude 19.3°S; n = 43), Cairns (16.9°S; n = 46) and the Atherton Tablelands (17.3°S; n = 23) during 2009-2012.…

  7. What the eye does not see: a critical interpretive synthesis of European Union policies addressing sexual violence in vulnerable migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keygnaert, Ines; Guieu, Aurore

    2015-11-01

    In Europe, refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are more vulnerable to sexual victimisation than European citizens. They face more challenges when seeking care. This literature review examines how legal and policy frameworks at national, European and international levels condition the prevention of and response to sexual violence affecting these vulnerable migrant communities living in the European Union (EU). Applying the Critical Interpretive Synthesis method, we reviewed 187 legal and policy documents and 80 peer-reviewed articles on migrant sexual health for elements on sexual violence and further analysed the 37 legal and 12 peer-reviewed articles among them that specifically focused on sexual violence in vulnerable migrants in the EU-27 States. Legal and policy documents dealing with sexual violence, particularly but not exclusively in vulnerable migrants, apply 'tunnel vision'. They ignore: a) frequently occurring types of sexual violence, b) victimisation rates across genders and c) specific risk factors within the EU such as migrants' legal status, gender orientation and living conditions. The current EU policy-making paradigm relegates sexual violence in vulnerable migrants as an 'outsider' and 'female only' issue while EU migration and asylum policies reinforce its invisibility. Effective response must be guided by participatory rights- and evidence-based policies and a public health approach, acknowledging the occurrence and multiplicity of sexual victimisation of vulnerable migrants of all genders within EU borders.

  8. The impact of current visa regime policy on tourism recovery and development in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Zengeni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results on the impact of the current visa regime policy on tourism recovery and development in Zimbabwe. The focus was on finding out how the visa regime could impact on efforts to bring into the country more visitors following the decline in visitor inflows from 2000 to 2008. Data was collected from selected visitors from different member states which require visas to enter into the county in the period between January 2010 and July 2010.The findings shows that visa restrictions play a small part in discouraging visitors to visit Zimbabwe. The visa regime policy was designed in such a way that it was easy for passport holders from traditional markets to have relatively easy passage into Zimbabwe. It was also discovered that visa restrictions were part of international travel conditions but how to get the visa became the competitive advantage or disadvantage a destination can have compared with its competitors. Zimbabwe’s traditional markets believed that the visa was not difficult to get nor was it too expensive as to scare away visitors. However, the emerging markets such as China who are in Group C had problems getting the visa as they were required to apply for the visa before traveling to Zimbabwe.

  9. 21 CFR 1404.615 - How does the Office of National Drug Control Policy notify a person of a suspension or debarment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does the Office of National Drug Control Policy notify a person of a suspension or debarment action? 1404.615 Section 1404.615 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT)...

  10. Current Measures on Radioactive Contamination in Japan: A Policy Situation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Stuart; Miyagawa, Shoji; Kasuga, Fumiko; Shibuya, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    radioactive contamination. Monitoring of radioactive materials in food products in the prefectures has been mainly conducted before shipment to restrict the distribution of radio-contaminated foods. Between March 2011 and March 2012, 133,832 tests of non-commercial and commercial products were conducted, and 1,204 tests (0.9%) were found to violate the provisional standards. Since April 2012, 278,275 tests were conducted, and 2,372 tests (0.9%) were found to violate the revised standards. MHLW assessment of representative market baskets of foodstuffs at 15 locations throughout Japan between February and March 2014 found very low estimated dietary intake of radioactive cesium (0.0007-0.019 mSv/year), as did assessments of the contents of an average day's food. Monitoring of fisheries products in coastal areas affected by the nuclear accident found very limited and declining radio-contamination of live fish outside of Fukushima prefecture. Fisheries monitoring is of limited geographical scope and covers only certain fishes. Area-specific bans on production and distribution have been effective in preventing radioactive contamination in the Japanese food market. Currently there is no major concern about radioactive cesium concentrations in retail foodstuffs in Japan, and very low levels of contamination at the production and wholesale stage. However, because the residue limits and food safety policies were revised on an ad hoc, emergency basis after the nuclear accident, the monitoring procedure needs to be reviewed based on objective and scientifically rational criteria. A transparent and objective scientific framework is needed for prioritizing foodstuffs for inspection and revising Prefecture-specific restrictions. Monitoring of fishes and other seafood products in the wild should be regularized and the information made more publicly accessible, and monitoring activities expanded to identify foodstuffs that are no longer a food safety risk. Consultation with producers and

  11. Current Measures on Radioactive Contamination in Japan: A Policy Situation Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Gilmour

    areas at risk of radioactive contamination. Monitoring of radioactive materials in food products in the prefectures has been mainly conducted before shipment to restrict the distribution of radio-contaminated foods. Between March 2011 and March 2012, 133,832 tests of non-commercial and commercial products were conducted, and 1,204 tests (0.9% were found to violate the provisional standards. Since April 2012, 278,275 tests were conducted, and 2,372 tests (0.9% were found to violate the revised standards. MHLW assessment of representative market baskets of foodstuffs at 15 locations throughout Japan between February and March 2014 found very low estimated dietary intake of radioactive cesium (0.0007-0.019 mSv/year, as did assessments of the contents of an average day's food. Monitoring of fisheries products in coastal areas affected by the nuclear accident found very limited and declining radio-contamination of live fish outside of Fukushima prefecture. Fisheries monitoring is of limited geographical scope and covers only certain fishes.Area-specific bans on production and distribution have been effective in preventing radioactive contamination in the Japanese food market. Currently there is no major concern about radioactive cesium concentrations in retail foodstuffs in Japan, and very low levels of contamination at the production and wholesale stage. However, because the residue limits and food safety policies were revised on an ad hoc, emergency basis after the nuclear accident, the monitoring procedure needs to be reviewed based on objective and scientifically rational criteria. A transparent and objective scientific framework is needed for prioritizing foodstuffs for inspection and revising Prefecture-specific restrictions. Monitoring of fishes and other seafood products in the wild should be regularized and the information made more publicly accessible, and monitoring activities expanded to identify foodstuffs that are no longer a food safety risk. Consultation with

  12. ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT STATE ON LABOUR POLICIES IN THE ROMANIAN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂLĂNEASA MARIA-CRISTINA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The policies on labour relations can be considered as the philosophy or values promoted by an organization and help ensure a unitary approach within it. The existence of such policies in each organization has the maximum utility because helps employees to understand the values promoted by them and the behaviour that must be adopted. The main areas that can be covered by policies concerning labour relations are human resources planning, the quality of the employees, hiring and promoting employees, work-life balance, non-discrimination, dismissal, work discipline, complains, substance abuse, smoking at work, employment and relations with employees infected with HIV and other fields mentioned in the paper. Throughout the study, the attention was given preponderantly on three categories of policies: discipline policy, equal opportunities policy and work-life balance policy, the last two also being promoted by European institutions. Therefore, these policies were analysed in practical terms within Romanian organizations. We found that discipline policies are widely used at work, while the other two types of policies exist at a lower percentage within the analysed establishments. Most units having such policies concerning non-discrimination and work-life balance are oversized. This situation requires action from the management of small and medium-sized units in order to draw up and respect the non-discrimination policy and the balance between work and family life.

  13. More than Kissing Babies? Current Child and Family Policy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Francine H., Ed.; Davies, Margery W., Ed.

    Meant to orient a broad audience to basic issues of child and family policy in the United States today, this book includes an overview of the recent history of child and family policy in the United States, an exploration of several political economic conditions underlying changes in these policies, case studies of selected local, state and federal…

  14. What Does Economics Tell Us about Early Childhood Policy? Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, M. Rebecca; Karoly, Lynn A.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in neuroscience, developmental psychology, and program evaluation have been combined to develop a unified framework that provides evidence-based guidance related to early childhood policy. This research shows how insights from the field of economics-- human capital theory and monetary payoffs--also contribute to that framework.…

  15. Explaining Employment Growth in Small Industrial Enterprises: Does Policy Matter? A Case Study for Central Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, Piet; Schipper, Youdi

    1997-01-01

    Small-scale and cottage industries (SSMI) have received a considerable amount of attention in development strategies and policies in many countries. One of the main arguments in favour of small scale production is its potential to create employment, as it uses more labour per unit of output. Althoug

  16. Does Agency Competition Improve the Quality of Policy Analysis? Evidence from OMB and CBO Fiscal Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, George A.; Douglas, James W.

    2006-01-01

    Public management scholars often claim that agency competition provides an effective institutional check on monopoly authority, and hence, leads to improvement of administrative performance in public sector agencies. This logic was central for creating the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) in 1975 to challenge the policy information provided by…

  17. Does Utilitarian Policy such as Smoking Cessation Lend Support to Wider Aspirin Use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Morgan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco control policy seems to be based on a utilitarian principle that public health is best served by a range of measures that will provide overall population benefit. Aspirin may have a potential wider role since meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials shows it reduces the risk of a first vascular event and also cancer. Are smoking cessation and the public health potential of aspirin different? The benefit versus risk balance of aspirin, an inexpensive and easily available medicine, deserves serious consideration as a public health measure in middle age. Smoking cessation and wider aspirin use are not seen as either competing or duplicating policy areas, but complementary. Their comparison has been purposefully selected because of common impacts, namely reduced vascular disease and cancer with increases in undesirable effects, notably gastrointestinal pathology. Part of the driver for this paper is to convey the message that public health policy has benefits and risks and the concept of a universally effective policy is unrealistic. Is it time for public health action to increase the use of aspirin?

  18. Substate federalism and fracking policies: does state regulatory authority trump local land use autonomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Charles

    2014-01-01

    State officials responsible for the regulation of hydraulic fracturing (fracking) operations used in the production of oil and gas resources will inevitably confront a key policy issue; that is, to what extent can statewide regulations be developed without reducing land use autonomy typically exercised by local officials? Most state regulators have historically recognized the economic importance of industry jobs and favor the adoption of uniform regulatory requirements even if these rules preempt local policymaking authority. Conversely, many local officials seek to preserve land use autonomy to provide a greater measure of protection for public health and environmental quality goals. This paper examines how public officials in three states-Colorado, Pennsylvania, and Texas-address the question of state control versus local autonomy through their efforts to shape fracking policy decisions. While local officials within Texas have succeeded in developing fracking ordinances with relatively little interference from state regulators, Colorado and Pennsylvania have adopted a tougher policy stance favoring the retention of preemptive oil and gas statutes. Key factors that account for between state differences in fracking policy decisions include the strength of home rule provisions, gubernatorial involvement, and the degree of local experience with industrial economic activities.

  19. The Economics of Crime and Money Laundering: Does Anti-Money Laundering Policy Reduce Crime?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferwerda, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314405526

    2008-01-01

    Anti-money laundering policy has become a major issue in the Western world, especially in the United States after 9-11. Basically all countries in the world are more or less forced to cooperate in the global fight against money laundering. In this paper, the criminalization of money laundering is

  20. Official Bilingualism and Field Narratives: Does School Practice Echo Policy Discourse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nana, Genevoix

    2013-01-01

    This research builds on several layers of meaning representing views from education officials, head teachers, teachers and pupils to investigate the discourse and implementation of official bilingualism policy in primary schools in Cameroon. While at the macro-level, the celebration of the "National Bilingualism Day" in schools has…

  1. Does tax policy affect credit spreads? Evidence from the US and UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, K.; Qian, Zongxin

    This paper studies how exogenous tax changes affect credit market conditions in the US and UK. Using both structural VAR and structural factor-augmented VAR (FAVAR) model, we find that tax-policy shocks have significant effects on the credit spread. Specifically, the credit spread responds first

  2. The Economics of Crime and Money Laundering: Does Anti-Money Laundering Policy Reduce Crime?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferwerda, J.

    2008-01-01

    Anti-money laundering policy has become a major issue in the Western world, especially in the United States after 9-11. Basically all countries in the world are more or less forced to cooperate in the global fight against money laundering. In this paper, the criminalization of money laundering is mo

  3. What Does Economics Tell Us about Early Childhood Policy? Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, M. Rebecca; Karoly, Lynn A.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in neuroscience, developmental psychology, and program evaluation have been combined to develop a unified framework that provides evidence-based guidance related to early childhood policy. This research shows how insights from the field of economics-- human capital theory and monetary payoffs--also contribute to that framework.…

  4. Current organisation of follow-up does not meet cancer patients' needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Cecilie; Sandager, Mette; Jensen, Henry; Knudsen, Janne Lehmann

    2014-06-01

    For cancer patients, traditional follow-up care is considered unsuitable and unsustainable. The patient perspective seems often to be absent in the ongoing debate about alternative strategies for follow-up care. Based on a national survey from 2012, the objective of this study was to examine cancer patients' support needs regarding physiological and emotional problems during follow-up and to identify factors associated with their needs and any unmet needs. Patients diagnosed with cancer in the period from April to September 2010 were invited to participate. A total of 4,401 patients responded (response rate = 64%). The risks in terms of prevalence rate ratios of having needs and unmet needs for both physiological and emotional problems were estimated using the Poisson regression. The study showed that 60% of the patients had needs for support regarding physiological and emotional problems, and half of the patients reported unmet needs. Younger patients and patients with co-morbidity were more likely to report needs and unmet needs for physiological and emotional support. Treatment complexity and setting of follow-up were not associated with unmet needs. The study underlines that the current organisation of follow-up does not meet cancer patients' needs. Several factors are associated with both needs and unmet needs. Hence, a more sustainable approach for follow-up care may consist in stratification tailored to the patients' different needs. In such an approach, more focus should be on age-specific needs and the impact of co-morbidity. The study is funded by the Danish Cancer Society. The study was approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency (J. no. 2010-41-4694). According to the Danish Act on Research Ethics Review of Health Research Projects (S. 8(3) of Act No. 402 of 28 May 2003), no ethical approval was needed.

  5. Does São Paulo need a foreign policy? Hegemony, diplomacy and paradiplomacy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Almeida MEDEIROS

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article argues, on the one hand, that the hegemonic condition of the state of São Paulo in the the Brazilian federation incites it to practice an endogenous paradiplomatic action; on the other hand, it alleges that this endogenous paradiplomatic action coincides with a phenomenon of des-concentration (and not of federalization of the national diplomacy. The conclusion is that if the gradual desconcentration of the Brazilian diplomacy demands a consistent effort of the endogenous paradiplomacy, this does not mean that, for the maximization of the profits, the exogenous paradiplomacy does not have to be implemented.

  6. Bad results obtained from the current public health policies and recommendations of hydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael San Mauro Martín

    Full Text Available Introduction: Achieving an adequate intake of water is crucial within a balanced diet. For that purpose, dietary guidelines for healthy eating and drinking are an important consideration and need to be updated and disseminated to the population. Aim: We aimed to evaluate the liquid intake habits of a Mediterranean and Latin American population (Spain-Portugal and Mexico-Uruguay and if they support the current recommendations of hydration by the EFSA. Methods: A record of fluid intake was obtained from 1,168 participants from 4 countries above; and then compared with current consensus about hydration 1,600 mL/day (female and 2,000 mL/day (male. Results: The average fluid intake slightly surpassed the recommended: mean of 2,049 mL/day (2,223 mL in males, 1,938 mL in females. Portugal stood out due to its lower intake (mean of 1,365 mL/day. Water contributed the largest part to total fluid intake (37% in all countries (mean of 1,365 mL/day. Hot beverages (18% and milk and derivates (17% follow water in highest consumption. The 20% of males and only 0.3% of females knew recommendations of hydration, while 63.3% of males and 62% of females followed them. Only 8.4% of people who follow the recommendations know them. Conclusion: The people studied surpassed the recommendation, although the majority did not realize. Future research should examine actual beverage consumption patterns and evaluate if the current consensuses are correctly adapted to the population needs. Hydration's policies should be transmitted to the population for their knowledge and adequate compliance.

  7. Does the Lack of Financial Stability Impair the Transmission of Monetary Policy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acharya, Viral V.; Imbierowicz, Björn; Steffen, Sascha

    We investigate the transmission of central bank liquidity to bank deposit and loan spreads in Europe over the January 2006 to June 2010 period. We find evidence consistent with an impaired transmission channel due to bank risk. Central bank liquidity does not translate into lower loan spreads for...

  8. Why Does Environmental Policy in Representative Democracies Tend to Be Inadequate? A Preliminary Public Choice Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Kollmann

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a widespread consensus among the most important players in developed countries (voters, politicians, producers, traditional and green interest groups and bureaucracies that a shift towards an eco-social market economy is essential for sustainable growth. Nevertheless, market-based instruments have not as yet been implemented satisfactorily in environmental policy. To identify the reasons for this insufficient implementation over the past decade, the Public Choice theory is used. The players’ behavior is analyzed in order to show that their incentives for implementing market-based instruments in environmental policy, instead of command-and-control measures, are surprisingly weak. Knowing the obstacles to implementing market-based instruments provides valuable insight into how to overcome them.

  9. The Economics of Crime and Money Laundering: Does Anti-Money Laundering Policy Reduce Crime?

    OpenAIRE

    Ferwerda, J.

    2008-01-01

    Anti-money laundering policy has become a major issue in the Western world, especially in the United States after 9-11. Basically all countries in the world are more or less forced to cooperate in the global fight against money laundering. In this paper, the criminalization of money laundering is modelled, assuming rational behaviour of criminals, following the law and economics strand of the literature which is described as the economics of crime. The theoretical model shows that a) the prob...

  10. Does Integrated Water Resources Management Support Institutional Change? The Case of Water Policy Reform in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itay Fischhendler

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Many international efforts have been made to encourage integrated water resources management through recommendations from both the academic and the aid and development sectors. Recently, it has been argued that integrated water resources management can help foster better adaptation of management and policy responses to emerging water crises. Nevertheless, few empirical studies have assessed how this type of management works in practice and what an integrated water management system implies for institutional adaptation and change. Our assessment of the Israeli water sector provides one view of how they can be shaped by an integrated structure in the water sector. Our analysis of recent efforts to adapt Israel's water management system to new conditions and uncertainties reveals that the interconnectedness of the system and the consensus decision-making process, led by a dominant actor who coordinates and sets the policy agenda, tends to increase the complexity of negotiations. In addition, the physical integration of water management leads to sunk costs of large-scale physical infrastructure. Both these factors create a path dependency that empowers players who receive benefits from maintaining the existing system. This impedes institutional reform of the water management system and suggests that integrated water resources management creates policy and management continuity that may only be amenable to incremental changes. In contrast, real adaptation that requires reversibility and the ability to change management strategies in response to new information or monitoring of specific management outcomes.

  11. A Study of Heavy Metal Pollution in China: Current Status, Pollution-Control Policies and Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Hu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past 30 years, China’s economy has experienced rapid development, which led to a vast increase in energy consumption and serious environmental pollution. Among the different types of pollution, heavy metal pollution has become one of the major environmental issues in China. A number of studies show that high level of heavy metal exposure is a frequent cause of permanent intellectual and developmental disabilities. In recent years, some traditional pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide, have been put under control in China. However, heavy metal pollution, which poses even greater risks to public health and sustainable development, has yet to gain policymakers’ attention. The purpose of this paper is to explore effective countermeasures for heavy metal pollution in China. The present study reviews the current status of China’s heavy metal pollution and analyzes related public policies and countermeasures against that pollution. It also presents a few recommendations and measures for prevention of heavy metal pollution.

  12. NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq): current status, new features and genome annotation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Kim D; Tatusova, Tatiana; Brown, Garth R; Maglott, Donna R

    2012-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Reference Sequence (RefSeq) database is a collection of genomic, transcript and protein sequence records. These records are selected and curated from public sequence archives and represent a significant reduction in redundancy compared to the volume of data archived by the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration. The database includes over 16,00 organisms, 2.4 × 0(6) genomic records, 13 × 10(6) proteins and 2 × 10(6) RNA records spanning prokaryotes, eukaryotes and viruses (RefSeq release 49, September 2011). The RefSeq database is maintained by a combined approach of automated analyses, collaboration and manual curation to generate an up-to-date representation of the sequence, its features, names and cross-links to related sources of information. We report here on recent growth, the status of curating the human RefSeq data set, more extensive feature annotation and current policy for eukaryotic genome annotation via the NCBI annotation pipeline. More information about the resource is available online (see http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/RefSeq/).

  13. Policy, economic, and industry repercussions of current e-business diffusion rate In European food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Vlachos, Ilias

    2005-01-01

    European policy is focussed on promoting the business techniques and new ways of working which will provide the economic and social foundation of the information society in Europe. To help policy makers define their programmes, and to monitor the effectiveness of these policies, it is essential to examine progress as well as identify areas requiring active support. This study examined the repercussions of e-business progress in the food sector based on the findings of a large quantitative sur...

  14. Does Reference Pricing Drive Out Generic Competition in Pharmaceutical Markets? Evidence from a Policy Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt R. Brekke; Canta, Chiara; Straume, Odd Rune

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study the impact of reference pricing (RP) on entry of generic firms in the pharmaceutical market. For given prices, RP increases generic firms' expected profit, but since RP also stimulates price competition, the impact on generic entry is theoretically ambiguous. In order to empirically test the effects of RP, we exploit a policy reform in Norway in 2005 that exposed a subset of drugs to RP. Having detailed product-level data for a wide set of substances from 2003 to 2013,...

  15. Report on Current Praxis of Policies and Activities Supporting Societal Engagement in Research and Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhn, Rainer; Mbungu, Grace; Anderson, Edward; Chonkova, Blagovesta; Damianova, Zoya; Davis, Houda; Dencker, Siri; Jørgensen, Marie-Louise; Kozarev, Ventseslav; Larsen, Gy; Mulder, Henk; Pfersdorf, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the “Engage2020 Project” 1 is to promote the use of engagement methods and policies that support societal engagement in research and innovation by mapping what is practiced and spreading awareness of the opportunities amongst researchers, policy makers, and other interested parties. The

  16. Report on Current Praxis of Policies and Activities Supporting Societal Engagement in Research and Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhn, Rainer; Mbungu, Grace; Anderson, Edward; Chonkova, Blagovesta; Damianova, Zoya; Davis, Houda; Dencker, Siri; Jørgensen, Marie-Louise; Kozarev, Ventseslav; Larsen, Gy; Mulder, Henk; Pfersdorf, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the “Engage2020 Project” 1 is to promote the use of engagement methods and policies that support societal engagement in research and innovation by mapping what is practiced and spreading awareness of the opportunities amongst researchers, policy makers, and other interested parties. The p

  17. The National Bank of Romania monetary policy characteristics in addition to the current financial crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Sambotin; Andreea Bucur

    2012-01-01

    Considering the starting point for research the Central Bank key role in economic life, through the implementation of the monetary policy, by exercising prudential control and supervision of commercial banks, the present paper proposes an analysis of the National Bank of Romania monetary policy coordinates in the frame of the increased intensification harsh effects of the global economic crisis.

  18. Expert involvement in policy development: A systematic review of current practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.; Wentholt, M.T.A.; Rowe, E.J.; Frewer, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    In what ways are experts involved in policy development, and with what results? This paper attempts to answer these questions through a structured review of the academic literature, focusing on the identification of ‘methodologies’ of expert involvement, and on analying the subsequent policy impact

  19. Women's Views about Gender Equality on the Current Social Policy in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztop, Hülya; Finkel, Müge

    2015-01-01

    Women's equal participation in all aspects of social, political and economic life is an essential requirement for sustainable development and democratic governance. How to engage women in these different spheres of policy, increase their access to information and ensure their participation in policy debates are therefore among the key questions…

  20. The National Bank of Romania monetary policy characteristics in addition to the current financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Sambotin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the starting point for research the Central Bank key role in economic life, through the implementation of the monetary policy, by exercising prudential control and supervision of commercial banks, the present paper proposes an analysis of the National Bank of Romania monetary policy coordinates in the frame of the increased intensification harsh effects of the global economic crisis.

  1. Current information gaps in micronutrient research, programs and policy: how can we fill them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micronutrient (MN) interventions have a very positive effect on public health and have been a major focus of nutrition research and policy for over 3 decades. Most MN policies are established by the World Health Organization based on available evidence from well-designed trials. These include recomm...

  2. Current practices and future opportunities for policy on climate change and invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Christopher R; Thomas, Roxanne; Porter, Read D; Hellmann, Jessica J; Dukes, Jeffrey S; Lodge, David M; Chavarria, Gabriela

    2008-06-01

    Climate change and invasive species are often treated as important, but independent, issues. Nevertheless, they have strong connections: changes in climate and societal responses to climate change may exacerbate the impacts of invasive species, whereas invasive species may affect the magnitude, rate, and impact of climate change. We argue that the design and implementation of climate-change policy in the United States should specifically consider the implications for invasive species; conversely, invasive-species policy should address consequences for climate change. The development of such policies should be based on (1) characterization of interactions between invasive species and climate change, (2) identification of areas where climate-change policies could negatively affect invasive-species management, and (3) identification of areas where policies could benefit from synergies between climate change and invasive-species management.

  3. To what extent does recurrent government health expenditure in Uganda reflect its policy priorities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabyonga-Orem Juliet

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Health Policy 2000 - 2009 and Health sector strategic plans I & II emphasized that Primary Health Care (PHC would be the main strategy for national development and would be operationalized through provision of the minimum health care package. Commitment was to spend an increasing proportion of the health budget for the provision of the basic minimum package of health services which was interpreted to mean increasing spending at health centre level. This analysis was undertaken to gain a better understanding of changes in the way recurrent funding is allocated in the health sector in Uganda and to what extent it has been in line with agreed policy priorities. Methods Government recurrent wage and non-wage expenditures - based on annual releases by the Uganda Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development were compiled for the period 1997/1998 to financial year 2007/2008. Additional data was obtained from a series of Ministry of Health annual health sector reports as well as other reports. Data was verified by key government officials in Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development and Ministry of Health. Analysis of expenditures was done at sector level, by the different levels in the health care system and the different levels of care. Results There was a pronounced increase in the amount of funds released for recurrent expenditure over the review period fueled mainly by increases in the wage component. PHC services showed the greatest increase, increasing more than 70 times in ten years. At hospital level, expenditures remained fairly constant for the last 10 years with a slight reduction in the wage component. Conclusion The policy aspiration of increasing spending on PHC was attained but key aspects that would facilitate its realization were not addressed. At any given level of funding for the health sector, there is need to work out an optimal balance in investment in the different inputs to

  4. Benefit-cost analysis of DOE's Current Federal Program to increase hydrothermal resource utilization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-10

    The impact of DOE's Current Federal Program on the commercialization of hydrothermal resources between 1980 and 2000 is analyzed. The hydrothermal resources of the United States and the types of DOE activities used to stimulate the development of these resources for both electric power and direct heat use are described briefly. The No Federal Program and the Current Federal Program are then described in terms of funding levels and the resultant market penetration estimates through 2000. These market penetration estimates are also compared to other geothermal utilization forecasts. The direct benefits of the Current Federal Program are next presented for electric power and direct heat use applications. An analysis of the external impacts associated with the additional hydrothermal resource development resulting from the Current Federal Program is also provided. Included are environmental effects, national security/balance-of-payments improvements, socioeconomic impacts and materials requirements. A summary of the analysis integrating the direct benefits, external impacts and DOE program costs concludes the report.

  5. How Does Environmental Regulation Affect Industrial Transformation? A Study Based on the Methodology of Policy Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The difference of factor input structure determines different response to environmental regulation. This paper constructs a theoretical model including environmental regulation, factor input structure, and industrial transformation and conducts a policy simulation based on the difference of influencing mechanism of environmental regulation considering industrial heterogeneity. The findings show that the impact of environmental regulation on industrial transformation presents comparison of distortion effect of resource allocation and technology effect. Environmental regulation will promote industrial transformation when technology effect of environmental regulation is stronger than distortion effect of resource allocation. Particularly, command-control environmental regulation has a significant incentive effect and spillover effect of technological innovation on cleaning industries, but these effects do not exist in pollution-intensive industries. Command-control environmental regulation promotes industrial transformation. The result of simulation showed that environmental regulation of market incentives is similar to that of command-control.

  6. The Boardroom Perspective: How Does Energy Efficiency Policy Influence Decision Making in Industry?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report delves into the major factors or driving forces that decision makers within a large industrial company take into account when deciding to make new investments - the so-called {sup b}oardroom perspective{sup .} The rationale for an individual company making an investment that will reduce energy consumption varies considerably and depends on a range of factors. This report explores those factors that influence companies to invest in energy savings and proposes a methodology to evaluate the effectiveness of a country's energy efficiency and greenhouse gas mitigation policies mix from this boardroom perspective. This paper is the product of collaboration between the IEA and the Institute of Industrial Productivity (IIP).

  7. The Legality of Japan’s Current Monetary Policy under International Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    John Riley

    2014-01-01

    In response to the 2008 global financial crisis, many of the world’s largest central banks initiated unconventional monetary policies such as quantitative easing when standard open market operations became ineffective...

  8. Monetary policy, financial intermediation, current account and housing market - how do they fit together?

    OpenAIRE

    Stanimira Milcheva

    2012-01-01

    We estimate the role of monetary policy, net capital inflow and credit supply shocks for house prices, residential investment and durable consumption. These fundamental shocks account for three leading hypotheses about the causes of the recent housing bubble in the US: loose monetary policy, a `global saving glut' and loose credit standards for mortgage borrowers. Shocks in credit standards are stemming from variations in the assets of security broker-dealers, as these channel the securitized...

  9. A public-policy practicum to address current issues in human, animal, and ecosystem health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, John A; Johnson, Yvette J; Troutt, H Fred; Prudhomme, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    There are recognized needs for cross-training health professionals in human, animal, and ecosystem health and for public health policy to be informed by experts from medical, science, and social science disciplines. Faculty members of the Community Health and Preventive Medicine Section at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, College of Veterinary Medicine, and the Institute of Government and Public Affairs, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, have offered a public-policy course designed to meet those needs. The course was designed as a practicum to teach students the policy-making process through the development of policy proposals and to instruct students on how to effectively present accurate scientific, demographic, and statistical information to policy makers and to the public. All students substantially met the learning objectives of the course. This course represents another model that can be implemented to help students learn about complex, multifactorial issues that affect the health of humans, animals, and ecosystems, while promoting participation in public health policy development.

  10. External Shocks and Monetary Policy. Does it Pay to Respond to Exchange Rate Deviations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Caputo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence suggesting that central banks in open economies react to exchange rate fluctuations, in addition to expected inflation and output. In some developing countries this reaction is comparatively larger and it is nonlinear. In an estimated structural macromodel for Chile, this paper assesses the advantages and potential costs of adopting such a reaction function. We conclude that, in the face of most of the external shocks, a policy rule that responds to exchange rate misalignments smooths inflation and output variability, while marginally increasing interest rate fluctuations. On the other hand, for some domestic innovations such a rule performs poorly. When all the shocks are considered at the same time, this rule generates important welfare gains. Finally, when the volatility of external shocks rises, increasing the response to exchange rate misalignments brings welfare improvements. In fact, a more aggressive response to the exchange rate offsets the impact that greater external volatility has on output and inflation, at the cost of inducing higher interest rate fluctuations. In this way, one can interpret the nonlinear reaction to the exchange rate as an optimal response to a more volatile external environment.

  11. Current salt reduction policies across gradients of inequality-adjusted human development in the WHO European region: minding the gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, Rodrigo; Siopa, Margarida; Simpson, Sarah J; Amiya, Rachel M; Breda, Joao; Cappuccio, Francesco P

    2014-08-01

    To assess current salt reduction policies in countries of the WHO European Region against the backdrop of varying levels of human development adjusted for income, education and health (longevity) inequalities. Population-based, cross-sectional study, with data gathered through systematic review of relevant databases and supplementary information provided by WHO Nutrition Counterparts. Member States of the WHO European Region. Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index scores were analysed against assessed levels of development and implementation of national nutrition policies and initiatives targeting population-level salt reduction. Within the WHO European Region, Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index values among countries with no existing salt reduction initiatives (mean 0·643 (se 0·022)) were significantly lower than among those with either partially implemented/planned salt initiatives (mean 0·766 (se 0·017), P < 0·001) or fully implemented salt initiatives (mean 0·780 (se 0·021), P < 0·001). Where salt reduction strategies are implemented as an integral part of national policy, outcomes have been promising. However, low- and middle-income countries may face severe resource constraints that keep them from emulating more comprehensive strategies pursued in high-income countries. Care must be taken to ensure that gaps are not inadvertently widened by monitoring differential policy impacts of salt policies, particularly regarding trade flows.

  12. Integrated primary health care in Greece, a missing issue in the current health policy agenda: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Lionis

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past years, Greece has undergone several endeavors aimed at modernizing and improving national health care services with a focus on PHC. However, the extent to which integrated primary health care has been achieved is still questioned. Purpose: This paper explores the extent to which integrated primary health care (PHC is an issue in the current agenda of policy makers in Greece, reporting constraints and opportunities and highlighting the need for a policy perspective in developing integrated PHC in this Southern European country. Methods: A systematic review in PubMed/Medline and SCOPUS, along with a hand search in selected Greek biomedical journals was undertaken to identify key papers, reports, editorials or opinion letters relevant to integrated health care. Results: Our systematic review identified 198 papers and 161 out of them were derived from electronic search. Fifty-three papers in total served the scope of this review and are shortly reported. A key finding is that the long-standing dominance of medical perspectives in Greek health policy has been paving the way towards vertical integration, pushing aside any discussions about horizontal or comprehensive integration of care. Conclusion: Establishment of integrated PHC in Greece is still at its infancy, requiring major restructuring of the current national health system, as well as organizational culture changes. Moving towards a new policy-based model would bring this missing issue on the discussion table, facilitating further development.

  13. The global momentum for smokefree public places: best practice in current and forthcoming smokefree policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BA G Griffith

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Global Smokefree Partnership has recently prepared a map of smokefree campaigns and policies around the world. It focuses primarily on countries that are parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, but other countries were included. The smokefree status of 172 countries was mapped. Of these countries, 31 (18.0% have established comprehensive smokefree policies, either nationally or at state or city level - best practice; 25 (14.6% are planning to implement smokefree policies in 2008 or 2009; and 51(29.6% are making significant progress with smokefree policies. Only 65 countries (37.8% have limited or no smokefree polices. A selection of countries representing best practices in smokefree policies or planning to implement smokefree policies in 2008 or 2009 is highlighted. They illustrate the significant global momentum for smokefree policies, the success of established policies, the importance of civil society and the sharing of experience between countries.El Global Smokefree Partnership recién completó un mapa de las campañas para promover políticas de ambientes libres de humo (ALH a nivel mundial. El mapa se centra en los países Partes al Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco de la OMS, aunque otros países también se incluyen, y documenta el estatus de 172 países en el tema de los ALH. De estos países, 31 (18.0% tienen políticas comprehensivas de ALH, a nivel nacional, provincial, y/o estatal - mejores prácticas; 25 (14.6% prevén la implementación de políticas de ALH en 2008 o 2009; y 51 (29.6% han progresado significativamente con estas políticas. Sólo 65 países (37.8% no tienen políticas de ALH, o sólo políticas limitadas en este ámbito. Este ensayo destaca una selección de países que representan las mejores prácticas en las políticas de ALH o que prevén la implementación de estas políticas en 2008 o 2009, con tal de ilustrar el movimiento global hacia los ambientes libres de humo; el

  14. Processes of local alcohol policy-making in England: Does the theory of policy transfer provide useful insights into public health decision-making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavens, Lucy; Holmes, John; Buykx, Penny; de Vocht, Frank; Egan, Matt; Grace, Daniel; Lock, Karen; Mooney, John D; Brennan, Alan

    2017-06-13

    Recent years have seen a rise in new and innovative policies to reduce alcohol consumption and related harm in England, which can be implemented by local, as opposed to national, policy-makers. The aim of this paper is to explore the processes that underpin the adoption of these alcohol policies within local authorities. In particular, it aims to assess whether the concept of policy transfer (i.e. a process through which knowledge about policies in one place is used in the development of policies in another time or place) provides a useful model for understanding local alcohol policy-making. Qualitative data generated through in-depth interviews and focus groups from five case study sites across England were used to explore stakeholder experiences of alcohol policy transfer between local authorities. The purposive sample of policy actors included representatives from the police, trading standards, public health, licensing, and commissioning. Thematic analysis was used inductively to identify key features in the data. Themes from the policy transfer literature identified in the data were: policy copying, emulating, hybridization, and inspiration. Participants described a multitude of ways in which learning was shared between places, ranging from formal academic evaluation to opportunistic conversations in informal settings. Participants also described facilitators and constraints to policy transfer, such as the historical policy context and the local cultural, economic, and bureaucratic context, which influenced whether or not a policy that was perceived to work in one place might be transferred successfully to another context. Theories of policy transfer provide a promising framework for characterising processes of local alcohol policy-making in England, extending beyond debates regarding evidence-informed policy to account for a much wider range of considerations. Applying a policy transfer lens enables us to move beyond simple (but still important) questions of

  15. Information Infrastructure Development Recommendations through Analysis of Current Information Technology Infrastructure, Plans and Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    information society , and the military influence on information and communication technologies development; a review of the policy, objectives, concepts and methods, and the resources outlined in the Information Technology Management Strategic Plan, the Defense Information Infrastructure Master Plan, and the Global and National Information Infrastructure

  16. The Medicalization of Current Educational Research and Its Effects on Education Policy and School Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tröhler, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper starts from the assumption of the emergence of an educationalized culture over the last 200 years according to which perceived social problems are translated into educational challenges. As a result, both educational institutions and educational research grew, and educational policy resulted from negotiations between professionals,…

  17. Recruiting Youth in the College Market: Current Practices and Future Policy Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, M. Rebecca, Ed.; Asch, Beth J., Ed.

    This publication explores the enlistment potential of college-market youth by examining the characteristics of the college-market population and the implications of these characteristics for designing effective recruiting policies. Chapter 1, "Introduction: Trends and Theoretical Considerations" (M. Rebecca Kilburn, Beth J. Asch),…

  18. Plastic debris and policy: Using current scientific understanding to invoke positive change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rochman, Chelsea M.; Cook, A.M.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Captain Charles Moore introduced the world to the "Great Pacific Garbage Patch" in the mid-1990s. Since then, there has been increasing interest from scientists, the public and policy makers regarding plastic debris in the environment. A focus article in the July issue of the Society of

  19. Valuation of Drug Abuse: A Review of Current Methodologies and Implications for Policy Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schori, Maayan

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the use of several valuation methods as they relate to drug abuse and places them within the context of U.S. policy. First, cost-of-illness (COI) studies are reviewed and their limitations discussed. Second, three additional economic methods of valuing drug abuse are reviewed, including cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA),…

  20. Valuation of Drug Abuse: A Review of Current Methodologies and Implications for Policy Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schori, Maayan

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the use of several valuation methods as they relate to drug abuse and places them within the context of U.S. policy. First, cost-of-illness (COI) studies are reviewed and their limitations discussed. Second, three additional economic methods of valuing drug abuse are reviewed, including cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA),…

  1. Policies for patient access to clinical data via PHRs: current state and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sarah A; Vawdrey, David K; Kukafka, Rita; Kuperman, Gilad J

    2011-12-01

    Healthcare delivery organizations are increasingly using online personal health records (PHRs) to provide patients with direct access to their clinical information; however, there may be a lack of consistency in the data made available. We aimed to understand the general use and functionality of PHRs and the organizational policies and decision-making structures for making data available to patients. A cross-sectional survey was administered by telephone structured interview to 21 organizations to determine the types of data made available to patients through PHRs and the presence of explicit governance for PHR data release. Organizations were identified based on a review of the literature, PHR experts, and snowball sampling. Organizations that did not provide patients with electronic access to their data via a PHR were excluded. Interviews were conducted with 17 organizations for a response rate of 81%. Half of the organizations had explicit governance in the form of a written policy that outlined the data types made available to patients. Overall, 88% of the organizations used a committee structure for the decision-making process and included senior management and information services. All organizations sought input from clinicians. Discussion There was considerable variability in the types of clinical data and the time frame for releasing these data to patients. Variability in data release policies may have implications for PHR use and adoption. Future policy activities, such as requirement specification for the latter stages of Meaningful Use, should be leveraged as an opportunity to encourage standardization of functionality and broad deployment of PHRs.

  2. Student Loan Debt and Economic Outcomes. Current Policy Perspective No. 14-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Daniel; Wang, J. Christina

    2014-01-01

    This policy brief advances the growing literature on how student loan debt affects individuals' other economic decisions. Specifically, it examines the impact of student loan liabilities on individuals' homeownership status and wealth accumulation. The analysis employs a rich set of financial and demographic control variables that are not…

  3. Learning Disabilities: Current Policy and Directions for Community Involvement among the Arab Community in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabareen-Taha, Samaher; Taha, Haitham

    2016-01-01

    This article seeks to identify and review the basic characteristics of learning disability which are specifically mentioned in the literature. In addition, the article intends to conduct a brief analysis on learning disability policy in Israel and the differentiation problems at the level of awareness among the Arab society in Israel. Despite the…

  4. Extended Deterrence: Taking Stock of Current Policy and Updating the Research and PME Agendas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    economic policy and leadership in global governance has diminished. The BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China) are now challenging US...Monetary Fund has given the BRICs incentives to establish parallel institutions. The United States must find ways to maneuver more effectively in an

  5. Evaluation of Current Computer Models Applied in the DOE Complex for SAR Analysis of Radiological Dispersion & Consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Kula, K. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); East, J. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Weber, A. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Savino, A. V. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Mazzola, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The evaluation of atmospheric dispersion/ radiological dose analysis codes included fifteen models identified in authorization basis safety analysis at DOE facilities, or from regulatory and research agencies where past or current work warranted inclusion of a computer model. All computer codes examined were reviewed using general and specific evaluation criteria developed by the Working Group. The criteria were based on DOE Orders and other regulatory standards and guidance for performing bounding and conservative dose calculations. Included were three categories of criteria: (1) Software Quality/User Interface; (2) Technical Model Adequacy; and (3) Application/Source Term Environment. A consensus-based limited quantitative ranking process was used to base an order of model preference as both an overall conclusion, and under specific conditions.

  6. Global health equity in United Kingdom university research: a landscape of current policies and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotham, Dzintars; Meldrum, Jonathan; Nageshwaran, Vaitehi; Counts, Christopher; Kumari, Nina; Martin, Manuel; Beattie, Ben; Post, Nathan

    2016-10-10

    Universities are significant contributors to research and technologies in health; however, the health needs of the world's poor are historically neglected in research. Medical discoveries are frequently licensed exclusively to one producer, allowing a monopoly and inequitable pricing. Similarly, research is often published in ways that make it inaccessible. Universities can adopt policies and practices to overcome neglect and ensure equitable access to research and its products. For 25 United Kingdom universities, data on health research funding were extracted from the top five United Kingdom funders' databases and coded as research on neglected diseases (NDs) and/or health in low- and lower-middle-income countries (hLLMIC). Data on intellectual property licensing policies and practices and open-access policies were obtained from publicly available sources and by direct contact with universities. Proportions of research articles published as open-access were extracted from PubMed and PubMed Central. Across United Kingdom universities, the median proportion of 2011-2014 health research funds attributable to ND research was 2.6% and for hLLMIC it was 1.7%. Overall, 79% of all ND funding and 74% of hLLMIC funding were granted to the top four institutions within each category. Seven institutions had policies to ensure that technologies developed from their research are affordable globally. Mostly, universities licensed their inventions to third parties in a way that confers monopoly rights. Fifteen institutions had an institutional open-access publishing policy; three had an institutional open-access publishing fund. The proportion of health-related articles with full-text versions freely available online ranged from 58% to 100% across universities (2012-2013); 23% of articles also had a creative commons CC-BY license. There is wide variation in the amount of global health research undertaken by United Kingdom universities, with a large proportion of total research

  7. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Does Not Facilitate Dynamic Balance Task Learning in Healthy Old Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminski, Elisabeth; Hoff, Maike; Rjosk, Viola; Steele, Christopher J.; Gundlach, Christopher; Sehm, Bernhard; Villringer, Arno; Ragert, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Older adults frequently experience a decrease in balance control that leads to increased numbers of falls, injuries and hospitalization. Therefore, evaluating older adults’ ability to maintain balance and examining new approaches to counteract age-related decline in balance control is of great importance for fall prevention and healthy aging. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have been shown to beneficially influence motor behavio...

  8. A Content Analysis of Television Ads: Does Current Practice Maximize Cognitive Processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-11

    chocolate candy (see Appendix D). The current study also included diet, low fat, and lean varieties of the products just listed as they are likely to...PCT condition (e.g., an ad for a loved brand of chocolate that employed sexual imagery) would demand more processing resources than messages using...M. A. (1986). Analogies , visualization, and mental processing of science stories. In M. L. McLaughlin (Ed.), Communication Yearbook, 9, (pp. 339

  9. Does Funding for Arctic Research Align with Research Priorities and Policy Needs? Trends in the USA, Canada and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, M. S.; Ibarguchi, G.; Rajdev, V.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past twenty years, increasing awareness and understanding of changes in the Arctic system, the stated desires of Arctic Peoples to be engaged in the research process, and a growing international interest in the region's resources have informed various stakeholders to undertake many Arctic science planning activities. Some examples of science planning include priority-setting for research, knowledge translation, stakeholder engagement, improved coordination, and international collaboration. The International Study of Arctic Change recently initiated an analysis of the extent to which alignment exists among stated science priorities, recognized societal needs, and funding patterns of the major North American and European agencies. In this paper, we present a decade of data on international funding patterns and data on two decades of science planning. We discuss whether funding patterns reflect the priority research questions and identified needs for information that are articulated in a myriad of Arctic research planning documents. The alignment in many areas remains poor, bringing into question the purpose of large-scale science planning if it does not lead to funding of those priorities identified by Arctic stakeholder communities (scientists, Arctic Peoples, planners, policy makers, the private sector, and others).

  10. APA guidelines: their importance and a plan to keep them current: 2013 annual report of the Policy and Planning Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    When guidelines are approved by APA, they become association policy, and it is imperative that they remain current. The revision of guidelines poses several challenges to the association. These challenges range from the availability and allocation of resources to support the complicated processes involved in developing and updating these policies to the lack of a clearly defined process that includes identification of tasks, assignments of responsibilities, and so forth. For this reason, the APA Board of Directors asked the Policy and Planning Board (P&P) to work with the boards of the four directorates (i.e., the Education Directorate, the Practice Directorate, the Public Interest Directorate, and the Science Directorate) to create a proposal that would (a) make recommendations with regard to how the review and revision of guidelines documents might best be accomplished in accordance with the APA Strategic Plan and existing policies and procedures and (b) make suggestions regarding the association resources that might be required. The Board of Directors approved the proposed review process in December 2013. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  11. Haiti: Developments and U.S. Policy Since 1991 and Current Congressional Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-30

    Narcotics Control Strategy Report (INCSR), which maintained that Haiti is a major transit country for cocaine from South America because of its weak... football game in August.42 Haiti’s Chief of Police, Mario Andresol, announced a policy of “zero tolerance” for police involvement in criminal...with arms from those shipped and held since 2005. Narcotics Trafficking Haiti is a “key conduit” for cocaine being transported from South America to the

  12. U.S.-Vietnam Relations in 2011: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    a policy of neutrality on the claims by the parties, which also include Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia , the Philippines, and Taiwan. Throughout 2009...territorial disputes. Roughly one and a half times the size of the Mediterranean Sea, it is ringed by China, Vietnam, Malaysia , Indonesia, Brunei...government to monitor data processed by these companies and/or more susceptible to government pressure on issues such as censorship .36 Many of the

  13. The Institutionalization of Universal Health Policy in Costa Rica and Current Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the role of the Ministry of Health in Costa Rican public policy. Methods: The analysis is a case study comparing two periods (1950 - 1990 and 1990 - 2010) using qualitative data collection instruments, including review of literature and institutional documents as well as in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, all with data triangulation. Results: The analysis found important differences between two periods: before the 1990s,consecutive governments were strongly...

  14. The Institutionalization of Universal Health Policy in Costa Rica and Current Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Jorine Muiser

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the role of the Ministry of Health in Costa Rican public policy. Methods: The analysis is a case study comparing two periods (1950 - 1990 and 1990 - 2010) using qualitative data collection instruments, including review of literature and institutional documents as well as in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, all with data triangulation. Results: The analysis found important differences between two periods: before the 1990s,consecutive governments were strongly...

  15. The Evolving Arctic: Current State of U.S. Arctic Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    obvious that improvements need to be made to guard U.S. interests While the U.S. procrastinates in taking its rightful place in the Arctic, Russia...foreign policy priority.87 1. Exercising Arctic Sovereignty As an Arctic nation, Canada firmly understands the importance of ensuring and...domain awareness in the region.88 In May 2010, Canadian and Danish military leaders signed a memorandum of understanding on Arctic defense, security

  16. Bioenergy market competition for biomass: A system dynamics review of current policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Robert Jeffers

    2013-07-01

    There is growing interest in the United States and abroad to increase the use of biomass as an energy source due to environmental and energy security benefits. In the United States, the biofuel and biopower industries are regulated by different policies and different agencies and have different drivers, which impact the maximum price the industries are willing to pay for biomass. This article describes a dynamic computer simulation model that analyzes future behavior of bioenergy feedstock markets based on varying policy and technical options. The model simulates the long-term dynamics of these markets by treating advanced biomass feedstocks as a commodity and projecting the total demand of each industry, as well as the market price over time. The model is used for an analysis of the United States bioenergy feedstock market that projects supply, demand, and market price given three independent buyers: domestic biopower, domestic biofuels, and foreign exports. With base-case assumptions, the biofuels industry is able to dominate the market and meet the federal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) targets for advanced biofuels. Further analyses suggest that United States bioenergy studies should include estimates of export demand for biomass in their projections, and that GHG-limiting policy would partially shield both industries from export dominance.

  17. HOW IS CURRENT PHARMACEUTICALS PRICING POLICY ON GENERICS PERFORMING IN TURKEY REGARDING PRICE EROSION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir GÜRSOY

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Generics are commonly accepted to contribute significantly to treating disease by improving the affordability of pharmaceuticals. Once the patent expires for an originator brand, generics erode prices through creating fierce competition. The objective of this study is to investigate on Turkish pharmaceutical policies over generics through measuring how much they lower the prices, and then develop alternative strategies to maintain higher level of price reduction, and hence saving. Claims data from Turkish Social Security Institution (SSI for all ambulatory care drugs reimbursed were collected monthly in the period of January 2009 to December 2013 and for selected 12 equivalent groups price erosion and saving impacts due to generic entry be computed. Moreover, the price erosion for 15 generics entering the reimbursement list in 2012 as first generics was measured. For 12 equivalent groups constituting nearly 7% of SSI drug spending, the price erosion was nearly 41% ranging from 8% to 74%. In the first year of the first generic entry, on average the prices were only shrank by 39% with an increase of 41% in units sold. As a result of those analyses, it is concluded that Turkey is not maximizing its full potential with respect to generic medicines. Therefore, it is of great importance that policies such as therapeutic equivalence, tendering, and aggressive generic pricing policy to stimulate higher savings need to be introduced in the near future.

  18. The Current Evolution of Slavic Languages in Central and Eastern Europe in the Context of the EU Multilingualism Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Paweł Sosnowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Current Evolution of Slavic Languages in Central and Eastern Europe in the Context of the EU Multilingualism Policy The respect for and protection of cultural and linguistic diversity have long been guaranteed in various international and European legislative acts. More recently, the European Union has also developed laws aimed at the preservation and promotion of multilingualism. Linguistic diversity has long been seen as an obstacle to the effective functioning of EU institutions. Recently, however, it has been considered as a valuable “heritage” of the EU. In our article, we will present a brief overview of policies promoting multilingualism in Europe, and more specifically, in the EU. Subsequently, we will compare this framework to the changes occurring presently in modern Slavic languages of Central and Eastern Europe. The tendency of these languages towards increased analitism transforms these predominantly synthetic languages into more analytical ones. These conclusions have led us to the following question: What is the current state of modern Slavic languages and how far may their evolution be addressed by policies promoting multilingualism? Our analysis consists of two parts: first, we scrutinised various European legislative acts promoting multilingualism; second, we analysed modern Slavic languages by means of the parallel corpora of chosen languages from the Common Language Resources and Technology Infrastructure project (including UNESCO and EU legislation, etc..

  19. Does the South Atlantic Anomaly influence the ionospheric Sq current system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Stephan; Kuvshinov, Alexey

    2014-05-01

    We study if and how the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) influences the ionospheric Sq current system. In order to counterbalance the northern hemisphere observatory dominance, we exploit the data for the time span (from November 1989 till December 1990) when the global geomagnetic observatory network was augmented by the AWAGS (Australia Wide Array of Geomagnetic Stations) network. The AWAGS network comprised 53 observation sites that were regularly distributed over the Australian mainland and equipped with portable vector magnetometers. The data from 49 geomagnetically quiet days are processed and the Sq foci tracks are analyzed. The computed tracks result in pronounced bands in the northern and southern hemisphere, which seems to neither follow the geographic nor the geomagnetic or dip equator. We interpret this observation as the Sq foci tracks are controlled by an interplay of the Earth-Sun constellation (which causes the seasonal variations of Sq) and the Earth's main magnetic field. Remarkably, we observe a distinct scattering of the tracks over the SAA. This systematic scattering is due to a larger shift of the southern hemisphere focus northwards during northern summer solstice and southwards during the southern summer solstice. Our explanation of this behavour is that if the main magnetic field is weak, which is the case for the SAA, the Earth-Sun constellation becomes the dominating factor leading to a larger sensitivity of Sq current system on seasonal variations in South Atlantic Anomaly region.

  20. Prostate-specific antigen: does the current evidence support its use in prostate cancer screening?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Although widely used, the value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in screening asymptomatic men for prostate cancer is controversial. Reasons for the controversy relate to PSA being less than an ideal marker in detecting early prostate cancer, the possibility that screening for prostate cancer may result in the overdetection and thus overtreatment of indolent disease and the lack of clarity as to the definitive or best treatment for men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer. Although the results from some randomized prospective trials suggest that screening with PSA reduces mortality from prostate cancer, the overall benefit was modest. It is thus currently unclear as to whether the modest benefit of reduced mortality outweighs the harms of overdetection and overtreatment. Thus, prior to undergoing screening for prostate cancer, men should be informed of the risks and benefits of early detection. Newly emerging markers that may complement PSA in the early detection of prostate cancer include specific isoforms of PSA and PCA3.

  1. Management of third stage labour following vaginal birth in Iran: a survey of current policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Poorandokht; Medforth, Janet; Aarabi, Mohsen; Abedi, Parvin; Soltani, Hora

    2014-01-01

    this study was aimed to provide information on policies for the practice of managing the third stage of labour in Iran, including discussion of related systematic evidence. this survey used a standard questionnaire to obtain information about prevention and early treatment of postpartum haemorrhage from all geographical areas in Iran, in 2010. the survey included maternity units from 23 provinces, covering 129 out of a total of 560 maternity units in Iran. at least one public hospital, one private hospital and one rural birth facility unit were included from each province. Questionnaires were completed by the unit's senior midwife with support from the unit's lead obstetrician. all the units who were approached responded to the study including 69 public hospitals, 32 private hospitals and 28 rural birth facility units. The rate of active management of the third stage of labour was 57 per cent, although answers to individual components of management indicated a higher rate for active interventions than expectant management. Ninety-four per cent of the responding centres indicated oxytocin administration, 71 per cent apply early cord clamping and 65 per cent apply controlled cord traction. A lack of standard definition for postpartum haemorrhage was reported in 18 per cent of units. a high rate of active management was reported in Iran with variation in its different components which is in line with the international findings. These policies were mainly congruent with the existing systematic evidence except for timing of cord clamping. there is a need for improvement in locally sensitive policy development, continuing education, establishing accurate auditing systems and ensuring access to facilities such as blood banks and products in rural units. Efforts to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity and investigations into their causes should be extended to factors beyond the third stage of labour care clinical components. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by

  2. The absorption of UE funds in the current context of the cohesion policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrescu, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Romania continues to be affected by the global recession. It has suffered a significant reduction in foreign investment since the start of the recession, as investors have moved away from emerging markets in search for security. Developing an appropriate, focused strategy for the allocation of EU funds is only the first, though perhaps the most important step in implementing the EU cohesion policy. The successful implementation of EU co-funded projects is contingent not only upon the effectiveness of these countries’ administrative systems, but also on the activity of the potential beneficiaries.

  3. [The health food product Noni--does marketing harmonize with the current status of research?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Rolf

    2008-03-13

    Norwegian cancer patients frequently use Noni. The objective of this study was to find out whether the way noni is marketed in Norway and the health claims made about the product harmonize with current scientific knowledge of its benefits/adverse effects. An overview of medical research on noni was obtained from three databases. Web sites for private persons and for companies that sell noni in Norway were examined. Books, pamphlets etc. from a company specializing in selling information material about noni, were also examined. 48 scientific articles were included in the study, but none of these were clinical studies of humans. Several pharmacological effects of noni have been shown in vitro and in animal models (e.g., increased survival for animals with cancer). Information material describes noni as a health-promoting product that patients with most diseases will benefit from. Noni is to a great extent sold by multi-level marketing, but is also commonly sold by health food stores. There is no scientific basis for claiming that patients will benefit from using noni for any diseases. The way this product is sold has several worrying aspects.

  4. Does the legacy of historical biogeography shape current invasiveness in pines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallien, Laure; Saladin, Bianca; Boucher, Florian C; Richardson, David M; Zimmermann, Niklaus E

    2016-02-01

    Why are some introduced species more successful at establishing and spreading than others? Until now, characteristics of extant species have been intensively investigated to answer this question. We propose to gain new insights on species invasiveness by exploring the long-term biogeographic and evolutionary history of lineages. We exemplify our approach using one of the best-studied invasive plant genera, Pinus. We notably estimated the historical biogeography of pines and the rates of trait evolution in pines. These estimates were analysed with regard to species invasiveness status. The results revealed that currently invasive species belong to lineages that were particularly successful at colonizing new regions in the past. We also showed that highly mobile lineages had faster rates of niche evolution, but that these rates are poor proxies for species adaptive potential in invaded regions (estimated by niche shift among native and invaded regions). In summary, working at the interface of ecology, historical biogeography and evolutionary history offers stimulating perspectives to improve our understanding of the drivers of invasion success.

  5. Does hemispheric lateralization inlfuence therapeutic effects of transcranial direct current stimulation?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Hyun Kwon; Kyung Woo Kang; Na Kyung Lee; Sung Min Son

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) polarity depending on lat-eralized function of task property in normal individuals performing visuomotor and simple repetitive tasks. Thirty healthy participants with no neurological disorders were recruited to participate in this study. Partici-pants were randomly allocated into active or control condition. For the active condition, tDCS intensity was 2 mA with stimulation applied for 15 minutes to the right hemisphere (tDCS condition). For the sham control, electrodes were placed in the same position, but the stimulator was turned off after 30 seconds (sham con-dition). The tapping and tracking task tests were performed before and after for both conditions. Univariate analysis revealed signiifcant difference only in the tracking task. For direct comparison of both tasks within each group, the tracking task had signiifcantly higher Z score than the tapping task in the tDCS group (P < 0.05). Thus, our study indicates that stimulation of the right hemisphere using tDCS can effectively improve visuomotor (tracking) task over simple repetitive (tapping) task.

  6. Biologic therapy with or without topical treatment in psoriasis: what does the current evidence say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, J Daniel; Delcambre, Macey Renault; Nguyen, Gloria; Sami, Naveed

    2014-10-01

    Biologic therapy represents a relatively new class of drugs which have revolutionized the treatment of psoriasis and are used with increasing frequency in order to control this chronic, systemic inflammatory disease. However, it is unclear what role there is for combination therapy of biologics with traditional topical agents. The purpose of this article is to assess the literature on the role of topical agents as adjuvants to biological treatments in the treatment of psoriasis and identify areas for further research. A MEDLINE search was performed in order to identify English-language publications from 1996 to 2014 examining combination biologic therapy with topical medications in the treatment of psoriasis. Data from these clinical studies are summarized and the outcomes are discussed. In general, the addition of adjuvant topical therapy to systemic biologic therapy allowed for a reduction in dosage and side effects of both agents, maintenance of initial response to biologics, treatment of recalcitrant lesions in partial responders, and potential acceleration of response to biologic therapies. The current data, though limited, suggest that using topical therapies as adjunct treatment to biologics is a well tolerated and effective means of controlling psoriasis and improving quality of life for patients. However, the treating physician should remain attentive to signs of adverse events and seek opportunities to reduce the dose or treatment frequency during chronic use.

  7. INDIA’S FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT: CURRENT STATUS, ISSUES AND POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Ranga

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Foreign Direct Investment (FDI as an important driver of growth. It is an important source of non debt financial resources for country for economic development. Besides it is a means of achieving technical know-how and employment generation of employment. However, many are of the view that FDI is a big threat to sovereignty of host and domestic business houses. Faster exploitation of natural resources for profit may deprive host from such resources in long run. Midst of debate on pros and cons of FDI, world economy has observed a phenomenal change in volume and pattern of FDI. There is clearly an intense global competition of FDI. India is not behind this global race of attracting foreign investment. India emerged as an attractive FDI destination in services but has failed to evolve a manufacturing hub which has greater economic benefit. FDI though one of the important sources of financing the economic development, but not is not a solution for poverty eradication, unemployment and other economic ills. India needs a massive investment to achieve the goals of vision 20-20. Policy makers need to ensure transparency and consistency in policy making along with comprehensive long term development strategy.

  8. African policy of Delhi and Indian community in Africa: current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Alexandrovich Usov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to a changing nature of India-Africa relations and a role of Indian Diaspora in Africa. Indian Diaspora in African countries for many years was regarded by the Indian government more as a stumbling block for development India-Africa relations than as a source of opportunities. New policy to Diaspora was elaborated in the very beginning of 2000s but it was Narendra Modi, Indian prime-minister from 2014, who started promoting Diaspora as one of the priority in his international agenda. Indian government initiated in October 2015 third India-Africa Forum-Summit which happened to be much larger event than two previous forum summits in 2008 and 2011. However energetic policy of N. Modi has not brought India-Africa relations to a new level yet. While planned visit of N. Modi to a number of African countries in July 2016 is seen as a step to achieve this goal, his meetings with representatives of Indian communities in these African countries could be regarded as a sign of a new approach to the Indian Diaspora as “Ambassadors of India”. That could bring some controversy as many South African Indians consider themselves only citizens of their country and no more. Besides, the Indian government should take all necessary measures to prevent racist attacks against Africans in India which greatly tarnish the Indian image in the eyes of Africans.

  9. Current Information Gaps in Micronutrient Research, Programs and Policy: How Can We Fill Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lindsay H

    2016-01-01

    Micronutrient (MN) interventions have a very positive effect on public health and have been a major focus of nutrition research and policy for over 3 decades. Most MN policies are established by the World Health Organization based on available evidence from well-designed trials. These include recommendations on iron + folic acid supplements for pregnancy, high-dose vitamin A supplementation for children folic acid fortification can be harmful in population groups with a high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency. The most effective dose of MNs has rarely been tested systematically. MN interventions alone are not very effective for improving the growth and development of young children. Newer methods for the analysis of MNs in breast milk are revealing low concentrations in many populations, so more information is needed on the effects of different interventions on milk nutrient content. We need to improve biomarkers of MN status and should measure multiple biological responses to MN interventions using modern nutritional science methods, including metabolomics, proteomics and epigenetics; these will reveal effects of MNs that are not yet fully appreciated.

  10. Medication management policy, practice and research in Australian residential aged care: Current and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluggett, Janet K; Ilomäki, Jenni; Seaman, Karla L; Corlis, Megan; Bell, J Simon

    2017-02-01

    Eight percent of Australians aged 65 years and over receive residential aged care each year. Residents are increasingly older, frailer and have complex care needs on entry to residential aged care. Up to 63% of Australian residents of aged care facilities take nine or more medications regularly. Together, these factors place residents at high risk of adverse drug events. This paper reviews medication-related policies, practices and research in Australian residential aged care. Complex processes underpin prescribing, supply and administration of medications in aged care facilities. A broad range of policies and resources are available to assist health professionals, aged care facilities and residents to optimise medication management. These include national guiding principles, a standardised national medication chart, clinical medication reviews and facility accreditation standards. Recent Australian interventions have improved medication use in residential aged care facilities. Generating evidence for prescribing and deprescribing that is specific to residential aged care, health workforce reform, medication-related quality indicators and inter-professional education in aged care are important steps toward optimising medication use in this setting.

  11. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Does Not Facilitate Dynamic Balance Task Learning in Healthy Old Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Elisabeth; Hoff, Maike; Rjosk, Viola; Steele, Christopher J.; Gundlach, Christopher; Sehm, Bernhard; Villringer, Arno; Ragert, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Older adults frequently experience a decrease in balance control that leads to increased numbers of falls, injuries and hospitalization. Therefore, evaluating older adults’ ability to maintain balance and examining new approaches to counteract age-related decline in balance control is of great importance for fall prevention and healthy aging. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have been shown to beneficially influence motor behavior and motor learning. In the present study, we investigated the influence of tDCS applied over the leg area of the primary motor cortex (M1) on balance task learning of healthy elderly in a dynamic balance task (DBT). In total, 30 older adults were enrolled in a cross-sectional, randomized design including two consecutive DBT training sessions. Only during the first DBT session, either 20 min of anodal tDCS (a-tDCS) or sham tDCS (s-tDCS) were applied and learning improvement was compared between the two groups. Our data showed that both groups successfully learned to perform the DBT on both training sessions. Interestingly, between-group analyses revealed no difference between the a-tDCS and the s-tDCS group regarding their level of task learning. These results indicate that the concurrent application of tDCS over M1 leg area did not elicit DBT learning enhancement in our study cohort. However, a regression analysis revealed that DBT performance can be predicted by the kinematic profile of the movement, a finding that may provide new insights for individualized approaches of treating balance and gait disorders. PMID:28197085

  12. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Does Not Facilitate Dynamic Balance Task Learning in Healthy Old Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Elisabeth; Hoff, Maike; Rjosk, Viola; Steele, Christopher J; Gundlach, Christopher; Sehm, Bernhard; Villringer, Arno; Ragert, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Older adults frequently experience a decrease in balance control that leads to increased numbers of falls, injuries and hospitalization. Therefore, evaluating older adults' ability to maintain balance and examining new approaches to counteract age-related decline in balance control is of great importance for fall prevention and healthy aging. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have been shown to beneficially influence motor behavior and motor learning. In the present study, we investigated the influence of tDCS applied over the leg area of the primary motor cortex (M1) on balance task learning of healthy elderly in a dynamic balance task (DBT). In total, 30 older adults were enrolled in a cross-sectional, randomized design including two consecutive DBT training sessions. Only during the first DBT session, either 20 min of anodal tDCS (a-tDCS) or sham tDCS (s-tDCS) were applied and learning improvement was compared between the two groups. Our data showed that both groups successfully learned to perform the DBT on both training sessions. Interestingly, between-group analyses revealed no difference between the a-tDCS and the s-tDCS group regarding their level of task learning. These results indicate that the concurrent application of tDCS over M1 leg area did not elicit DBT learning enhancement in our study cohort. However, a regression analysis revealed that DBT performance can be predicted by the kinematic profile of the movement, a finding that may provide new insights for individualized approaches of treating balance and gait disorders.

  13. Applying Earlier Literacy Research in Iran to Current Literacy Theory and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Street

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I attempt to bring together approaches toliteracy in theory and in practice, drawing upon variousactivities I have been involved in over the years–research inIranian villages during the 1970s; linking research andtheory to literacy policy, with particular reference to acontribution to the Unesco Global Monitoring Report in2004 and involvement in an ongoing adult literacy trainingprogramme appropriately entitled Learning Empowermentthrough Training in Ethnographic Research (LETTER.IJSCL is interested in publishing original research andreview articles on the relationship between society, culture,and language and in particular ‘linking sound theoreticalapproaches on these fields with visible practical applicationsthat can be used by specialists in anthropology, sociology,linguistics, education, intercultural studies, and policymaking’. I hope that this piece on literacy, with duereference to work in Iran, will fit with that brief.

  14. Current account imbalances in the EMU: An assessment of official policy responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodig Nina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To handle the sovereign debt crisis in general and macroeconomic imbalances in particular the leading EU institutions and the Troika (European Central Bank, European Commission and International Monetary Fund adopted two broad approaches: The short-term approach is based on enhancing the Stability and Growth Pact and to impose fiscal austerity on crisis countries. The medium- to long-term strategy consists of internal devaluation via reducing wage costs. Both approaches were combined with structural adjustment programs in the spirit of the Washington Consensus. The Troika’s policy implies an asymmetric adjustment process burdening only crisis countries. It led to the shrinking of demand and output in crisis countries comparable to the Great Depression and brought the European Monetary Union to the edge of deflation. These polices must be judged as mislead increasing the risk of Japanese disease with more than one lost decade.

  15. Chronic non-communicable diseases in Cameroon - burden, determinants and current policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echouffo-Tcheugui Justin B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cameroon is experiencing an increase in the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs, which accounted for 43% of all deaths in 2002. This article reviews the published literature to critically evaluate the evidence on the frequency, determinants and consequences of NCDs in Cameroon, and to identify research, intervention and policy gaps. The rising trends in NCDs have been documented for hypertension and diabetes, with a 2-5 and a 10-fold increase in their respective prevalence between 1994 and 2003. Magnitudes are much higher in urban settings, where increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity (by 54-82% was observed over the same period. These changes largely result from the adoption of unfavorable eating habits, physical inactivity, and a probable increasing tobacco use. These behavioral changes are driven by the economic development and social mobility, which are part of the epidemiologic transition. There is still a dearth of information on chronic respiratory diseases and cancers, as well as on all NDCs and related risk factors in children and adolescents. More nationally representative data is needed to tract risk factors and consequences of NCDs. These conditions are increasingly been recognized as a priority, mainly through locally generated evidence. Thus, national-level prevention and control programs for chronic diseases (mainly diabetes and hypertension have been established. However, the monitoring and evaluation of these programs is necessary. Budgetary allocations data by the ministry of health would be helpful, to evaluate the investment in NCDs prevention and control. Establishing more effective national-level tobacco control measures and food policies, as well as campaigns to promote healthy diets, physical activity and tobacco cessation would probably contribute to reducing the burden of NCDs.

  16. Did Brisbane Grow Smartly? Drivers of City Growth 1991-2001 and Lessons for Current Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farjana Mostafiz Shatu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas are growing unsustainably around the world; however, the growth patterns and their associated drivers vary between contexts. As a result, research has highlighted the need to adopt case study based approaches to stimulate the development of new theoretic understandings. Using land-cover data sets derived from Landsat images (30 m × 30 m, this research identifies both patterns and drivers of urban growth in a period (1991-2001 when a number of policy acts were enacted aimed at fostering smart growth in Brisbane, Australia. A linear multiple regression model was estimated using the proportion of lands that were converted from non-built-up (1991 to built-up usage (2001 within a suburb as a dependent variable to identify significant drivers of land-cover changes. In addition, the hot spot analysis was conducted to identify spatial biases of land-cover changes, if any. Results show that the built-up areas increased by 1.34% every year. About 19.56% of the non-built-up lands in 1991 were converted into built-up lands in 2001. This conversion pattern was significantly biased in the northernmost and southernmost suburbs in the city. This is due to the fact that, as evident from the regression analysis, these suburbs experienced a higher rate of population growth, and had the availability of habitable green field sites in relatively flat lands. The above findings suggest that the policy interventions undertaken between the periods were not as effective in promoting sustainable changes in the environment as they were aimed for.

  17. The Current Situation of ICT Development in the Middle East and ICT Support Policies. The Case of Syrian Arab Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Yamamoto

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine how ICT development is progressing and what kind of political and social effects have been occurring (or could occur in the near future in Middle Eastern Arabic countries. To examine this theme, this paper will adopt the Syrian Arab Republic as a case. To understand the Syrian government's policy toward the ICT development, it is necessary to examine the domestic political situation, since they are closely related. Under the Bashar Al- Asad's regime, we can confirm several reasons why they have to move forward on their ICT development policy and why it has become a crucial issue, which they cannot evade, as they had done under the previous regime, Hafez Al- Asad's regime. The situation that the Syrian government is facing right now is known by the term, "Dictator's Dilemma". This paper tries to provide bases in order to examine and explore this dilemma in Syria. Also, when we examine ICT development in Syria, it is important to consider the ICT support policies, which are mainly conducted by OECD countries and international organizations and stem from the issue of "Digital Divide". This is why international assistances could have great effect on ICT development in Syria. As a provisional conclusion of this paper, I will summarize how we can understand the current situation of ICT development in Syria, and I will also comment on the future prospect of the dilemma that the Syrian government is facing at the present time.

  18. Politika «Severnogo izmerenija»: sovremennoe sostojanie i perspektivy razvitija [The Northern Dimension policy: current state and development prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolotnikova Yekaterina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the evolution and current state of the Northern Dimension policy and its role in Russia-EU relations. The authors analyse the discrepancy between the actual achievements of the Northern Dimension and its potential and the over-high expectations, which accompanied the policy renewal.

  19. Analysis of operations and cyber security policies for a system of cooperating Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Laurence R.; Tejani, Bankim; Margulies, Jonathan; Hills, Jason L.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Baca, Micheal J.; Weiland, Laura

    2005-12-01

    Flexible Alternating Current Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices are installed on electric power transmission lines to stabilize and regulate power flow. Power lines protected by FACTS devices can increase power flow and better respond to contingencies. The University of Missouri Rolla (UMR) is currently working on a multi-year project to examine the potential use of multiple FACTS devices distributed over a large power system region in a cooperative arrangement in which the FACTS devices work together to optimize and stabilize the regional power system. The report describes operational and security challenges that need to be addressed to employ FACTS devices in this way and recommends references, processes, technologies, and policies to address these challenges.

  20. Trade reform, policy uncertainty, and the current account: a non expected-utility approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Rapid and comprehensive reduction in barriers to international trade has often been followed by a sharp deterioration in the current account. The macroeconomic counterpart of the deterioration has typically been a decline in private savings; no clear response pattern has been observed for private in

  1. Control and management of congenital Chagas disease in Europe and other non-endemic countries: current policies and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Arandes, Antoni; Angheben, Andrea; Serre-Delcor, Nuria; Treviño-Maruri, Begoña; Gómez I Prat, Jordi; Jackson, Yves

    2016-05-01

    Identifying pregnant women infected with Trypanosoma cruzi is one of the major challenges for preventing and controlling Chagas disease (CD) in non-endemic countries. The aim of this paper was to perform a policy evaluation of the current practices of congenital Chagas disease (CCD) control in non-endemic countries and to propose specific targets for enhanced interventions to tackle this emerging health problem outside the endemic areas of Latin America. We conducted a mixed method review of CCD policy strategies by searching the literature in the PubMed, Google Scholar and the World Health Organization (WHO) databases using the key terms 'CCD', 'paediatric Chagas disease' and 'non-endemic countries'; as free text and combined as one phrase to increase the search sensitivity. Reviews, recommendations, guidelines and control/surveillance programme reports were included. Of 427 CCD papers identified in non-endemic countries, 44 matched the inclusion. Although local programmes were launched in different countries with large numbers of Latin American immigrants, there were considerable disparities in terms of the programmes' distribution, delivery, integration and appropriated CCD control strategies. Moreover, Catalonia, Spain is the only region/country with an established systematic monitoring of CCD in pregnant women from Latin American countries. Given the worldwide dissemination of CD, the nature of its vertical transmission, and the gaps of the current strategies in non-endemic countries, there is an urgent need to standardise, expand and reinforce the control measures against CCD transmission. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Upgradation and modernization of eye banking services: Integrating tradition with innovative policies and current best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Radhika; Singh, Archita; Gupta, Noopur; Vanathi, M; Gupta, Vivek

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the history and evolution of the National Eye Bank (NEB) and analyze the impact over the years and report the outcome of the invested resources. Review of archival material, records, project reports, policy and procedures' manuals, and publications was done. Descriptive and analytical processing of data obtained was undertaken. Parameters evaluated included total collection, transplantation, utilization rates of donor cornea, changing trends over time in terms of numbers and duration of recipients waiting, impactful research translated into changes in standard operating protocols, new facilities, and subsequent effects on numbers or quality assurance measures and overview of major achievements. Periodic situational analysis with contextual relevance and interpretation of outcomes was done pertaining to national goals and international standards. The NEB and cornea services have played a key leadership role in furthering the development of eye banking and corneal transplantation services. The contribution extends beyond routine patient care to education, training, generation of resources, advocacy, and policymaking. In quantifiable terms, the overall performance has steadily increased over the years. Major contributions include training of doctors, eye bank staff and corneal surgeons, introduction of innovative techniques for corneal transplantation, setting of national standards for eye banking and provision of preservation media, customized corneal, and ocular surface cell replacement therapy in collaboration with other departments and institutes. The eye banking and corneal transplantation facilities have evolved with time providing quality services, modernized as appropriate with updated knowledge and incorporating technological advances supported by the systematic evidence-based approach.

  3. Upgradation and modernization of eye banking services: Integrating tradition with innovative policies and current best practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Radhika; Singh, Archita; Gupta, Noopur; Vanathi, M; Gupta, Vivek

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to review the history and evolution of the National Eye Bank (NEB) and analyze the impact over the years and report the outcome of the invested resources. Methods: Review of archival material, records, project reports, policy and procedures' manuals, and publications was done. Descriptive and analytical processing of data obtained was undertaken. Parameters evaluated included total collection, transplantation, utilization rates of donor cornea, changing trends over time in terms of numbers and duration of recipients waiting, impactful research translated into changes in standard operating protocols, new facilities, and subsequent effects on numbers or quality assurance measures and overview of major achievements. Periodic situational analysis with contextual relevance and interpretation of outcomes was done pertaining to national goals and international standards. Results: The NEB and cornea services have played a key leadership role in furthering the development of eye banking and corneal transplantation services. The contribution extends beyond routine patient care to education, training, generation of resources, advocacy, and policymaking. In quantifiable terms, the overall performance has steadily increased over the years. Major contributions include training of doctors, eye bank staff and corneal surgeons, introduction of innovative techniques for corneal transplantation, setting of national standards for eye banking and provision of preservation media, customized corneal, and ocular surface cell replacement therapy in collaboration with other departments and institutes. Conclusion: The eye banking and corneal transplantation facilities have evolved with time providing quality services, modernized as appropriate with updated knowledge and incorporating technological advances supported by the systematic evidence-based approach. PMID:28345565

  4. Current systematic carbon-cycle observations and the need for implementing a policy-relevant carbon observing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciais, P.; Dolman, A. J.; Bombelli, A.; Duren, R.; Peregon, A.; Rayner, P. J.; Miller, C.; Gobron, N.; Kinderman, G.; Marland, G.; Gruber, N.; Chevallier, F.; Andres, R. J.; Balsamo, G.; Bopp, L.; Bréon, F.-M.; Broquet, G.; Dargaville, R.; Battin, T. J.; Borges, A.; Bovensmann, H.; Buchwitz, M.; Butler, J.; Canadell, J. G.; Cook, R. B.; DeFries, R.; Engelen, R.; Gurney, K. R.; Heinze, C.; Heimann, M.; Held, A.; Henry, M.; Law, B.; Luyssaert, S.; Miller, J.; Moriyama, T.; Moulin, C.; Myneni, R. B.; Nussli, C.; Obersteiner, M.; Ojima, D.; Pan, Y.; Paris, J.-D.; Piao, S. L.; Poulter, B.; Plummer, S.; Quegan, S.; Raymond, P.; Reichstein, M.; Rivier, L.; Sabine, C.; Schimel, D.; Tarasova, O.; Valentini, R.; Wang, R.; van der Werf, G.; Wickland, D.; Williams, M.; Zehner, C.

    2014-07-01

    A globally integrated carbon observation and analysis system is needed to improve the fundamental understanding of the global carbon cycle, to improve our ability to project future changes, and to verify the effectiveness of policies aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Building an integrated carbon observation system requires transformational advances from the existing sparse, exploratory framework towards a dense, robust, and sustained system in all components: anthropogenic emissions, the atmosphere, the ocean, and the terrestrial biosphere. The paper is addressed to scientists, policymakers, and funding agencies who need to have a global picture of the current state of the (diverse) carbon observations. We identify the current state of carbon observations, and the needs and notional requirements for a global integrated carbon observation system that can be built in the next decade. A key conclusion is the substantial expansion of the ground-based observation networks required to reach the high spatial resolution for CO2 and CH4 fluxes, and for carbon stocks for addressing policy-relevant objectives, and attributing flux changes to underlying processes in each region. In order to establish flux and stock diagnostics over areas such as the southern oceans, tropical forests, and the Arctic, in situ observations will have to be complemented with remote-sensing measurements. Remote sensing offers the advantage of dense spatial coverage and frequent revisit. A key challenge is to bring remote-sensing measurements to a level of long-term consistency and accuracy so that they can be efficiently combined in models to reduce uncertainties, in synergy with ground-based data. Bringing tight observational constraints on fossil fuel and land use change emissions will be the biggest challenge for deployment of a policy-relevant integrated carbon observation system. This will require in situ and remotely sensed data at much higher

  5. Risk factors for secondary transmission of Shigella infection within households: implications for current prevention policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boveé Lian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Internationally, guidelines to prevent secondary transmission of Shigella infection vary widely. Cases, their contacts with diarrhoea, and those in certain occupational groups are frequently excluded from work, school, or daycare. In the Netherlands, all contacts attending pre-school (age 0–3 and junior classes in primary school (age 4–5, irrespective of symptoms, are also excluded pending microbiological clearance. We identified risk factors for secondary Shigella infection (SSI within households and evaluated infection control policy in this regard. Methods This retrospective cohort study of households where a laboratory confirmed Shigella case was reported in Amsterdam (2002–2009 included all households at high risk for SSI (i.e. any household member under 16 years. Cases were classified as primary, co-primary or SSIs. Using univariable and multivariable binomial regression with clustered robust standard errors to account for household clustering, we examined case and contact factors (Shigella serotype, ethnicity, age, sex, household size, symptoms associated with SSI in contacts within households. Results SSI occurred in 25/ 337 contacts (7.4%: 20% were asymptomatic, 68% were female, and median age was 14 years (IQR: 4–38. In a multivariable model adjusted for case and household factors, only diarrhoea in contacts was associated with SSI (IRR 8.0, 95% CI:2.7-23.8. In a second model, factors predictive of SSI in contacts were the age of case (0–3 years (IRRcase≥6 years:2.5, 95% CI:1.1-5.5 and 4–5 years (IRRcase≥6 years:2.2, 95% CI:1.1-4.3 and household size (>6 persons (IRR2-4 persons 3.4, 95% CI:1.2-9.5. Conclusions To identify symptomatic and asymptomatic SSI, faecal screening should be targeted at all household contacts of preschool cases (0–3 years and cases attending junior class in primary school (4–5 years and any household contact with diarrhoea. If screening was limited to these groups, only

  6. Are ethical norms and current policies still relevant in face of the recent mass terror events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Tomer; Goldberg, Avishay; Adini, Bruria

    2016-10-04

    The widespread utilization of social media in recent terror attacks in major European cities should raise a "red flag" for the emergency medical response teams. The question arises as to the impact of social media during terror events on the healthcare system. Information was published well before any emergency authority received a distress call or was requested to respond. Photos published at early stages of the attacks, through social media were uncensored, presenting identifiable pictures of victims. Technological advancements of recent years decrease and remove barriers that enable the public to use them as they see fit. These attacks raise ethical considerations for the patients and their rights as they were outsourced from the medical community, into the hands of the public. The healthcare system should leverage social media and its advantages in designing response to terror, but this requires a re-evaluation and introspection into the current emergency response models.

  7. Considerations on the current universal vaccination policy against hepatitis A in Greece after recent outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassiani Mellou

    Full Text Available Greece is the only European Union member state that in 2008 included hepatitis A (HAV vaccine in the routine national childhood immunization program (NCIP. Given that the resources allocated to public health have dramatically decreased since 2008 and that Greece is a low endemicity country for the disease, the benefit from universal vaccination has been questioned. The aim of this paper is to summarize the available epidemiological data of the disease for 1982-2013, and discuss the effects of universal vaccination on disease morbidity. Descriptive analysis, ARIMA modeling and time series intervention analysis were conducted using surveillance data of acute HAV. A decreasing trend of HAV notification rate over the years was identified (p<0.001. However, universal vaccination (~ 80% vaccine coverage of children had no significant effect on the annual number of reported cases (p = 0.261 and has resulted to a progressive increase of the average age of infection in the general population. The mean age of cases before the inclusion of the vaccine to NCIP (24.1 years, SD = 1.5 was significantly lower than the mean age of cases after 2008 (31.7 years, SD = 2.1 (p<0.001. In the last decade, one third of all reported cases were Roma (a population accounting for 1.5% of the country's total population and in 2013 three outbreaks with 16, 9 and 25 Roma cases respectively, were recorded, indicating the decreased effectiveness of the current immunization strategy in this group. Data suggest that universal vaccination may need to be re-considered. Probably a more cost effective approach would be to implement a program that will include: a vaccination of high risk groups, b universal vaccination of Roma children and improving conditions at Roma camps, c education of the population and travel advice, and d enhancement of the control measures to increase safety of shellfish and other foods.

  8. Does transcranial direct current stimulation to prefrontal cortex affect mood and emotional memory retrieval in healthy individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Helen M; Davis, Nick J; Bracewell, R Martyn

    2014-01-01

    Studies using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of prefrontal cortex to improve symptoms of depression have had mixed results. We examined whether using tDCS to change the balance of activity between left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) can alter mood and memory retrieval of emotional material in healthy volunteers. Participants memorised emotional images, then tDCS was applied bilaterally to DLPFC while they performed a stimulus-response compatibility task. Participants were then presented with a set of images for memory retrieval. Questionnaires to examine mood and motivational state were administered at the beginning and end of each session. Exploratory data analyses showed that the polarity of tDCS to DLPFC influenced performance on a stimulus-response compatibility task and this effect was dependent on participants' prior motivational state. However, tDCS polarity had no effect on the speed or accuracy of memory retrieval of emotional images and did not influence positive or negative affect. These findings suggest that the balance of activity between left and right DLPFC does not play a critical role in the mood state of healthy individuals. We suggest that the efficacy of prefrontal tDCS depends on the initial activation state of neurons and future work should take this into account.

  9. Current health care system policy for vulnerability reduction in the United States of America: a personal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckenfels, Edward J

    2002-04-01

    To raise questions about how the United States of America, which spends 1.3 trillion dollars on health care, conducts cutting-edge biomedical research, has the most advanced medical technology, and trains a cadre of highly competent health professionals cares for the most vulnerable members of its population. Relevant statistical data were extrapolated from the most current statistical sources and research reports, and assessed in terms of existing practices and policies. The data clearly demonstrated that particular population cohorts -- the elderly, the poor, new immigrants, the homeless, the HIV-positive, and substance abusers -- were especially vulnerable to illness and its consequences. Since American medicine, despite all of its science, technology, and clinical competence, operates in a non-system, there is currently no efficacious approach to vulnerability reduction. To turn health care in the U.S. into a high quality, comprehensive, and cost-effective system, government officials, health care planners, and medical practitioners must address a series of fundamental social, economic, and political issues. What other countries, like those in South Eastern Europe, can learn from this is not to duplicate these mistakes.

  10. 21 CFR 1404.135 - May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is not currently...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May the Office of National Drug Control Policy....135 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General § 1404.135 May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is...

  11. Environmental agricultural policy in Japan in harmony with WTO agricultural agreements: current situation and its development (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masaaki ISHIDA

    2005-01-01

    Environmental agricultural policies in Japan have yet to be initiated in earnest, being in what might be called a “preparation stage.” The reasons for this have already been discussed above, but in fact it is not only the environmental agricultural policies that are incomplete; so too are the environmental measures that would form the foundations for these policies.

  12. The Number and Geographical Scope of the EU Foreign Policy Initiatives of Small Member States: Does „smallness“ matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luša Đana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complex voting and decision-making mechanisms of the EU, the size-factor has long been present within EU studies as a relevant and significant variable in explaining member states’ activism. Despite the aim of small states to achieve equal representation, there is a huge discrepancy between the power of big and small states within the EU. Therefore, the expected behavior of small states is different from that of the big ones. However, there are also significant differences in foreign policy activism within the group of small EU states and those are analysed in this article. In order to differentiate small states’ activism within EU foreign policy, the article explores the correlation between the scope and number of small states’ leadership initiatives in EU foreign policy and different quantitative criteria used to define these small states (population, total GDP, GDP per capita

  13. Does supranational coordination erode its national basis? The case of European labour market policy and German industrial relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Niechoj

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available During recent decades improved supply chain management, innovation in information technology, new financial instruments, etc. have changed the economic environment for production in the EU significantly. This led to and was accompanied by increased coordination of economic policy and the use of a new mode of governance, the Open Method of Co-ordination. Simultaneously, at the national level tendencies of fragmentation in industrial relations appeared. Is this mere congruence, or is it possible to establish causal relationships? For the case of Germany the impact of coordinated European policies on industrial relations at national level is assessed. Potential consequences for supranational economic governability are discussed.

  14. Global warming: the balance of evidence and its policy implications. A review of the current state-of-the-controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Charles F

    2003-05-05

    Global warming and attendant climate change have been controversial for at least a decade. This is largely because of its societal implications. With the recent publication of the Third Assessment Report of the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change there has been renewed interest and controversy about how certain the scientific community is of its conclusions: that humans are influencing the climate and that global temperatures will continue to rise rapidly in this century. This review attempts to update what is known and in particular what advances have been made in the past 5 years or so. It does not attempt to be comprehensive. Rather it focuses on the most controversial issues, which are actually few in number. They are: Is the surface temperature record accurate or is it biased by heat from cities, etc.?, Is that record significantly different from past warmings such as the Medieval Warming Period?, Is not the sun's increasing activity the cause of most of the warming?, Can we model climate and predict its future, or is it just too complex and chaotic?, Are there any other changes in climate other than warming, and can they be attributed to the warming? Despite continued uncertainties, the review finds affirmative answers to these questions. Of particular interest are advances that seem to explain why satellites do not see as much warming as surface instruments, how we are getting a good idea of recent paleoclimates, and why the 20th century temperature record was so complex. It makes the point that in each area new information could come to light that would change our thinking on the quantitative magnitude and timing of anthropogenic warming, but it is unlikely to alter the basic conclusions. Finally, there is a very brief discussion of the societal policy response to the scientific message, and the author comments on his 2-year email discussions with many of the world's most outspoken critics of the anthropogenic warming hypothesis.

  15. Does Health Insurance Premium Exemption Policy for Older People Increase Access to Health Care? Evidence from Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duku, Stephen Kwasi Opuku; van Dullemen, Caroline Elisabeth; Fenenga, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Aging in Sub-Saharan Africa causes major challenges for policy makers in social protection. Our study focuses on Ghana, one of the few Sub-Saharan African countries that passed a National Policy on Aging in 2010. Ghana is also one of the first Sub-Saharan African countries that launched a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS; NHIS Act 650, 2003) with the aim to improve access to quality health care for all citizens, and as such can be considered as a means of poverty reduction. Our study assesses whether premium exemption policy under the NHIS that grants non-payments of annual health insurance premiums for older people increases access to health care. We assessed differences in enrollment coverage among four different age groups (18-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70+). We found higher enrollment for the 70+ and 60-69 age groups. The likelihood of enrollment was 2.7 and 1.7 times higher for the 70+ and 60-69 age groups, respectively. Our results suggest the NHIS exemption policy increases insurance coverage of the aged and their utilization of health care services.

  16. DOE technical standards list: Department of Energy standards index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) technical standards list (TSL) has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards (EH-31) on the basis of currently available technical information. Periodic updates of this TSL will be issued as additional information is received on standardization documents being issued, adopted, or canceled by DOE. This document was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards. This TSL provides listings of current DOE technical standards, non-Government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other standards-related documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and canceled DOE technical standards. Information on new DOE technical standards projects, technical standards released for coordination, recently published DOE technical standards, and activities of non-Government standards bodies that may be of interest to DOE is published monthly in Standards Actions.

  17. 41 CFR 102-118.25 - Does GSA still require my agency to submit its overall transportation policies for approval?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT General Introduction... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does GSA still require...

  18. How Does the Democratic Party of Japan Affect Security Policy? High-Profile Stumbles and Quiet Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    DPJ grew into a major party largely by absorbing successive waves of conservative politicians that defected from the LDP, including Ozawa Ichirou and...cleavage had already begun to emerge between “pro- Ozawa ” and “anti- Ozawa ” politicians. In this environment, security policy may be used as a proxy for...of Ozawa – as his first and second defense ministers in part to make an overture toward Ozawa and his supporters, despite these two politicians

  19. Does Electoral Competition create Incentives for Political Parties to collect Information about the Pros and Cons of Alternative Policies?

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez Martinez, Silvia; Swank, Otto

    2004-01-01

    textabstractA well-known rationale for representative democracy is that direct democracy leads to a free-rider problem as to the collection of information. A problem with this rationale is that it takes for granted that representatives collect information. In this paper we examine whether or not electoral competition induces political parties or candidates to collect information about policy consequences. We show that the answer to this question depends on the cost of information collection. ...

  20. Should the strategic trade policy be considered obsolete or should it be redefined based on the current circumstances?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Salinas Ventura

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the relevance of the strategic trade policy in the economies in Latin American countries, who have signed several trade agreements bilaterally and multilaterally. These agreements limit the policies that can be implemented and mostly do not consider the countries’ specific circumstances. However, it is important to discuss the problem of dependency and its specific manifestations, especially when talking about the Latin American countries’ integration into international trade.The strategic trade policy really needs to be redefined to take global context into consideration and to implement policies that have trade impact on strategic economic sectors, based on a deliberate development strategy. 

  1. Alcohol consumption in the Arab region: What do we know, why does it matter, and what are the policy implications for youth harm reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandour, Lilian; Chalak, Ali; El-Aily, Aida; Yassin, Nasser; Nakkash, Rima; Tauk, Mitra; El Salibi, Noura; Heffron, Meghan; Afifi, Rima

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol is a recognized global risk factor for many diseases and injury types and a major contributor to disability and death. While cost-effective interventions do exist, many countries lack a comprehensive national alcohol harm reduction policy. The Arab world includes 22 diverse countries stretching from North Africa to Western Asia having varying dispositions with regards to alcohol sale and consumption. Epidemiological data is scattered and the picture on alcohol consumption remains blurry. This paper presents the findings of an extensive review conducted on all 22 Arab countries, specifically describing: (1) the density and methodology of alcohol-related peer-reviewed publications over the last two decades (1993-2013); (2) the epidemiology of alcohol consumption given all available data; and (3) the current status of policies in the region. Our search revealed a strikingly low number of alcohol-related peer-reviewed published studies - a total of 81 publications across 22 countries and two decades. Most studies are based on clinical or student samples. Where data is available, age of onset is low and drinking is frequent, in the absence of any available or enforced harm reduction policies. We submit that countries in the Arab region can be divided into four categories by alcohol ban and published data. One category includes countries where alcohol is not banned but data is absent, suggesting an ostrich-like response to a controversial behavior, or reflecting a weak research infrastructure and/or policy landscape. Evidence-informed recommendations and future directions for policy and research are discussed and tailored to countries' current stance on alcohol legislation and consumption. Given the particular vulnerability of youth to uptake of alcohol as well as the resulting short and long term consequences, the paper concludes by focusing on the implications of the findings for youth alcohol harm reduction.

  2. Integrating NEPA (National Environmental Policy Act) and CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) requirements during remedial responses at DOE facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.B.; Smith, E.D.; Sharples, F.E.; Eddlemon, G.K.

    1990-07-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.4, issued October 6, 1989, calls for integrating the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) with those of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for DOE remedial actions under CERCLA. CERCLA requires that decisions on site remediation be made through a formal process called a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS). According to the DOE order, integration is to be accomplished by conducting the NEPA and CERCLA environmental planning and review procedures concurrently. The primary instrument for integrating the processes is to be the RI/FS process, which will be supplemented as needed to meet the procedural and documentational requirements of NEPA. The final product of the integrated process will be a single, integrated set of documents; namely, an RI report and an FS-EIS that satisfy the requirements of both NEPA and CERCLA. The contents of the report include (1) an overview and comparison of the requirements of the two processes; (2) descriptions of the major tasks included in the integrated RI/FS-EIS process; (3) recommended contents for integrated RI/FS-EIS documents; and (4)a discussion of some potential problems in integrating NEPA and CERCLA that fall outisde the scope of the RI/FS-EIS process, with suggestions for resolving some of these problems. 15 refs.

  3. "Use of Current Best Evidence": Promises and Illusions, Limitations and Contradictions in the Triangle of Research, Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassnigg, Lorenz

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the methodological and epistemological implications of the relationships between R&D, policy and practice. The proposals towards "evidence-based policy and practice" are analysed with respect to this triangle from three angles: (1) meaning; (2) production; and (3) use of evidence. A comprehensive model of the…

  4. Current Policy and Legislation in England Regarding Older People--What This Means for Older People with Learning Disabilities: A Discussion Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sue; Cooper Ueki, Madeline

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper seeks to explore the opportunities and challenges generated by current policy, guidance and legislation in England relating to older people, in terms of the practical implications for older people with learning disabilities. Methods: Using the broad themes housing, employment, social inclusion and isolation, care and…

  5. One size does not fit all: investigating doctors' stated preference heterogeneity for job incentives to inform policy in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarde, Mylene; Pagaiya, Nonglak; Tangcharoensathian, Viroj; Blaauw, Duane

    2013-12-01

    This study investigates heterogeneity in Thai doctors' job preferences at the beginning of their career, with a view to inform the design of effective policies to retain them in rural areas. A discrete choice experiment was designed and administered to 198 young doctors. We analysed the data using several specifications of a random parameter model to account for various sources of preference heterogeneity. By modelling preference heterogeneity, we showed how sensitivity to different incentives varied in different sections of the population. In particular, doctors from rural backgrounds were more sensitive than others to a 45% salary increase and having a post near their home province, but they were less sensitive to a reduction in the number of on-call nights. On the basis of the model results, the effects of two types of interventions were simulated: introducing various incentives and modifying the population structure. The results of the simulations provide multiple elements for consideration for policy-makers interested in designing effective interventions. They also underline the interest of modelling preference heterogeneity carefully.

  6. Old Wine in New Bottles? Does Climate Policy Determine Bilateral Development Aid for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Michaelowa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanSince the UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 bilateral and multilateral donors have stressed that development assistance has increasingly been oriented towards climate-friendly interventions. With respect to energy aid, this should lead to a substantial increase in projects related to renewable energy and energy efficiency. Given a new database of hundreds of thousands of bilateral development assistance projects, we can assess whether such a reorientation has indeed taken place. We find that, contrary to expectations, the share of bilaterally-funded renewable energy and energy efficiency projects did not increase over the period from 1980 to 2008. This share fluctuated greatly, following the price of oil, peaking with the second oil crisis of the early 1980s. The impacts of global climate policy treaties are minor or inexistent. ‘Traditional’ renewable energies such as hydro and geothermal declined, while “new” renewables showed two peaks in the early 1980s and late 1990s. Differences between donor countries are huge. Several countries, including climate sceptics such as the US and Australia, but also the UK and Switzerland, saw a consistent decline. The self-proclaimed climate pioneers such as Germany, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden show peaks related to both the oil crises and international climate policy. Only in Austria, Denmark, Finland and Spain can ‘new’ climate mitigation development assistance be found.

  7. Does small equal predatory? Analysis of publication charges and transparency of editorial policies in Croatian open access journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovski, Jadranka; Marušić, Ana

    2017-06-15

    We approach the problem of "predatory" journals and publishers from the perspective of small scientific communities and small journals that may sometimes be perceived as "predatory". Among other characteristics of "predatory" journals two most relevant are their business model and the quality of the editorial work. We analysed 444 Croatian open access (OA) journals in the Hrčak (portal of Croatian scientific journals) digital journal repository for the presence of article processing charges as a business model and the transparency of editorial policies. The majority of journals do not charge authors or require submission or article processing charges, which clearly distinguishes them from "predatory" journals. Almost all Hrčak OA journals have publicly available information on editorial boards, including full names and affiliations, and detailed contact information for the editorial office at the Hrčak website. The journal names are unique and cannot be easily confused with another journal or intend to mislead about the journal's origin. While most journals provide information on peer review process, many do not provide guidelines for reviewers or other editorial and publication ethics standards. In order to clearly differentiate themselves from predatory journals, it is not enough for journals from small research communities to operate on non-commercial bases, but also to have transparent editorial policies.

  8. Does a change in health research funding policy related to the integration of sex and gender have an impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joy; Sharman, Zena; Vissandjée, Bilkis; Stewart, Donna E

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the impact of a requirement introduced in December 2010 that all applicants to the Canadian Institutes of Health Research indicate whether their research designs accounted for sex or gender. We aimed to inform research policy by understanding the extent to which applicants across health research disciplines accounted for sex and gender. We conducted a descriptive statistical analysis to identify trends in application data from three research funding competitions (December 2010, June 2011, and December 2011) (N = 1459). We also conducted a qualitative thematic analysis of applicants' responses. Here we show that the proportion of applicants responding affirmatively to the questions on sex and gender increased over time (48% in December 2011, compared to 26% in December 2010). Biomedical researchers were least likely to report accounting for sex and gender. Analysis by discipline-specific peer review panel showed variation in the likelihood that a given panel will fund grants with a stated focus on sex or gender. These findings suggest that mandatory questions are one way of encouraging the uptake of sex and gender in health research, yet there remain persistent disparities across disciplines. These disparities represent opportunities for policy intervention by health research funders.

  9. Does the Central Government’s Environmental Policy Work? Evidence from the Provincial-Level Environment Efficiency in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Xia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at checking the effectiveness of environmental policy pushed by the Central Government at provincial level since China’s entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO. For this purpose, the industrial system of each province is divided into industrial production sub-system and pollution treatment sub-system, and a novel slack-based measure data envelopment analysis (SBM-DEA model with non-cooperative game is proposed to evaluate the environment efficiency of both industrial production sub-system and pollutant treatment sub-system. The results show that the proposed model can describe the environmental efficiency more precisely than the traditional DEA models. During 2003–2012, the efficiencies of industrial production sub-system and pollution treatment sub-system at the provincial level are both relatively low. Specifically, the efficiency of industrial production is not only lower than pollution treatment efficiency, but is falling generally, especially in the Eastern area. However, in the Central and Western area, the efficiency of industrial production remains relatively stable, and pollution treatment efficiency is rising steadily. The technology gap between the Central/Western area and the Eastern area is narrowing, particularly concerning pollution treatment technology. We thus conclude that though the Central Government’s environmental policies fail to solve the inner contradiction between economic and environmental systems, and they indirectly contribute to the expansion of pollutant treatment technology among the Eastern, Central, and Western areas, which is conducive to the coordinated development among different areas.

  10. Ethical issues in the translation of social neuroscience: a policy analysis of current guidelines for public dialogue in human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Emma; Racine, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Social neuroscience and its potential implications create an interesting case study for examining human research ethics policies on the topic of public communication of research. We reviewed mainstream national and international human research ethics guidelines and policies on issues of public communication of research. Our analysis relied on five thematic nets to capture the interactions between research and the public: public understanding, knowledge translation, public participation, social outcomes, and dual use. Coverage of these topics is sparse and inconsistent in mainstream policies and guidelines. We identify three options to address these gaps and analyze their strengths and weaknesses.

  11. Environmental and health policies congress: Does the environment make us sick? Collection of papers; Umwelt- und gesundheitspolitischer Kongress: ``Macht uns die Umwelt krank?``. Sammlung der Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsch, F. [comp.] [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Projekt Umwelt und Gesundheit (PUG)

    1996-09-01

    This lecture volume on the environmental and health policies congress ``Does the environment pose health problems?``, held on 6th December 1995 in Stuttgart, compiles scientific data on the link between different diseases and environmental pollution burdens. The following individual topics are dealt with: The notion of ``risk`` in environmental medicine, cancer genesis, allergies, respiratory system diseases, fertility disorders, environment and psyche, traffic noise and risk of mycoardial infarct (VHE). [Deutsch] Der Vortragsband des umwelt- und gesundheitspolitischen Kongresses `Macht uns die Umwelt krank ?` am 06.12.1995 in Stuttgart stellt wissenschaftliche Daten fuer den Zusammenhang zwischen verschiedenen Krankheiten und Umweltbelastungen zusammen. Einzelne Themen sind : Risikobegriff der Umweltmedizin, Krebsentstehung, Allergien, Atemwegserkrankungen, Fertilitaetsstoerungen, Umwelt und Psyche, Verkehrslaerm und Herzinfarktrisiko. (VHE)

  12. Does Citizenship Always Further Immigrants' Feeling of Belonging to the Host Nation? A Study of Policies and Public Attitudes in 14 Western Democracies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kristina Bakkær

    2016-01-01

    Immigrants' access to citizenship in their country of residence is increasingly debated in Western democracies. It is an underlying premise of these debates that citizenship and national belonging are closely linked, but at the same time there is considerable cross-country variation in how...... citizenship is approached in Western democracies. In the literature, these differences are typically understood to reflect varying degrees of openness to seeing immigrants as part of the host national community. Motivated by this observation, the article examines whether the degree to which immigrants...... citizenship less important. Interestingly, citizenship policy does not have a moderating effect on the association between citizenship and national belonging. Implications for future studies of the subjective experience of citizenship are discussed....

  13. Return migration in Western Europe: current policy trends and their implications, in particular for the second generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entzinger, H

    1985-06-01

    Return migration in Western Europe is examined, with a focus on government policy trends and their implications. The need for international cooperation between sending and receiving countries is emphasized. The effects of migration policies on migrants now and in the future are analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the questions posed by the expressed desire of a significant percentage of second-generation migrants to return to the countries of their parents' origin. (summary in FRE, SPA)

  14. DOE ORDER 435.1, IMPLEMENTATION AND COMPLIANCE DECLARATION AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE AND ACROSS THE DOE COMPLEX IN CONTRAST TO CURRENT PUSHBACK EFFORTS FROM THE ''TOP-TO-BOTTOM'' REVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GOLDSTON, WELFORD T.; SMITH, WINCHESTER IV

    2003-02-27

    DOE issued Order 435.1, ''Radioactive Waste Management,'' on July 9, 1999 for immediate implementation. The requirements for Low Level Mixed, Transuranic, and High Level Waste have been completely rewritten. The entire DOE complex has been struggling with how to implement these new requirements within the one year required timeframe. This paper will chronicle the implementation strategy and actual results of the work to carry out that strategy at the Savannah River Site. DOE-SR and the site contractors worked closely together to implement each of the new requirements across the SRS, crossing many barriers and providing innovative solutions to the many problems that surfaced throughout the year. The results are that SRS declared compliance with all of the requirements of the Order within the prescribed timeframe. The challenge included all waste types in SRS facilities and programs that handle LLW, MLLW, TRU, and HLW. This paper will describe the implementation details for development of Radioactive Waste Management Basis for each facility, Identification of Wastes with No Path to Disposal, Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Determinations, Low Level Waste 90-Day Staging and One Year Limits for Storage Programs, to name a few of the requirements that were addressed by the SRS 435.1 Implementation Team. This paper will trace the implementation, problems (both technical and administrative), and the current pushback efforts associated with the DOE ''Top-to-Bottom'' review.

  15. Is Social Work Evidence-Based? Does Saying So Make It So? Ongoing Challenges in Integrating Research, Practice and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambrill, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    The integration of research and practice is of concern in all helping professions. Has social work become an evidence-based profession as some claim? Characteristics of current-day social work are presented that dispute this view, related continuing concerns are suggested, and promising developments (mostly outside social work) are described that…

  16. Current epidemiological trends for Chagas disease in Latin America and future challenges in epidemiology, surveillance and health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Moncayo

    2009-07-01

    worldwide network of laboratories that carried out basic and applied research supporting the planning and evaluation of national Chagas disease control programmes. The present article reviews the current epidemiological trends for Chagas disease in Latin America and the future challenges in terms of epidemiology, surveillance and health policy.

  17. Does the EU sugar policy reform increase added sugar consumption? An empirical evidence on the soft drink market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Céline; Requillart, Vincent

    2011-09-01

    Whereas National Health authorities recommend a decrease in the consumption of 'added' sugar, a reform on the sugar market will lead to a 36% decrease of the sugar price in the EU. Using French data on soft drinks purchases, this paper investigates the anticipated impact of this reform on the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. The reform of the EU sugar policy leads to a decrease in regular soft drink prices by 3% and varies across brands. To assess substitution within this food category, we use a random-coefficients logit model that takes into account a large number of differentiated products and heterogeneity in consumers' behavior. Results suggest that price changes would lead to an increase in market shares of regular products by 7.5% and to substitutions between brands to the benefit of products with the highest sugar content. On the whole, it would raise consumption of regular soft drinks by more than 1 litre per person per year and consumption of added sugar by 124 g per person per year, this increase being larger in households composed of overweight and obese individuals.

  18. Policy and Financing – Why is Sea Transport Currently Invisible in the Search for a Low Carbon Future for Pacific Island Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Roger Nuttall

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of financing and policy in research, development, trialling and introduction of renewable energy technologies in the Pacific maritime sector is considered. Key research and trials of renewable energy technologies for sea transport in the Pacific from the 1980s and the critical role played by agencies such as the United Nations in leveraging support from funders such as the Asian Development Bank and European Union are reviewed. The lack of current policy on potential renewable energy technology use in sea transport at national, regional and development agency levels is discussed with the Asian Development Bank used as a case study. The urgent need for such technology to be commercially trialled as a means of reducing the region’s dependency on fossil fuels given the importance of sea transport to socio-economic development in the Pacific is outlined in light of the proportion of fossil fuel currently used by the maritime sector. The paper concludes that review of current funding strategies and policies to include both sea transport and the potential for use of renewable energy technologies in the maritime sector in the Pacific is a priority and current reliance on the private sector acting alone needs review.

  19. Does deforestation promote or inhibit malaria transmission in the Amazon? A systematic literature review and critical appraisal of current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker Lima, Joanna M; Vittor, Amy; Rifai, Sami; Valle, Denis

    2017-06-05

    Considerable interest in the relationship between biodiversity and disease has recently captured the attention of the research community, with important public policy implications. In particular, malaria in the Amazon region is often cited as an example of how forest conservation can improve public health outcomes. However, despite a growing body of literature and an increased understanding of the relationship between malaria and land use / land cover change (LULC) in Amazonia, contradictions have emerged. While some studies report that deforestation increases malaria risk, others claim the opposite. Assessing malaria risk requires examination of dynamic processes among three main components: (i) the environment (i.e. LULC and landscape transformations), (ii) vector biology (e.g. mosquito species distributions, vector activity and life cycle, plasmodium infection rates), and (iii) human populations (e.g. forest-related activity, host susceptibility, movement patterns). In this paper, we conduct a systematic literature review on malaria risk and deforestation in the Amazon focusing on these three components. We explore key features that are likely to generate these contrasting results using the reviewed articles and our own data from Brazil and Peru, and conclude with suggestions for productive avenues in future research.This article is part of the themed issue 'Conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease: scientific evidence and policy implications'. © 2017 The Authors.

  20. Does deforestation promote or inhibit malaria transmission in the Amazon? A systematic literature review and critical appraisal of current evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker Lima, Joanna M.; Vittor, Amy; Rifai, Sami

    2017-01-01

    Considerable interest in the relationship between biodiversity and disease has recently captured the attention of the research community, with important public policy implications. In particular, malaria in the Amazon region is often cited as an example of how forest conservation can improve public health outcomes. However, despite a growing body of literature and an increased understanding of the relationship between malaria and land use / land cover change (LULC) in Amazonia, contradictions have emerged. While some studies report that deforestation increases malaria risk, others claim the opposite. Assessing malaria risk requires examination of dynamic processes among three main components: (i) the environment (i.e. LULC and landscape transformations), (ii) vector biology (e.g. mosquito species distributions, vector activity and life cycle, plasmodium infection rates), and (iii) human populations (e.g. forest-related activity, host susceptibility, movement patterns). In this paper, we conduct a systematic literature review on malaria risk and deforestation in the Amazon focusing on these three components. We explore key features that are likely to generate these contrasting results using the reviewed articles and our own data from Brazil and Peru, and conclude with suggestions for productive avenues in future research. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease: scientific evidence and policy implications'. PMID:28438914

  1. Current use of impact models for agri-environment schemes and potential for improvements of policy design and assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Jorgen; Vesterager, Jens Peter; Finn, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Agri-Environment Schemes (AES) to maintain or promote environmentally-friendly farming practices were implemented on about 25% of all agricultural land in the EU by 2002. This article analyses and discusses the actual and potential use of impact models in supporting the design, implementation...... and evaluation of AES. Impact models identify and establish the causal relationships between policy objectives and policy outcomes. We review and discuss the role of impact models at different stages in the AES policy process, and present results from a survey of impact models underlying 60 agri-environmental...... schemes in seven EU member states. We distinguished among three categories of impact models (quantitative, qualitative or common sense), depending on the degree of evidence in the formal scheme description, additional documents, or key person interviews. The categories of impact models used mainly...

  2. Bioethics Symposium: The ethical food movement: What does it mean for the role of science and scientists in current debates about animal agriculture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croney, C C; Apley, M; Capper, J L; Mench, J A; Priest, S

    2012-05-01

    Contemporary animal agriculture is increasingly criticized on ethical grounds. Consequently, current policy and legislative discussions have become highly controversial as decision makers attempt to reconcile concerns about the impacts of animal production on animal welfare, the environment, and on the efficacy of antibiotics required to ensure human health with demands for abundant, affordable, safe food. Clearly, the broad implications for US animal agriculture of what appears to be a burgeoning movement relative to ethical food production must be understood by animal agriculture stakeholders. The potential effects of such developments on animal agricultural practices, corporate marketing strategies, and public perceptions of the ethics of animal production must also be clarified. To that end, it is essential to acknowledge that people's beliefs about which food production practices are appropriate are tied to diverse, latent value systems. Thus, relying solely on scientific information as a means to resolve current debates about animal agriculture is unlikely to be effective. The problem is compounded when scientific information is used inappropriately or strategically to advance a political agenda. Examples of the interface between science and ethics in regards to addressing currently contentious aspects of food animal production (animal welfare, antimicrobial use, and impacts of animal production practices on the environment) are reviewed. The roles of scientists and science in public debates about animal agricultural practices are also examined. It is suggested that scientists have a duty to contribute to the development of sound policy by providing clear and objectively presented information, by clarifying misinterpretations of science, and by recognizing the differences between presenting data vs. promoting their own value judgments in regard to how and which data should be used to establish policy. Finally, the role of the media in shaping public opinions

  3. Policy Reform Efforts and Equal Opportunity – An Evidence-Based Link? An Analysis of Current Sector Reforms in the Austrian School System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Geppert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of the present paper is to answer two different questions: From the perspective of Austrian education policy, which core areas of schooling are linked to the demand for equal opportunity? Can these reform efforts sustain the current state of research, and what are the consequences for schooling? The paper draws on an analysis by Hopmann, Geppert & Bauer (2010. Fifteen official self-presentations (political programmes of Austrian political parties were analysed for statements concerning the improvement of the education system. This resulted in about seventy different statements, which were aggregated into eight core areas.We conducted a systematic analysis of four of these core areas, dealing with the topics of equal opportunity: comprehensive school, all-day schooling, school autonomy and standardisation of students’ achievements. The aim was not to judge the legitimacy or the political content of the claims made. In line with evaluative discourse, we asked whether the combination of political demands and their associated expectations met the current state of research. In many policy programmes, it is assumed that comprehensive schooling, all-day schooling, education standards, standardised general certification for university attendance, school autonomy or language surveys go hand in hand with more equality of opportunity, justice andquality in education, but an analysis of the current state of research could not confirm this. The analysis showed that, with regard to education policy demands, statements having empirically little or nothing to do with each other are often linked.

  4. Does lindane (gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane) increase the rapid delayed rectifier outward K+ current (IKr) in frog atrial myocytes?

    OpenAIRE

    Sauviat, Martin-Pierre; Colas, Anthony; Pages, Nicole

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effects of lindane, a gamma-isomer of hexachlorocyclohexane, were studied on transmembrane potentials and currents of frog atrial heart muscle using intracellular microelectrodes and the whole cell voltage-clamp technique. RESULTS: Lindane (0.34 microM to 6.8 microM) dose-dependently shortened the action potential duration (APD). Under voltage-clamp conditions, lindane (1.7 microM) increased the amplitude of the outward current (Iout) which developed in Ringer solution contain...

  5. Education and the energy crisis: policies and actions for the Department of Energy. [Options and alternatives, DOE Education Programs Div

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-22

    This report is the result of a study carried out to determine options and alternatives for the Education Programs Division (EPD) of the Department of Energy. In the conduct of this study, numerous individuals from various concerned institutions were interviewed. While the project scope clearly precluded contact with every involved or potentially involved party, a concerted effort was made to obtain a representative sampling of the opinions and views of relevant government, academic and private sector agencies and organizations. A listing of those contacted, excluding the Department of Energy, is provided. In addition to interviews, an extensive range of literature was drawn upon including memoranda, brochures, program statements, school-enrollment data, speeches and the like. It was determined during this study that a wide range of public and private institutions are actively involved in the energy-education field. Oil companies, utilities, public interest groups, schools, agencies at every level of government, and others are formulating and delivering education which is enormously varied. It was concluded, however, that the public is not being reached, partially because current efforts are unfocused and partially because the public has become inured to problems and resistant to many of the traditional means of education. The study found that within this crowded and varied energy education field the Department of Energy is well placed to begin to provide direction and focus to the widespread activity now occurring.

  6. Current use of impact models for agri-environment schemes and potential for improvements of policy design and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primdahl, Jørgen; Vesterager, Jens Peter; Finn, John A; Vlahos, George; Kristensen, Lone; Vejre, Henrik

    2010-06-01

    Agri-Environment Schemes (AES) to maintain or promote environmentally-friendly farming practices were implemented on about 25% of all agricultural land in the EU by 2002. This article analyses and discusses the actual and potential use of impact models in supporting the design, implementation and evaluation of AES. Impact models identify and establish the causal relationships between policy objectives and policy outcomes. We review and discuss the role of impact models at different stages in the AES policy process, and present results from a survey of impact models underlying 60 agri-environmental schemes in seven EU member states. We distinguished among three categories of impact models (quantitative, qualitative or common sense), depending on the degree of evidence in the formal scheme description, additional documents, or key person interviews. The categories of impact models used mainly depended on whether scheme objectives were related to natural resources, biodiversity or landscape. A higher proportion of schemes dealing with natural resources (primarily water) were based on quantitative impact models, compared to those concerned with biodiversity or landscape. Schemes explicitly targeted either on particular parts of individual farms or specific areas tended to be based more on quantitative impact models compared to whole-farm schemes and broad, horizontal schemes. We conclude that increased and better use of impact models has significant potential to improve efficiency and effectiveness of AES. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Haze, public health and mitigation measures in China: A review of the current evidence for further policy response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinghong; Woodward, Alistair; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Kovats, Sari; Wilkinson, Paul; Li, Liping; Xu, Lei; Li, Jing; Yang, Jun; Li, Jing; Cao, Lina; Liu, Xiaobo; Wu, Haixia; Liu, Qiyong

    2017-02-01

    With rapid economic development, China has been plagued by choking air pollution in recent years, and the frequent occurrence of haze episodes has caused widespread public concern. The purpose of this study is to describe the sources and formation of haze, summarize the mitigation measures in force, review the relationship between haze pollution and public health, and to discuss the challenges, potential research directions and policy options. Haze pollution has both natural and man-made causes, though it is anthropogenic sources that are the major contributors. Accumulation of air pollutants, secondary formation of aerosols, stagnant meteorological conditions, and trans-boundary transportation of pollutants are the principal causes driving the formation and evolution of haze. In China, haze includes gaseous pollutants and fine particles, of which PM2.5 is the dominant component. Short and long-term exposure to haze pollution are associated with a range of negative health outcomes, including respiratory diseases, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, mental health problems, lung cancer and premature death. China has paid increasing attention to the improvement of air quality, and has introduced action plans and policies to tackle pollution, but many interventions have only temporary effects. There may be fierce resistance from industry groups and some government agencies, and often it is challenging to enforce relevant control measures and laws. We discuss the potential policy options for prevention, the need for wider public dialogue and the implications for scientific research.

  8. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS): does it have merit in stroke rehabilitation? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Jodie; van Vliet, Paulette; McElduff, Patrick; Lagopoulos, Jim; Parsons, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation has been gaining increasing interest as a potential therapeutic treatment in stroke recovery. We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to collate the available evidence in adults with residual motor impairments as a result of stroke. The primary outcome was change in motor function or impairment as a result of transcranial direct current stimulation, using any reported electrode montage, with or without adjunct physical therapy. The search yielded 15 relevant studies comprising 315 subjects. Compared with sham, cortical stimulation did not produce statistically significant improvements in motor performance when measured immediately after the intervention (anodal stimulation: facilitation of the affected cortex: standardized mean difference = 0.05, P = 0.71; cathodal stimulation: inhibition of the nonaffected cortex: standardized mean difference = 0.39, P = 0.08; bihemispheric stimulation: standardized mean difference = 0.24, P = 0.39). When the data were analyzed according to stroke characteristics, statistically significant improvements were evident for those with chronic stroke (standardized mean difference = 0.45, P = 0.01) and subjects with mild-to-moderate stroke impairments (standardized mean difference = 0.37, P = 0.02). Transcranial direct current stimulation is likely to be effective in enhancing motor performance in the short term when applied selectively to patients with stroke. Given the range of stimulation variables and heterogeneous nature of stroke, this modality is still experimental and further research is required to determine its clinical merit in stroke rehabilitation.

  9. Does the Longer Application of Anodal-Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Increase Corticomotor Excitability Further? A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapour Jaberzadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS of the primary motor cortex (M1 has been shown to be effective in increasing corticomotor excitability.Methods: We investigated whether longer applications of a-tDCS coincide with greater increases in corticomotor excitability compared to shorter application of a-tDCS. Ten right-handed healthy participants received one session of a-tDCS(1mA current with shorter (10 min and longer (10+10 min stimulation durationsapplied to the left M1 of extensor carpi radialis muscle (ECR. Corticomotorexcitability following application of a-tDCS was assessed at rest with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS elicited motor evoked otentials (MEP and compared with baseline data for each participant.Results: MEP amplitudes were increased following 10 min of a-tDCS by 67%(p = 0.001 with a further increase (32% after the second 10 min of a-tDCS (p = 0.005. MEP amplitudes remained elevated at 15 min post stimulation compared to baseline values by 65% (p = 0.02.Discussion: The results demonstrate that longer application of a-tDCS within the recommended safety limits, increases corticomotor excitability with after effects of up to 15 minutes post stimulation.

  10. Does von Willebrand factor improve the predictive ability of current risk stratification scores in patients with atrial fibrillation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fernández, Amaya; Roldán, Vanessa; Rivera-Caravaca, José Miguel; Hernández-Romero, Diana; Valdés, Mariano; Vicente, Vicente; Lip, Gregory Y. H.; Marín, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Von Willebrand factor (vWF) is a biomarker of endothelial dysfunction. We investigated its role on prognosis in anticoagulated atrial fibrillation (AF) patients and determined whether its addition to clinical risk stratification schemes improved event-risk prediction. Consecutive outpatients with non-valvular AF were recruited and rates of thrombotic/cardiovascular events, major bleeding and mortality were recorded. The effect of vWF on prognosis was calculated using a Cox regression model. Improvements in predictive accuracy over current scores were determined by calculating the integrated discrimination improvement (IDI), net reclassification improvement (NRI), comparison of receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curves and Decision Curve Analysis (DCA). 1215 patients (49% males, age 76 (71–81) years) were included. Follow-up was almost 7 years. Significant associations were found between vWF and cardiovascular events, stroke, mortality and bleeding. Based on IDI and NRI, addition of vWF to CHA2DS2-VASc statistically improved its predictive value, but c-indexes were not significantly different. For major bleeding, the addition of vWF to HAS-BLED improved the c-index but not IDI or NRI. DCA showed minimal net benefit. vWF acts as a simple prognostic biomarker in AF and, whilst its addition to current scores statistically improves prediction for some endpoints, absolute changes and impact on clinical decision-making are marginal. PMID:28134282

  11. What does a diagnostic label of 'polycystic ovary syndrome' really mean in adolescence? A review of current practice recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, S; Grover, S; Sabin, M A

    2016-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common female endocrine disorder, with many women initially presenting during adolescence. Diagnosis during this period is particularly challenging, yet many emphasize the importance of an early diagnosis given the long-term metabolic and reproductive health consequences associated with the syndrome. The objective of this study was to review the current literature to determine whether the diagnostic label 'PCOS' is necessary to effectively manage adolescent girls presenting with features of the syndrome. A literature search was conducted (PubMed, Medline, Informit Health and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) identifying papers addressing the diagnosis and management of PCOS during adolescence. Articles were selected based on date of publication, relevance of material and the quality of evidence presented. A total of 427 papers were screened, with 40 of these selected from the initial search. A subsequent 154 were included from manual review of reference lists from key papers identified in the initial search. Current guidelines recommend treating the individual manifestations of PCOS. In doing so, there is good evidence identifying that this approach adequately targets the underlying metabolic and reproductive changes associated with the syndrome. This suggests that providing a diagnostic label of PCOS is not actually necessary to effectively manage adolescent girls with features of this syndrome.

  12. Antiplatelet and anticoagulation agents in acute coronary syndromes: what is the current status and what does the future hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Kurt; Bates, Eric R; Valgimigli, Marco; Wallentin, Lars; Kristensen, Steen Dalby; Anderson, Jeffrey L; Lopez Sendon, Jose Luis; Tubaro, Marco; Granger, Christopher B; Bode, Christoph; Ohman, Erik Magnus; Steg, Philippe Gabriel

    2014-11-01

    Mortality and morbidity in acute coronary syndromes (ACSs), caused principally by plaque erosion or rupture leading to thrombus formation and myocardial ischemia, have been reduced by a combination of antithrombotic agents (antiplatelet drugs and anticoagulants) and early revascularization. Aspirin is the foundation antiplatelet agent. New P2Y12 receptor inhibitors (prasugrel and ticagrelor) have clear benefits compared with clopidogrel for dual antiplatelet therapy, and cangrelor or vorapaxar, a thrombin receptor inhibitor, may be of value in specific settings. Anticoagulation uses 1 of 4 choices: bivalirudin, unfractionated heparin, enoxaparin, and fondaparinux. Moreover, some patients (such as those who have chronic atrial fibrillation) require triple therapy with aspirin, clopidogrel, plus an anticoagulant, frequently a vitamin K antagonist. New oral anticoagulants have been shown to be at least as effective as vitamin K antagonists in atrial fibrillation and led to fewer bleeding complications. Finally, the combination of aspirin, clopidogrel, and low-dose rivaroxaban has recently been approved by the European Medicines Agency (but not the Food and Drug Administration) for secondary prevention after ACS. Several strategies have been developed to balance the potential benefit of antithrombotic therapy against the risk of bleeding complications, for example, radial access in coronary angiography or restricted use of combination therapy, and others are under investigation, such as discontinuation of aspirin. This overview summarizes the current status of antithrombotic therapy in ACS and describes strategies currently explored to optimize its benefit/risk ratio.

  13. Mitochondrial uncoupler FCCP activates proton conductance but does not block store-operated Ca(2+) current in liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Minh-Son; Aromataris, Edoardo C; Castro, Joel; Roberts, Michael L; Barritt, Greg J; Rychkov, Grigori Y

    2010-03-15

    Uncouplers of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, including carbonilcyanide p-triflouromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) and carbonilcyanide m-cholorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), are widely used in experimental research to investigate the role of mitochondria in cellular function. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to interpret the results obtained in intact cells using FCCP and CCCP, as these agents not only inhibit mitochondrial potential, but may also affect membrane potential and cell volume. Here we show by whole-cell patch clamping that in primary rat hepatocytes and H4IIE liver cells, FCCP induced large proton currents across the plasma membrane, but did not activate any other observable conductance. In intact hepatocytes FCCP inhibits thapsigargin-activated store-operated Ca(2+) entry, but in patch clamping under the conditions of strong Ca(2+) buffering it has no effect on store-operated Ca(2+) current (I(SOC)). These results indicate that there is no direct connection between mitochondria and activation of I(SOC) in liver cells and support the notion of indirect regulation of I(SOC) by mitochondrial Ca(2+) buffering.

  14. Does transcranial direct current stimulation enhance cognitive and motor functions in the ageing brain? A systematic review and meta- analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Jeffery J; Kang, Nyeonju; Cauraugh, James H

    2016-01-01

    The use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to enhance cognitive and motor functions has enjoyed a massive increase in popularity. Modifying neuroplasticity via non-invasive cortical stimulation has enormous potential to slow or even reverse declines in functions associated with ageing. The current meta-analysis evaluated the effects of tDCS on cognitive and motor performance in healthy older adults. Of the 81 studies identified, 25 qualified for inclusion. A random effects model meta-analysis revealed a significant overall standardized mean difference equal to 0.53 (SE=0.09; medium heterogeneity: I(2)=57.08%; and high fail-safe: N=448). Five analyses on moderator variables indicated significant tDCS beneficial effects: (a) on both cognitive and motor task performances, (b) across a wide-range of cognitive tasks, (c) on specific brain areas, (d) stimulation offline (before) or online (during) the cognitive and motor tasks. Although the meta-analysis revealed robust support for enhancing both cognitive and motor performance, we outline a number of caveats on the use of tDCS.

  15. Injection drug use and HIV/AIDS in China: Review of current situation, prevention and policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Huey T

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Illicit drug abuse and HIV/AIDS have increased rapidly in the past 10 to 20 years in China. This paper reviews drug abuse in China, the HIV/AIDS epidemic and its association with injection drug use (IDU, and Chinese policies on illicit drug abuse and prevention of HIV/AIDS based on published literature and unpublished official data. As a major drug trans-shipment country with source drugs from the "Golden Triangle" and "Gold Crescent" areas in Asia, China has also become an increasingly important drug consuming market. About half of China's 1.14 million documented drug users inject, and many share needles. IDU has contributed to 42% of cumulatively reported HIV/AIDS cases thus far. Drug trafficking is illegal in China and can lead to the death penalty. The public security departments adopt "zero tolerance" approach to drug use, which conflict with harm reduction policies of the public health departments. Past experience in China suggests that cracking down on drug smuggling and prohibiting drug use alone can not prevent or solve all illicit drug related problems in the era of globalization. In recent years, the central government has outlined a series of pragmatic policies to encourage harm reduction programs; meanwhile, some local governments have not fully mobilized to deal with drug abuse and HIV/AIDS problems seriously. Strengthening government leadership at both central and local levels; scaling up methadone substitution and needle exchange programs; making HIV voluntary counseling and testing available and affordable to both urban and rural drug users; and increasing utilization of outreach and nongovernmental organizations are offered as additional strategies to help cope with China's HIV and drug abuse problem.

  16. Does high level youth sports participation increase the risk of femoroacetabular impingement? A review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Viran; Swain, Michael; Broderick, Carolyn; McKay, Damien

    2016-03-11

    Sports participation can be an integral part of adolescent development with numerous positive short and long-term effects. Despite these potential benefits very high levels of physical activity, during skeletal maturation, have been proposed as a possible cause of cam-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). The influence of physical activity on the developing physis has been previously described both in animal studies and epidemiological studies of adolescent athletes. It is therefore important to determine whether the development of FAI is secondary to excessive physical activity or a combination of a vulnerable physis and a set level of physical activity. A review of the current literature suggests that adolescent males participating in ice-hockey, basketball and soccer, training at least three times a week, are at greater risk than their non-athletic counterparts of developing the femoral head-neck deformity associated with femoroacetabular impingement.

  17. [Public policy analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subirats, J

    2001-01-01

    This article presents to public health professionals concepts and perspectives from political science relevant for creating a healthier public policy. Currently, there is no uniform vision of what constitutes public interest and the decisions of public administrations tend to be based on compromise. In public debate, what is paramount is the capacity to persuade. From the perspective of public policy analysis, the crucial issue is definition: the final decision depends on the definition of the problem that has emerged triumphant in the public debate among competing actors with different definitions of the problem. From a policy analysis perspective, the problems entering the agenda of public administration does not necessarily correspond to their severity, as competing actors try to impose their point of view. Because of its historical evolution, the Spanish political system has specific traits. The relatively weak democratic tradition tends to make the decision process less visibles, with strong technocratic elements and weaker social articulation. Both the juridical tradition and liberal rhetoric portray lobbying as contrary to public interest, when in fact it is constantly performed by powerful vested interest groups, through both personal contacts and economic connections. Regulatory policies, with concentrated costs and diffuse benefits, seem to be moving from Spain to the European Union. To promote healthier public policies, the development of civil society initiatives and the building of coalitions will play an increasingly greater role in the future.

  18. Projecting Policy Effects with Statistical Models Projecting Policy Effects with Statistical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Sims

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to briefly discus the current frontiers in quantitative modeling for forecastina and policy analvsis. It does so by summarizing some recent developmenrs in three areas: reduced form forecasting models; theoretical models including elements of stochastic optimization; and identification. In the process, the paper tries to provide some remarks on the direction we seem to be headed. Projecting Policy Effects with Statistical Models

  19. CURRENT TRENDS OF THE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION. THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMPETITIVE ECONOMIC AGGLOMERATIONS OF CLUSTER TYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA CISMAŞ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of economic agents’ behaviour, whose nowadays tendency is togroup themselves in space as clusters, has an important place in the field of localizing industrialactivities. This is due to domestic scale economies, known as agglomerations economies.According to Edgar M. Hoover (Hoover, 1948, domestic scale economies are specific tocompanies; the economies of localizing - to a certain branch, whose companies form clusters incertain geographical arias, and the urbanization economies are specific to cities, where thereare clusters of companies from different branches. The specialty literature regarding localeconomic development, based on the idea of cluster starts from well-known economic theories,such as: agglomeration theory (Alfred Marshall, the theory of spatial localizing of industrialunits (Alfred Weber, the theory of interdependence of locations (Harold Hotelling, the diamondtheory (Michael Porter, the theory of entrepreneurship (Joseph Schumpeter, the theory ofgeographical concentration. Basically, the common point which links them are the conceptswhich occur in these theories, such as: industrial district, industrial agglomeration, spatialinterdependence, concepts which lie at the basis of the cluster idea. Clusters represent animportant instrument for promoting industrial development, innovation, competitiveness andeconomic growth. If, at the beginning, the effort to develop clusters belonged to private personsand companies, nowadays, the actors involved in their development are the governments andpublic institutions of national or regional level.The objective established within the Lisbon Strategy (2000, to make the EuropeanUnion “the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy”, is tightly linked to thenew approaches of the European economic policy, to competitiveness. One of the policies isfocused on developing at the European Union level clusters in the high competitiveness fields. with an innovative character

  20. Different policy outcomes of the new drugs and currently listed drugs under the positive list system in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eui-Kyung; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Lim, Jae-Young; Park, Mi-Hai

    2012-01-01

    Four years have passed since the positive list system was implemented in South Korea. The system was received well because it has fulfilled its intended objective of enhancing the cost-effectiveness of new drugs. With regard to currently listed drugs, however, debate has lingered since the reevaluation of the cost-effectiveness by therapeutic group. This study intended to review the lessons learned and compromises reached in implementing an evidence-based national formulary. Currently listed drugs are very different from new drugs. In terms of effectiveness, the level of existing evidence tends to be lower for currently listed drugs. Also, the evaluation plan was quite delayed because of the vast amount of literature. In the political decision-making process, a coalition was formed by the pharmaceutical companies with physicians, and the government had difficulty responding because of the strong resistance against the reevaluation of currently listed drugs. Although idealistic, it was an attempt to apply the same standard of cost-effectiveness for currently listed drugs as that for new drugs. To successfully implement the system, however, some factors that need to be considered were limitation of available evidence on currently listed drugs and specific strategies employed against political resistance.

  1. Does the EU meet its policy objective of 'promoting sustainable use of arctic resources'? An analysis from the viewpoint of arctic energy resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, A.; Hossain, Kamrul

    2014-01-01

    The EU started to develop its own Arctic policy in 2008. One of the three main objectives of this policy is the promotion of sustainable use of Arctic resources. "Sustainability" was also a focus of the 2011 resolution of the European Parliament as a guiding principle in developing European policies

  2. Implications of current educational policies in the Physical Education teachers’ training: a study on the teacher’s subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Bernardo Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to problematize the ontology that underlies the official documents related to the physical education teachers’ training. The theoretical and methodological framework for such questioning is dialectical materialism. The reasoning of the official documents cited is confined to training “Competence”, linked to “reflective practice”. Explicitly or implicitly, such training policy seeks to meet the guidelines and requirements of flexible accumulation, in turn, based on productive restructuring, and its political expression, the neoliberalism. The teleologically oriented training towards such relations of production, although it seems avant-garde, is seeded by a conservatism that is evident in not facing social contradictions. The results revealed that the teachers’ subjectivity is limited in favor of an adaptive training to the alienation process.

  3. Sharing our data—An overview of current (2016) USGS policies and practices for publishing data on ScienceBase and an example interactive mapping application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Katherine J.; Bock, Andrew R.; Sando, Roy

    2017-01-05

    This report provides an overview of current (2016) U.S. Geological Survey policies and practices related to publishing data on ScienceBase, and an example interactive mapping application to display those data. ScienceBase is an integrated data sharing platform managed by the U.S. Geological Survey. This report describes resources that U.S. Geological Survey Scientists can use for writing data management plans, formatting data, and creating metadata, as well as for data and metadata review, uploading data and metadata to ScienceBase, and sharing metadata through the U.S. Geological Survey Science Data Catalog. Because data publishing policies and practices are evolving, scientists should consult the resources cited in this paper for definitive policy information.An example is provided where, using the content of a published ScienceBase data release that is associated with an interpretive product, a simple user interface is constructed to demonstrate how the open source capabilities of the R programming language and environment can interact with the properties and objects of the ScienceBase item and be used to generate interactive maps.

  4. Double Trreshold-based Early Message Discarding(DTEMD) Policy in High-speed Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a new selective discarding policy called double threshold-based early meassage(DTEMD) policy is present. In the DTEMD policy, two thresholds are defined through which the system can adapt to the current load without changing its operation modes too often as EMD[1] policy does. Moreover the policy gets high utility of the buffer and so improves the system performance. By adopting a new performance measure "goodput", analysis results show a remarkable performance improvement is obtained when the improved discarding policy is applied.

  5. Cyberbullying among Youth: A Comprehensive Review of Current International Research and Its Implications and Application to Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Wanda; Faucher, Chantal; Jackson, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Cyberbullying research is rapidly expanding with many studies being published from around the world in the past five or six years. In this article we review the current international literature published in English, with particular attention to the following themes: The relationship of cyberbullying to the more traditional face-to-face bullying,…

  6. Cyberbullying among Youth: A Comprehensive Review of Current International Research and Its Implications and Application to Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Wanda; Faucher, Chantal; Jackson, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Cyberbullying research is rapidly expanding with many studies being published from around the world in the past five or six years. In this article we review the current international literature published in English, with particular attention to the following themes: The relationship of cyberbullying to the more traditional face-to-face bullying,…

  7. Danish Energy Efficiency Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Mikael; Larsen, Anders; Dyhr-Mikkelsen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    of the entire Danish energy efficiency policy portfolio must be carried out before end 2008 and put forward for discussion among governing parties no later than February 2009. A consortium comprising Ea Energy Analyses, Niras, the Department of Society and Globalisation (Roskilde University) and 4-Fact...... was assigned with this task. The evaluation aimed to answer the crucial questions: Is the overall design of the portfolio of instruments appropriate? Does the impact of the instruments justify the costs, so that we reach the national goals in a cost efficient way? Will the current instrument portfolio be able......Ten groups of policy instruments for promoting energy efficiency are actively used in Denmark. Among these are the EU instruments such as the CO2 emissions trading scheme and labelling of appliances, labelling of all buildings, combined with national instruments such as high taxes especially...

  8. Preparing for the introduction of hospital autonomy in Laos: an assessment of current situation and suggestions for policy-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jinsong; Yu, Hao; Chen, Yingyao

    2016-04-01

    The National Assembly of Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) approved the Health Sector Reform Strategy in 2012, which called for an assessment as to whether Laos should introduce hospital autonomy, and if so, in which ways. The purpose of this study is to assess the status quo of hospital governance in Laos and propose policy suggestions for hospital autonomy in the country. We formulated an analytic framework for hospital autonomy based on previous work by other researchers, collected qualitative data through key informant interviews and focus group discussions, and also performed secondary data analysis. Public hospitals in Laos enjoyed some informal autonomy with little accountability and Laos is facing key challenges of hospital governance. As a result, introducing hospital autonomy in Laos could bring risks, benefits and debates. Before Laos decides on granting autonomy to its public hospitals, we strongly suggest that the government do pilot in selected public hospitals with well-regulated governance framework first and conduct rigorous evaluations to examine whether the granted autonomy leads to the intended social goals of equity, quality, efficiency and sustainability. We recommend residual claimants should be monitored by the government and by the society with open and transparent approach, and active measures should be taken to improve performance and ensure social functions. The study findings may also provide some suggestions for low- and middle-income countries, which are contemplating the introduction of hospital autonomy in the public sector. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Gender Gap in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM): Current Knowledge, Implications for Practice, Policy, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica L

    2017-03-01

    Although the gender gap in math course-taking and performance has narrowed in recent decades, females continue to be underrepresented in math-intensive fields of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). Career pathways encompass the ability to pursue a career as well as the motivation to employ that ability. Individual differences in cognitive capacity and motivation are also influenced by broader sociocultural factors. After reviewing research from the fields of psychology, sociology, economics, and education over the past 30 years, we summarize six explanations for US women's underrepresentation in math-intensive STEM fields: (a) cognitive ability, (b) relative cognitive strengths, (c) occupational interests or preferences, (d) lifestyle values or work-family balance preferences, (e) field-specific ability beliefs, and (f) gender-related stereotypes and biases. We then describe the potential biological and sociocultural explanations for observed gender differences on cognitive and motivational factors and demonstrate the developmental period(s) during which each factor becomes most relevant. We then propose evidence-based recommendations for policy and practice to improve STEM diversity and recommendations for future research directions.

  10. Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis (XDR-TB): A daunting challenge to the current End TB Strategy and policy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Arifur; Sarkar, Atanu

    2017-07-01

    Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has emerged as one of the most formidable challenges to the End TB Strategy that has targeted a 95% reduction in TB deaths and 90% reduction in cases by 2035. Globally, there were an estimated 55,100 new XDR-TB cases in 2015 in 117 countries. However, only one in 30 XDR-TB cases had been reported so far. Drug susceptibility test (DST) is the mainstay for diagnosing XDR-TB, but the lack of laboratory facilities in the resource-limited endemic countries limit its uses. A few new drugs including bedaquiline and delamanid, have the potential to improve the efficiency of XDR-TB treatment, but the drugs have been included in 39 countries only. The costs of XDR-TB treatment are several folds higher than that of the MDR-TB. Despite the financing from the donors, there is an urgent need to fill the current funding gap of US$ 2 billion to ensure effective treatment and robust surveillance. In the review article we have addressed current update on XDR-TB, including surveillance, diagnosis and the interventions needed to treat and limit its spread, emphasis on extensive financial support for implementing of current recommendations to meet the goals of End TB Strategy. Copyright © 2017 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Understanding of the Current Long-term Care Policy in China%理解我国现阶段的长期照护政策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房莉杰

    2015-01-01

    以全面了解目前中国的长期照护政策,从制度发展的角度理解其处境、问题及未来趋势为研究目的,回顾了主要相关文献、政府政策文件,并对全国统计数据进行了对比。研究表明:我国进入21世纪以来,长期照护产生和发展背景是需求迅速增加,且原有服务能力不足,因此我国长期照护政策是从服务机构“能力建设”起步。发展至今,一方面服务数量增加、内容丰富、形成多元提供的格局;另一方面,很多服务需求仍没有得到释放,公平性差,服务机构的持续发展也存在隐患。问题的根源在于空有能力建设,而制度建设不足,尤其是筹资制度。%With the purpose of understanding the current long-term care policy and understanding its position, problems and developing trend with an institutional from the perspective of the transition. This paper reviews the main related papers, the government policy document and compares the national statistical data. Since the entrance of the 21st century, the supply of long-term care needs the rapid development and now it is far from adequate. The construction of the long-term new care system has been started with capacity building ten years ago. Understanding the long-term care policy in current China, on one hand, the institutional care and the community care has both developed fast;but on the other hand, the absence of a stable policy scheme has more and more obstructed the sustainable development of the long-term care.

  12. Social work, general practice and evidence-based policy in the collaborative care of older people: current problems and future possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharicha, Kalpa; Levin, Enid; Iliffe, Steve; Davey, Barbara

    2004-03-01

    While collaborative (or joint) working between social services and primary healthcare continues to rise up the policy agenda, current policy is not based on sound evidence of benefit to either patients or the wider community. Both sets of practitioners report benefits for their own work from adopting new arrangements for collaboration. The underlying assumption behind much of this activity is that a greater degree of integration provides benefits to both users and their carers, a perspective that at times obscures the issue of resource availability, especially in the form of practical community services such as district nursing and home help. At the present time there is insufficient evidence to demonstrate that formal arrangements for collaborative working (CW) are better than those forged informally between committed individuals or teams. Furthermore, arrangements for CW have not hitherto been widely evaluated in systematic studies with a comparative design and focus on outcomes for users and carers rather than on processes. In this paper we propose a number of process measures for future evaluation of CW: (1) study populations must be comparable; (2) details of how services are actually delivered must be obtained and colocation should not be assumed to mean collaboration; (3) care packages in areas of comparable resources should be examined; (4) both destinational outcomes and user-defined evaluations of benefit should be considered; (5) possible disadvantages of integrated care also need to be actively considered; (6) evaluations should include an economic analysis. Those implementing new policies in Primary Care Trusts have, at present, little sound evidence to guide them in their innovative work. However, they should take the opportunity to rigorously test the advantages and disadvantages of collaboration.

  13. The optimal age of measles immunisation in low-income countries: a secondary analysis of the assumptions underlying the current policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cesário L; Garly, May-Lill; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Benn, Christine S; Whittle, Hilton

    2012-01-01

    Objective The current policy of measles vaccination at 9 months of age was decided in the mid-1970s. The policy was not tested for impact on child survival but was based on studies of seroconversion after measles vaccination at different ages. The authors examined the empirical evidence for the six underlying assumptions. Design Secondary analysis. Data sources and methods These assumptions have not been research issues. Hence, the authors examined case reports to assess the empirical evidence for the original assumptions. The authors used existing reviews, and in December 2011, the authors made a PubMed search for relevant papers. The title and abstract of papers in English, French, Portuguese, Spanish, German and Scandinavian languages were assessed to ascertain whether the paper was potentially relevant. Based on cumulative measles incidence figures, the authors calculated how many measles cases had been prevented assuming everybody was vaccinated at a specific age, how many ‘vaccine failures’ would occur after the age of vaccination and how many cases would occur before the specific age of vaccination. In the combined analyses of several studies, the authors used the Mantel–Haenszel weighted RR stratifying for study or age groups to estimate common trends. Setting and participants African community studies of measles infection. Primary and secondary outcomes Consistency between assumptions and empirical evidence and the predicted effect on mortality. Results In retrospect, the major assumptions were based on false premises. First, in the single study examining this point, seronegative vaccinated children had considerable protection against measles infection. Second, in 18 community studies, vaccinated measles cases (‘vaccine failures’) had threefold lower case death than unvaccinated cases. Third, in 24 community studies, infants had twofold higher case death than older measles cases. Fourth, the only study examining the assumption that

  14. Does E-Learning Policy Drive Change in Higher Education? A Case Study Relating Models of Organisational Change to E-Learning Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Sara; Oliver, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Due to the heightened competition introduced by the potential global market and the need for structural changes within organisations delivering e-content, e-learning policy is beginning to take on a more significant role within the context of educational policy per se. For this reason, it is becoming increasingly important to establish what effect…

  15. Drug Policy in Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Charalambous

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The provision of pharmaceutical drugs is of enormous significance in our lives. Notable progress made inthe domain of Public Health, combined with a general increase in the standard of living, has had a direct impact on thediscovery of new drugs and cures and has shifted pharmaceutical policies further in line with the current needs of boththe country’s health system and, its population.Aim: This research aims to both shed light on and analyse the current state of pharmaceutical policy in Cyprus, as well asto try to seek out its weaknesses, making suggestions, where possible, as to how to keep these to the minimum.Results, and Conclusions: The lack of both high level research and major industrial facilities relating to the discovery ofnew pharmaceutical drugs in Cyprus, has hindered the effectiveness of pharmaceutical policy in general domains such ascontrol over the circulation and production of pharmaceutical products in the country, their pricing and distribution andthe monitoring of our drug supplies. The lack of transparency in a number of pharmaceutical procedures, and ofinformation on drugs does not enhance the industry’s reliability, but rather exacerbates an underlying feeling of insecurityrelating to it among the population.

  16. Economic assessment of alternative energy policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groncki, P J; Goettle, IV, R J; Hudson, E A

    1980-04-01

    Current US energy policy includes many programs directed toward the restructuring of the energy system so as to decrease US dependence on foreign supplies and to increase our reliance on plentiful and environmentally benign energy forms. However, recent events have led to renewed concern over the direction of current energy policy. This study describes three possible energy strategies and analyzes each in terms of its economic, environmental, and national security benefits and costs. Each strategy is represented by a specific policy. The first strategy is to initiate no additional programs or policies beyond those currently in effect or announced. The second is to direct policy toward reducing the growth in energy demand, i.e., energy conservation. The third is to promote increased supply through accelerated development of synthetic and unconventional fuels. The analysis focuses on the evaluation and comparison of these strategy alternatives with respect to their energy, economic, and environmental consequences. The analysis indicates that conservation can substantially reduce import dependence and slow the growth of energy demand, with only a small macroeconomic cost and with substantial environmental benefits; the synfuels policy reduces imports by a smaller amount, does not reduce the growth in energy demand, and involves substantial environmental costs and impacts on economic performance. However, these relationships could be different if the energy savings per unit cost for conservation turned out to be less than anticipated; therefore, both conservation and R, D, and D support for synfuels should be included in future energy policy.

  17. Potential External (non-DOE) Constraints on U.S. Fuel Cycle Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven J. Piet

    2012-07-01

    The DOE Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program will be conducting a screening of fuel cycle options in FY2013 to help focus fuel cycle R&D activities. As part of this screening, performance criteria and go/no-go criteria are being identified. To help ensure that these criteria are consistent with current policy, an effort was initiated to identify the status and basis of potentially relevant regulations, laws, and policies that have been established external to DOE. As such regulations, laws, and policies may be beyond DOE’s control to change, they may constrain the screening criteria and internally-developed policy. This report contains a historical survey and analysis of publically available domestic documents that could pertain to external constraints on advanced nuclear fuel cycles. “External” is defined as public documents outside DOE. This effort did not include survey and analysis of constraints established internal to DOE.

  18. The Level Of Corporate Dividend Payout To Stockholders: Does Optimal Dividend Policy Exist For Firms Quoted At The Nairobi Stock Exchange?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bitok Kibet; Tenai Joel; Cheruiyot Thomas; Maru Loice; Kipsat Mary

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the level of corporate dividend payout to stockholders and establish if the optimal dividend policy exists for the firms quoted at the Nairobi Stock Exchange (NSE...

  19. Food use in middle and high school fundraising: Does policy support healthy practice? Results from a survey of Minnesota school principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Martha Y.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Farbakhsh, Kian; Moe, Stacey; Samuelson, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive, cross-sectional study aimed to examine classroom, school-wide and club/sports teams fundraising policies and practices of middle and high schools; concordance between policy and practice; and associations between healthy policy/practice scores and selected school characteristics. In 2006, principals/designees of middle (n=45) and high (n=71) schools in the St. Paul/Minneapolis, Minnesota metropolitan area completed a self-administered mailed survey. Schools were attended by a convenience sample of students (n=349) participating in a longitudinal measurement study of children and their environments to assess obesity-related factors. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and multivariate linear regression were used to examine variables and associations of interest. Across schools, 50% had policies addressing the nutrient quality of food/drink items used in fundraising or disallowed food use for fundraising. About one-third used chocolate, candy and high-fat baked goods for classroom and school-wide fundraising; 60% sold these items for club/sports teams fundraising. More middle than high schools reported healthy fundraising policies or practices, as well as greater concordance between policies and practices. For all fundraising activities, high schools had significantly lower healthy policy/practice scores than middle schools (p < 0.01). For school-wide fundraising, scores were significantly lower for public than private schools (p=0.02). Policies to regulate food used for fundraising were common and most supported healthy practice, particularly in middle schools. However, the use of foods high in fat and added sugars remains a prevalent fundraising practice, especially in high schools and for club/sports teams, and requires further attention. PMID:19559138

  20. Food use in middle and high school fundraising: does policy support healthful practice? Results from a survey of Minnesota school principals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Martha Y; Lytle, Leslie A; Farbakhsh, Kian; Moe, Stacey; Samuelson, Anne

    2009-07-01

    This descriptive, cross-sectional study aimed to examine classroom, school-wide, and club/sports teams fundraising policies and practices of middle and high schools; concordance between policy and practice; and associations between healthful policy/practice scores and selected school characteristics. In 2006, principals/designees of middle (n=45) and high (n=71) schools in the St Paul/Minneapolis, MN, metropolitan area completed a self-administered mailed survey. Schools were attended by a convenience sample of students (n=349) participating in a longitudinal measurement study of children and their environments to assess obesity-related factors. Descriptive statistics, chi(2) tests, and multivariate linear regression were used to examine variables and associations of interest. Across schools, 50% had policies addressing the nutrient quality of food and drink items used in fundraising or disallowed food use for fundraising. About one third used chocolate, candy, and high-fat baked goods for classroom and school-wide fundraising; 60% sold these items for club/sports teams fundraising. More middle than high schools reported healthful fundraising policies or practices, as well as greater concordance between policies and practices. For all fundraising activities, high schools had significantly lower healthful policy/practice scores than middle schools (P<0.01). For school-wide fundraising, scores were significantly lower for public than private schools (P=0.02). Policies to regulate food used for fundraising were common and most supported healthful practice, particularly in middle schools. However, use of foods high in fat and added sugars remains a prevalent fundraising practice, especially in high schools and for club/sports teams, and requires additional attention.

  1. Divergent Evolution in Education for Sustainable Development Policy in the United Kingdom: Current Status, Best Practice, and Opportunities for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Scott

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the current status of all aspects of education for sustainable development (ESD across the United Kingdom (UK, drawing on evidence from its political jurisdictions (England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales, and setting out some characteristics of best practice. The paper analyzes current barriers to progress, and outlines future opportunities for enhancing the core role of education and learning in the pursuit of a more sustainable future. Although effective ESD exists at all levels, and in most learning contexts across the UK, with good teaching and enhanced learner outcomes, the authors argue that a wider adoption of ESD would result from the development of a strategic framework which puts it at the core of the education policy agenda in every jurisdiction. This would provide much needed coherence, direction and impetus to existing initiatives, scale up and build on existing good practice, and prevent unnecessary duplication of effort and resources. The absence of an overarching UK strategy for sustainable development that sets out a clear vision about the contribution learning can make to its goals is a major barrier to progress. This strategy needs to be coupled with the establishment of a pan-UK forum for overseeing the promotion, implementation and evaluation of ESD.

  2. Does Variation in the Extent of Generalized Trust, Does Variation in the Extent of Generalized Trust, Individual Education and Extensiveness of Social Security Policies Matter for Maximization of Subjective Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, Rania F.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I examine whether generalized trust and education, as well as social security policies of welfare state institutions matter for cross-national differences in subjective well-being (SWB), because knowledge on this issue is still lacking. For this purpose I integrated the insights of two sociological theories: Social Function…

  3. Control of antibiotic resistance in China must not be delayed: The current state of resistance and policy suggestions for the government, medical facilities, and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qi; Song, Peipei; Li, Jiajia; Kong, Fanlei; Sun, Long; Xu, Lingzhong

    2016-02-01

    Antibiotics are medicines used to prevent and treat bacterial infections. Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria change in response to the use of these medicines. Antibiotic resistance is rising to dangerously high levels in all parts of the world, leading to higher medical costs, prolonged hospital stays, and increased mortality. In the European Union alone, drug-resistant bacteria are estimated to cause 25,000 deaths and cost more than US$1.5 billion every year in healthcare expenses and productivity losses. The problems of antibiotic misuse and antibiotic resistance are quite serious in China. In 2015, results of a study by the State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences indicated that the total antibiotic usage in China in 2013 was approximately 162,000 tons, including human use (48%) and use in animals (52%). This amount accounted for about half of the antibiotic usage worldwide. The per-capita use of antibiotics in China is more than 5 times that in Europe and the United States. These data mean that China is one of the world's leading countries with serious problems in terms of antibiotic misuse and antibiotic resistance. The current article analyzes the current state and harms of antibiotic misuse and causes of antibiotic resistance in China. The Government needs to pay close attention to the issue of antibiotic resistance in China and formulate a strategy at the national level. Thus, the following suggestions are offered: i) The Chinese Government should implement policies that promote antibiotic research and development; ii) Medical facilities in China should create multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) and encourage early action by MDTs to control the spread of multi-drug-resistant bacteria (MDRB); iii) An intervention in the form of health education should target patients and accompanying family members (AFM) in China. In other words, antibiotic resistance is not a personal problem but an

  4. Timing of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria during pregnancy and the implications of current policy on early uptake in north-east Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chambo Pili

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp is efficacious in reducing the adverse outcomes associated with pregnancy-associated malaria, however uptake of the recommended two doses is low in Tanzania, and little is known of the timepoint during pregnancy at which it is delivered. This study investigated the timing of delivery of IPTp to pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC, and the potential determinants of timely uptake. Methods Structured interviews were conducted with staff and pregnant women at antenatal clinics in northeast Tanzania, and antenatal consultations were observed. Facility-based and individual factors were analysed for any correlation with timing of IPTp uptake. Results Almost half the women interviewed first attended ANC during or before the fourth month of gestation, however 86% of these early attendees did not receive IPTp on their first visit. The timing of IPTp delivery complied closely with the national guidelines which stipulate giving the first dose at 20–24 weeks gestation. Uptake of at least one dose of IPTp among women who had reached this gestation age was 67%, although this varied considerably between clinics. At one facility, IPTp was not delivered because SP was out of stock. Conclusion Early uptake of IPTp was found to be hampered by factors external to health worker performance or women's individual preferences. These include insufficient drug stocks and an apparent lack of information to health workers on the reasoning for continued use of SP for IPTp when it has been replaced as a first-line treatment. In addition, an unexpectedly high proportion of women attend antenatal clinics before 20 weeks of pregnancy. While current policy denies the use of IPTp at this time, there is emerging, but incomplete, evidence that malaria in early pregnancy may contribute considerably to the burden of pregnancy-related malaria. Current policy may thus result in a missed opportunity for maximising

  5. Environmental education policy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe; Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Blum, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    in the areas of Environmental Education (EE), Education for Sustainable Development and Climate Change Education. It especially makes a case for two kinds of research on EE policy: (1) a multi-sited approach to empirical documentation and theory development which explores the relationships between......This essay examines the relationship between research and policy and, more specifically, how researchers might relate to policy work. Given the current international policy focus on climate change, green growth and sustainability in general, it argues for strengthening and widening policy research...... international policy agreements and local practice, and (2) an interactive policy-engaged approach to research....

  6. Does central bank communication really lead to better forecasts of policy decisions? New evidence based on a Taylor rule model for the ECB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, Jan-Egbert; De Haan, Jakob

    Nowadays, it is widely believed that greater disclosure and clarity over policy may lead to greater predictability of central bank actions. We examine whether communication by the European Central Bank (ECB) adds information compared to the information provided by a Taylor rule model in which

  7. From coordinated care trials to medicare locals: what difference does changing the policy driver from efficiency to quality make for coordinating care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Karen; Yen, Laurann; Banfield, Michelle; Gillespie, James; McRae, Ian; Wells, Robert

    2013-02-01

    The terms coordination and integration refer to a wide range of interventions, from strategies aimed at coordinating clinical care for individuals to organizational and system interventions such as managed care, which contract medical and support services. Ongoing debate about whether financial and organizational integration are needed to achieve clinical integration is evident in policy debates over several decades, from a focus through the 1990s on improving coordination through structural reform and the use of market mechanisms to achieve allocative efficiencies (better overall service mix) to more recent attention on system performance to improve coordination and quality. We examine this shift in Australia and ask how has changing the policy driver affected efforts to achieve coordination? Care planning, fund pooling and purchasing are still important planks in coordination. Evidence suggests that financial strategies can be used to drive improvements for particular patient groups, but these are unlikely to improve outcomes without being linked to clinical strategies that support coordination through multidisciplinary teamwork, IT, disease management guidelines and audit and feedback. Meso level organizational strategies might align the various elements to improve coordination. Changing the policy driver has refocused research and policy over the last two decades from a focus on achieving allocative efficiencies to achieving quality and value for money. Research is yet to develop theoretical approaches that can deal with the implications for assessing effectiveness. Efforts need to identify intervention mechanisms, plausible relationships between these and their measurable outcomes and the components of contexts that support the emergence of intervention attributes.

  8. 'Sustainability does not quite get the attention it deserves': synergies and tensions in the sustainability frames of Australian food policy actors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevena, Helen; Kaldor, Jenny Claire; Downs, Shauna M

    2015-09-01

    The development of food policy is strongly influenced by the understanding and position actors adopt in their 'framing' of sustainability. The Australian Government developed a National Food Plan (2010-2013). In public consultations on the National Food Plan Green Paper, the government sought stakeholders' views on sustainability. The present study examined the way in which the food industry and civil society organizations framed sustainability in their submissions to the Green Paper. Submissions by food industry actors and civil society organizations were analysed using a framing matrix that examined positioning, drivers, underlying principles and policy solutions related to sustainability. Submissions were open coded and subsequently organized based on themes within the framing matrix. Australia. One hundred and twenty-four written submissions (1420 pages). While submissions from industry and civil society organizations often framed sustainability similarly, there were also major differences. Civil society organizations were more likely to make the link between the food supply and population health, while industry was more likely to focus on economic sustainability. Both viewed consumer demand as a driver of sustainability, welcomed the idea of a whole-of-government approach and stressed the need for investment in research and development to improve productivity and sustainable farming practices. The meaning of sustainability shifted throughout the policy process. There are opportunities for creating shared value in food policy, where the health, environment and economic dimensions of sustainability can be compatible. However, despite pockets of optimism there is a need for a shared vision of sustainability if Australia is to have a food policy integrating these dimensions.

  9. Experiments on Crowdsourcing Policy Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Prpic, J.; Taeihagh, A.; Melton, J.

    2017-01-01

    Can Crowds serve as useful allies in policy design? How do non-expert Crowds perform relative to experts in the assessment of policy measures? Does the geographic location of non-expert Crowds, with relevance to the policy context, alter the performance of non-experts Crowds in the assessment of policy measures? In this work, we investigate these questions by undertaking experiments designed to replicate expert policy assessments with non-expert Crowds recruited from Virtual Labor Markets. We...

  10. DOE`s Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse (EPIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otis, P.T.

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse (EPIC) is a computer system intended for the exchange of pollution prevention information DOE-wide. EPIC is being developed as a distributed system that will allow access to other databases and applications. The first prototype of EPIC (Prototype I) was put on-line in January 1994. Prototype I contains information on EM-funded pollution prevention projects; relevant laws, regulations, guidance, and policy; facility and DOE contacts; and meetings and conferences. Prototype I also gives users access to the INEL Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System (HSSDS) and to information contained on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPNS) Pollution Prevention Infbrmation Exchange System (PIES) as a test of the distributed system concept. An initial user group of about 35 is testing and providing feedback on Prototype I. Prototype II, with a Graphical User Interface (GUI), is planned for the end of CY94. This paper describes the current state of EPIC in terms of architecture, user interface, and information content. Plans for Prototype II and the final system are then discussed. The EPIC development effort is being coordinated with EPA and US Department of Defense (DoD) efforts to develop or upgrade their pollution prevention information exchange systems.

  11. Working with Indian Tribal Nations. A guide for DOE employees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-12-31

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) employees and contractors frequently work with Indian tribes or nations as part of their jobs. The purpose of this guide is to help DOE employees and contractors initiate contact with tribes and build effective relationships. DOE maintains a unique government-to government relationship with tribal nations. This guide presents an overview of the history of the relationship between the tribes and the Federal government, as well as the laws and Executive Orders that define that relationship. The guide discusses the Federal government’s trust responsibility to the tribes, tribal treaty rights, and the Department of Energy’s American Indian policy. The guide also discusses important cultural differences that could lead to communication problems if not understood and provides examples of potential cultural misunderstandings. In particular the guide discusses tribal environmental beliefs that shape tribal responses to DOE actions. The guide also provides pointers on tribal etiquette during meetings and cultural ceremonies and when visiting tribal reservations. Appendix 1 gives examples of the tribal nations with whom DOE currently has Memoranda of Understanding. While this guide provides an introduction and overview of tribal relations for DOE staff and contractors, DOE has also designated Tribal Issues Points of Contacts at each of its facilities. A list of these Points of Contact for all DOE facilities is provided in Appendix 2. DOE staff and contractors should consult with the appropriate tribal representatives at their site before initiating contact with a tribal nation, because many tribes have rules and procedures that must be complied with before DOE staff or contractors may go on tribal lands or conduct interviews with tribal members. Appendix 3 is the complete DOE American Indian Policy. Appendices 4-6 are Executive Orders that govern the relationship of all federal agencies with tribal nations. DOE employees and staff are

  12. Controversy, salaries rise. Ranking of CEO pay at publicly traded companies shows that as pay rises, so does federal interest in compensation policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benko, Laura B; Galloro, Vince; Zigmond, Jessica

    2006-07-31

    The scrutiny of executive pay is ratcheting up. More healthcare companies have gotten subpoenas on stock options, and the SEC is making it easier for investors to understand how executives are paid. The heat already has UnitedHealth easing some of its practices. Others may follow suit. "Most compensation policies seem to be driven primarily by what a company's peers are doing," says Paul Hodgson, left.

  13. French Neo-Colonial Influence on Moroccan Language Education Policy: A Study of Current Status of Standard Arabic in Science Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhir, Marouane; O'Brien, Jason L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study on the attitudes of teachers and students regarding the language policy of the Moroccan educational system. Its primary goal is to explain the gap existing between the policy of Arabisation (i.e., the official adoption and utilization of Standard Arabic) and its practical implementation in science…

  14. Getting research to the policy table: a qualitative study with public health researchers on engaging with policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Jennifer J; Dodson, Elizabeth A; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Siddiqi, Sameer; Quinn, Emilee L

    2015-04-30

    Little attention has been given to how researchers can best provide evidence to policy makers so that it informs policy making. The objectives of this study were to increase understanding about the current state of public health nutrition and obesity researcher practices, beliefs, barriers, and facilitators to communicating and engaging with policy makers, and to identify best practices and suggest improvements. Eighteen semistructured interviews were conducted from 2011 to 2013 with public health nutrition and obesity researchers who were highly involved in communicating research to policy makers. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, coded, and analyzed to identify common themes. Study participants described wide variation in practices for communicating and engaging with policy makers and had mixed beliefs about whether and when researchers should engage. Besides a lack of formal policy communication training, barriers noted were promotion and tenure processes and a professional culture that does not value communicating and engaging with policy makers. Study participants cited facilitators to engaging with policy makers as ranging from the individual level (eg, desire to make a difference, relationships with collaborators) to the institutional level (eg, training/mentorship support, institutional recognition). Other facilitators identified were research- and funding-driven. Promising strategies suggested to improve policy engagement were more formal training, better use of intermediaries, and learning how to cultivate relationships with policy makers. Study findings provide insights into the challenges that will need to be overcome and the strategies that might be tried to improve communication and engagement between public health researchers and policy makers.

  15. DOE 5700.6C, 10CFR830.120, DOE-ER-STD-6001-92, and Covey-based TQM: A historical perspective on current issues in research environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnarczuk, M

    1994-06-01

    Three years ago there were no standards or published guidelines for quality in research environments. Today, one standard has been published, and three guidelines documents are in final draft form and about to be published. In this paper, I describe the events that led to the writing of DOE 5700.6C, 10CFR830.120, and DOE-ER-STD-6001-92, focusing on the cultural barriers that arose (largely in the community of quality assurance professionals) during this process. I go on to describe why I believe that implementing DOE 5700.6C and 10CFR830.120 must be pushed even further toward an approach that embodies the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award and why even this is not far enough. The reason is because the most crucial aspect of successfully implementing a quality initiative is to base it on a cohesive, unified foundation of organizational and individual values and beliefs. Stephen Covey`s 7 Habits of Highly Effective People and Principle Centered Leadership provide such a foundations.

  16. DOE 5700.6C, 10CFR830.120, DOE-ER-STD-6001-92, and Covey-based TQM: A historical perspective on current issues in research environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnarczuk, M

    1994-06-01

    Three years ago there were no standards or published guidelines for quality in research environments. Today, one standard has been published, and three guidelines documents are in final draft form and about to be published. In this paper, I describe the events that led to the writing of DOE 5700.6C, 10CFR830.120, and DOE-ER-STD-6001-92, focusing on the cultural barriers that arose (largely in the community of quality assurance professionals) during this process. I go on to describe why I believe that implementing DOE 5700.6C and 10CFR830.120 must be pushed even further toward an approach that embodies the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award and why even this is not far enough. The reason is because the most crucial aspect of successfully implementing a quality initiative is to base it on a cohesive, unified foundation of organizational and individual values and beliefs. Stephen Covey`s 7 Habits of Highly Effective People and Principle Centered Leadership provide such a foundations.

  17. Direction of Policy Convergence in the EU: The Case of Genetically Modified Maize Labelling Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Sadot Sosa-Núñez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to contribute to the academic dialogue of policy convergence by examining the direction taken by the policy to label genetically modified maize in the European Union. Considering international harmonisation as the causal mechanism, this article provides a chronological account of policy outputs, understood as directives and regulations related to this policy area. Additionally, there is an analysis of the increase of the degree of policy convergence. Furthermore, different national perspectives on the issue are presented, offering an insight about policy direction in terms of the interaction that governments of member states have between them and with the European Commission. Concomitantly, the direction that policy convergence takes points at strengthening member states’ views of developing stricter rules through time. Subsequently, results demonstrate that policy convergence can appear only with member states’ consent, regardless of the position that regional institutions may have; although they may influence the process to some extent. Nonetheless, this does not mean that the current direction should be taken for granted.

  18. Policy Reform Efforts and Equal Opportunity – An Evidence-Based Link? An Analysis of Current Sector Reforms in the Austrian School System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Corinna Geppert; Sonja Bauer-Hofmann; Stefan Thomas Hopmann

    2012-01-01

    The main focus of the present paper is to answer two different questions: From the perspective of Austrian education policy, which core areas of schooling are linked to the demand for equal opportunity...

  19. The pendulum swings back to scoliosis screening: screening policies for early detection and treatment of idiopathic scoliosis - current concepts and recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This editorial article initiates the school scoliosis screening thematic series of the Scoliosis journal. The various issues on screening policies are discussed; clinical and practical recommendations of setting up school screening programs are also described.

  20. Barriers to breastfeeding in Lebanon: A policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akik, Chaza; Ghattas, Hala; Filteau, Suzanne; Knai, Cecile

    2017-08-01

    Although the issue of breastfeeding in Lebanon has risen on the political agenda, the country does not meet international recommendations for early breastfeeding practices. This study analysed barriers to dissemination, implementation, and enforcement of key policies to improve early breastfeeding practices. We conducted interviews with stakeholders in breastfeeding policy in Lebanon and used a framework approach for analysing data. We found a disconnect between policy endorsement and translation on the ground, weak engagement of professional associations and governmental institutions, undue influence by the breast milk substitute industry, and competing priorities-most notably the current refugee crisis. This study highlights the potential policy opportunities to counter these barriers and points to the role of international organisations and grassroots advocacy in pushing, monitoring, and implementing policies that protect breastfeeding, where government capacity is limited, and the private sector is strong.

  1. On Current Russian Ethnic Theory and Foreign Policy in Focus%当前俄罗斯民族理论及政策聚焦问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范俊

    2016-01-01

    The major factors that lead to national problems in Russia include extremely complex ethnic composition,biased ethnic policies and the impact of globalization.Russian theorists show great concern for these problems and focus on inter-ethnic con-flicts,national separation,state-nation construction,reform of national federalism and status of overseas Russians.The dispute a-mong current various Russian national theories stems largely from different academic standpoints:the state's position,the position of Russian nationality and other minorities' position.In regard to the solution,a challenge faced by Russia is to search for balance between how to promote national blending and how to avoid the fault of the integration model of inter-ethnic politics in USSR.%极其复杂的民族构成、失之偏颇的民族政策与全球化的冲击是导致俄罗斯民族问题的主要因素。对此,俄罗斯理论界与政府表现出极大关注,并把目光聚焦在族际冲突、民族分离、国族建设、民族联邦制改革以及境外俄罗斯人地位等问题上。当前俄罗斯各种民族理论间的争议很大程度上源自不同的学术立场:国家的立场、俄罗斯族的立场以及其他少数民族的立场。在民族问题的治理路径上,如何在促进民族交融与避免苏联族际政治整合模式的失误之间寻找平衡点,是俄罗斯面临的一个挑战。

  2. Does Stigmatized Social Risk Lead to Denialism? Results from a Survey Experiment on Race, Risk Perception, and Health Policy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Yarrow; Lieberman, Evan S; Snell, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we report findings from an original survey experiment investigating the effects of different framings of disease threats on individual risk perceptions and policy priorities. We analyze responses from 1,946 white and African-American participants in a self-administered, web-based survey in the United States. We sought to investigate the effects of: 1) frames emphasizing disparities in the racial prevalence of disease and 2) frames emphasizing non-normative (blameworthy or stigmatized) behavioral risk factors. We find some evidence that when treated with the first frame, African-Americans are more likely to report higher risk of infection (compared to an African-American control group and to whites receiving the same treatment); and that whites are more likely to report trust in government data (compared to a White control group and to African-Americans receiving the same treatment). Notwithstanding, we find no support for our hypotheses concerning the interactive effects of providing both frames, which was a central motivation for our study. We argue that this may be due to very large differences in risk perception at baseline (which generate limits on possible treatment effects) and the fact that in the context of American race relations, it may not be possible to fully differentiate racialized and stigmatized frames.

  3. Does Stigmatized Social Risk Lead to Denialism? Results from a Survey Experiment on Race, Risk Perception, and Health Policy in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarrow Dunham

    Full Text Available In this article, we report findings from an original survey experiment investigating the effects of different framings of disease threats on individual risk perceptions and policy priorities. We analyze responses from 1,946 white and African-American participants in a self-administered, web-based survey in the United States. We sought to investigate the effects of: 1 frames emphasizing disparities in the racial prevalence of disease and 2 frames emphasizing non-normative (blameworthy or stigmatized behavioral risk factors. We find some evidence that when treated with the first frame, African-Americans are more likely to report higher risk of infection (compared to an African-American control group and to whites receiving the same treatment; and that whites are more likely to report trust in government data (compared to a White control group and to African-Americans receiving the same treatment. Notwithstanding, we find no support for our hypotheses concerning the interactive effects of providing both frames, which was a central motivation for our study. We argue that this may be due to very large differences in risk perception at baseline (which generate limits on possible treatment effects and the fact that in the context of American race relations, it may not be possible to fully differentiate racialized and stigmatized frames.

  4. Current Titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2006-06-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Jane Cavlina, Administrator, at 510/486-6036.

  5. Does " Kuroda Easing Policy " Work? -- The Rational Thought Based on the Economics%“黑田宽松”能奏效吗--基于经济学的理性思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑蔚

    2015-01-01

    Since Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s second administration in December, 2012, the new governor of BOJ (Bank of Japan), Haruhiko Kuroda, rolled out a new series of daring and radical monetary easing policy which was called “Kuroda Easing Policy ". It was a combination of quantitative easing and credit easing. The policy, of course, which simply as a disguised relfection was a “breach” of getting rid of delfation spiral for Abe Regime. The thesis interprets and analyses the background, content and implied risk of Japanese current monetary policy in the perspective of economics. It aims at warning the risks of global economy owing to those developed economic entity adopting untraditional monetary policy in succession after the Global Financial Crisis of 2008, and then pointing out the emerging economies' risk precaution policy, which was led by China.%“黑田宽松”是日本首相安倍晋三于2012年第2次执政以来日本新任央行行长黑田东彦推出的被称为“量化”与“质化”并举的一系列大胆激进的宽松货币政策。“黑田宽松”披着“再通胀主义”的学理“外衣”成为安倍政权急于摆脱通缩恶性循环现状的“突破口”。文章从经济学的视角解读并剖析日本现行货币金融政策的背景、内容及其隐含的风险,以警示在2008年全球金融危机后世界主要发达经济体纷纷采取非传统货币政策背景下对全球经济造成的风险,并指出以中国为代表的新兴经济体的风险防范对策。

  6. The current status of the debate on socio-economic regulatory assessments: positions and policies in Canada, the USA, the EU and developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falck-Zepeda, J.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Smyth, S.

    2013-01-01

    Article 26.1 of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety has the option of considering socio-economic issues in biosafety regulatory approval processes related to genetically engineered organisms. National laws and regulations in some countries have already defined positions and may have enacted policies

  7. Current Trends of Periodical Circulation Policies Relative to Attitudes by Librarians Toward Causes of Mutilation and Theft in 92 Four-Year Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ron G.

    This study was designed to accomplish three objectives relating to periodical circulation in college and university libraries: 1) to establish present circulation policy trends, 2) to obtain attitudinal information on mutilation and theft of periodicals from serial librarians, and 3) to ascertain if there were, at present, any workable methods of…

  8. EUROPEAN MARITIME TRANSPORT POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kujawa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the common EU policy on maritime transport, which comprises almost 80% of the volume of external trade of the Union and about 40% of internal transport needs. The first part of the paper presents the origins of the common maritime transport policy and the difficulties encountered during its initial formation. Subsequently, the evolution of the concepts of the policy and its current shape is discussed. The final, substantial part of the article describes the main aims and directions of the EU maritime transport policy and includes an evaluation of the effects of the policy.

  9. Cyber security policy guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Bayuk, nifer L; Rohmeyer, l; Sachs, cus; Schmidt, frey; Weiss, eph

    2012-01-01

    This book is a taxonomy and thesaurus of current cybersecurity policy issues, including a thorough description of each issue and a corresponding list of pros and cons with respect to identified stances on each issue. It documents policy alternatives for the sake of clarity with respect to policy alone, and dives into organizational implementation issues. Without using technical jargon, the book emphasizes the importance of critical and analytical thinking when making policy decisions.  It also equips the reader with descriptions of the impact of specific policy ch

  10. Does globalization restrict budgetary autonomy? A multidimensional approach

    OpenAIRE

    Heinemann, Friedrich

    1999-01-01

    Does globalization restrict the leeway for national budgetary policy? With the help of cluster and discriminant analysis this study provides evidence on the basis of the experience of OECD countries since the 1970s. Four budgetary dimensions are included in the analysis: tax structure, expenditure structure, public debt and budget size. Globalization as a potential driving force for changes in government finance is identified in form of variables on the existence of capital and current accoun...

  11. ENDOGENOUS QUALITY AND AGRICULTURAL POLICY ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    James, Jennifer S.

    1999-01-01

    The typical analysis of agricultural policy assumes that the commodity of interest is homogeneous, and that it does not change as a result of policy implementation. This paper develops a model of agricultural policy analysis when the restriction of product homogeneity is relaxed and policy-induced quality responses are incorporated.

  12. Does the Common Agricultural Policy still make sense in the twenty-first century? CAP after 2013 from the perspective of Poland and Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Daszkowska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU CAP has developed immensely since the 1960’s. However, its current determinants are completely different from those which formed the CAP foundations. This results mainly from the fact that the UE CAP must meet present-day challenges and threats. Moreover, further EU enlargements also significantly influenced performance of this sector of economy. It is important to determine whether the existence of the CAP in the twenty-first century still makes sense and to specify in more detail the CAP reform directions after 2013 from the perspective of Poland and Hungary.

  13. Current preventive policies and practices against Vaccine-Preventable Diseases and tuberculosis targeted for workers from hospitals of the Sardinia Region, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Campagna, M.; Argiolas, F.; Soggiu, B.; Mereu, N.M.; Lai, A.; Galletta, M.; R.C. Coppola

    2016-01-01

    Summary Introduction. Health care Workers are exposed to infectious diseases more than the general population. Many of these infections are preventable by vaccination. The objective in this study is to investigate whether, how, and which vaccination underwent Sardinia Health Care Workers (HCWs) and the variability of policies in different Hospital Health Managements of the whole region. Methods. In March 2013, we enrolled the Hospital Health Management of all the 32 Sardinia hospitals. We inv...

  14. Does There Exist Only One Solution of the Dyson-Schwinger Equation for the Quark Propagator in the Case of Non-Zero Current Quark Mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Hong-Shi; SUN Wei-Min; PING Jia-Lun; L(U) Xiao-Fu; WANG Fan

    2005-01-01

    @@ It is shown on general ground that there exist two qualitatively distinct solutions of the Dyson-Schwinger equation for the quark propagator in the case of non-zero current quark mass. One solution corresponds to the "NambuGoldstone" phase and the other one corresponds to the "Wigner" phase in the chiral limit.

  15. DOE 2008 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. The DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  16. DOE 2009 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2009 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  17. DOE 2010 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  18. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  19. Does the initiation of urate-lowering treatment during an acute gout attack prolong the current episode and precipitate recurrent attacks: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminaga, Fatma; La-Crette, Jonathan; Jones, Adrian; Abhishek, A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature on effect of initiating urate-lowering treatment (ULT) during an acute attack of gout on duration of index attack and persistence on ULT. OVID (Medline), EMBASE and AMED were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of ULT initiation during acute gout attack published in English language. Two reviewers appraised the study quality and extracted data independently. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and relative risk (RR) were used to pool continuous and categorical data. Meta-analysis was carried out using STATA version 14. A total of 537 studies were selected. A total of 487 titles and abstracts were reviewed after removing duplicates. Three RCTs were identified. There was evidence from two high-quality studies that early initiation of allopurinol did not increase pain severity at days 10-15 [SMDpooled (95 % CI) 0.18 (-0.58, 0.93)]. Data from three studies suggested that initiation of ULT during an acute attack of gout did not associate with dropouts [RRpooled (95 % CI) 1.16 (0.58, 2.31)]. There is moderate-quality evidence that the initiation of ULT during an acute attack of gout does not increase pain severity and risk of ULT discontinuation. Larger studies are required to confirm these findings so that patients with acute gout can be initiated on ULT with confidence.

  20. A review of major influences on current public health policy in developed countries in the second half of the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Linda; Elliott, Lawrie; Wallace, Hilary; Crombie, Iain K

    2006-03-01

    Public health policy underwent substantial transformation during the latter half of the 20th century. The landmark statement was the 1948 World Health Organization (WHO) constitution, which identified good health as a fundamental right and gave the responsibility to governments to achieve it for all their people. However, following World War II, developed countries made substantial investment in health care with less attention paid to public health. The importance of public health was slowly recognised over the period from 1970 to 2000 with the publication of several reports from different organisations. The first authoritative policy statement that the important determinants of health lay outside health care was in the Lalonde Report from Canada. These ideas were subsequently expressed in the WHO Alma-Ata declaration and were emphasised a year later by the US Surgeon General. The idea of setting goals for health improvement also began in the 1970s. The Lalonde Report and the United Kingdom Black Report recommended that targets be used, but the first explicitly stated health targets were set by the US in 1979. WHO also identified the need for such targets at this time, but did not introduce them until 1984. Since then health targets have become a central feature of public health policy in developed countries. The Ottawa Conference on Health Promotion in 1986 championed the view that health promotion was central to achieving health goals internationally. It helped clarify the types of actions needed: that individuals need to be provided with the supportive environment and economic resources to be able to lead healthy lives. In a further development, the Healthy Cities Project was launched with the specific aim of involving political decision-makers in building a strong lobby for public health at the local level. The Healthy Cities Project illustrates how to provide means and opportunity for interventions to be implemented in communities. Concerns with inequalities

  1. The war on antisocial behaviour : rationeles underlying antisocial behaviour policies : comparing British and Dutch discourse analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koemans, Monique Louise

    2011-01-01

    Only fifteen years ago, measures against antisocial behaviour on the street (ASB) were on the fringe of crime policies. Now this kind of behaviour is the focus of many new anti-crime actions. If this sort of sub-crime is addressed as a major security problem what does that say about the current Dutc

  2. Final Technical Report Power through Policy: "Best Practices" for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhoads-Weaver, Heather; Gagne, Matthew; Sahl, Kurt; Orrell, Alice; Banks, Jennifer

    2012-02-28

    Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The project's final products include the Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool, found at www.windpolicytool.org, and its accompanying documentation: Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool Guidebook: User Instructions, Assumptions, and Case Studies. With only two initial user inputs required, the Policy Tool allows users to adjust and test a wide range of policy-related variables through a user-friendly dashboard interface with slider bars. The Policy Tool is populated with a variety of financial variables, including turbine costs, electricity rates, policies, and financial incentives; economic variables including discount and escalation rates; as well as technical variables that impact electricity production, such as turbine power curves and wind speed. The Policy Tool allows users to change many of the variables, including the policies, to gauge the expected impacts that various policy combinations could have on the cost of energy (COE), net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and the simple payback of distributed wind projects ranging in size from 2.4 kilowatts (kW) to 100 kW. The project conducted case studies to demonstrate how the Policy Tool can provide insights into 'what if' scenarios and also allow the current status of incentives to be examined or defended when

  3. 耕地保护生态补偿现状及政策建议%Current Situation and Policy Suggestion of Ecological Compensation for Cultivated Land Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林; 李海燕

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of exploration of the present situation of cultivated land protection of ecological compensation in China,the necessity to establish the ecological compensation of cultivated land protection was analyzed,and relevant policy suggestions to perfect the ecological compensation for farmland protection in China were finally put forward.%在剖析我国耕地保护生态补偿现状的基础上,分析建立耕地保护生态补偿的必要性,最后提出完善我国耕地保护生态补偿的相关政策建议。

  4. Agricultural policy, food policy, and communicable disease policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Wyn

    2012-12-01

    Food and agricultural policy is an essential element of a communicable disease policy. The European Union has developed a more systematic and broadly based interest in questions of food safety and animal health and welfare linked to modernization of the Common Agricultural Policy, reflected in a new treaty obligation on animal welfare. Following the bovine spongiform encephalopathy crisis, moves were made to create a European competency, but implementation and enforcement resources reside with the member states. The European Animal Health Strategy is meant to lead to an EU animal health law, but this has already been constrained by fiscal austerity. The development of such a law may lead to a lowest common denominator formula that does little to enhance consumer protection or improve animal welfare. This is an inherent risk with top-down forms of Europeanization; more attention should be paid to lessons to be learned from bottom-up initiatives of the type used to counteract the bovine diarrhea virus. There will always be a tension among what is good policy for reducing the incidence of communicable disease, policy that is popular with EU citizens, and policy that is acceptable to member states.

  5. The monetary policy of the European Central Bank in modern conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitskaya Irina, L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the monetary policy analysis of the European Central Bank (ECB under the present crisis conditions. The paper systematizes the ECB monetary policy in today's crisis and researches it at different stages of the crisis. A detailed analysis showed that the ECB's monetary policy is significantly different from the actions of other central banks during the current crisis (for example, the Federal Reserve. Thus, the ECB unconventional monetary policy combined with traditional measures, but does not replace them. Often ECB use credit easing instead of quantitative easing. The ECB's monetary policy used not only to combat the financial crisis, such as the Fed, but also to deal with the debt crisis. These features of the ECB’s monetary policy were due to both the institutional characteristics of the European Union, as well as special conditions of flow of the financial crisis in the euro zone.

  6. Does advertisement call variation coincide with genetic variation in the genetically diverse frog taxon currently known as Leptodactylus fuscus (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HEYER W. RONALD

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The frog Leptodactylus fuscus is found throughout much of South America in open and disturbed habitats. Previous study of genetic differentiation in L. fuscus demonstrated that there was lack of genetic exchange among population units consistent with multiple species, rather than a single species. We examine advertisement vocalizations of L. fuscus to determine whether call variation coincides with genetic differentiation. Calls were analyzed for 32 individual frogs from 25 localities throughout the distributional range of L. fuscus. Although there is variation in calls among geographic samples, call variation is not concordant with genetic variation or geographic distance and the call variation observed is less than that typically found among other closely related species of Leptodactylus. This study is an example of the rare pattern of strong genetic differentiation unaccompanied by salient differences in advertisement calls. The relative infrequency of this pattern as currently understood may only reflect the lack of detailed analyses of genetic and acoustic differentiation within population systems currently understood as single species with substantial geographic distributions.

  7. At what point does what’s mine become yours? A critical analysis of the current law on common intention constructive trusts and cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Fullbrook

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the current state of the law in relation to the use of common intention constructive trusts to determine disputes arising from the breakdown of relationships between cohabiting, non-married couples. It is clear that there is a need to protect vulnerable parties to a relationship and to maintain certainty with regard to property ownership, but this is a difficult balance to strike.  This examination has been conducted by analysing the key cases that have been heard in the senior courts in relation to this matter since the landmark ruling of the House of Lords in Stack v Dowden almost ten years ago.  This has identified three key issues with the current state of the law: (1 judicial confusion over whether the existence of beneficial shares in property should be imputed or implied by the courts; (2 the creation of unrealistic expectations as to the reliance that the court will place on non-financial contributions to a relationship; and (3 practical and evidential difficulties caused by its implementation.  Further analysis of the Cohabitation Rights Bill suggests that it is unlikely to overcome any of these issues because it seeks to increase, rather than reduce the role of the courts.  This article concludes that the law should be simplified such that couples are allocated the same portion of the beneficial interest in the property as their legal interest unless they expressly declare otherwise.

  8. The welfare state within the framework of the capialist system. Does it have a future or is it non-viable in the current globalized system?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fernando Cabrera Jiménez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The important role played by the State in the economic, political, and social field during the 20th Century has engendered some reactions in favor or against from the point of view of several ideological thinkers within capitalism. Regardless of the point of view from where it is observed, it can be said that it has had an influence on individual freedom, in the relationships generated around the development conception and, in general, in current social-economic growth. The aim of this article is to review the study of the welfare State role in the capitalist society in the 20th Century, analyzing different contributions from the point of view of those who defend this theory, as well as those who are opposed to it. It recognizes that every State must confront the complex process that generates the interaction of different social structures interaction and their outcome that affects the people.

  9. Does the Presence of Scrapie Affect the Ability of Current Statutory Discriminatory Tests To Detect the Presence of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, M M; Chaplin, M J; Vickery, C M; Simon, S; Davis, L; Denyer, M; Lockey, R; Stack, M J; O'Connor, M J; Bishop, K; Gough, K C; Maddison, B C; Thorne, L; Spiropoulos, J

    2015-08-01

    Current European Commission (EC) surveillance regulations require discriminatory testing of all transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)-positive small ruminant (SR) samples in order to classify them as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or non-BSE. This requires a range of tests, including characterization by bioassay in mouse models. Since 2005, naturally occurring BSE has been identified in two goats. It has also been demonstrated that more than one distinct TSE strain can coinfect a single animal in natural field situations. This study assesses the ability of the statutory methods as listed in the regulation to identify BSE in a blinded series of brain samples, in which ovine BSE and distinct isolates of scrapie are mixed at various ratios ranging from 99% to 1%. Additionally, these current statutory tests were compared with a new in vitro discriminatory method, which uses serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA). Western blotting consistently detected 50% BSE within a mixture, but at higher dilutions it had variable success. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method consistently detected BSE only when it was present as 99% of the mixture, with variable success at higher dilutions. Bioassay and sPMCA reported BSE in all samples where it was present, down to 1%. sPMCA also consistently detected the presence of BSE in mixtures at 0.1%. While bioassay is the only validated method that allows comprehensive phenotypic characterization of an unknown TSE isolate, the sPMCA assay appears to offer a fast and cost-effective alternative for the screening of unknown isolates when the purpose of the investigation was solely to determine the presence or absence of BSE.

  10. Policy: Palatable forest conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacconi, Luca

    2011-06-01

    Current policies to reduce emissions from forest loss could mean that rising demand for food is not met. A new approach to forest conservation that reduces emissions while meeting demand for agricultural products may be feasible, but more expensive.

  11. DOE 2012 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  12. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  13. Concomitant contraceptive implant and efavirenz use in women living with HIV: perspectives on current evidence and policy implications for family planning and HIV treatment guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rena C. Patel

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: This controversy underlines the importance of integrating family planning services into routine HIV care, counselling women appropriately on increased risk of pregnancy with concomitant implant and efavirenz use, and expanding contraceptive method mix for all women. As global access to ART expands, greater research is needed to explore implant effectiveness when used concomitantly with newer ART regimens. Data on how HIV-positive women and their partners choose contraceptives, as well as information from providers on how they present and counsel patients on contraceptive options are needed to help guide policy and service delivery. Lastly, greater collaboration between HIV and reproductive health experts at all levels are needed to develop successful strategies to ensure the best HIV and reproductive health outcomes for women living with HIV.

  14. Characteristics of current tasks that contribute to mentalizing judgments: does the engagement of the participants in the social interaction matter? Comment on Achim et al. (2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne-Lavau, Maud; Moreau, Noémie

    2013-12-01

    In a recent article, Achim et al. (2013) discussed the different sources of information that contribute to mentalizing judgments in current theory-of-mind (ToM) tasks. The authors rightly emphasized the dynamic aspect of real-life social interaction, suggesting that taking account of the ongoing changes occurring during social interaction would make ToM tasks more ecological. They proposed a framework (i.e., the Eight Sources of Information Framework) that specifies the 8 sources of information we get from the environment and/or from our memories to attribute mental states to others. Nevertheless, we believe that a central aspect of ToM is missing in this framework: the engagement (or not) of the participant in the social interaction during ToM assessment. Indeed, this framework fails to consider how the participant who takes part in the ToM task manages this information, depending on the fact that he or she is involved in the interaction or not and how the information concerning the agent may impact the participant attribution of mental states. We reviewed several arguments and results from the ToM literature suggesting that merely observing a social interaction is not equivalent to participating in an interaction in terms of cognitive processes involved in the attribution of mental states to others.

  15. Transcranial direct current stimulation over the opercular somatosensory region does not influence experimentally induced pain: a triple blind, sham-controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Soichiro; Nakagawa, Kei

    2017-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the opercular somatosensory region (OP), which includes the secondary somatosensory cortex and the insular cortex, suppresses pain sensation. However, whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the OP has a similar effect on pain sensation remains unknown. We examined whether pain sensation would be suppressed by tDCS over the OP. Our experiment with a triple-blind, sham-controlled, crossover design involved 12 healthy participants. Participants were asked to rate their subjective pain intensity during and after three types of bihemispheric tDCS: right anodal/left cathodal OP tDCS, left anodal/right cathodal OP tDCS (2 mA, 12 min), and sham tDCS (15 s). Pain stimuli were alternately applied to the dorsum of each index finger using intraepidermal electrical stimulation. We observed no significant effect of tDCS over the OP on the perception of experimentally induced pain. Subjective pain intensity did not differ significantly between the three tDCS conditions. The present null results have crucial implications for the selection of optimal stimulation regions and parameters for clinical pain treatment. PMID:27984542

  16. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the primary motor cortex does not enhance the learning benefits of self-controlled feedback schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Michael J; Smith, Victoria; Carlsen, Anthony N; Ste-Marie, Diane M

    2017-02-27

    A distinct learning advantage has been shown when participants control their knowledge of results (KR) scheduling during practice compared to when the same KR schedule is imposed on the learner without choice (i.e., yoked schedules). Although the learning advantages of self-controlled KR schedules are well-documented, the brain regions contributing to these advantages remain unknown. Identifying key brain regions would not only advance our theoretical understanding of the mechanisms underlying self-controlled learning advantages, but would also highlight regions that could be targeted in more applied settings to boost the already beneficial effects of self-controlled KR schedules. Here, we investigated whether applying anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the primary motor cortex (M1) would enhance the typically found benefits of learning a novel motor skill with a self-controlled KR schedule. Participants practiced a spatiotemporal task in one of four groups using a factorial combination of KR schedule (self-controlled vs. yoked) and tDCS (anodal vs. sham). Testing occurred on two consecutive days with spatial and temporal accuracy measured on both days and learning was assessed using 24-h retention and transfer tests without KR. All groups improved their performance in practice and a significant effect for practicing with a self-controlled KR schedule compared to a yoked schedule was found for temporal accuracy in transfer, but a similar advantage was not evident in retention. There were no significant differences as a function of KR schedule or tDCS for spatial accuracy in retention or transfer. The lack of a significant tDCS effect suggests that M1 may not strongly contribute to self-controlled KR learning advantages; however, caution is advised with this interpretation as typical self-controlled learning benefits were not strongly replicated in the present experiment.

  17. Obtaining consumer perspectives using a citizens' jury: does the current country of origin labelling in Australia allow for informed food choices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withall, Elizabeth; Wilson, Annabelle M; Henderson, Julie; Tonkin, Emma; Coveney, John; Meyer, Samantha B; Clark, Jacinta; McCullum, Dean; Ankeny, Rachel; Ward, Paul R

    2016-12-09

    Contemporary food systems are vast and complex, creating greater distance between consumers and their food. Consequently, consumers are required to put faith in a system of which they have limited knowledge or control. Country of origin labelling (CoOL) is one mechanism that theoretically enables consumer knowledge of provenance of food products. However, this labelling system has recently come under Australian Government review and recommendations for improvements have been proposed. Consumer engagement in this process has been limited. Therefore this study sought to obtain further consumer opinion on the issue of CoOL and to identify the extent to which Australian consumers agree with Australian Government recommendations for improvements. A citizens' jury was conducted with a sample of 14 South Australian consumers to explore their perceptions on whether the CoOL system allows them to make informed food choices, as well as what changes (if any) need to be made to enable informed food choices (recommendations). Overall, jurors' perception of usefulness of CoOL, including its ability to enable consumers to make informed food choices, fluctuated throughout the Citizens' Jury. Initially, the majority of the jurors indicated that the labels allowed informed food choice, however by the end of the session the majority disagreed with this statement. Inconsistencies within jurors' opinions were observed, particularly following delivery of information from expert witnesses and jury deliberation. Jurors provided recommendations for changes to be made to CoOL, which were similar to those provided in the Australian Government inquiry. Consumers in this study engaged with the topical issue of CoOL and provided their opinions. Overall, consumers do not think that the current CoOL system in Australia enables consumers to make informed choices. Recommendations for changes, including increasing the size of the label and the label's font, and standardising its position, were made.

  18. Does Estonia need foreign policy? / Alexander Astrov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Astrov, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Autori arvates vajab Eesti kindlaksmääratud poliitikasuundade asemel rohkem välispoliitikat laiemas mõttes, vajalik oleks loobuda viimase aastakümne eesmärgikesksest ratsionaalsusest enam kontekstitundliku tegutsemis- ja mõtlemisviisi kasuks

  19. Does Estonia need foreign policy? / Alexander Astrov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Astrov, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Autori arvates vajab Eesti kindlaksmääratud poliitikasuundade asemel rohkem välispoliitikat laiemas mõttes, vajalik oleks loobuda viimase aastakümne eesmärgikesksest ratsionaalsusest enam kontekstitundliku tegutsemis- ja mõtlemisviisi kasuks

  20. Government Policy, Saving and Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Several arguments that government policy--income redistribution and support of the poor, higher marginal income taxes, and social security--has depressed saving are found wanting. Also hard to sustain is the argument that investment demand has been depressed by tax policy. Current government policy will not improve saving and investment. (RM)

  1. Patching vs Packaging in Policy Formulation: Assessing Policy Portfolio Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Howlett

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Thinking about policy mixes is at the forefront of current research work in the policy sciences and raises many significant questions with respect to policy tools and instruments, processes of policy formulation, and the evolution of tool choices over time. Not least among these is how to assess the potential for multiple policy tools to achieve policy goals in an efficient and effective way. Previous conceptual work on policy mixes has highlighted evaluative criteria such as "consistency" (the ability of multiple policy tools to reinforce rather than undermine each other in the pursuit of individual policy goals, "coherence" (or the ability of multiple policy goals to co-exist with each other in a logical fashion, and "congruence" (or the ability of multiple goals and instruments to work together in a uni-directional or mutually supportive fashion as important design principles and measures of optimality in policy mixes. And previous empirical work on the evolution of existing policy mixes has highlighted how these three criteria are often lacking in mixes which have evolved over time as well as those which have otherwise been consciously designed. This article revisits this early design work in order to more clearly assess the reasons why many existing policy mixes are sub-optimal and the consequences this has for thinking about policy formulation processes and the practices of policy design.

  2. Application of diffusion research to solar energy policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessner, J. D.; Posner, D.; Shoemaker, F.; Shama, A.

    1979-03-01

    This paper examines two types of information requirements that appear to be basic to DOE solar-energy-policy decisions: (1) how can the future market success of solar energy technologies be estimated, and (2) what factors influence the adoption of solar energy technologies, and what specific programs could promote solar energy adoption most effectively. This paper assesses the ability of a body of research, referred to here as diffusion research, to supply information that could partially satisfy these requirements. This assessment proceeds, first, by defining in greater detail a series of policy issues that face DOE. These are divided into cost reduction and performance improvement issues which include issues confronting the technology development component of the solar energy program, and barriers and incentives issues which are most relevant to problems of solar energy application. Second, these issues are translated into a series of questions that the diffusion approach can help resolve. Third, various elements within diffusion research are assessed in terms of their abilities to answer policy questions. Finally, the strengths and limitations of current knowledge about the diffusion of innovations are summarized, the applicability of both existing knowledge and the diffusion approach to the identified solar-energy-policy issues are discussed, and ways are suggested in which diffusion approaches can be modified and existing knowledge employed to meet short- and long-term goals of DOE. The inquiry covers the field of classical diffusion research, market research and consumer behavior, communication research, and solar-energy market-penetration modeling.

  3. DOE explosives safety manual. Revision 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This manual prescribes the Department of Energy (DOE) safety rules used to implement the DOE safety policy for operations involving explosives. This manual is applicable to all DOE facilities engaged in operations of development, manufacturing, handling, storage, transportation, processing, or testing of explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants, or assemblies containing these materials. The standards of this manual deal with the operations involving explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants, and the safe management of such operations. The design of all new explosives facilities shall conform to the requirements established in this manual and implemented in DOE 6430.1A, ``General Design Criteria Manual.`` It is not intended that existing physical facilities be changed arbitrarily to comply with these provisions, except as required by law. Existing facilities that do not comply with these standards may continue to be used for the balance of their functional life, as long as the current operation presents no significantly greater risk than that assumed when the facility was originally designed and it can be demonstrated clearly that a modification to bring the facility into compliance is not feasible. However, in the case of a major renovation, the facility must be brought into compliance with current standards. The standards are presented as either mandatory or advisory. Mandatory standards, denoted by the words ``shall,`` ``must,`` or ``will,`` are requirements that must be followed unless written authority for deviation is granted as an exemption by the DOE. Advisory standards denoted by ``should`` or ``may`` are standards that may be deviated from with a waiver granted by facility management.

  4. 44 CFR 10.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 10.4 Section 10.4... GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS General § 10.4 Policy. (a) FEMA shall act with care to assure that... mitigation and flood insurance, it does so in a manner consistent with national environmental policies. Care...

  5. The Current Situation of Pharmaceutical Industrial Organization and Effects of Industry Policy in Jiangsu Province%江苏省医药产业组织现状及政策影响效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊季霞; 申俊龙

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解江苏省医药产业组织现状,提出促进江苏省医药产业可持续发展的政策建议.方法:通过文献检索与社会调研,以及运用传统产业组织理论的“结构-行为-绩效”分析范式,对江苏省医药产业组织现状及现有政策效果进行分析,并提出建议.结果与结论:江苏省医药产业组织市场集中度和进入壁垒有待提高,市场绩效较好,持续增长特性明显.江苏省已出台的多项产业政策的影响效果良好.建议还应整体规划,加强组织管理和政策扶持;培育大企业、大集团,积极发展产业集群;鼓励技术创新,加强新药研发;承接国际产业转移,大力开拓国际市场.%OBJECTIVE: To investigate the current situation of pharmaceutical industrial organization, and, to put forward the policy recommendations of improving the sustainable development of pharmaceutical industry in Jiangsu province. METHODS: Through literature search and society survey, using the "structure-conduct-performance" (SCP) paradigm of traditional industrial organization theory, the current situation of pharmaceutical industrial organization and the effect of industrial policy in Jiangsu province were analyzed to put forward suggestions. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: The pharmaceutical industry of Jiangsu province has need to improve good market development potentiality and market entry barriers, good performance and rapid rising characteristic. Many pharmaceutical industrial policies have been published in Jiangsu province and have obtained good effects. It is suggested to plan overall and strengthen institution management and policy support; culture large enterprises and large group and develop industrial cluster; encourage renovation of production techniques and enhance R&D of new drugs; undertake from international industry and explore international markets.

  6. Entrepreneurship Policies: Principles, Problems and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Charlie; Andersson, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the current status of the literature on entrepreneurship policy. The purpose is to discuss and assess several fundamental questions pertaining to entrepreneurship policies, such as “What is the optimal rate of entrepreneurship?” and “What entrepreneurship policies to pursue to remedy market failures and to avoid policy failures?”. In the entrepreneurship policies literature several contributors make distinctions between five types of entrepreneurship policy: governme...

  7. Evidence-informed primary health care workforce policy: are we asking the right questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccarella, Lucio; Buchan, Jim; Brooks, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Australia is facing a primary health care workforce shortage. To inform primary health care (PHC) workforce policy reforms, reflection is required on ways to strengthen the evidence base and its uptake into policy making. In 2008 the Australian Primary Health Care Research Institute funded the Australian Health Workforce Institute to host Professor James Buchan, Queen Margaret University, UK, an expert in health services policy research and health workforce planning. Professor Buchan's visit enabled over forty Australian PHC workforce mid-career and senior researchers and policy stakeholders to be involved in roundtable policy dialogue on issues influencing PHC workforce policy making. Six key thematic questions emerged. (1) What makes PHC workforce planning different? (2) Why does the PHC workforce need to be viewed in a global context? (3) What is the capacity of PHC workforce research? (4) What policy levers exist for PHC workforce planning? (5) What principles can guide PHC workforce planning? (6) What incentives exist to optimise the use of evidence in policy making? The emerging themes need to be discussed within the context of current PHC workforce policy reforms, which are focussed on increasing workforce supply (via education/training programs), changing the skill mix and extending the roles of health workers to meet patient needs. With the Australian government seeking to reform and strengthen the PHC workforce, key questions remain about ways to strengthen the PHC workforce evidence base and its uptake into PHC workforce policy making.

  8. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  9. Cross-impacts analysis development and energy policy analysis applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, J.M.; Scheer, R.M.; Stacey, G.S.

    1986-12-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe the cross-impact analysis process and microcomputer software developed for the Office of Policy, Planning, and Analysis (PPA) of DOE. First introduced in 1968, cross-impact analysis is a technique that produces scenarios of future conditions and possibilities. Cross-impact analysis has several unique attributes that make it a tool worth examining, especially in the current climate when the outlook for the economy and several of the key energy markets is uncertain. Cross-impact analysis complements the econometric, engineering, systems dynamics, or trend approaches already in use at DOE. Cross-impact analysis produces self-consistent scenarios in the broadest sense and can include interaction between the economy, technology, society and the environment. Energy policy analyses that couple broad scenarios of the future with detailed forecasting can produce more powerful results than scenario analysis or forecasts can produce alone.

  10. Current «policies of knowledge» in the European Union : mapping and critically assessing «quality» in a «measurable» Europe of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George K. Pasias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the content and the different «dimensions» of «quality» in the current «policies of knowledge» of the European Union as they are specified by the renewed Lisbon Strategy and in the frame of the construction of a «measurable Europe of Knowledge». The study analyses critically the policy discourses and policy practices of the European Union from 1994 to 2010 using both primary (e.g. official documents and secondary (e.g. scholarly articles, studies and research sources. It consists of four sections: The first section refers to the current constructions of quality discourse in the European context (e.g. globalization, knowledge economies and GATS, new public management, new governance, etc.. In the second section, we examine the integration of «quality» in the EU’s discourses and policies (Treaties, Action Programs as well as in the general, vocational and higher education initiatives. The third section reviews the quality discourse in the context of the late EU’s policy processes (Lisbon, Bologna and Copenhagen. In the final section we put forward a critical reading of the «audit/ quality» nexus based on a «policy by numbers» technocratic-managerial rationale aiming at the construction of a measurable «Europe of knowledge».Este artículo investiga el contenido y las diferentes «dimensiones» de «calidad» en las actuales «políticas de conocimiento» de la Unión Europea, del modo en que están especificadas por la renovada «Estrategia de Lisboa» y en el marco de la construcción de una «Europa del Conocimiento Medible ». El estudio analiza en profundidad los discursos políticos y las prácticas políticas de la Unión Europea desde 1994 hasta 2010, utilizando a la vez fuentes primarias (por ejemplo, documentos oficiales y secundarias (por ejemplo, artículos, estudios e investigación académicos. Consta de cuatro secciones: La primera sección se refiere a las actuales construcciones del

  11. An Analysis of Veto - by - citizen Phenomena in Current China' s Policy Process%当前我国政策过程中公民否决现象论析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王礼鑫

    2012-01-01

    Analyzing 20 collected cases, this paper describes the features of current veto - by - citizen in policy process from the angles of veto player, veto point and veto power. In this paper, the veto - by - citizen phenomena are classified according to many standards such as different phases of policy process, extents of interest of the veto policies. The paper maintains that veto - by - citizen is one of the normal phenomena in modern politics. The paper explains the mechanisms of veto - by - citizen through the research framework of autonomous state - structure - agency and puts forward the proposal of tackling the phenomena in depoliticized ways.%本文整理了二十多个案例,从否决者、否决点、否决权等角度对当前我国公民否决政策现象的特征进行了描述,并依照否决在政策过程中的阶段、被否决政策涉及利益的范围或领域等标准进行了分类。文章提出公民否决政策是现代政治生活的常态政治形式之一,并且运用“自主性国家-结构-能动”分析框架对公民否决政策的发生机制进行了初步解释,提出的原则性政策建议是非政治化处理。

  12. Current titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Gretchen Hermes at (510) 486-5006 or address below for a User`s Guide. Copies of available papers can be ordered from: Theda Crawford National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, One Cyclotron Rd., MS72, Berkeley, California, USA 94720.

  13. 41 CFR 102-3.135 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.135 Section 102-3.135 Public Contracts and Property Management... this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart establishes policies and procedures relating...

  14. Evolution/Creationism Controversy: Analysis of Past and Current Policies in Public Schools and the Practice of Allowing Students to Opt Out of Learning Evolution Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speake, Jacquelyn Hoffmann

    2011-07-01

    Recent anti-evolution legislation, in the form of Academic Freedom bills, has been introduced in many state legislatures over the last three years. The language in the proposed Academic Freedom bills may allow different interpretations of what can be taught in the science classrooms, and possibly spur parents to take advantage of their perceived parental rights to request their child be opted-out of class when the scientific theory of evolution is taught. Five research questions guided the analysis of participant responses to questions and perception statements focusing on secondary school administrators' actions, perceptions, and awareness as they relate to their decision to allow or not allow a student to opt out of academics, specifically evolution, through the collection of data using a web-based survey. Opt out policies are typically invoked to excuse students from activities to which they or their parents may have religious objections (Scott & Branch, 2008). Florida statutes allow parents to opt out their child from human sexuality and animal dissection. The population consisted of 281 Florida public secondary school administrators, who were divided into two subgroups based on whether they have allowed or would allow a student to opt out of evolution, or have not allowed or would not allow a student to opt out of class when the scientific theory of evolution is taught. Results found that over 70% of the administrators who completed the survey have allowed or would allow parents to opt out their child from learning about the scientific theory of evolution. There was a significant relationship between the decision to allow opt out and the following variables: (a) Free and Reduced Lunch population, (b) grade level served, (c) support for teaching evolution and alternative theories, and (d) the perception that parent rights supersede state statute requiring students to learn evolution. In Florida, any scientific concept that is based on empirical evidence is

  15. Messy Issues, Policy Conflict and the Differentiated Polity: Analysing Contemporary Policy Responses to Complex, Uncertain and Transversal Policy Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Ney, Steven

    2006-01-01

    At present, a surprisingly wide variety of commentators and observers seem to agree that Europeans are failing to tackle urgent policy challenges. As a result, so the argument does, Europeans are falling further and further behind in an increasingly competitive global race. Part of the reason, these commentators believe, is the very nature of policy challenges that face European politicians, policy-makers and citizens. Today’s policy problems are messy: underlying causes are...

  16. STRENGTHENING ROLE OF G20: TRANSFORMATION OF WORLD ORDER AND FOREIGN POLICY OF CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xing

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article studies the role of the G20 in the evolving world and foreign policy of China in this entity. In the current world the G20 emerges as a key global platform for economic dialogue among major powers of the world. Which role has it been playing during and after global crisis? Which forces does impact it and define its future? How does China view this entity? These questions were raised by international and Chinese scholars The current article attempts to provide reasonable answers for those questions.

  17. Policy Problematization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    This article places Michel Foucault's concept of "problematization" in relation to educational policy research. My goal is to examine a key assumption of policy related to "solving problems" through such technologies. I discuss the potential problematization has to alter conceptions of policy research; and, through this…

  18. Policy Problematization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    This article places Michel Foucault's concept of "problematization" in relation to educational policy research. My goal is to examine a key assumption of policy related to "solving problems" through such technologies. I discuss the potential problematization has to alter conceptions of policy research; and, through this…

  19. Educational Policy in the United States: Context of Current Debates; Impact in Latin America Lineamientos de Política Educativa en los Estados Unidos: Debates Actuales; Significados para América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Eva Pini

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to analyze some of the most relevant debates about current educational policies in the United States, and to explore the universalility of some of the ideas and strategies which have already been put in place in Latin America. The policies I will discuss are Goals 2000 and school choice proposals, especially those of charter schools and vouchers. These policies question the key definitions of educational goals, the role of the state, and democratic values. Through the analysis of different documents, reports, and research studies, the political context from which they emerged, and a critical perspective, discourses and policies are interpreted. The market model and the strong forces behind many of these proposals makes it necessary for us to think about how these ideas affect the social distribution of education and democratic ideals, both in the United States and in Latin America. El propósito de este trabajo es describir y analizar los lineamientos y debates más relevantes en la política educativa en los Estados Unidos y explorar la universalidad de algunas de las ideas y estrategias que ya se están implementando en América Latina. Las políticas seleccionadas para discutir aquí son las metas de educación de los Estados Unidos para el año 2000 (Goals 2000, y las propuestas de elección de escuela por parte de los padres (parents school choice, especialmente escuelas contratadas (charter schools y bonos (school vouchers. Estas políticas cuestionan definiciones clave como los objetivos de la educación, el rol del estado y valores democráticos. A través del análisis de diferentes documentos, informes e investigaciones y su contexto de surgimiento, con una perspectiva crítica, se interpretan los significados de los discursos y políticas. El modelo de mercado y las poderosas fuerzas que respaldan muchas de estas propuestas hace necesario que pensemos cómo estas ideas afectan la distribución social

  20. Reducing US oil vulnerability: Energy policy for the 1980's

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    Current Federal energy policies and programs are asked in light of recent events and in light of what are believed to be the most reliable available projections of the future. Additional steps are outlined that could reduce our vulnerability to an oil import disruption during the next decade. Specifically, the study seeks to answer three questions: as a base case, what levels of US energy consumption, production, and imports might we anticipate for 1985 and 1990 under existing statutes, policies, and programs; considering both our own and our allies dependence on oil imports, how vulnerable does this leave the United States to foreign supply disruptions; considering the likely effects of government policies and programs which already exist to reduce our vulnerability (through reduction of US oil imports or by any other means), are there additional initiatives that could be undertaken to give us greater protection - especially between now and 1990.

  1. Políticas públicas vigentes de salud mental en Suramérica: un estado del arte / Current public policies on mental health in South America: a state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Henao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Objetivo: presentar un Estado del Arte sobre el contenido de las políticas públicas de salud mental vigentes en Suramérica, con el propósito de establecer un panorama de los alcances y limitaciones de la normatividad sobre el tema en la región. Metodología: Estudio documental de enfoque hermenéutico mediante el cual se interpretó y explicó las relaciones entre los contenidos de las políticas públicas de salud mental y el contexto de los países suramericanos. Para el análisis se incluyeron documentos normativos de los países, tales como Acuerdos, Resoluciones y Leyes. Igualmente, se utilizaron publicaciones académicas en el periodo comprendido entre 2003 a 2013, que posibilitaron la descripción y el análisis del tema de investigación. Resultados: países como Colombia, Argentina, Paraguay, Brasil, Perú, Ecuador y Uruguay cuentan con disposiciones normativas vigentes (acuerdos, resoluciones y leyes que sustentan el contenido de las políticas públicas en materia de salud mental. Por otra parte, Chile, Bolivia y Venezuela fundamentan sus políticas en mecanismos administrativos (programas, planes y proyectos sin apelar a la norma de obligatorio cumplimiento. Conclusión: la noción de salud mental que subyace a cada Política Nacional hace énfasis en la promoción de la salud y la prevención de la enfermedad, desde una concepción positiva del bienestar que resalta el papel activo de los sujetos y poblaciones, las capacidades y libertades disponibles; sin embargo, los recursos, estrategias, acciones y metas están orientados sobre la base de un modelo biomédico que prioriza el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de trastornos mentales. / Abstract Objective: to present the state of the art regarding the content of the public mental health policies currently in force in South America in order to establish an overview of the scope and limitations of the regulations on the subject in the region. Methodology: a documentary study

  2. China's Current Macroeconomic Trend and Its Macro-control PolicyZhang%中国宏观经济走势和调控政策选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张曙光

    2012-01-01

    文章深入分析了中国当前宏观经济形势以及宏观调控政策,主要围绕四个方面的内容展开:首先,今年政府工作报告提出两个重要目标:一是GDP增长7.5%,一是CPI控制在4%,这表明政府淡化经济增长,增大经济结构调整和转变发展方式的决心和政策方向。第二,现行的金融结构和金融体制基本上是国有大金融主导的,同时国家又不承认民间金融的合法性,造成许多中小企业的融资需求无法得到满足。因此,当前的货币政策和金融体制需要进一步放松管制。第三,政府收入快速增长与居民可支配收入不断下降形成矛盾,实现公共财政真正走向公众的目标还需要更多的政策调整和改革。最后,当前中国的体制现状是政府太强、社会太弱及市场扭曲,因此未来改革的方向可以概括如下:约束政府,壮大社会,回归市场。%This paper analyzes China' s current macroeconomic situation and macro-control policy, focusing mainly on four aspects. Firstly, the government work report of 2012 has put forward two important goals of GDP growth of 7.5% and CPI rate within 4%, which indicates the government' s determination and policy direction to slow down economic growth and to increase economic structural adjustment and to transform development mode. Secondly, as the existing financial system is basically dominated by large state-owned financial banks and the legitimacy of private finance unacknowledged, which leads to the financial needs of many SMEs being unable to be met, the current monetary policy and financial system needs further deregulation. Thirdly, the government' s income growth now contradicts with the decline of residents' disposable income, thus it is imperative to achieve the goals of more policy adjustment and reform. China' s current institutional status quo features strong government, weak society and market distortion

  3. Strategic cost-benefit analysis of energy policies: detailed projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davitian, H.; Groncki, P.J.; Kleeman, P.; Lukachinski, J.

    1979-10-01

    Current US energy policy includes many programs directed toward restructuring the energy system in order to decrease US dependence on foreign supplies and to increase our reliance on plentiful and environmentally benign energy forms. However, recent events have led to renewed concern over the direction of current energy policy. This study describes three possible energy strategies and analyzes each in terms of its economic, environmental, and national security benefits and costs. Each strategy is represented by a specific policy. In the first, no additional programs or policies are initiated beyond those currently in effect or announced. The second is directed toward reducing the growth in energy demand, i.e., energy conservation. The third promotes increased domestic supply through accelerated development of synthetic and unconventional fuels. The analysis focuses on the evaluation and comparison of these strategy alternatives with respect to their energy, economic, and environmental consequences. Results indicate that conservation can substantially reduce import dependence and slow the growth of energy demand, with only a small macroeconomic cost and with substantial environmental benefits; the synfuels policy reduces imports by a smaller amount, does not reduce the growth in energy demand, involves substantial environmental costs and slows the rate of economic growth. These relationships could be different if the energy savings per unit cost for conservation are less than anticipated, or if the costs of synthetic fuels can be significantly lowered. Given these uncertainties, both conservation and RD and D support for synfuels should be included in future energy policy. However, between these policy alternatives, conservation appears to be the preferred strategy. The results of this study are presented in three reports (see also BNL--51105 and BNL--51128). 11 references, 3 figures, 61 tables.

  4. The DOE photovoltaics program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferber, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    The considered program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has the objective to provide federal support for research and development work related to photovoltaics. According to definitions of policy in 1981, a strong emphasis is to be placed on long-term, high-risk research and development that industry could not reasonably be expected to perform using their own funds. Attention is given to the program structure, the photovoltaics program management organization, the advanced research and development subprogram, the collector research and development subprogram, flat-plate collectors, concentrator collectors, and the systems research and technology subprogram.

  5. The role of policy actors and contextual factors in policy agenda setting and formulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koduah, Augustina; Dijk, van Han; Agyepong, Irene Akua

    2015-01-01

    Background: Development of health policy is a complex process that does not necessarily follow a particular format and a predictable trajectory. Therefore, agenda setting and selecting of alternatives are critical processes of policy development and can give insights into how and why policies are

  6. The role of policy actors and contextual factors in policy agenda setting and formulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koduah, Augustina; Dijk, van Han; Agyepong, Irene Akua

    2015-01-01

    Background: Development of health policy is a complex process that does not necessarily follow a particular format and a predictable trajectory. Therefore, agenda setting and selecting of alternatives are critical processes of policy development and can give insights into how and why policies are

  7. Analysis of Current Policies and Regulations on Learning in General Classroom in China%对现行有关随班就读政策法规的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕琴; 兰继军

    2014-01-01

    Learning in general classroom is a special education and resettlement mode which could realize the right of equal education for the disabled children and juveniles into the nearby regular school. Relevant policies and regulations should be formulated to provide guarantee of the authority and practical basis. Through inspecting China’s current mainstreaming policies and regulations, it found out that there are huge progress in the establishment of policies and regulations on learning in general classroom. However, problems remain:lack of strict appraisal and assessment system and operational system of mainstreaming teachers' qualification and admittance. Therefore, special attentions should be paid to improve the system of identification and evaluation on students as well as the system of teachers’ qualification admittance. Measures should be taken to implement principles of“inclusive education”to promote the healthy growth of the disabled child.%随班就读是一种为保障残疾儿童平等接受教育的合法权利、使其就近进入普通学校学习的特殊教育安置模式。随班就读工作的开展需要完善的政策法规及实施细则为其提供权威性的保障和实践依据。我国现行有关随班就读政策法规体系建设已取得显著成效,但还存在实施中随意性大、缺乏严格的鉴定和评估工作制度、缺乏可操作的随班就读教师资格准入制度等问题,应尽快予以完善,以顺应“全纳教育”的理念,促进残疾儿童健康成长。

  8. Assessment of DOE radioactive scrap metal disposition options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, C.R.; Kasper, K.M. [Waste Policy Institute, Morgantown, WV (United States); Bossart, S.J. [Department of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The DOE has amassed a large amount of radioactively-contaminated scrap metal (RSM) as a result of past operations and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects. The volume of RSM will continue to increase as a result of the D&D of more than 6,000 surplus facilities and many of the 14,000 operating facilities in the DOE complex. RSM can be either surface contaminated or volumetrically contaminated, or both, with varying amounts of radioactivity. Several options exist for the disposition of this RSM, including disposal as radioactive waste, recycling by decontamination and free-release for unrestricted use, or recycling for restricted reuse inside a DOE controlled area. The DOE Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) has been actively investing in technology and strategy development in support of restricted-reuse RSM recycling for the past several years. This paper will assess the nature of the RSM recycling issue, review past investment by DOE to develop technologies and strategies to recycle RSM, and then discuss some recommendations concerning future investments in support of RSM management. Available information on the supply of RSM will be presented in Section II. The regulatory and policy framework concerning recycling RSM will be presented in Section III. A review of DOE investment in RSM recycling technology and current programs will be presented in Section IV. The current and projected industrial capacity will be described in Section V. And, finally, a discussion of issues and recommendations regarding DOE technology development interests in RSM recycling will be presented in Section VI and VII, respectively.

  9. The policy on gender equality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    The briefing paper describes current Danish policies, practices and legislation within the area of gender equality. It addresses economic independence, reconciliation policies, participation in decision-making, gender-based violence and trafficking, gender stereotypes, and gender equality...

  10. Serving Undocumented Students: Current Law and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildersleeve, Ryan Evely; Rumann, Corey; Mondragon, Rodolfo

    2010-01-01

    Families migrate to the United States for opportunity. Whether they leave extreme poverty or violence or reunite with relatives who made the move before them, immigrants seek opportunity. Sometimes circumstances force families to make tough decisions. Sometimes circumstances and tough decisions manifest in families entering the United States…

  11. Telehealth and Medicare - Payment Policy, Current Use...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Despite legislative changes from 2001 to 2008 that increased Medicare payment rates for telehealth and decreased regulatory burdens, the study Telehealth and...

  12. Telehealth and Medicare - Payment Policy, Current Use...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Despite legislative changes from 2001 to 2008 that increased Medicare payment rates for telehealth and decreased regulatory burdens, the study Telehealth and...

  13. MODERN STATE LANGUAGE POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga B. Akimova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to denote the necessity of strengthening of the Russian language position as one of the strategic humanitarian priorities of the Russian Federation.Methods. The methods involve the analysis and generalisation of the documents’ content in the last two years, concerning problems of the Russian language and the Russian literature.Results. Since the beginning of the 21st century, Russia takes active and comprehensive measures to support the Russian language and its spread around the world. At the same time, the Russian Government has approved a number of relevant documents, established the Council on the Russian language under the Government of the Russian Federation, as well as established the Council on the Russian language under the President of the Russian Federation. The large-scale package of measures aimed at promotion of the Russian language as an official language and as a language of international communication, as well as at supporting the Russian language abroad, has been implemented in the framework of the three federal target Russian language programs. However, the analysis of implementation of the mentioned above programs, as well as received social effects and current practice does not provide relevant solutions for the major problems and does not always correspond to the rapidly changing realities.Practical significance. The perspective directions of the state language policy in the field of the Russian language and literature are specified and formulated: the analysis of the programs and projects aimed at the development, distribution and support of the Russian language; providing coordination of actions of executive authorities in the presented study; improvement of the Russian language studying quality in schools in accordance with features of the general education in the national republics; professional level improvement of teachers of the Russian language; preservation of national languages of

  14. Monetary Policy and Economic Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iordachioaia Adelina-Geanina

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available There is widespread agreement that monetary policy matters,but there is disagreement about how it should be conducted. Behind this disagreement lie differences in theoretical understandings. The paper contrasts the New Classical, Neo-Keynesian, and Post-Keynesian frameworks, there by surfacing the differences. The New Classical model has policy only affecting long run inflation. The Neo-Keynesian has policy impacting inflation, unemployment, and real wages. The Post-Keynesian model also impacts growth, so policy implicitly picks a quadruple. Inflation targeting is a sub-optimal policy frame because it biases decisions toward low inflation by obscuring the fact that policy also affects unemployment, real wages, and growth.

  15. Policy Innovation in Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    as with national and sub-national governments in Europe, all of them introducing interesting novelties in their innovation policy. These changes refer to different aspects of policy, mainly the content of policy initiatives towards science, technology and innovation; the instruments governments are using...... to achieve their goals; and the actors in the policy system that are being mobilised in pursuing these goals. This paper deals with these policy changes, paying special attention to the novelties introduced since the early 1990s in Europe. The perspective of this paper deals mainly on the changes introduced...... at the EU level, and mentions similar trends taking place at national and sub-national levels. The questions that guide the contents here are essentially three, namely, what are the main traits of innovation policies in Europe since the 1990s and how have the EU and different national governments approached...

  16. Monetary policy, delegation and polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies the relation between political polarisation and delegation of stabilisation policy. There is asymmetric information about how the economy works: unlike voters, two political parties know the variance of an employment shock. Prior to an election each party proposes a central...... banker to be chosen if the party wins. If political polarisation is small, voters will learn the true variance and the central banker and the stabilisation policy are the ones most preferred by the median voter. If the political polarisation is high, stabilisation policy does not reflect the variance...

  17. Federal technology policy in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, K.H.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses federal energy and environmental policies and their impact on the U.S. economy. A brief history of the federal government`s role in developing scientific and technological infrastructure is given. Current trends in technology are summarized, with an emphasis on global aspects, and their impact on the economy is discussed. The need for a national technology policy, including continued research and development funding, is discussed and key elements of such a policy are outlined.

  18. Language Policy and Planning in Mexico: Indigenous Language Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patthey-Chavez, G. G.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of language policy formation and planning in Mexico focuses on its multilingual/multicultural character and covers the following: turn from national integration to ethnic revival; indigenous successes following the Declaration of Patzcuaro; some problems and solutions regarding the current bilingual/bicultural education policy.…

  19. Evidence-based policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vohnsen, Nina Holm

    2013-01-01

    A current ambition in welfare states as diverse as Denmark, the UK, and in the USA is to base political decision making on rigorous research (Cartwright et al 2009; Mulgan 2009; Bason 2010). Sound as this might seem the ambition has nevertheless been problematized by both policy-makers and the re......A current ambition in welfare states as diverse as Denmark, the UK, and in the USA is to base political decision making on rigorous research (Cartwright et al 2009; Mulgan 2009; Bason 2010). Sound as this might seem the ambition has nevertheless been problematized by both policy...... a full account, see Vohnsen 2011). These insights will be relevant for the anthropological researcher of legislative processes who wishes to move beyond a merely discursive approach to the study of policy and politics....

  20. ANL site response for the DOE FY1994 information resources management long-range plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boxberger, L.M.

    1992-03-01

    Argonne National Laboratory's ANL Site Response for the DOE FY1994 Information Resources Management (IRM) Long-Range Plan (ANL/TM 500) is one of many contributions to the DOE information resources management long-range planning process and, as such, is an integral part of the DOE policy and program planning system. The Laboratory has constructed this response according to instructions in a Call issued in September 1991 by the DOE Office of IRM Policy, Plans and Oversight. As one of a continuing series, this Site Response is an update and extension of the Laboratory's previous submissions. The response contains both narrative and tabular material. It covers an eight-year period consisting of the base year (FY1991), the current year (FY1992), the budget year (FY1993), the plan year (FY1994), and the out years (FY1995-FY1998). This Site Response was compiled by Argonne National Laboratory's Computing and Telecommunications Division (CTD), which has the responsibility to provide leadership in optimizing computing and information services and disseminating computer-related technologies throughout the Laboratory. The Site Response consists of 5 parts: (1) a site overview, describes the ANL mission, overall organization structure, the strategic approach to meet information resource needs, the planning process, major issues and points of contact. (2) a software plan for DOE contractors, Part 2B, Software Plan FMS plan for DOE organizations, (3) computing resources telecommunications, (4) telecommunications, (5) printing and publishing.

  1. ANL site response for the DOE FY1994 information resources management long-range plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boxberger, L.M.

    1992-03-01

    Argonne National Laboratory`s ANL Site Response for the DOE FY1994 Information Resources Management (IRM) Long-Range Plan (ANL/TM 500) is one of many contributions to the DOE information resources management long-range planning process and, as such, is an integral part of the DOE policy and program planning system. The Laboratory has constructed this response according to instructions in a Call issued in September 1991 by the DOE Office of IRM Policy, Plans and Oversight. As one of a continuing series, this Site Response is an update and extension of the Laboratory`s previous submissions. The response contains both narrative and tabular material. It covers an eight-year period consisting of the base year (FY1991), the current year (FY1992), the budget year (FY1993), the plan year (FY1994), and the out years (FY1995-FY1998). This Site Response was compiled by Argonne National Laboratory`s Computing and Telecommunications Division (CTD), which has the responsibility to provide leadership in optimizing computing and information services and disseminating computer-related technologies throughout the Laboratory. The Site Response consists of 5 parts: (1) a site overview, describes the ANL mission, overall organization structure, the strategic approach to meet information resource needs, the planning process, major issues and points of contact. (2) a software plan for DOE contractors, Part 2B, ``Software Plan FMS plan for DOE organizations, (3) computing resources telecommunications, (4) telecommunications, (5) printing and publishing.

  2. Position Paper. Safety for K-12 students: United States policy concerning LGBT student safety must provide inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April Sanders

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Students who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT are at risk for harassment due to their sexual orientation or gender identification with over 85% of LGBT students in the United States (US reporting such harassment. These statistics demonstrate one aspect of the significance of this issue, but the cost of human life in some instances has revealed another layer of importance related to a need for safety policies for LGBT students. Even though a need exists for such policies, the practice of heteronormativity found in US policymaking regarding bullying does not protect victims or curb the violence. This essay highlights several recent developments in anti-bullying policy in US schools that shows the existence of heteronormativity, which is not helping to pro-tect LGBT students. By understanding the discrimination encouraged by current policy, future policy can be better shaped to protect LGBT students.

  3. Regional integration and national social policies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Madeira, Mary Anne

    2014-01-01

    How does regionalization affect national social policies? Although there is an extensive literature on the effects of globalization on social protection, the literature on the impact of regional integration is much less developed...

  4. Against all policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sungusia, Eliezeri; Lund, Jens Friis

    2016-01-01

    landscapes are unknown. This case illustrates how existing forest and land policies and practices of implementation discourage landscape level forest conservation and how a current rush for ‘unused’ village land areas for conservation, agribusiness or forest plantations implies an incentive for villages...

  5. 福建省残疾人就业现状及相关政策建议%Current Situation and Policy Recommendations on Employment of the Disabled in Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏贵斌

    2015-01-01

    对福建省残疾人就业现状进行抽样调查,根据统计数据,分析目前残疾人就业的难点。指出福建省残疾人在康复、教育及技能培训、就业服务水平和政府就业扶持等方面均存在不足。针对不足,提出完善相关政策建议。%This paper m akes a sam ple investigation on the current situation of em ploym ent for the disabled in Fujian Province. It analyzes the difficulties on their em ploym ent. It indicates insufficiencies in their rehabilitation, education and skills training, em ploym ent service level and governm ent's support of the disabled in Fujian based on the sam ple investigation date. Finally, it puts forw ard relevant policy recom m endations on those deficiencies.

  6. 现代残疾康复理念、政策与社区康复体系研究%Current Conceptual Framework and Policies of Disability and Rehabilitation and Approach of Community-based Rehabilitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱卓英; 李多

    2011-01-01

    This paper explored the current conceptual framework of disability and rehabilitation, and constructed theorctical structure with three layers of international convention, resolutions and policies, and domestic laws and operational lools. The characteristics of community-based rehabilitation (CBR) had been discussed with inclusive development approach. Some recommendations had been proposed for the development of rehabilitation and work programs of rehabilitation for all in China.%本研究分析了当代残疾康复的理念和理论架构,构建了以国际公约、决议和政策、国内法律和政策以及操作性工具3个层次的康复理论体系;运用包容性发展,分析探讨了当代社区康复的体系和特点;就发展康复事业、为残疾人提供全面系统的康复服务提出相关的政策建议。

  7. 国外科技决策咨询机构现状、特征与变革趋势%Current Status,Characteristics and Developmental Trends of Foreign S & T Policy-making Advisory Bodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪凌勇

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses current status,characteristics and developmental trends of foreign S&T policy-making advisory bodies around the world,especially in developed countries and big emerging powers including USA,Japan,Ger-many,France,UK,Korea,Australia,Russia,Brazil and India.%以主要发达国家和发展中大国为对象,研究其科技决策咨询机构的现状、特征与变革趋势。将科技决策咨询机构划分为国家最高科技咨询审议机构、政府科学顾问机构和半官方与民间智囊机构三大类,主要结论是,一些国家的最高科技咨询审议机构在顶层科技政策制定中担当实际决策者角色;主要国家将科技决策咨询机构作为一种制度来建设;科技决策咨询机构愈加强调面向社会和集体协作;科技决策咨询机构建设出现了针对创新布局的趋势。

  8. Integração, exclusão e solidariedade no debate contemporâneo sobre as políticas sociais Integration, exclusion, and solidarity in the current social policy debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Magalhães

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A tendência hoje global de transformação do mundo do trabalho articulada à crise dos grandes projetos de desenvolvimento econômico e de intervenção do Estado no mercado, tem trazido novos desafios para as políticas sociais contra a pobreza. O objetivo deste artigo é reconstituir e analisar, parcialmente, tensões, paradoxos e alguns dos principais desdobramentos deste processo, dando especial ênfase aos dilemas ligados à perspectiva de fazer interpenetrar estratégias solidárias e esquemas públicos de proteção social.The current global trend involving transformation of work and the crisis in large government economic development and intervention projects in the market are raising new challenges for social policies to combat poverty. This study reconstitutes and analyzes the tensions, paradoxes, and main consequences of this process, focusing on problems concerned with combining solidarity strategies and public welfare systems.

  9. The Impact of Current Monetary Policy on the County's Economics%现行货币政策对县域经济金融的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋俊基

    2011-01-01

    To control price hikes, to effectively manage the liquidity to guide rational growth of money and credit, People's Bank of China has conducted a continuous interest rate rise since 2010, especially for 2011, repeatedly raised the deposit reserve ratio. In this paper, we analyze the impact of present current monetary policy on the county's economics and make recommendations accordingly.%为控制物价过快上涨,有效管理流动性,引导货币信贷总量合理增长,中国人民银行提高调控的针对性,自2010年以来已连续多次加息,尤其进入2011年,连续多次上调存款准备金率。本文就稳健的货币政策对县域经济的影响进行了分析,并提出相应建议。

  10. 欠发达地区农村老年贫困现状及贫困防治政策体系研究--基于云南大关县的调查%Study of Current Situation of Rural Elderly Poverty and Poverty Prevention Policy in Less Developed Areas---A case study of Daguan County,Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严佩升

    2014-01-01

    This article conducts a deep analysis of the current status of rural elderly poverty in less developed areas through empirical investigation .Based on the analysis ,it builds a policy system of prevention and control of rural elderly poverty , including old age security policy , health policy , infrastructure and service policy , laws and regulations policy and support policy for the elderly poverty prevention ,and provides the improvement measures for these policies .%通过实证调查,对欠发达地区农村老年贫困的现状作了深入分析,在此基础上构建出了防治农村老年贫困的政策体系,包括老年保障政策、卫生健康政策、老年基础设施和服务政策、老年法律法规政策及老年贫困防治支持保障政策,并对各项政策提出了针对性的完善措施。

  11. Proposed Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina system power marketing policy and subsequent contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-04

    This is an Environmental Assessment (Assessment) (DOE/EA-0935) evaluating the Power Marketing Policy and Subsequent Contracts between Southeastern and its customers. The Assessment evaluates two alternatives and the no action alternative. The proposed action is to market the power and energy available in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina System during the next ten years, with new power sales contracts of ten-year durations, to the customers set forth in Appendix A of the Assessment. In addition to the proposed alternative, the Assessment evaluates the alternative of extending existing contracts under the current marketing policy.

  12. DOE headquarters publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-09-01

    This bibliography provides listings of (mainly policy and programmatic) publications issued from the U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. The listings are arranged by the ''report code'' assigned to each of the major organizations at DOE Headquarters, followed by the three categories of environmental reports issued from DOE Headquarters. All of the publications listed, except for those shown as still ''in preparation,'' may be seen in the Energy Library. A title index arranged by title keywords follows the listings. Certain publications are omitted. They include such items as pamphlets, ''fact sheets,'' bulletins and weekly/monthly issuances of DOE's Energy Information Administration and Economic Regulatory Administration, and employee bulletins and newsletters. Omitted from the bibliography altogether are headquarters publications assigned other types of report codes--e.g., ''HCP'' (Headquarters Contractor Publication) and ''CONF'' (conference proceedings). (RWR)

  13. Data Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Parsons

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The first purpose of data policy should be to serve the objectives of the organization or project sponsoring the collection of the data. With research data, data policy should also serve the broader goals of advancing scientific and scholarly inquiry and society at large. This is especially true with government-funded data, which likely comprise the vast majority of research data. Data policy should address multiple issues, depending on the nature and objectives of the data. These issues include data access requirements, data preservation and stewardship requirements, standards and compliance mechanisms, data security issues, privacy and ethical concerns, and potentially even specific collection protocols and defined data flows. The specifics of different policies can vary dramatically, but all data policies need to address data access and preservation. Research data gain value with use and must therefore be accessible and preserved for future access. This article focuses on data access. While policy might address multiple issues, at a first level it must address where the data stand on what Lyon (2009 calls the continuum of openness. Making data as openly accessible as possible provides the greatest societal benefit, and a central purpose of data policy is to work toward ethically open data access. An open data regime not only maximizes the benefit of the data, it also simplifies most of the other issues around effective research data stewardship and infrastructure development.

  14. Policy stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Rasmussen, Rasmus Kjærgaard

    planning and execution and of event outcomes beyond the narrow confines of bed nights and legacies. Second, we introduce policies as an entry point to unlock discussions and manifestations of value and futures which connect to AWG. In order to exemplify the workings of the AWG event in these domains, we...... present three central policy stories from the field. The stories tell of how the event was first interested, then activated and finally evaluated. Besides adding a new understanding to policy-driven events as a locus of value creation, we also argue that the AWG 2016 offer speculative bets for new...

  15. Evolutions in food marketing, quantifying the impact, and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Georgina

    2013-03-01

    A case study on interactive digital marketing examined the adequacy of extant policy controls and their underpinning paradigms to constrain the effects of this rapidly emerging practice. Findings were interactive digital marketing is expanding the strategies available to promote products, brands and consumer behaviours. It facilitates relational marketing; the collection of personal data for marketing; integration of the marketing mix, and provides a platform for consumers to engage in the co-creation of marketing communications. The paradigmatic logic of current policies to constrain youth-oriented food marketing does not address the interactive nature of digital marketing. The evidence base on the effects of HFSS marketing and policy interventions is based on conceptualizations of marketing as a force promoting transactions rather than interactions. Digital technologies are generating rich consumer data. Interactive digital technologies increase the complexity of the task of quantifying the impact of marketing. The rapidity of its uptake also increases urgency of need to identify appropriate effects measures. Independent analysis of commercial consumer data (appropriately transformed to protect commercial confidentiality and personal privacy) would provide evidence sources for policy on the impacts of commercial food and beverage marketing and policy controls. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Strategic cost-benefit analysis of energy policies: overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davitian, H; Groncki, P J; Kleeman, P; Lukachinski, J; Goettle, IV, R J; Hudson, E A

    1979-10-01

    This study describes three possible energy strategies and analyzes each in terms of its economic, environmental, and national security benefits and costs. Each strategy is represented by a specific policy. In the first, no additional programs or policies are initiated beyond those currently in effect or announced. The second is directed toward reducing the growth in energy demand, i.e., energy conservation. The third promotes increased domestic supply through accelerated development of synthetic and unconventional fuels. The analysis focuses on the evaluation and comparison of these strategy alternatives with respect to their energy, economic, and environmental consequences. The results indicate that conservation can substantially reduce import dependence and slow the growth of energy demand, with only a small macroeconomic cost and with substantial environmental benefits; the synfuels policy reduces imports by a smaller amount, does not reduce the growth in energy demand, involves substantial environmental costs and slows the rate of economic growth. These relationships could be different if the energy savings per unit cost for conservation are less than anticipated, or if the costs of synthetic fuels can be significantly lowered. Given these uncertainties, both conservation and RD and D support for synfuels should be included in future energy policy. However, between these policy alternatives, conservation appears to be the preferred strategy. The results of this study are presented in three reports (see also BNL--51127 and BNL--51128).

  17. EU Trade Governance and Policy: A Critical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Ford

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a critical analysis of EU trade policy. It does so by highlighting the political and economic enclosures within which EU trade policy is embedded and that continue to hamper more holistic and interdisciplinary analyses that are argued to be necessary in order to comprehend the obstacles to and avenues towards a more sustainable and socially just world. The article critically analyses economic and political hegemony by drawing on two strands of critical international thought, namely neo-Gramscian analysis and global political ecology, employing a critical realist approach. The article identifies the perceived twin short-comings of conventional analyses: firstly, the neglect of understandings of power relations and social justice, and secondly the lack of attention to criteria of sustainability. Within critical debates about European governance, including the governance of trade and trade policy, neo-Gramscian perspectives highlight the power relations within EU governance, exposing the mechanisms of hegemony as well as identifying potential counter-hegemonic forces. While this offers important insights, the article argues that a critical perspective cannot be complete without attention to sustainability. Political ecology makes a vital contribution to critical perspectives by highlighting the natural limits within which by necessity all human activity takes place. Using illustrations from trade policy debates, the article argues that current EU trade policy and governance is not best placed to meet the challenges of sustainability and social justice and it points to the need for more holistic systems thinking to challenge orthodoxy.

  18. 41 CFR 109-27.5102 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.51-Management of Precious Metals § 109-27.5102 Policy. DOE organizations and... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 109-27.5102 Section 109-27.5102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...

  19. The language policy of the language teacher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Risager

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Language policy has to do with how far and how one is to act in relation to this complexity. Language policy does not only take place at the macro-level: in international organisations, transnational companies, states, etc., but also at the micro-level; in the interaction between people.

  20. DOE 2013 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    The Office of Analysis within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security (EHSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past five-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information has been analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  1. Post-exceptionalism in public policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Feindt, Peter H.

    2017-01-01

    Framing the special issue on the transformation of Food and Agricultural Policy, this article introduces the concept of post-exceptionalism in public policies. The analysis of change in agri-food policy serves as a generative example to conceptualize current transformations in sectoral policy...... arrangements in democratic welfare states. Often these arrangements have been characterized by an exceptionalist ideational framework that legitimizes a sector’s special treatment through compartmentalized, exclusive and producer-centered policies and politics. In times of internationalization of policy......-making, increasing interlinkage of policy areas and trends towards self-regulation, liberalization and performance-based policies, policy exceptionalism is under pressure to either transform or give way to (neo-)liberal policy arrangements. Post-exceptionalism denotes a partial transformation of exceptionalist ideas...

  2. 新政下地方政府债发行的现状与问题研究%A Research on Current Situation and Problems of Local Government Bond Issue under New Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑颖昊

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, local government debt has entered repayment peak. The Ministry of Finance issued new policy this year to relieve debt repayment pressure by replacing government bond with existing debt. There are reviews of three stages for the development of local government bond issue, including the phases in the beginning of new China establishment, spontaneous experiments and comprehensive implementation phase. Meanwhile , the analysis is about the basic information of local government debt issue under new policy, debt classification, and the current situation. Some features are believable that local governments debts have characters of great scale, long term, low interest rate and fast pace of issue at present. In consideration of facts, the majority of subscribers are banks, and transactions usually undertake within the interbank bond market. This paper discusses the influence that local government debt issue impacts on banks. It also studies several problems of local government debt , including its crowding-out effect, fiscal risk transferring to financial risk, replacement scale and details staying unclear, replacement ways and proportion needing adjustment, and lacking rating policy. At last, this paper suggests that pricing should be in marketing way, and information symmetry has to be realized. Meanwhile, enriched investors will be more helpful.%近年来,地方政府债进入偿债高峰期,为缓解偿债压力,财政部今年推出通过政府债券置换存量债务政策。文章从新中国成立之初、中央转贷、自发试点到全面铺开三个阶段回顾了我国地方政府债发行的历史沿革。从新政后地方政府债发行的基本情况和地方政府债务分类对地方政府债的现状进行了归纳,笔者认为目前地方政府债具有发行规模大、发行期限长、发行利率低和发行进度快等特点。结合地方政府债认购机构集中于银行、承接场所集中在银行间债券市场等

  3. Collaborative Policy Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Boch Waldorff, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Governments all over the Western world currently face wicked problems that call for policy innovation. A new strand of research in public innovation points to collaboration between public authorities and relevant and affected stakeholders as an important driver of public innovation. A case study...... and policy ideas produced in collaborative governance arenas are not diffused to the formal political institutions of representative democracy because the participating politicians only to a limited extent function as boundary spanners between the collaborative governance arena and the decision making arenas...

  4. Dataset Lifecycle Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Edward; Tauer, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The presentation focused on describing a new dataset lifecycle policy that the NASA Physical Oceanography DAAC (PO.DAAC) has implemented for its new and current datasets to foster improved stewardship and consistency across its archive. The overarching goal is to implement this dataset lifecycle policy for all new GHRSST GDS2 datasets and bridge the mission statements from the GHRSST Project Office and PO.DAAC to provide the best quality SST data in a cost-effective, efficient manner, preserving its integrity so that it will be available and usable to a wide audience.

  5. Dataset Lifecycle Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Edward; Tauer, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The presentation focused on describing a new dataset lifecycle policy that the NASA Physical Oceanography DAAC (PO.DAAC) has implemented for its new and current datasets to foster improved stewardship and consistency across its archive. The overarching goal is to implement this dataset lifecycle policy for all new GHRSST GDS2 datasets and bridge the mission statements from the GHRSST Project Office and PO.DAAC to provide the best quality SST data in a cost-effective, efficient manner, preserving its integrity so that it will be available and usable to a wide audience.

  6. Neuroscience cannot answer these questions: a response to G. and R. Murrow's essay hypothesizing a link between dehumanization, human rights abuses and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Morris B

    2016-04-01

    The Murrows' paper, 'A hypothetical link between dehumanization and human rights abuses', in which they propose that neuroscience may answer some difficult public policy questions, including questions about the First Amendment, is an unfortunate foray into law and public policy unjustified by the current state of neuroscience. Neuroscientific insights may one day have important implications for the law, and for some of the folk psychological assumptions embedded in the law, but they will never change the words of the written Constitution, or answer difficult policy questions in the interstices of those words. Suggesting that neuroscience can today inform these questions does a disservice to science, law and the complexity of the human condition.

  7. Developing a policy manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Tracey A

    2013-01-01

    Do you really need to have a policy and procedure in the office? Frequently they are seen sitting on the shelf, collecting dust. The answer is yes for a number of very important reasons. A policy and procedure manual is a tool to set guidelines and expectations on the basis of the mission and vision of the office. A well-written manual is a powerful training tool for new staff so they can get a feel for the office culture. Furthermore, it is a provincial or state legislative requirement that can reduce management's concern about potential legal issues or problems. If an office does not have a manual to set guidelines, the employees may be forced to make their own decisions to solve problems, which can often result in confusion, inconsistencies, and mistakes.

  8. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2007 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2007-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The annual DOEOccupational Radiation Exposure 2007 Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and ALARA process requirements. In addition the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  9. 农民工参加城镇社会保障的现状与政策改进*%Current Situation and Policy Improvement for Migrant Workers to Participate in Urban Social Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳文

    2013-01-01

    ,and lagging reform of household register system and land system,which make the interests of the migrant workers difficult to be ensured and which seriously restrict the realization of the sharing of urban social security by the migrant workers. China should let the migrant workers enjoy urban social security to solve the problems in social security of the migrant workers by lowering the standard for the migrant workers to participate in social security,by perfecting and adjusting the policies,and by innovating management methods under current system framework according to the characteristics and demand of the migrant workers group.Presently,the policy system for the migrant workers to participate in urban social security should be improved and perfected by reducing social security fee burden,by perfecting continuous social security enjoyment policy,by implementing overall management at provincial level,by strengthening housing guarantee,and by accelerating the reform of household register system and land system.

  10. Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-01

    Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The Policy Tool can be used to evaluate the ways that a variety of federal and state policies and incentives impact the economics of distributed wind (and subsequently its expected market growth). It also allows policymakers to determine the impact of policy options, addressing market challenges identified in the U.S. DOE’s '20% Wind Energy by 2030' report and helping to meet COE targets.

  11. Development of Policies, Institutions and Procedures for Water Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demouche, L.; Pfiefer, J.; Hanson, A.; Skaggs, R.

    2009-12-01

    In the arid, water scarce region of New Mexico and West Texas there is growing interest in the potential for water reuse to extend existing supplies and mitigate drought shortage impacts. There are no new sources of water in New Mexico, except reclaimed water. Communities and individuals are uncertain about and have many unanswered questions about polices, institutions involved (agencies), legal and regulatory requirements, and procedures governing water reuse. Issues to be addressed by this project include: the legal ability to reuse water, ownership of water rights, downstream or third party impacts, regulatory and procedural requirements, water quality concerns, state and local agency involvement, and cost effectiveness of water reuse compared to alternative sources. Presently, there is very little implementation or directives in New Mexico policy that addresses reuse, reclamation, or recycled water. The only regulations pertaining to reuse is New Mexico Environmental Department currently allows the use of reclaimed domestic wastewater for irrigation of golf courses and green spaces, which is listed in the Policy for the Above Ground Use of Reclaimed Domestic Wastewater (NMED, 2003). This document identifies the various reclaimed quality classifications that are required for specific applications and the permits required for application. This document does not identify or address policy applications on the distribution, ownership, or trading of reclaimed water. Even though reclaimed water reuse projects are currently being implemented in many cities in the U.S., mainly for commercial and municipal irrigation (golf courses and green space), its potential has not yet been exploited. A policy analysis matrix (PAM) is being designed to identify and examine the policy framework and consequences of non-policy implementation for decision makers and interest groups and assist them in understanding the consequences of policy actions and project outcomes if no laws or

  12. Monetary Policy Analysis in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vesna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on analysing monetary policy in Serbia. The National Bank of Serbia chose inflation targeting, which sets price stability as the main objective of monetary policy. To achieve this goal, the central bank uses different monetary policy instruments which analysis can provide us with the understanding of the main directions of their actions but also of the limitations of its application. Only through improvement of both instruments and monetary policy the central bank will create a better foundation for achieving monetary stability. In addition, the implementation of exchange rate policy is entrusted to the National Bank of Serbia, as the main regulator of the financial system. A mere use of managed floating exchange rate, as the chosen exchange rate regime, is an appropriate solution in the current economic circumstances and in accordance with the desired objective of monetary policy.

  13. Policy Overview and Options for Maximizing the Role of Policy in Geothermal Electricity Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kreycik, Claire [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Young, Katherine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-09-01

    This research explores the effectiveness of the historical and current body of policies in terms of increased geothermal electricity development. Insights are provided into future policies that may drive the market to optimize development of available geothermal electricity resources.

  14. Noncredit Education. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community College League of California, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The current level of apportionment for Career Development and College Preparation (CDCP) enhanced noncredit classes and program--at only 71% of the credit rate--does not provide adequate funding for noncredit programs that endeavor to support job readiness, provide a gateway to enrollment in credit classes, and attract and retain quality faculty…

  15. English obesity policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2015-01-01

    Problem definitions constitute a crucial part of the policy process. In 2008 the Labour Government presented a plan to reduce the obesity prevalence in England. Only three years later the Conservative-Liberal Government introduced a plan on the same topic, which it presented as new and innovative...... statutory measures. The Conservative-Liberal plan does not represent many new ideas. The plans are characterised by the paradox that they convey both ideas and ideals about freedom of choice as well as about state interventions to influence people's choices, which could be seen as incompatible...

  16. Cyber policy in China

    CERN Document Server

    Austin, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Few doubt that China wants to be a major economic and military power on the world stage. To achieve this ambitious goal, however, the PRC leadership knows that China must first become an advanced information-based society. But does China have what it takes to get there? Are its leaders prepared to make the tough choices required to secure China's cyber future? Or is there a fundamental mismatch between China's cyber ambitions and the policies pursued by the CCP until now? This book offers the first comprehensive analysis of China's information society. It explores the key practic

  17. Does literacy improve finance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Martha; Olen, Helaine

    2015-04-01

    When economists ask questions about basic financial principles, most ordinary people answer incorrectly. Economic experts call this condition "financial illiteracy," which suggests that poor financial outcomes are due to a personal deficit of reading-related skills. The analogy to reading is compelling because it suggests that we can teach our way out of population-wide financial failure. In this comment, we explain why the idea of literacy appeals to policy makers in the advanced industrial nations. But we also show that the narrow skill set laid out by economists does not satisfy the politically inclusive definition of literacy that literacy studies fought for. We identify several channels through which people engage with ideas about finance and demonstrate that not all forms of literacy will lead people to the educational content prescribed by academic economists. We argue that truly financial literate people can defy the demands of financial theory and financial institutions.

  18. DOE headquarters publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-12-01

    This bibliography provides listings of (mainly policy and programmatic) publications issued from the U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. The listings are arranged by the report number assigned to each publication. All of the publications listed, except for those shown as still in preparation, may be seen in the Energy Library. A title index arranged by title keywords follows the listings. Certain publications have been omitted. They include such items as pamphlets, fact sheets, bulletins and weekly/monthly issuances of DOE's Energy Information Administration and Economic Regulatory Administration, and employee bulletins and newsletters. Omitted from the bibliography altogether are headquarters publications assigned other types of report codes--e.g., HCP (Headquarters Contractor Publication) and CONF (conference proceedings).

  19. 23 CFR 626.3 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Policy. 626.3 Section 626.3 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS PAVEMENT POLICY § 626.3 Policy. Pavement shall be designed to accommodate current and predicted traffic needs in a safe, durable, and...

  20. 7 CFR 657.2 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE SUPPORT ACTIVITIES PRIME AND UNIQUE FARMLANDS Important Farmlands Inventory § 657.2 Policy. It is NRCS policy to make and keep current an inventory of the prime farmland and unique farmland of the... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy. 657.2 Section 657.2 Agriculture Regulations of...

  1. Presence in International Organisms: A Policy for a Collective Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Montobbio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available What does the presence of Spaniards in international organisations signify and entail? Why, for what, and how should this be promoted? In order to answer such questions, the author analyses the meaning and implications of this presence in a globalised world in which a commitment to effective multilateralism entails a commitment to the international organisms as forums for and actors in global governance, and their presence in our societies and lives. This means both the promoting of Spanish presence in the administrations inwhich the proposals are formed which embody the general interest of the international organisations, like the multilateralisation of Spanish society. For this reason, in the framework of its multilateral policy, Spain is currently developing a policy of promoting the presence of Spaniards in international organisations in the areas of information, training, promotion and incentives, the outlines and results of which are described in this article.

  2. State Policies on School Climate and Bully Prevention Efforts: Challenges and Opportunities for Deepening State Policy Support for Safe and Civil Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscatelli, Jennifer; Lee, Chiqueena

    2011-01-01

    The National School Climate Center (NSCC) completed a 50-state policy scan on state school climate and anti-bullying policies to better understand the current state policy infrastructure supporting the development of positive school climates. This policy brief examines the current status of school climate and anti-bullying policies in each state,…

  3. Obama and US policy towards Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2017-01-01

    When Barack Obama came into office in January 2009, there were high expectations that he would change the policy towards Africa. It has not happened. Critics maintain that the current policy is not only a continuation of the policy of George W. Bush but has also become increasingly ‘militarized......’. The paper argues that it is not adequate to describe US Africa policy as having become ‘militarized’. It is too incoherent and too inconsistent to possibly describe it by such a term. The policy is much more country specific and case specific depending on the coalition trying to influence policy...

  4. “What Cultural Policies?” Explicit and Implicit Cultural Policies in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia von Maltzahn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural policies define a vision for culture, and provide frameworks for institutional practice to translate this vision on the ground. A 1981 study on Lebanese cultural policy reached the conclusion that one cannot speak of cultural policies in Lebanon if one refers to state laws, regulations and plans. However, if cultural policy was understood as the method of a state to give its citizens the space to develop themselves in a way that they could create culture, one could certainly speak of cultural policies in Lebanon (Abou Rizk. In cultural policy research, there is a distinction between explicit and implicit cultural policy (Ahearne. In this article, the concept of explicit and implicit cultural policy is applied to the case of Lebanon. The two terms are extended so that the former does not only include cultural policies designatedas such by the state, but also those created by civil society actors, and that the latter does not only include political strategies, but also practices that in the end determine cultural policies. Drawing on empirical research conducted in the context of a larger study on the role of cultural institutions in the public sphere, the power struggles between different actors involved in cultural policy making cultural policy defined in the Lebanese context, which in turn will be positioned within the regional context.

  5. THE IMPACT OF MONETARY POLICY TOWARD INDONESIAN STOCK MARKET UNDER INFLATION TARGETING REGIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria PRAPTININGSIH

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A high volatility in stock market movement can be influenced by current news both domestic and international economic shocks, including the ongoing global financial crisis that affect Indonesian economy in particular. Based on empirical studies and theories, that monetary policy can be an effective tool in order to stabilize the stock market volatility. Monetary policy can have a significant effect on the movement in stock market. Does it really happen on Indonesian macro economy? This paper investigates the relations between monetary policy by its instruments and stock market movement. Our empirical evidence is based on before and after the adoption of Inflation Targeting Framework, including the period of Asian Crisis (1997 and the Global Financial Crisis (2008. This paper uses a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM in order to examine the dynamic movement and changes on Indonesian Stock Market as an impact of the changes in monetary policy in terms of Inflation Targeting regime. Utilizing an Impulse Response and Variance Decomposition approach, this paper analyzes the effectiveness of monetary policy toward the stock market performance in order to achieve the stability of stock market and to develop market expectations. These objectives are beneficial to strengthen the credibility of the Central Bank as the monetary authority in terms of the implementation of Inflation Targeting Framework. Furthermore, this paper attempt to assess and evaluate the monetary policy and induce the central bank to create an optimal policy in the future.

  6. Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues...... that instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts....

  7. Population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  8. Will the Unemployment Rate Fall with a Robust Forecast for the U.S. Current Account Balance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hojjat,Ph.D.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between the U.S. current account balance and the U.S. rate of unemployment. Would the improvement in the current account balance cause a fall in the unemployment rate? Although previous researchers argued that U.S. current account balance does not influence U.S. unemployment rate, this article shows that these two are statistically correlated. This article also suggests policy recommendations that benefit both the employment level and the U.S. current account balance.

  9. Space Politics and Policy. An Evolutionary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, E.

    2003-01-01

    This book is the first comprehensive source for the Space Politics and Policies of the United States Civil, Military, Intelligence, and Commercial Space Programs. Space Politics and Policy: An Evolutionary Perspective provides a comprehensive survey of Space Policy. This book is organized around two themes. Space Policy is evolutionary in that it has responded to dramatic political events, such as the launching of Sputnik and the Cold War, and has undergone dynamic and evolutionary policy changes over the course of the space age. Space Policy is an integral part of and interacts with public policy processes in the United States and abroad. The book analyzes Space Policy at several levels including historical context, political actors and institutions, political processes and policy outcomes. It examines the symbiotic relationships between policy, technology, and science; provides a review and synthesis of the existing body of knowledge in Space Policy; and identifies Space Policy trends and developments from the beginnings of the space age through the current era of the twenty-first century. The book is intended for those interested in Space Policy, especially Space Policy decision-makers, program and project managers, as well as students and lecturers of Space Policy. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-0879-1 and http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-0902-X

  10. Assessing the Effectiveness of Competition Law Enforcement Policy in Relation to Cartels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priit Mändmaa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the high fines for cartel infringements it is claimed that the current competition law enforcement lacks deterrent effect for the avoidance of cartel infringements and is procedurally fragile. This article analyses the current competition law enforcement policy in relation to cartels. More specifically, the article assesses the effectiveness of the policy in deterring the formation of cartels and pursuing the goals of competition law by analysing the theory of deterrence, case law, procedural norms, imposed fines and academic literature. The main conclusions are that wrong targets are aimed at under the deterrence principle, the proceedings are of a criminal law nature and require a separation of powers, and that the current level of fines does not pose a threat on the economy and continually fail to deter price-fixing.

  11. Selected DOE Headquarters Publications, October 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    This publication provides cumulative listings of and an index to DOE headquarters publications issued since October 1979. (Publications issued during October 1977-September 1979 are covered in DOE/AD-0010/6.) Three types of headquarters publications are included: publications dealing mainly with program and policy that are attributed to and issued by headquarters organizations, reports prepared by contractors (and published by DOE) to describe research and development work they have performed for the Department, and environmental development plans and impact statements. Certain publications have been omitted. They include such items as pamphlets, fact sheets, bulletins, newsletters, and telephone directories, headquarters publications issued under the DOE-tr and CONF codes, technical reports from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and NASA issued under DOE/JPL and DOE/NASA codes, and weekly/monthly reports of the Energy Information Administration. (RWR)

  12. 半强制分红政策影响了再融资企业的盈余管理吗?%Does Semi-mandatory Dividend Policy Affect the Earnings Management of Refinancing Companies?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴志敏; 楼杰云

    2016-01-01

    半强制分红政策首先影响上市公司分红政策,进而影响盈余管理行为。文章以2008年颁布的《关于修改上市公司现金分红若干规定的决定》为政策背景,研究了现金分红门槛对再融资企业盈余管理行为的影响。研究发现“:优质企业”为了降低现金分红水平,传递企业质量信号,更有可能进行负向盈余管理;相反,“普通企业”只能进行正向盈余管理迎合业绩门槛,但是并没有增加现金分红水平。进一步分析发现,市场并不排斥再融资前的负向盈余管理行为,但是对正向盈余管理较为抵触。研究得到的启示是:一方面,半强制分红政策影响了“优质企业”的盈余管理动机,产生了现金分红的负向激励;另一方面,导致“普通企业”迎合行为更加困难。%The semi-mandatory dividend policy firstly affects listed companies’dividend policies,and then affects their earnings management behavior. This paper sets the“Decisions on Amending Some Provisions on Cash Dividends by Listed Companies”released in 2008 as the policy background,and researches the influence of cash dividend threshold on the refinancing companies’ earnings management behavior. The research finds that“the high-quality refinancing companies”tend to carry out negative earnings management to reduce the payment level of cash dividends and signal quality. However,the“ordinary-quality refinancing companies”have to cater to the earnings threshold by positive earnings management without increasing cash dividends payment. Furthermore,investors prefer negative earnings management to positive earnings management. The implications are that the semi-mandatory dividend policy effectively,on the one hand,affects the high-quality companies’motivation of earnings management, and generates the passive encourage for its dividends payment;on the other hand,the decisions make the ordinary

  13. 西方主要发达国家老年人体育发展现状与政策规划研究%Current Development Situation of Elderly Sports and Policy Planning in Major Western Developed Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪颖

    2016-01-01

    人口老龄化已成为一个日益严重的全球性问题。目前威胁老年人健康的主要疾病都与生活方式和行为习惯密切相关,这些都可以通过规律的体育锻炼来预防和改善。本文对西方主要发达国家老年人体育的发展现状和政策规划进行对比分析,旨在为我国制定老年人体育发展战略提供参考。研究结果表明,在较早进入老龄社会的西方国家中,老年人体育发展呈现出如下特点:基本都出台了老年人体育运动指南;各国跨部门、跨领域制定老年人体育规划;大力促进民间组织参与活动组织;跨国开展老年人体育活动;积极培养老年体育指导员等。%Population ageing has become an increasingly serious global problem.At present,major diseases that threaten elderly health are all closely related with life style and behavioral habits.All this can be prevented and promoted through regular physical exercise.Through a comparative analysis on current development situation of elderly sports and policy planning in major western developed countries,the paper aims to provide reference for making elderly sports development strategy in China.Results indicate that in those western countries that entered earlier into ageing society,elderly sports development demonstrates the following features:have generally all issued guidance for elderly sports;cross -department and cross -field plan -making for elderly sports are common in these countries;vigorously promoting folk organizations to participate in organizing activities;hold multinational elderly sports activities;actively develop elderly sports instructors.

  14. Net Metering Policy Development and Distributed Solar Generation in Minnesota: Overview of Trends in Nationwide Policy Development and Implications of Increasing the Eligible System Size Cap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.; Busche, S.; Hockett, S.

    2009-12-01

    The goal of the Minnesota net metering policy is to give the maximum possible encouragement to distributed generation assets, especially solar electric systems (MN 2008). However, according to a published set of best practices (NNEC 2008) that prioritize the maximum development of solar markets within states, the Minnesota policy does not incorporate many of the important best practices that may help other states transform their solar energy markets and increase the amount of grid-connected distributed solar generation assets. Reasons cited include the low system size limit of 40kW (the best practices document recommends a 2 MW limit) and a lack of language protecting generators from additional utility fees. This study was conducted to compare Minnesota's policies to national best practices. It provides an overview of the current Minnesota policy in the context of these best practices and other jurisdictions' net metering policies, as well as a qualitative assessment of the impacts of raising the system size cap within the policy based on the experiences of other states.

  15. Selected DOE headquarters publications, October 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-03-01

    A cumulative listing of DOE headquarters publications issued since October 1979 is provided along with an index of title keywords. Three types of headquarters publications have been included: publications dealing mainly with program and policy that are attributed to and issued by headquarters organizations; reports prepared by contractors (and published by DOE headquarters) to describe research and development work they have performed for the department; and environmental development plans, environmental impact statements, and environmental readiness documents. Availabilities of documents are given. (GHT)

  16. Granting Concessions and Paying Ransoms to Terrorists: A Policy Options Analysis of the U.S. Policy on Hostage Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    CONCESSIONS AND PAYING RANSOMS TO TERRORISTS: A POLICY OPTIONS ANALYSIS OF THE U.S. POLICY ON HOSTAGE RECOVERY by Rodney Hyatt June 2016 Thesis... POLICY OPTIONS ANALYSIS OF THE U.S. POLICY ON HOSTAGE RECOVERY 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Rodney Hyatt 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...To answer this question, this thesis conducted a policy options analysis . Criteria were developed from the literature, and the current U.S. policy was

  17. Modern Lithuanian foreign policy: the adjustment of traditional policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batorshina Irina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the core areas of Lithuanian foreign policy. Special attention is paid to the adjustment of the major foreign policy vector, which concentrated earlier on the cooperation with the United States of America and strategic partnership with the Republic of Poland. The article analyses the attempts of Lithuanian president Dalia Grybauskaitė to formulate the so-called «new foreign policy» based on the multivector approach to the intergovernmental cooperation. This research is timely because of an increasing influence of small states on foreign policy decision-making within the European Union. It emphasizes the need to analyse foreign policy priorities of the Baltic States and Central and Eastern European countries and to identify the dominant trends in the international policy in the region in order to forecast further development at European and global levels. This objective is achieved with the help of an integrated approach with elements of interdisciplinary research. Special attention is paid to the comparative-historical approach, which facilitates the analysis of the relations between the Republic of Lithuania and the neighbouring states and its principal partners. Alongside traditional methods of historical research, this work employs such methods as participant observation, content and event analysis, and simultaneous and comparative analysis. The research and practical significance of this work is explained by its emphasis on the need to apply an additional theoretical framework to studies into the foreign policy initiatives of the Republic of Lithuania in the international arena. While earlier they were determined by the value (democratic approach, which was a reflection of American realism, today an increasingly important factor is the personality of the president, who does not always positively influence the changing policy of the country. The results of the research contribute substantially to the understanding of

  18. Science communication in policy making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coumou, Hilde; van der Werf Kulichova, Z.; Wehrmann, C.

    2014-01-01

    Policy making regarding application of agricultural biotechnology has been controversial. This study investigates what determines the motivation of European biotech scientists to actively participate in policy making. To do this, a conceptual framework was developed based on the Theory of Planned...... making is dependent on their view of the way science and decision making relate to each other. The respondents who are currently active in policy making seem to be driven by commitment to the public good. However, many respondents feel social pressure from environmental NGOs to withdraw from engagement...... Behavior. The framework was operationalized in semi-structured interviews with 17 European biotech scientists to collect data about their motivation to involve in GMO policy making. The results of this qualitative study suggest that the attitude of the scientists towards active participation in policy...

  19. Interculturality in intercultural education policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Cruz Rodríguez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This reflection paper reconstructs the normative contents for the concept of multiculturalism in order to clearly differentiate it from affirmative action. It aims at providing normative criteria for assessing current policies and designing some that conform to the ideals of multiculturalism. Accordingly, a conceptual analysis based on the comparison between multicultural affirmative action and intercultural policies is made. In the first part, the problems of intercultural education understood as an affirmative action are discussed, the second part proposes some normative criteria to support intercultural education policies that promote the values of Latin American interculturalism: justice, equality, respect, dialogue, and mutual learning between cultures. The main results highlight that educational policies based on affirmative action may lead to the assimilation of cultures subalternized by the dominant ones, or even encourage isolation between them, meanwhile intercultural education policies promote dialogue, respect, and coexistence between cultures in a context of equality.

  20. The European Union's Africa Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2013-01-01

    -brokers. The paper puts forward the hypothesis that the Nordic countries as small states have had a considerable influence on the EU's policies towards Africa in the current century. The ‘Nordicization' is the result of the fact that the Nordics traditionally have had a high moral profile in international affairs...... including North–South and specifically Africa policies. Five separate analyses are carried out addressing the question of Nordicization and Europeanization. Based on the empirical analyses, it is not possible to confirm the hypothesis that a Nordicization of the European Union's Africa policy has taken...... place. Rather, it appears adequate to talk about convergence of policies between the Nordics and the EU and therefore, the Africa policies of both actors are basically the result of Europeanization....

  1. FISCAL POLICY AND FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burim GASHI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will try to analyze the fiscal policy and to suggest fiscal policy measures as very crucial instrument to market economy during the global financial crisis. Decision makers of monetary and financial policy in Kosovo currently are not under taking significant measures to promote growth and development. Public spending is excessive; the public debt is constantly growing, current account deficit also. In addition unemployment is high, capital investments in public and private sectors are insufficient, as well as investments in science and education. Market infrastructure in Kosovo is not functional and market laws are not enforced. The central government in Kosovo is facing trade of between market liberalization and challenges with public spending. Therefore fiscal policy measures are insufficient and cannot stimulate economic growth.

  2. Draft national health policy 2015: A critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruque U Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Revising a health policy of any country is a periodic procedure dependent on the change of demographic profile, current health status of the population including epidemiological changes in disease prevalence pattern, and progress made under the earlier policies. Along with it, newer research revelation of the natural history of the existing and emerging health problems, availability of newer technology as well as changing sociopolitical commitment to improve the health status of the population are the driving forces in the change of policy. Draft National Health Policy (NHP 2015 is an attempt for the same. A review of the draft has been undertaken. The chapter on introduction is crisp and clear. Situation analysis of the draft is sketchy and without any reference of sources. Shifting the health goal is without any basis, and the objectives defined for the policy change are incongruous with the introduction. A detailed description does not give a clear picture but rather confuses the reader as it talks of comprehensive universal health-care services to be provided with a holistic concept but maximum emphasis is made in the implementation of a national program. Private health-care services are an area to reckon but except for mere references on the involvement in private-public mode, nothing concrete is observed, especially in the primary care level. Involvement envisaged in the secondary and tertiary levels is nebulous. The implementation health insurance program as well as regulatory mechanISM with the existing is also not defined exclusively in the context of a newer health policy.

  3. From Chávez to Maduro: Continuity and Change in Venezuelan Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Romero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article addresses the transition from the presidency of Hugo Chávez to that of Nicolás Maduro, in the light of the effects of the dynamics in domestic politics and the changing international order on the formulation of Venezuela's foreign policy. We start from a central question: how does Maduro's government, amid a less favourable global scenario, face the international commitments made by its predecessor under complex and different domestic conditions? Our central hypothesis is that the historical currents of sociopolitical fragmentation, regional tensions and the energy market, pose difficulties to the continuation of an expansive foreign policy, but in turn act as a stimulus for greater centralisation of power internally, and the politicisation of the foreign policy agenda, in line with the objectives and general trends pursued by the governing party.

  4. Innovation Policy in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta-Christina Suciu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The innovation policies aim to analyze priority factors shaping innovative performance and to reflect the increasing appreciation of the economic and social importance of innovation. This paper is commissioned to examine topics of current interest or concern to innovation policy-makers in Europe. Based on literature and the framework of the European Action Plan for Innovation, this paper investigates different levels and fields of European innovational systems and practices.

  5. Innovation Policy in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta-Christina Suciu

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The innovation policies aim to analyze priority factors shaping innovative performance and to reflect the increasing appreciation of the economic and social importance of innovation. This paper is commissioned to examine topics of current interest or concern to innovation policy-makers in Europe. Based on literature and the framework of the European Action Plan for Innovation, this paper investigates different levels and fields of European innovational systems and practices.

  6. Aid, social policy, and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn

    This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture. From the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium Development Goals and will continue under the Sustainable...... Development Goals, which have even more ambitious targets. The paper also assesses some of the concerns associated with the ‘Paris-style’ aid modalities, and discusses major challenges for the future global development agenda....

  7. Internet Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, William H.; Pupillo, Lorenzo Maria

    The Internet is now widely regarded as essential infrastructure for our global economy and society. It is in our homes and businesses. We use it to communicate and socialize, for research, and as a platform for E-commerce. In the late 1990s, much was predicted about what the Internet has become at present; but now, we have actual experience living with the Internet as a critical component of our everyday lives. Although the Internet has already had profound effects, there is much we have yet to realize. The present volume represents a third installment in a collaborative effort to highlight the all-encompassing, multidisciplinary implications of the Internet for public policy. The first installment was conceived in 1998, when we initiated plans to organize an international conference among academic, industry, and government officials to discuss the growing policy agenda posed by the Internet. The conference was hosted by the European Commission in Brussels in 1999 and brought together a diverse mix of perspectives on what the pressing policy issues would be confronting the Internet. All of the concerns identified remain with us today, including how to address the Digital Divide, how to modify intellectual property laws to accommodate the new realities of the Internet, what to do about Internet governance and name-space management, and how to evolve broadcast and telecommunications regulatory frameworks for a converged world.

  8. The Impact of Research on Education Policy in an Era of Evidence-Based Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingard, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Currently, when there is a lot of political talk about the need for "evidence-based policy", and when public policy seeks to calibrate research quality and impact, there is a pressing need to reconsider the relationships between education/al research and education policy. This article seeks to do this, beginning with considerations of the…

  9. The Policy Delphi: A Method for Identifying Intended and Unintended Consequences of Educational Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, R. Adam

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights a rarely utilized but effective technique for identifying intended and unintended consequences of past or current policy or policy change. The author guides the reader through the process of identifying potential participants, contacting participants, developing the policy Delphi instrument, and analyzing the findings by…

  10. Self-commutated high-voltage direct current transmission with DC circuit breakers. Backbone for the energy policy turnaround; Selbstgefuehrte Hochspannungs-Gleichstromuebertragung mit DC-Leistungsschalter. Rueckgrat fuer die Energiewende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerner, Raphael [ABB AG, Mannheim (Germany). Marketing und Vertrieb, Geschaeftsbereich Grid Systems

    2013-06-01

    The 'current war' between direct current and alternating current is extended by a new location. In the future, both technologies work together in order to provide a reliable power transmission in Germany and long-term in Europe. This is based on the self-guided high-voltage direct current transmission. In conjunction with direct current circuit breakers (DC circuit breaker) the power circuit breakers may help to make the transmission grids more flexible and to minimize losses.

  11. ¿Necesita São Paulo una política exterior? Hegemonía, diplomacia y paradiplomacia en Brasil Does São Paulo need a foreign policy? Hegemony, diplomacy and paradiplomacy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Almeida MEDEIROS

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo argumenta dos cosas. Por un lado, que la condición hegemónica del estado de São Paulo en el seno de la federación brasileña lo predispone a una acción paradiplomática endógena. Por otra parte, alega que esta acción paradiplomática endógena coincide con un fenómeno de desconcentración (y no de federalización de la diplomacia nacional. La conclusión a la que se llega es que si la desconcentración paulatina de la diplomacia brasileña exige un esfuerzo capitalizado de la paradiplomacia endógena, esto no significa que para maximizar las ganancias la paradiplomacia exógena no deba ser implementada. La hegemonía del estado de São Paulo no justifica un comportamiento poco expresivo respecto a una elaboración coordinada de la estrategia de gestión de sus negocios extranjeros.This article argues, on the one hand, that the hegemonic condition of the state of São Paulo in the the Brazilian federation incites it to practice an endogenous paradiplomatic action; on the other hand, it alleges that this endogenous paradiplomatic action coincides with a phenomenon of des-concentration (and not of federalization of the national diplomacy. The conclusion is that if the gradual desconcentration of the Brazilian diplomacy demands a consistent effort of the endogenous paradiplomacy, this does not mean that, for the maximization of the profits, the exogenous paradiplomacy does not have to be implemented.

  12. An Investigation into Customer Service Policies and Practices within the Scottish College Library Sector: A Comparison between the Customer Service Exemplars from the Retail Sector with Current Scottish College Library Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Neil

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research project was to investigate the customer care methods within the Scottish college library sector. The researcher sought to compare examples of the customer care and service policies and practices from the sector with exemplars of good customer service from the retail sector. A qualitative, grounded theory approach was…

  13. An Investigation into Customer Service Policies and Practices within the Scottish College Library Sector: A Comparison between the Customer Service Exemplars from the Retail Sector with Current Scottish College Library Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Neil

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research project was to investigate the customer care methods within the Scottish college library sector. The researcher sought to compare examples of the customer care and service policies and practices from the sector with exemplars of good customer service from the retail sector. A qualitative, grounded theory approach was…

  14. Selected DOE headquarters publications, October 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    The publication provides cumulative listings of and an index to DOE headquarters publications issued since October 1979. Publications issued during October 1977 to September 1979 are covered in DOE/AD-0010/6. Publications from 26 headquarters offices are presented and consist of three types: publications dealing mainly with program and policy that are attributed to and issued by headquarters organizations; reports prepared by contractors (and published by DOE) to describe research and development work they have performed for the Department under 01-type contracts; and environmental development plans, impact statements, and readiness documents. Availability of the documents is described.

  15. Analysing policy transfer: perspectives for operational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissell, K; Lee, K; Freeman, R

    2011-09-01

    Policy transfer occurs regularly. In essence, a strategy developed elsewhere is taken up and applied in another policy context. Yet what precisely is policy transfer and, more importantly, under what conditions does it occur? This paper describes policy transfer and addresses three main questions, exploring what perspectives of policy transfer might contribute to operational research (OR) efforts. First, what facilitates the transfer of OR results into policy and practice? Second, what facilitates effective lesson-drawing about OR results and processes between and within countries? And third, what would increase the amount of OR being carried out by low- and middle-income countries and used to inform policy and practice at local and global levels? Mexico's adoption and adaptation of the DOTS strategy is used here as an example of policy transfer. Policy transfer is relevant to all countries, levels and arenas of people, institutions and organisations involved in health. With a more systematic analysis of learning and policy processes, OR policy and practice outcomes could be improved at all levels, from local to global. Policy transfer offers theory and concepts for analysing OR from a new perspective. The present paper proposes a model of the policy transfer process for qualitative research use. Comprehensive policy transfer research, given its length, complexity and need for qualitative researchers, should not be envisaged for all OR projects. All OR projects could, however, incorporate some concepts and practical tools inspired from this model. This should help to plan, evaluate and improve OR processes and the resulting changes in policy and practice.

  16. 我国社会资本现状及其对公民政策参与的阻滞%The Current Situation of Social Capital in China and Its Baffle to Citizen Policy Participation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡新燕

    2012-01-01

    With the new progress of China's democratic and political construction, the importance of citizen policy participation has increasingly been the focus. The effective policy participate is relied on the good trust and cooperative relations between government and citizens, and the establishment of such relation is based on the full development of social capital as a precondition. Now social capital in our country has many defects, such as lack of social credit system, the non-perfect of rules and system, the weakness of organizational foundation of citizen policy participation, and the path dependence on traditional policy process, which restricts our citizen policy participation.%随着中国民主政治建设的新进展,公民政策参与的重要性日益为人们所重视。有效的政策参与依赖于政府与公民之间的良好信任与合作关系,而信任与合作关系的建立以社会资本的充分发展为前提。目前我国的社会资本存在诸多缺陷,如社会诚信体系的缺失、各种规则和制度的不健全、公民政策参与组织基础的薄弱以及传统政策过程的路径依赖等,制约着我国公民政策参与。

  17. Current titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    116 abstracts are presented of work done with the electron microscope. NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers (assess is controlled by a steering committee).

  18. Does Money Matter in Education? Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Bruce D.

    2016-01-01

    This second edition policy brief revisits the long and storied literature on whether money matters in providing a quality education. It includes research released since the original brief in 2012 and covers a handful of additional topics. Increasingly, political rhetoric adheres to the unfounded certainty that money does not make a difference in…

  19. Atmospheric sciences transfer between research advances and energy-policy assessments (ASTRAEA). Final report, 1 April 1996--31 December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slinn, W.G.N.

    1997-12-10

    Consistent with the prime goal of the ASTRAEA project, as given in its peer-reviewed proposal, this final report is an informal report to DOE managers about a perceived DOE management problem, specifically, lack of vision in DOE`s Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP). After presenting a review of relevant, current literature, the author suggests a framework for conceiving new visions for ACP, namely, multidisciplinary research for energy policy, tackling tough (e.g., nonlinear) problems as a team, ahead of political curves. Two example visions for ACP are then described, called herein the CITIES Project (the Comprehensive Inventory of Trace Inhalants from Energy Sources Project) and the OCEAN Project (the Ocean-Circulation Energy-Aerosol Nonlinearities Project). Finally, the author suggests methods for DOE to provide ACP with needed vision.

  20. Policy Overview and Options for Maximizing the Role of Policy in Geothermal Electricity Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.; Kreycik, C.; Young, K.

    2009-09-01

    Geothermal electricity production capacity has grown over time because of multiple factors, including its renewable, baseload, and domestic attributes; volatile and high prices for competing technologies; and policy intervention. Overarching federal policies, namely the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA), provided certainty to project investors in the 1980s, leading to a boom in geothermal development. In addition to market expansion through PURPA, research and development policies provided an investment of public dollars toward developing technologies and reducing costs over time to increase the market competitiveness of geothermal electricity. Together, these efforts are cited as the primary policy drivers for the currently installed capacity. Informing policy decisions depends on the combined impacts of policies at the federal and state level on geothermal development. Identifying high-impact suites of policies for different contexts, and the government levels best equipped to implement them, would provide a wealth of information to both policy makers and project developers.

  1. Legitimizing policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    2012-01-01

    , upholding and promoting humanitarian aspects of migration management. Legitimizing policies therefore become extremely important as governments have to appease national voters to remain in power and have to respect European regulations and international conventions. Doing so raises questions of social......The focus of this article is on representations of irregular migration in a Scandinavian context and how irregular migrants are constructed as a target group. A common feature in many (Western-)European states is the difficult attempt to navigate between an urge for control and respecting...

  2. Advertisement Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH, the official publication of Indian Association of Preventive and Social Medicine (IAPSM published from Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, India is an indexed journal published quarterly. The open access policy of the journals ensure good visibility of the online content of the journals. The journal with high circulation and visibility, thus offer excellent media for promotion of your products, services or conferences through advertisement. The journal has the potential to deliver the message to the targeted audience regularly with each issue. The cost of investment per view is substantially low for our print as well as electronic journals.

  3. Selected DOE headquarters publications, October 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    This publication provides cumulative listings of and an index to DOE headquarters publications issued since October 1979. (Publications issued during October 1977-September 1979 are covered in DOE/AD-0010/6). Three types of headquarters publications are included: publications dealing mainly with program and policy that are attributed to and issued by headquarters organizations, reports prepared by contractors to describe research and development work they have performed for the Department, and environmental development plans and impact statements. Certain publications are omitted. They include such items as pamphlets, fact sheets, bulletins, newsletters, telephone directories, publications issued under the DOE-tr and CONF codes, technical reports from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and NASA issued under DOE/JPL and DOE/NASA codes, and weekly/monthly reports of the Energy Information Administration. (RWR)

  4. The Current Research on Policy Agenda in China:Reflection Based on the Literature%我国政策议程研究现状反思:基于文献的梳理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马翠军; 周丽娟

    2015-01-01

    政策议程作为前决策过程环节,日益受到政策分析共同体的重视。文章在整理网络、期刊、专著、会议论文、学位论文五种政策议程文献的基础上,从含义、类型、议程设置的阻碍因素及存在问题四个视角对国内研究动态进行分析评价,探索政策议程的研究空间。文献梳理发现,目前我国学界在议程含义界定中有精英主义倾向,议程类型研究基本体现出“民众参与”主张,议程影响因素研究缺乏现实操作性,议程问题研究缺乏自觉意识。这一现状与政策议程的重要性高度不相称,政策议程研究共同体应该自觉去治理这一问题。%Policy agenda as a pre decision process, increasingly attracted the attention of the community of policy analysis.Network, journals, monographs, conference papers, dissertations, five policy agenda literature, from the definition, types, agenda setting obsta-cles and problems of four perspectives on domestic research dynamic analysis and evaluation, to explore the space for the research of the policy agenda.Think the defined of the agenda has a tendency to elitism, the type research of agenda basic reflects the"public par-ticipation", the factors research of influencing the agenda lack of consciousness, the problem research of the agenda lack of practical operability.The importance of the present situation and the policy agenda disproportionate, the community of policy agenda should have the consciousness to governance the research problem.

  5. From policy to reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Kia; Reventlow, Susanne; Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh

    2016-01-01

    visitors and which complicate implementation of the policies of the Danish health authorities. Findings show that the current system is not well equipped to treat early overweight. A gap in primary preventive health care for children at age 3–5, indistinct lines of responsibility, inadequate cooperation......, and lack of resources together make it difficult for health care professionals to initiate interventions and reach the children in need of support. By analyzing the policy implementation process in a theoretical framework that discloses the discursive allocation of responsibilities, the study is able...... to provide a deeper description and analysis of the problem. The study makes it clear how preventive health care for overweight children rests on the negotiation of formal and performed responsibilities among health practitioners within a framework of scarce resources and communication deficit....

  6. Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool Guidebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-01

    Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The Policy Tool can be used to evaluate the ways that a variety of federal and state policies and incentives impact the economics of distributed wind (and subsequently its expected market growth). It also allows policymakers to determine the impact of policy options, addressing market challenges identified in the U.S. DOE's '20% Wind Energy by 2030' report and helping to meet COE targets.

  7. Efficient Web Services Policy Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatan, Farrokh; Harman, Joseph G.

    2010-01-01

    precedence. Meta-policies are specified in defeasible logic, a computationally efficient non-monotonic logic developed to model human reasoning. One drawback of this method is that at one point the algorithm starts an exhaustive search of all subsets of the set of conclusions of a defeasible theory. Although the propositional defeasible logic has linear complexity, the set of conclusions here may be large, especially in real-life practical cases. This phenomenon leads to an inefficient exponential explosion of complexity. The current process of getting a Web security policy from combination of two meta-policies consists of two steps. The first is generating a new meta-policy that is a composition of the input meta-policies, and the second is mapping the meta-policy onto a security policy. The new algorithm avoids the exhaustive search in the current algorithm, and provides a security policy that matches all requirements of the involved metapolicies.

  8. Strategic Delegation of Environmental Policy Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelfsema, H. [Utrecht University, Utrecht School of Economics, Vredenburg 138, 3511 BG Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2004-04-15

    A common claim is that nations should cooperate in environmental policy making. However, there is little empirical support that noncooperative decision making results in too low environmental standards and taxes. We develop a theoretical model and show that if the median voter cares sufficiently for the environment, she has an incentive to delegate policy making to a politician that cares more for the environment than she does herself. By doing so, she mitigates the 'race to the bottom' in environmental taxes. In contrast, if environmental policies are determined cooperatively with other countries, the median voter has an incentive to delegate policy making to a politician that cares less for the environment than she does herself, so as to free ride on international environmental agreements.

  9. Gun policy and serious mental illness: priorities for future research and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma Elizabeth; Webster, Daniel W; Barry, Colleen L

    2014-01-01

    In response to recent mass shootings, policy makers have proposed multiple policies to prevent persons with serious mental illness from having guns. The political debate about these proposals is often uninformed by research. To address this gap, this review article summarizes the research related to gun restriction policies that focus on serious mental illness. Gun restriction policies were identified by researching the THOMAS legislative database, state legislative databases, prior review articles, and the news media. PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases were searched for publications between 1970 and 2013 that addressed the relationship between serious mental illness and violence, the effectiveness of gun policies focused on serious mental illness, the potential for such policies to exacerbate negative public attitudes, and the potential for gun restriction policies to deter mental health treatment seeking. Limited research suggests that federal law restricting gun possession by persons with serious mental illness may prevent gun violence from this population. Promotion of policies to prevent persons with serious mental illness from having guns does not seem to exacerbate negative public attitudes toward this group. Little is known about how restricting gun possession among persons with serious mental illness affects suicide risk or mental health treatment seeking. Future studies should examine how gun restriction policies for serious mental illness affect suicide, how such policies are implemented by states, how persons with serious mental illness perceive policies that restrict their possession of guns, and how gun restriction policies influence mental health treatment seeking among persons with serious mental illness.

  10. 21 CFR 1404.100 - What does this part do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What does this part do? 1404.100 Section 1404.100 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION... and suspension for Office of National Drug Control Policy nonprocurement activities. It also...

  11. DOE technical standards list. Department of Energy standards index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This document was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards. This TSL provides listing of current DOE technical standards, non-Government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other Government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and canceled DOE technical standards. Information on new DOE technical standards projects, technical standards released for coordination, recently published DOE technical standards, and activities of non-Government standards bodies that may be of interest to DOE is published monthly in Standards Actions.

  12. Analysis the Current Waste Electrical and Electronic Product Recycling Management of Domestic and Foreign Policies%国内外电子废弃物回收管理政策和法规的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬梅; 祝向荣; 陈斌; 査萍

    2016-01-01

    当前废旧电器电子产品有效回收处理已经成为各国关注焦点,而相关的管理政策和法规对于有效实施废旧电器电子的回收处理至关重要。文章介绍了德国以及日本等主要工业化国家以及我国的废旧电子电器回收管理政策和法规,对如何建立适合我国国情的废旧电器电子产品回收处理的政策和法规体系进行了探讨。%Effective recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE) has attracted every country's attention. The related management policies and laws are essential for the effective implementation of the recycling of WEEE. The man-agement policies and laws of WEEE recycling in Germany, Japan and China were analyzed and compared. Also the approaches to improving the WEEE recycling policy and law system in China were discussed.

  13. Has monetary policy become less effective?

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph H. Haslag

    1999-01-01

    High-powered money has been declining relative to nominal GDP in the United States. Does the ability of monetary policy to affect aggregate activity decline as the money-income ratio falls? In this paper, I specify simple model economy, examining the effects that monetary policy actions and financial innovation would have on the equilibrium money-income ratio. The downward trend in the money-income ratio can be accounted for by increasing inflation, falling reserve requirements, or steady fin...

  14. Vitamin A policies need rethinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, John; Greiner, Ted; Shrimpton, Roger; Sanders, David; Yukich, Joshua

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of vitamin A (VA) deficiency, which affects about one-third of children in developing countries, is falling only slowly. This is despite extensive distribution and administration of periodic (4- to 6-monthly) high-dose VA capsules over the past 20 years, now covering a reported 80% of children in developing countries. This massive programme was motivated largely by an expectation of reducing child mortality, stemming from findings in the 1980s and early 90s. Efficacy trials since 1994 have in most cases not confirmed a mortality impact of VA capsules. Only one large scale programme evaluation has ever been published, which showed no impact on 1-6-year-old mortality (the DEVTA trial, ending in 2003, in Uttar Pradesh, India). Periodic high-dose VA capsules may have less relevance now with changing disease patterns (notably, reductions in measles and diarrhoea). High-dose VA 6-monthly does not reduce prevalence of the deficiency itself, estimated by low serum retinol. It is proposed that: (i) there is no longer any evidence that intermittent high-dose VA programmes are having any substantial mortality effect, perhaps due to changing disease patterns; (ii) frequent intakes of vitamin A in physiological doses -e.g. through food-based approaches, including fortification, and through regular low-dose supplementation-are highly effective in increasing serum retinol (SR) and reducing vitamin A deficiency; (iii) therefore a policy shift is needed, based on consideration of current evidence. A prudent phase-over is needed towards increasing frequent regular intakes of VA at physiological levels, daily or weekly, replacing the high-dose periodic capsule distribution programmes. Moving resources in this direction must happen sooner or later: it should be sooner.

  15. DOE New Technology: Sharing New Frontiers, April 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, A.T.; Henline, D.M. [eds.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of DOE New Technology is to provide information on how to access specific technologies developed through research sponsored by DOE and performed by DOE laboratories or by DOE-contracted researchers. This document describes technologies identified as having potential for commercial applications in addition to a catalog of current patent applications and patents available for licensing from DOE and DOE contractors.

  16. Reference drug programs: effectiveness and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2007-04-01

    In the current economic environment, health care systems are constantly struggling to contain rapidly rising costs. Drug costs are targeted by a wide variety of measures. Many jurisdictions have implemented reference drug programs (RDPs) or similar therapeutic substitution programs. This paper summarizes the mechanism and rationale of RDPs and presents evidence of their economic effectiveness and clinical safety. RDPs for pharmaceutical reimbursement are based on the assumption that drugs within specified medication groups are therapeutically equivalent and clinically interchangeable and that a common reimbursement level can thus be established. If the evidence documents that a higher price for a given drug does not buy greater effectiveness or reduced toxicity, then under RDP such extra costs are not covered. RDPs or therapeutic substitutions based on therapeutic equivalence are seen as logical extensions of generic substitution that is based on bioequivalence of drugs. If the goal is to achieve full drug coverage for as many patients as possible in the most efficient manner, then RDPs in combination with prior authorization programs are safer and more effective than simplistic fiscal drug policies, including fixed co-payments, co-insurances, or deductibles. RDPs will reduce spending in the less innovative but largest market, while fully covering all patients. Prior authorization will ensure that patients with a specified indication will benefit from the most innovative therapies with full coverage. In practice, however, not all patients and drugs will fit exactly into one of the two categories. Therefore, a process of medically indicated exemptions that will consider full coverage should accompany an RDP. In the current economic environment, health care systems are constantly struggling to contain rapidly rising costs. Drug costs are targeted by a wide variety of measures. Many jurisdictions have implemented reference drug programs, and others are considering

  17. Review of International Policies for Vehicle Fuel Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This paper reviews past and current voluntary and regulatory fuel efficiency programs and then assesses the effectiveness of these policies from the viewpoints of enforcement, standard design, standard stringency and standard related policies.

  18. Madagascar's future climate change intensified actions and policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... actions and policy reforms: fostering local initiatives or business as usual? ... policies in Madagascar, and suggest that there may be fundamental flaws in ... However, World Bank statistics show that, in current terms, Madagascar was ...

  19. SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY - MAY 16, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effectively resolving many current ecological policy issues requires an array of scientific information. Sometimes scientific information is summarized for decision-makers by policy analysts or others, but often it comes directly from scientists. The ability of scientists (and sc...

  20. Eddy dynamics in the Southern Ocean: How does the interaction of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current with sea-bed topography influence the surface mixed layer and hence the carbon-climate feedback processes?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kobo, N

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Southern Ocean is an important sink for heat and CO2 and is one of the world’s most productive regions. The unique absence of blocking continents allows the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) to connect all ocean basins (Atlantic, Pacific...